WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy development related

  1. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-02

    relations with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and an important component of U.S. policy in Asia. Official U.S. relations with the Republic of China ...8 Corruption Investigations: Former Chen Administration...................................................... 10 Special Expense Accounts...16 Maintain and Reaffirm the Current AOne- China @ Policy....................................................... 16 Change

  2. Migration and development in the Caribbean: relating policies and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, R

    1985-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, the US has feared that political instability in the Caribbean area could be exploited by adversaries; therefore, the US and the nations of the Caribbean share a compelling interest in the region's development. The dramatic increase in legal and illegal immigration to the US from the Caribbean in the last 2 decades has offered an additional human reason for US interest in the region. This migration has also created a new source of dependence and vulnerability for the region. Curtailment of migration would undoubtedly affect the region, and if the effect were social and political instability, then the US would also share those consequences. The 1984 Conference on Migration and Development in the Caribbean held discussions to 1) enhance the benefits of migration to Caribbean development, 2) identify development strategies, policies, and projects that would reduce pressures that have accelerated the rate of international migration, making it less manageable and more costly, and 3) identify ways to reduce dependence on migration by expanding employment and assisting economies in the region to become more self-reliant. The attitudes of both US and Caribbean participants seemed to reflect a considerable degree of ambivalence on the migration issue. The US views itself as "a nation of immigrants" and yet is troubled by the recent large influx of immigrants, particularly illegal migrants and refugees. While Americans recognize that the "brain" reduces the development capacity of developing countries, the US still needs and benefits from young immigrants trained in the sciences, engineering, and computers. Caribbean participants were also ambivalent about immigration. They consider immigration "a way of life" and a "right," but they also recognize that there are significant developmental costs to some types of migration. While many want the US to keep a wide open door to Caribbean immigrants, they are aware that most Caribbean Community (CARICOM

  3. Clean Energy-Related Economic Development Policy across the States: Establishing a 2016 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    States implement clean energy-related economic development policy to spur innovation, manufacturing, and to address other priorities. This report focuses on those policies most directly related to expanding new and existing manufacturing. The extent to which states invest in this policymaking depends on political drivers and jurisdictional economic development priorities. To date, no one source has collected all of the clean energy-related economic development policies available across the 50 states. Thus, it is unclear how many policies exist within each state and how these policies, when implemented, can drive economic development. Establishing the baseline of existing policy is a critical first step in determining the potential holistic impact of these policies on driving economic growth in a state. The goal of this report is to document the clean energy-related economic development policy landscape across the 50 states with a focus on policy that seeks to expand new or existing manufacturing within a state. States interested in promoting clean energy manufacturing in their jurisdictions may be interested in reviewing this landscape to determine how they compare to peers and to adjust their policies as necessary. This report documents over 900 existing clean energy-related economic development laws, financial incentives (technology-agnostic and clean energy focused), and other policies such as agency-directed programs and initiatives across the states.

  4. Short-term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism-related policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Tourism policy development is an increasingly complex activity involving multiple public sector agencies, industry and community stakeholders and non-government organisations at different scales. This discussion paper examines the implications for tourism of governments adopting short- term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism related policies and identifies policy considerations to maximize the growth potential of tourism. The key issue is to understand how governments c...

  5. Students' Views and Qualification Policy Development: Perspectives on Failed Vocationally Related Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that students are often articulate about qualifications policy matters, their perspectives are rarely listened to. This is because governments shape qualifications policy according to pre-set beliefs and are unwilling to countenance dissonant or outsider views. Using the Diploma qualification and inclusion of vocational…

  6. Short-term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism-related policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    - orientate to new tourism market opportunities, but over the long-term, contributes to stronger, more competitive, innovative and resilient destinations. The discussion paper explores examples of policy inter-linkages between tourism and land use planning, transport and emergency management and takes......Tourism policy development is an increasingly complex activity involving multiple public sector agencies, industry and community stakeholders and non-government organisations at different scales. This discussion paper examines the implications for tourism of governments adopting short- term versus...... long-term approaches to the development of tourism related policies and identifies policy considerations to maximize the growth potential of tourism. The key issue is to understand how governments can strengthen their support for tourism growth and development by taking an integrated cross...

  7. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmeier, K.

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Recommendations for policy development regarding sport-related concussion prevention and management in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémont, Pierre; Bradley, Lindsay; Tator, Charles H; Skinner, Jill; Fischer, Lisa K

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Concussion Collaborative (CCC) is composed of health-related organisations concerned with the recognition, treatment and management of concussion. Its mission is to create synergy between organisations concerned with concussion to improve education and implementation of best practices for the prevention and management of concussions. Each of the organisations that constitute the CCC has endorsed two recommendations that address the need for relevant authorities to develop policies about concussion management in sports. The recommendations were developed to support advocacy for regulations, policies or legislation to improve concussion prevention and management at all levels of sport. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. A social relational approach to community-based ecotourism development: Policy intervention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rith, Sam Ol

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how policy intervention strategies facilitate or constrain the construction of positive social capital in a community-based ecotourism (CBET) context. It investigates CBET development policies in a specific Cambodian case study, explores implementation processes, assesses the level of social capital created, identifies the connections between social capital construction and development outcomes, and suggests how the policies contribute to social capital construction. The ...

  10. Policy Challenges Related to Biofuel Development in Tanzania Politische Herausforderungen in Bezug auf Biokraftstoffe in Tansania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sosovele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels have recently emerged as a major issue in energy policy, agricultural development and natural resource management. The growing demand for biofuels is being driven by high oil prices, energy security concerns and global climate change. In Tanzania there is growing interest on the part of foreign private investors in establishing biofuel projects, although globally there are concerns related to biofuel investments. Tanzania has approved a number of such projects, but the biofuel subsector faces several policy challenges that could clearly hamper its development. These include the lack of a holistic and comprehensive energy policy that addresses the broad spectrum of energy options and issues, and weak or absent institutional and legal frameworks. This article highlights some key policy issues critical to the development of biofuels and argues that if these challenges are not addressed at the national policy level, biofuel development may not result in the expected benefits to Tanzania and the majority of its local communities. Biokraftstoffe sind in jüngster Zeit in den Bereichen Energiepolitik, Landwirtschaftsentwicklung und nationales Ressourcenmanagement zu einem wichtigen Thema geworden. Die wachsende Nachfrage nach Biokraftstoffen wird durch die hohen Ölpreise, Befürchtungen in Bezug auf Energiesicherheit und den globalen Klimawandel vorangetrieben. In Tansania ist wachsendes Interesse ausländischer Privatinvestoren an Biokraftstoffprojekten zu beobachten, obwohl es weltweit Bedenken gegenüber solchen Investitionen gibt. Die tansanische Regierung hat einer ganzen Reihe entsprechender Projekte zugestimmt, doch mit dem Biokraftstoffsektor sind politische Herausforderungen verbunden, die diese Entwicklung behindern könnten. Dazu gehören das Fehlen einer ganzheitlichen und umfassenden Energiepolitik, die das ganze Spektrum energiepolitischer Fragestellungen und Optionen einschließt, wie auch schwache oder fehlende institutionelle

  11. Policy Development Fosters Collaborative Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Daniel M; Kaste, Linda M; Lituri, Kathy M

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an example of interprofessional collaboration for policy development regarding environmental global health vis-à-vis the Minamata Convention on Mercury. It presents an overview of mercury and mercury-related environmental health issues; public policy processes and stakeholde...... requiring dental engagement for interprofessional policy development include education, disaster response, HPV vaccination, pain management, research priorities, and antibiotic resistance....

  12. International Public Relations in the EU: Development Cooperation Public Opinion and Public Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Negrescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the growing importance of the cooperation for development in the European Union and the appearance of a common growing public opinion agreement supporting this kind of initiatives, it is necessary to understand if we can talk today about a true common European consensus. Still covered on intergovernmental level and considered to be a part of the national foreign policies, EU development aid is still far from reaching the maximum of its efficiency. In this paper we try to introduce a new evaluation method of the cooperation for development policies and interpretation of the degree of communitarisation of the national policies that will enable us to appreciate the stages that have to be completed by the member countries but also by the EU to realize a completely uniform European assistance strategy and of the activities, so necessary for raising the efficiency of the funds allocated by the EU, but also in the perspective of achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

  13. Developing policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Susan A

    2006-11-01

    The development of policies and procedures is an integral part of the occupational health nurse's role. Policies and procedures serve as the foundation for the occupational health service and are based on its vision, mission, culture, and values. The design and layout selected for the policies and procedures should be simple, consistent, and easy to use. The same format should be used for all existing and new policies and procedures. Policies and procedures should be reviewed periodically based on a specified time frame (i.e., annually). However, some policies may require a more frequent review if they involve rapidly changing external standards, ethical issues, or emerging exposures.

  14. Population policies and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, B M

    1984-01-01

    This article critically examines 4 conceptual frameworks for Third World population policies: the family planning approach, beyond family planning measures, the development hypothesis and transition theory, and the distributive hypothesis and fertility. Although family planning is a basic human right and can lead to lower levels of population and improved maternal-child health, this approach alone does not always have a meaningful demographic impact. If high fertility is economically rational from the family viewpoint, the demand for family planning services will remain marginal. Other policies seek to go beyond the family planning approach and to directly influence the demand for reproductive control through provision of old age support, monetary incentives for reduced fertility or stringent and coercive measures. However, such policies can have adverse distributional effects and directly penalize the children of large families. The demographic transition theory lacks a measurable and specifiable causation mechanism, giving it little predictive value. It may be that economic growth increases fertility in the short run and reduces fertility only over the long run through indirect effects. The key issue is how the rate of growth is distributed across the population. The development and demographic transition hypothesis focuses mainly on aggregate economic and social measures rather than on their underlying distributions. The distributive hypothesis implies policies that promote a greater level of investment in human capital, with a wide distributional emphasis. Diffused investment in human capital is believed to indirectly influence the desire to control fertility. It is concluded that all 4 conceptual frameworks for analyzing fertility-related policies for the Third World are inadequate or seriously flawed. They are not pragmatic, do not identify or assign weights to the crucial causal variables, fail to specify thresholds or critical minimum levels, discount

  15. Recent Developments of Photovoltaics Integrated with Battery Storage Systems and Related Feed-In Tariff Policies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel A. Bayod-Rújula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the recent developments of photovoltaics integrated with battery storage systems (PV-BESs and related to feed-in tariff policies. The integrated photovoltaic battery systems are separately discussed in the regulatory context of Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, Australia, and Greece; the attention of this paper is focused on those integrated systems subject to incentivisation policies such as feed-in tariff. Most of the contributions reported in this paper consider already existing incentive schemes; the remaining part of the contributions proposes interesting and novel feed-in tariff schemes. All the contributions provide an important resource for carrying out further research on a new era of incentive policies in order to promote storage technologies and integrated photovoltaic battery systems in smart grids and smart cities. Recent incentive policies adopted in Germany, Italy, Spain, and Australia are also discussed.

  16. Inter-organizational relations for regional development: an expansion policy promoted by the federal network of professional education, science & technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleidson Nogueira Dias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper examines the importance of inter-organizational network management as a government policy tool to promote regional development. This pattern requires Federal Government intervention so as to compensate for the imbalance that this causes and to guarantee that economic growth resulting from government actions leads to development in all regions of the country, thereby avoiding the traditional mechanisms of wealth concentration. For this, a methodology of content analysis was used based on a relevant public policy aimed at promoting development within Brazil and by analyzing the data collected in relation to the current theory related to strategy, local development and inter-organizational networks in general.  The analysis results show that, when the policy studied in this work, applied in the federal network of professional education, science & technology, was implemented the networks had a positive influence on the outcome of the policy objectives and represented an extremely powerful support tool, being one of the most important factors to boost development.

  17. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-27

    environment and the continued insistence of Beijing that the separately ruled Taiwan is a part of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Taiwan President...policy, which is based on vague “one- China ” policy formulations. Term-limited, Chen was required to step down in May 2008. Since then he has been fighting...a growing financial scandal that erupted during his presidency involving allegations of money-laundering and corruption by his administration and

  18. Policies and regulations affecting biomass-related energy sector development in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The future predictions of energy demand, limitations of hydro expansion and inadequate fossil fuel supplies in Sri Lanka suggest the requirement for a diversity of power sources in the future. It has been recognized that renewable energy (particularly biomass, hydro, wind and solar) will have an important role in meeting future energy demands. The main objective of this policy brief is to discuss the current status of the biomass energy sector of Sri Lanka and to lay a foundation for a process of further studies and consultations leading towards a well-integrated energy policy.

  19. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  20. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  1. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-07-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  2. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2003-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  3. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  4. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  5. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  6. Overwork-related disorders in Japan: recent trends and development of a national policy to promote preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Toru; Takamoto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shun; Kayashima, Kotaro; Takeshima, Tadashi; Takahashi, Masaya

    2017-06-08

    Overwork-related disorders, such as cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork, are a major occupational and public health issue worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. This report discusses the recent trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan from the perspective of workers' compensated occupational diseases, as well as the development of a national policy for preventive measures against overwork-related disorders in Japan. Recently, the number of claimed and compensated cases of occupational mental disorders has increased substantially, particularly among young workers, as compared to those of occupational CCVD. In response to these situations and action from society, the Japanese Government passed the "Act on Promotion of Preventive Measures against Karoshi and Other Overwork-Related Health Disorders" in June 2014 to develop a national initiative towards the prevention of overwork-related disorders. Changes in the trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan under a legal foundation and an initiative by the central government should be closely monitored so that other countries can benefit from the experiences.

  7. Exploring the Priorities of Teacher Education Related Policies: An Education for Sustainable Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, Hayley; Sinnes, Astrid; Gjøtterud, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) for many is considered to be a "quality education" in its own right. There also exist many debates around the semantics and implications of such an education, however this study acknowledges the greater intentions of ESD and thus deems it necessary to analyze to what degree teacher education…

  8. Peatland vulnerability to energy-related developments from climate change policy in Ireland: the case of wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Renou-Wilson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ireland enjoys a wet and windy climate which is highly suitable for both peatlands and wind farms. There are currently 73 wind farms in Ireland, 39 of which are located on upland peatland - the oldest one on an industrially extracted blanket bog. The national and local (county level policy in relation to wind farms is to promote renewable energy in order to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels and to mitigate climate change by reducing carbon emissions from non-renewable energy sources, whilst taking account of statutory obligations for planning and sustainable development. Lessons learned from past developments and ongoing monitoring have been applied in adapting guidelines for planning authorities and environmental impact assessment. However, although the vulnerability of peatland habitats is emphasised in the guideline documents, wind farm proposals for sensitive upland peatland sites continue to appear. Any development that involves drainage and fragmentation of peatlands has irreversible impacts on these ecosystems. Furthermore, the perceived ‘green profile’ of wind farms means that they tend to be viewed in a different light from other developments. It is proposed that any development on the nationally and internationally significant peatland resource of Ireland should undergo rigorous examination and impact assessment, and that degraded peatlands such as the industrial peat extraction areas in the Irish Midlands be selected as alternative locations for wind farm development.

  9. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Hurlimann

    Full Text Available The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc. contexts.The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise.A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications.The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented.The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these

  10. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Background The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. Aim The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and “map” the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. Methods A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O’Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. Results The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. Discussion The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this

  11. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Thierry; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo; Godard, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these ethical issues

  12. Alcohol tax policy and related mortality. An age-period-cohort analysis of a rapidly developed Chinese population, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Roger Y; Kim, Jean H; Yip, Benjamin H; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wong, Martin C S; Chung, Vincent C H; Griffiths, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    To delineate the temporal dynamics between alcohol tax policy changes and related health outcomes, this study examined the age, period and cohort effects on alcohol-related mortality in relation to changes in government alcohol policies. We used the age-period-cohort modeling to analyze retrospective mortality data over 30 years from 1981 to 2010 in a rapidly developed Chinese population, Hong Kong. Alcohol-related mortality from 1) chronic causes, 2) acute causes, 3) all (chronic+acute) causes and 4) causes 100% attributable to alcohol, as defined according to the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were examined. The findings illustrated the possible effects of alcohol policy changes on adult alcohol-related mortality. The age-standardized mortality trends were generally in decline, with fluctuations that coincided with the timing of the alcohol policy changes. The age-period-cohort analyses demonstrated possible temporal dynamics between alcohol policy changes and alcohol-related mortality through the period effects, and also generational impact of alcohol policy changes through the cohort effects. Based on the illustrated association between the dramatic increase of alcohol imports in the mid-1980s and the increased alcohol-related mortality risk of the generations coming of age of majority at that time, attention should be paid to generations coming of drinking age during the 2007-2008 duty reduction.

  13. Alcohol tax policy and related mortality. An age-period-cohort analysis of a rapidly developed Chinese population, 1981-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Y Chung

    Full Text Available To delineate the temporal dynamics between alcohol tax policy changes and related health outcomes, this study examined the age, period and cohort effects on alcohol-related mortality in relation to changes in government alcohol policies. We used the age-period-cohort modeling to analyze retrospective mortality data over 30 years from 1981 to 2010 in a rapidly developed Chinese population, Hong Kong. Alcohol-related mortality from 1 chronic causes, 2 acute causes, 3 all (chronic+acute causes and 4 causes 100% attributable to alcohol, as defined according to the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were examined. The findings illustrated the possible effects of alcohol policy changes on adult alcohol-related mortality. The age-standardized mortality trends were generally in decline, with fluctuations that coincided with the timing of the alcohol policy changes. The age-period-cohort analyses demonstrated possible temporal dynamics between alcohol policy changes and alcohol-related mortality through the period effects, and also generational impact of alcohol policy changes through the cohort effects. Based on the illustrated association between the dramatic increase of alcohol imports in the mid-1980s and the increased alcohol-related mortality risk of the generations coming of age of majority at that time, attention should be paid to generations coming of drinking age during the 2007-2008 duty reduction.

  14. Alcohol Tax Policy and Related Mortality. An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of a Rapidly Developed Chinese Population, 1981–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Roger Y.; Kim, Jean H.; Yip, Benjamin H.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Wong, Martin C. S.; Chung, Vincent C. H.; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2014-01-01

    To delineate the temporal dynamics between alcohol tax policy changes and related health outcomes, this study examined the age, period and cohort effects on alcohol-related mortality in relation to changes in government alcohol policies. We used the age-period-cohort modeling to analyze retrospective mortality data over 30 years from 1981 to 2010 in a rapidly developed Chinese population, Hong Kong. Alcohol-related mortality from 1) chronic causes, 2) acute causes, 3) all (chronic+acute) causes and 4) causes 100% attributable to alcohol, as defined according to the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were examined. The findings illustrated the possible effects of alcohol policy changes on adult alcohol-related mortality. The age-standardized mortality trends were generally in decline, with fluctuations that coincided with the timing of the alcohol policy changes. The age-period-cohort analyses demonstrated possible temporal dynamics between alcohol policy changes and alcohol-related mortality through the period effects, and also generational impact of alcohol policy changes through the cohort effects. Based on the illustrated association between the dramatic increase of alcohol imports in the mid-1980s and the increased alcohol-related mortality risk of the generations coming of age of majority at that time, attention should be paid to generations coming of drinking age during the 2007–2008 duty reduction. PMID:25153324

  15. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  16. Analyst, Policy and Strategy | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... development policy of other countries, the shifting development discourse of non-government actors, and the changing international landscape for IDRC's work, Prepares analysis and advice in relation to specific developments in IDRC's policy and strategy environment, including the Canadian political and Parliamentary ...

  17. Digital Citizenship Policy Development Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Education leaders are re-examining acceptable use policies in light of the increasing use of highly mobile information technologies. While acceptable use policies were developed to manage and control behaviour, a digital citizenship policy takes a more comprehensive approach by recognizing the important role of education in preparing digital…

  18. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-03-28

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  19. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable Dev...

  20. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  1. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I production and trade of agricultural goods; (II foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis, but adaptation to

  2. Developing a policy manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Tracey A

    2013-01-01

    Do you really need to have a policy and procedure in the office? Frequently they are seen sitting on the shelf, collecting dust. The answer is yes for a number of very important reasons. A policy and procedure manual is a tool to set guidelines and expectations on the basis of the mission and vision of the office. A well-written manual is a powerful training tool for new staff so they can get a feel for the office culture. Furthermore, it is a provincial or state legislative requirement that can reduce management's concern about potential legal issues or problems. If an office does not have a manual to set guidelines, the employees may be forced to make their own decisions to solve problems, which can often result in confusion, inconsistencies, and mistakes.

  3. Public Policy and Manpower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John W.; Skolnik, Michael L.

    This monograph was written in response to the perceived need for an examination of the role of manpower programs as components of public policy. Both manpower programs and related policies are examined in the context of the overall activities and purposes of government in Ontario and in the Canadian federal system. The importance of societal…

  4. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  5. Developing radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gichana, Z.

    2012-04-01

    A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)

  6. Development of a spatial planning support system for agricultural policy formulation related to land and water resources in Borkhar & Meymeh district, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farhadi Bansouleh, B.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a system was developed to support agricultural planners and policy makers in land resource analysis, policy formulation, identification of possible policy measures and policy impact analysis. The research is part of a larger programme, aiming at development of a model system to

  7. Development of a spatial planning support system for agricultural policy formulation related to land and water resources in Borkhar & Meymeh district, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farhadi Bansouleh, B.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a system was developed to support agricultural planners and
    policy makers in land resource analysis, policy formulation, identification of
    possible policy measures and policy impact analysis. The research is part of a
    larger programme, aiming at development of a

  8. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Dev...

  9. Africa Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marnia Lazreg, City University of New York, USA. Takyiwaa Manuh, IAS, University of Ghana. Jomo Kwame Sunderan, Assistant Secretary General, UNO, NY. Nouria Ramaoun, CRASC, Oran, Algérie. Lloyd Sachikonye, Institute of Development Studies, Zimbabwe. Fatou Sow, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.

  10. Institute of industrial technology policy: Guarantee from the mass production development to public relations, support self- supporting power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.J. [Institute of Industrial Technology Policy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    The success or failure of development depends on whether the development trend of advanced countries and the direction of technologies have been carefully scrutinized and monitored ahead of the very technological solution of the product since technology development whose energy saving and high efficiency aspects are emphasized is closely related to external factors such as society, environment, and economic stability, etc. There are many developed products that have not been commercialized because of various regulations after development, practicality problems due to environmental change, market formation, etc. even though technology development is essentially finished successfully. Prediction of technology market with a long-term insight is more important more anything for the successful technology development. Because of these reasons, the development trend and the direction of energy saving in the technology development businesses of industrial foundation in the short and medium range that have emphasis on marketability and commercialization are studied, and successful cases of development at the stage of practical use are introduced at last.

  11. Car firms and low-emission vehicles: The evolution of incumbents’ strategies in relation to policy developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnsack, R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the developments in the international car industry from 1997 to 2010 in relation to low-emission vehicles, with specific attention to electric vehicles. More specifically, the study seeks to better understand strategies of car manufacturers and the interplay of

  12. Law, Democracy & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution and implementation of democracy, good governance practices, human rights and socio-economic development are critical issues facing South ... practitioners and all those concerned with policy-making across the continent, thus contributing to the development of shared knowledge and cooperative effort.

  13. "Population policy in developed countries.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, G B

    1973-12-01

    Bernard Berelson's book, "Population Policy in Developed Countries," provides a report on population policy in the developed world as of the early 1970s, covering countries with 20 million population or over, and 11 countries of special interest. There are chapters by national experts from 25 countries. A developed country is defined as industrialized, healthier, better educated, better off, more modernized, and distinguished by low fertility. This does not mean that population growth in these countries has yet fallen to zero or lower, but in 7 or 8 countries, population is expected to stabilize in a decade or so unless recent fertility trends reverse themselves or are offset by immigration. The conclusions drawn from the 25 country reports are summarized, and highlights of the demographic situation and policies in 12 of the countries are presented, Berelson is cautious in predicting the future shape of population policy in the developed world. There have been too many policy changes in the past to be confident of the future. He feels, however, that more and more people are likely to accept the goal of replacement, up to replacement in some countries and down to replacement in others.

  14. State policies for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  15. Developing Iraq's mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Hamada I; Everett, Anita

    2007-10-01

    As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mental health program. However, the lack of an existing mental health plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mental health policy.

  16. Multicultural Policies and Interethnic Relations: Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Čičak-Chand

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian policy of multiculturalism recognised the positive and permanent influence of immigration on Canadian society and accepted “nation”-formation based on a model of cultural pluralism. Thus it assumed a radical “modification” of Canadian cultural definitions, instead of a formal adoption of certain “major” national cultural traditions. Canadian society, at the same time, experienced a growing divergence between the official policy of inclusion, and the increasing social exclusion of new immigrants – primarily “visible” minority groups – from economic spheres and from public life in general. In fact, the existing deep tensions in the society between two value systems – on the one hand, the reality of wide-spread racism, and on the other hand, the commitment to an ideology of liberal democracy, as well as poor results in integration policies, as indicated by marked unemployment, low incomes and poverty, especially in immigrant communities – have led to more and more frequent references to a prevailing “democratic racism” in Canada. With regard to the mentioned context, this paper first of all aims to indicate certain specificities in the development of ethnic relations and of multicultural policy, which are engrained and at the same time limited by their particular historical origin. Next, the paper intends to say something about the power of influence of the government’s multicultural policy, and the role of political correctness, as a concrete form of social action, in interethnic relations and in the opinions of the majority society in regard to ethnic minorities, and especially in regard to “visible” groups.

  17. Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.L.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Boots, M.G.; Kaal, M.B.T.; De Lange, T.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2003-03-01

    Reviews and an analysis of the policy support for the stimulation of renewable electricity in the current energy market are presented, and an overview is given of the main new developments influencing the renewable energy market. The report is part of the analysis phase of the project REMAC 2000, which has led to the publication of a roadmap for the acceleration of the RE market. REMAC 2000 aims to promote a sustainable growth of the renewable energy market. For such a sustainable growth, important success factors are not only effectiveness of policy, but also security for investors, which is essential for building up a sector and developing the renewable energy market. Consistency of regulations and policies at different levels and between policy fields form a condition for security, as does the active involvement of market stakeholders. Further, the increasing role of trade within the energy and renewable energy sector leads to a priority for international coherence of policies and markets. To guarantee a sustainable growth of the renewable energy sector, a broad perspective of policy makers and planners is required- to include a long time frame, a comprehensive view of related policy fields and authorities involved, and an orientation that looks beyond national borders

  18. Entrepreneurship policies and the development of regional innovation systems: theory, policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton-Smith, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides an appraisal and synthesis of the regional innovation systems approach in relation to entrepreneurship policies. It addresses a number of areas where theoretical, empirical and policy-based issues are currently under-developed in relation to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship policy.

  19. Rethinking macroeconomic policies for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has created an opportunity to rethink macroeconomics for development. Such rethinking is both necessary and desirable. It is essential to redefine macroeconomic objectives so that the emphasis is on fostering employment creation and supporting economic growth instead of the focus on price stability alone. It is just as important to rethink macroeconomic policies which cannot simply be used for the management of inflation and the elimination of macroeconomic imbalances, since fiscal and monetary policies are powerful and versatile instruments in the pursuit of development objectives. In doing so, it is essential to the overcome the constraints embedded in orthodox economic thinking and recognize the constraints implicit in the politics of ideology and interests.

  20. Cultural policy for national development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsekela, A.J.

    1977-02-01

    Cultural policy decisions to alleviate poverty in the Third World are viewed as a moral obligation on the part of industrialized nations to promote an equitable income and service distribution. A review of colonialism on the part of the First toward the Third World concludes that the export of primary products has failed to bring an equal return of industrialization because of the inflated prices of manufactured goods and processes. Policies aimed at eliminating the lack of opportunity in the Third World must attack the three areas of poverty, unemployment, and inequality (racial and sexual). Economic integration of these nations requires a better linkage between natural resources, technology, knowledge, and human resources. More attention is needed to the use of national resources for the manufacture of products that will be used domestically and also exported to international markets. Basic to economic development is the raising of the educational, health, and income levels of the people. A philosophical program is outlined for developing policies that will promote human development. (DCK)

  1. Collection Development Policies in Community College Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesling, Chris Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Emphasizes the need for collection development policy in community college academic libraries. Highlights areas of resource sharing, community analysis, and collection assessment. Also provides an overview of how to create a collection for development policy, and recommends books on writing such policy. Includes model policy statements. (NB)

  2. [The development of population policies in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-diakanda, D M

    1991-12-01

    ," which encouraged development and implementation of integrated demographic policies to solve the problems of high mortality and fertility. The new support for control of population growth resulted in part from the increased influence of the newly independent countries within the UN, which reduced the influence in the General Assembly of the Catholic, non-Malthusian European countries. It was, however, primarily due to the apparent failure of economic development strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. The marginalization and economic stagnation of the African countries was probably the decisive element in convincing decision makers to regard rapid population growth as an obstacle to development. But examination of evidence from Mauritius, Kenya, and Ghana, 3 countries that were relatively early in support of family planning, suggests that proclamations of support do not necessarily translate to effective control of population growth.

  3. Environmental Education Policy Development in Zimbabwe: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National environmental education policy is essential for guiding and coordinating environmental education activities within a country. The Zimbabwean Environmental Education Policy development process took place between 2000 and 2001.This paper looks at stages in the policy development process, the factors that ...

  4. Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: a study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors' health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Wang, Xiukun

    2013-10-29

    Sichuan is a province in China with an extensive history of earthquakes. Recent earthquakes, including the Lushan earthquake in 2013, have resulted in thousands of people losing their homes and their families. However, there is a research gap on the efficiency of government support policies. Therefore, this study develops a new perspective to study the health of earthquake survivors, based on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. This study uses data from a survey conducted in five hard-hit counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013. A total of 2,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,672 were returned; the response rate was 83.6%. Results of the rescue policies scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale passed the reliability test. The confirmatory factor analysis model showed that the physical component summary (PCS) directly affected the mental component summary (MCS). The results of structural equation model regarding the effects of rescue policies on HRQOL showed that the path coefficients of six policies (education, orphans, employment, poverty, legal, and social rescue policies) to the PCS of survivors were all positive and passed the test of significance. Finally, although only the path coefficient of the educational rescue policy to the MCS of survivors was positive and passed the test of significance, the other five policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. The general HRQOL of survivors is not ideal; the survivors showed a low satisfaction with the post-earthquake rescue policies. Further, the six post-earthquake rescue policies significantly improved the HRQOL of survivors and directly affected the promotion of the PCS of survivors. Aside from the educational rescue policy, all other policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. This finding indicates relatively large differences in

  5. Developing an Alternative Sabbatical Leave Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, John J.

    A study was conducted at Vista College to compare the sabbatical leave policy of the Peralta Community College District with those of other districts and to develop alternative policies that would permit a greater number of faculty to obtain sabbatical leaves. Policy statements were received from nine of the twelve districts surveyed, and…

  6. Vanuatu Education Policy Post-2015: "Alternative", Decolonising Processes for "Development"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on ongoing research in Vanuatu and the wider Pacific. It maps multilevel roles that education and development policy actors, and civil societies in particular, have increasingly been playing in official education and development policy activities. Most recently this has been in relation to the "post-2015" agendas…

  7. Moving past the rhetoric: Policy considerations that can make Sino-African relations to improve Africa's climate change resilience and the attainment of the sustainable development goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumisani Chirambo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a threat to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs in sub-Saharan Africa as its impacts can lead to increased incidences of poverty and inequality which can subsequently lead to a 12% decline in the Human Development Index (HDI for sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging countries such as China have the potential to support Africa to achieve the SDGs by pioneering South–South Climate Finance (SSCF modalities. In order to increase knowledge on climate informed development and the role of China in global climate governance, the paper examined various research articles, case studies, policy briefs and project reports. Sino-African aid, investments and trade were noted as essential in mitigating Africa's climate change vulnerabilities which induce poverty traps and inequality. Some African countries were noted to have a comparative advantage in environmental standards over China but lacked the initiative to use this comparative advantage to enhance the Forum on China–Africa Cooperation (FOCAC and assist China to have a sustainable growth trajectory. The paper concludes that SSCF modalities can enhance climate risk management in Africa if they focus on improving financial inclusion and improving climate finance flows towards climate change adaptation activities in Africa. Additionally, to increase the effectiveness and impact of Chinese climate finance support to Africa, African policymakers should not allow political and market forces to decide how climate related support from China should be allocated as decisions based on political and market forces could potentially promote an inequitable distribution of funds and ignore the most vulnerable countries and regions.

  8. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  9. Wind power development and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Cuiping; Farid, Nida R.; Jochem, Eberhard; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The People's Republic of China foresees a target of 30 GW for installed wind power capacity by 2010 (2008: 12 GW). This paper reports on the technical and economic potentials of wind power, the recent development, existing obstacles, and related policies in China. The barriers to further commercialization of the wind power market are important and may deter the 100 GW capacity target of the Chinese government by 2020. The paper concludes that the diffusion of wind power in China is an important element for not only reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, but also for worldwide progress of wind power technology and needed economies of scale. (author)

  10. The Logic of Policy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2009-01-01

    With the point of departure in the otherwise extensive knowledge on reform and routine within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU), this paper argues that: (1) in order to fully appreciate the insights provided we need to look into the complementary nature of ideational...

  11. The Logic of Policy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Nedergaard, Peter

    Since the 1980s, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has been subject to a series of reform attempts, namely in 1984, 1988, 1992, 1999 and 2003. Numerous studies have sought to explain the causes and consequences of these reforms. The studies can broadly categorised de...

  12. Public management, policy capacity, innovation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Karo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the question of what factors in development policy create specific forms of policy capacity and under what circumstances developmentoriented complementarities or mismatches between the public and private sectors emerge. We argue that specific forms of policy capacity emerge from three interlinked policy choices, each fundamentally evolutionary in nature: policy choices on understanding the nature and sources of technical change and innovation; on the ways of financing economic growth, in particular technical change; and on the nature of public management to deliver and implement both previous sets of policy choices. Thus, policy capacity is not so much a continuum of abilities (from less to more, but rather a variety of modes of making policy that originate from co-evolutionary processes in capitalist development. To illustrate, we briefly reflect upon how the East Asian developmental states of the 1960s-1980s and Eastern European transition policies since the 1990s led to almost opposite institutional systems for financing, designing and managing development strategies, and how this led, through co-evolutionary processes, to different forms of policy capacity.

  13. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  14. How to develop a company AIDS policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompey, S H

    1986-07-01

    It is for most businesses only a matter of time before they will have experience with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and the experience could be very costly for companies which fail to implement an effective AIDS policy. Potential AIDS problems include: antidiscrimination suits based on firing or failing to hire an individual who had AIDS or carries the AIDS virus antibodies; defamation suits from employees who are wrongly identified; disability claims that do not fit the pattern for other diseases; civil rights penalties in some situations when AIDS victims are prevented from working; and run-ins with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Labor Relations Board if healthy workers refuse to work alongside AIDS victims. A company needs to think through its AIDS policy, but that does not mean establishing a "special" AIDS policy which may create paranoia among employees. The best approach is to develop a health policy that includes all catastrophic illnesses, not just AIDS. There have been few court decisions involving AIDS because AIDS is a recent illness, victims often do not live long enough to pursue the matter, and it often pays to settle AIDS cases out of court. Employers need to know that judges, administrative agencies, and arbitrators take the position that AIDS is a disability. As such, AIDS is treated under the anti-handicap discrimination laws on the books of most states. Additionally, the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against the disabled by companies that contract with the federal government or receive federal financial assistance. It usually is illegal to discriminate against the disabled workers, and in some states against workers who are perceived to have a disability. The best defense against the fear of working alongside and AIDs sufferer is education.

  15. Information security policy development for compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Barry L

    2013-01-01

    Although compliance standards can be helpful guides to writing comprehensive security policies, many of the standards state the same requirements in slightly different ways. Information Security Policy Development for Compliance: ISO/IEC 27001, NIST SP 800-53, HIPAA Standard, PCI DSS V2.0, and AUP V5.0 provides a simplified way to write policies that meet the major regulatory requirements, without having to manually look up each and every control. Explaining how to write policy statements that address multiple compliance standards and regulatory requirements, the book will he

  16. MONETARY POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    requirement, liquidity ratio, minimum rediscount rate, parity charges and selective credit policies. A Review of .... workers salaries and companies' profits were to be compulsorily deducted and paid to government. However, the ... Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Deregulated Monetary Policy on Economic. Development in ...

  17. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  18. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    and 2009 with a change – not only in the wording and in the political visions – but also in the actual prioritisation of investments and policies to a very large extent. In March 2012 another milestone was set by the Government, to have Denmark based on 100% renewable energy in 2050. This entails large...... and their results are introduced as well. To provide an overview of current trends, related scientific projects and other analyses on climate change mitigation and transport are given in the report. The references used in this report can also serve as a source of data and inspiration for the reader. This report...

  19. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    Interview with Marsha Cooke of CBS, Ritz Carlton Hotel, Beijing, May 3, 2012. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 6...none of China’s claims are eventually accepted, China could continue to apply its concept of its EEZ rights to the EEZ that it indisputably derives...system in Asia, U.S. plans to advance ballistic missile defense in the region, the U.S. “air-sea battle concept ”—an effort to increase the joint

  20. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Madagascar Conservation & Development community. Finally, Madagascar Conservation & Development serves as a conduit for debate and discussion and welcomes contributions on any aspect of the legal or scientific status of any species living in Madagascar, or on conservation and development philosophy.

  1. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  2. State policy of Ukraine in social and religious relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Muzychenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the state policy of Ukraine on regulation of social and religious relations. Determined that the church-state relationship is institutional relationships that are primarily social and political in nature. They have their context every historical day. The history of relations between the state and the Church reaches of the Roman Empire. Separation of church and state began in the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance with the development of civil societies started entry processes of secularization and secular features of social life. The theocracy; tsezaropapizm; state church; intermediate state of separation of church and state; policy of nationalization of religion and the Church are determined among the newest models of the relationship of church and state. Grounded four main types (concepts of public policy for the regulation of relations between church and state: politics nationalization of religion and the Church; leftist-anarchist views and actions; policy of conciliation in religious matters; policy of tolerance. It is noted that the definition of a national model for each country is the individual case, which is affected by many factors external and internal influences, namely: legal principles, the views of secular and ecclesiastical authority, tradition, spiritual and moral state of society and so on.

  3. Changes in and shortcomings of drug stockpiling, vaccine development and related policies during outbreaks of avian influenza A H5N1, H1N1, and H7N9 among humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, L; Tang, Q; Cui, Y M; Tobe, R G; Selotlegeng, L; Ali, A H; Xu, L Z

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a reference for the future stockpiling of drugs and developing vaccines for treatment of emerging infectious diseases by summarizing the status of drug stockpiling, vaccine development, and related policies during three major outbreaks of avian influenza among humans (H5N1 in 2003, H1N1 in 2009, and H7N9 in 2013). Documents regarding drug stockpiling and vaccine development during three influenza outbreaks have been reviewed. Results indicated that the response to pandemic influenza outbreaks has improved markedly in terms of stockpiles of antivirals and vaccine development. These improvements also suggest advances in related policy planning. These trends also foreshadow better prospects for prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases. However, the rationality of drug stockpiling and international cooperation still needs to be enhanced.

  4. The employment effects of sustainable development policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, Judith M.; Williams, Jeremy B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that it is time for ecological economists to bring the employment impacts of sustainable development policies to the forefront of the research agenda. Important conservation efforts continue to founder because of their perceived employment effects. The paper examines the evidence on the employment impacts of sustainable development policies and argues that maintaining or even increasing employment depends critically on appropriate policy design and attention to the political economy of implementation of policies. The paper concludes that a better understanding of these issues, fair labour market and structural adjustment programs, and especially forward planning to anticipate problem areas, must replace the piecemeal, 'knee-jerk' reactions to environmental issues, such as were evident in Australia during the last federal election. (author)

  5. Environmental policy implementation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamman, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines why national and international policies intended to protect limited natural resources in developing countries are not effectively implemented. It employs a comparative-policy implementation in three developing countries, Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Kitts, and three foreign assistance agencies, the US Agency for International Development, the Inter-American Development Bank and the Organization of American States. The decision-making process within the countries and donor agencies is closed, preventing key stakeholders from participating. In two instances, the mutually reinforcing behavior of top officials in the countries and the donor agencies led to decisions that prevented natural resources from being protected. In all three cases, strategies to implement environmental policies failed to account for four major elements: national politics, behavior in the donor agency, the culture of decision making, and economic necessity. The existing-decision making process in both developing countries and donor agencies is dysfunctional

  6. The Development of National Beef-Cattle Population in Relation to Beef-Cattle Population at the Centre and Non Centre Area, and the Policy of National Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sodiq

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were (1 to find out the development of beef-cattle population at national level, at the Centre Area of Population (CAP and Non Centre Area of Population (NCAP, (2 to assess the relation between population of national beef-cattle and beef-cattle population at CAP and NCAP, (3 to study the policy of beef-cattle development program in Indonesia. The target of this study addressed to the Directorate General of Livestock Services, Republic of Indonesia. A literature review and communication methods were applied in this study. Descriptive and regression analysis were used for data analysis.  The study revealed that: (1 During 1995-2005, beef-cattle population at national level, CAP and NCAP were unstable.  Due to financial crises (1997, the population at national and CAP tended to decrease, but the population at NCAP was relatively constant.  During 2003-2005, national population tended to increase (0.83% per year, and that figure was less than national target (1.05%,  (2 Population of national beef-cattle (Y was highly related (r2: 0,95; MSE: 108508 to the population of beef-cattle at NCAP (X;  Y = 4764492 + 0.896 X;  (3 An increase in beef-cattle population during 2000-2005 was due to an increase in calving and cattle importation. Slaughtering of cows should be controlled to increase calving. The evaluation results of beef self-sufficiency program revealed that there were failures in achieving main goals of the program. It is recommended that to improve the contribution of CAP to national needs, the development of cattle population should be focused in those areas.  The evaluation results of beef self-sufficiency program could be considered in the future policy in term of the development cattle population. Some causes of the policy failures: (1 the formulated policy was not equipped with detailed operation plans. The program formulation was limited to title and goal without elaborating the way to achieve the

  7. Essays in Human Development and Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Arindam

    2010-01-01

    Despite strong recent economic growth, gender inequality remains a major concern for India. This dissertation examines the effectiveness of public policy in improving some important human development outcomes, with a focus on gender issues. The national Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostics Techniques (PNDT) Act of 1994, implemented in 1996, banned sex-selective abortions in the Indian states which hitherto had not legislated such a policy. Using village-level and town-level longitudinal d...

  8. Public Sector Industrial Relations: Recent Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Phil; Leopold, John

    1985-01-01

    This issue reviews trends in public sector employment (particularly in the light of government policy to reduce it), wages (in a context of cash limits), and strikes and other forms of industrial action. It also considers recent developments in the structure, organization, and policy of the "actors" in public sector industrial relations.…

  9. New directions in US development policies: A view from Washington ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... Development expert Todd Moss analyzes these trends in US development policy and forecasts what changes to expect. He also relates these trends to Canada – facing some similar issues – including how the challenges will affect the way the two countries cooperate on development. Listen to the audio ...

  10. Lesotho's Rural Development Policy: Objectives and Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lesotho's rural development policy evolved at the beginning of the second decade of the last century. Initially it was an attempt to shore up the Basotho subsistence economy through efforts directed at protecting the fertility of the soil and to protect animals from diseases. After independence rural development, hitherto an ...

  11. EU Development Policy in a Changing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mold, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    On many fronts, EU development policy is at a critical juncture. In the face of major new challenges, such as the current impasse in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, and increasing concerns over security threats, the European Union is having to rethink much of its development

  12. Developments in Icelandic Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J.K. Bailes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Iceland has been slow in developing a national security concept, for reasons that include a long period of reliance on US protection post-World War Two, and divided internal views over this defence solution. Since the withdrawal of all US stationed forces in 2006, Iceland’s security partnerships have diversified and attempts have been made to frame security in more multi-functional terms. The Risk Assessment Report of 2009 made important progress in itemizing non-military threats and risks. On this basis, a cross-party parliamentary committee was invited to start work in 2012 on guidelines for a security strategy. Its report, published in March 2014, establishes a large area of consensus on ‘softer’ security issues and on remaining in NATO, with a few dissenting voices on the latter. Its main omission is a proper treatment of economic and financial security, still tied to the divisive issue of EU membership. Meanwhile, Iceland’s recent security experience in 2014 has helped to highlight the reality of both harder and softer security challenges. The government can now proceed to draft a full official security strategy, to be laid before parliament possibly in 2015.

  13. Policies for Migration and Development: A European Perspective. Policy Brief No. 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katseli, Louka T.; Lucas, Robert E. B.; Xenogiani, Theodora

    2006-01-01

    Managing migration has become a priority for policy makers both in developed and developing countries. Large immigration or emigration flows relative to domestic population's impact on almost all aspects of an economy and society: family structures, community life, educational and health systems, labour markets, security systems, governance and…

  14. Policy Development for Biodiversity Offsets: A Review of Offset Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Bruce A.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets seek to compensate for residual environmental impacts of planned developments after appropriate steps have been taken to avoid, minimize or restore impacts on site. Offsets are emerging as an increasingly employed mechanism for achieving net environmental benefits, with offset policies being advanced in a wide range of countries (i.e., United States, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). To support policy development for biodiversity offsets, we review a set of major offset policy frameworks—US wetlands mitigation, US conservation banking, EU Natura 2000, Australian offset policies in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, and Brazilian industrial and forest offsets. We compare how the frameworks define offset policy goals, approach the mitigation process, and address six key issues for implementing offsets: (1) equivalence of project impacts with offset gains; (2) location of the offset relative to the impact site; (3) “additionality” (a new contribution to conservation) and acceptable types of offsets; (4) timing of project impacts versus offset benefits; (5) offset duration and compliance; and (6) “currency” and mitigation replacement ratios. We find substantial policy commonalities that may serve as a sound basis for future development of biodiversity offsets policy. We also identify issues requiring further policy guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; and (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios.

  15. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may...... be less appropriate. This paper employs telephone interviews and workshop discussions with firms in isolated locations to investigate their satisfaction with assistance programmes, their ability to innovate (through product introductions) and respond to challenges in the food industry (the emergence...

  16. Climate policy: Uncovering ocean-related priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkemeyer, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    Given the complexity and multi-faceted nature of policy processes, national-level policy preferences are notoriously difficult to capture. Now, research applying an automated text mining approach helps to shed light on country-level differences and priorities in the context of marine climate issues.

  17. A Model-Based Exploration and Policy Analysis Related to Prostitution and Human Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    András Kővári; Erik Pruyt

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based exploration and policy analysis related to prostitution and prostitution-related human trafficking. After a brief introduction to prostitution and prostitution-related human trafficking, the paper zooms in on the Dutch situation. A System Dynamics simulation model related to the Dutch situation developed to explore and provide policy insights is subsequently presented. Using the simulation model, policies are first of all tested, and preliminary conclusions a...

  18. Endogenous development. Theories and policies of territorial development

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Barquero , Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous development is an interpretation that includes different points of view which share the same theoretical and policy patterns. It is a territorial approach to development that refers to growth and capital accumulation processes of territories that have their own culture and institutions, upon which investment decisions are made. From this perspective, endogenous development policy is the local actors answer to the challenge of globalization. The paper argues that endogenous developm...

  19. No sustainable development without an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhras, G.

    2000-01-01

    The energy crisis of 1973, and again during the 1980s, prompted industrialized countries to adopt measures to reduce energy usage and to encourage conservation practices. Energy consumption in the transportation field was particularly high. However, after a while, some of the measures were either dropped or not enforced and our energy utilization continued to intensify. It soon became apparent that a different approach was required. At the Rio Conference in 1992, the idea of sustainable development was introduced with the objective to reduce global warming. The utilization of fossil fuels amplifies the emissions of greenhouse gases resulting in global warming which threatens the entire environment and also the health of citizens, particularly those living in cities. In 1997, 160 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol. Canada committed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 6 per cent compared to 1990 levels, and this between 2008 and 2012. It is obvious that drastic steps are needed in order for Canada to meet this commitment. After an extensive analysis of the situation by various committees, it was concluded that activities related to the transportation of people in particular contribute greatly to the emission of greenhouse gases. The results also indicate that solutions need to be found to reduce energy consumption. The author recommended the adoption of intelligent structures and materials which imitate biological systems in a predictable manner to optimize certain functions. He also recommended a better integration of energy policy with the basic principles of sustainable development. 10 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will take a pragmatic approach to dealing with the livelihood issues of the cultivators and the health of the ecosystem, and assess the effects of increasing population pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through ...

  1. Entrepreneurship and economic development: Theory, evidence and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of the intersection of development economics and entrepreneurship. Given the relative neglect of entrepreneurship by development scholars it deals with (i) recent theoretical insights from the intersection of entrepreneurship and development studies; (ii) the empirical evidence on the relationship between entrepreneurship and development; and (iii) fresh insights for entrepreneurship policy for development that emerges from recent advanc...

  2. TAX AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN CAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Đurić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the concept of business policies, its goals, objectives and content, we conclude that the elements of business logistics viewed from the perspective of the market, as well as the financial, commercial and technological aspects. The general theory of the enterprise, a unified division of functions in the three basic functions of the vertical (the vertical functions management functions - such a basic function of management objectives, strategy and business development, means the Company and its business policy; functions of management - as the basic function of organizing the implementation of management decisions and the functioning of the company as a business system; executive function - as a group of tasks to achieve the goals and objectives set forth in management decisions, a coordinated and organized the functions of management. Respecting market orientation in policy formation, transport companies, the content of these functions can be systematized according to the criteria of phase formation and implementation of business policy, as a phase of the work process, and to the following main groups of activities specific to transport companies: 1 Transport market research, forecasting and determining business policy; 2 Planning and policy development; 3 Organization of traffic technology functions; and 4 Organization commercial business sales services. This in essence is the basic structure of the business policy as the basis of the business logistics transportation companies, which is the topic of this paper, and bearing in mind the functions of business logistics, which are reflected in the monitoring, studying, analyzing, and testing of all phenomena in the market, as well as the production process, and the application of appropriate methods and measures.

  3. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  4. Fertilizer Reduction Policies in Developed Countries: Suitability and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed and analyzed the specific practices, implementation effects and applicable conditions of fertilizer reduction policies in the EU, US and Japan, explored the common laws and general conditions in the formulation of environmental orientation, and pro vided feasible policy recommendations for the formulation of fertilizer reduction policies in China. This study showed that fertilizer reduction policies in each country had their own advantages and disadvantages, and the applicable conditions were different. The EU's command and control policy was applicable to the situation of less farm households and the same agricultural planting type or farm type. The economic in centive policy in the US was applicable to the situation of more farm households, relatively perfect agricultural market system and sensitive price formation mechanism, while the public participation policy in Japan was applicable to regions with more relevant agricultural groups and strong economy. China should learn from each of these policies and make a comprehensive choice in the formulation of fertilizer reduc tion policies. Therefore, China should proceed from improving the agricultural price mechanism and the pollution-free agricultural products certification system as well as encouraging and supporting the development of large scale production units, and then promote the adoption of environmentally friendly technology through the guidance of market mechanism, ensure the effective implementation of environmental stan dards through farmers' integration and improve farmers' environmental awareness through propaganda guidance, so as to ensure the effective implementation of different types(command and control policy, economic incentive policy and public participation policyof fertilizer reduc tion policies.

  5. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More specifically, the Journal focus on important topics in health development that include: health policy and health politics; health planning, monitoring and evaluation; health administration and organization of health services; hospital administration; health manpower, including training; health economics, financing, and ...

  6. Sustainable Development Policy Institute Immersion Program on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moreover, university students in the public sector education system are not exposed to academic culture, research standards and methodologies that are ... Development Policy Institute (SDPI) to train a core pool of graduates and young professionals to undertake social science research in Pakistan and South Asia.

  7. Government Research and Development Policy for Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Linda

    This paper investigates how recent changes in the telecommunications industry are likely to affect government research and development policies by analyzing how changes in the market structure--in particular, increased competition in the industry due to domestic deregulation and international competition--change the political economy of government…

  8. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition...

  9. Economic development, climate and values: making policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  10. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-07

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Tourism policy, climate change and sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Metodijeski, Dejan; Temelkov, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    The subject of this paper is tourism policy, climate change and sustainable development. We consider climate change to be one of the biggest problems of modern living, and the tourism is one of the many sectors affected mainly through the changing faces of tourist destinations. After the climate change we observe reduced numbers of tourists in those tourist destinations. Tourism is the antithesis of bad weather and can be developed only in areas that are not affected by such conditions. For t...

  12. A comparison of policies and guidelines related to multimorbidity in the UK, Australia and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraratne, Nadeeka K; Pathirathna, Kgrv; Harrison, Christopher; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2018-01-01

    Increased rates of multimorbidity, evident in developed and developing countries, should be addressed by health policy. The aim of this study was to compare policies and guidelines related to multimorbidity in primary healthcare in countries with different health systems, to identify initiatives, gaps and opportunities for further improvement. We conducted a content analysis of UK, Australian and Sri Lankan policy documents and guidelines published between 2006 and 2017, in electronic databases, references and government repositories, tabulating data extracted for content, implementation plans, gaps and opportunities for development. Overall, 38 of the 56 identified documents explicitly or implicitly addressed multimorbidity or its prevention. The UK had four policy documents and guidelines specifically on multimorbidity. Australia and Sri Lanka lacked specific policies on multimorbidity, but policies did address chronic conditions and non-communicable diseases. Important differences exist in how national policies seek to address multimorbidity. Policy implementation, how this affects quality of care and outcomes, and the role of primary care should be examined.

  13. Policy Analyst | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary. The Policy Analyst works as a member of the Policy and Planning Group providing information, research analysis and advice on matters of policy and planning. The Policy Analyst works closely with the Director of Policy and Planning and the Senior Policy Analyst to initiate and undertake research and ...

  14. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-relatedpolicy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  15. Navigating the science-policy spectrum: Opportunities to work on policies related to your research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licker, R.; Ekwurzel, B.; Goldman, G. T.; DeLonge, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many scientists conduct research with direct policy relevance, whether it be producing sea-level projections that are taken-up by local decision-makers, or developing new agricultural technologies. All scientists are affected by policies made by their respective local, regional, and federal governments. For example, budgets affect the grant resources available to conduct research and policies on visas influence the accessibility of new positions for foreign scientists. As a result, many scientists would like to engage with the policy domain, and either bring their science to bear on new policies that are in the works (science-for-policy) or inform policies on the scientific research enterprise (policy-for-science). Some scientists prefer to engage and be neutral to the policy outcome, serving primarily as an information resource. Many may choose to also advocate for a particular outcome based on their expertise and experience. Research shows that policy decisions benefit greatly from the input of scientific experts. We explore the spectrum between informing policies in a "non-prescriptive" manner to working on policies in an advocacy space. We highlight tips for successful engagement along this spectrum. Finally, we review current science-for-policy and policy-for-science issues of relevance to the geophysical sciences.

  16. Health Policy, Optometric Education and Interprofessional Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Henry B.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of health policy and its influence on patients and providers is explored with an emphasis on an interprofessional consortium, devoted to representing the consumer constituency. Expanded involvement and expenditures by the federal government in the health care field are discussed and the need for regulatory reform is described.…

  17. Policy Analysis, International Relations, and European Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Tatham, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the rationale of the special issue in terms of its objectives and guiding principles. It maps different evolutions and challenges within three analytical streams (1) regarding the field of policy analysis, (2) concerning the interaction between domestic and international...

  18. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    ’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level...

  19. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Cornelis van Kooten, G.; Narbel, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO 2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO 2 . To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  20. Correlates of Success in World Bank Development Policy Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Peter; Geli, Patricia; Saavedra, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the correlates of success of development policy lending operations of the World Bank between 2004 and 2012. The paper uses a data set constructed of individual loan characteristics and ex-post loan ratings produced by the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group. Departing from the related literature, the paper focuses mostly on examining the impact of loan characteris...

  1. International migration and related policies in europe 1950 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penninx Rinus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a its particular development in time; b the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in these three basic migration-related factors. Migration outcomes are not haphazard nor are these the result of unhindered economic push and pull factors in a free market. Immigration policies of receiving countries do greatly influence the volume and patterns of migration, the place of settlement and the characteristics of migrants. Regulations on conditions of residence and integration do furthermore influence significantly the position of immigrants in their new destination, among others by setting conditions for their stay (residence rights and access to the labour market. The second part of this chapter outlines the migration and integration regimes that have been developed by states of different parts of Europe and by the European Union. In conclusion, immigration has become a relevant phenomenon in all EU countries. However, as a consequence of different timing of immigration, different socio-economic contexts and varying governmental migration and integration policies, European countries are confronted with different forms migration (immigration, emigration, transit migration and with different types of migrants. European states have also developed different governmental policies of migration and integration. Historically, a common denominator in the framing of European policies is that countries do not see themselves as immigration countries; they are immigration countries against their will. In recent times, such framing is reinforced by populist and nationalist movements that see immigrants not only as economic competitors, but also as a threat to the national "culture and world views". The more Europe needs immigrants for economic and

  2. A health app developer's guide to law and policy: a multi-sector policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Karliychuk, Tanya; Gillies, Donna; Mintzes, Barbara; Raven, Melissa; Grundy, Quinn

    2017-10-02

    Apps targeted at health and wellbeing sit in a rapidly growing industry associated with widespread optimism about their potential to deliver accessible and cost-effective healthcare. App developers might not be aware of all the regulatory requirements and best practice principles are emergent. Health apps are regulated in order to minimise their potential for harm due to, for example, loss of personal health privacy, financial costs, and health harms from delayed or unnecessary diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. We aimed to produce a comprehensive guide to assist app developers in producing health apps that are legally compliant and in keeping with high professional standards of user protection. We conducted a case study analysis of the Australian and related international policy environment for mental health apps to identify relevant sectors, policy actors, and policy solutions. We identified 29 policies produced by governments and non-government organisations that provide oversight of health apps. In consultation with stakeholders, we developed an interactive tool targeted at app developers, summarising key features of the policy environment and highlighting legislative, industry and professional standards around seven relevant domains: privacy, security, content, promotion and advertising, consumer finances, medical device efficacy and safety, and professional ethics. We annotated this developer guidance tool with information about: the relevance of each domain; existing legislative and non-legislative guidance; critiques of existing policy; recommendations for developers; and suggestions for other key stakeholders. We anticipate that mental health apps developed in accordance with this tool will be more likely to conform to regulatory requirements, protect consumer privacy, protect consumer finances, and deliver health benefit; and less likely to attract regulatory penalties, offend consumers and communities, mislead consumers, or deliver health harms. We

  3. Developing effective policy strategies to retain health workers in rural Bangladesh: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Lal B; Joarder, Taufique; Islam, Sheikh Md Shariful; Uddin, Aftab; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2015-05-20

    Retention of human resources for health (HRH), particularly physicians and nurses in rural and remote areas, is a major problem in Bangladesh. We reviewed relevant policies and provisions in relation to HRH aiming to develop appropriate rural retention strategies in Bangladesh. We conducted a document review, thorough search and review of relevant literature published from 1971 through May 2013, key informant interviews with policy elites (health policy makers, managers, researchers, etc.), and a roundtable discussion with key stakeholders and policy makers. We used the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the rural retention policies under 4 domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and 16 sub-domains. Over the past four decades, Bangladesh has developed and implemented a number of health-related policies and provisions concerning retention of HRH. The district quota system in admissions is in practice to improve geographical representation of the students. Students of special background including children of freedom fighters and tribal population have allocated quotas. In private medical and nursing schools, at least 5% of seats are allocated for scholarships. Medical education has a provision for clinical rotation in rural health facilities. Further, in the public sector, every newly recruited medical doctor must serve at least 2 years at the upazila level. To encourage serving in hard-to-reach areas, particularly in three Hill Tract districts of Chittagong division, the government provides an additional 33% of the basic salary, but not exceeding US$ 38 per month. This amount is not attractive enough, and such provision is absent for those working in other rural areas. Although the government has career development and promotion plans for doctors and nurses, these plans are often not clearly specified and not implemented effectively. The government is

  4. China's Developing Arctic Policies: Myths and Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lanteigne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic and Far North regions of the world have grown in importance for China's international interests in recent years, and in 2013 China became an observer state in the Arctic Council. Beijing has sought to develop an Arctic policy based on scientific research and partnerships, including in the areas of environmental studies and climate change issues, as well as development and economic issues. As the Arctic gains more international attention due to the effects of ice melting and the possibility of the region becoming a new source of resources, concerns have been raised about a scramble for riches and economic advantages. China, as a rising political and economic power, has been subject to much scrutiny, especially from the West, about its emerging agenda in the Arctic region. Although China is not an Arctic state, the concerns are based on predictions that Beijing is seeking to play a stronger and perhaps even dominant role in the Arctic, and this has led to many misconceptions about China's Arctic policy. The result has been a "clash of identities" between Chinese and Western perceptions, and in order to understand why these diverging views have appeared, it is necessary to first examine the origins of "myths" about China's regional Arctic policies, and then examine their roles, using constructivist theory, before suggesting ways for both China and the international community to address this divergence.

  5. Technical considerations in materials management policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, H.; Goldberg, M.

    1996-01-01

    Under the Materials-in-Inventory (MIN) initiative, US DOE intends to develop policies to ensure that materials are managed and use efficiently, cost-effectively, and safely throughout DOE. The MIN initiative covers depleted uranium, scrap metals, chemicals, explosives, spent nuclear fuel, lead, alkali metals, etc.; by far the largest component is depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). A technically defensible approach has been developed and is being used to select a long-term management strategy for DOE's DUF6 inventory. The same approach can be adapted to management of other materials in inventory that have the potential to be reutilized

  6. Communication dated 10 September 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of Egypt to the Agency concerning the High Level Policy Review Seminar of African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 10 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Egypt enclosing the documents of the High Level Policy Review Seminar of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) held in Aswan, Egypt on 28-29 November 2007. The communication, and as requested therein, the enclosures containing the Declaration of Aswan, the Aswan Action Plan and the Profile of the Regional Strategic Cooperative Framework (2008-2013) are circulated herewith for information

  7. The Korean nuclear ODA policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Min, Kim Yoo; Park, Young Il

    2012-01-01

    Korean nuclear Official Development Assistance (ODA) is established with support from institutes such as the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). KOICA's grant aid mainly made through the activities including IAEA's training program, and KAERI currently runs the inter-regional education and training cooperation called Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology(ANENT) which aimed to achieve the goal of encouraging web based education training network via cooperation with IAEA. Yet now these programs are focusing more on assisting nuclear infrastructure rather than highlighting nuclear education and training. This paper aims to, first, do a self-evaluation about the Korean ODA policy; second, to study the transition of the international nuclear atmosphere; and third, by apprehending the trend of the subjects of Korean nuclear ODA policy, to discuss the overall appropriate trajectory of Korean nuclear ODA

  8. Developing policy analytics for public health strategy and decisions-the Sheffield alcohol policy model framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra; Purshouse, Robin; Rafia, Rachid; Meng, Yang; Hill-Macmanus, Daniel

    This paper sets out the development of a methodological framework for detailed evaluation of public health strategies for alcohol harm reduction to meet UK policy-makers needs. Alcohol is known to cause substantial harms, and controlling its affordability and availability are effective policy options. Analysis and synthesis of a variety of public and commercial data sources is needed to evaluate impact on consumers, health services, crime, employers and industry, so a sound evaluation of impact is important. We discuss the iterative process to engage with stakeholders, identify evidence/data and develop analytic approaches and produce a final model structure. We set out a series of steps in modelling impact including: classification and definition of population subgroups of interest, identification and definition of harms and outcomes for inclusion, classification of modifiable components of risk and their baseline values, specification of the baseline position on policy variables especially prices, estimating effects of changing policy variables on risk factors including price elasticities, quantifying risk functions relating risk factors to harms including 47 health conditions, crimes, absenteeism and unemployment, and monetary valuation. The most difficult model structuring decisions are described, as well as the final results framework used to provide decision support to national level policymakers in the UK. In the discussion we explore issues around the relationship between modelling and policy debates, valuation and scope, limitations of evidence/data, how the framework can be adapted to other countries and decisions. We reflect on the approach taken and outline ongoing plans for further development.

  9. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy Institute. This funding will strengthen the Sustainable Development Policy Institute's (SDPI) role as a credible public policy institution in Pakistan by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Sustainable ...

  10. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  11. Policy Decisions and Research in Economics and Industrial Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, John T.

    1977-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the bulk of academic research in industrial relations and economics in recent years has had very little impact on either public or private policy decisions. The thesis is illustrated by examining several policy problems, e.g., manpower programs and the relationship between wages and variables such as unemployment…

  12. The Relative Effectiveness of Monetary and Fiscal Policies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Domestic Price Inflation taken as a proxy for price stabilization policy and the output stabilization function. These two equations were estimated and used to test the hypothesis on the relative effectiveness of monetary vis-à-vis fiscal policy. The model was an adaptation and subsequent modification of the St. Louis model ...

  13. Belief in Food Addiction and Obesity-Related Policy Support.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Schulte

    Full Text Available This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables, while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation.Cross-sectional.Online Community.200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk.Participants (n = 193 responded to three questions about belief in food addiction and a measure evaluating support for 13 obesity-related policy initiatives. Individuals also completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale (mYFAS, self-reported height and weight, and provided demographic information (age, gender, race, political party affiliation.Belief in food addiction was significantly associated with greater support for obesity-related initiatives, even when accounting for the significant associations of age, gender, and political party. Belief in food addiction and political party both had moderate effect sizes for predicting support for obesity-related policy. There was an interaction between age and belief in food addiction, with significant associations with policy support for both younger and older individuals, though the effect was larger for younger participants.The current study provides evidence that belief in food addiction is associated with increased obesity-related policy support, comparable to the influence of one's political party. Growing evidence for the role of an addictive process in obesity may have important implications for public support of obesity-related policy initiatives.

  14. Belief in Food Addiction and Obesity-Related Policy Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erica M; Tuttle, Hannah M; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables), while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation). Cross-sectional. Online Community. 200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Participants (n = 193) responded to three questions about belief in food addiction and a measure evaluating support for 13 obesity-related policy initiatives. Individuals also completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale (mYFAS), self-reported height and weight, and provided demographic information (age, gender, race, political party affiliation). Belief in food addiction was significantly associated with greater support for obesity-related initiatives, even when accounting for the significant associations of age, gender, and political party. Belief in food addiction and political party both had moderate effect sizes for predicting support for obesity-related policy. There was an interaction between age and belief in food addiction, with significant associations with policy support for both younger and older individuals, though the effect was larger for younger participants. The current study provides evidence that belief in food addiction is associated with increased obesity-related policy support, comparable to the influence of one's political party. Growing evidence for the role of an addictive process in obesity may have important implications for public support of obesity-related policy initiatives.

  15. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hübner, Claudia; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Danielsdottir, Sigrun; Brähler, Elmar; Puhl, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513), public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  16. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hilbert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. Methods: In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513, public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Results: Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. Conclusion: German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance.

  17. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-01-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  18. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-08-12

    Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group's involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include representatives of vulnerable communities which could

  19. Archives: Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 10 of 10 ... Archives: Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The). Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): About this journal. Journal Home > Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies. Journal Home > Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: About this ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: About this journal. Journal Home > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Policy Diversity as an Engine of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daianu

    2004-06-01

    policy diversity to operate as a means to foster economic development; that there might be a paradigmatic cycle in the dynamic of economic policies

  6. The relative importance of the channels of monetary policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From a policy perspective, these results imply that Central Bank is required to continuously monitor developments in the credit and conditions in foreign exchange markets in order to design effective monetary policies. In addition, concerted efforts are needed towards enhancing the asset/equity price channel in Zambia to ...

  7. Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

    2009-07-01

    State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

  8. EU External Relations Law and the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    will open up a plethora of context-specific legal and political questions. The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a recent example of an external policy drawn up explicitly with the objective of achieving coherence across different EU and Member State external policies. Positioning the ENP in the legal......-historical context of political Union, this thesis first argues why coherence is an issue at all in EU external relations, and why law is integral to attaining the ever-enigmatic single voice of the European Union. Subsequently, the text examines the role of EU external relations law in attaining a coherent...... neighbourhood policy. It is argued that the innovative nature of the ENP for coherence lies beyond the narrowly defined legal sphere, but stems mostly from its hybrid composition of hard legal, soft legal and non-legal policy instruments. It is concluded that from a purely EU-internal and institutional...

  9. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba E. Gámez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  10. Child development in developing countries: child rights and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context for development of the youngest children in the majority world using one of the only data sets to study these contexts across countries. Using the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular the Rights to Survival, Development and Protection, findings are explained with implications for international and national-level social policies. Implications are also discussed, with respect to policy makers and the larger international community, who have the obligation to uphold these rights. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. The Volpe Center Role in the Development of Transportation-Related Noise Policy and Regulations: A Presentation of Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-29

    For the past three decades, the U.S. Department of Transportations John A. Volpe National : Transportation Systems Center Acoustics Facility (Volpe Center) has been providing noise-related technical support to various government organizations at t...

  12. Defining Moments in Policy Development, Direction, and Implementation in Irish Initial Teacher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of significant OECD documents on the development of Irish education policy, specifically teacher education policy, over the last half century. While other commentators have argued that Irish education has been predominantly influenced by policy developments in the UK, US or Europe, this paper identifies the OECD as a…

  13. Integration of population, environment and development policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechin, S R; Ness, G; Drake, W

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the conceptual and practical issues involved in bringing the fields of population and environment closer together, and how these issues impact upon development planning. Although the international community's interest in environment and demography -- 2 areas closely intertwined -- continues to grow, they remain separated, viewed as distinct and specialized disciplines. The paper first discusses the separation between the 2 fields, explaining that it is the result of 3 types of imbalances: conceptual, organizational, and power. The essay then proposes 5 factors that can be used to develop population-environmental linkages. These include: developing conceptual models that reveal the interrelationships; taking an integrated approach for collecting environmental, population, and development data; encouraging local officials to monitor and act upon their findings of population and environmental situations; and garnering the political support needed to establish a decentralized, multi-sectoral development approach. The paper goes on to consider a conceptual framework for understanding the interrelated transitions between population and environment. These include demographic, epidemiologic, agricultural, forestry, toxicity, urbanization, and fossil fuel transitions. The paper points out the similarities of these transition -- among them, the fact during these periods society is especially vulnerable. Having considered the policy implications of a transition theory, the paper concludes by proposing a multi-method, decentralized, and comprehensive approach to development planning.

  14. Public relations policy: The Electronuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Luiz

    2000-01-01

    This presentation discusses the following topics: Historical and Cultural Aspects of Electrical Sector in Brazil; Nuclear Power and Public Acceptance in Brazil; The chances decision of Angra 3; Community Activities of the ELETRONUCLEAR Regional Programs and Emergency Planning Department whose function is to promote activities with or for the communities of Angra dos Reis region; Public Relations Actions

  15. Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.

  16. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Ivanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine. It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policymakers. Methods Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. Results The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group’s involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Conclusion Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include

  17. Russia: Development Aid Policies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beletskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After more than twenty years of independence, Russia has recovered from economic and political shocks and demonstrates its commitment to gain new political and economic role in the global development aid architecture. International development assistance provided by Russia to other countries has increased from USD 100 million in 2004 to USD 610 million in 2013. The Concept of Russia's participation in the international development assistance, approved in 2007 and updated in 2014, outlines Russia’s priorities in the international aid sphere. Based on review of this concept, available official statistics and expert estimates, this paper provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamics and perspectives of Russia’s transformation from the international aid recipient into one of the donor countries. The results indicate that there is a large gap between Russia’s political ambitions and actual development aid policies; moreover, there is a shift towards a “soft power” concept in political decision making. At the same time, the potential of Russia’s embedding into the international development aid system remains high.

  18. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  19. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle -income countries: Policy makers' perspectives. ... Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate ...

  20. Do Co-operative Development Policies Really Lead to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article assesses how Kenyan co-operative policies contribute to the development of co-operatives as viable business enterprises and autonomous democratic organisations. The article identifies three policy phases that have guided co-operative development over four decades. Policy engagement with cooperatives ...

  1. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  2. The Exercise of Power: Developing Reasonable School Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprang, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    Offers a lesson in which students examine the issue of mandatory drug and alcohol testing in public schools. Students develop a policy for their own school after considering a hypothetical policy statement and attendant legal issues. (JDH)

  3. Employment-related administrative roentgenograms: characteristics of policy formulation and current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gift, D.A.; Harris, G.I.; Gard, J.W.; Alexander, G.P.; Potchen, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    A significant proportion of diagnostic medical procedures are used in response to public or private policy rather than in response to an individual patient-physician interaction. We have studied the system whereby such policies are developed and implemented in the case of employment-related chest and lumbar spine roentgenograms, which were found to account for about 11% of the total use of diagnostic radiographs in the state of Michigan. We observed that factors influencing formulation of policy are diverse and largely nonmedical, organizational policies developed in similar environments are often very dissimilar and are highly subject to external influence, and perceptions of policy success and examination utility are typically subjective and uncertain. It is concluded that considerable opportunity exists to enhance the efficacy of such radiographic examinations through leverage provided by their policy-driven nature

  4. Belief in Food Addiction and Obesity-Related Policy Support

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Erica M.; Tuttle, Hannah M.; Gearhardt, Ashley N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables), while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Online Community. Participants 200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Measurements P...

  5. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  6. Using Standardized Health Consumer Indicators as a Policy Development Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Ovidiu BABA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relations between the European Union standardized health indicators and the community-based health policy. One of the goals of the European Commission is to provide standardized information on health in order to make it comparable at a trans-national level. Hence, numerous projects aimed at developing health indicators, and improving databases relating to these were supported by the Program of Community Action in the Field of Public Health. In this paper the authors argue that standardized health indicators can provide more than a prototype for a future health monitoring system. Bearing in mind that the production of comparable information on health is based upon four different tasks (the analysis of data needs in a specific area, definition of indicators and quality assurance, reporting and analysis, and promotion of the results the authors assert that all of these tasks are important steps towards the development of community-based health policy. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyze their utility as premises for policy development.

  7. Government policy and the development of electric vehicles in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahman, Max

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the role that the Japanese Government has played in the development of alternatives to conventional vehicles, the effect of government programmes, and the importance of technical flexibility in government support schemes. The focus is on battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles. The effects of government policy and the process of innovation are analysed from a systems approach drawing on the literature regarding technical change and innovation. The whole chain of government support, including the context in which these different policies have been implemented since the early 1970s, is studied. The Japanese Government has adopted a comprehensive strategy including R and D, demonstration programmes and market support guided by long-term strategic plans. The role of the Government has been that of a conductor in the development process supplying both R and D support and artificially created niche markets, and easing the way for targeted technologies by means of legislation and standards. Despite this, the targeted technology (the BPEV) has not been established on the market. However, the recent market success of the HEV can partly be attributed to the government support of the BPEV technology. The enabling component, the electric drivetrain, was developed for automotive use within the BPEV programmes offered by the MITI. This technology was later utilised in the HEV. The history of BPEVs in Japan demonstrates that 'picking winners' in government policy is not easy. Despite a sustained and ambitious policy by the MITI, the development of alternative vehicles never unfolded according to plan. The success factors for policy seem more related to technology specific features than the particular policy style. Our conclusion is that flexibility, adaptability and cooperation in terms of technical choice is necessary in policy. This increases the chances of a technology

  8. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...... between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future...

  9. Opportunities for scientists to influence policy: When does radiation metrology matter in development of national policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursey, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurements of radiation and radioactivity rarely rise to the level of national policy. The things that matter most to ordinary citizens do not normally include questions of science and technology. Citizens are more often concerned with issues close to home relating to commerce, health, safety, security and the environment. When questions of confidence in measurements arise, they are first directed to the ministry that has responsibilities in that area. When the required uncertainty in field measurements challenges the capability of the regulatory authorities, the National Metrology Institute may be asked to develop transfer standards to enhance the capabilities of the ministry with the mission lead. In this paper, we will consider eight instances over the past nine decades in which questions in radiation and radionuclide metrology in the US did rise to the level that they influenced decisions on national policy. These eight examples share some common threads. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation are useful tools in many disciplines, but can often represent potential or perceived threats to health and public safety. When unforeseen applications of radiation arise, or when environmental radioactivity from natural and man-made sources presents a possible health hazard, the radiation metrologists may be called upon to provide the technical underpinning for policy development. - Highlights: • We review instances in which accurate measurements of radiation influence policy. • Heads of state rely on senior science advisors to frame policy decisions. • Metrologists support federal agencies that have mission leads in different fields. • Metrologists are called on when other agencies lack requisite expertise. • Radionuclide metrologists must recognize and accept challenges

  10. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Social Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will enhance the Social Policy and Development Centre's (SPDC) role as a credible public policy institution in Pakistan by strengthening its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research ... -strengthen its presence and visibility at the national level, particularly in the capital city, Islamabad

  11. Analysis of the agricultural policies in the development of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review work identifies the two main agricultural policies in Nigeria between 1988 and 2000, and 2001 to date, the broad policy objectives and the main features of the agricultural policies. The paper examines the primary role of the agricultural sector in the growth and development of the Nigerian economy. The main ...

  12. Environmental policy and technological development in the Dutch economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.; Van Groenendaal, W.; Hofkes, M.; Kemp, R.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis is given of recent insights into technological development and the environment. In particular, attention is paid to the question whether it is possible or not to combine continuous economic development with a release of the environmental burden. In several chapters the authors provide insight and discuss theories with regard to innovation and adoption of new technologies, the concept of transition management and the importance of uncertainty with respect to the decision to invest in environment-friendly techniques or not. Also, much attention is paid to characteristics of the Dutch economy and their consequences for technology and environmental policy and related interactions [nl

  13. Decomposition of energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang and relative mitigation policy recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changjian; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Fei; Lei, Jun; Zhang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Regional carbon emissions research is necessary and helpful for China in realizing reduction targets. The LMDI I (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index I) technique based on an extended Kaya identity was conducted to uncover the main five driving forces for energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, an important energy base in China. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect and the population effect are the two most important contributors to increased carbon emissions. The energy intensity effect had a positive influence on carbon emissions during the pre-reform period, and then became the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions after 1978. The renewable energy penetration effect and the emission coefficient effect showed important negative but relatively minor effects on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a comprehensive suite of mitigation policies are raised by considering all of these influencing factors. Mitigation policies will need to significantly reduce energy intensity and pay more attention to the regional economic development path. Fossil fuel substitution should be considered seriously. Renewable energy should be increased in the energy mix. All of these policy recommendations, if implemented by the central and local government, should make great contributions to energy saving and emission reduction in Xinjiang.

  14. Impacts of Policies on Poverty. Relative Poverty Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Bellù, Lorenzo Giovanni; Liberati, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This module illustrates how to define “relative” poverty lines, i.e. poverty lines based on approaches that consider the welfare position of each individual or household in relation to the welfare position of other individuals or households belonging to the same community. In particular, the module, after emphasizing the importance of the relative poverty concept in policy work, discusses two methods to define relative poverty lines: a) the “income levels” method; and b) the “income positions...

  15. Stakeholder engagement for improved school policy: development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The health and education departments of government share a responsibility for promoting the health of children through policies in the school setting. These policies can be enhanced through the involvement of such stakeholders as school personnel, students, parents or caregivers, health professionals, the non-profit sector and industry. Although there is little evidence-based literature on the roles of stakeholders in school policy development and implementation, stakeholder involvement appears to be critical throughout the policy process. This article discusses stakeholder involvement in the development and implementation of school policies that promote and support healthy eating and physical activity. Canadian examples illustrate stakeholder engagement in this context.

  16. Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R

    1984-09-01

    This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and

  17. Governing the GM crop revolution: policy choices for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paarlberg, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as China, policies are in place that encourage the independent development and planting of GM crops. Yet in a number of other equally prominent countries the planting of GM crops is not yet officially approved. The inclination of developing countries to ...

  18. Graduate course development : transportation policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Transportation, public policy, and politics are inextricably linked and have been, in the United States, from : at least 1956, with the birth of the federal highway system and the Interstate Highway Act, if not earlier. : Much of the transportation s...

  19. Higher Education Solar Development: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a workshop session at the Smart and Sustainable Campuses Conference explores the policy issues and opportunities that influence a higher education institution’s approach to solar deployment.

  20. Coordinating Policies for Human Resources Development

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Meagher

    1996-01-01

    In its recent White Paper on Employment and Growth, the Australian Government announced a comprehensive new agenda to supplement its existing employment policies. It includes the following major elements * reforms to labour market assistance; * training and education reforms; * a reconstructed social security system; * a regional strategy; * workplace agreements; and * microeconomic reforms. An important consideration in the implementation of such a multi-faceted policy program is that its va...

  1. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, No. 236

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    This report contains information concerning the telecommunications policy, research and development of the following countries: (1) Australia, (2) Argentina, (3) Madagascar, (4) South Africa, (5) Zaire, (6...

  2. Evaluating a traditional medicine policy in South Africa: phase 1 development of a policy assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriilidis, Georgios; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2012-01-01

    Policies that empower individuals and communities may be appropriate for public health, and more broadly. Simple, transparent and acceptable tools are therefore required to evaluate policies from an empowerment perspective. In 2008, the South African Department of Health (DOHSA) drafted a policy to endorse the integration of African Traditional Medicine (ATM) into the public health sector, following the World Health Organization's (WHO) long-standing directives. The purpose of this study is to critically analyze this policy using a novel evaluation tool. A 12-point 'Policy Empowerment Index' (PEI) is introduced, and used to classify and score the policy according to five theoretical policy types. The evaluation was based on a stepwise review and associated publications: policy drafts, policy statements and news announcements. According to the assessment tool, the ATM policy was marginally 'supportive' of constituent empowerment, although several 'directive' features were also observed. The importance of ATM to SA's communities and the promotion of education, employment, entrepreneurship and peripheral resource mobilization were the main empowering elements. Centralised conception, planning and implementation, the absence of provisions for local adaptations and the authoritative legislation context were sub-optimal features. South Africa's ATM legislation may need to further involve communities in policy design and implementation to capitalise upon the broader benefits of community empowerment. However, the iterative nature of method and evaluation is important. Indeed, they are proposed as points to initiate participatory development, and improve policy evaluation. Such instruments can empower constituents in the political process.

  3. Should Iceland engage in policy dialogue with developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the current status of Icelandic development cooperation, bilaterally and multilaterally, and argues that it is time for Iceland to become more engaged in policy dialogue with developing countries on issues related to public sector reform and economic policy. Iceland should also in the authors view take more advantages of the extensive knowledge that Icelandic experts possess, and the experience they have gained, both in Iceland and internationally. Iceland should be more active in offering exerts in the public service, in the academia, as well as in the private sector to provide policy advise and technical assistance to developing countries that are implementing complex economic and public sector reforms. A number of those exerts have also gained considerable international experience in implementing policy reform programs. The article then discusses two cases: (i the case of Latvia where Iceland rushed to recognize its independence, but did little to assist the country in the post independence period, and (ii, the case of Vietnam where a country like Iceland could provide valuable assistance to a country that is achieving remarkable progress in poverty reduction, implementing important public sector reforms and creating a better business environment for foreign investors. This article is based on the authors experience as chairman of the Board of the Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA and as Special Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Iceland from 1995 to 1999, and as World Bank specialist at the Bank’s Head Quarters in Washington DC from 1990 to 1995, in Latvia from 1999 to 2003 and in Vietnam from 2003 to 2006.

  4. The development of alcohol policy in contemporary China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, an increase in alcohol-related problems has been noted in China. Taking effective measures against the problem requires clear reviewing and understanding of the evolution of the Chinese alcohol policy. This study is aimed to evaluate the alcohol policy with special focus on reviewing the alcohol production and consumption situation in China and assessing the changes in Chinese alcohol policy along with other related fields. This article finishes with a set of recommended policy changes that could help solve the recent alcohol-related problems and analyze the major impediments.

  5. Population Policy and National Development in the 21st Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the concern by multi-lateral organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) about the problems of high population growth and food supply especially in the developing countries, population policy has become an integral part of their overall development policies as ...

  6. Knowledge to Policy: Making the Most of Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 avr. 2009 ... A major contribution to an understudied, poorly understood, but critical aspect of development. — John Young, Director of Programmes, Research and Policy in Development Group (RAPID), Overseas Development Institute, London. Does research influence public policy and decision-making and, if so, ...

  7. Public Policy Environment: legalization and judicial activism for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira da Cunha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, it sought to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development. The methodology used was a literature review and secondary data collection. It was noticed a different activism in the face of environmental issues.

  8. Turning Policy into Practice: Examining the Relationship between Policy, Research, and Program Development in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Catherine; Jennings, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between policy, research, and program development in mathematics teacher education. In particular, it considers the influences of policy and research along with social, economic, and cultural factors in the conceptualization and development of an undergraduate mathematics teacher education program in…

  9. Promoting Election-Related Policy Practice among Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna

    2016-01-01

    Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…

  10. SURVEY OF PERSONNEL POLICIES IN RELATION TO FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WELLEMEYER, JOHN F.

    THE PRINCIPLE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AGENCIES THAT OPERATE IN FIELDS REQUIRING FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCIES, THE U.S. MILITARY SERVICES AND SOME PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THEIR OPERATING POLICIES THAT RELATE TO PERSONNEL WITH FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS. THE AGENCIES THAT HAVE THE GREATEST NEED FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS…

  11. National Policies and strategies on science and technology for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, A

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia's economy continues to be dependent upon the primary producing sectors, based on the exploitation or use of her natural resources. At this Malaysia is the world's largest exporter of natural rubber, tin, tropical hardwoods and palm oil. There is still wide scope for developing new application of science and technology in the rubber industry, and the scope remains even wider in other agricultural sectors. In order to accelerate development in the traditional agricultural sector, that is, those related to food production, the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) was established in 1970 to undertake research in the development of crops other than rubber. Progress has been relatively slow in the development of agriculture. In forestry much work needs to be done in the application of science and technology to forest management, logging, timber utilization, silviculture and the related field of forest regeneration, tree breeding, forest protection and soil conservation. Further development of the mining sector calls for the application of new technology both in prospecting for new sources of minerals and in exploitation. Development of off-shore technology will become increasingly important. Although a major sector in resources development is energy, there is, as yet, no energy policy. Structural diversification is recognized as a basic need for the economic development of Malaysia. Malaysia will have a great demand for trained scientific and technological personnel.

  12. National policy on physical activity: the development of a policy audit tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Fiona C; Milton, Karen; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2014-02-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for noncommunicable disease worldwide. Increasing physical activity requires large scale actions and relevant, supportive national policy across multiple sectors. The policy audit tool (PAT) was developed to provide a standardized instrument to assess national policy approaches to physical activity. A draft tool, based on earlier work, was developed and pilot-tested in 7 countries. After several rounds of revisions, the final PAT comprises 27 items and collects information on 1) government structure, 2) development and content of identified key policies across multiple sectors, 3) the experience of policy implementation at both the national and local level, and 4) a summary of the PAT completion process. PAT provides a standardized instrument for assessing progress of national policy on physical activity. Engaging a diverse international group of countries in the development helped ensure PAT has applicability across a wide range of countries and contexts. Experiences from the development of the PAT suggests that undertaking an audit of health enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policy can stimulate greater awareness of current policy opportunities and gaps, promote critical debate across sectors, and provide a catalyst for collaboration on policy level actions. The final tool is available online.

  13. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krasko, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  14. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  15. FORMATION OF THE ENTITY'S ACCOUNTING POLICIES WITH REGARD TO RELATED PARTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article solved the problem concerning the development and practical application of accounting policies with regards to related parties. One element of the company’s accounting policies is to establish the principles of classification of related parties and their list considering materiality relations. In addition, the company must determine its related entities for the purposes of transfer pricing. Based the criteria definition and classification of related parties, proposed that the significance of the impact of one party to another based on the content of operations, their volume, the results and how such operations significantly affect the financial, investment and commercial activities. Only an analysis of all the factors together contribute to reliable estimates list of related parties. The critical analysis are made of methods for determining transfer prices for transactions, designed piece order of accounting policies, which reflected information about related parties.

  16. Relating R and D and investment policies to CCS market diffusion through two-factor learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohwasser, Richard; Madlener, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to play a major role in the stabilization of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. To develop the capture technology from its current demonstration phase towards commercial maturity, significant funding is directed to CCS, such as the EU’s €4.5 bn NER300 fund. However, we know little about how this funding relates to market diffusion of CCS. This paper addresses that question. We initially review past learning effects from both capacity installations and R and D efforts for a similar technology using the concept of two-factor learning. We apply the obtained learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching rates to CCS in the electricity market model HECTOR, which simulates 19 European countries hourly until 2040, to understand the impact of learning and associated policies on CCS market diffusion. We evaluate the effectiveness of policies addressing learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching by relating the policy budget to the realized CCS capacity and find that, at lower policy cost, both methods are about equally effective. At higher spending levels, policies promoting learning-by-doing are more effective. Overall, policy effectiveness increases in low CO 2 price scenarios, but the CO 2 price still remains the key prerequisite for the economic competitiveness, even with major policy support. - Highlights: ► Identified two-factor learning rates for CCS through empirical data from flue gas desulphurization. ► Evaluated effectiveness of CCS stimulation policies addressing learning-by-doing and learning-by-researching. ► Both policy types are about equally effective with small policy budgets. ► Policies addressing learning-by-doing, e.g., subsidies to CCS projects, are more effective with large policy budgets. ► Analysis deployed HECTOR power market model that simulates 19 European countries on hourly granularity until 2040.

  17. All projects related to | Page 636 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-04-01

    traditional students. Start Date: April 1, 2006. End Date: July 20, 2008. Topic: UNIVERSITIES, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION POLICY, COMMUNICATION POLICY, DEVELOPMENT POLICY, DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES.

  18. The Relative Importance of the Channels of Monetary Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the developed and emerging economies on channels of monetary policy transmission (Tahir,. 2012; etc). It is against ..... lagged coefficients in the model, we can define G(L) as the matrix of both contemporaneous and ... from an endogenous and the exogenous model to assess the effectiveness of a particular channel.

  19. Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asheim, B.T.; Boschma, R.A.; Cooke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases, Regional Studies. This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related

  20. Current References and Information Services for Policy Decision-Making in State and Local Government Labor Relations: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.

    Designed to document problems and issues concerning public employee labor relations, this bibliography should identify information useful in the development of equitable labor relations policies. The 550 listings are arranged into sections on: (1) Background References, Current Assessments and Policy Alternatives in Public Sector Labor Relations,…

  1. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2010-01-01

    of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil......Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...

  2. Canadian energy policy and the struggle for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    This book examined selected energy policy issues and challenges confronting Canadians over the last two decades. The aim of the book was to provide an analysis of how energy policy has evolved. The book presents an overview of energy policy and its relationship to sustainable development. Politico-economic contexts were reviewed, including the changing nature of national and continental energy markets, energy policy and sustainable development. The difficulties in evaluating the environment in energy policy were discussed. Issues concerning electricity restructuring in Canada were reviewed, with reference to Canada-US electricity trade and the climate change agenda. Alberta's oil and gas industry and the Kyoto Protocol were also examined, with reference to voluntary measures to address climate change. Issues concerning stewardship, indigenous peoples and petroleum-based economic development in the north were reviewed, as well as northern gas pipeline policy and sustainable development. Conclusions and recommendations were made concerning the following 6 analytical and practical energy policy and governance challenges facing the current government: Kyoto Protocol implementation challenges; energy security; northern pipelines and concerns with Aboriginal peoples and sustainable northern development; electricity restructuring and the limits of regulatory-market design; energy science and technology and innovation policy links; and prospects for turning the struggle for sustainable development in the energy policy field into something closer to an actual achievement. 37 refs

  3. The policy of green economy in developing countries and policy implications for Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong loan

    2017-01-01

    Green economy is emerging as a new development trend in the World because the global economy is facing environmental and ecosystem risks. For developing economies, green economy is seen as an opportunity and an optimal choice to change the conventional economic growth model towards sustainable development. Therefore, the research topic "The policy of green economy in developing countries and policy implications for Vietnam" is chosen for this study. This study aims to clarify the concept of g...

  4. Contemporary Developments in Employee Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchington, Mick; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Consists of seven articles describing the newest developments in employee relations. Topics include (1) research at two centers studying employee relations, (2) comparisons between United States and United Kingdom systems, (3) unions, (4) displacement, and (5) forms of remuneration. (CH)

  5. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  6. Explaining the non-implementation of health-improving policies related to solid fuels use in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinga, Margaret Njirambo; Clancy, Joy S.; Annegarn, Harold J.

    2014-01-01

    In 1998, the South African government developed an energy policy that focused on a pro-poor agenda. Its objectives included addressing the health impacts of solid fuel use in households. Fourteen years later, and with household electrification at over 80%, millions still use solid fuels and yet ambitious policy objectives to address this situation are not being met. Using three theoretical frameworks; institutional capacity, policy inheritance and the symbolic use of policy, this paper analyses the reasons why household energy policy objectives related to solid fuels and health, as stated in the 1998 South African energy policy, have not been implemented. The results of the analysis show that the symbolic use of policy, including meanings of objects used for meeting policy objectives is the most critical explanation. The paper illustrates that political and historical contexts are critical to understanding policy outcomes in developing and transition countries which often experience tensions between implementing what may seem as objective policies, and that matches their political and historical experiences and aspirations. We recommend that policy analysts in the energy sector complement currently common methods to include political contexts of policy development and implementation in order to better understand why policy makers chose to implement certain policies over others. - Highlights: • Policy non-implementation in developing countries focuses on lack of resources. • We add policy inheritance and policy symbolism to assess non-implementation. • South Africa's racial politics affect how policies are perceived and implemented. • Politically, firewood and electricity symbolise repression and emancipation. • Electricity and firewood's symbolic meanings affect policy makers' focus on these

  7. The slow development of international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Van Rooijen, S.

    1998-01-01

    In spite of the vague results of the fourth Conference of Parties (CoP-4) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the authors consider the climate summit as a step forward. Some of the issues of the CoP-4 results, as formulated in the Plan of Action are discussed. Also the consequences for the climate policy in the Netherlands are outlined. 5 refs

  8. Innovation system approach to agricultural development: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several other relevant macro economic and meso level factors such as policy and legislative framework and nature of human capital, physical infrastructure, finance and investment climate and system for facilitating information and knowledge flows were not considered as important. The emerging reforms and changes in

  9. Developing a policy for paediatric biobanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hens, Kristien; Van El, Carla E; Borry, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    practice for policy makers of biobanks, researchers and anyone involved in dealing with stored tissue samples from children. Actual implementation of the principles will vary according to different jurisdictions.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 June 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg...

  10. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governments in Southeast Asia have adopted a range of policies aimed at controlling the disease in animals, preventing its spread to humans and strengthening national preparedness for an avian influenza pandemic. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together national research agencies ...

  11. Poverty Reduction through Private Sector Development : Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Palestinian Authority aims to turn the economy away from its dependence on the public sector toward a diversified free market economy. Small businesses, which make up more that 90% of the total enterprises in Palestine, are crucial to this endeavor. This grant will allow the Palestine Economic Policy Research ...

  12. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  13. Poverty Reduction through Private Sector Development : Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By promoting comparative assessment of policy options, MAS hopes to demonstrate the benefits of evidence-based policymaking, which is needed for the economy to prosper. ... stratégiques. Les entreprises peuvent comprendre les tendances commerciales et les défis futurs dans la communauté économique de l'ASEAN.

  14. Perceptions Regarding Importance and Skill at Policy Development Among Public Health Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Leider, Jonathon P; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Policy development is recognized as a core function of public health and a core competency in formal public health education. However, relatively little is known nationally about worker perceptions and competencies related to policy development in the governmental public health workforce. To characterize perceived importance and presence or absence of competency gaps related to policy development. As part of the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), a nationally representative stratified sample of permanently employed state health agency (SHA) central office staff was created. Descriptive and inferential analyses examined correlates of perceived importance and competency gaps related to policy development. Permanently employed central office employees of SHAs. Analyses focus on 2 self-reported measures of perceived importance and ability related to policy development skills, as well as awareness and perceptions regarding Health in All Policies (HiAP). Seventy-two percent of SHA central office staff (95% confidence interval, 71-73) indicated "influencing policy development" was somewhat or very important to their day-to-day work. Among that group, 35% (95% confidence interval, 34-36) reported that they were unable to perform this or they considered themselves to be a beginner at this skill. Approximately three-fourths of staff indicated "understanding the relationship between a new policy and many types of public health problems" was somewhat or very important, and 30% of those who did said they were unable to perform this skill or were a beginner at it. Nationally, one-half of staff have not heard of HiAP. Among those who have, 86% indicated it was somewhat or very important to public health, and 41% reported they would like to see more emphasis on HiAP. Workforce development, both formal education and on-the-job training, may benefit from placing a greater emphasis on the development of policy skills. HiAP is an important approach to policy

  15. T Policy with the National Sustainable Development Strategy in Sri ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aligning the National S&T Policy with the National Sustainable Development Strategy in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka does not have an official science and technology (S&T) policy. Investments in S&T have so far occurred on an ad-hoc basis. Nevertheless, government and research and development (R&D) institutions have ...

  16. Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa: An X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technological development is a basic artery through which nations strive to attain true independence. However, the level of technological development is dependent on the system, policy and philosophy of education that is dominant or prevalent in such a country. Any nation that lacks a sound system or policy of education ...

  17. 247 Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. Technological development is a basic artery through which nations strive to attain true independence. However, the level of technological development is dependent on the system, policy and philosophy of education that is dominant or prevalent in such a country. Any nation that lacks a sound system or policy of ...

  18. Imperatives and Guidelines for Bamboo Development Policy in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's industrial policy has always hinged on the development and utilization of its locally available raw materials. The current industrial policy which came into operation in 1988 aimed at increasing private sector participation in the manufacturing sector and accelerated development and utilization of local raw materials ...

  19. Information Literacy Policy Development in Canada: Is It Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines policy issues related to information literacy in Canada. It provides some background on the information literacy concept, reflecting on popular definitions offered by American, British, and Australian library associations, before advocating for a broader definition that views information literacy as a human right. Information literacy is also considered in relationship to the proliferation of other “literacies,” such as digital, web, media, and information technology, that are the subject of increased advocacy and attention from interest groups and educators. The ongoing need for improved information literacy levels is analyzed not only in the context of inputs (the increasing complexity of the information environment but also in terms of potential personal, social, and economic outcomes that can be realized through widespread information literacy education efforts. The paper argues that information literacy must become a priority not only among academic librarians but also school, public, and special librarians, as well as others outside of the library sector, if significant improvements in information literacy levels are to be realized. Such a coordinated approach can only be achieved in the context of policies that require, and adequately support, widespread efforts at improving information literacy levels. After a review of the ad-hoc state of information literacy education in Canada today, this paper analyzes information literacy-related policy development efforts in Canada to date in the four arenas where one would expect to see such activity: the Government of Canada, provincial governments, library associations, and other stakeholder groups. This article aims to start a wide-reaching discussion about information literacy and associated policy issues in Canada.

  20. Alcohol policy in South Africa: a review of policy development processes between 1994 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H

    2010-08-01

    Implementation of effective policies to reduce harmful alcohol consumption requires both a good understanding of the policy development process and which strategies are likely to work. To contribute to this understanding by reviewing four specific policy development initiatives that have taken place in South Africa between 1994 and 2009: restrictions on alcohol advertising and counter-advertising, regulation of retail sales of alcohol, alcohol taxation and controls on alcohol packaging. Material was drawn from a record of meetings and conferences held between 1994 and 2009 and a database of reports, newspaper clippings and policy documentation. When the policy process resulted in a concrete outcome there was always a clear recognition of the problem and policy alternatives, but success was more likely if there was an alignment of 'political' forces and/or when there was a determined bureaucracy. The impact of the other factors such as the media, community mobilization, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the liquor industry and research are also discussed. Future avenues for policy research are identified, including the need for more systematic studies that give greater consideration to economic factors. Alcohol policy development in South Africa takes place in a piecemeal fashion and is the product of various competing influences. Having a comprehensive national alcohol strategy cutting across different sectors may be a better way for other developing countries to proceed.

  1. Innovation policy & labour productivity growth: Education, research & development, government effectiveness and business policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Raee, Mueid; Ritzen, Jo; Crombrugghe, Denis de

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between labour productivity growth in non-traditional sectors and "innovation policy" for a cross-section of countries. Innovation policy is characterised by investments in tertiary education and research and development as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product

  2. Impacts of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident on Nuclear Development Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert; Henderson, David; ); Moore, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident has had an impact on the development of nuclear power around the world. While the accident was followed by thorough technical assessments of the safety of all operating nuclear power plants, and a general increase in safety requirements has been observed worldwide, national policy responses have been more varied. These responses have ranged from countries phasing out or accelerating decisions to phase out nuclear energy to countries reducing their reliance on nuclear power or on the contrary continuing to pursue or expand their nuclear power programs. This study examines changes to policies, and plans and attempts to distinguish the impact of the Fukushima Daiichi accident from other factors that have affected policy-making in relation to nuclear energy, in particular electricity market economics, financing challenges and competition from other sources (gas, coal and renewables). It also examines changes over time to long-term, quantitative country projections, which reveal interesting trends on the possible role of nuclear energy in future energy systems. (authors)

  3. Remote Sensing and Mass Migration Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    immigrants or asylum - seekers , perceived as ignoring legal entry policies, undermining national identify, or taking jobs from local workers. remain poor...being comprised of asylum seekers , returned refugees, internally displaced persons (IDP), returned IDPs, stateless persons, and various other...safe zones”10 and the “right to remain”11 could serve as means of preventing refugees from entering asylum states.12 A shift of industrial production to

  4. Energy Efficiency Policy Developments: September 2011-September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member and key non-member countries over the period from September 2011 to September 2012. The report provides an overview of energy efficiency policy developments across the seven sectors covered by the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations (25 EEPR) – Cross-sectoral activities, Buildings, Appliances and Equipment, Lighting, Transport, Industry and Energy Providers.

  5. Analysis of nuclear issue and development of policy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Yun, Sungwon; Yun, Keehwan; Ko, Wonil

    2012-08-01

    ? Promoted amicably passing a resolution on a general meeting of Atomic Energy Promotion Commission through the preliminary review and opinion gathering ? Mutual understanding and forming a social consensus on nuclear related issues through R and D reporting about the SMART, Decommission and Dis, Future Nuclear System etc Ο Promoted strengthening the work related to the nuclear policy through discovering the 8 policy initiatives prioritized Ο Analyzed the policy process as well as previous research results related to spent fuel for establishment of spent-fuel policy and presented the methods for legislation Ο Suggested the establishment and multi-step implementation strategies of 'Nuclear educational hurb center' Ο Germany, Switzerland, Belgium returned to their former phase-out strategies, except for these three countries, did not change nuclear promotion policies Ο Democratic United Party is currently taking the opposite stance on NPP but it is necessary to make an effort to analyze current domestic energy circumstances on objective and rational grounds

  6. Energy policy after 2020 : Economic arguments to pursue energy policy for non-climate related reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocsis, V.; Koutstaal, P.; Tieben, B.; van Hout, M.; Hof, B.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the contribution of sustainable energy policy and energy saving policy to the public goals of energy policy in the Netherlands. Not surprisingly current discussion about sustainable energy policy focus on the contribution of energy policy to the goals of climate policy,

  7. All projects related to | Page 216 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: DEVELOPMENT AID, FOREIGN POLICY, ECONOMIC POLICY, POLITICAL ASPECTS, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK. Region: China, Far East Asia, India, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, South Asia, Afghanistan. Total Funding: CA$ 56,000.00. Foreign Assistance ...

  8. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  9. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  10. Innovation Policy Development and the Emergence of New Innovation Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value cocreation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark. The choice o...

  11. Establishing a lasting solution to collection development policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It provides insights on the dilemma faced in order to create a collection policy. The collection policy should be representative of the nation, without bias or prejudice, and present the peculiar circumstances and background of collection acquisition in audiovisual archives. This article pointed out problems relating to document ...

  12. Advanced metering policy development and influence structures: The case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inderberg, Tor Håkon

    2015-01-01

    Responding to a global trend of installing smart meters Norway has taken a route of full governmental and regulatory coordination. The article maps and analyses the main influences on the developments of Norwegian Advanced Metering policy. Based on 12 interviews and extensive document mapping the Norwegian policy developments are traced from about 1990 to 2014, divided into three phases: Before 2000, between 2000 and 2007, and after 2007. It finds that the main influence and push came from an increasingly united industry sector, fronted by the grid utilities with respective interest organizations. Policy change has been boosted by years of constrained supply, creating incentives for political action. Also developments at the EU level have been important for creating attention for smart meters, while consumer groups have been less influential. The national regulator NVE has adapted its policy process to include external expertise, in particular from the grid companies. The findings confirm that influence into policy processes is a matter of financial and organizational resources and expert knowledge. Of particular policy relevance is the weak organization of private consumer interests into these policy streams, which may be important for further policy development for distributed generation and regulation of private generation activities. -- Highlights: •Roll-out of smart meters is in Norway coordinated by national regulation. •Grid companies and related interest organizations has been most influential. •EU has provided informal pressure on smart meter policy. •Consumer interests have been less influential in the policy process

  13. Global health: governance and policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Patrick W

    2011-06-01

    Global health policy is now being influenced by an ever-increasing number of nonstate and non-intergovernmental actors to include influential foundations, multinational corporations, multi-sectoral partnerships, and civil society organizations. This article reviews how globalization is a key driver for the ongoing evolution of global health governance. It describes the massive increases in bilateral and multilateral investments in global health and it highlights the current global and US architecture for performing global health programs. The article closes describing some of the challenges and prospects that characterize global health governance today. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating a traditional medicine policy in South Africa: phase 1 development of a policy assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gavriilidis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Policies that empower individuals and communities may be appropriate for public health, and more broadly. Simple, transparent and acceptable tools are therefore required to evaluate policies from an empowerment perspective. In 2008, the South African Department of Health (DOHSA drafted a policy to endorse the integration of African Traditional Medicine (ATM into the public health sector, following the World Health Organization's (WHO long-standing directives. Objective: The purpose of this study is to critically analyze this policy using a novel evaluation tool. Design: A 12-point ‘Policy Empowerment Index’ (PEI is introduced, and used to classify and score the policy according to five theoretical policy types. The evaluation was based on a stepwise review and associated publications: policy drafts, policy statements and news announcements. Results: According to the assessment tool, the ATM policy was marginally ‘supportive’ of constituent empowerment, although several ‘directive’ features were also observed. The importance of ATM to SA's communities and the promotion of education, employment, entrepreneurship and peripheral resource mobilization were the main empowering elements. Centralised conception, planning and implementation, the absence of provisions for local adaptations and the authoritative legislation context were sub-optimal features. Conclusions: South Africa's ATM legislation may need to further involve communities in policy design and implementation to capitalise upon the broader benefits of community empowerment. However, the iterative nature of method and evaluation is important. Indeed, they are proposed as points to initiate participatory development, and improve policy evaluation . Such instruments can empower constituents in the political process.

  15. Technology policy and sustainable development: the case of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    2000-01-01

    Policies to address long-term energy concerns include a wide range of initiatives. Taxes can internalise costs; financial mechanisms, including subsidies, can target particularly favourable but otherwise non-competitive investments; regulation can apply standards to raise performance of appliances; information programmes can improve decision making; and R and D can make available new options. The 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and development, found that 'energy efficiency can only buy for the world to develop 'low-energy-paths' based on renewable sources...'. Although many renewable energy systems are in a relatively early stage of development, they offer the world 'a potentially huge primary energy source, sustainable in perpetuity and available in various forms to every nation on Earth.' It suggested that an R and D programme of renewable energy is required to attain the same level of primary energy that is now obtained from a mix of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy resources. Since renewable energy contributes to all dimensions of sustainable development, one policy challenge is to ensure that renewable energy has a fair opportunity to complete with other resources required for the provision of energy services, especially on 'liberalised' energy markets. This paper gives an overview of rationales for government intervention in energy-related R and D, and international energy R and D trends. it concludes that the liberalisation of energy markets has an overall negative impact on private sector investments in energy R and D and that without a sustained and diverse programme of energy R and D and implementation, we are crippling our ability to make the necessary improvements in the global energy system, especially in light of sustainable development requirements. (author)

  16. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  17. Putting science to work in developing a climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerone, Ralph J

    2009-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences is an honorific society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. This Viewpoint explores the interconnection between scientific research and policy making in developing a climate policy.

  18. 153 Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development (Pp. 153 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... This policy employs central bank's control of the supply of money as instrument for achieving desired economic goals. Ridhwan, DeGroot, Henri, Nijkamp and Rietveld (2010) studied the impact of monetary policy on economic development in some economies using vector autoregressive (VAR) models and ...

  19. Tax Policy and Enterprise Development in South Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tax Policy and Enterprise Development in South Asia. Researchers are examining the tax policies (exemptions, value-added, property) constraining small and off-farm enterprises, especially those operated by women, in South Asia. Most off-farm employment in South Asia is marked by low productivity and low wages.

  20. From mental health policy development in Ghana to implementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suggested steps to overcoming the barriers include: revision of mental health policy and legislation; training and capacity development and wider consultation. Conclusion: These results call for well-articulated plans to address the barriers to the implementation of mental health policy in Ghana to reduce the burden ...

  1. NASBE Study Group Surveys State Leadership Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bobbi; Hull, Robert

    2015-01-01

    State board members, working in partnership with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted an in-depth study of states' school leadership development policies and practices. Data from this study are being analyzed to determine ways that states can create systems and structures for…

  2. Foreign language policy and the development of Mandarin Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the development offoreign language policy in higher educationin the United States (US) and indicates gaps in the study of foreign languages in highereducation in that country. A discussion of current policy, provision, programmes andfunding of foreign languages in higher education are presented, ...

  3. Do Economic Policy Decisions affect Stock Market Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For equity investors not to easily transfer their investments in response to changes in macroeconomic policies among others, the study recommends good macroeconomic management. Keywords: Stock Market Development, Macroeconomic policy, Government spending, ADRL,. Ghana, West Africa. JEL Classification: G2 ...

  4. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  5. Cluster policy and regional development: scale, scope and renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Njøs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with Marshallian/Porterian theories, the Norwegian cluster policy has been linked to the development of specialized regional industry environments. Cluster projects are relatively sector-specific entities often supporting (already strong regional industries and sectors. Following a review of the current literature on clusters and innovation, and informed by evolutionary thought, we argue that such constellations of specialized clusters may hamper the long-term innovation ability of regions. In a conceptual discussion of cluster evolution and its links to innovation and regional path renewal, we argue that special emphasis – both theoretical and political – has been placed on the geographical scale of clusters, but there has been less emphasis on scope. Accordingly, we present three theory-based strategies for cluster evolution and link these to regional development and innovation by assessing their impact on regional path renewal. We illustrate our argument empirically using examples from the Norwegian Centre of Expertise (NCE cluster programme.

  6. Croatian Energy Policy as Function of Regional Development and Employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia has modest proven fossil fuels (oil and gas) reserves and relatively abundant renewable energy potential (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, hydro), distributed mainly in less developed regions of Croatia. The Croatian energy system is excessively dependent on expensive oil and natural gas (80% of primary energy), compared to the European Union (61%), and the world average (58%). Approximately 60% of total energy is imported, which considerably contributes to the country's very high foreign trade deficit and foreign debt. Putting into focus of the Croatian energy policy the improvement of energy efficiency and implementation of renewable energies would significantly increase opportunities for mitigating rather wide regional development disparities and high unemployment rates, at the same time reducing energy import, foreign trade deficit and foreign debt, and contributing to energy security as a part of the national security.(author)

  7. Presidential Elections and HIV-Related National Policies and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrave, David R; Bonacci, Robert A; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2017-03-01

    The November 2016 general election and subsequent voting of the Electoral College resulted in the selection of Donald Trump as President of the United States. The incoming Administration ran a campaign that indicated a desire for substantial change in health policy, including the repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). President Trump has said very little directly about HIV programs and policies, but some campaign positions (such as the repeal of the ACA) would clearly and substantially impact the lives of persons living with HIV. In this editorial, we highlight important HIV-related goals to which we must recommit ourselves, and we underscore several key points about evidence-based advocacy that are important to revisit at any time (but most especially when there is a change in Administration).

  8. Issues related to geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  9. Geothermal development and policy in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datuin, R.; Roxas, F.

    1990-01-01

    The Philippines is the second largest geothermal energy producer in the world although its geothermal energy potential has barely been utilized. Out of an estimated total reserves of 8,000 MW, only about 11 percent or 894 MW are currently on stream for power generation. The electricity production from geothermal steam registered a growth of 8.9 percent from 1988 to 1989, one of the highest among local energy sources. During that same period, geothermal energy rated the highest capacity utilization of 67 percent compared to the average system capacity utilization of 43 percent. This paper describes both the use of geothermal energy and government policies concerning geothermal energy in the Philippines

  10. The Development and Persistence of Agricultural Policy in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthou, Silas

    Abstract The analysis of which factors affect the development of European agricultural policy, the CAP, combines economic, political and historic methods to examine the interaction between politicians, farmers and voters/taxpayers. The objective of this PhD thesis is to examine the development...... and persistence of agricultural policy in the EU, based on the hypothesis that the political process and the agricultural structure are linked together. This is achieved through an examination of the foundation, the Danish farm household income and the future of agricultural support. The result of this study...... is that the foundation of agricultural policy in Europe depends on domestic policy, thus how the policy measures will affect voters. The farm households in Denmark have a living standard which is equal to rest of the society....

  11. Spanning boundaries: science-policy interaction in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis; Gamborg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates science–policy interaction in forestry in developing countries. It uses the case of REDD+ in Zambia, and links theoretical considerations with practical strategies. Science–policy interaction in the case of REDD+ is analyzed through two theoretical frameworks: the Knowledge...... Transfer Model and the Transaction Model. Based on interviews and document analysis, the paper advances on how it is possible to improve evidence-based policy-making for the benefit of the environment in developing countries. It is found that re-thinking of science–policy interaction gives rise to new...... opportunities to strengthen the links between science and policy, and consideration is given to the question of what key strategies would best secure this linkage....

  12. Research of Talent Development Policy of Online Game Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Che Yang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progress of information technology and the development of Internet, the digital content industry has become one of the most promising industries in the 21st century. The rapid growth of the online gaming industry at the turn of the century does not only catch the eyes of the whole world, but also reshape the entire information-related industry. The purpose of this study is to explore issue of the talent development policy of the domestic online game industry. The method of in-depth interview is used in this study, and the research target is chosen to be qualified of speaking for the government, the education institutes, and the private sectors in the industry. The findings of this research suggest that Taiwan's government should take up a more vigorous responsibility. Following the government's leadership, both education institutes and industry private sectors must actively participate in the collaboration and feed back the up-dated information, such as the market trend and most wanted human resources, to the policy makers.[Article content in Chinese

  13. Transboundary air pollution in Asia: Model development and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    This work investigates transboundary air pollution in Asia through atmospheric modeling and public policy analysis. As an example of models actively shaping environmental policy, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe (LRTAP) is selected as a case study. The LRTAP Convention is the only mulit- lateral air pollution agreement to date, and results from the RAINS integrated assessment model were heavily used to calculate nationally differentiated emission ceilings. Atmospheric chemistry and transport are included in RAINS through the use of transfer coefficients (or ``source-receptor relationships'') relating pollutant transfer among European nations. Following past work with ATMOS to simulate sulfur species in Asia, here ATMOS is developed to include odd-nitrogen. Fitting with the linear structure of ATMOS and the emphasis on computational efficiency, a simplified chemical scheme developed for use in the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Global Chemical Transport Model (GFDL GCTM) is adopted. The method solves for the interconversions between NOx, HNO3, and PAN based on five reaction rates stored in look-up tables. ATMOS is used to calculate source-receptor relationships for Asia. Significant exchange of NOy occurs among China, North and South Korea, and Japan. On an annual average basis, China contributes 18% to Japan's total nitrate deposition, 46% to North Korea, and 26% to South Korea. Nitrate deposition is an important component of acidification (along with sulfate deposition), contributing 30-50% to the acid burden over most of Japan, and more than 50% to acid deposition in southeast Asia, where biomass burning emits high levels of NOx. In evaluating the policy-relevance of results from the ATMOS model, four factors are taken into account: the uncertainty and limitations of ATMOS, the environmental concerns facing Asia, the current status of the scientific community in relation to regional air pollution in the region, and

  14. FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC POLICY – PANEL DATA EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippidis Ioannis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995, and Blundell and Bond (1998, controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market

  15. Urbanization in Developing Nations: Trends, Prospects, and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    Identifies the rapid growth of cities in developing nations as one of the most significant demographic phenomena of modern times. Comparative data and policy considerations are presented for the world generally, and for Africa, Latin America, and Asia, specifically. (DB)

  16. Does development finance pose an additional risk to monetary policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Issahaku

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether remittances entail extra risk for macroeconomic policy management and examines the role (if any that the financial system can play in the interaction between remittances and monetary policy. Employing panel data for 106 developing countries from 1970 to 2013, the results from our panel vector autoregressive (PVAR model reveal that remittance volatility reduces macroeconomic risk in developing countries while simultaneously stimulating a reduction in domestic interest rates. This finding remains robust to alternative specifications of remittance volatility and monetary policy risk and to variations in the degree of financial development. The key lesson from this study is that developing countries can leverage the positive impact of remittances in reducing macroeconomic instability by implementing policies that induce remittances.

  17. Development of GPS survey data management protocols/policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This project developed a statewide policy and criteria for collecting, analyzing, and managing global position system (GPS) survey data. The research project determined the needs of the Department in adopting the GPS real time kinetic (GPS RTK) stake...

  18. Impacts of public policy on rail development in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Identifying the State policies that most directly affect or advance railroad development begins with an : understanding of how railroads make investment decisions. Railroads are a capital-intensive business, : owning all physical assets, locomotives,...

  19. Development of nuclear energy and nuclear policy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Deliang

    1993-11-01

    Status of nuclear power development in China, nuclear policy and nuclear power programme are described. Issues regarding nuclear fuel cycle system, radioactive waste management and international cooperation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy are discussed

  20. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation. (letter)

  1. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-09-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

  2. Solar power and policy powerlessness − perceptions of persuasion in distributed residential solar energy policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed residential solar energy (photovoltaic technologies have been praised as a mechanism to not only increase the penetration of renewable energy but engage the community in a clean energy revolution. In spite of this it is unclear how much potential there is for stakeholders to influence processes around the adoption of solar energy, including policy development and regulation. As part of a wider research project assessing the social acceptance of residential solar energy in Western Australia a variety of stakeholders, including public servants, network operators, Members of Parliament, energy advocates, renewable energy industry members and community members, were asked whether they thought they had the potential to influence solar policy. The objective of this research was to highlight positions of influence over policy development. In total 23 interviews with regional Western Australian householders and 32 interviews with members of industry and government were undertaken between May and October 2015. Most respondents believed that they had previously, or could in future, influence solar policy by taking advantage of networks of influence. However, stakeholders perceived as having policy influence did not necessarily demonstrate the capacity to influence policy beyond providing information to decision-makers, namely Cabinet members. Instead, networks of renewable energy advocates, industry and community members could apply political pressure through petitions, media coverage and liaising with parliamentarians to develop support for policy changes. Furthermore, while policies for the promotion of solar energy, and renewable energy more generally, could be implemented at various levels of government, only those policies delivered at the state level could address socio-political barriers to renewable energy adoption. These barriers include: a lack of political will and funding to overcome technical issues with network connection

  3. Monetary policy and bond market development: A case of Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Doojav, Gan-Ochir; Damdinsuren, Batnyam; Baasansuren, Lkhagvajav

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we have three principal objectives. First, we measure the bond market development in Mongolia. Second, we analyse in some detail the stock markets response to monetary policy actions using VAR (vector autoregression) analysis. Third, we study determinants (include monetary policy variables and other macro economic variables) of Mongolian bond market development using VAR analysis. We find that bond market in Mongolia remain underdeveloped compared to markets in Latin America, Ea...

  4. International Development Research Centre Governor Travel Policy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    Version 1.0.0 effective 2015-10-30. 1. Context. 2. ... guidelines and tools to manage and control Governors' IDRC-related travel expenses. 3. .... Governors' control;. • be responsible for costs arising from routings and stopovers undertaken for personal, and not IDRC business-related, purposes or benefits; and. • become ...

  5. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses

  6. Nigeria's energy policy: Inferences, analysis and legal ethics toward RE development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, Oluseyi O.; Ajayi, Oluwatoyin O.

    2013-01-01

    The study critically assessed the various policy issues of sustainable energy development in Nigeria. The basic focus was to discuss and analyze some of the laws of the federation as it relates to the development of Renewable Energy in Nigeria. It surveyed the nation's energy policy statement and the vision 20:2020 of the federal government. The Renewable Energy Master Plan developed by the joint efforts of the Energy Commission of Nigeria and United Nations Development Programs were also appraised. The level of development and the index of renewable energy production as stated by the policy statement, the vision 20:2020 and the Renewable Energy Master Plan were highlighted. The study found some policy challenges which include weak government motivation, lack of economic incentives, multiple taxations, non-existent favorable customs and excise duty act to promote renewable energy technologies. Further to this, some legal reforms which may aid the promotion of renewable energy development in Nigeria and also make robust the nation's energy policy were proposed. Some of the laws that require amendment to promote renewable energy include the land use act, environmental impact assessment decree and the investment laws of the federation of Nigeria. - Highlights: • The study exposed the energy policy issues of Nigeria. • The various policy documents and the energy statement of vision 20:2020 were surveyed. • Various challenges impinging growth or renewable energy were highlighted. • Some suggestions for policy reformation were proposed

  7. Ghana Journal of Development Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GJDS is a journal of the Faculty of Integrated Development Studies of University for Development Studies, Ghana. The GJDS is peer-reviewed by Ghanaian scholars of varied disciplinary orientations. Mission To provide on a regular and sustainable basis, an excellent scholarly journal for reporting empirical research ...

  8. Political implications of US nuclear-export-policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Freese, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international debate regarding how effective strict export controls on nuclear-energy supplies are toward a non-proliferation goal. With the Carter Administration, the debate was heightened by a new, more-vigorous US nuclear-export policy, much of which was codified by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA). Because of the US position in both the international non-proliferation regime and nuclear export market, the NNPA has had far-reaching consequences. The thesis of this paper is that a nuclear-export policy that fails to consider its short-term ramifications, as the NNPA has been accused of, will be self-defeating. If the US wants a viable worldwide nuclear non-proliferation policy, it must first direct its efforts toward building a domestic non-proliferation consensus, and then worldwide, rather than first setting a highly controversial policy and expecting other nations to fall into line. This work provides a comprehensive case study of US nuclear-export policy between the years 1976 to 1980 in support of the thesis. Further, the behavior and impact of the interest groups which seem to shape US nuclear-export policies is examined, and recommendations made regarding the role of groups in nuclear policy-making and implementation. Finally, recommendations are made regarding non-proliferation policy for the future, as it relates to nuclear exports

  9. The Relative Efficiency of Active Labour Market Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikström, Johan; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment, that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. We apply newly developed non......-parametric methods to determine which of the individual policies that explains the positive effect. The use of non-parametric methods to separate sub-treatment effects is important from a methodological point of view, since the alternative, namely parametric/distributional assumptions, is in conflict...

  10. Socioeconomic impact indicators relating to water and hydrological policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lorca, A.

    2009-01-01

    The work approaches one of the principal problematic ones in order the development of the arid, semiarid and sub humid dry regions, since it is the case of the land management and in I make concrete of that of hydrological management. For it, one presents an offer of design and construction of indicators, from the conceptual perspective of the sustainability, to evaluate the values corresponding to the socioeconomic productivity of the water, in order to motivate the public action in case of the territorial policies in general and sectorial especially. (Author) 4 refs.

  11. Rural development policies in the Province of Alicante (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Silva Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the characteristics of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP in the European Union and its consequences for agriculture in the Mediterranean area, mainly in the Province of Alicante (Valencian Community – Spain. We also characterize the Relations Program between the Rural Economy Development Activities (LEADER in the mountain area in the Province of Alicante, its specificities and possible improvements in the diversification of economic activities in the municipalities that have benefited from the program’s funding. In addition, due to the diversity of agriculture, we approached the performance of agricultural cooperatives by sector of production activity, which reflect the production structures and the presence of different kinds of farmers in the Province of Alicante. Mediterranean agriculture, based on the climatic and farming characteristics, is crucial to the economy of the municipalities and their integration into the European market.

  12. The effect of rural development policy on domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćejvanović Ferhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural development policy deals with achieving goals for rural areas and a wide range of socio-economic activities are included within it. This work intends to connect rural development policies with the occurrence of domestic violence in rural areas. The area of research is the territory of Tuzla Canton, which is, by definition of OECD (less than 150 habitants/km2, a predominantly rural area. Domestic violence is a wide spread form of violence and a discrimination against women. Domestic violence includes all forms of violence occurring in the family, expanding the possibilities that perpetrators of violence and victims of violence may even be persons who do not live in the family but are related to family members, e.g. former partners, relatives, etc. Research results show that victims of domestic violence are in 90% of the cases women (wives, mothers, daughters, sisters, etc. and that domestic violence is constantly increasing each following year. All forms of violence over women come stem from a principal discrimination towards women which results in coerce or use of force. For that reason, violence over women is a manifestation of a fundamentally unequal position of women and men, and it represents a form of discrimination against women. This paper uses data acquired from Federal Office of Statistics of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and statistical data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Tuzla Canton. On the basis of the gathered data, we employed the descriptive method, the method of analysis and synthesis, as well as the comparative method of analysis. The hypothesis of this paper was the assumption that 'women in rural areas are more frequently victims of domestic violence than women living in urban areas'.

  13. BlogForever D3.3: Development of the Digital Rights Management Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Tracie; Kim, Yunhyong; Pinsent, Ed; Kopidaki, Stella; Rynning, Morten; Manolopoulos, Ioanis; Papadopoulou, Olympia; Arampatzis, Stratos; Trochidis, Ilias; Zioga, Despoina

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a set of recommended practices and approaches that a future BlogForever repository can use to develop a digital rights management policy. The report outlines core legal aspects of digital rights that might need consideration in developing policies, and what the challenges are, in particular, in relation to web archives and blog archives. These issues are discussed in the context of the digital information life cycle and steps that might be taken within the workflow of the...

  14. Developing low carbon policies for road transport in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Rahman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of work done for the World Bank to develop low carbon policies for road transport in Poland. Here, we outline the development of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, develop a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on social-economic-, infrastructure-, car market, vehicle

  15. Measuring long-term trends in policy coherence for development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, D.J.

    2018-01-01

    Policy coherence for development (PCD) has become an increasingly important topic in development circles over the last couple of decades. It can be seen in the founding documents of the European Union (EU) (the Treaty of Maastricht) and one of the millennium development goals was dedicated to it. It

  16. Migration, rural development and policy formation in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for migration in the South Pacific region and the impact of migration on rural development. Consideration is also given to the policies that have been or should be developed in order to encourage rural development and thereby reduce migration flows from rural areas.

  17. Innovation system approach to agricultural development: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Public research and extension institutions are projected as the sole source of innovation/knowledge requisite to trigger ..... commodity traders, processing industries related to agriculture, transporters, input and serv ice suppliers. Research sector. Generates knowledge. Research institutes, universities ...

  18. The growth and development of gerontological nurse leaders in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, G Adriana; Mason, Diana J; Harden, J Taylor; Cortes, Tara A

    2017-11-03

    The National Hartford Center of Gerontological Nursing Excellence (NHCGNE) Scholars/Fellows Award Program was designed to promote the growth and development of nurse scientists, educators, and leaders in aging. McBride's conceptual framework of the growth and development of nurse leaders was used to examine the NHCGNE impact on health and aging policy work among scholars/fellows, including barriers, facilitators, and resources. A multimethod two-phased approach included an online survey (phase I) focused on research and policy impact at local, state, or national level. Telephone interviews (phase II) were conducted to further understand the nature, depth, and focus of respondents' policy work. Based on our findings, we propose multilevel recommendations for advancing nurse scientists' capacity to be leaders in shaping policy. Keen research skills are influential in policy advancement but not sufficient to advance policy. Preparing nurse scientists with competencies in translating research into policy can ultimately transform health and health care for older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Greenhouse gas emission reduction policies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.

    2001-01-01

    The chapter begins with an introduction of the main arguments for why global cost-effectiveness in GHG emission reduction policies will suggest that an international collaboration about the policies is established such as initiated by the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. A general conceptual overview is given on the cost concepts that are relevant to apply to the evaluation of GHG emission reduction policies, and the methodological framework of GHG emission reduction cost studies for developing countries are introduced. The studies have in particular focussed on GHG emission reduction options in the energy sector, and a number of costing results are reported for this sector. Finally, the chapter considers potential local side-impacts on development, the local environment, and social policy objectives of GHG emission reduction projects seen from the perspective of developing countries. It is concluded that there is a potential for combining global cost-effectiveness principles for GHG emission reduction policies, and local policy objectives of developing countries. (LN)

  20. Housing policies in developing countries: Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, P.G.S.M.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; O’Mahony, L.H.; Ong, S.E.; Wachter, S.; Wood, G.

    2012-01-01

    Shelter is a basic human need for which financial means are required. Poorer sections of society face difficulties in accessing and coping with conventional mortgage finance and are better assisted with housing microfinance. This enables the poor, especially in 'developing' countries to build their

  1. Cameroon - Fiscal policy for growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon's growth achievement is disappointing and the country is not likely to meet most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on its current trajectory. Underemployment is extremely high, with risks of social unrest and instability. The fallout of the current global economic crisis is making more challenging the attainment of growth targets foreseen in the new Growth and Employment ...

  2. Developing the oil sands demands level tax, royalty policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, D.

    1995-01-01

    The oil sands development industry has assembled a task force to lobby for fairer taxes and royalties on oil sands products. Up to now, taxing and royalties had been negotiated on a project-by-project basis. Fairer policies were believed to be a key element for increasing foreign investment. Taxing policies were only established for up to the year 2003, creating uncertainties for longer term projects

  3. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: UKAEA/BNFL policy in relation to EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    The policy of the UKAEA and BNFL, for the design and construction of a fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant, and how it relates to UK Government policy for the development of the fast reactor system in collaboration with other European countries, is described. ((U.K.)

  4. Farm functionality changes in relation to changes in Agricultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Stubkjær; Vejre, Henrik; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    from two times are included. Thus, further monitoring of the functional changes is needed to confirm the identified trends as these may change in other directions. Nevertheless, future agricultural policy development in the EU may benefit from taking both structural and functional considerations......Changes in European agriculture over the last 70 year have frequently been labelled with the keywords intensification, specialisation and concentration. A variety of empirical studies of the development in farm characteristics and landscape structures have been undertaken to describe the change...... in details. The structural changes in agriculture are well accounted for in national and European statistics, however changes in farm functions have also occurred. It has been suggested that European agriculture nowadays are undergoing changes from monofunctional focus on production to a wider...

  5. Promoting good policy for leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation: a realist synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Joanne; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Gilmore, Brynne; McClean, Chiedza; Eide, Arne H; Mannan, Hasheem; Geiser, Priscille; Duttine, Antony; Mji, Gubela; McAuliffe, Eilish; Sprunt, Beth; Amin, Mutamad; Normand, Charles

    2016-08-24

    Good governance may result in strengthened performance of a health system. Coherent policies are essential for good health system governance. The overall aim of this research is to provide the best available scientific evidence on principles of good policy related leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation services in less resourced settings. This research was also conducted to support development of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines on health related rehabilitation. An innovative study design was used, comprising two methods: a systematic search and realist synthesis of literature, and a Delphi survey of expert stakeholders to refine and triangulate findings from the realist synthesis. In accordance with Pawson and Tilley's approach to realist synthesis, we identified context mechanism outcome pattern configurations (CMOCs) from the literature. Subsequently, these CMOCs were developed into statements for the Delphi survey, whereby 18 expert stakeholders refined these statements to achieve consensus on recommendations for policy related governance of health related rehabilitation. Several broad principles emerged throughout formulation of recommendations: participation of persons with disabilities in policy processes to improve programme responsiveness, efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability, and to strengthen service-user self-determination and satisfaction; collection of disaggregated disability statistics to support political momentum, decision-making of policymakers, evaluation, accountability, and equitable allocation of resources; explicit promotion in policies of access to services for all subgroups of persons with disabilities and service-users to support equitable and accessible services; robust inter-sectoral coordination to cultivate coherent mandates across governmental departments regarding service provision; and 'institutionalizing' programmes by aligning them with preexisting Ministerial models of healthcare to

  6. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings of the d......Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings......”). Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies and policy means in order to promote sustainable development. THE FULL TEXT IS IN RUSSIAN IN THE JOURNAL....

  7. Challenges in orphan drug development and regulatory policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Xie, Zhi

    2017-01-18

    While regulatory policy is well defined for orphan drug development in the United States and Europe, rare disease policy in China is still evolving. Many Chinese patients currently pay out of pocket for international treatments that are not yet approved in China. The lack of a clear definition and therefore regulatory approval process for rare diseases has, until now, de-incentivized pharmaceutical companies to pursue rare disease drug development in China. In turn, many grassroots movements have begun to support rare disease patients and facilitate drug discovery through research. Recently, the Chinese FDA set new regulatory guidelines for drugs being developed in China, including an expedited review process for life-saving treatments. In this review, we discuss the effects of these new policy changes on and suggest potential solutions to innovate orphan drug development in China.

  8. China's below-replacement fertility: government policy or socioeconomic development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong

    2010-01-01

    The article challenges the notion that below-replacement fertility and its local variation in China are primarily attributable to the government's birth planning policy. Data from the 2000 census and provincial statistical yearbooks are used to compare fertility in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, two of the most developed provinces in China, to examine the relationship between socioeconomic development and low fertility. The article demonstrates that although low fertility in China was achieved under the government's restrictive one-child policy, structural changes brought about by socioeconomic development and ideational shifts accompanying the new wave of globalization played a key role in China's fertility reduction.

  9. Local government alcohol policy development: case studies in three New Zealand communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Room, Robin; Langley, John

    2013-01-01

    Aims Local alcohol policies can be effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. The aim of this study was to examine local government responses to alcohol-related problems and identify factors influencing their development and adoption of alcohol policy. Designsettings and participants Case studies were used to examine local government responses to alcohol problems in three New Zealand communities: a rural town, a provincial city and a metropolitan city. Newspaper reports, local government documents and key informant interviews were used to collect data which were analysed using two conceptual frameworks: Kingdon's Streams model and the Stakeholder model of policy development. Measurements Key informant narratives were categorized according to the concepts of the Streams and Stakeholder models. Findings Kingdon's theoretical concepts associated with increased likelihood of policy change seemed to apply in the rural and metropolitan communities. The political environment in the provincial city, however, was not favourable to the adoption of alcohol restrictions. The Stakeholder model highlighted differences between the communities in terms of power over agenda-setting and conflict between politicians and bureaucrats over policy solutions to alcohol-related harm. These differences were reflected in the ratio of policies considered versus adopted in each location. Decisions on local alcohol policies lie ultimately with local politicians, although the policies that can be adopted by local government are restricted by central government legislation. Conclusions The adoption of policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm may be better facilitated by an agenda-setting process where no ‘gate-keepers’ determine what is included into the agenda, and community mobilization efforts to create competitive local government elections around alcohol issues. Policy adoption would also be facilitated by more enabling central government legislation. PMID:23130762

  10. Comprehensive taxonomy and worldwide trends in pharmaceutical policies in relation to country income status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniadakis, N; Kourlaba, G; Shen, J; Holtorf, A

    2017-05-25

    Rapidly evolving socioeconomic and technological trends make it challenging to improve access, effectiveness and efficiency in the use of pharmaceuticals. This paper identifies and systematically classifies the prevailing pharmaceutical policies worldwide in relation to a country's income status. A literature search was undertaken to identify and taxonomize prevailing policies worldwide. Countries that apply those policies and those that do not were then grouped by income status. Pharmaceutical policies are linked to a country's socioeconomics. Developed countries have universal coverage and control pharmaceuticals with external and internal price referencing systems, and indirect price-cost controls; they carry out health technology assessments and demand utilization controls. Price-volume and risk-sharing agreements are also evolving. Developing countries are underperforming in terms of coverage and they rely mostly on restrictive state controls to regulate prices and expenditure. There are significant disparities worldwide in the access to pharmaceuticals, their use, and the reimbursement of costs. The challenge in high-income countries is to maintain access to care whilst dealing with trends in technology and aging. Essential drugs should be available to all; however, many low- and middle-income countries still provide most of their population with only poor access to medicines. As economies grow, there should be greater investment in pharmaceutical care, looking to the policies of high-income countries to increase efficiency. Pharmaceutical companies could also develop special access schemes with low prices to facilitate coverage in low-income countries.

  11. Governing drug use through partnerships: Towards a genealogy of government/non-government relations in drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Smith, Catrin

    2016-02-01

    Drug policy in Australia is underpinned by the idea of partnerships wherein the non-government sector is one important partner in both delivering services and contributing to policy and decision-making processes. This article presents a genealogy of the concept of government/non-government 'partnerships', tracing its emergence and development within drug policy discourse in Australia. We find that the rise of neo-liberal policies since the 1980s has been a key factor facilitating the emergence of government/non-government 'partnerships' rhetoric in drug policy. Since the 1980s, the role of non-government organisations (NGOs) in drug policy has been articulated in relation to 'community' responsibilisation in contrast to the welfarist reliance on expert intervention. We link the rise of this rhetoric with the neo-liberal turn to governing through community and the individualisation of social problems. Furthermore, although we find that governments on the whole have encouraged the service delivery and policy work of NGOs at least in policy rhetoric, the actions of the state have at times limited the ability of NGOs to perform advocacy work and contribute to policy. Constraints on NGO drug policy work could potentially compromise the responsiveness of drug policy systems by limiting opportunities for innovative policy-making and service delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Product assurance policies and procedures for flight dynamics software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sandra; Jordan, Leon; Decker, William; Page, Gerald; Mcgarry, Frank E.; Valett, Jon

    1987-01-01

    The product assurance policies and procedures necessary to support flight dynamics software development projects for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The quality assurance and configuration management methods and tools for each phase of the software development life cycles are described, from requirements analysis through acceptance testing; maintenance and operation are not addressed.

  13. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (JSDLP) is Nigeria's first interdisciplinary sustainable development journal, published by the OGEES Institute, Afe Babalola University, Nigeria. The journal fosters the dissemination of research results and scholarly papers by teaching and research scholars in Africa ...

  14. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  15. Do economic policy decisions affect stock market development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper finds government revenue and exchange rate reduce stock market development. A policy mix identified was that, the outcomes of government expenditure and government borrowing interest rate exert no influence on stock market development. For equity investors not to easily transfer their investments in ...

  16. Transnational Social Policies: The New Development Challenges of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Relationships between social policy and human development are the subject of much research and theorizing. The literature in this area, however, examines these issues strictly within national contexts. What of the influence of international agendas, such as NAFTA, the World Summit for Social Development, and Habitat II.

  17. Extent of implementation of Collection Development Policies (CDP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on the extent of implementation of collection development policies by public University libraries in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was employed. Population for the study consisted of all the 16 Colle ction Development Librarians in the Area studied. No sample was used because the ...

  18. Cyber-Surveillance: A Case Study in Policy and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Richard S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines the historical development of surveillance, electronic surveillance, and cyber-surveillance from colonial times in the United States to the present. It presents the surveillance laws, technologies and policies as a balance between national security and privacy. To examine more recent developments, the dissertation…

  19. Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in Burma's Democratic Transition. For decades, it was very difficult to complete, share or access development research in Burma. However, in the past two years, the Burmese political landscape has seen far-reaching changes. The military junta has ...

  20. Integrating development and climate policies: National and international benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Metz, B.; Verhagen, J.

    2008-01-01

    What lessons for policy makers at national and international level can be drawn from the growing experiences of reconciling development and climate change? The key to achieving this is to approach the problem from the development perspective, since that is where in most countries the priority lies.

  1. Initiating A Collection Development Policy For Kumasi Polytechnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collection development involves the activities of collection evaluation, selection of new materials, replacement of lost or damaged stock, deselection of older stock for either transfer to storage or disposal, and the handling of gifts. The aim of this article is to put together a collection development policy which will guide the ...

  2. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We welcome submissions that focus on any aspect of sustainable development law and policy ranging from the economic, social and environmental dimensions. Consequently, papers that explore broad themes of sustainable development such as agriculture, banking, e-commerce, environment, natural resources, public ...

  3. Endogenous growth theory and regional development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous versions of endogenous explanations of economic growth emphasize the importance of technological change driving forces, as well as the existence of appropriate institutional arrangements. Endogenous growth theory contributes to a better understanding of various experiences with long-term growth of countries and regions. It changes the key assumptions of the Neoclassical growth theory and participates in the modern regional development physiology explanation. Based on these conclusions, the paper: a explicates the most important theoretical postulates of the theory, b explains the most important factors of economic growth in the regions in light of the Endogenous growth theory messages and c emphasizes the key determinants of regional competitiveness which in our view is conceptually between the phenomena of micro- and macro-competitiveness and represents their necessary and unique connection. First of all, micro-competitiveness is transformed into a regional competitiveness; then regional competitiveness is transformed into a macro-competitiveness. In turn, macro - influences the microeconomic competitiveness, and the circle is closed. After that, the process starts over again.

  4. Development and Appropriation of an Integration Policy for Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    2011-01-01

    To answer why sports clubs have been ascribed a central role in resolving integration issues in Denmark, this article refers to the anthropology of policy. First, policy is defined as what Mauss has called ‘a total social fact’. In other words, policy is a social phenomenon that reflects...... explores Danish immigration history and the development of an integration policy that currently focuses on adaptation of the cultural values and norms of immigrants. The second part of this article looks at current state funds that aim to promote this kind of adaptation through sports. It becomes clear...... that sports clubs are seen as organizations that distribute social capital, promote equality in society and facilitate informal learning. The third part of this article refers to a number of studies that highlight the ways in which club leaders, coaches and members (with ethnic Danish as well as non...

  5. Improving Heat-Related Health Outcomes in an Urban Environment with Science-Based Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sailor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We use the Northeast US Urban Climate Archipelago as a case study to explore three key limitations of planning and policy initiatives to mitigate extreme urban heat. These limitations are: (1 a lack of understanding of spatial considerations—for example, how nearby urban areas interact, affecting, and being affected by, implementation of such policies; (2 an emphasis on air temperature reduction that neglects assessments of other important meteorological parameters, such as humidity, mixing heights, and urban wind fields; and (3 too narrow of a temporal focus—either time of day, season, or current vs. future climates. Additionally, the absence of a direct policy/planning linkage between heat mitigation goals and actual human health outcomes, in general, leads to solutions that only indirectly address the underlying problems. These issues are explored through several related atmospheric modeling case studies that reveal the complexities of designing effective urban heat mitigation strategies. We conclude with recommendations regarding how policy-makers can optimize the performance of their urban heat mitigation policies and programs. This optimization starts with a thorough understanding of the actual end-point goals of these policies, and concludes with the careful integration of scientific knowledge into the development of location-specific strategies that recognize and address the limitations discussed herein.

  6. Research on Climate Change Policies and Rural Development in Latin America: Scope and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Locatelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on climate change policies can contribute to policy development by building an understanding of the barriers faced in policy processes, and by providing knowledge needed throughout policy cycles. This paper explores the thematic coverage of research on climate change policies related to rural areas, rural development, and natural resource management in Latin America. A three-tier framework is proposed to analyse the selected literature. The results show that research studies have focussed on the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from forests, and adaptations to climate change in agriculture. There is little policy research on other vulnerable sectors (e.g., water and health and emitting sectors (e.g., energy and industry in the context of rural development. Our analysis highlights the various research gaps that deserve increased scientific attention, including: cross-sector approaches, multi-level governance, and the stages of policy adoption, implementation and evaluation. In addition, the selected literature has a limited contribution to theoretical discussions in policy sciences.

  7. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  8. Government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Dinesh; Sharma, Jitendra S; Banerjee, Subhadip; Biswas, Rajarshi; Das, Bhaskar; Goswami, Debayan; Harwansh, Ranjit K; Katiyar, C K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2017-02-02

    Ayurveda (Sanskrit: Ayus - life +Veda - knowledge) means the "True knowledge of life". Ayurveda deals with a complete self-sustainable system of medicine. The Government of India through its Ministry of AYUSH is responsible for policy formulation, development and implementation of programs for the growth, development and propagation of Ayurveda. This review aimed to highlight the various aspects of government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda. We critically reviewed various books, annual reports, policy documents and various ancient Ayurvedic literatures. Besides the websites of Ministry of AYUSH, National Medicinal Plant Board, Central Council for Research on Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) and AYUSH research portal have been searched and data was recorded. The vision of the ministry is to position AYUSH systems as the preferred systems of living and practice for attaining healthy nation. The ministry has identified its mission in terms of seven broad thematic functional areas of AYUSH activities. These are information, education and communication; drug administration, human resource development, medicinal plants, research and development, international collaborations, AYUSH services. Different programs have been taken up towards increasing visibility, acceptability and usage of Ayurveda vis-a vis its integration in the health system. Strategies to globalize and promote Ayurveda are being taken up through AYUSH clusters focusing its safety-efficacy-quality aspects and rational use of Ayurveda CONCLUSION: The government policies are taking firm steps towards promotion and development of Ayurveda. Research and development towards validation of Ayurveda is being projected as the thrust area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Policy, Personalities and Pedagogy: The Use of Simulation Games to Teach and Learn about Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsen, Gerard; Overton, John

    2011-01-01

    Simulation games have a long history in education and are well suited to learning about negotiation, power, relationships and uncertain outcomes. This paper reflects on the experience of using a semester-long simulation game to introduce postgraduate students to development policy. It focuses on three issues identified in the literature--realism,…

  10. The price of policy risk — Empirical insights from choice experiments with European photovoltaic project developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüthi, Sonja; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Managing the transition to a renewable energy future is an important policy priority in many countries. Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is expected to make an essential contribution, but due to relatively high cost, its growth to date has been largely driven by public policy, notably feed-in tariffs. Feed-in tariffs have been implemented in various countries, but with widely differing outcomes in terms of installed PV capacity. Previous research indicates that the level of policy risk may be an important driver for differences in renewable energy policy effectiveness. This paper suggests that project developers who make a decision between PV investment opportunities in different countries carefully weigh feed-in tariff-induced returns against a set of policy risks, and choose the country with the most favorable risk-return profile. This model is empirically tested by a stated preference survey among European PV project developers, consisting of 1575 choice decisions by 63 investors. The findings demonstrate that risk matters in PV policy design, and that a “price tag” can be attached to specific policy risks, such as the duration of administrative processes or uncertainty induced by an approaching capacity cap. Governments can build on these empirical results to design policies that will be effective in attracting private PV investment, while at the same time maintaining efficiency by providing an adequate compensation for policy risk. - Highlights: ► This study is based on 1575 choice and rating decisions made by 63 European PV project developers. ► This study confirms importance of “non-economic” barriers to deployment of renewable energy. ► This study measures “price of policy risk”, i.e. investors' willingness-to-accept certain policy risks.

  11. Developing Policy Scenarios for Sustainable Urban Growth Management: A Delphi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajida Perveen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, a rapid urbanization process is taking place at an unprecedented scale, and its drastic impacts on societies and the environment are evident. To combat the externalities of such rapid, and to a degree uncontrolled, development, many cities around the globe introduced various urban growth management policies. However, policy making—to provide sustainable outcomes, while generating growth opportunities—has been a daunting task for urban administrators. To ease the task, scenario-based planning methods are introduced to produce alternative visions for managing urban growth in sustainable ways by incorporating various socio-environmental issues. However, even though modelling urban growth and associated impacts based on these scenarios have emerged to strengthen and quantify the future of urban policies and related planning actions, this process has a number of glitches. Major issues include the uncertainties associated with the selection of suitable methods to generate scenarios, identify indicators to be used to assess scenarios, evaluate scenarios to prioritize for policy formulation, and assess the impacts of policy scenarios. This paper aims to address the challenge of developing suitable policy scenarios for sustainable urban growth. As for the methodological approach, the study undertakes a thorough review of the literature and current practices, and conducts a two-round Delphi survey—involving experts from public, private and academic sectors specialized in the fields of urban planning, environmental planning, social planning, transportation modelling, and economic development. The expert driven policy scenarios are validated in a local context by comparing findings against the policy options as proposed in the South East Queensland Regional Plan 2017 (Australia. The findings offer valuable guidelines for planners, modellers, and policy makers in adopting suitable methods, indicators, and policy priorities

  12. Lessons from photovoltaic policies in China for future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Mo-lin; Zhang, Dan-wei

    2012-01-01

    The paper first provides an overview of the current status of PV industry development in China, including the penetration speed, the market segments and the value chain. Further, it reviews the experience of governmental interventions composed of the legal framework, market incentives and manufacturing policies for lessons learning. After the Renewable Energy Law took effect in 2006, PV penetration was accelerated. Capital subsidies and feed-in tariffs, which were still in a trial stage, public bidding and the cooperation among relevant Ministries played important roles. A series of public R and D projects provided elemental technologies and meanwhile the preferential tax policies encouraged PV R and D nationwide. Then the paper looks into the future prospects, based on the technical potential, the national indicative targets in 2020, and the energy planning considering the governmental targets of energy transition and CO 2 mitigation. Consequently we analyze problems impeding the future development based on evidences. For instance, there was no predetermined degression of the capital subsidy to push cost reduction; the budget and the organization of public PV R and D were insufficient. Finally, we propose some recommendations on improving policy interventions. - Highlights: ► Surveys the current status of PV industry in China, including the market trend, the installation distribution and the value chain. ► Reviews the experience of governmental interventions composed of the legal framework, market policies and manufacturing policies. ► Looks into future prospects, based on the technical potential, the national targets of 2020, policies of energy transition and CO 2 mitigation. ► Analyzes barriers of future development, and proposes some recommendations on improving policy interventions.

  13. Using social media to engage nurses in health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhan

    2017-11-01

    To explore nurses' views on future priorities for the profession and to examine social media as an engagement tool to aid policy discussion and development. Nurses are often not directly involved in policy creation and some feel it is a process they cannot easily influence. A descriptive mixed methods study of a Twitter chat hosted by the Chief Nursing Officer for Scotland was undertaken. Data were gathered using an analytics platform and NCapture software. The framework approach aided thematic analysis to draw out themes. Sixty-four people took part in the Twitter chat (#CNOScot) and posted 444 tweets. Nurses called for investment in technology, nursing research, education and mental health. Primary care and advanced practice roles to support older adults with complex health and social care needs were also seen as vital to develop further. Social media can help reach and engage nurses in policy discussion and ensure there is better continuity between policy and practice but some groups risk being excluded using this digital medium. Nursing leaders should consider social media as one of many engagement strategies to ensure nurses and other stakeholders participate in policy debate that informs health strategy development. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Extent of East-african nurse leaders' participation in health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, N; Potgieter, E

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports part of a bigger study whose aim was to develop an empowerment model that could be used to enhance nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. A Delphi survey was applied which included the following criteria: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions at the nursing professional associations, nursing regulatory bodies, ministries of health, and universities in East Africa. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. The results reported here were gathered as part of the first round of the study and that examined the extent of nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. Seventy-eight (78) expert panelists were invited to participate in the study, and the response rate was 47%. Data collection was done with the use of a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis was done by use of SPSS and descriptive statistics were examined. The findings indicated that nurse leaders participate in health policy development though participation is limited and not consistent across all the stages of health policy development. The recommendations from the findings are that health policy development process needs to be pluralistic and inclusive of all nurse leaders practicing in positions related to policy development and the process must be open to their ideas and suggestions.

  15. Extent of East-African Nurse Leaders’ Participation in Health Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shariff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports part of a bigger study whose aim was to develop an empowerment model that could be used to enhance nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. A Delphi survey was applied which included the following criteria: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions at the nursing professional associations, nursing regulatory bodies, ministries of health, and universities in East Africa. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. The results reported here were gathered as part of the first round of the study and that examined the extent of nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. Seventy-eight (78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study, and the response rate was 47%. Data collection was done with the use of a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis was done by use of SPSS and descriptive statistics were examined. The findings indicated that nurse leaders participate in health policy development though participation is limited and not consistent across all the stages of health policy development. The recommendations from the findings are that health policy development process needs to be pluralistic and inclusive of all nurse leaders practicing in positions related to policy development and the process must be open to their ideas and suggestions.

  16. Entrepreneurship Policy and Supportive Environment for Entrepreneurship Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Crnogaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The decision of individuals to either establish their own business or to expand an existing one, as well as the interdependence between entrepreneurship and economic development are significantly influenced by the environment in which those individuals live and work. Such an environment is possible to shape with appropriate industrial policy. Based partly on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM database, obtained by surveying national experts in 2012, authors analyze business environment in Slovenia. We linked the results of analysis with potential channels of policy intervention proposed by entrepreneurial policy framework. The analysis shows that in Slovenia adequate social consensus on the importance of entrepreneurship and understanding of its role for economic growth and social development is still missing. Results also indicate that it is particularly important to strength the intervention on the supply side of entrepreneurship, because potential entrepreneur will take advantage of good business opportunity only if he/she will have the required capacities, skills and necessary resources.

  17. Climate policy in developing countries and conditional transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebbelke, Dirk T.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role international transfers may play in international climate policy in consideration of the policy's ancillary benefits, such as air quality improvements. Ancillary benefits are especially important in many developing countries, while climate protection benefits or primary benefits play a minor role on the political agenda of these countries. In contrast, industrialized countries have a strong interest in combating climate change. These often neglected asymmetries between the developing and industrialized world affect the impacts of transfers. Interestingly, as we will show, the cost differentials between different environmental technologies among countries are the crucial prerequisite for the functioning of a transfer scheme and not the cost differentials in the execution of climate policy. This result has been overlooked by standard pure public good approaches

  18. Socio-economic research in support of climate policy development: Mistra's Research Program Clipore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grennfelt, Peringe; Kjellén, Bo; Linnér, Björn-Ola; Zetterberg, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Mistra's Climate Policy Research Program, Clipore, is one of the largest research programs directed to support international climate policy development, involving research groups in Sweden, Norway, United States and India. It has been running from 2004 to 2011 with a budget of more than 100 MSEK (15 M USD). The paper briefly describes the program and its outcomes in relation to climate policy development. Discussion focuses on how the program has been able to be in the front of and include the development of emissions trading systems in Europe and the United States and how the program has been able to follow and produce inputs to the agenda of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The paper also discusses how the program has managed to present its outcomes and maintain an active dialogue with the various stakeholders. The paper emphasises options and obstacles in the communication between science and policy.

  19. Developing New Mexico Health Care Policy: An application of the Vital Issues Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Icerman, L. [Icerman & Associates, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Vital Issues Process, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories Strategic Technologies Department, was utilized by the Health Care Task Force Advisory Group to apply structure to their policy deliberations. By convening three expert panels, an overarching goal for the New Mexico health care system, seven desired outcomes, nine policy options, and 17 action items were developed for the New Mexico health care system. Three broadly stated evaluation criteria were articulated and used to produce relative rankings of the desired outcomes and policy options for preventive care and information systems. Reports summarizing the policy deliberations were submitted for consideration by the Health Care Task Force, a Joint Interim Committee of the New Mexico Legislature, charged with facilitating the development and implementation of a comprehensive health care delivery system for New Mexico. The Task Force reported its findings and recommendations to the Second Session of the 41st New Mexico State Legislature in January 1994.

  20. Fiscal and Monetary Policy for The Development of Indonesian Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyadi Suharyadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global monetary crisis in 2007-2008 and the focus of development on climate changesmake it important to promote a healthy economic growth based on the local resources, Theeconomic crisis, which has slowed down the economic growth and has caused job losseswhich result in increasing unemployment and poverty, should alter the focus of Indonesianeconomic development in the future to be based on renewable and sustainable local resources.Indonesia is an agricultural and maritime country so these two aspects should be thecore of the growth. In agricultural culture, plantation sector is the source of sustainable economicgrowth because of its geographical, demographic, and cultural potentials. The problemsin plantation sector are the low growth of areas and productivity as well as its limitedend-products. The research findings indicated that in order to increase areas, there should bea guarantee on investment, interest rate, and little retribution or good governance. To increaseproductivity, we need a guarantee on fertilizer price, interest rate, and wages, as wellas pricing factors to avoid market distortion. This is very important relating to the economicstimulus policy which is essential to revitalize from the economic doom in the future.Keywords: plantation sector, area, productivity, investment, interest rate, and wages

  1. Putting Climate Change Adaptation in the Development Mainstream. Policy Brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawala, S.; Paris, R.

    2005-03-01

    Climate change poses a serious challenge to social and economic development. Developing countries are particularly vulnerable because their economies are generally more dependent on climate-sensitive natural resources, and because they are less able to cope with the impacts of climate change. How development occurs has implications, in turn, for climate change and for the vulnerability of societies to its impacts. Climate change adaptation needs to be brought into the mainstream of economic policies, development projects, and international aid efforts. Considerable analytical work has been done on how development can be made climate-friendly in terms of helping reduce greenhouse gas emissions which cause climate change, although implementation remains a challenge. Much less attention has been paid to how development can be made more resilient to the impacts of climate change. In a narrow engineering sense, this could involve taking climate changes into account in the siting and design of bridges and other infrastructure. At a policy level, it could involve considering the implications of climate change on a variety of development activities including poverty reduction, sectoral development, and natural resource management. Bridging the gap between the climate change adaptation and development communities, however, is not easy. The two communities have different priorities, often operate on different time and space scales, and do not necessarily 'speak the same language'. Specific information is therefore needed on the significance of climate change for development activities along with operational guidance on how best to adapt to its impacts, within the context of other pressing social priorities. This Policy Brief looks at how far current development policies and programmes are taking climate change risks into account, as well as at ways to improve the 'mainstreaming' of adaptation to climate change in development planning and assistance

  2. Cultural commodification: where ethnic minorities and development policies meet

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Lara Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Broad development policies targeting impoverished ethnic minorities seek to merge cultural preservation and economic development goals using cultural commodification as a means to improve livelihoods and way of life. Since culture found its way into development policy—transforming it from a commodity centred concept to a human centred one—the diversity of culture itself has risen to the forefront as something in need of protection and as a valuable commodity. While the global tourism industry...

  3. PUBLIC POLICY, CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AND BOYS AT RISK: CHALLENGING, ENDURING AND NECESSARY PARTNERSHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinney, Marvin; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Winn, Donna-Marie; Babcock, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Research findings documenting the issues and challenges of boys prebirth through age 5 years have barely penetrated the arena of public policy making nor has it permeated the public agenda of politicians, government, or other funding stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to articulate pathways for researchers to enter into the policy-making process. We review critical issues related to implementing the process of public policy. We argue that the policy process needs to be informed by more dynamic theoretical models of human development, and that researchers and clinicians need to be exposed more deeply to the processes required to inform and subsequently change public policy. We contend that most quantitative research on boys at risk occurs at the micro- and the mesosystem level rather than at the exo- and the macrosystem levels where structural societal policies embedded in economic and racial inequities contribute to risk. Researchers, clinicians, and policy makers need to create collaborative partnerships designed to develop, advocate, and implement more evidence-based policies designed to enhance the quality of life for boys at risk. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  5. Development of oral health policy in Nigeria: an analysis of the role of context, actors and policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiaba, Enyi; Uguru, Nkoli; Ebenso, Bassey; Russo, Giuliano; Ezumah, Nkoli; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-05-06

    In Nigeria, there is a high burden of oral health diseases, poor coordination of health services and human resources for delivery of oral health services. Previous attempts to develop an Oral Health Policy (OHP) to decrease the oral disease burden failed. However, a policy was eventually developed in November 2012. This paper explores the role of contextual factors, actors and the policy process in the development of the OHP and possible reasons why the current approved OHP succeeded. The study was undertaken across Nigeria; information gathered through document reviews and in-depth interviews with five groups of purposively selected respondents. Analysis of the policy development process was guided by the policy triangle framework, examining context, policy process and actors involved in the policy development. The foremost enabling factor was the yearning among policy actors for a policy, having had four failed attempts. Other factors were the presence of a democratically elected government, a framework for health sector reform instituted by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH). The approved OHP went through all stages required for policy development unlike the previous attempts. Three groups of actors played crucial roles in the process, namely academics/researchers, development partners and policy makers. They either had decision making powers or influenced policy through funding or technical ability to generate credible research evidence, all sharing a common interest in developing the OHP. Although evidence was used to inform the development of the policy, the complex interactions between the context and actors facilitated its approval. The OHP development succeeded through a complex inter-relationship of context, process and actors, clearly illustrating that none of these factors could have, in isolation, catalyzed the policy development. Availability of evidence is necessary but not sufficient for developing policies in this area. Wider socio

  6. Leadership development in the English National Health Service: A counter narrative to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewison, Alistair; Morrell, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    To examine the current approach to leadership development in the English National Health Service (NHS) and consider its implications for nursing. To stimulate debate about the nature of leadership development in a range of health care settings. Good leadership is central to the provision of high quality nursing care. This has focussed attention on the leadership development of nurses and other health care staff. It has been a key policy concern in the English NHS of late and fostered the growth of leadership development programmes founded on competency based approaches. This is a policy review informed by the concept of episteme. Relevant policy documents and related literature. Using Foucault's concept of episteme, leadership development policy is examined in context and a 'counter narrative' developed to demonstrate that current approaches are rooted in competency based accounts which constitute a limited, yet dominant narrative. Leadership takes many forms and varies hugely according to task and context. Acknowledging this in the form of a counter narrative offers a contribution to more constructive policy development in the English NHS and more widely. A more nuanced debate about leadership development and greater diversity in the provision of development programmes and activities is required. Leadership development has been advocated as being crucial to the advancement of nursing. Detailed analysis of its nature and function is essential if it is to meet the needs of nurse leaders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parliamentarians involvement on reproductive health and development policy in Vietnam -- report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    More than 80 participants attended the National Seminar on Population, Reproductive Health and Development Policy of Viet Nam in the New Millennium, held on June 12-13, 2000, in Hanoi. The objectives of the seminar were to 1) review policy on population, reproductive health (RH) and development policy; 2) make some recommendations for amendment; and 3) issue new policy and strategy on these fields. The following recommendations sent to Parliament, Prime Minister, and some related Ministers include the approval of the new strategy on population and the new strategy on RH of Vietnam and the approval of the Policy on Spontaneous Migration. It also called for the integration of population variable in the socioeconomic strategy; more resources for population and RH program support for disadvantaged regions; approval of related ordinances; more resources for Poverty Reduction, Population, RH and Development and prohibition of some services for sex diagnosis and selection; and organization of the consultative meeting on Communication between Researchers and Policy makers on Population, RH and Development issues. Outcomes of the seminar are summarized.

  8. North Korea's nuclear weapons development. Implications for future policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    This essay assesses North Korea's long-standing quest for nuclear weapons; alternative strategies for inhibiting Pyongyang's weapons development; and the potential implications for regional security and nonproliferation should the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) retain and enhance its weapons programs. North Korea's pursuit of a nuclear weapons capability has long provoked heated debate among policy makers and research analysts about the purposes of engagement with the North, reflecting the repeated frustrations in efforts to negotiate Korean denuclearization. These debates reflect widely divergent views of the North Korean regime; its sustainability as an autonomous political, economic, and military system; and the potential consequences of continued nuclear development in this isolated, highly idiosyncratic state. These questions assume additional salience as North Korea approaches a leadership succession for only the second time in its six-decade history. The effort to inhibit North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons is among the longest running and least successful sagas in international security and non-proliferation policy of the past quarter century. In early 2010, Pyongyang claims a rudimentary nuclear capability by possession of weaponized plutonium, the conduct of two nuclear tests, and advances in the production of enriched uranium as an alternative means of fissile material production, though the latter step is nominally justified as a source for reactor fuel. North Korea defends its pursuit of a nuclear deterrent to counter what Pyongyang deems existential threats posed by the United States.Despite the resumption of high-level diplomatic contact between Washington and Pyongyang in late 2009, realization of a non-nuclear Korean Peninsula remains a very remote prospect. The DPRK insists that a peace agreement between the U.S. and North Korea and hence the cessation of 'hostile DPRK-U.S. relations' are necessary before any consideration of

  9. Extent of implementation of collection development policies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is a survey research on the extent of implementation of collection development policies in academic libraries in Imo state. The population of the study comprises five (5) academic libraries in the area of study. The academic libraries understudy are: Imo State University Owerri (IMSU), Federal University of ...

  10. Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Given this new and rapidly evolving situation, IDRC is providing funding to Simon Fraser University to support a network of young Burmese environmentalists to complete research that contributes to development policy and environmental practice in the ... IDRC and DHSC partner to fight antimicrobial resistance in animals.

  11. 7 CFR 371.9 - Policy and Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy and Program Development. 371.9 Section 371.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... effects of APHIS programs to ensure their compliance with environmental laws and regulations and providing...

  12. Policies to Encourage the Development of Water Sanitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euverink, G.J.W.; Temmink, B.G.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines innovations in water technology, policies to develop technologies that will contribute to a sustainalbe economy, and the introduction of the new concepts to society. We discuss our views on how wastewater treatment may be performed in the future in such a way that the WFD

  13. Impacts of the EU sugar policy reforms on developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.; Roza, P.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2005-01-01

    This report analyses the impacts of the Commission's July 2004 proposal for sugar policy reforms on developing countries. The study uses three approaches that complement each other: model simulations, literature review and country case studies. Model simulations indicate that the consequences of the

  14. Linking Social and Productive Development Policies for Inclusive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Linking Social and Productive Development Policies for Inclusive Growth: A Program of Research and Capacity Building. Peru is one of the fastest growing economies in Latin America, but Peruvians continue to face large disparities in incomes, opportunities, and access to public services. While poverty has declined ...

  15. Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2006-2010). Globalization and trade liberalization are likely to have a major impact on the lives of poor children and their families. To date, however, few attempts have been made to differentiate the impact of ...

  16. Tax Policy and Enterprise Development in South Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research examines the impacts of property and value-added taxes, and tax exemptions and concessions on small enterprise development in South Asia. ... The goal is to provide decision-makers with data and insights to support more informed policy formulation and implementation for inclusive growth, productive ...

  17. Fiscal Policy and Economic Development in Nigeria (1960 - 2011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of fiscal policy measures on economic development in Nigeria. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-perron unit root test were first conducted. The cointe gration test was then performedusing Johansen Maximum Likelihood procedure. The granger causality test, the impulse response ...

  18. 153 Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development (Pp. 153 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Senior Lecturer, Department of Financial. Management Technology, School of Management Technology, Federal. University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Email: leakujuobi@yahoo.com. Abstract. This study investigated the impact of monetary policy instruments on the economic development of Nigeria, ...

  19. Planning local economic development: Policy challenges from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning local economic development: Policy challenges from the South African experience. CM Rogerson. Abstract. (Africa Insight: 2002 32(2): 39-45). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ai.v32i2.22286 · AJOL African Journals ...

  20. Minority Language Researchers and Their Role in Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Durk

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the role of researchers in the development of language policies for European minority languages. This question is placed in the context of a long-standing debate in sociology to which several authors have contributed; among them are Max Weber, Howard Becker and Alvin Gouldner. This article also briefly refers to the European…

  1. Policy development: a more formal systems approach process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, AP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available is suggested. The similarity between the classical systems approach and typical current policy development life-cycles are striking. The rigorous systems approach, as often used in Systems Engineering projects, could be adapted, and thus provide the rigour...

  2. Evidence-based ICT Policy for Development and Innovation | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evidence-based ICT Policy for Development and Innovation. The cost of access to information and communication technologies (ITCs) in Africa remains the major impediment to the participation of Africans in the networked society. While Africa is the region with the fastest growing number of mobile phone subscribers in the ...

  3. Review on Policy Developments of FDI in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Sahiti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available India has been witnessing an extensive amount of foreign capital flowing to the market over the past twenty years after drastic changes made on its FDI policy. The aim of this research is to evaluate the policy developments of FDI during different stages since its independence and its impact on capital inflows. This research attempts also to uncover lessons that can be learnt from the case of India. A qualitative approach has been adopted for this research. The narrative analysis used in this study is based on secondary data that have been drawn from a pool of diverse sources including various databases, journal publications and books.

  4. Strategic information for industrial policy-making in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonod, P.F.

    1990-05-01

    The practice shows that many crucial decisions for industrialization in developing countries have been taken based on incomplete information. For strategic decisions an incomplete information may have catastrophic consequences. The function of policy-making is defined as the process by which the information generated/or used in a particular context is reevaluated in a different context in order to formulate/or execute a policy of alternative decisions. It follows that the industrial information must be presented in such a manner to allow a reevaluation and alternative decisions. 30 notes

  5. Absolute abundance and relative scarcity : environmental policy with implementation lags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maria, di C.; Smulders, Sjak; Werf, van der E.

    2012-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of environmental policy in a model with nonrenewable resources and an unavoidable implementation lag. We find that a time lag between the announcement and the implementation of an emissions quota induces an increase in emissions in the period between the policy's

  6. Priorities of Municipal Policy Makers in Relation to Physical Activity and the Built Environment: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L; Goins, Karin Valentine; Anatchkova, Milena; Brownson, Ross C; Evenson, Kelly; Maddock, Jay; Clausen, Kristian E; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2016-01-01

    To examine policy makers' public policy priorities related to physical activity and the built environment, identify classes of policy makers based on priorities using latent class analysis, and assess factors associated with class membership. Cross-sectional survey data from municipal officials in 94 cities and towns across 6 US states were analyzed. Participants (N = 423) were elected or appointed municipal officials spanning public health, planning, transportation/public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, and city management. Participants rated the importance of 11 policy areas (public health, physical activity, obesity, economic development, livability, climate change, air quality, natural resource conservation, traffic congestion, traffic safety, and needs of vulnerable populations) in their daily job responsibilities. Latent class analysis was used to determine response patterns and identify distinct classes based on officials' priorities. Logistic regression models assessed participant characteristics associated with class membership. Four classes of officials based on policy priorities emerged: (1) economic development and livability; (2) economic development and traffic concerns; (3) public health; and (4) general (all policy areas rated as highly important). Compared with class 4, officials in classes 1 and 3 were more likely to have a graduate degree, officials in class 2 were less likely to be in a public health job/department, and officials in class 3 were more likely to be in a public health job/department. Findings can guide public health professionals in framing discussions with policy makers to maximize physical activity potential of public policy initiatives, particularly economic development.

  7. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  8. Policies for sustainable development: The case of governmental agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, most national policies, including enterprise policies addressing environmental issues, have focused on the possible negative effects of environmental policy on firm competitiveness. Thus the belief among the business community has been fuelled that environmental aspects of business...... behaviour can only be seen as a negative burden detrimental to competitiveness. In opposition to this, a new, green national enterprise strategy has been developed in Denmark. This strategy seems to challenge the traditional approach by focusing instead on the positive side of the environmental agenda......, which assumingly rests on the belief that environmental issues need to be addressed as strategic assets for the firms. Put differently, instead of seeing the business community as obstructive enemies that have to be 'forced' to become greener, firms are seen as cooperative partners who can and have...

  9. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that

  10. Monetary Policies for Developing Countries; The Role of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Haizhou Huang; Shang-Jin Wei

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the role of corruption in the design of monetary policies for developing countries in a framework of fiscal and monetary interaction and obtains several interesting results. First, pegged exchange rates, currency boards, or dollarization, while often prescribed as a solution to the problem of a lack of credibility for developing countries, is typically not credible in countries with serious corruption. Second, the optimal degree of conservatism for a Rogoff (1985)-type cen...

  11. Economic Liberalization as Development Policy: the Contemporary Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Dejene Mamo Bekana

    2011-01-01

    The essay argues that the influential neoliberal economic philosophers assume that market and price mechanisms should be promoted to achieve economic development and calls for economic liberalization undermining the role of policy instruments. The essay challenges the presuppositions of these arguments. It maintains that Selective liberalization should be pursued by governments after development of regulatory and institutional frameworks that enable governments to monitor market operation and...

  12. Learning and Development Policy available on HR web

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The full text of CERN’s “Learning and Development Policy” is now available in English and French on the HR training website: cern.ch/hr-training/. This new policy was presented to all personnel in the HR Public meeting held on Monday 25 June, and the slides and the video recording remain available on Indico. Pascale Goy, Head of the Learning and Development Group in HR, is available for more information: pascale.goy@cern.ch , tel. 62232.

  13. A national public health programme on gambling policy development in New Zealand: insights from a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi; Landon, Jason; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2018-03-06

    In New Zealand, a public health programme on gambling policy development is part of a national gambling harm reduction and prevention strategy mandated by the Gambling Act 2003. Funded by the Ministry of Health, the programme directs workplace/organisational gambling policies, non-gambling fundraising policies, and local council policies on electronic gaming machines (EGMs). We carried out a process evaluation of this programme to identify practical information (e.g. advocacy approaches; challenges and ameliorating strategies) that can be used by programme planners and implementers to reinforce programme effectiveness and serve to guide similar policy-focused public health initiatives elsewhere. Evaluation criteria, based on the programme's official service specifications, guided our evaluation questions, analysis and reporting. To identify informative aspects of programme delivery, we thematically analysed over 100 six-monthly implementer progress reports (representing 3 years of programme delivery) and transcript of a focus group with public health staff. Identified output-related themes included purposeful awareness raising to build understanding about gambling harms and the need for harm-reduction policies and stakeholder relationship development. Outcome-related themes included enhanced community awareness about gambling harms, community involvement in policy development, some workplace/organisational policy development, and some influences on council EGM policies. Non-gambling fundraising policy development was not common. The programme offers an unprecedented gambling harm reduction approach. Although complex (due to its three distinct policy focus areas targeting different sectors) and challenging (due to the extensive time and resources needed to develop relationships and overcome counteractive views), the programme resulted in some policy development. Encouraging workplace/organisational policy development requires increased awareness of costs to

  14. Why are common quality and development policies needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alandes, M.; Abad, A.; Dini, L.; Guerrero, P.

    2012-12-01

    The EMI project is based on the collaboration of four major middleware projects in Europe, all already developing middleware products and having their pre-existing strategies for developing, releasing and controlling their software artefacts. In total, the EMI project is made up of about thirty development individual teams, called “Product Teams” in EMI. A Product Team is responsible for the entire lifecycle of specific products or small groups of tightly coupled products, including the development of test-suites to be peer reviewed within the overall certification process. The Quality Assurance in EMI (European Middleware Initiative), as requested by the grid infrastructures and the EU funding agency, must support the teams in providing uniform releases and interoperable middleware distributions, with a common degree of verification and validation of the software and with metrics and objective criteria to compare product quality and evolution over time. In order to achieve these goals, the QA team in EMI has defined and now it monitors the development work and release with a set of comprehensive policies covering all aspects of a software project such as packaging, configuration, documentation, certification, release management and testing. This contribution will present with practical and useful examples the achievements, problems encountered and lessons learned in the definition, implementation and review of Quality Assurance and Development policies. It also describes how these policies have been implemented in the EMI project including the benefits and difficulties encountered by the developers in the project. The main value of this contribution is that all the policies explained are not depending on EMI or grid environments and can be used by any software project.

  15. Why are common quality and development policies needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alandes, M; Abad, A; Dini, L; Guerrero, P

    2012-01-01

    The EMI project is based on the collaboration of four major middleware projects in Europe, all already developing middleware products and having their pre-existing strategies for developing, releasing and controlling their software artefacts. In total, the EMI project is made up of about thirty development individual teams, called “Product Teams” in EMI. A Product Team is responsible for the entire lifecycle of specific products or small groups of tightly coupled products, including the development of test-suites to be peer reviewed within the overall certification process. The Quality Assurance in EMI (European Middleware Initiative), as requested by the grid infrastructures and the EU funding agency, must support the teams in providing uniform releases and interoperable middleware distributions, with a common degree of verification and validation of the software and with metrics and objective criteria to compare product quality and evolution over time. In order to achieve these goals, the QA team in EMI has defined and now it monitors the development work and release with a set of comprehensive policies covering all aspects of a software project such as packaging, configuration, documentation, certification, release management and testing. This contribution will present with practical and useful examples the achievements, problems encountered and lessons learned in the definition, implementation and review of Quality Assurance and Development policies. It also describes how these policies have been implemented in the EMI project including the benefits and difficulties encountered by the developers in the project. The main value of this contribution is that all the policies explained are not depending on EMI or grid environments and can be used by any software project.

  16. Economic Motives for Adopting LGBT-Related Workplace Policies (Updated)

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Over ninety percent of the 100 top companies in the U.S.—the top 50 federal contractors and the top 50 Fortune 500 companies—have policies prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation, and 78% of the companies have policies prohibiting discrimination based on gender identity. In comparison to a 2011 study, based on 2010 data, there has been a 50% increase in the number of top federal contractors with gender identity non-discrimination policies and a 26% increase in the number of top...

  17. Impacts of licensed premises trading hour policies on alcohol-related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An; Prodan, Ante; Livingston, Michael; Knowles, Dylan; O'Donnell, Eloise; Room, Robin; Indig, Devon; Page, Andrew; McDonnell, Geoff; Wiggers, John

    2018-02-03

    Evaluations of alcohol policy changes demonstrate that restriction of trading hours of both 'on'- and 'off'-licence venues can be an effective means of reducing rates of alcohol-related harm. Despite this, the effects of different trading hour policy options over time, accounting for different contexts and demographic characteristics, and the common co-occurrence of other harm reduction strategies in trading hour policy initiatives, are difficult to estimate. The aim of this study was to use dynamic simulation modelling to compare estimated impacts over time of a range of trading hour policy options on various indicators of acute alcohol-related harm. An agent-based model of alcohol consumption in New South Wales, Australia was developed using existing research evidence, analysis of available data and a structured approach to incorporating expert opinion. Five policy scenarios were simulated, including restrictions to trading hours of on-licence venues and extensions to trading hours of bottle shops. The impact of the scenarios on four measures of alcohol-related harm were considered: total acute harms, alcohol-related violence, emergency department (ED) presentations and hospitalizations. Simulation of a 3 a.m. (rather than 5 a.m.) closing time resulted in an estimated 12.3 ± 2.4% reduction in total acute alcohol-related harms, a 7.9 ± 0.8% reduction in violence, an 11.9 ± 2.1% reduction in ED presentations and a 9.5 ± 1.8% reduction in hospitalizations. Further reductions were achieved simulating a 1 a.m. closing time, including a 17.5 ± 1.1% reduction in alcohol-related violence. Simulated extensions to bottle shop trading hours resulted in increases in rates of all four measures of harm, although most of the effects came from increasing operating hours from 10 p.m. to 11 p.m. An agent-based simulation model suggests that restricting trading hours of licensed venues reduces rates of alcohol-related harm and extending trading hours of bottle

  18. Assessing Coherence between Sector Policies and Climate Compatible Development: Opportunities for Triple Wins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Antwi-Agyei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate Compatible Development (CCD aims to deliver adaptation and mitigation without compromising development progress. To date, adaptation, mitigation and development related to key climate-sensitive sectors have often been treated separately. This paper uses qualitative document analysis, content analysis, expert interviews and a multi-stakeholder workshop to: examine the extent to which policies in climate-sensitive sectors align in framing adaptation, mitigation and development action; and identify key areas of policy coherence in Ghana. The paper answers the following questions: (i To what extent are Ghana’s agriculture, energy, water, forest and wildlife sector policies aligned with climate adaptation, mitigation and development? (ii What is the extent of policy coherence amongst climate-sensitive sector policies? (iii Where are the key intervention points available to enhance CCD activities? Findings demonstrate that Ghana’s climate-sensitive sector policies in agriculture, water, energy, forest and wildlife arenas have elements that demonstrate good alignment with adaptation, mitigation, and development priorities. However, as yet, there is only “limited coherence” between climate-sensitive sector policies. The paper identifies the following intervention points: (i the need to attach greater importance to the threat posed by climate change to agriculture; and (ii the need to address the lack of inter-agency and inter-ministerial approaches for building partnerships with other stakeholders. Multi-stakeholder workshop discussions highlighted significant challenges relating to limited coordination amongst institutions and agencies, limited institutional capacity and a lack of resources in ensuring coherence. This requires strengthening of national institutions such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA to provide appropriate mechanisms to ensure effective collaboration amongst climate-sensitive sectors to deliver

  19. 32 CFR 552.34 - Policies relative to new acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... civilian economy. This policy will permit consideration of public preferences in the establishment of... Recommendations. Bureau of the Budget Circular No. A-10, as revised, places restrictions on disclosure of Agency...

  20. Development of an Internet Security Policy for health care establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilioudis, C; Pangalos, G

    2000-01-01

    The Internet provides unprecedented opportunities for interaction and data sharing among health care providers, patients and researchers. However, the advantages provided by the Internet come with a significantly greater element of risk to the confidentiality and integrity of information. This paper defines the basic security requirements that must be addressed in order to use the Internet to safely transmit patient and/or other sensitive Health Care information. It describes a suitable Internet Security Policy for Health Care Establishments and provides the set of technical measures that are needed for its implementation. The proposed security policy and technical approaches have been based on an extensive study of the related recommendations from the security and standard groups both in EU amid USA and our related work and experience. The results have been utilized in the framework of the Intranet Health Clinic project, where the use of the Internet for the transmission of sensitive Health Care information is of vital importance.

  1. Align, share responsibility and collaborate: potential considerations to aid in e-health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaban, Nouran; Day, Karen; Orr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Policies that support strategic development and implementation are related to health ICT implementation successes. This research aimed to explore the question, 'Why have we not seen more successful ICT implementation in healthcare, and what does policy have to do with success?' Healthcare systems are faced with rising costs, increased prevalence of chronic diseases and diminishing resources. E-health initiatives have gained acceptance in addressing these crucial health sector issues. National governments and healthcare organisations are finding it necessary to have health Information and Communications Technology (ICT) systems in place. However, poorly developed health information policies, lack of a clear business plan and ineffective leadership contribute to failure of ICT implementation in healthcare. This study uses a Grounded Theory approach, in which a series of data gathering activities will be completed. The first author attended the Health Information Management & Systems Society (HIMSS) Policy Summit in the USA in 2011. Five Summit participants were approached individually and informally discussed the 'meaningful use' policy and how it influences ICT implementation in healthcare. Field notes were made and analysed for themes relating to the research question. There were three overlapping concepts that all of the participants indicated as primary considerations for policymakers. The alignment aspect stresses the need to align e-health initiatives with overall health policy, ensuring that e-health is incorporated with other healthcare investments. The shared responsibility theme involves the need for e-health initiatives to be recognised as a priority along all levels of government, i.e. local, state, federal, and national. This stresses the importance of health ICT development and implementation in a joint government direction. The last theme is collaboration with stakeholders, including clear division of tasks and clarity about technical and non

  2. Financial Policy as an Instrument of Socio-economic Development of a Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamenko Iryna P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in showing the economic essence and identification of directions of increase of efficiency of the financial policy as an instrument of socio-economic development of the country. The article describes theoretical aspects, methodological principles and forms of ordering and improving financial relations. It identifies specific features of formation and realisation of financial policy of foreign countries. It shows that development of the strategy of efficient financial policy in the system of state regulation of economy under conditions of financial globalisation lies in formation of the model of financial relations, which would facilitate realisation of a complex of goals and tasks in the strategy of the society development; priorities of the financial policy should be determined on the basis of a complex approach in the context of formation of the financial policy concept with consideration of detection and analysis of exogenous and endogenous factors, which identify processes of the society development, and consideration of hierarchical components of the state system of priorities.

  3. The Development of Land Information Policies in the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Parker, John R.

    2005-01-01

    of ?The Development of Land Information Policies in the Americas?. FIG was tasked with taking the lead role in planning and arranging the Special Forum. The objective of this inter-regional forum was to establish an awareness of the economic and social value for decision makers, of the importance......As a result of a resolution at the Seventh United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for the Americas (UNRCCA) held in January 2001 in New York, a Special Forum was hosted by the Government of Mexico through INEGI at their headquarters in Aguascalientes on 26 and 27 October 2004 with a theme...... of developing land policies that effectively and efficiently incorporate appropriate spatial data infrastructures, including an understanding of the value of integrating the land administration/cadastre/land registration function with the topographic mapping function. This paper presents an overview...

  4. All projects related to | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This pilot project is one of four pilots exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, a prospective program that would support evidence-based policy engagement on the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Region: South Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan.

  5. All projects related to | Page 7 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This is one of four pilot projects exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, a prospective program that would support evidence-based policy engagement on the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Region: South of Sahara, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia.

  6. All projects related to | Page 135 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-21

    Although many developing countries are working on appropriate mechanisms for financing adaptation to combat climate-related problems, there is a great need for research and insight to support these efforts. End Date: August 21, 2017. Topic: POLICY MAKING, Capacity building, METHODOLOGY, DATA ANALYSIS, ...

  7. All projects related to Pakistan | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This pilot project is one of four pilots exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, a prospective program that would support evidence-based policy engagement on the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Region: South Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan.

  8. Promoting LGBT health and wellbeing through inclusive policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daley Andrea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we argue the importance of including gender and sexually diverse populations in policy development towards a more inclusive form of health promotion. We emphasize the need to address the broad health and wellbeing issues and needs of LGBT people, rather than exclusively using an illness-based focus such as HIV/AIDS. We critically examine the limitations of population health, the social determinants of health (SDOH, and public health goals, in light of the lack of recognition of gender and sexually diverse individuals and communities. By first acknowledging the unique health and social care needs of LGBT people, then employing anti-oppressive, critical and intersectional analyses we offer recommendations for how to make population health perspectives, public health goals, and the design of public health promotion policy more inclusive of gender and sexual diversity. In health promotion research and practice, representation matters. It matters which populations are being targeted for health promotion interventions and for what purposes, and it matters which populations are being overlooked. In Canada, current health promotion policy is informed by population health and social determinants of health (SDOH perspectives, as demonstrated by Public Health Goals for Canada. With Canada's multicultural makeup comes the challenge of ensuring that diverse populations are equitably and effectively recognized in public health and health promotion policy.

  9. Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy Institute sur les questions de paix, de violence et de développement. Alors que la paix, la violence et le développement représentent des défis de taille au Pakistan, ils constituent rarement le point de mire pour l'élaboration de politiques. De surcroît, les étudiants ...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  11. Wind power in Taiwan: Policy and development challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Hwa Meei

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is in discussing the outcome of the government's policies aimed at promoting the wind power industry. By analyzing the policies on renewable energy and the direct and indirect support mechanisms, the author reviews the achievements, limitations and strategies faced during their various stages. This research discovered that the series of measures adopted between 2000 and 2005 including installation plans, financial incentives, feed-in tariffs, export credit subsidies and R and D, helped to initiate the early steps of private investment, and allow domestic wind capacity to see stable growth. After 2005 with more clear goals set for wind energy installed capacity policies, R and D and industrial cooperation mechanisms, there was even greater breakthrough in limited market, enabling Taiwan's fledgling wind power industry to take its first steps onto the international production chain. In particular, the passing of the Renewable Energy Development Act in 2009 incited rapid growth in the domestic market as well as driving further development in the domestic wind energy industry. Overall, in current stage there is a need to get a handle on the gap still existing between international technology and market and that in Taiwan, in order to strategically develop a competitive advantage globally. - Highlights: → Taiwan wind power industries are still in the early forming stages.→ There are direct and indirect policy incentives for promoting the wind power.→ In the short term, R and D will focus on forecasting technology and on key components.→ In the mid-term, small to mid-scale wind power generators are appreciated.→ Currently, developing offshore WP, the MW WP turbine equipment is the key strategies.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF FRANCHISING IN CROATIA OBSTACLES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alpeza, Mirela; Erceg, Aleksandar; Oberman Peterka, Sunčica

    2015-01-01

    Franchising is very popular growth model but despite the wide application of franchising in the developed countries of the world, its impact on the Croatian economy is still marginal. The purpose of this research is to identify the obstacles and challenges to a wider application of franchising in Croatia and generate policy recommendations for removing the identified obstacles. Obstacles and recommendations are identified on the basis of a conducted longitudinal qualitative research, the firs...

  13. Promoting LGBT health and wellbeing through inclusive policy development

    OpenAIRE

    Mul?, Nick J; Ross, Lori E; Deeprose, Barry; Jackson, Beth E; Daley, Andrea; Travers, Anna; Moore, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we argue the importance of including gender and sexually diverse populations in policy development towards a more inclusive form of health promotion. We emphasize the need to address the broad health and wellbeing issues and needs of LGBT people, rather than exclusively using an illness-based focus such as HIV/AIDS. We critically examine the limitations of population health, the social determinants of health (SDOH), and public health goals, in light of the lack of recog...

  14. Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grâce à cette subvention, le Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SPDI) sera en mesure de former un groupe de diplômés et de jeunes professionnels afin qu'ils puissent réaliser des recherches en sciences sociales au Pakistan et en Asie du Sud. Le programme comportera un volet théorique et des travaux pratiques ...

  15. Wind power in Taiwan: Policy and development challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Hwa Meei, E-mail: liouhm@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Technology Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-15

    The main aim of this paper is in discussing the outcome of the government's policies aimed at promoting the wind power industry. By analyzing the policies on renewable energy and the direct and indirect support mechanisms, the author reviews the achievements, limitations and strategies faced during their various stages. This research discovered that the series of measures adopted between 2000 and 2005 including installation plans, financial incentives, feed-in tariffs, export credit subsidies and R and D, helped to initiate the early steps of private investment, and allow domestic wind capacity to see stable growth. After 2005 with more clear goals set for wind energy installed capacity policies, R and D and industrial cooperation mechanisms, there was even greater breakthrough in limited market, enabling Taiwan's fledgling wind power industry to take its first steps onto the international production chain. In particular, the passing of the Renewable Energy Development Act in 2009 incited rapid growth in the domestic market as well as driving further development in the domestic wind energy industry. Overall, in current stage there is a need to get a handle on the gap still existing between international technology and market and that in Taiwan, in order to strategically develop a competitive advantage globally. - Highlights: > Taiwan wind power industries are still in the early forming stages.> There are direct and indirect policy incentives for promoting the wind power.> In the short term, R and D will focus on forecasting technology and on key components.> In the mid-term, small to mid-scale wind power generators are appreciated.> Currently, developing offshore WP, the MW WP turbine equipment is the key strategies.

  16. Sport Governance and Policy Development: An Ethical Approach to Managing Sport in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Thomas H.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    "Sport Governance and Policy Development" is written with the sport management student in mind. Designed to address the curriculum standards set by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education and the North American Society for Sport Management, this book provides information to meet core and related competency areas required for the…

  17. Policy networking as capacity building : An analysis of regional road development conflict in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Winarso, Haryo; Woltjer, Johan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the potential of policy networking as an important aspect of capacity building. It deals with a road development project related to the regional planning issue of North Bandung Area (NBA), a water catchment area facing the expansion of Bandung Metropolitan Area, West Java,

  18. The new philanthropy : private power in international development policy?\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael; Stone, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the role and function of philanthropy in international development policy. Philanthropy has deep roots in international development and its present influence is far from novel. Yet changes in the political economy of development finance, including growing private aid flows and continuing strain on the bilateral and multilateral aid systems, have increased its relative importance. Simultaneously, newly emerging foundations have financed novel institutional mechanisms for ...

  19. Canada's energy perspectives and policies for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Karen; Li, Xianguo

    2009-01-01

    A regression analysis is performed to make projections for the Canadian energy production and consumption. These have been increasing and are projected to increase even further in the near future. The primary energy production and consumption are projected to increase by 52% and 34%, respectively, by 2025 over 2004 if business as usual. The amount of fossil energy resources is finite and the extraction, transportation and combustion of fossil fuels cause environmental pollution and climate change. On the other hand, energy plays an important role in the economic and social development of Canada. Canada can develop further from an energy balance point of view, but this alone cannot be sustainable, because of the negative consequences of the major energy use on the environment. Application of energy localization and diversification is a promising solution, but in order to reach that, better energy efficiency and more use of renewable energy are necessary. Instead of non-compulsory policies Canada's policy approach should have more compulsory policies. Only then Canada can be made to develop further in a sustainable manner. (author)

  20. 29 CFR 1604.10 - Employment policies relating to pregnancy and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment policies relating to pregnancy and childbirth... COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.10 Employment policies relating to pregnancy... employment applicants or employees because of pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions is in prima...

  1. Developing a decision support system to link health technology assessment (HTA) reports to the health system policies in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Jadidfard, Mohammad-Pooyan

    2017-05-01

    The recent increase of 'Health Technology Assessment' (HTA)-related activities in Iran has necessitated the clarification of policy-making process based on the HTA reports. This study aimed to develop a Decision Support System (DSS) in order to adopt evidence-informed policies regarding health technologies in Iran. The study can be classified as Health Policy and Systems Research. A core panel of seven experts conducted two separate reviews of relevant literature for: 1- Determining the potential technology-related policies. 2- Listing the criteria influencing those policy decisions. The policies and criteria were separately discussed and subsequently rated for appropriateness and necessity during two expert meetings in 2013. In the next step, The 'Discrete Choice Experiment' (DCE) method was employed to develop the DSS for the final technology-related policies. Accordingly, the core panel members independently rated the appropriateness of each policy for 30 virtual technologies based on the random values assigned to all the criteria for each technology. The obtained data for each policy were separately analysed using stepwise regression model, resulting in a minimal set of independent and statistically significant criteria contributing in the experts' judgments about the appropriateness of that policy. The obtained regression coefficients were used as the relative weights of the different levels of the final criteria of any policy statement, shaping the decision support scoring tool for each policy. The study has outlined 64 policy decisions under 7 macro policy areas concerning a health technology. Also, 34 criteria used for making those policy decisions have been organized within a portfolio. DCE, using stepwise regression, resulted in 64 scoring tools shaping the DSS for all HTA-related policies. Both the results and methodology of the study may serve as a guide for policy makers (researchers), particularly in low and middle income countries, in developing

  2. Urban development in developing countries: analysing current policies for Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Hugh; Mandal, Anindita

    2011-01-01

    Urban areas in developing countries have been growing exponentially. In a list of cities with 5 million people or more, Mumbai did not feature in 1950, but in 1975 it occupied the 15th position which changed to 5th in 2000 and is expected to be 3rd by 2015. The rapid and continued growth of Mumbai and its sprawling metropolitan regions has put considerable strain on the city’s infrastructure and caused environmental degradation. Not only is Mumbai one of the most crowded cities in the wor...

  3. Social Protection as Development Policy: A New International Agenda for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Merrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the millennium, social protection became a new priority for both states of the global South and international development policy more generally. As, in the past, social protection policies were considered unsuitable for development countries, the elevation of social protection to the level of a preferred instrument of development marks a fundamental paradigm shift. This shift began in the late 1990s, driven by disenchantment with the results of economic adjustment programmes, the 1997 Asian economic crisis, and a heightened awareness of the negative effects of global poverty. Social protection thus became a preferred instrument of the Millennium Development Goals, while the World Bank promoted social protection as a key component of international poverty reduction strategies (social risk management. The Department for International Development (DfID in the United Kingdom, along with other organisations, promoted a development model centred on the rights of the poor. Successful social protection programmes developed in the Global South – such as Brazilian and South African social pension schemes and conditional cash transfers (CCT established in Mexico and Brazil – were adopted as model programmes at the global level. The purpose of this article is to analyse the emergence of social protection in development policies. From this perspective, it examines the various types of programmes promoted by the international community, with a specific focus on CCT. It concludes with an assessment of the relative appropriateness of social protection policies for developing countries.

  4. Effects of agricultural development policies on migration in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, N; White, M J; Simkins, C; Babakol, O

    1990-02-01

    State planning plays a central role in Malaysia's social and economic development. The government's rural development policies are designed to promote agricultural incomes and help counterbalance ethnic inequalities. The Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) implements one of the internationally most successful land development and resettlement programs. In this article, we quantify the impact of FELDA settlements on local out-migration rates, linking macro and micro approaches and using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey, national censuses, and other sources. A model of instantaneous migration rates specifies an individual's migration rate as a function of individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, the level of urbanization of the origin and destination, and the extent of rural development at the district of current residence. Our results show that in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the existence of rural development centers in a district reduced the levels of out-migration to pre-1965 levels.

  5. DEVELOPMENT POLICIES IN ALBA IULIA AREA OF INFLUENCE. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. NICULA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Development Policies in Alba Iulia Area of Influence. An Integrated Approach. The paper represents an integrated and holarchical perspective on the spatial development policies and its component measures and projects related to the City of Alba Iulia, its area of influence and the all-encompassing County of Alba, Romania. The goal was to see how the development and management policies from all levels merge into a single strategic framework that might create a favourable basis for the sustainable growth of Alba Iulia and its area of influence. As this area surrounding the city is subjected to different hierarchical plans and programmes, some that are not properly correlated, it is extremely clear that this area and Areas of Influence in general need legislative stipulations made specifically for them and also a well-thought holarchical planning approach.

  6. Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Bilharz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of renewable energy in Germany from 1973 to 2003. It investigates the relative importance of energy policy and green power marketing in shaping the renewable energy market. More than a decade of consistent policy support for renewables under the feed-in law (StrEG) and its successor (EEG) has been an important driver for increasing renewable electricity generation to date, putting the country in a better position than most of its peers when it comes to achieving European Union targets for renewable energy. Green power marketing driven by customer demand, on the other hand, is growing, but has had limited measurable impact so far. We discuss potential intangible benefits of green power marketing and scenarios for future market development. The paper concludes with lessons that can be learned from the German case for policy design and market development in other countries

  7. Business Model Canvas and Strategies to Develop Biodiesel Industry of PT. XYZ in Order to Implement CPO Supporting Fund Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Aman Mustika; Rina Oktaviani; Sukardi Sukardi

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as one of the alternative eco-friendly fuels. Besides, the government also issued policy related to biodiesel that is CPO Supporting Fund (CSF) Policy. The aim of the research is to identify Business model canvas (BMC) biodiesel industry in PT XYZ and to know the strategies to develop business from biodiesel industry in line with the CPO supporting fund policy. The analysis tool used in this research is BMC, SWOT and Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM). The r...

  8. Migration Related to Climate Change: Impact, Challenges and Proposed Policy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Migration of human population possesses a great threat to human development and nation building. A significant cause for migration is due to change in climatic conditions and vulnerabilities associated with it. Our case study focuses on the consequent reason and impact of such migration in the coastal areas of West Bengal, India. The changes in rainfall pattern and the variation of temperature have been considered as parameters which have resulted in migration. It is worthy to note that the agricultural pattern has subsequently changed over the last two decades due to change in rainfall and temperature. India being an agriculture oriented economy, the changes in the meteorological variables have not only altered the rate of agricultural pattern but also the rate of migration. A proposed framework depicting relationship between changes in meteorological variables and the migration pattern, and an estimate of how the migration pattern is expected to change over the next century by utilizing the downscaled values of future rainfall and temperature has been analyzed. Moreover, various public policy frameworks has also been proposed through the study for addressing the challenges of migration related to climate change. The proposed public policy framework has been streamlined along the lines of various international treaties and conventions in order to integrate the policy initiatives through universalization of law and policy research.

  9. A climate for development. Climate change policy options for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoth-Ogendo, H.W.O.; Ojwang, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The seriousness of the potential impacts of climate change on development in Africa is now well recognized within, and increasingly outside, scientific circles. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a landmark in international environmental governance, providing a mechanism for exchange, negotiation and institution-building to re-direct development towards more efficient use of resources, especially energy. The message of 'A climate for Development' is that unless policy-makers fully understand both the international commitments made under the Convention and the essential national development priorities of their own countries, effective action on climate change is unlikely to be realized. The action needed, however, can at the same time stimulate capacity-building, planning and policy change which would strengthen the economic and ecological base of African countries. The climate change issue has hence brought us face to face with the urgency of the basic issues of sustainable development in Africa. The book discusses key issues that cut across all African countries, such as emissions and their impacts, financial resources and technology transfer for emissions abatement strategies. It then provides a sectoral analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and abatement options focusing on energy, industry, agriculture, forestry and transportation. The book concludes with guidelines for options which may be considered by African countries to ensure that climate change concerns are effectively dealt with in the context of their development priorities. 113 refs

  10. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 55710 - Enhancing Policies Relating to Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... restoration and enhancement, interpretation and educational services, enhancement of recreation opportunities..., Watershed Restoration and Enhancement Agreements. (For more background on the Forest Service's use of... Input Requested On Policy Needs The Forest Service is requesting public input with respect to Agency...

  12. Regulating biorisks: developing a coherent policy logic (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentzos, Filippa

    2007-03-01

    This is the second of two articles that empirically details the working practices of regulators charged with overseeing biological research. The first article considered how regulators from the Biological Agents Unit of the UK Health and Safety Executive went about implementing the British legislation controlling work with biological agents and genetically modified organisms prior to the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 and the ensuing anthrax letters in the U.S. This second article continues the investigation of the Biological Agents Unit's working practices by considering how its activities have changed and adapted to the new, post-9/11 policy and regulatory environment. The main argument put forward in the articles is that an understanding of the implementation processes--that is, the strategies adopted by regulatory agencies and the styles employed by agency regulators in their interactions with those regulated--is critical to developing a coherent policy logic for the emerging regulatory regime around biorisks.

  13. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  14. A Case for Rethinking Inclusive Education Policy Creation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer; Pillay, Hitendra; Tones, Megan; Nickerson, Julie; Carrington, Suzanne; Ioelu, Ailini

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of the development and implementation of the 2014 inclusive educational policy in Samoa. While Samoan culture is traditionally founded on inclusive social practices, rather than reflecting these practices in their policy, Samoan policy developers have been under pressure to adopt or borrow policy from…

  15. Quantitative and theoretical analysis of the joint Department of Energy-National Institute of Standards and Technology Energy-Related Inventions Program from 1975 to 1995: Implications for development of public policy toward innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevenstein, Jack Edward

    This dissertation presents 18 alternative models for computing the social rate of return (SRR) of the joint Department of Energy (DOE)-National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) from 1975 to 1995. The models differ on the on the choice of societal benefit, adjustments made to the benefits, accounting for initial investments in ERIP and annual program appropriations. Alternative quantitative measures of societal benefit include annual gross market sales of successfully commercialized ERIP-supported inventions, annual energy savings resulting from the use of such inventions, pollution-remediation cost reductions due to decreased carbon emissions from greenhouse gases associated with more efficient energy generation. SRR computation employs the net present value (NPV) model with the SRR being the discount rate that reduces the NPV of a stream of societal benefits to zero over a period of n years given an initial investment and annual program appropriations. The SRR is the total rate of return to the nation from public investment in ERIP. The data used for computation were assembled by Dr. Marilyn A. Brown and her staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract to DOE since 1985. Other data on energy use and carbon emission from greenhouse gas production come from official publications of DOE's Energy Information Administration. Mean ERIP SRR = 412.7% with standard deviation = +/-426.5%. The population of the SRR sample is accepted as normally distributed at an alpha = 0.05, using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. These SRR's, which appear reasonable in comparison with those computed by Professor Edwin Mansfield, (Wharton School) for inventions and by Dr. Gregory Tassey (NIST Chief Economist) for NIST programs supporting innovations in measurement technology, show a significant underinvestment in public service technology innovation evaluation programs for independent inventors and small technology

  16. The Impact of the Great Recession on Monetary and Fiscal Policy in Developed Market Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šehović Damir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the occurrence of the crisis in 2007, which caused the largest economic contraction since the Great Depression in the thirties, it has become evident that the previous understanding of strategies, effects and roles of monetary and fiscal policy should be redefined. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to illustrate a possible expected change in monetary and fiscal policy in developed market economies that could occur as a consequence of the Great Recession. Methods/Approach: The paper provides a comparative analysis of various primary economic variables related to the developed OECD countries, as well as the empirical testing of the selected theoretical assumptions. Results: The changes in monetary policy refer to the question of raising target inflation, considering a possible use of aggregate price level targeting and paying attention to the role of central banks in suppressing the formation of an asset bubble. The success of fiscal policy in attaining stabilization depends on the size of possible fiscal measures and creation of automatic stabilizers. Conclusions: For the most part, monetary and fiscal policies will still stay unchanged, although some segments of these policies need to be improved.

  17. Advancing sustainable development in Canada : policy issues and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliadis, P.; Slayen, S.

    2003-11-01

    This paper defined 7 policy-relevant issues that advance sustainable development in Canada. These were; (1) urban redesign, (2) freshwater management, (3) eco-region sustainability, (4) impacts of globalization on sustainable development in Canada, (5) designing signals and incentives that promote sustainable behaviour among citizens, (6) reducing the ecological burden of unsustainable lifestyles, and (7) international engagement in sustainable development. The authors questioned why these issues have not made greater progress, given that they have been on national and international agendas since 1972. They also questioned why it is so difficult to integrate environmental and economic signals. Finally, they examined whether enough ecological and political space can be provided to developing countries to achieve sustainable development while enhancing the standard of living in Canada and not threatening critical global systems. 173 refs

  18. Health in all policies in the partnership for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M. Buss

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article analyzes the dynamic interaction between the Health in All Policies (HiAP agenda and the ongoing implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. At the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, held in Rio de Janeiro in October 2011, the Rio Political Declaration pledged to use HiAP as a mechanism to address health inequities. In 2014, the Ministers of Health of the Region of the Americas approved a regional Plan of Action of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO that sought to call attention to the health consequences and benefits of policies and actions developed by other sectors. The HiAP approach seeks to integrate activities across the pillars of the sustainable development governance framework (economic, social, and environmental development. Advocates of the process are challenged to consider, using guiding questions outlined at the close of this article, how to pursue action at the country level and in what ways the HiAP approach can contribute to timely and effective implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. The authors propose that coordination between the 2030 Agenda and the regional Plan of Action on HiAP can make an important contribution to the implementation of both processes in the Region.

  19. Condition of nuclear energy policy development in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudyma, A.; Piriashvili, B.; Khakimov, Y.; Khrushtchov, D.

    2000-01-01

    The preservation and strengthening of economic and political stability of the state depends first of all on the situation in the main branches of economy. One of such branches is the energy sector, whose level of development defines the place and the role of the state in the world community. On the other hand, the status of the energy sector, one of the major elements ensuring political and economic stability, determines energy security as well. Besides, the concept of energy sector development in general and nuclear energy in particular should be based on the real geopolitical situation, which Ukraine has faced after USSR disintegration. Therefore, the energy policy development is the most important link in the development of the state itself, for importance of this policy goes far beyond the frameworks of the energy sector. Besides, it is necessary to note, that the new geopolitical conditions have abruptly changed the course of economic and social development of the country. Frist of all, it was reflected in the significant drop of its energy security that resulted in: first sharp fall own fuel resources production and electric power generation; second significant reduction in inflow of energy resources to Ukraine. Such situation is stipulated by the general drop in the demand for power resources due to general fall in industrial and agricultural production, as well as by the sharp decrease in own energy resources production and absence of sufficient financial means for the acquisition of the deficient power resources import

  20. Comparing Czech and Slovak Council Newspapers’ Policy and Regulation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Waschkova Cisarova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Council newspapers form an integral part of European media systems and, as such, have been analysed for their important contribution to the development of local politics. However, despite a recognition of the media’s important democratic function in the transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE after the fall of socialism, the consideration of council newspapers’ political role in the Czech Republic and Slovakia have been largely absent in debates surrounding the development of regulatory frameworks until recently. Interestingly, debates regarding local government transparency emerged recently (2011 in the United Kingdom, resulting in the Code of recommended practice on local authority publicity, underscoring the importance of this issue. However, developments in the aforementioned situations demonstrate divergent outcomes in such considerations: the British addressed the causes, the Czechs addressed the symptoms, and the Slovaks have yet to make any headway. This article utilizes qualitative analysis of policy and regulation documents to compare the trajectories of media policy and regulation of council publicity in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, ultimately contrasting it with developments in the UK, suggesting possible future trajectories for the development of this type of regulation in the CEE countries.

  1. Policy-dependent determinants of several important health problems and related actors in policy-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucht F van der; Jansen J; NsPh; VTV

    2002-01-01

    The exploratory study reported on here investigated the possibilities offered by intersectoral (health) policy. The study consisted of two parts. First, a broad description was given of determinants of five health problems (cancer, Chronic non specific lung disease (CNSLD), heart disease, injury due

  2. A Policy Analysis of Student Attendance Standards Related to State Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and complementary policies. Developing a smart mix for ambitious climate policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2010-06-15

    . Closer examination of the practical implementation of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) shows very clearly that substantial differences to an ideal type of emissions trading scheme have to be taken into account, which can or should only be eliminated in the longer term or, for practical reasons, not at all. Further, analysis of the market development of the EU ETS up to now demonstrates that a strategic, robustly developed climate policy which meets the ambitiousness described also has to factor in the possibility that an emissions trading scheme cannot produce any long-term scarcity signals for different reasons (e.g. continual opportunities for revision in democratic systems, operational realities) and can thus always only serve the - essential - purpose of clearing emission reduction options close to the market which are available in the short to medium term.

  4. Citizen empowerment in the domestic waste policy development in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiukynas, Andrius; Survila, Arvydas; Smalskys, Vainius

    2017-04-01

    Lithuania offers an interesting case of lagging in terms of domestic waste recycling in the European context. Despite the adoption of all relevant EU regulation, including a pricing system, which is designed to be more conducive for recycling. One important group of policy instruments which in the application of which Lithuania needs to improve, is public participation in environmental governance. The objective of this study is to relate the means of public participation and the decision-making on waste management and recycling outcomes. The study consisted of two stages. Stage one: key decision-making public agencies responsible for policy formulation and implementation of domestic waste management were identified. Later, an analysis of public available documentation covering decision-making in these institutions was conducted with the aim to measure the level of citizen engagement. Stage two: agency managers and staff responsible for citizen engagement were interviewed with the goal of evaluating their attitudes. Attitudes of officials are a crucial for a successful citizen engagement. The results showed that officials recognized very little the value of citizen engagement. They perceived contribution as an the creation of additional challenges to be tackled with, rather than help to lower service delivery costs and improve policy effectiveness. This renders the government with a depleted number of options of improving domestic waste management to "top-down" measures and imposition of financial incentives or costs.

  5. Development, health, and international policy: the research and innovation dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Chamas, Claudia; Faid, Miriam; Morel, Carlos

    2016-11-03

    This text main objective is to discuss development and health from the perspective of the influence of global health governance, using as the tracer the dimension of research, development, and innovation policies in health, which relate to both important inputs for the health system, like drugs and medicines, vaccines, diagnostic reagents, and equipment, and innovative concepts and practices for the improvement of health systems and public health. The authors examine the two main macro-processes that influence development and health: the post-2015 Development Agenda and the process under way in the World Health Organization concerning research and development, intellectual property, and access to health inputs. The article concludes, first, that much remains to be done for the Agenda to truly represent a coherent and viable international political pact, and that the two macro-processes related to innovation in health need to be streamlined. But this requires democratization of participation by the main stakeholders - patients and the general population of the poorest countries - since this is the only way to overcome a "zero sum" result in the clash in the current debates among member State representatives. Resumo: O objetivo central deste texto é discutir desenvolvimento e saúde sob a ótica da influência da governança da saúde global, utilizando como traçador a dimensão das políticas de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação em saúde, que se referem, de um lado, a insumos importantes para o sistema de saúde - como fármacos e medicamentos, vacinas, reativos para diagnóstico e equipamentos e, de outro, a conceitos e práticas inovadoras para o aperfeiçoamento dos sistemas de saúde e da saúde pública. Examina os dois principais macroprocessos que influenciam o desenvolvimento e a saúde: a Agenda do Desenvolvimento para o pós-2015 e o processo sobre pesquisa e desenvolvimento, propriedade intelectual e acesso a insumos em saúde em curso na Organiza

  6. Social Analysis in Development Interventions: Policy Artefact or Constructive Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANNA PRICE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently attention has focused on the role of social researchers in the processes of construction and transmission of knowledge about global poverty and its reduction. This paper examines some of the formative efforts by pioneering social researchers in development institutions to step into the realm of policy making to construct processes for project preparation and management through social analysis. Before 1970 development planners invoked ‘social' or ‘human' factors only as an excuse to explain away project failures - they designed and implemented development projects in the absence of any strategies or regulatory frameworks for managing their social impacts. Recognizing that project investments represent induced change and constitute a social process in themselves, pioneering social researchers constructed policies and procedures to introduce sociological content and method into the project cycle and so re-order social outcomes. Were such constructs merely policy artefacts? Even as the constructs helped to shift the statements of the development discourse towards ‘people oriented' poverty reduction, new modalities appeared which tested the limits of the agreed methods. Institutions may forget, neglect, contest or re-write the documents if in perceived conflict with the institutional ‘core business'. Yet those pioneering efforts created institutional space for, and understanding of, social analysis, with a measure of flow-on international recognition. Tracking social analysis in several international institutions and in a significant emerging economy, China, this paper highlights not only a history full of lessons to be learned where social analysis is not practiced systematically but also outlines some future challenges.

  7. Evaluation of the Policy of the Creative Industry for Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yun Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture, an intellectual capital of a city, is accumulated through the intellect and wisdom of the government, citizens, businesses and other organizations. Cities regardless of their size are seeking their own distinguishing features and positions. By combining culture and creativity to improve international visibility, cities can develop new potentials, create job opportunities and boost economic growth. Therefore, cultural and creative industries have become the core industries that cities worldwide actively seek to develop; furthermore, various city governments have unanimously agreed that the creative industry will effectively improve urban economic competitiveness. This study investigated how the creative industry improved urban competitiveness, developed relevant assessment indexes and formulated policies for developing the creative industry. First, the fuzzy Delphi method was adopted to determine the indexes for assessing the creative industry’s positive influence on urban competitiveness. Subsequently, the analytic hierarchy process and the analytic network process were integrated to establish a model for assessing city-based creative industry development policies. City governments seeking to promote such policies can refer to this model. Finally, an importance-performance analysis was performed to investigate the satisfaction for policies related to creative industries, providing a reference for governments to promote pertinent policies. The results of this study indicated that the indexes of innovation capability, industrial cooperation, innovation incubation and industry-government-academia integration are crucial bases for cities to develop the creative industry. In addition, the policies of industrial R&D and clustering, talent training and industrial consulting and expanding industrial and marketing channels and networks can be adopted to enhance creative industry development.

  8. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, Number 49

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    This serial report contains translations from the world press and radio relating to worldwide political, economic and technical developments in telecommunications, computers, and satellite communications...

  9. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development No. 48

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    This serial report contains translations from the world press and radio relating to worldwide political, economic and technical developments in telecommunications, computers, and satellite communications...

  10. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, Number 53

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    This serial report contains translations from the world press and radio relating to worldwide political, economic and technical developments in telecommunications, computers, and satellite communications...

  11. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ...; ] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 2 CFR Chapters I and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and... for the Proposed Guidance on Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements... Assistance Reform please visit www.cfo.gov/cofar . Daniel I. Werfel, Controller. BILLING CODE P ...

  12. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  13. Agrofuels policy in Colombia: expectations and rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejia Alfonso Sandra Liliana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The debate over the current biofuels policy has two positions: first, those considering it as an alternative aimed at reducing dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming; secondly, those who argue about the distributional conflicts that can bring socio-environmental adoption of these policies at local level. This article presents the national policy settings and scenarios of biofuel production based on agro-energy projects, which are used raw materials such as palm oil to produce biodiesel, sugar cane, sugar loaf cane and cassava for the distillation of ethanol. Thus regional dynamics observed that intersect with the new rural environment in the Colombian countryside connection between the local and global that generate expectations to achieve rural development goals.

  14. [Health promotion policy and urban planning: joint efforts for the development of healthy cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Francisco, Lauro Luiz; Mattos, Thiago Pedrosa

    2016-06-01

    The National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) defines strategies for devising inter-sectoral public policies that ensure the development of healthy cities. Urban planning constitutes a tool to improve the quality of life and enhance health promotion. Using the studies and cooperation actions conducted by the Urban Research Laboratory (LABINUR/FEC-Unicamp) as a reference, this article describes relevant aspects of the PNPS that have an interface with urban planning policies in Brazil. An increase in interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral measures related to the new PNPS after the passing of Ordinance 2.446/14 was identified, which include: mobility and accessibility; safe development (sanitation, housing and transport); healthy eating with social inclusion and reduction of poverty (community vegetable gardens); corporal activities and physical exercise and the enhancement of urban spaces. The conclusion drawn is that social participation, inter-sectoral activities and the role of the university are important aspects for the promotion of healthy cities.

  15. Disempowered doctors? A relational view of public health policy implementation in urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Kabir; Porter, John D H

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the nature of power relationships between urban hospital practitioners and other groups of actors involved in the implementation of public health policies in India, and the effects of enacting different strategies to strengthen implementation, in the context of these balances of power. It is based on an empirical research study conducted over 18 months in five Indian cities involving 61 in-depth interviews with medical practitioners and policy actors, and an interpretivist analytical approach. An issue case study-of the implementation of national HIV testing guidelines-was used to focus the interviews on specific events and phenomena. Respondents' accounts revealed that practitioners in both private and government hospitals tended to successfully resist or subvert the attempts of regulators and administrators to enforce the guidelines. However, in spite of often possessing perspectives and convictions that differed from the nationally sanctioned guidelines, practitioners were not able to effectively communicate these ideas to other health systems actors, or introduce them into mainstream policy discourse. The metaphor of public health guideline implementation throws light on the problematical nature of the power possessed by medical practitioners in relation to public health systems in India. Even as practitioners wield 'negative' power in their ability to resist authority, they appear to lack the 'positive' power to contribute intellectually to the policy process. This mix of political obduracy and intellectual demoralization among practitioners also underpins a subtle trend in public health, of the separation of the world of ideas from the world of actions. Study findings highlight that stronger regulations and provisions for accountability in Indian health systems critically need to be balanced by measures to develop collective intellectual capital and include the voices of frontline practitioners in public health policy discourse.

  16. Urban development transitions and their implications for poverty reduction and policy planning in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mukwaya, Paul Isolo; Sengendo, Hannington; Lwasa, Shuaib

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the critical global trends shaping the future of humanity. At the same time, it has been argued that full development requires an urbanized environment. This paper attempts to examine and characterize the major phases of urbanization in Uganda and what this means for urban policy planning and poverty reduction in the country. Although the history of urbanization in Uganda is relatively young compared to other East African countries, the rate of urban development is repo...

  17. An Examination of the Perceived Importance and Skills Related to Policies and Policy Making Among State Public Health Injury Prevention Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liller, Karen D; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Castrucci, Brian; Wingate, Martha Slay; Hilson, Renata; Mendez, Dara; Cilenti, Dorothy; Raskind, Ilana

    The purpose of this research is to use the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey to assess in greater detail state injury prevention staff perceptions of policy development and related skills and their awareness and perception of "Health in All Policies" (HiAP). The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey gauged public health practitioners' perspectives on workplace environment, job satisfaction, national trends, and training needs, and gathered demographics on the workforce. This study utilizes data from the state health agency frame only, focusing solely on those permanently employed, central office staff in injury prevention. Respondents were sampled from 5 paired Health and Human Services regions. Approximately 25 000 invitations were sent to central office employees. The response rate was 46% (n = 10 246). The analysis in this article includes only injury prevention employees with programmatic roles, excluding clerical and custodial staff, providing us with a total of 97 respondents. When weighted, this resulted in a weighted population size of 365 injury prevention workers. The main outcome measures include demographics, responses to understanding of and skill levels related to policy development, and perceptions of HiAP public health trend. State injury prevention workers reported lower policy-making skill but had an overall appreciation of the importance of policies. In general, state injury prevention workers heard of HiAP, thought there should be more emphasis on it, but did not think that HiAP would have an impact on their day-to-day work. Efforts are needed for all state injury prevention workers to become better skilled in policy development, implementation, and evaluation in order to become stronger injury prevention advocates and role models.

  18. Policy documents as sources for measuring societal impact: how often is climate change research mentioned in policy-related documents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Marx, Werner

    In the current UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), societal impact measurements are inherent parts of the national evaluation systems. In this study, we deal with a relatively new form of societal impact measurements. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy documents. We regard this data source as an interesting possibility to specifically measure the (societal) impact of research. Using a comprehensive dataset with publications on climate change as an example, we study the usefulness of the new data source for impact measurement. Only 1.2 % ( n  = 2341) out of 191,276 publications on climate change in the dataset have at least one policy mention. We further reveal that papers published in Nature and Science as well as from the areas "Earth and related environmental sciences" and "Social and economic geography" are especially relevant in the policy context. Given the low coverage of the climate change literature in policy documents, this study can be only a first attempt to study this new source of altmetrics data. Further empirical studies are necessary, because mentions in policy documents are of special interest in the use of altmetrics data for measuring target-oriented the broader impact of research.

  19. Methods and tools for integrated assessment of land use policies on sustainable development in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; König, H.; Feng, S.; Bezlepkina, I.; Nesheim, I.; Bonin, M.; Sghaier, M.; Purushothaman, S.; Sieber, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    For stimulating sustainable development in developing countries, land use patterns and land use changes are considered critical, and therefore effective and efficient land use policies are needed. In this paper we present a methodological framework that has been developed in a joint European and

  20. Impacts on the Common Agricultural Policy and on rural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, G.; Palz, W.

    1992-01-01

    In the 1980s the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) resulted in large surpluses of main agricultural products; dealing with these surpluses consumed large parts of the Commission's and Member States' budgets. To alleviate this problem, a proposal for alternative land use is presented here: large-scale exploitation of biomass for industrial and energy uses, at the level of 600 to 800 million tonnes of oil equivalent a year. The important benefits to arise from this activity will include: job creation in rural districts, solutions to environmental problems, and technologies applicable in developing countries. (author)

  1. Development of regulatory policy for SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Moo, Philip; Koh, B. J.; Son, M. K.; Han, G. H.; Kim, D. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    KAERI promoted the construction of a research reactor, SMART-P, the reduced scale of SMART, with intent to demonstrate the safety and performance of SMART. According to this progress, the development of regulatory process for SMART-P became necessary. The establishment of regulatory policy, based on the current regulatory guidelines as well as technical aspect, became essential matters. Considering the on-going small and medium size reactors in near future, the selection of the appropriate measure in the existing regulatory process to SMART-P is very important. Thus the schematic study for the applicable licensing procedure and regulatory requirements suitable for SMART-P is required.

  2. Development of regulatory policy for SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Moon, S. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Son, M. K.; Han, K. H.; Kim, D. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    KAERI promoted the construction of a research reactor, SMART-P, the reduced scale of SMART, with intent to demonstrate the safety and performance of SMART. According to this progress, the development of regulatory process for SMART-P became necessary. The establishment of regulatory policy, based on the current regulatory guidelines as well as technical aspect, became essential matters. Considering the on-going small and medium size reactors m near future, the selection of the appropriate measure in the existing regulatory process to SMART-P is very important. Thus the schematic study for the applicable licensing procedure and regulatory requirements suitable for SMART-P is required.

  3. Environmental Public Policies: Legalization and Judicial Activism for Sustainable De-velopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, we intend to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development.

  4. Intergenerational equity and governance in sustainable development policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faucheux, S.; Meral, P. [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Guyancourt (France). Centre d`Economie et d`Ethique pour l`Environnement et le Developpement

    1999-07-01

    With ecological globalization, environmental degradation has become a phenomenon capable of accentuating not only the sources of spatial and temporal conflicts, but also inter-and intragenerational inequities. In this context, it seems important, first of all, to explain the ways in which the taking into account of inter-generational equity in our societies` decisions constitutes a new challenge posing unresolved questions for decision makers. Secondly, we see that the implementation of effective policies for sustainable development (that is, taking real account of the long-term and of equity concerns), requires the development of new perspectives and practices in science and of new ``governance`` institutions capable of responding to these new challenges. Thirdly, we show that these changes imply, for economic analysis and the advice that can be offered by economists, a shift from a substantive rationality perspective towards a procedural rationality. This latter encourages the development of new analysis and decision support tools based on a wider sharing of information and efforts at reconciling different perspectives in the assessment of risks and equity concerns. This new rationality will be expressed as a process of debate and dialogue taking place continuously in all phases of the policy process. (orig.) 53 refs.

  5. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-07-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  6. All projects related to | Page 202 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INFORMATION SYSTEMS, INFORMATION POLICY, Internet, ACCESS TO INFORMATION, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, Economic and social development, CASE STUDIES, POLICY MAKING, RESEARCH CAPACITY, RESEARCH NETWORKS. Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Nepal, ...

  7. All projects related to | Page 412 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: GENDER ANALYSIS, Poverty, ECONOMIC POLICY, Economic and social development, DEVELOPMENT PLANNING. Region: India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 110,000.00. Harvesting Feminist Knowledge to Influence Public Policy. Project.

  8. Suicide Risk Response: Enhancing Patient Safety Through Development of Effective Institutional Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Laura; Felker, Bradford; Chaney, Edmund; Vollen, Karen; Berry, Karen; Revay, Barbara; Simon, Barbara; Kofoed, Lial; Ober, Scott; Worley, Linda

    2004-01-01

    A suicidal patient requires a prompt, coordinated intervention. In this paper, we describe a process for developing a suicidality policy, which may help clinics develop effective, locally adapted policies...

  9. 76 FR 53934 - Delegation of Authority for the Office of Policy Development and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ...In this notice, the Secretary of HUD delegates authority to the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research and supersedes any prior delegation of authority from the Secretary to the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research.

  10. The development of health policy in Malawi: The influence of context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the health policy field, a growing literature is attempting to understand the diverse responses of policy makers to research, and to explain why certain research findings make their way into policy while others are effectively ignored. In this paper we apply a policy analysis framework to the development of cotrimoxazole ...

  11. The Policy Implementation in Development Water Front City in District Senapelan Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panca Setyo Prihatin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Structuring urban areas, especially the Pekanbaru City, is necessary given the problem of development of Pekanbaru City is more and more complex and highly in need of a better arrangement, especially concerning on the improvement of the environment (Water Front City in Siak River surroundings. This is a descriptive qualitative research with population sample of the Office of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure of Pekanbaru City, Senapelan District Government, NGOs, community leaders, and private parties. Data are collected through interview, observation and documentation, which is then analyzed using qualitative analysis technique. This research finds that the policy of the development of Water Front City at Village Kampung Baru sub-district Senapelan Pekanbaru is not implemented optimally. This situation can be seen through a variety of indicators related to the implementation of development policies of Water Front City at Village Kampung Baru sub-district Senapelan Pekanbaru in that the effect of interest policies, benefits, desire for change, the process of decision-making, implementing programs and supporting resources have not been implemented effectively. The curbing factors in implementing development policies in the District Water Front City Senapelan Pekanbaru are mostly due to the lack of human resources, process of compensation and other inadequate financing, and managerial instruments that are unsupported to the implementation of development programs of Water Front City at Village Kampung Baru sub-district Senapelan Pekanbaru.

  12. Waste management policy development from the AEC to the DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoner, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the federal government's policy for the management of radioactive waste from its nuclear materials and weapon programs was, and is, to protect the health and safety of those working in these programs, the public and the environment. What has changed since the days of the Manhattan Project are the specific technical solutions pursued, the implementation schedules, and the projected cost to the American taxpayer. Although some of these changes are due to nontechnical and political issues, many have been the result of knowledge gained from research and development programs, scientific over-optimism, and an unrealistic appreciation of the cost and schedule impacts of required stakeholder involvement. The goal of this article is to review the development of waste management policy from the early days of the Atomic Energy Commission to the present. The current generation of policymakers, and their critics, will be greatly aided in their tasks if they have a general understanding of what events have occurred over the past half century that have led us to the current situation

  13. Insights to develop privacy policy for organization in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmaini, E.; Kusumasari, T. F.; Lubis, M.; Lubis, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the increased utilization of shared application in the network needs not only dictate to have enhanced security but also emphasize the need to balance its privacy protection and ease of use. Meanwhile, its accessibility and availability as the demand from organization service put privacy obligations become more complex process to be handled and controlled. Nonetheless, the underlying principles for privacy policy exist in Indonesian current laws, even though they spread across various article regulations. Religions, constitutions, statutes, regulations, custom and culture requirements still become the reference model to control the activity process for data collection and information sharing accordingly. Moreover, as the customer and organization often misinterpret their responsibilities and rights in the business function, process and level, the essential thing to be considered for professionals on how to articulate clearly the rules that manage their information gathering and distribution in a manner that translates into information system specification and requirements for developers and managers. This study focus on providing suggestion and recommendation to develop privacy policy based on descriptive analysis of 791 respondents on personal data protection in accordance with political and economic factor in Indonesia.

  14. Evaluating School Obesity-related Policies Using Surveillance Tools: Lessons from The ScOPE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nanney, Marilyn S.; Nelson, Toben F.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Coulter, Sara; Davey, Cynthia S.; MacLehose, Richard; Rode, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The evidence evaluating the association between school obestiy prevention policies and student weight is mixed. The lack of consistent findings may result, in part, from limited evaluation approaches. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the use of surveillance data to address methodological gaps and opportunities in the school policy evaluation literature using lessons from the School Obesity-related Policy Evaluation (ScOPE) study. The ScOPE study uses a repeated, cross-sectional study ...

  15. EFFECTS OF MONETARY - EXCHANGE POLICY TO DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVENESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radica Pavlović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia has one of the most important resources - agricultural resources, which are affected by the monetary - exchange policy, and that, as such, is the backbone of Serbia's economic development, which should be based on the exploitation of agricultural land since this resource puts our country in the region with expressed relative, comparative advantages in relation to a large number of countries. The rise in prices of agricultural products in the long period was much slower than the growth in the price level, which is the agricultural activity in the context of primary production was placed in a very disadvantageous position. The active fiscal policy, through excise taxes on petroleum products leads to higher costs in farming than in any other area. Consumption of petroleum products is the biggest expense that directly participate in the production process. Neither in terms of monetary -exchange policy situation is not favorable. The unreal exchange rate policy stimulated imports and discouraged real exports of agricultural product results in the "unrealistic" low productivity in this sector. In this regard, it is important to establish an appropriate economic policy through monetary, fiscal and exchange mechanism, in order to create a competitive advantage of agricultural production in this area.

  16. Social Policy Issues in Planning Major Development Projects: Rural Community Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Ruth M.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies social policy issues for rural communities affected by major development projects. Advocates increased attention in legislation by community workers and fuller recognition of social policy as a planning and development priority. Concludes that economics is still the major concern for development projects, rather than social policy. (BR)

  17. Compensation and Resettlement Policies after Compulsory Land Acquisition for Hydropower Development in Vietnam: Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Huu Ty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Under Vietnam’s State land ownership regime, the Government holds supreme authority over compulsory land acquisition. The results show that many improvements in land acquisition policies have been made, but poor implementation measures largely cannot prevent or even mitigate the adverse impacts on displaced persons. In particular, ineffective compensation measures and a lack of production land and livelihood alternatives accelerate the resistance of communities displaced as a result of hydropower development. The close alliance between the local government and the investor, which is considered as an “interest group”, is the main factor that leads to the ignorance of benefits of displaced people within the compulsory land acquisition process.

  18. Journal of Religion and Human Relations: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Journal of Religion and Human Relations (JORAHR) is an academic journal with focus on religious and human relations issues, but accommodates researches from other disciplines within academic spectrum. The African continent is the main focus.

  19. Development of Taiwanese government’s climate policy after the Kyoto protocol: Applying policy network theory as an analytical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2014-01-01

    Given its limited involvement in and recognition by international organizations, Taiwan is not presently a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or the Kyoto Protocol. The objective of this study is to analyze how and the extent to which changes in an exogenous factor, namely the Kyoto Protocol and Post-Kyoto climate negotiations, affect and ultimately lead to the formulation of and changes in the Taiwanese government's climate policy. This study applies policy network theory to examine the development of and changes in the Taiwanese government's climate policy. The results demonstrate that international climate agreements and negotiations play a key role in the development of, changes to, and transformation of Taiwan's climate policy. Scarce evidence was found in this study to demonstrate that domestic or internal factors affect climate change policy. Despite its lack of participation in the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, Taiwan has adopted national climate change strategies, action plans, and programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, these climate policies and measures are fairly passive and aim to only conform to the minimal requirements for developing countries under international climate agreements and negotiations. This process results in inconsistent and variable climate policies, targets, and regulations. - Highlights: • Taiwan is not a signatory to the UNFCCC or its Kyoto Protocol. • International climate agreements strongly affected Taiwan's climate policy. • Little evidence was found that domestic factors affect Taiwan's climate policy. • New climate policies, regulations, and laws are formulated and implemented. • Climate policies, targets, and regulations change frequently and are inconsistent

  20. Monitoring HIV-Related Laws and Policies: Lessons for AIDS and Global Health in Agenda 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mary Ann; Gruskin, Sofia; Buse, Kent; Erkkola, Taavi; Bendaud, Victoria; Alfvén, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    The National Commitments and Policy Instrument (NCPI) has been used to monitor AIDS-related laws and policies for over 10 years. What can be learnt from this process? Analyses draw on NCPI questionnaires, NCPI responses, the UNAIDS Law Database, survey data and responses to a 2014 survey on the NCPI. The NCPI provides the first and only systematic data on country self-reported national HIV laws and policies. High NCPI reporting rates and survey responses suggest the majority of countries consider the process relevant. Combined civil society and government engagement and reporting is integral to the NCPI. NCPI experience demonstrates its importance in describing the political and legal environment for the HIV response, for programmatic reviews and to stimulate dialogue among stakeholders, but there is a need for updating and in some instances to complement results with more objective quantitative data. We identify five areas that need to be updated in the next iteration of the NCPI and argue that the NCPI approach is relevant to participatory monitoring of targets in the health and other goals of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  1. Rural Health Care Access and Policy in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Roger; Kam, Sophia M; Regalado, Sophie M

    2016-01-01

    Compared to their urban counterparts, rural and remote inhabitants experience lower life expectancy and poorer health status. Nowhere is the worldwide shortage of health professionals more pronounced than in rural areas of developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) includes a disproportionately large number of developing countries; therefore, this article explores SSA in depth as an example. Using the conceptual framework of access to primary health care, sustainable rural health service models, rural health workforce supply, and policy implications, this article presents a review of the academic and gray literature as the basis for recommendations designed to achieve greater health equity. An alternative international standard for health professional education is recommended. Decision makers should draw upon the expertise of communities to identify community-specific health priorities and should build capacity to enable the recruitment and training of local students from underserviced areas to deliver quality health care in rural community settings.

  2. The Dutch sustainable building policy: A model for developing countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchert, Luciana [Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Lago, 876, CEP 05508.900, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    This article explores the institutionalization of environmental policies in the Dutch building sector and the applicability of the current model to developing countries. First, it analyzes the transition of sustainable building practices in the Netherlands from the 1970s until today, exploring how these were originally embedded in a discourse on 'de-modernization', which attempted to improve the environmental performance of building stocks by means of self-sufficient technologies, whereas nowadays they adopt a framework of 'ecological modernization', with integrative approaches seeking to improve the environmental performance of building stocks through more efficient-rather than self-sufficient-technologies. The study subsequently shows how the current Dutch sustainable building framework has thereby managed to achieve a pragmatic and widely accepted rationale, which can serve to orient the ecological restructuring of building stocks in developing countries. (author)

  3. The United Nations and Climate Change: Legal and Policy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Isabella D.

    2009-07-01

    The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon, has declared that climate change is "the defining challenge of our times." Climate change trends indicate increasingly severe negative impacts on the majority of countries, with disproportionate effects on poor and vulnerable populations. The scientific reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as the negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), have placed the issue on the forefront of the international agenda. This article examines how climate change is shaping legal and policy developments in five key areas of UN responsibility: international law, humanitarian affairs, human rights, development, and peace and security. It concludes with some observations about high-level efforts to coordinate the response of multilateral institutions, the changing stance of the US government, and the role of environmental protection in addressing the current global economic crisis.

  4. Developing Public Policy in Romania: Focusing Responsability, Authority and Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. RINGSMUTH

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of foreign friends visiting fellow democracies to observe and participate in the civic culture, has a long and distinguished tradition. Tocqueville’s visit to and observations of the United States nearly 200 years ago provide a lofty exemplar to which few could pretend to or attempt to duplicate or approach. Nothing in the following observations is meant to make such a pretense1 My journey in Romania has been and will be substantially less noted and notable, but my observations are offered with similar intentions. Rather they are meant in the spirit and offered with the hope that they might, in some small way, begin to make a contribution to the dialogue about the development of democracy and democratic institutions in Romania. In particular, here, I am concerned with Romania’s ability, will and means to develop public policy.

  5. Challenges to Science and Technology Development Policy in the European Integration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Novytsky

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on presentday aspects of Ukraine’s science and technology development policy in light of international phenomena and integration reali ties observed across the European continent. The author examines unique traits and practical challenges charac terizing an expansion of Ukraine — EU scientific and technological cooperation with the aim of improving the efficiency of Ukraine’s national economy and optimizing its international dimension. Special attention is paid to problems of adapting Ukraine’s technological policy to European standards, and relevant specific proposals are formulated. The article maintains that today’s advances in informa tion technology and the openness of national economies as a systemdeterminant factor of models of international cooperation broaden the scope of information technolo gies. Since telecommunications and other hitech sectors are vibrantly evolving not only in highly industrialized states but also in East European and other emerging mar ket economies, a key challenge for Ukraine appears to be lending better efficiency and productivity to its na tional policy of introducing information technologies into its socioeconomic sphere. The article provides insight into the international ex perience of the creation of technoparks and demonstrates the necessity of applying such innovation techniques of economic development to Ukraine.

  6. Support for food policy initiatives is associated with knowledge of obesity-related cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Watson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate community support for government-led policy initiatives to positively influence the food environment, and to identify whether there is a relationship between support for food policy initiatives and awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle risk factors and cancer. Methods: An online survey of knowledge of cancer risk factors and attitudes to policy initiatives that influence the food environment was completed by 2474 adults from New South Wales, Australia. The proportion of participants in support of seven food policy initiatives was quantified in relation to awareness of the link between obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity with cancer and other health conditions. Results: Overall, policies that involved taxing unhealthy foods received the least support (41.5%. Support was highest for introducing a colour-coded food labelling system (85.9%, restricting claims being made about the health benefits of foods which are, overall, unhealthy (82.6%, displaying health warning labels on unhealthy foods (78.7% and banning unhealthy food advertising that targets children (72.6%. Participants who were aware that obesity-related lifestyle factors are related to cancer were significantly more likely to support food policy initiatives than those who were unaware. Only 17.5% of participants were aware that obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity are linked to cancer. Conclusions: There is strong support for all policies related to food labelling and a policy banning unhealthy food advertising to children. Support for food policy initiatives that positively influence the food environment was higher among those who were aware of the link between cancer and obesity-related lifestyle factors than among those who were unaware of this link. Increasing awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle factors and cancer

  7. Social policies related to parenthood and capabilities of Slovenian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrčela, Aleksandra Kanjuo; Sadar, Nevenka Černigoj

    2011-01-01

    We apply Sen's capability approach to evaluate the capabilities of Slovenian parents to reconcile paid work and family in the context of the transition to a market economy. We examine how different levels of capabilities together affect the work–life balance (WLB) of employed parents. We combine both quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches. The results of our quantitative and qualitative research show that increased precariousness of employment and intensification of work create gaps between the legal and normative possibilities for successful reconciliation strategies and actual use of such arrangements in Slovenia. The existing social policies and the acceptance of gender equality in the sphere of paid work enhance capabilities for reconciliation of paid work and parenthood, whereas the intensification of working lives, the dominance of paid work over other parts of life, and the acceptance of gender inequalities in parental and household responsibilities limit parents’ capabilities to achieve WLB.

  8. Russia and the CIS: Relations of Foreign or Domestic Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesáreo R. Aguilera de Prat

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available What role does the Community of Independent States (CIS currently have in the area that was once called the Soviet Union, in particular in Russia’s so-called “near abroad”? The CIS was, to start with, little more than a liquidating committee of Soviet inheritance.This hybrid entity may be defined as a specific type of union among officially sovereign States that have few decision making mechanisms. For Russia its policy towards the “near abroad” is a priority given this country’s geostrategic interests in this area. The paperanalyzes some of the economic imperatives and the military’s participation in peacekeeping missions that have favored, up to a point, a “russification” of the CIS.

  9. The Development of Consumer Protection Policies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Fazli Sabri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian government envisions Malaysia as an inclusive and sustainable high-income nation by 2020. The definition of “high income” is per capita income of USD15, 000 or MYR48, 000, based on the World Bank’s current definition of “high income”. The objective is not merely a quantitative target; it is also about Malaysia being an advanced and developed nation with an economy having the characteristics of developed nations. Advancements in information and communication technology (ICT and globalization have resulted in the evolution of a more complex and challenging marketplace. As today’s consumers are constantly faced with a bewildering array of goods and services in the market, consumers must be equipped with an elevated level of consumerism knowledge and skills. Malaysian consumers thus need to be kept in touch with developments in the market, enabling them to act and decide effectively, to ensure that they develop as more empowered, savvy and resilient consumers now and after Malaysia transforms into a developed nation. However, without the government’s intervention to protect consumers through adequate legislations and enforcement, the aim of creating “empowered consumers” will not be realized. This paper aims to discuss the development of consumer protection policies in Malaysia.

  10. Possible Approach to the Energy Policy Principles for the Sustainable Development in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekanic, I.

    1998-01-01

    The main problem of the contemporary energy policy is the equilibrium between the development or energy consumption growth and the environmental protection. Moreover, the conservation of natural resources, not only their exploitation, should be the primary goal of the natural resource management strategy. The article present the basic principles of the newly created natural resources management strategy, which includes energy policy changes towards energy conservation and rational energy use, environmental protection and optimisation of energy use related to the environment. The general system of environmental protection in energy industries is also included into energy policy, as well as the changes of the structure of energy use in favour of increased energy efficiency, and natural gas utilisation in the Republic of Croatia. (author)

  11. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  12. Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China

  13. FISCAL POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTIN SAVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policies in the current era are the sovereign right of states to collect and administer taxes on national territory. In this respect, the European Union, which is an association of independent states, did not created an European tax - although many politicians proposing it - and within the Union is found important differences between the tax systems of member states. Due to historical and national different traditions, the EU member states have heterogeneous tax systems and revenue sharing systems because of different conceptions of public policies relative to the role of state in social and economic respective community’s life. The financing of public spending is usually considered the main function of taxation. In the original tradition following Locke1, property protection is the main functions of the state. As a result, the tax must correspond to the services rendered, that is to say, to pay the State for the protection of the rights it provides. Here we are at the origin of the doctrine of the benefit that there should be equivalence between the utility derived by the citizens of public services they consume and the "price" they pay tax.

  14. Iran: Current Developments and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    While continuing previous U.S. Administrations' policies of containing Iran while pursuing limited engagement with it, the Bush Administration is evaluating whether or not to move toward a regime change policy, and how to...

  15. Solving China's environmental problems: policy options from the Working Group on Environment in U.S.-China Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the main themes, funding needs, and policy options of the Working Group on the Environment in US-China Relations that was created in November 1996. Meetings are chaired by members of the Council of Foreign Relations and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The 40+ member Working Group is coordinated by the Environmental Change and Security Project and the Woodrow Wilson Center's Asia Program. It offers a forum for discussion of environmental and foreign policy concerns. The aims are to identify important environmental and sustainable development issues related to US and Chinese interests; to develop creative strategies for government and nongovernment projects between the US and China; and to discuss strategies for using environmental issues for building improved relations between countries. Monthly meetings focus on energy issues, water quantity and quality, funds for environmental protection, and biodiversity issues. The group meetings emphasize the themes of multilateral cooperation, local Chinese environmental issues of significance to the US, and obstacles to cooperation on US-led projects within China. Improved relations may be achieved by articulation of a coherent China policy with explicit goals and guidelines, provision of funding, and linking local environmental problems with global ones. The US should support private business in marketing environmental technology and assist in the development of policy changes in the energy and water sectors in China. China needs improved irrigation techniques and comprehensive watershed management plans.

  16. An assessment of the role of government health related policies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achieving good oral health is now considered an important component of good health for any population and the inclusion of an oral health component in national health policies is a good strategy for promoting oral health. This paper sought to examine the existing health-related policies of the Nigerian government in order ...

  17. School District Wellness Policy Quality and Weight-Related Outcomes among High School Students in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between…

  18. Tracking health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghnath Dhimal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs comprise of 17 goals and 169 targets. All SDGs are interlinked to produce synergetic eff ects and emphasize health in all policies. Among the 17 Goals, Goal 3 has a central focus on health, which is underpinned by 13 targets. The other 16 goals are also directly or indirectly related to health and will contribute to achieving the associated targets for Goal 3. The ambitious SDG agenda and their progress can be tracked by measuring numerous goals, targets, and indicators. The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview about how health- related SDGs and their targets and indicators are being tracked in the national context of Nepal. Adequate investment in research for knowledge generation, capacity building and innovation, and continous research communication among policy makers, researchers and external development partners will contribute to tracking the progress of SDGs in Nepal.

  19. The development of anthropology and colonial policy in the Netherlands: 1800-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, R F

    1976-10-01

    Although there have been studies of both Dutch colonial policy in the Indies and the development of anthropology in the Netherlands, there has been no systematic examination of the historical relations between them. This paper attempts this for a period of 160 years from the collapse of the Dutch East India Company to the birth of an independent Indonesian state. During this time, the need of successive governments for information on subject peoples was matched by the requirements of scholars for suitable conditions and locations for their work. As Dutch anthropology emerged in the nineteenth century and developed in the twentieth it was closely related to the prevailing political climate--state capitalism, liberal, and ethical policies. The analysis shows how there is a 'fit' between these and certain dominant anthropological styles and interests, principally in the form of empiricism, customy law studies, "Leiden" structuralism, and functionalism.

  20. Evaluating the Relative Impact of Monetary and Fiscal Policy in Nigeria using the St. Louis Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adebayo Ajayi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The controversy existing on the efficacy of monetary and fiscal policy to influence the economy is unending. This study evaluates the relative impact of monetary and fiscal policy in Nigeria from 1986 to 2014 using a modified St. Louis equation. Employing the Ordinary Least Squares estimation method, this study reveals that growth in money supply and export have a positive and significant effect on growth in output of the economy while growth in government expenditure has a negative and insignificant effect. This study provides evidence that monetary policy has a greater growth-stimulating effect on the economy than fiscal policy. It recommends that monetary policy rather than fiscal policy should be relied upon by the Nigerian government as an economic stabilisation tool.

  1. All projects related to | Page 389 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    Project. The Association for Progressive Communication (APC) is repositioning itself in relation to information and communication technology (ICT) policy research. Start Date: March 1, 2010. End Date: July 1, 2012. Topic: APPLIED RESEARCH, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH, INFORMATION SOCIETY, POLICY MAKING.

  2. All projects related to | Page 252 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    , strengthen the foreign policy community in the national capital region, and include younger professionals in ongoing work. Start Date: March 1, 2012. End Date: February 28, 2015. Topic: FOREIGN RELATIONS, FOREIGN POLICY, Capacity ...

  3. Informing public health policy through deliberative public engagement: perceived impact on participants and citizen-government relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molster, Caron; Potts, Ayla; McNamara, Beverley; Youngs, Leanne; Maxwell, Susannah; Dawkins, Hugh; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative public engagement has been proposed for policy development, where issues are complex and there are diverse public perspectives and low awareness of competing issues. Scholars suggest a range of potential outcomes for citizens and government agencies from involvement in such processes. Few studies have examined outcomes from the perspective of citizen participants in deliberative processes. To examine participant perceptions of their involvement in and outcomes of a deliberative engagement exercise. A case study using semistructured interviews was conducted with participants following a deliberative forum on biobanking. From their involvement in the deliberative exercise, participants described transformations in their knowledge and beliefs about the policy issues. They reported being more informed to the extent of having confidence to educate others and effectively contribute to public policy development. They had developed greater trust in government policymakers who they believed would take reasonable account of their recommendations. We conclude that the participants were satisfied with the outcomes of the deliberative public engagement process and viewed it as an effective means of citizen involvement in public policy development. Particularly for citizens who participate in deliberative processes, such processes may promote active citizenship, empower citizens to undertake representative and educative roles, and improve relations between citizens and government agencies. Actions taken by policymakers subsequent to the deliberative exercise, whereby the majority of citizen recommendations were incorporated in the policy developed, may have contributed to participants holding sustained levels of trust in the commissioning government agency.

  4. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Block Miguel A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is

  5. Developing Local Emergency Management by Co-Ordination Between Municipalities in Policy Networks: Experiences from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Palm, Jenny; Ramsell, Elina

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to increase our understanding of how co-operation in inter-municipality policy networks in a Swedish region is established and maintained regarding emergency management. We discuss how a network of five municipalities emerged and took shape. Overall, we conclude that co-ordination and co-operation in municipal emergency management are probably relatively easy to develop, because it is easy for the involved actors to see the benefits. Sharing resources is seen as crucial when e...

  6. Contested ‘relational policy spaces’ in two European border regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörry, Sabine; Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border cooperation to promote economic development and political integration has been among the EU’s key themes since the 1990s, and contemporary policy networks are considered useful organisational solutions. Focusing on transport policies in the border regions of Basel and Luxembourg, we...

  7. Using Future Research Methods in Analysing Policies Relating to Open Distance Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoe, Mpine Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Many African countries have developed policies to reform their education system in order to widen participation in higher education. To achieve this, open, online and distance education based models have been advocated as the most viable delivery tools in expanding access to higher education. However, the policy analysis of Kenya, Rwanda and…

  8. Energy policies and politics for sustainable world-system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    by Euratom (Woodman 2003). A political approach to preconditions for sustainable energy policies is finally developed from (a) Barry Commoner's critique of 1979 of president Carter's energy plan followed by the impasse of the Reagan era with the US government's retreat from federal energy and environmental...... politics, put into perspective by (b) R.C.-Dupont 1993 as the movement of the US in a field of tension between eco- and geopolitics; and (c) a 2006 declaration of ten former environmental ministers to end the nuclear age and to reform the UN mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency.......  Analytically, (a) Barry Commoner's theses of 1976 on the connections between energy, environmental and economic crises are discussed from thermo-dynamical inefficiencies through sector analyses to barriers of energy reform, actualized by (b) the contribution of Sterling 2002 reminding upon...

  9. Developing Policy for Urban Autonomous Vehicles: Impact on Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An important problem for surface transport is road traffic congestion, which is ubiquitous and difficult to mitigate. Accordingly, a question for policymakers is the possible impact on congestion of autonomous vehicles. It seems likely that the main impact of vehicle automation will not be seen until driverless vehicles are sufficiently safe for use amid general traffic on urban streets. Shared use driverless vehicles could reduce the cost of taxis and a wider range of public transport vehicles could be economic. Individually owned autonomous vehicles would have the ability to travel unoccupied and may need to be regulated where this might add to congestion. It is possible that autonomous vehicles could provide mobility services at lower cost and wider scope, such that private car use in urban areas could decline and congestion reduce. City authorities should be alert to these possibilities in developing transport policy.

  10. Regional Comparison of Enteral Nutrition-Related Admission Policies in Skilled Nursing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgermaster, Marissa; Slattery, Eoin; Islam, Nafeesa; Ippolito, Paul R; Seres, David S

    2016-06-01

    Nursing home admission policies are one driver of increased and earlier gastrostomy placement, a procedure that is not always medically or ethically indicated among patients needing short-term nutrition support. This important clinical decision should be based upon patient prognosis, goals, and needs. We compared nursing home enteral nutrition-related admission policies in New York City and other regions of the United States. We also explored motivations for these policies. We conducted a telephone survey with skilled nursing facility administrators in New York City and a random sample of facilities throughout the United States about enteral nutrition-related admission policies. Survey data were matched with publically available data about facility characteristics from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The relationship between facility location and admission policies was described with regression models. Reasons for these policies were thematically analyzed. New York City nursing homes were significantly less likely to admit patients with nasogastric feeding tubes than were nursing homes nationwide, after we controlled for facility characteristics (odds ratio = 0.111; 95% CI, 0.032-0.344). Reasons for refusing nasogastric tubes fell into 5 categories: safety, capacity, policy, perception of appropriate level of care, and patient quality of life. Our findings indicate that enteral nutrition-related admission policies vary greatly between nursing homes in New York City and nationwide. Many administrators cited safety and policy as factors guiding their institutional policies and practices, despite a lack of evidence. This gap in research, practice, and policy has implications for quality and cost of care, length of hospital stay, and patient morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  11. Policy-based benchmarking of weak heaps and their relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Asger; Edelkamp, Stefan; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2010-01-01

    ), and a run-relaxed weak queue that of both insert and decrease to O(1). As competitors to these structures, we considered a binary heap, a Fibonacci heap, and a pairing heap. Generic programming techniques were heavily used in the code development. For benchmarking purposes we developed several component...

  12. Influence of Port Policy on the Development of Croatian Container Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Dundović

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available It is important to consider the port development throughoutthe world from the aspect of economical, transport and portpolicy and their mutual impact on commerce and efficiency ofports. By examining such relations in the context of developmentof the Croatian container ports, it is possible to define reasonsfor lagging behind of Croatian ports compared to theworld movements.The main reason for the negative trend of development ofCroatian container ports lies in the non-existence of adequatemeasures of transport, maritime and port policy. Analysis ofstatistics over the past decade and comparison of structure andvolume of the general cargo traffic in the Rijeka port and theneighbouring ports in the area of North Adriatic are both showingsignificant size discrepancy and uncompetitiveness of theCroatian port. Disturbances that have brought to such a situationresult from inadequate port policy and non-harmonisedactivities between various modes of transport.In order to overcome such situation, the authors suggest determiningof clear tasks, goals and measures of the port policythat have to be undertaken so that the Croatian policy could becompatible with the main aspects, development tendencies andmeasures of theE U port policy.

  13. WHO policy development processes for a new vaccine: case study of malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie; Cárdenas, Vicky; Cheyne, James; Brooks, Alan

    2010-06-24

    Recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) are crucial to inform developing country decisions to use, or not, a new intervention. This article analysed the WHO policy development process to predict its course for a malaria vaccine. The decision-making processes for one malaria intervention and four vaccines were classified through (1) consultations with staff and expert advisors to WHO's Global Malaria Programme (GMP) and Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals Department (IVB); (2) analysis of the procedures and recommendations of the major policy-making bodies of these groups; (3) interviews with staff of partnerships working toward new vaccine availability; and (4) review and analyses of evidence informing key policy decisions. WHO policy formulation related to use of intermittent preventive treatment in infancy (IPTi) and the following vaccine interventions: Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib), pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rotavirus vaccine (RV), and human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV), five interventions which had relatively recently been through systematic WHO policy development processes as currently constituted, was analysed. Required information was categorized in three areas defined by a recent WHO publication on development of guidelines: safety and efficacy in relevant populations, implications for costs and population health, and localization of data to specific epidemiological situations. Data needs for a malaria vaccine include safety; the demonstration of efficacy in a range of epidemiological settings in the context of other malaria prevention interventions; and information on potential rebound in which disease increases subsequent to the intervention. In addition, a malaria vaccine would require attention to additional factors, such as costs and cost-effectiveness, supply and demand, impact of use on other interventions, and distribution issues. Although policy issues may be more complex for future vaccines

  14. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA. A REVIEW ON FEDERAL GOVERNMENT POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Azizan MARZUKI

    2010-01-01

    Tourism development in Malaysia began since 1960s. Embarking on the strategy to develop rural areas and provide diversity in national economy, tourism industry drastically become as the second most important sector after petroleum. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the progress of tourism development in Malaysia from the period of the First Malaysian Plan (1966-1970) until the Ninth Malaysian Plan (2006-2010). This paper is also discussed several approaches related to tourism ad...

  15. International agreements relating to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and implications for Dutch policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.; Kalaugher, E.; Bijman, J.

    2004-01-01

    Policy issues related to plant genetic resources are socially, technically and scientifically complex. This report summarises the international agreements and relevant bodies con-cerning plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), FAO

  16. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  17. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    .... policy makers appear to be adopting tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, expressing their concerns about strong PRC economic growth and a more assertive and influential diplomacy in the international...

  18. All projects related to | Page 384 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SMALL ENTERPRISES, MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, RESEARCH POLICY, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan, Singapore. Program: Networked Economies. Total Funding: CA$ 309,900.00. Toward Effective Policies for Innovation Financing ...

  19. Sports-related concussions - media, science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-08-01

    Although growing awareness about the potential long-term deleterious effects of sport-related concussion has led to increased attention to the risks of collision sports, calls to ban these sports, such as American football, might be premature. Collision sports have a relatively high incidence of concussions, but participation in these sports also confers a host of benefits. In addition, the associated risks of participation, including concussion, have not been definitively shown to outweigh the benefits they provide, and the risk-benefit ratio might vary among individuals. The risks of concussion and repetitive concussions associated with collision sports are unknown in the general population and not well characterized even in elite athlete populations. In this article, we discuss current knowledge on sports-related concussion, its neurological consequences, and implications for regulation of the practice of collision sports.

  20. Policies and practices in the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne W; Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility...... for their health-related reception. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark by focusing on the presence of municipal policies and practices, and to test for possible associations with these policies and practices....

  1. EU External Relations Law and the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    -historical context of political Union, this thesis first argues why coherence is an issue at all in EU external relations, and why law is integral to attaining the ever-enigmatic single voice of the European Union. Subsequently, the text examines the role of EU external relations law in attaining a coherent...... perspective, this approach was reasonably successful in involving different actors towards common objectives in the neighbourhood. However, coherence should be more than rhetorical gloss, and agreeing that a wide range of initiatives should be included in soft legal instruments is no guarantee for coherence...

  2. Land-Development Offset Policies in the Quest for Sustainability: What Can China Learn from Germany?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Tan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-development offset policies consist of measures that require compensation to be made for the negative impact of land development on agricultural production, ecological and environmental conservation, and the sustainability of economic and social development. However, when such policies are inappropriately designed, unexpected problems can result. This paper describes certain land-development offset policies that have recently been implemented in China, with a particular emphasis on three such policies: the Balancing Policy, the Linkage Policy, and the Integrated Policy. These well-intentioned environmental policies have led to unexpected ecological, social, and cultural problems. This paper also describes the core of German land-development policy, which features a distinctive compensation system that has been employed since the 1970s, and compares Chinese and German land-development policies to highlight differences in three main areas: policy purposes, governance structures, and fundamental institutions. The comparisons might help explain the unexpected outcomes in China, and they also lead to land-development offset policy recommendations for China in the near future.

  3. European meteorological data: contribution to research, development, and policy support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavetti, Irene; Karetsos, Sotiris; Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Panagos, Panos

    2014-08-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed Interpolated Meteorological Datasets available on a regular 25x25km grid both to the scientific community and the general public. Among others, the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets include daily maximum/minimum temperature, cumulated daily precipitation, evapotranspiration and wind speed. These datasets can be accessed through a web interface after a simple registration procedure. The Interpolated Meteorological Datasets also serve the Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS) at European level. The temporal coverage of the datasets is more than 30 years and the spatial coverage includes EU Member States, neighboring European countries, and the Mediterranean countries. The meteorological data are highly relevant for the development, implementation and assessment of a number of European Union (EU) policy areas: agriculture, soil protection, environment, agriculture, food security, energy, climate change. An online user survey has been carried out in order to assess the impact of the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets on research developments. More than 70% of the users have used the meteorological datasets for research purposes and more than 50% of the users have used those sources as main input for their models. The usefulness of the data scored more than 70% and it is interesting to note that around 25% of the users have published their scientific outputs based on the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets. Finally, the user feedback focuses mostly on improving the data distribution process as well as the visibility of the web platform.

  4. [Methodology for the development of policy brief in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Emily; Carrasco, José Miguel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2018-01-10

    A policy brief is a document that summarizes research to inform policy. In a brief and succinct way, it defines a policy problem, presents a synthesis of relevant evidence, identifies possible courses of action and makes recommendations or key points. The objective of this note is to describe the methodology used to produce a policy brief for communicating public health research. This note is based on the model presented by Eugene Bardach in addition to the authors' own experiences. We describe six steps: 1) identifying the audience; 2) defining the problem; 3) gathering information and evidence; 4) consideration of policy alternatives; 5) projecting results and designing recommendations; and 6) telling the story. We make a case for the use of policy briefs as a part of an overall communications strategy for research that aims to bring together research teams and stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Publicity as policy: the changing role of press and public relations at the BMA, 1940s-80s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between policy and publicity or public relations (PR) have been questioned since the emergence of professional public relations in the early-twentieth century. In the field of health and medicine organised PR activity began to flourish in the decades following World War Two. Its presence became evident in government departments, in professional associations, voluntary bodies and campaigning groups. Increasingly, policy decisions had to be publicly performed through rituals like the press conference. This chapter documents the development of press and PR activity at the British Medical Association (BMA) from the 1950s to the 1980s. The BMA provides a well-documented case, which can be used to suggest broader shifts in the association between policy and publicity.

  6. The abnormal distribution of development: policies for southern women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, E

    1995-03-01

    This paper offers a feminist critique of the relationships between gender and development by exploring the intersections between three sets of debates: firstly, the relations between interventions for women and for children through the anomalous position accorded to 'the girl child' in aid and development policies; secondly, the relations between psychological and economic models of development; and thirdly, the gendered and geographical allocation of attributes and opportunities. Drawing on analyses of the 'psychological complex' the author suggests that the cultural resources that inform developmental psychological models are highly cultural and class-specific (white, middle class, of the northern hemisphere), giving rise to a globalization of development that is reinscribed within international aid and development policies. In homogenizing difference to its norms, this globalization paradoxically reproduces the north-south opposition as an expression of cultural and political imperialism. While northern children 'develop', dominant discourses of children of the South are preoccupied with 'survival'. By such means the cultural hegemony of a unitary psychology remains intact. This paper discusses the 'abnormal distribution' of development to draw attention to the ways cultural and gender inequalities flow from the norms and generalized descriptions central to the current practice of developmental psychology and to urge that this is an important site of intervention for feminists addressing gender and development issues.

  7. How international oil and gas companies respond to local content policies in petroleum-producing developing countries: A narrative enquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoasong, Michael Zisuh

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses narrative analysis to critically examine the business practices used by five international oil and gas companies (IOCs) (Chevron, ExxonMobil, Shell, BP and Total) to respond to local content policies in petroleum-producing developing countries (Nigeria, Angola, Venezuela, Kazakhstan, Brazil, Indonesia, Yemen and Indonesia) during the period 2000–2012. The business practices include the formulation of local content strategies that are implemented through programmes and initiatives aimed at developing and using host country suppliers and workforce. Such practices and the narratives used to communicate them implicitly reflect the context in which the effectiveness of local content policies on economic development can be assessed. By comparing and contrasting the narratives across the five IOCs in relation to the wider literature, four emergent narrative strategies justifying the business practices of IOCs are identified and discussed. They include: (1) direct engagement to renegotiate local content requirements with governments, (2) legal compliance framework, (3) the business case for local content strategies, and (4) corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. The conclusion considers the policy implications of these findings for local content development in petroleum-producing developing countries. - Highlights: • Local content policies define the local context that shape IOCs’ business practices. • Provides a narrative analysis of the business practices of IOCs in developing countries. • IOCs use four narrative strategies to relate their business practices to local content policies. • The business practices of IOCs can determine the effectiveness of local content policies

  8. International migration and related policies in europe 1950-2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, R.

    2016-01-01

    Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a) its particular development in time; b) the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c) the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in

  9. EU policies in personalized medicine-related technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaisser, S.; Vignola-Gagné, E.; Hüsing, B.; Enzing, C.; Valk, T. van der

    2009-01-01

    Against the background of a number of first drug-diagnostic co-products developed and introduce into the European market, European decision-makers feel impelled to react and position themselves in the field of personalized medicine. Their reactions cover a broad range, from the analysis of knowledge

  10. Relation of School Environment and Policy to Adolescent Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Nefertiti; Harris, Sion K.; Doyle, Stephanie; Person, Sharina; Saelens, Brian E.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Norman, Gregory J.; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) declines as children and adolescents age. The purpose of this study was to examine how specific school factors relate to youth PA, TV viewing, and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A sample of 12- to 18-year-old adolescents in 3 cities (N = 165, 53% females, mean age 14.6 [plus or minus] 1.7 years, 44% nonwhite)…

  11. The Relative Efficiency of Agricultural Source Water Pollution Control Policies

    OpenAIRE

    James S. Shortle; James W. Dunn

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the relative expected efficiency of four general strategies which have been proposed for achieving agricultural nonpoint pollution abatement. Emphasis is placed on the implications of differential information about the costs of changes in farm management practices, the impracticality of accurate direct monitoring, and the stochastic nature of nonpoint pollution. The possibility of using hydrological models to reduce, but not eliminate, the uncertainty about the magnitude o...

  12. U.S.-China Relations: An Overview of Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    gas, carbon dioxide ( CO2 ). According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), China accounted for 24.1% of all global CO2 emissions in 2010, well...multilateral institutions; expanded relations with such “emerging powers” as India, Indonesia , and Vietnam; pursued a new relationship with Burma...ahead of the United States.143 The IEA reports that its preliminary estimates show China’s emissions grew 300 million tonnes (Mt), or 3.8%, in 2012

  13. The Relation Between Policies Concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Philosophical Moral Theories - An Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Claus Strue

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind...... of common-sense morality? In order to address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based on the empirical data I collected, I start by suggesting some normative arguments used by the respondents....... Secondly, I suggest that these moral arguments implicitly rely on some specific moral principles, which I characterise. Thirdly, on the basis of these moral principles, I suggest the moral theories upon which the CSR policies are built. Previous empirical studies examining the relation between...

  14. LGBT in the Military: Policy Development in Sweden 1944-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundevall, Fia; Persson, Alma

    This article contributes to the growing field of research on military LGBT policy development by exploring the case of Sweden, a non-NATO-member nation regarded as one of the most progressive in terms of the inclusion of LGBT personnel. Drawing on extensive archival work, the article shows that the story of LGBT policy development in the Swedish Armed Forces from 1944 to 2014 is one of long periods of status quo and relative silence, interrupted by leaps of rapid change, occasionally followed by the re-appearance of discriminatory policy. The analysis brings out two periods of significant change, 1971-1979 and 2000-2009, here described as turns in LGBT policy. During the first turn, the military medical regulation protocol's recommendation to exempt gay men from military service was the key issue. During these years, homosexuality was classified as mental illness, but in the military context it was largely framed in terms of security threats, both on a national level (due to the risk of blackmail) and for the individual homosexual (due to the homophobic military environment). In the second turn, the focus was increasingly shifted from the LGBT individual to the structures, targeting the military organization itself. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there was no ban against LGBT people serving in the Swedish Armed Forces, but that ways of understanding and regulating sexual orientation and gender identity have nonetheless shaped the military organization in fundamental ways, and continue to do so.

  15. Reductions in abortion-related mortality following policy reform: evidence from Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Janie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Unsafe abortion is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal mortality; however, abortion law and policy liberalization could lead to drops in unsafe abortion and related deaths. This review provides an analysis of changes in abortion mortality in three countries where significant policy reform and related service delivery occurred. Drawing on peer-reviewed literature, population data and grey literature on programs and policies, this paper demonstrates the policy and program changes that led to declines in abortion-related mortality in Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh. In all three countries, abortion policy liberalization was followed by implementation of safe abortion services and other reproductive health interventions. South Africa and Bangladesh trained mid-level providers to offer safe abortion and menstrual regulation services, respectively, Romania improved contraceptive policies and services, and Bangladesh made advances in emergency obstetric care and family planning. The findings point to the importance of multi-faceted and complementary reproductive health reforms in successful implementation of abortion policy reform.

  16. Language policy, translation and language development in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The language policy is usually inferred from the language practices that characterise various spheres of life. This article attempts to show how the language policy, which primarily influences text production in the country, has nurtured translation practice. The dominating role of English sees many texts, particularly technical ...

  17. Development crisis and ideological shift: Africa's economic policy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many countries of the world have undertaken a review of economic policy since the global economic crisis of 2008-2010. This has been the experience of many African states as well and a good number have assessed economic policy in line with global economic realities. This article examines the impact of the crisis on ...

  18. Energy policy. Developing strategies for energy policies in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, Judy A.; Fowler, James A.; Kime, Barry R.; McLaughlin, Brian T.; Price, Margaret W.; Adams, Charles M.; Grace, Paul O.; Kruslicky, Mary Ann; McGee, William F.

    1990-06-01

    protection and economic growth. On April 2, 1990, DOE issued its interim report on the national energy strategy, which outlined goals for the strategy, obstacles to achieving the goals, and options for resolving these obstacles. Between April and December 1990, DOE plans to analyze the information in the interim report along with other data to develop energy strategy options. These options will be considered for inclusion in the strategy to be released by the President in January 1991. The effort to develop a national energy strategy is a step in the right direction toward addressing the nation's future energy needs and the environmental and budgetary implications that should be considered when developing energy policies

  19. The role of bureaucratic expertise in nuclear waste policy: Agency power and policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkels, M.

    1989-01-01

    The role of agency expertise in the nuclear waste policy process is explored during three periods: (1) 1957-1959 when nuclear wastes entered the public agenda, (2) 1970-1972 when the Atomic Energy Commission attempted to establish a waste repository in Kansas, and (3) 1984-1986 during the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The study evaluated whether the preconditions for dependence on or deference to agency expertise have become less favorable, weakening agency control of the policy process. Five factors of expertise power are evaluated, beginning with the agency's role in the nuclear-energy and radioactive-waste information system. Perspectives on nuclear energy generally and of waste issues specifically are examined next; both indicate attitudes on the tractability of the problem and the likelihood of policy success. References to agency behavior and policies are used to evaluate views of agency competency. Finally, views of agency trustworthiness are examined through the comparison of portrayals of agency priorities and motivations. Agency expertise is evaluated in four contexts: (1) Congressional hearings, (2) nationally prominent newspapers, (3) journals of the scientific community, and (4) state and local papers of affected areas. State and tribal officials involved in the 1980s' nuclear waste policy process were surveyed also

  20. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…