WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy determining migration

  1. Human rights and migration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1990-01-01

    This paper concerns the history of migration, migration policies, and the rights of migrants in Latin America from 1500 to the present. In the first part of the article, the author identifies and discusses the basic rights of migrants. In the second part, migration policies, migration flows, and the treatment of migrants are examined over time.

  2. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, F

    1999-01-01

    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  3. International migration policies: conceptual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritz, M M

    1987-01-01

    Kritz reviews national concepts and policies of migration. She examines how nation-states approach migration and how they define who is a migrant. Policies for permanent, temporary, and illegal migrants are examined for selected countries. While the traditional permanent immigration countries--Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the US--continue to admit large numbers of permanent migrants, they are also admitting growing numbers of temporary migrants. Other countries, in Europe and the developing world, have different migration histories and use other approaches to admit foreigners--migrants are generally admitted on a temporary basis for work or other purposes. Growing numbers of these temporary migrants, however, do become long-term or permanent settlers, and the distinction between permanent and temporary migration policies becomes a short-term legal one rather than a long-term sociological one. Governments have been seeking those policy instruments that would allow them to improve control over who enters and settles in their territories, and temporary migration policies are the measures to which they are turning. While increasing restriction characterizes the policy stance of most countries toward international migration, this does not necessarily mean that the number of migrants entering is declining. Kritz argues that the concepts employed by countries in their immigration policies frequently do not correspond to the reality, making it necessary to examine the actual context.

  4. The External Dimension of EU Migration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Gjipali

    2017-01-01

    Defining the conditions of consistency and flexibility to which the Union’s external action can bring the management of migration - a management which will pursue all objectives of the EU’s migration policy in accordance with the its principles, such as solidarity and the protection of fundamental rights - is the focus of this paper.

  5. Elderly Migration in China: Types, Patterns, and Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolu; Liu, Yujun

    2017-06-01

    We examined the migration patterns of older adults in China and the determinants associated with migration. Using select data from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we conducted a spatial analysis to explore the geographical patterns of different types of older migrants. The relationships between personal, environmental attributes, and migration were examined using logistic-linear modeling techniques. Approximately 6.6% of the Chinese adults aged 60 and older migrated in the past 10 years. Elderly migration occurred primarily in metropolitan areas and frontier provinces in China. Personal attributes, family structure, and housing conditions were associated with migration. The spatial patterns were associated with personal culture background, social policy, and regional development. The implications of elderly migration, with respect to establishing proper social policy and paying attention to the living environment of both migrant and non-migrant elders were discussed.

  6. Language Policy, In-Migration and Discursive Debates in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Catrin Wyn

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on theory from critical language policy literature, this article explores the impact of discourses on in-migration on Welsh language policy. By focussing on discursive debates surrounding the subject of in-migration, the article analyses how a range of actors produce and reproduce discourses on in-migration in Wales and how these…

  7. The role of migration-specific and migration-relevant policies in migrant decision-making in transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuschminder - de Guerre, Katie; Koser, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the role of migration-specific and migration-relevant policies in migrant decision-making factors for onwards migration or stay in Greece and Turkey. In this paper we distinguish migration-specific policies from migration-relevant policies in transit and destination countries,

  8. Socio-Economic Determinants of International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav PRYTULA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since economic factors cannot fully explain the determinants of bilateral migration, this study explores the social and cultural determinants that influence an individual’s decision to migrate. Values, norms and interests in a given culture, may determine whether an individual’s intention to move translates into actual migration. Work values inherent in different cultures could explain why people move or do not move under the condition of perceived economic advantages of migration. A gravity type migration model is used to incorporate variables related both to economic indicators and work values. It is perhaps the first migration study to use the World Value Survey (WVS and the European Value Survey (EVS. We use 2000 stock bilateral migration dataset collected by the World Bank. Our findings indicate that if more aspects of work are valued in a country, this country sends more migrants. Also we show that countries with higher extrinsic work value orientation tend to send more migrants, while countries with higher intrinsic work value orientation tend to send fewer migrants. Our finding shows that the value of work and the level of job security in a country may significantly change migration decision.

  9. Migration, rural development and policy formation in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for migration in the South Pacific region and the impact of migration on rural development. Consideration is also given to the policies that have been or should be developed in order to encourage rural development and thereby reduce migration flows from rural areas.

  10. Determinants of internal migration in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Alisher; Dietz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the determinants of interregional migration in Kazakhstan using quarterly panel data on region to region migration in 2008–2010. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on interregional population flows in Central Asia. We find that migration is determined by economic factors, first of all income: People are more likely to leave regions where incomes are low and more likely to move to regions with a higher income level. Furthermore, mobility is larger bet...

  11. THE DETERMINANTS OF INTERNAL MIGRATION: THE CASE OFTURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciler Sigeze

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the determinants of the net migration statistics at regionallevel-1, consisting 12 regions, according to the Nomenclature of Units forTerritorial Statistics (NUTS of Turkey during the period 2008-2014 utilizingFeasible Generalized Least Squares. The results show that the coefficient ofpoverty variable found negative as consistent with literature. This finding suggeststhat migration movements are still one of the important strategies against poverty.In the study, the amount of exports and electricity per person used as a proxy forthe level of development of the regions foundsignificant and positive on the netmigration rate of the region. This result shows that the level of development of aregion is related to the net migration of that region in the same direction.Therefore, policy makers should implement policies on internal migrationmovements todecrease differences in income inequality and development levelsbetween regions.

  12. International migration and related policies in europe 1950 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penninx Rinus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a its particular development in time; b the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in these three basic migration-related factors. Migration outcomes are not haphazard nor are these the result of unhindered economic push and pull factors in a free market. Immigration policies of receiving countries do greatly influence the volume and patterns of migration, the place of settlement and the characteristics of migrants. Regulations on conditions of residence and integration do furthermore influence significantly the position of immigrants in their new destination, among others by setting conditions for their stay (residence rights and access to the labour market. The second part of this chapter outlines the migration and integration regimes that have been developed by states of different parts of Europe and by the European Union. In conclusion, immigration has become a relevant phenomenon in all EU countries. However, as a consequence of different timing of immigration, different socio-economic contexts and varying governmental migration and integration policies, European countries are confronted with different forms migration (immigration, emigration, transit migration and with different types of migrants. European states have also developed different governmental policies of migration and integration. Historically, a common denominator in the framing of European policies is that countries do not see themselves as immigration countries; they are immigration countries against their will. In recent times, such framing is reinforced by populist and nationalist movements that see immigrants not only as economic competitors, but also as a threat to the national "culture and world views". The more Europe needs immigrants for economic and

  13. Migration Studies and Academic Research on International Migration Policies in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Domenech

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the historical development of the field of migratory studies in Argentina and makes a review of the academic production around the so - called "migratory policies." The systematization of these studies, historically placed on migration policies, aims to highlight some of the most significant contributions of the research during the last 30 years, to understand or explain various aspects and dimensions of the Argentinean migration policy. To achieve this, texts were selected that derived from empirical research that explicitly assume the migratory policies as the object of study, or whose themes and research problems adopt as a framework for discussion the policies and practices aimed at regulating migration and mobility in Argentina. The organization and presentation of these selected texts consider issues related to the interests and thematic concerns, disciplinary and analytical approaches, distinct periods, scales of analysis and sources of information.

  14. Migrant Smuggling between Two Logics: Migration Dynamics and State Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, J.

    2013-01-01

    Migration processes are driven by forces that are by their very nature difficult to address with government policies, especially when these are aimed at control and restriction. Yet, in response to domestic and international policies, governments, jointly and individually, seek to intervene

  15. Institutional Determinants of International Migration from Central-Eastern Europe

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    Agnieszka FIHEL

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the role of institutional determinants for international migration from Central and Eastern Europe. In the whole post-war period international mobility has been stimulated by economic incentives, such as income disparities and unemployment, and also by particular solutions in migration policies in the receiving countries. Ethnic and asylum procedures, selective labor recruitments, visas barriers, regularization programs have mostly directed and intensified labor migration from CEE countries.Recently the EU enlargement (and, consequently, opening of member states’ labor markets became another institutional enhancement for migrating. The 2004 accession of eight CEE countries has been followed by a massive flow from CEE to the UK and Ireland that, together with Sweden, opened their labor markets for migrant workers. In 2007 Bulgaria and Romania will gain the access into EU, but the directions of mobility has been already established for Romanian and Bulgarian citizens: the main destination countries are Italy and Spain. The dynamics of migration from Romania and Bulgaria to South Europe has been extraordinary high since around 2000, mainly due to low legislative barriers and high demand for low-paid work. Again, the institutional determinant, such as overall acceptance towards illegal, foreign workers and regularization programs, turned out to be decisive.

  16. The international migration of dentists: directions for research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhan; Brennan, David Simon; Spencer, A John; Short, Stephanie Doris

    2016-08-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization Global Code of Practice for International Recruitment of Health Personnel (the WHO Code) was adopted by the 193 Member States of the WHO. The WHO Code is a tool for global diplomacy, providing a policy framework to address the challenges involved in managing dentist migration, as well as improving the retention of dental personnel in source countries. The WHO Code recognizes the importance of migrant dentist data to support migration polices; minimum data on the inflows, outflows and stock of dentists are vital. Data on reasons for dentist migration, job satisfaction, cultural adaptation issues, geographic distribution and practice patterns in the destination country are important for any policy analysis on dentist migration. Key challenges in the implementation of the WHO Code include the necessity to coordinate with multiple stakeholders and the lack of integrated data on dentist migration and the lack of shared understanding of the interrelatedness of workforce migration, needs and planning. The profession of dentistry also requires coordination with a number of private and nongovernmental organizations. Many migrant dentist source countries, in African and the South-Asian WHO Regions, are in the early stages of building capacity in dentist migration data collection and research systems. Due to these shortcomings, it is prudent that developed countries take the initiative to pursue further research into the migration issue and respond to this global challenge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [The foundation of international migration policies in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1988-12-01

    A government's international migration policies are intended to influence the size, composition, direction, destination, or integration of international migratory flows. The justification for migratory policies has been based on a series of themes that have had varied weights in different stages of Latin American history. Migrations as population settlement, the desired or undesired characteristics of migrants, the economic impact of migration, the role of migration in relations between countries, and the ethical dimensions of migratory movement have been the major policy issues. The 1st migration policies in Latin America saw international migration as a means of settling the colonies. After independence, migratory policies oriented toward massive settlement became common. Although the stated goals were to settle entire territories with immigrants, the usual result was to absorb immigrants in certain economic sectors with high demand for labor. In the colonial period both Spain and Portugal attempted to restrict immigration to the Catholic segment of their own populations. After independence, the criteria were liberalized somewhat but still reflected prejudices about the racial superiority of certain types of European immigration. The selection principals which appeared most clearly during the 19th century were overwhelmed to the extent that immigration was tranformed into provision of labor to meet unsatisfied needs for workers. Indiscriminate admissions and recourse to nontraditional elements such as Chinese and Japanese was strongest in countries needing labor for tropical agriculture or extractive industries. The economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but new rules were made to restrict immigration to protect local labor markets during the worldwide depression of the 1930s. In recent decades, migration policies

  18. China’s Internal Migration, Public Policies, and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    much needed to food to feed the country. In addition, the push to industrialize faster also did not help: “While much of the output was unusable junk ... effect of migration on economic performance has had a discernible impact both positive and negative at different times. There are two distinct aspects...the actual migration patterns and their relative effects on the economy; and the domestic policies enacted by the PRC that directly prompted

  19. Determinants of International Migration: The Nigerian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Antwi Darkwah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some determinants of international migration in Nigeria using annual time series data spanning the period 1991–2011. Using ordinary least square regression method, the results indicate that the level of unemployment, migrants’ remittances and population growth are the key determinants of emigration from Nigeria to other countries, statistically significant at 0.01 level.In a country where unemployment rate is very high, this movement is likely to help in reducing pressures on the labour market. Migrants’ remittances might also help in alleviating poverty within households. Migrants’ remittance to Nigeria has surpassed both Foreign Direct Investment and Net Official Development Assistance inflows, making it one amongst the major sources of foreign earnings to Nigeria. Nigerians will continue to migrate to other parts of the world so long as the reasons or causes for their movement are not fully addressed i.e. if political and socioeconomic issues in the country do not improve. The Nigerian government should as a matter of urgency, create better jobs and conducive environment in order to stop people from migrating while at the same time encouraging its skilled labour abroad to return home to help in national development.

  20. A study on the migration policy in ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y

    1995-01-01

    During the Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang, neighboring minority groups were forced to migrate to less settled areas of China. During the Song dynasty (960-1279) the Han government lost control of neighboring ethnic groups. Ethnically dominated states on their own expanded to the hinterlands, formed the national governments of Yuan and Qing, and established the local power of Liao and Jin in Han-dominated areas. During the Han dynasty the movement of minorities fulfilled the purpose of helping cultivate undeveloped land. The Han governments of feudal China held compulsory migration policies and policies encouraging minorities to move to less inhabited places. Han governments prior to the Tang and Song dynasties held policies favorable to minority settlements. During the Tang dynasty land was given to minority settlers. During the Song dynasty the Han government held a policy which prohibited taxation and harassment of new minority settlers. Minorities gained improved living conditions and the government achieved pacification. Resettlement of minorities either from forced or voluntary migration facilitated communication with the Han and promoted the exchange of culture, but also intensified ethnic conflict. The reason for the ethnic conflict was a question of control. Ethnic governments encouraged in-migration and adopted policies of compulsory and voluntary migration. Ethnic minorities in the north and west practiced mainly compulsory migration. Ethnic conflict in the Qin and Han dynasties occurred between the Han and the Huns. During the Eastern Jin and Northern dynasties minority governments captured Han and other ethnic groups. The rule of minority government was strengthened by voluntary migration. The frequent power shifts in ancient China contributed to the blending of Chinese nationalities.

  1. Remote Sensing and Mass Migration Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    immigrants or asylum - seekers , perceived as ignoring legal entry policies, undermining national identify, or taking jobs from local workers. remain poor...being comprised of asylum seekers , returned refugees, internally displaced persons (IDP), returned IDPs, stateless persons, and various other...safe zones”10 and the “right to remain”11 could serve as means of preventing refugees from entering asylum states.12 A shift of industrial production to

  2. Sustainable development and migration policies: their treatment within the Latin American economic integration blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1994-01-01

    Without an equal sharing of costs and benefits of natural and human resources worldwide, imbalances and lack of human development lead to migration within and between countries. Economic integration blocks in Latin America provide a context for shared development: in Central America, in the Andean Region, and in the Southern Cone. Over the past 60 years migration policy was based on national protectionism, labor supply, and/or occupation of territory. When economic conditions changed to market economies and world markets, migration policy was redefined. Each of the economic integration blocks has developed its own strategies. The Andean Agreement on Labor Migrations was established to determine the rules for bilateral and multilateral treatment of problems. In the Southern Cone bilateral agreements have been longstanding. Multilateral efforts were recently underway within the Southern Common Market and throughout the region. The Central American Organization for Migrations has spearheaded the adoption of a multilateral strategy. All three regions have made considerable progress in the last three years in constructing multilateral policies for economic integration. Government awareness has been the primary force in these policy changes. Government has come to an understanding that clear domestic and regional migration policies were lacking and that obsolete migration practices of the 1930s did not meet the needs of the 1990s. Migration policy was considered an instrument of development. Movement of economic factors or goods was considered equally with movement of labor. Migration policies must integrate the human rights of migrants into their definitions. Methods of facilitating the movements of populations need to be constructed within the computerization and modernization of the migration administration. Legalization of illegal immigrants has occurred among a number of countries. PROCAM and PRIMCOS were action programs which aimed to integrate migration and

  3. A 'civic turn' in Scandinavian family migration policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Emily Cochran; Borevi, Karin; Mouritsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners’ possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration...... state and a Nordic liberal way of life, in Sweden more minimal requirements have been introduced in the name of spurring immigrants’ labor market integration even as rights-based reasoning has continued to dominate. In all three countries, new restrictions have been introduced in the wake of the refugee...... crisis. These cases show how prioritizations of the right to family life vis-à-vis welfare-state sustainability have produced different rules for family entry, and how family migration policies are used to different extents to push civic integration of both new and already settled immigrants....

  4. On the Reciprocal Subordination of Multiculturalism and Migration Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2017-01-01

    Multiculturalism and migration are about different things. Migration is about movement of people across borders. It raises political questions about state sovereignty, territorial rights and freedom of movement. Multiculturalism is rather about political measures for handling and accommodating.......e. the widespread political unease about migration, has led to increased demands being placed on minorities already present: they are being subjected to harsher integration requirements, lower social benefi ts and more severe conditions for family-unification and naturalisation. Multiculturalism policies have been...... diversity within a given society. It raises political questions about equality, discrimination and integration. Therefore, while there are connections, multiculturalism and migration should be theorised differently and discussed on the basis of different principles and considerations. This distinction...

  5. Effects of agricultural development policies on migration in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, N; White, M J; Simkins, C; Babakol, O

    1990-02-01

    State planning plays a central role in Malaysia's social and economic development. The government's rural development policies are designed to promote agricultural incomes and help counterbalance ethnic inequalities. The Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) implements one of the internationally most successful land development and resettlement programs. In this article, we quantify the impact of FELDA settlements on local out-migration rates, linking macro and micro approaches and using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey, national censuses, and other sources. A model of instantaneous migration rates specifies an individual's migration rate as a function of individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, the level of urbanization of the origin and destination, and the extent of rural development at the district of current residence. Our results show that in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the existence of rural development centers in a district reduced the levels of out-migration to pre-1965 levels.

  6. 'Not everything that counts can be counted' : Assessing ‘success’ of EU external migration policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reslow, Natasja

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing “migration crisis” the externalization of EU migration policy has continued. EU policy documents argue that cooperation with non-EU countries is essential in order to manage migration flows. But how successful is this policy? The public policy literature teaches us that

  7. Regularization and Migration Policy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe de Bruycker

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The following pages present, in a general way, the contents of Regularization of illegal immigrants in the European Union, which includes a comparative synthesis and statistical information for each of the eight countries involved; a description of actions since the beginning of the year 2000; and a systematic analysis of the different categories of foreigners, the types of regularization carried out, and the rules that have governed these actions.In relation to regularization, the author considers the political coherence of the actions taken by the member states as well as how they relate to two ever more crucial aspects of immigration policy –the integration of legal resident immigrants and the fight againstillegal immigration in the context of a control of migratory flows.

  8. Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the EU integration process

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    Marta Stojić-Mitrović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to present Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the attempts of the Serbian state to become a member of the European Union. I would describe the history of the asylum system prior and after the implementation of the independent asylum system in Serbia in 2008. My presentation of the Serbian migration policy would be channelled by the analysis of some particular political issues, such as the externalization of the EU borders’ control, as well as some relevant elements of the European integration process, like visa liberalization. The second, more culturally specific dimension of the issue would be accessed through the demonstration of both legislative and public conceptualizations of the irregular migrants, asylum seekers and refugees in Serbia.

  9. Integrated Management of Migration, Employment, Fiscal Policy and Public Debt

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    Aleksandras Vytautas Rutkauskas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of the paper states that national migration indicators are closely related with employment opportunities in that country. In addition, the management quality of migration and employment processes is an indicator of the national socio-economic policy competency, while management of these processes is the main purpose of intelligent adjustment of the national fiscal policy and government debt management. The author of the paper selected the formation of the system of quantitative indicators as the main objective of the paper. The system should allow employing government debt possibilities for the selection of proper fiscal policy in order to prevent the transformation of unemployment into the key reason of uncontrolled national inflation. This would be done by revealing the possibilities of fiscal policy to impact on the level and structure of unemployment. Recent globalisation processes and integration possibilities bring a lot of uncertainty to predetermined viability of theoretical assumptions as well as the adequacy of the applied quantitative methods. The paper uses the possibilities of stochastic optimisation and stochastically informed expertise pursuing the possibilities of integrated management of employment, migration processes, fiscal policy and government debt provisions.

  10. Democracy and human rights: a paradox for migration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L B

    1997-01-01

    This article seeks to 1) stimulate debate on the tension between democracy and human rights that arises from the fact that the organizational unit of modern democracy remains the state, which is incompatible with the quest for transnational human rights based on a transcendent human identity, and 2) explore this tension as it is revealed in migration policy in South Africa. The introduction of the article critiques the criticisms offered by contemporary writers as grounds for an overhaul of current migration policy. Next, the article presents an analysis of modern, state-based democracy and of the rise of international human rights, with a focus on the following trends: 1) development of the notion of citizenship resulting from a view of the state as the guarantor but not the progenitor of rights, 2) the growth of human rights traditions in industrialized democracies as judicial activism countered populist and nationalist inclinations of national legislatures, and 3) the growth of an international human rights juridical tradition. The article then highlights the issues raised within the migration policy debate in South Africa since 1994 and examines the 1997 Draft Green Paper on International Migration. It is concluded that, because South Africa fits the general pattern of a receiving state, an overly ambitious human rights approach to immigration will conflict with the exigencies of the new democracy as it builds institutional capacity.

  11. Migration and development in the Caribbean: relating policies and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, R

    1985-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, the US has feared that political instability in the Caribbean area could be exploited by adversaries; therefore, the US and the nations of the Caribbean share a compelling interest in the region's development. The dramatic increase in legal and illegal immigration to the US from the Caribbean in the last 2 decades has offered an additional human reason for US interest in the region. This migration has also created a new source of dependence and vulnerability for the region. Curtailment of migration would undoubtedly affect the region, and if the effect were social and political instability, then the US would also share those consequences. The 1984 Conference on Migration and Development in the Caribbean held discussions to 1) enhance the benefits of migration to Caribbean development, 2) identify development strategies, policies, and projects that would reduce pressures that have accelerated the rate of international migration, making it less manageable and more costly, and 3) identify ways to reduce dependence on migration by expanding employment and assisting economies in the region to become more self-reliant. The attitudes of both US and Caribbean participants seemed to reflect a considerable degree of ambivalence on the migration issue. The US views itself as "a nation of immigrants" and yet is troubled by the recent large influx of immigrants, particularly illegal migrants and refugees. While Americans recognize that the "brain" reduces the development capacity of developing countries, the US still needs and benefits from young immigrants trained in the sciences, engineering, and computers. Caribbean participants were also ambivalent about immigration. They consider immigration "a way of life" and a "right," but they also recognize that there are significant developmental costs to some types of migration. While many want the US to keep a wide open door to Caribbean immigrants, they are aware that most Caribbean Community (CARICOM

  12. IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Mackey, Timothy Ken; Huang, Mei-Chih; Chen, Ching-Min

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is recognized as a nurse exporting country, with policies that encourage nursing professionals to emigrate abroad. This includes the country's adoption of international principles attempting to protect Indonesian nurses that emigrate as well as the country's own participation in a bilateral trade and investment agreement, known as the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement that facilitates Indonesian nurse migration to Japan. Despite the potential trade and employment benefits from sending nurses abroad under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, Indonesia itself is suffering from a crisis in nursing capacity and ensuring adequate healthcare access for its own populations. This represents a distinct challenge for Indonesia in appropriately balancing domestic health workforce needs, employment, and training opportunities for Indonesian nurses, and the need to acknowledge the rights of nurses to freely migrate abroad. Hence, this article reviews the complex operational and ethical issues associated with Indonesian health worker migration under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement. It also introduces a policy proposal to improve performance of the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement and better align it with international principles focused on equitable health worker migration.

  13. Rural-Urban Migration and Unemployment: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zenou, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We develop a regional model where, in the city, unemployment prevails because of too high (efficiency) wages, while, in the rural area, workers are paid at their marginal productivity. We characterize the steady-state equilibrium and show that it is unique. We then consider two policies: decreasing urban unemployment benefits and subsidizing urban employment. We find that decreasing the unemployment benefit in the city creates urban jobs and reduces rural-urban migration since new migrants ha...

  14. Return migration as failure or success? : The determinants of return migration intentions among Moroccan migrants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.; Fokkema, T.; Fihri, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Different migration theories generate competing hypotheses with regard to determinants of return migration. While neoclassical migration theory associates migration to the failure to integrate at the destination, the new economics of labour migration sees return migration as the logical stage after

  15. Causes, consequences, and policy responses to the migration of health workers: key findings from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Roberts, Margaret; Runnels, Vivien; Rajan, S Irudaya; Sood, Atul; Nair, Sreelekha; Thomas, Philomina; Packer, Corinne; MacKenzie, Adrian; Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Labonté, Ronald; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2017-04-05

    This study sought to better understand the drivers of skilled health professional migration, its consequences, and the various strategies countries have employed to mitigate its negative impacts. The study was conducted in four countries-Jamaica, India, the Philippines, and South Africa-that have historically been "sources" of health workers migrating to other countries. The aim of this paper is to present the findings from the Indian portion of the study. Data were collected using surveys of Indian generalist and specialist physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, dieticians, and other allied health therapists. We also conducted structured interviews with key stakeholders representing government ministries, professional associations, regional health authorities, health care facilities, and educational institutions. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Shortages of health workers are evident in certain parts of India and in certain specialty areas, but the degree and nature of such shortages are difficult to determine due to the lack of evidence and health information. The relationship of such shortages to international migration is not clear. Policy responses to health worker migration are also similarly embedded in wider processes aimed at health workforce management, but overall, there is no clear policy agenda to manage health worker migration. Decision-makers in India present conflicting options about the need or desirability of curtailing migration. Consequences of health work migration on the Indian health care system are not easily discernable from other compounding factors. Research suggests that shortages of skilled health workers in India must be examined in relation to domestic policies on training, recruitment, and retention rather than viewed as a direct consequence of the international migration of health workers.

  16. The determinants of internal migration in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan, Ali; Gokhan, Ali; Filiztekin, Alpay

    2008-01-01

    Internal migration has had a great impact on Turkey’s population dynamics for decades. According to the 2000 population census, nearly 28% percent of the population was born in a different province that they now reside in. This ratio goes up to 62% for Istanbul, a major province that has drawn migrants for years. Although, it is claimed in numerous studies that rural-urban migration that centers on a few urban areas seems to be the predominant pattern of internal migration, we aim to investig...

  17. Female Migration in Lesotho : Determinants and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Compernolle, Nell; Chakravarty, Shubha; Botea, Ioana

    2018-01-01

    Migration, internal and external, continues to be a dominant livelihood strategy for households in Lesotho, with almost half (43 percent) of households reporting at least one member living away. The past decade has seen a sharp increase in female migration, due to a halt in new hires of Basotho men in South African mines and a concomitant expansion of jobs primarily for women in the export...

  18. The Economic Crisis and Labour Migration Policy in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Kuptsch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews changes in migration policies as a response to the 2008 financial and economic crisis and examines issues of migration governance. Countries in Europe opted to make new immigration more difficult, protected their labour markets for native born workers, encouraged the return of migrant workers and intensified efforts to curb irregular migration. Clear patterns or reasons for variation in policy responses are not discernible, but it is safe to say that only countries with a significant recent influx of migrants have taken high profile measures at all. The crisis has led to a shift in perspective of the State and its role in economics which is now seen as useful instead of undesired. Previously prevailing neo-liberal thought relegated the State to the “high politics” of sovereignty and security issues. The crisis has highlighted labour market issues, and migrants are now increasingly portrayed as economic agents instead of security threats. This offers room for the State to assert its protective role vis-à-vis migrant workers – a welcome development. The analysis has an International Relations/Political Economy perspective and is largely based on (official news releases and secondary sources.

  19. Internal Migration Determinants: Evidence from Northern Region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... Studies of migration in Ghana – exploring the determinants is not new and date back to the 1960s. However ... assessment of the socio-economic characteristics of Ghanaian migrants and the determinants of internal ...... in a poster session on internal migration at the Brazil IUSSP conference during August.

  20. Introduction: Family migration as an integration issue? Policy perspectives and academic insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Kraler, A.

    2015-01-01

    "Family migration" and "integration" are intimately related concepts in policy discourses in Europe today. Assumptions about the relation between "family migration" and "integration" play a crucial role in shaping policies. This special issue aims to examine the axis between "family migration,"

  1. New challenges for the modern migration policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykha Mariia Igorivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the migration policy of the European Union in the context of contemporary global development and the existing European migration crisis. The article explains factors and principles of migration policy. The researcher pays attention to the measures aimed to overcome the crisis of migrants in the Union members.

  2. Migration timing and its determinants for nocturnal migratory birds during autumn migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Hochachka, Wesley M; Farnsworth, Andrew; Sheldon, Daniel; Fink, Daniel; Geevarghese, Jeffrey; Winner, Kevin; Van Doren, Benjamin M; Kelling, Steve

    2015-09-01

    1. Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments, and multiple environmental and biological factors determine the timing of migration. How these factors operate in combination during autumn migration, which is considered to be under weaker time constraints relative to spring migration, is not clear. 2. Here, we examine the patterns and determinants of migration timing for nocturnal migrants during autumn migration in the north-eastern USA using nocturnal reflectivity data from 12 weather surveillance radar stations and modelled diurnal probability of occurrence for 142 species of nocturnal migrants. We first model the capacity of seasonal atmospheric conditions (wind and precipitation) and ecological productivity (vegetation greenness) to predict autumn migration intensity. We then test predictions, formulated under optimal migration theory, on how migration timing should be related to assemblage-level estimates of body size and total migration distance within the context of dietary guild (insectivore and omnivore) and level of dietary plasticity during autumn migration. 3. Our results indicate seasonal declines in ecological productivity delineate the beginning and end of peak migration, whose intensity is best predicted by the velocity of winds at migration altitudes. Insectivorous migrants departed earlier in the season and, consistent with our predictions, large-bodied and long-distance insectivorous migrants departed the earliest. Contrary to our predictions, large-bodied and some long-distance omnivorous migrants departed later in the season, patterns that were replicated in part by insectivorous migrants that displayed dietary plasticity during autumn migration. 4. Our findings indicate migration timing in the region is dictated by optimality strategies, modified based on the breadth and flexibility of migrant's foraging diets, with declining ecological productivity defining possible resource thresholds during which

  3. Policies for Migration and Development: A European Perspective. Policy Brief No. 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katseli, Louka T.; Lucas, Robert E. B.; Xenogiani, Theodora

    2006-01-01

    Managing migration has become a priority for policy makers both in developed and developing countries. Large immigration or emigration flows relative to domestic population's impact on almost all aspects of an economy and society: family structures, community life, educational and health systems, labour markets, security systems, governance and…

  4. Main directions and priorities of Ukraine state migration policy in the context of its european integration changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.V. Shymanska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exceptional socio-economic importance of migration and its significant impact on the living standards and welfare of the population, labor market, ethnic and religious profile of Ukrainians, cultural and educational environment and migration activation social context cause the raising of the relevance of the research issues on international migration. This article is devoted to the study of existing approaches to identification of main directions and priorities of state migration policy for eliminating of external migration negative effects in Ukraine, ensuring an adequate level of social and economic protection of people and national security of Ukraine. The article considers the current problems of Ukraine's migration policy formation, characterizes the main priorities of Ukraine's migration policy according to its basic component, and describes the tendencies of migration processes in Ukraine and over the world. It is determined that the cooperation between Ukraine and the EU in the case of migratory flow regulating will have a number of advantages including the reduction of illegal migration, preservation of the professional level of Ukrainian migrants and receiving work experience abroad, strengthening their social protection and reduction of illegal employed migrants.

  5. MIGRATION POLICIES FROM ORIGIN PERSPECTIVE IN THE CASE OF ROMANIA. TESTING A DEFINITION

    OpenAIRE

    Monica SERBAN

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the effort of investigating migration policies and the role they play in international migration development has consistently increased. The most consistent part of this interest is related to immigration and associated policies to manage it. Just few studies approach the issues from the origin side perspective. This paper addresses the gap by discussing how migration policies from the origin perspective may be defined and operationalized and trying to test one such a definition/ope...

  6. Determinants of labour migration of elite sport coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Johannes; Wicker, Pamela; Breuer, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Previous research examining labour migration in sport focused on athletes in professional team sports. The purpose of this study is to analyse the factors influencing the migration probability of elite sport coaches in Germany (i.e. national coaches, state coaches, and coaches at Olympic training bases). From a theoretical perspective, labour migration of athletes is affected by economic, social, political, competitive, geographic and cultural factors. This study examines whether these factors can be applied to coaches. Primary data were collected using an online survey of elite sport coaches in Germany. Applying a conjoint design, respondents were presented with 10 migration scenarios leading to a sample size of n = 1860 for the empirical analysis. In the scenarios, the coaching position openings abroad differed in terms of income level, contract length, weekly workload, responsibility for personnel, reputation of coaching job, career perspectives, sporting performance of athletes, distance from Germany, and predominant job language. Coaches were asked for their migration probability contingent on the specific scenario. On average, migration probability was 24.2%. The results of regression analysis showed that higher income, contracts of longer duration, responsibility for personnel and speaking the respective language significantly increased the migration probability, while distances of nine flight hours and more, lower reputation and career perspectives reduced it. The findings have implications for policy-makers: they indicate in what areas the situation of coaches needs improvement to increase the likelihood of retaining elite sport coaches in the German sport system.

  7. The Gravity of High-Skilled Migration Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaika, Mathias; Parsons, Christopher R

    2017-04-01

    Combining unique, annual, bilateral data on labor flows of highly skilled immigrants for 10 OECD destinations between 2000 and 2012, with new databases comprising both unilateral and bilateral policy instruments, we present the first judicious cross-country assessment of policies aimed to attract and select high-skilled workers. Points-based systems are much more effective in attracting and selecting high-skilled migrants than requiring a job offer, labor market tests, and shortage lists. Offers of permanent residency, while attracting the highly skilled, overall reduce the human capital content of labor flows because they prove more attractive to non-high-skilled workers. Bilateral recognition of diploma and social security agreements foster greater flows of high-skilled workers and improve the skill selectivity of immigrant flows. Conversely, double taxation agreements deter high-skilled migrants, although they do not alter overall skill selectivity. Our results are robust to a variety of empirical specifications that account for destination-specific amenities, multilateral resistance to migration, and the endogeneity of immigration policies.

  8. Public debate and policy-making on family migration in the Netherlands, 1960-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Schrover, M.

    2015-01-01

    Is ‘public opinion’ systematically opposed to immigration? And has this pushed policymakers to implement restrictive migration policies? To answer these questions, we investigate the impact of public opinion, as expressed in media debates, on the making of family migration policies in the

  9. Coherence of Czech migration and development policy at the beginning of a recession (2008–2010)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanov, R.; Duží, Barbora; Bureš, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 3 (2016), s. 419-436 ISSN 1212-0014 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : international migration * development policy * migration policy Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.580, year: 2016 http://geography.cz/sbornik/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2016/10/gcgs032016_stojanov.pdf

  10. Towards understanding international migration determinants today: Theoretical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević-Despić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In times of global migration flows and ever increasing mobility of the workforce in the world, the necessity for constant deepening of theoretical knowledge is imposed as a basis for understanding main determinants of this phenomenon, and with an aim of directing the focus of migration researches towards more efficient overcoming of challenges and making use of the advantages which international migrations could bring both to origin, destination and transit countries. The main goal of this paper is to give a critical review on the development of the economic migrations theory, to state the main similarities and differences between various approaches and to point out to the main drawbacks and problems which the theoretical perspective is facing when studying the determinants of contemporary international labor migrations. The focus of the study refers to voluntary labor migrations with reference to migrations of the highly educated population, while the stress is on economic theories, although some of them are closely connected to sociological, geographical and anthropological theories. The development of the theory on international migrations has been started by micro theoretical models, namely, through the conceptualization of theories which place the individual in the focal point of research, who estimates the positive, namely negative sides of moving from one location to another. Economic models on the micro theoretical level cede more space to models of macro structure which research the social and economic structure within and between countries. There are many theoretical models which offer possible answers to the question on what are the main determinants of international migrations on the macro analytical level. Although every one of them tries to give an answer to the same question, they use different concepts, assumptions and frameworks of research. The reasons which bring about the initiation of international migrations can be

  11. Rural migration in Bolivia: the impact of climate change, economic crisis and state policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscal, Carlos Balderrama; Tassi, Nico; Miranda, Ana Rubena; Canedo, Lucia Aramayo; Cazorla, Ivan

    2011-04-15

    This case study analyses current migration dynamics in two regions of Bolivia: Northern Potosi, one of the main areas of outmigration in Bolivia, and the municipality of San Julian in the Department of Santa Cruz, a major destination for internal migrants, some of whom come from Northern Potosi. The research was qualitative in nature, with specific attention to breadth and accuracy in the information and analysis. The methods used were participative and the research was done in collaboration with the rural and indigenous organisations in the two selected areas: the Federation of Indigenous Ayllus of Northern Potosi (Federacion de Ayllus Originarios Indigenas del Norte de Potosi Charka Qhara Qhara - FAOI-NP) and the Federation of Intercultural Communities of San Julian (Federacion de Comunidades Interculturales de San Julian). The information gathering process examined a wide range of factors that may trigger migration, including the possible influence of climate change and public policies on migration. The key challenge was to understand current patterns of migration, the processes involved and the social, cultural, economic and political causes and effects, taking into account issues that are increasing in importance, such as climate change, and seeking to discover the extent of their influence in the midst of other factors that drive migration. It is well known that migration is not a simple occurrence. In fact, it involves a series of processes, motivations, causes and decisions. Because it is a collective rather than an individual process, it takes on the character of a 'social phenomenon' that is historically and geographically determined. In many cases, there are cultural practices of transhumance, such as agriculture on different ecological levels or the use of winter and summer pastures. This involves people moving from one place to another, sometimes travelling long distances and crossing districts for several months at a time. These transhumance

  12. Globalization, migration and labour: imperatives for a rights based policy

    OpenAIRE

    Taran, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Migration has always been an essential component of economic development and social progress in many countries. Labour migration becomes one of the most important sources of regional integration, where regulation of labour migration is implemented at the regional level, for only such large integration unions that exploit the advantages of markets, resource bases and labour potentials amalgamation, can hold out against increasing competition within globalizing world. However, if migration is n...

  13. The contribution of ecosystem services to place utility as a determinant of migration decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Helen; Neil Adger, W

    2013-01-01

    Environment migration research has sought to provide an account of how environmental risks and resources affect migration and mobility. Part of that effort has focused on the role of the environment in providing secure livelihoods through provisioning ecosystem services. However, many of the models of environment migration linkages fail to acknowledge the importance of social and psychological factors in the decision to migrate. Here, we seek to provide a more comprehensive model of migration decision-making under environmental change by investigating the attachment people form to place, and the role of the environment in creating that attachment. We hypothesize that environmental factors enter the migration decision-making process through their contribution to place utility, defined as a function of both affective and instrumental bonds to location, and that ecosystem services, the aspects of ecosystems that create wellbeing, contribute to both components of place utility. We test these ideas in four rural highland settlements in Peru sampled along an altitudinal gradient. We find that non-economic ecosystem services are important in creating place attachment and that ecological place attachment exists independently of use of provisioning ecosystem services. Individuals’ attitudes to ecosystem services vary with the type of ecosystem services available at a location and the degree of rurality. While social and economic factors are the dominant drivers of migration in these locations, a loss of non-provisioning ecosystem services leads to a decrease in place utility and commitment to place, determining factors in the decision to migrate. The findings suggest that policy interventions encouraging migration as an adaptation to environmental change will have limited success if they only focus on provisioning services. A much wider set of individuals will experience a decrease in place utility, and migration will be unable to alleviate that decrease since the factors

  14. The contribution of ecosystem services to place utility as a determinant of migration decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen; Adger, W. Neil

    2013-03-01

    Environment migration research has sought to provide an account of how environmental risks and resources affect migration and mobility. Part of that effort has focused on the role of the environment in providing secure livelihoods through provisioning ecosystem services. However, many of the models of environment migration linkages fail to acknowledge the importance of social and psychological factors in the decision to migrate. Here, we seek to provide a more comprehensive model of migration decision-making under environmental change by investigating the attachment people form to place, and the role of the environment in creating that attachment. We hypothesize that environmental factors enter the migration decision-making process through their contribution to place utility, defined as a function of both affective and instrumental bonds to location, and that ecosystem services, the aspects of ecosystems that create wellbeing, contribute to both components of place utility. We test these ideas in four rural highland settlements in Peru sampled along an altitudinal gradient. We find that non-economic ecosystem services are important in creating place attachment and that ecological place attachment exists independently of use of provisioning ecosystem services. Individuals’ attitudes to ecosystem services vary with the type of ecosystem services available at a location and the degree of rurality. While social and economic factors are the dominant drivers of migration in these locations, a loss of non-provisioning ecosystem services leads to a decrease in place utility and commitment to place, determining factors in the decision to migrate. The findings suggest that policy interventions encouraging migration as an adaptation to environmental change will have limited success if they only focus on provisioning services. A much wider set of individuals will experience a decrease in place utility, and migration will be unable to alleviate that decrease since the factors

  15. Determinants of Rural Out-Migration in Habru District of Northeast Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beneberu Assefa Wondimagegnhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration has become a cause of concern at the global, regional, and national levels. Like the case of many developing countries, Ethiopia has been facing increasing challenges related to rural out-migration. This study aimed to analyze factors that determine rural communities’ decision to migrate to internal and international destinations in Habru district of Northeast Ethiopia. Stratified sampling technique has been employed to select a total of 200 household heads in three agroecologies of the study area. Structured questionnaires have been used as a principal primary data collection method and logistic regression has been employed for analysis. The results of the study showed that intravillage conflict, absence of relief assistant, livestock ownership, farm land size, access to information, and household and individual characteristics including family size, sex, and age of the migrants are the dominant determinant factors for rural out-migration. Migration can have a positive outcome in improving livelihoods if comprehensive and holistic policies and strategies are in place. There is also a need to strengthen the link between rural development policy and the disadvantaged groups by designing and implementing different livelihood alternatives including reducing pressure on scarce resources particularly land, integrating health and education services, and creating nonfarm employment opportunities.

  16. Impact, regulation and health policy implications of physician migration in OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Steven

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of rising demand for medical services due to ageing populations, physician migration flows are increasingly affecting the supply of physicians in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD countries. This paper offers an integrated perspective on the impact of physician migration on home and host countries and discusses international regulation and policy approaches governing physician migration. Methods Information about migration flows, international regulation and policies governing physician migration were derived from two questionnaires sent to OECD countries, a secondary analysis of EUROSTAT Labour Force Surveys, a literature review and official policy documents of OECD countries. Results OECD countries increasingly perceive immigration of foreign physicians as a way of sustaining their physician workforce. As a result, countries have entered into international agreements regulating physician migration, although their success has been limited due to the imposition of licensing requirements and the protection of vested interests by domestic physicians. OECD countries have therefore adopted specific policies designed to stimulate the immigration of foreign physicians, whilst minimising its negative impact on the home country. Measures promoting immigration have included international recruitment campaigns, less strict immigration requirements and arrangements that foster shared learning between health care systems. Policies restricting the societal costs of physician emigration from developing countries such as good practice guidelines and taxes on host countries have not yet produced their expected effect or in some cases have not been established at all. Conclusions Although OECD countries generally favour long-term policies of national self-sufficiency to sustain their physician workforce, such policies usually co-exist with short-term or medium-term policies to attract foreign physicians

  17. DEFINING HUMAN MIGRATION – A POLICY MAKERS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Panfil IVAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a global phenomenon gradually increased in scope, impact and complexity. Practically all countries are simultaneously countries of destination, origin and transit for migrants. Traditionally migration flows are complemented by new changes generated by economic, demographic, political or social conditions, and these trends affect both the size and structure of the migrant population and also economies and societies. Of course this has sparked international interest from various NGOs and by the European Union and the United Nations. This paper aims to present the vision of international organizations concerned with migration and how they define migration and its typologies.

  18. Migration of oligomers from PET: determination of diffusion coefficients and comparison of experimental versus modelled migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Maria; Fornari, Roberta; de Voogt, Pim; Franz, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is increasingly used as food-contact material in, for example, containers for beverage such as bottles for soft drinks, mineral water, juices and beer. Mass transport of substances present in packaging materials into the packed food and beverages is monitored to verify the food law compliance of the materials. PET is known to contain or give rise to migrants that are oligomers derived from the polymeric material. Until now their actual migration potential has been investigated only poorly. A convenient way to determine their migration would be by using models. To verify existing models with experimental data, a migration kinetic study of PET oligomers was conducted. PET bottle material was submerged in 50% ethanol at 80°C for 15 h. The oligomer content in the migration solutions was determined every hour using LC-MS with the first-series cyclic PET trimer as standard. Diffusion coefficients of five PET oligomers (first-series dimer and trimer, second-series dimer and trimer, and third-series dimer) were calculated from the obtained data and compared with the calculated diffusion coefficients using the models of Welle and Piringer. This is the first study to provide diffusion characteristics of oligomers in PET other than the first-series cyclic trimer.

  19. International migration and related policies in europe 1950-2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, R.

    2016-01-01

    Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a) its particular development in time; b) the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c) the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in

  20. Using Human Capital Theory to Develop a Policy Approach towards College Student Migration in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan Lee

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use human capital theory to develop a policy approach towards college student migration in Illinois. A rate of return analysis revealed the social rate of return for college student migrants who return to Illinois and the private rate of return was 15.95%. It was estimated that due to college student migration in…

  1. Migration Related to Climate Change: Impact, Challenges and Proposed Policy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Migration of human population possesses a great threat to human development and nation building. A significant cause for migration is due to change in climatic conditions and vulnerabilities associated with it. Our case study focuses on the consequent reason and impact of such migration in the coastal areas of West Bengal, India. The changes in rainfall pattern and the variation of temperature have been considered as parameters which have resulted in migration. It is worthy to note that the agricultural pattern has subsequently changed over the last two decades due to change in rainfall and temperature. India being an agriculture oriented economy, the changes in the meteorological variables have not only altered the rate of agricultural pattern but also the rate of migration. A proposed framework depicting relationship between changes in meteorological variables and the migration pattern, and an estimate of how the migration pattern is expected to change over the next century by utilizing the downscaled values of future rainfall and temperature has been analyzed. Moreover, various public policy frameworks has also been proposed through the study for addressing the challenges of migration related to climate change. The proposed public policy framework has been streamlined along the lines of various international treaties and conventions in order to integrate the policy initiatives through universalization of law and policy research.

  2. In Retirement Migration, Who Counts? A Methodological Question with Economic Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, William H., III; Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Serow, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the methodological and economic policy implications of three operationalizations of retirement migration. Design and Methods: We compared the traditional age-based definition of retirement migration and two retirement-based definitions, based on degree of labor-force participation and retirement income, by using the 2000 U.S.…

  3. Health Inequality - determinants and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Ingelise; Manuel, Celie Lovene

    2012-01-01

    The review ”Health inequality – determinants and policies” identifies key-areas to be addressed with the aim to reduce the social inequality in health. The general life expectancy has steadily been increasing, but the data reveals marked social inequalities in health as well as life expectancy......, key interventions are suggested to counteract the negative impact of the different determinants....

  4. Monetary policy games and international migration of labor in interdependent economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiomirgianakis, G M

    1998-01-01

    "In this paper we incorporate the possibility of international migration into a monetary policy game played by governments in unionized interdependent economies. We show that contrary to usual presumptions, established by earlier studies that ignore the possibility of international migration, inter-government cooperation in the monetary field may well turn out to be advantageous. This has important implications for the European economies, since it suggests that measures taken towards encouraging international migration within EU [the European Union] will not only harmonize the European labor markets but will also make monetary policy cooperation within Europe, as required by the Maastrict Treaty, more advantageous." excerpt

  5. Health inequality - determinants and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Ingelise; Manual, Celie

    2012-01-01

    The review ”Health inequality – determinants and policies” identifies key-areas to be addressed with the aim to reduce the social inequality in health. The general life expectancy has steadily been increasing, but the data reveals marked social inequalities in health as well as life expectancy....... The review seeks to identify the causes of this social inequality. The analysis finds 12 areas of great importance for the inequality in health. This is i.e. early child development, schooling and education, the health behavior of the population, and the role of the health system. Within each of the 12 areas......, key interventions are suggested to counteract the negative impact of the different determinants....

  6. Migration and development policies: The state of affairs before the 2015 European migration crises in the Czech Republic and its current implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanov, R.; Bureš, O.; Duží, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2017), s. 169-181 ISSN 0967-067X Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : development policy * migration policy * coherence * international migration * European Union Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967067X17300272

  7. Migration and development policies: The state of affairs before the 2015 European migration crises in the Czech Republic and its current implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanov, R.; Bureš, O.; Duží, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2017), s. 169-181 ISSN 0967-067X Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : development policy * migration policy * coherence * international migration * European Union Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967067X17300272

  8. Determinants of Dividend Policy: evidence from Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís António Gomes Almeida

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The objective of this article is to identify the determinants of non-financial companies' dividend policy of the Portuguese capital market and contribute to resolve the divergence of determinants of the dividend policy existent in previous studies. Design/methodology/approach – To solve the problematic under study were tested several financial determinants, through the application of the method of multiple linear regressions to the non-financial listed companies on the Euronext Lisbon, between 1997 and 2011. Findings – The results suggest as main indicators for the Portuguese dividend policy the stability, the value of the market, the previous pay-out and the business dimension; which influence positively the amount of dividends distribute through the company. Therefore, the opportunities of growing and investment influence negatively the distribution of dividends. Practical implications –Identify the principal determinants of the dividend policy of the non-financial companies listed on the Portuguese capital markets - Euronext Lisbon and allow sustaining and improving the corporations and investors’ decisions. Originality/value – This study opens up an opportunity to contribute to the understanding of the determinants of dividend policy of the listed corporations in the Lisbon Stock Exchange, aiming permeates greater scientific knowledge in the context of understanding the determinants of dividend puzzle policy and the existing divergences of several previous empirical studies.

  9. International labour migration in the Asian-Pacific region: patterns, policies and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, P

    1993-11-01

    "This paper reviews the literature on international labour migration from and within the Asian-Pacific region. It deals with patterns and characteristics of migration flows, government policies towards labour migration, and economic implications of labour migration for both labour-exporting and importing countries in the region. The indications are that, despite gradual slowing down of labour flows to the western industrial countries and the Middle East, labour migration will continue to be a major economic influence on surplus-labour countries in the region. As an integral part of the growth dynamism in the region, labour migration has now begun to take on a regional dimension, with immense implications for the process of industrial restructuring in high growth economies and the changing pattern of economic interdependence among countries." excerpt

  10. MIGRATION POLICIES AND STATE CONTROL IN ARGENTINA: EXPERIENCES OF VULNERABLE BOLIVIAN WOMEN WHO CROSS THE BORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Pizarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the way in which migration policies impact in the trajectories of Bolivian women who live and work in the outskirts of the main cities of Argentina. It focuses on three cases representative of the experiences of women laborers who, coming from the poorest rural areas of Bolivia, crossed the international border when Argentine migration policy was very restrictive. It shows that symbolic and socio-economic borders keep on excluding them, as well as other labor migrants, within the Argentine territory even when the current Migration Law enacted in 2004 is more inclusive, since it grants human and social rights to the migrants. It highlights the way in which particular state control mechanisms operate nowadays both at the international border and within the Argentine territory, and analyses the difficulties that these women experience due to their positions of class, ethnic, gender, nationality and migratory status. It remarks that despite the changes in the immigration policy of Argentina, state policies keep on controlling labor migrations in accordance with the paradigm of the governance of migration. It also analyses the strategies that these women develop in order to sort out state control policies. Therefore, it considers that they are active agents even though they still have feelings of fear and trauma associated with the crossing of borders.

  11. FEATURES OF THE MIGRATION POLICY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN A GLOBALIZED COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene D. Katulsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance Relevance of the chosen subject is caused as variety and unsystematic character of standard and legal base federal and first of all the regional level which regulates various parties of migration policy, and absence of legally established concepts of migration, migratory process and migration policy. Besides, recently it is possible to observe growth of mobility of labor force in the conditions of globalization which creates prerequisites for employment not only highly skilled professionals in the field of finance, insurance, banking, communications, but also the migrant workers occupied in the sphere of agriculture, construction, improvement of the territory, public catering, hotel service. Now the state is interested in attraction of foreign labor for ensuring the sustainable and balanced social and economic development of national regions, but is afraid of negative influence of migration on social and economic processes in theRussian Federation. 

  12. Solubility determination as an alternative to migration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodai, Zsolt; Jakab, Péter Pál; Novák, Márton; Nyiri, Zoltán; Szabó, Bálint Sámuel; Rikker, Tamás; Eke, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    Solubility values for six UV stabilisers (Cyasorb UV-1164, Tinuvin P, Tinuvin 234, Tinuvin 326, Tinuvin 327 and Tinuvin 1577) and five antioxidants (Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010, Irganox 3114, Irganox 3790 and Irganox 565) were determined in all the liquid food simulants (3% (m/V) acetic acid-water mixture, 10% (V/V), 20% (V/V), 50% (V/V) ethanol-water mixture and vegetable oil) proposed in European Union Regulation No. 10/2011/EC, as well as in fruit juice and cola drink. The applied method was obtained by modification of the method for the determination of water solubility as described in OECD guideline Test No. 105. By using ultrasonication and shorter equilibration time, the time demand of the solubility determinations were decreased notably. Solubility values proved to be lower than the specific migration limits (as specified in 10/2011/EC) at 25 °C for almost all target compounds in food simulants A, B, C and D1 as well as in fruit juice and cola drink. The exceptions were Tinuvin P and Irganox 3790 in simulant D1. The solubility in food simulant D2 was higher than 1000 µg ml(-1) for all target compounds. These results show that the solubility of some additives in food simulants can be so low that it makes migration studies for certain additive-food simulant pairs dispensable.

  13. Determinants of corporate dividend policy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, H. S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the determinants factors that effect the dividend policy. The sample used in this research is manufacture companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) and the period 2011 - 2015. There are independent variables such as earning, cash flow, free cash flow, debt, growth opportunities, investment opportunities, firm size, largest shareholder, firm risk, lagged dividend and dividend policy used as dependent variable. The study examines a total of 32 manufacture companies. After analyzing the data using the program software Eviews 9.0 by multiples regression analysis reveal that earning, cash flow, free cash flow, firm size, and lagged dividend have significant effect on dividend policy, whereas debt, growth opportunities, investment opportunities, largest shareholder, and firm risk have no significant effect on dividend policy. The results of this study are expected to be implemented by the financial managers in improving corporate profits and basic information as return on investment decisions.

  14. Developing evidence-based ethical policies on the migration of health workers: conceptual and practical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Orvill

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that in 2000 almost 175 million people, or 2.9% of the world's population, were living outside their country of birth, compared to 100 million, or 1.8% of the total population, in 1995. As the global labour market strengthens, it is increasingly highly skilled professionals who are migrating. Medical practitioners and nurses represent a small proportion of highly skilled workers who migrate, but the loss of health human resources for developing countries can mean that the capacity of the health system to deliver health care equitably is compromised. However, data to support claims on both the extent and the impact of migration in developing countries is patchy and often anecdotal, based on limited databases with highly inconsistent categories of education and skills. The aim of this paper is to examine some key issues related to the international migration of health workers in order to better understand its impact and to find entry points to developing policy options with which migration can be managed. The paper is divided into six sections. In the first, the different types of migration are reviewed. Some global trends are depicted in the second section. Scarcity of data on health worker migration is one major challenge and this is addressed in section three, which reviews and discusses different data sources. The consequences of health worker migration and the financial flows associated with it are presented in section four and five, respectively. To illustrate the main issues addressed in the previous sections, a case study based mainly on the United Kingdom is presented in section six. This section includes a discussion on policies and ends by addressing the policy options from a broader perspective.

  15. Return Migration as Failure or Success?: The Determinants of Return Migration Intentions Among Moroccan Migrants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Hein; Fokkema, Tineke; Fihri, Mohamed Fassi

    Different migration theories generate competing hypotheses with regard to determinants of return migration. While neoclassical migration theory associates migration to the failure to integrate at the destination, the new economics of labour migration sees return migration as the logical stage after migrants have earned sufficient assets and knowledge and to invest in their origin countries. The projected return is then likely to be postponed for sustained or indefinite periods if integration is unsuccessful. So, from an indication or result of integration failure return is rather seen as a measure of success. Drawing on recent survey data ( N  = 2,832), this article tests these hypotheses by examining the main determinants of return intention among Moroccan migrants across Europe. The results indicate that structural integration through labour market participation, education and the maintenance of economic and social ties with receiving countries do not significantly affect return intentions. At the same time, investments and social ties to Morocco are positively related, and socio-cultural integration in receiving countries is negatively related to return migration intentions. The mixed results corroborate the idea that there is no uniform process of (return) migration and that competing theories might therefore be partly complementary.

  16. The Feminisation of Migration and the Migrants VET Policy Neglects: The Case of Skilled Women Secondary Migrants in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sue

    2015-01-01

    There is increasingly scholarship on gender and migration, yet the international migration of highly skilled women is still somewhat under-researched. This article focuses on this neglected area in the context of Australia's discretionary inward migration policies to solve skills shortages. The article draws on empirical research using a…

  17. Bifurcation of Mobility, Bifurcation of Law : Externalization of migration policy before the EU Court of Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerboer, T.P.

    2017-01-01

    The externalization of European migration policy has resulted in a bifurcation of global human mobility, which is divided along a North/South axis. In two judgments, the EU Court of Justice was confronted with cases challenging the exclusion of Syrian refugees from Europe. These cases concern core

  18. The Development of U.S. Refugee and Migration Policies: An International Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the current U.S. policy response to refugee and immigration problems in an international context and identifies instruments of international cooperation. Emphasizes the interrelationship between refugee and migration issues and proposes long term solutions. Makes recommendations based on the experience of the Intergovernmental Committee…

  19. Argentina: resettling refugees within the context of an open migration policy

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    Paulo Cavaleri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Argentina’s human rights-based migration policy has helped regulariseregional migrant flows and has also benefitted refugees with specialprotection needs. Far from jeopardizing the local economy orundermining social cohesion, migrants and resettled refugeeshave been instrumental in Argentina’s swift economic recoveryin recent years.

  20. Causes, trends, and policy of population migration and the floating population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, F

    1996-01-01

    This study provides a discussion of migration theory, a description of the main characteristics of migrants and floating population in China, and a migration impact assessment and potential social policy directions. It is argued that the impetus for migration in China was the population distribution pattern and an uneven industrial structure that favored heavy industry. Another factor affecting migration is the gap in income between urban and rural areas, which has widened since reforms in the mid-1980s. The author finds the Todaro or the Harris-Todaro theories inappropriate for understanding migration in developing countries and flawed. Evidence about migrants' characteristics suggest that migration in China was part of a process governed by the laws of economic growth and market development. Legal migrants are defined as those who legally migrated according to the household registration system. China's development strategy during the 1950s relied on growth of capital-intensive heavy industry. The cost was underwritten by adoption of a price system that shifted the price of products in order to lower the cost of heavy industrial development. During 1952-78, agricultural output dropped sharply, but the employment structure changed very little and the rate of urbanization changed slightly. Regional inequality was obvious by 1978. As reform progressed, patterns emerged that favored eastern coastal development. Microlevel reform outdistanced macrolevel reform. Obstacles to migration were reduced: the breakup of the commune system and changes in the urban food supply system and housing. In 1990 there were 34.128 million migrants, of which 32.42% were interprovincial and 42.99% involved job-related shifts. In 1992, 8.1% of urban population were not registered; 94.909 million were floating population. Cities have established policies to match the size of the floating population to the current carrying capacity.

  1. Deflation; Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Taimur Baig; Jörg Decressin; Tarhan Feyzioglu; Manmohan S. Kumar; Chris Faulkner-MacDonagh

    2003-01-01

    Deflation can be costly and difficult to anticipate, and concerns of a generalized decline in prices in both industrial and emerging market economies have increased recently. This paper investigates the causes and consequences of deflation, the risk of deflation globally and in individual countries, and policy options. The authors discuss issues related to the measurement, determinants, and costs of deflation and examine previous episodes of deflation. They compute an index of deflation vulne...

  2. Determinants of spring migration departure decision in a bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechmann, Dina K N; Wikelski, M; Ellis-Soto, D; Safi, K; O'Mara, M Teague

    2017-09-01

    Migratory decisions in birds are closely tied to environmental cues and fat stores, but it remains unknown if the same variables trigger bat migration. To learn more about the rare phenomenon of bat migration, we studied departure decisions of female common noctules ( Nyctalus noctula ) in southern Germany. We did not find the fattening period that modulates departure decisions in birds. Female noctules departed after a regular evening foraging session, uniformly heading northeast. As the day of year increased, migratory decisions were based on the interactions among wind speed, wind direction and air pressure. As the migration season progressed, bats were likely to migrate on nights with higher air pressure and faster tail winds in the direction of travel, and also show high probability of migration on low-pressure nights with slow head winds. Common noctules thus monitor complex environmental conditions to find the optimal migration night. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Re-migration in Spain: an approach to its determinants

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    Carmen Ródenas Calatayud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the reasons that lead migrants to performmultiple migrations in Spain. After describing the main features of these immigrants,we specify a binomial logit and multinomial probit in which the probabilityof re-migration depends on the personal characteristics of individuals and thecorresponding origins and destinations of their migratory paths. The informationused comes from the microdata of the Residence Variation Statistic. Results indicatethat repeated migration of nationals and non nationals respond to differentreasons. The analysis suggests that foreigners’ re-migrations depend on the results of their labor experiences, whereas other reasons can be found in those ofSpaniards.

  4. Changes in Cuba’s Migration Policy and Its Impact on Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesimo Julian Moreira Seijos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Baseball is an essential constituent of the Cuban national identity. For nearly a century, Cuban baseball players had joined high-ranking international leagues, including the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball (MLB of the United States. After the triumph of the Revolution in 1959, the professional practice of sport was banned in the country. On the other hand, the revolutionary government instituted migration rules that disallowed Cuban citizens to travel abroad freely. Until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cuban national baseball team reigned in amateur competitions worldwide. Sporting successes in general and those of baseball in particular, were managed by the government as a political tool; the government used to display the loyalty of the athletes as a triumph of the Cuban system. However, since the nineties there has been a growing departure of Cuban top baseball players who have had the target of entering in MLB franchises, disregarding that the Cuban migration policy had remained unwavering. On the other hand, after the enactment of changes in the Cuban migration policy in 2013, the unconventional departure of high performance baseball players has increased sharply. The relationship between the migration reform and the increased leakage of baseball players has not been studied by scholars. The relevance of this paper is that it is the first academic approach to that relationship. This paper discusses the migration reform in Cuba and focuses mainly on its impact on baseball.

  5. [Argentine migration policy and movements of the European population (1876-1925)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoto, F J

    1989-04-01

    This work examines changes in Argentine migration policy from 1876-1925 and the relationship between public policy and population movements. Promoting immigration from Europe as proposed in article 25 of the Argentine constitution of 1853 was 1 of the most enduring objectives of Argentina's leadership. When Law of Immigration and Colonization (Law 817) was passed by the Chamber of Senators in 1876, the flow of immigration was at its lowest point in 8 years. Many of the provisions of Law 817 had already been put into practice occasionally or systematically, but the intent to use the law to attract a far greater number of immigrants and to select qualities seen as desirable were novel elements and the principal motives of the legislation. The unstated aim of reducing the preponderance of Italian immigration from about 2/3 was not immediately achieved. Argentina's immigration policy and actions were in competition with those of other Latin American countries and with the US. Information offices for prospective immigrants were opened in the 1880s in Paris, London, Brussels, Berlin, Vienna, Bern, and New York, and in 1887 legislation was passed permitting subsidized passages on a large scale. The continued predominance of Italian immigration demonstrated the limits of government policy influence, even when large sums of money were invested. The informal network of Italian immigrants already in Argentina and the activities of interested shipping companies on the other hand played major roles in maintaining Italian immigration. The total number of immigrants and the diversity of national origins were increased by the subsidized passages, but in 1891 the combination of a financial crisis and an end to subsidized passages decisively reduced the total flow. Changes occurred in the 1890s in regional flows within countries and in the occupational composition of immigrants from agricultors to day laborers, unskilled workers, and artisans. By about 1910 the conservative elements

  6. Pollution as one of the Determinants of Migration: Evidence for Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor González García; José de Jesús Salazar Cantú; Raymundo Cruz Rodríguez Guajardo

    2012-01-01

    Different variables have been proposed to explain the migration phenomenon; recently, environmental degradation has been increasingly prevalent in the literature as a determinant of migration. According to Jha and Whalley (2003), the environment-migration relationship can be theoretically demonstrated using the traditional Harris-Todaro (1970) model of rural and urban migration, in which the unemployment variable, if interpreted as damage, can be replaced by pollution. Using a cross-section m...

  7. Policies for people on the move: the future of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The labor shortages that attracted major inflows of immigrant workers to several European Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in the 1950s and 1960s have given way in the 1980s to persistent labor surpluses and high rates of unemployment. However, differences in economic conditions between the more and less developed regions of the world will continue to attract migrants from one country to another. With strict controls now imposed on the numbers entering host countries legally, many OECD countries are facing a growing illegal immigration problem. For the industrialized countries, the main challenge today is to meet the needs and demands of their existing stock of immigrant labor rather than to absorb new inflows. A 2nd or 3rd generation of young foreigners have emerged who often have only a rudimentary knowledge of their parents' native country and language. Immigrants usually fill the vacancies in industry and the service sector left by the domestic labor force which has gravitated into more highly skilled, better paid work, but with the introduction of automation and new technology, the demand for unskilled labor is diminishing. Although some host countries in Europe have tried to induce immigrants to return home, one should not expect any dramatic movement in that direction so long as there remains a major economic imbalance between sending and receiving countries. In the absence of this solution, countries with large pools of unemployed, low-skilled immigrant labor need to facilitate their passage into higher level jobs. It is necessary to establish the social and political rights of newcomers and to combat discrimination; positive policies (such as those in Australia, Canada, and the US) to promote the involvement and participation of immgrants in community and political life are needed as well.

  8. Qualifikationsspezifische Determinanten der Migration nach Deutschland (Qualification-specific determinants of migration to Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Achim

    1997-01-01

    "The IAB employment sample (IABS) provides new perspectives not only for empirical labour market research but also for migration research. Because the I ABS permits an account of labour migration to Germany according to socio-economic characteristics, it can be used to carry out studies for partial migrant groups which were previously only possible for all migrants together.In this article the IABS is used by means of an example as a source of qualification-specific figures for migration to G...

  9. Harmonisation of European Migration Policies: The Failure of Immigration Control Policies in the Seventh and Eighth Decades of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Until the middle of the 1970s, the migration policies of developed European countries were based on the assumption that controlling immigration was possible. Due to various reasons discussed in this article, such policies proved unsuccessful. The result was an increase in the total number of foreigners and a change in the composition of immigrant communities, i.e. the proportion of supported family members increased. During the 1980s there was increasing convergence in the migration policies of European immigration countries and traditional overseas emigration countries. Policies were more and more oriented towards preventing illegal migration flows, on regulating refugee flows and on balancing labour migration with family migration. The turning-point in the direction of “harmonising” West European migration policies was marked by the Schengen agreement (1985 on gradual elimination of border controls between the signing parties (France, Germany and the Benelux countries. Fear in the face of a possible invasion of Eastern Europeans after the collapse of socialism in 1989 was a further strong stimulus towards the harmonisation of migration policies in the developing EU. As opposed to migration control, the integration of immigrants has remained so far the prerogative of nation-states. The text further presents an overview of migration policy reforms in individual member states of the EU and of multilateral actions. The post-1989 migration regime in Europe has four major traits: 1 an extension of the agenda; 2 an accent on joint actions; 3 defensiveness; 4 confusion and an overload of issues. While on the one hand the EU continues to seek ways of protecting itself from undesired external migration, on the other hand the process of regional integration continues to “erase” its internal borders.

  10. DETERMINATION OF OBJECTIVES FOR URBAN FREIGHT POLICY

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    Daniel Kaszubowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decisions regarding strategic planning of urban freight transport very often are based on superficial assumptions inadequately reflecting the actual character of encountered challenges. The trend may be observed to adapt isolated solutions without supporting measures and verification of expected outcomes. Selected urban freight solutions have a significant potential to alleviate transport related problems, but they require unorthodox approach beyond standard traffic planning and road management. City's current planning experience must be taken into account to plan an optimized sequence of actions. Method: Due to complexity of the problem and specific decision making factors the analytic network process ANP was selected to determine relevant objective of the urban freight policy. Gdynia was selected as the subject for modeling with a review of the current freight planning practice as a first step. Then, classification of policy objective and their prerequisites were identified supported with descriptive feasibility assessment. This allowed for a development of the ANP decision-making model. Results: Considered objectives for urban freight policy were identified were optimization, reduction and transfer. After verifying relevant decision factors optimization was selected as the most feasible option for Gdynia. Other alternatives were rated around four times lower with a slight prevalence of reduction over transfer. Such ranking reflects current planning practice and availability of transferable experiences. Despite the indicative results, it must be stressed that urban freight planning should be based on the long term methodical approach not to exclude any emerging possibilities. 

  11. FROM “OPEN DOOR POLICY” TO MIGRANT CRISIS: THE REFORMING OF MIGRATION POLICY IN EUROPEAN AND NATIONAL DIMENSIONS (THE EXAMPLES OF GREAT BRITAIN AND FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Eremina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on the main problems of reforming of the current EU migration policy. The authors examine the EU’s legal norms and national judicial basics in the sphere in order to emphasize a certain evolution of the approaches of member states to migration control issues. Longterm crisis in the EU migration policies, which was strengthen in 2014-2015, is going ahead. National governments are obliged to seek for comprehensible ways out of such situation both at supranational and national levels. Hence, we can consider common features of their policies as well as evident distinctions. To illustrate last changes in European migration policy we use the examples of Great Britain and France. Both countries are concerned by huge diffi culties of their policy realization: the newcomers do not succeed to integrate themselves into society and prefer to live in isolated quarters with their culture and religion; at the same time, the popularity of radical anti-immigrant parties steadily grows. British and French governments are to fi nd a balance between free immigration policy and the duty to ensure security whereas security risks are rising in such social circumstances. The authors conclude that refugee crisis of 2014-2015 should induce European countries to rethink their migration policies. The «open door policy» and streams of refugees cause the overexertion of state’s potential to accommodate newcomers. The problem has already got a security dimension, so that more determined measures are necessary to be taken. British, French and other European governments should reestablish their priorities in favor of responsible and restrictive approach.

  12. Welfare payments and other economic determinants of female migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchautegui, M E

    1997-07-01

    "This article investigates the effects of welfare payments, wages, and unemployment on women's probability of interstate migration [in the United States]. It also investigates if the income attraction of locations varies with recency of labor market experience. Welfare gains increase the probability of interstate migration. Welfare effects are largest for single mothers with small children and stronger among women with no recent labor market experience. The welfare effects, albeit small, are larger than the wage effects. The wage effects are weaker among women with no recent work experience. Ethnic-specific analyses suggest differences in migration behavior among Anglos, African-Americans, and Puerto Ricans." excerpt

  13. Health worker migration from South Africa: causes, consequences and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Sanders, David; Mathole, Thubelihle; Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel; Dambisya, Yoswa; Runnels, Vivien; Packer, Corinne; MacKenzie, Adrian; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2015-12-03

    This paper arises from a four-country study that sought to better understand the drivers of skilled health worker migration, its consequences, and the strategies countries have employed to mitigate negative impacts. The four countries-Jamaica, India, the Philippines, and South Africa-have historically been "sources" of skilled health workers (SHWs) migrating to other countries. This paper presents the findings from South Africa. The study began with a scoping review of the literature on health worker migration from South Africa, followed by empirical data collected from skilled health workers and stakeholders. Surveys were conducted with physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists. Interviews were conducted with key informants representing educators, regulators, national and local governments, private and public sector health facilities, recruitment agencies, and professional associations and councils. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Interview data were analyzed thematically. There has been an overall decrease in out-migration of skilled health workers from South Africa since the early 2000s largely attributed to a reduced need for foreign-trained skilled health workers in destination countries, limitations on recruitment, and tighter migration rules. Low levels of worker satisfaction persist, although the Occupation Specific Dispensation (OSD) policy (2007), which increased wages for health workers, has been described as critical in retaining South African nurses. Return migration was reportedly a common occurrence. The consequences attributed to SHW migration are mixed, but shortages appear to have declined. Most promising initiatives are those designed to reinforce the South African health system and undertaken within South Africa itself. In the near past, South Africa's health worker shortages as a result of emigration were viewed as significant and harmful. Currently, domestic policies to improve health care and

  14. Census-derived migration data as a tool for informing malaria elimination policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Bhavnani, Darlene; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Bengtsson, Linus; Carter, Keith H; Córdoba, Roberto C; Le Menach, Arnaud; Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-05-11

    Numerous countries around the world are approaching malaria elimination. Until global eradication is achieved, countries that successfully eliminate the disease will contend with parasite reintroduction through international movement of infected people. Human-mediated parasite mobility is also important within countries near elimination, as it drives parasite flows that affect disease transmission on a subnational scale. Movement patterns exhibited in census-based migration data are compared with patterns exhibited in a mobile phone data set from Haiti to quantify how well migration data predict short-term movement patterns. Because short-term movement data were unavailable for Mesoamerica, a logistic regression model fit to migration data from three countries in Mesoamerica is used to predict flows of infected people between subnational administrative units throughout the region. Population flows predicted using census-based migration data correlated strongly with mobile phone-derived movements when used as a measure of relative connectivity. Relative population flows are therefore predicted using census data across Mesoamerica, informing the areas that are likely exporters and importers of infected people. Relative population flows are used to identify community structure, useful for coordinating interventions and elimination efforts to minimize importation risk. Finally, the ability of census microdata inform future intervention planning is discussed in a country-specific setting using Costa Rica as an example. These results show long-term migration data can effectively predict the relative flows of infected people to direct malaria elimination policy, a particularly relevant result because migration data are generally easier to obtain than short-term movement data such as mobile phone records. Further, predicted relative flows highlight policy-relevant population dynamics, such as major exporters across the region, and Nicaragua and Costa Rica's strong

  15. Effects of international law on migration policy and practice: the uses of hypocrisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D A

    1989-01-01

    Classical learning recognizes no role for international law in affecting migration policy and practice, but in modern times the salutary effects are increasing, although they remain modest. International law influences migration policy primarily through effective invocation of various forms of "soft law" in internal and international political forums. More limited prospects exist for beneficial changes enforced by international institutions and domestic courts. The article cautions against inflated expectations in the latter settings, however, particularly because overly ambitious claims can be counterproductive. It then offers a few predictions about near-term effects of international law, having to do with departures from a country, refugee law, and the integration of migrants into their new homelands.

  16. An Analysis of East-West Migration Following the 2004 and 2007 EU Enlargements: Effects on the Migration Policy Debate (O analiză a migraţiei Est-Vest după extinderile UE din 2004 şi 2007: efecta asupra dezbaterii politicii de migraţie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Cristina IRIMIE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Of special interest to EU migration policy are the effects of the EU enlargements of May 2004 and January 2007, with the addition of the EU-8 (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia, Lithuania, and Latvia and EU-2 (Bulgaria and Romania respectively. After the fall of Eastern communist regimes, massive East-West migrations were predicted and were expected to have a significant negative impact on the original EU-15. However, neither mass migration nor significant negative effects for receiving countries materialized, though many policies were implemented relating to these concerns. This paper seeks to analyze the effects of the expansions and accompanying policy changes on the long-standing trend of East-West migration. Policies implemented prior to and during the enlargements are examined, followed by an analysis of the likely impact of migration trends on both current and future EU migration policy, using comparative case studies of both sending and receiving countries. A review of the literature on trends and policies surrounding the enlargements suggests that economic concerns continue to play a role and have increasingly become the primary determinant driving migration patterns, though contributing factors such as asylum migration, ethnic return, and undocumented migration, as well as important topics in labor migration, such as the effects of the recent economic downturn and remittance flows will also be examined. Results from the analysis indicate that though EU migration policy continues to be more and more centralized, further integration is required, and should include standardized data gathering and reporting to facilitate informed policy decisions.

  17. Polarization reversal, migration related shifts in human resource profiles, and spatial growth policies: a Venezuelan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L A; Lawson, V A

    1989-01-01

    "This article examines polarization reversal in terms of changing human resource profiles related to migration and to national policies affecting the spatial pattern of economic growth. It first demonstrates the relationship between these elements through a review that integrates three distinct themes in earlier research. Attention then turns to an empirical study of human resource variation among eight urban districts and the rest of Venezuela treated as a single unit. This comparison utilizes age, gender, educational attainment, and occupational status variables provided by individual records of Venezuela's 1971 Population Census. A concluding section relates empirical findings to policy alternatives." excerpt

  18. A Location Selection Policy of Live Virtual Machine Migration for Power Saving and Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA. This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  19. A location selection policy of live virtual machine migration for power saving and load balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Liang; Dong, Yushuang; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM) migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy) of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA). This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA) idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  20. A 'civic turn' in Scandinavian family migration policies? Comparing Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Emily Cochran; Borevi, Karin; Mouritsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners' possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration policies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden range widely - from more minimal support and age requirements to high expectations of language skills, work records and even income levels. While in Denmark and increasingly in Norway growing sets of requirements have been justified on the need to protect the welfare state and a Nordic liberal way of life, in Sweden more minimal requirements have been introduced in the name of spurring immigrants' labor market integration even as rights-based reasoning has continued to dominate. In all three countries, new restrictions have been introduced in the wake of the refugee crisis. These cases show how prioritizations of the right to family life vis-à-vis welfare-state sustainability have produced different rules for family entry, and how family migration policies are used to different extents to push civic integration of both new and already settled immigrants.

  1. European migration policy and the construction of »migrants« in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela Meh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For a few years before the summer of 2015, when the unprecedented scale and strength of the movement of migrants forced Fortress Europe to temporarily open up a corridor for quicker and safer passage through the Balkans, Serbia was one of the places where many migrants were stuck for days, weeks or even months, on their way towards the EU. The aim of this paper is to present the situation of migrants in Serbia, as it was up to the summer of 2015, from a critical perspective, by showing that the category of ‘migrants’ created by the European migration policy has been externalized and transposed into Serbian legislation, and that this category is used to justify repression of people who fall into it. In the first part, I theorize on the nature of the EU migration policy – with its tendency to focus on securitization and externalization tendencies – and argue that it produces the category of ‘migrants’. In the second part, I discuss the consequences of the migration policy in Serbia, by referring to fieldwork conducted there in 2012 and between November 2014 and July 2015, based on participant observation, informal interviews and subsequent media production. I focus on a case study of two winters in the jungles of Subotica.

  2. Swedish Employers and Trade Unions, Labor Migration and the Welfare State—Perspectives on Swedish Labor Migration Policy Debates during the 1960s and the 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Johansson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses a political economy approach and explores the nexus between labor migration and the welfare state and how its specificities have been viewed and presented by organized interests of employers and trade unions in Swedish labor migration policy debates during the 1960s and the 2000s. The analysis demonstrates that the Swedish Employers’ Confederation (SAF and its organizational successor the Swedish Confederation of Enterprise (SN have preferred a market-liberal labor migration policy. Over time, a liberal immigration policy has been viewed by employers as an important policy solution to extend levels of economic growth, increase firm competitiveness, and maintain funding for generous welfare state services. However, since the 1960s the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO has preferred a state-coordinated and regulated labor migration policy. In LO’s perspective, a regulated immigration policy is a fundamental precondition for guaranteeing workers’ rights, and for minimizing potential negative effects for the functioning of the Swedish labor market model and for a prosperous Swedish welfare state.

  3. Migration and social determinants of mental health: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Bukola; Yaskina, Maryna; Hegadoren, Kathleen; Diaz, Esperanza; Meherali, Salima; Rammohan, Anu; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2017-11-09

    Studies worldwide point to increased risk of mental health problems among immigrants. However, the data on Canadian immigrants' mental health are ambiguous. To address this, we examined the relationship of both self-perceived mental health and reported diagnosis of mood disorders with age, gender, migration status, time since migration, and social determinants of health factors. We analyzed three cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Our outcome variables were self-perceived mental health and reported diagnosis of mood disorders. We used weighted logistic regression to model time since migration conditional on age, gender, income, community belonging, education, and employment status for 12 160 participants aged 15-79 years. Recent (within 5 years) migrants reported better self-perceived mental health (odds ratio 3.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.06-7.70) but this effect disappeared with longer time since immigration. Other predictors were older age, higher income, better sense of community belonging, and being employed. Similarly, diagnosis of mood disorders was less likely to be reported in recent migrants (odds ratio 0.23, 95% CI: 0.10-0.53) with some weak evidence that this was also seen among longer-term migrant residents (>10 years). Diagnosis was also associated with older age, being a woman, lower income, weak sense of community belonging, and being unemployed. Our findings indicate that migrants to Canada do not have worse mental health in general, though health and social policies need to attend to the socio-economic determinants, such as low income, unemployment, and a poor sense of community belonging, which contribute to population health outcomes.

  4. STRIPAK components determine mode of cancer cell migration and metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Chris D; Hooper, Steven; Tozluoglu, Melda

    2015-01-01

    and MST4 kinases, which promote the co-localization of the contractile actomyosin machinery with the Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin family proteins by phosphorylating the inhibitors of PPP1CB, PPP1R14A-D. Using computational modelling, in vitro cell migration assays and in vivo breast cancer metastasis assays we......The contractile actomyosin cytoskeleton and its connection to the plasma membrane are critical for control of cell shape and migration. We identify three STRIPAK complex components, FAM40A, FAM40B and STRN3, as regulators of the actomyosin cortex. We show that FAM40A negatively regulates the MST3...... demonstrate that co-localization of contractile activity and actin-plasma membrane linkage reduces cell speed on planar surfaces, but favours migration in confined environments similar to those observed in vivo. We further show that FAM40B mutations found in human tumours uncouple it from PP2A and enable...

  5. Determining a pool - type reactor fuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Refuelling the 10 to 15 MW pool type reactor considered here will occur frequently (some 10 elements every 3 to 4 weeks). It is therefore necessary to determine the most economic fuel policy. This study proposes to define a strategy that will make it possible to decide on the number and characteristics of the shipment containers, as well as on the means of storage, so as to reduce the risks as much as possible should the basic parameters of the study vary. Among these parameters, the respective influence of which is investigated, chemical reprocessing costs play a vital part. Two examples of optimum fuel management are given according to whether the reprocessing charges applied are those of the old or of the 1961 U.S. AEC base charges for reprocessing highly enriched irradiated fuel. (authors) [fr

  6. A quantitative analysis of major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, S O

    1992-11-01

    "This paper discusses some major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria using the logit estimation technique. It utilizes cross-sectional data generated from a national sample survey of internal migration conducted...between January and March 1988.... The empirical results revealed that the significant determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria are income, contact, cost, spoken English, ability to speak two Nigerian languages, distance, marital status, sex and ethnicity. The results further suggest that rural-urban migration is selective of single people and males. Proximity to urban areas where prospective migrants have relatives, friends and townspeople is an important factor." excerpt

  7. Determinants of Public Policies and the Manufacturing Sector in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    international best practices especially in the area of employment generation. Policy advocacy should be ... and fiscal policy to excise duty. Determinants of Public Policies & the Manufacturing Sector in Nigeria (1997-2013) ..... relationship between public policy and manufacturing sector in. Nigeria, the relationship is strong ...

  8. A Novel Artificial Bee Colony Approach of Live Virtual Machine Migration Policy Using Bayes Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaochao Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. Since live virtual machine (VM migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on the VM placement selection of live migration for power saving. We present a novel heuristic approach which is called PS-ABC. Its algorithm includes two parts. One is that it combines the artificial bee colony (ABC idea with the uniform random initialization idea, the binary search idea, and Boltzmann selection policy to achieve an improved ABC-based approach with better global exploration’s ability and local exploitation’s ability. The other one is that it uses the Bayes theorem to further optimize the improved ABC-based process to faster get the final optimal solution. As a result, the whole approach achieves a longer-term efficient optimization for power saving. The experimental results demonstrate that PS-ABC evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM running and migrating compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  9. A novel artificial bee colony approach of live virtual machine migration policy using Bayes theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaochao; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Jia; Hu, Liang; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. Since live virtual machine (VM) migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on the VM placement selection of live migration for power saving. We present a novel heuristic approach which is called PS-ABC. Its algorithm includes two parts. One is that it combines the artificial bee colony (ABC) idea with the uniform random initialization idea, the binary search idea, and Boltzmann selection policy to achieve an improved ABC-based approach with better global exploration's ability and local exploitation's ability. The other one is that it uses the Bayes theorem to further optimize the improved ABC-based process to faster get the final optimal solution. As a result, the whole approach achieves a longer-term efficient optimization for power saving. The experimental results demonstrate that PS-ABC evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM running and migrating compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  10. Macroeconomic determinants of migration from Romania to Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Taken into account various economic theories trying to explain the reasons that stay behind the decision to migrate to another country, this study uses empirical data to identify some macroeconomic motives for migrating from Romania to Italy. According to the estimations based on fast ridge regression, the stock of Romanian immigrants from Italy in the period 2002-2016 was influenced by: the real GDP per capita in Romania, real GDP per capita in Italy and life expectancy at birth in Italy. The number of Romanian migrants attracted each year in Italy in a period marked also by the global financial crisis (2007-2016 was related to factors like: real GDP per capita in Italy life expectancy at birth in Italy, unemployment rate and taxes on income, profits and capital gains in Italy. The overall results indicated that the better standard of life in Italy was a good incentive for Romanian migrants

  11. Through the back door: nurse migration to the UK from Malawi and Nepal, a policy critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Radha; Grigulis, Astrida

    2014-03-01

    The UK National Health Service has a long history of recruiting overseas nurses to meet nursing shortages in the UK. However, recruitment patterns regularly fluctuate in response to political and economic changes. Typically, the UK government gives little consideration of how these unstable recruitment practices affect overseas nurses. In this article, we present findings from two independent research studies from Malawi and Nepal, which aimed to examine how overseas nurses encountered and overcame the challenges linked to recent recruitment and migration restrictions. We show how current UK immigration policy has had a negative impact on overseas nurses' lives. It has led them to explore alternative entry routes into the UK, affecting both the quality of their working lives and their future decisions about whether to stay or return to their home country. We conclude that the shifting forces of nursing workforce demand and supply, leading to abrupt policy changes, have significant implications on overseas nurses' lives, and can leave nurses 'trapped' in the UK. We make recommendations for UK policy-makers to work with key stakeholders in nurse-sending countries to minimize the negative consequences of unstable nurse recruitment, and we highlight the benefits of promoting circular migration.

  12. Labor Market Determinants of Migration Flows in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Nica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research attention has focused on the labor market impacts of immigration, the operation and competitiveness of the European Union (EU labor market, and the expenditures and advantages of labor circulation for sending and receiving economies. The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the negative social consequences arising from the mobility of workers, the social and economic drivers of migration, and the effect of immigration on natives’ labor market results such as wages and employment.

  13. Application of radiometric method for element migration determination from plastic packaging to food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, E.P.; Saiki, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, a radiometric method was applied for element migration determination from food plastic packaging to simulating solutions and foodstuffs. This method consisted of irradiating plastics with neutrons, its exposure for migration and radioactivity measurements in the food or food-simulating solutions. The migration was studied for water, juice, soft drinks, acidic fatty food and dairy product plastic packages. The results indicated Co, Cr and Sb migration to the simulating solutions and food. However, the contamination of these elements in food from packaging material was lower than the maximum limit values established by the Brazilian Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) legislation. (author)

  14. NEOLIBERALISM, AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND MIGRATION. CONSEQUENCES OF A MODEL AGAINST PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gil-Méndez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the way in which the State, through its agricultural policies, has influenced the changes and current characteristics of agriculture in the rural municipality of Ixtlán, Michoacán. It also discusses how the policies towards the Mexican countryside have been the architects in the transformation of rural life and, in turn, how these transformations were crucial to have established a phenomenon that now has implications in all areas of the life of the inhabitants of rural localities studied, such as the migration (which today is characterized by its high intensity to United States. It would be difficult to understand the agricultural and migration dynamics in the region of study, but the policies are studied to the Mexican countryside that the State promoted since land distribution occurred, hence the importance of analysis. Township studio, located in the western region of Michoacán or, more precisely in the Michoacán Ciénega of Chapala is within this strategic regional enclave from where President Lazaro Cardenas initiated the agrarian distribution. Hence in this region after taking the long-awaited deal was also a place where he was promoted and boosted agricultural modernization with the strategies of the "green revolution". Both land distribution and agricultural modernization have been two moments or key events in the history of the town of Ixtlán that are taken in this work and we help to understand the productive dynamics of the region, but also migration and evolution.

  15. Gender, international migration and social reproduction: implications for theory, policy, research and networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong T-d

    1996-01-01

    "This paper aims to contribute to the development of an analytical framework that provides the space for the understanding of female migrants as reproductive workers in a cross-national transfer of labor. It will first provide some hypothetical guidelines for the explanation of female migration in the context of reproductive labor. Based on accessible data, a discussion on the case of Japan will be presented to highlight the main issues and problems concerning female migrants as reproductive workers. Finally, implications on policy-making and networking at the international and national level will be analyzed and discussed, taking into account the specific ideological, political and socioeconomic constraints." excerpt

  16. Migration and Development? An Assessment of Recent EU Pollicy Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasja Reslow

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea that migration policy and development policy are interrelated and influence each other has gained ground over the past few years. The EU has been keen to link migration policy to development policy in several of its policy initiatives. Based on a discussion of the notion of 'migration and development', this article identifies four policy dilemmas facing policy-makers who aim to link migration policy and development policy. It then goes on to examine four EU policy initiatives (the Global Approach to Migration; the Policy Plan on Legal Migration; the thematic programme for the cooperation with third countries in the areas of migration and asylum; and the Mobility Partnerships to determine how these initiatives aim to link migration policy and development policy. It finds that none of the policy initiatives adequately address the policy dilemmas. Only the two most recent initiatives (the thematic programme and the Mobility Partnerships address the broad range of suggested policies which link migration policy and development policy. Generally, it is clear from the initiatives that the EU prioritises the reduction of illegal immigration to its territory. Inconsistencies between the EU's various policies, as well as between its different institutional actors, are problematic for attempts to achieve a 'comprehensive' policy in the area of migration and development.

  17. Some Economic Determinants of Haitian Migration to the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo identifica algunos de los principales factores económicos tras la migración de trabajadores rurales haitianos a la República Dominicana. Sobre el trasfondo de las deplorables condiciones de vida y de trabajo enfrentadas por los trabajadores a su llegada, algunas teorías económicas sobre la decisión de migrar son esbozadas y las características de los trabajadores haitianos, de acuerdo a estudios de campo, son presentadas. Después de esto se resume la información más importante en relación con la pobreza rural en Haití y se presenta una explicación basada en la interacción entre crecimiento poblacional y erosión de la tierra, haciendo énfasis en los aspectos de la pobreza relacionados con el ciclo de vida. El ensayo concluye con una aplicación del modelo de migración de Harris-Todaro sobre los datos empíricos. English: The essay identifies some key economic factors behind the migration of Haitian agricultural workers to the Dominican Republic. Against the background of the deplorable working and living conditions facing the workers on their arrival, some economic theories of the migration decision are sketched and the characteristics of the Haitian workers, as they emerge from field studies, are presented. Thereafter the most important information with respect to rural poverty in Haiti is summarized and an explanation that runs in terms of the interaction between population growth and soil erosion is presented and the life-cycle aspects of poverty are highlighted. The essay concludes with an application of the Harris-Todaro model of migration to the empirical data.

  18. The Glide/Gcm fate determinant controls initiation of collective cell migration by regulating Frazzled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tripti; Kumar, Arun; Cattenoz, Pierre B; VijayRaghavan, K; Giangrande, Angela

    2016-10-14

    Collective migration is a complex process that contributes to build precise tissue and organ architecture. Several molecules implicated in cell interactions also control collective migration, but their precise role and the finely tuned expression that orchestrates this complex developmental process are poorly understood. Here, we show that the timely and threshold expression of the Netrin receptor Frazzled triggers the initiation of glia migration in the developing Drosophila wing. Frazzled expression is induced by the transcription factor Glide/Gcm in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the glial determinant also regulates the efficiency of collective migration. NetrinB but not NetrinA serves as a chemoattractant and Unc5 contributes as a repellant Netrin receptor for glia migration. Our model includes strict spatial localization of a ligand, a cell autonomously acting receptor and a fate determinant that act coordinately to direct glia toward their final destination.

  19. Policy review: Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA)--analysis of a failed nurse migration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Nozomi; Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; Gerlt, Lorna

    2014-02-01

    In 2008, the bilateral Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement took effect. Contained within this regional free trade agreement are unique provisions allowing exchange of Filipino nurses and healthcare workers to work abroad in Japan. Japan's increasing need for healthcare workers due to its aging demographic and the Philippines need for economic development could have led to shared benefits under the Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement. However, 4 years following program implementation, results have been disappointing, e.g., only 7% of candidates passing the programs requirements since 2009. These disappointing results represent a policy failure within the current Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement framework, and point to the need for reform. Hence, amending the current Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement structure by potentially adopting a USA based approach to licensure examinations and implementing necessary institutional and governance reform measures may be necessary to ensure beneficial healthcare worker migration for both countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ECONOMIC COOPERATION BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN THE FIELD OF MIGRATION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Strel'chenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the general trends of migration processes between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus, briefly describes the main features of the socio-economic development and migration policy of the two countries, including in the context of their cooperation within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. The article defines the key directions of economic cooperation between Russia and Belarus on migration policies and the promotion of desirable forms of migration. The relevance of the topic chosen due to both diversity and unsystematic legal framework that regulates the various aspects of migration policy and the lack of established legal concepts of migration, the migration process and the migration policy. In addition, in recent years can be seen working mobility growth in the context of globalization, which creates conditions for employment are not only highly qualified professionals in the fields of finance, insurance, banking, communications, and migrant workers employed in agriculture, construction, landscaping, catering, hotel service.Methodology. In conducting this study the main sources of raw data served as the information contained in scientific, reference, periodical literature on the subject in question, including the sources in the "Internet" information and telecommunications network. The basis of methodological developments laid the comparative methods of analysis and synthesis of the available data.Conclusions / relevance. Supporters of immigration openness believes that the strengthening of migration one of the solutions to the demographic problems of Russia and the problem of replenishment of the labor market. Their opponents believe that immigration creates an excess supply in the labor market, allowing employers to permanently reduce the level of payment of labor and social security, working conditions deteriorate.Practical application of the results of this work will improve the forecasting and

  1. The Social Determinants of Refugee Mental Health in the Post-Migration Context: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynie, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    With the global increase in the number of refugees and asylum seekers, mental health professionals have become more aware of the need to understand and respond to the mental health needs of forced migrants. This critical review summarizes the findings of recent systematic reviews and primary research on the impact of post-migration conditions on mental disorders and PTSD among refugees and asylum seekers. Historically, the focus of mental health research and interventions with these populations has been on the impact of pre-migration trauma. Pre-migration trauma does predict mental disorders and PTSD, but the post-migration context can be an equally powerful determinant of mental health. Moreover, post-migration factors may moderate the ability of refugees to recover from pre-migration trauma. The importance of post-migration stressors to refugee mental health suggests the need for therapeutic interventions with psychosocial elements that address the broader conditions of refugee and asylum seekers' lives. However, there are few studies of multimodal interventions with refugees, and even fewer with control conditions that allow for conclusions about their effectiveness. These findings are interpreted using a social determinants of health framework that connects the risk and protective factors in the material and social conditions of refugees' post-migration lives to broader social, economic and political factors.

  2. Socioeconomic factors that determine the phenomenon of\\ud migration in current Greece: a quantitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Karli, Chrysoula

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis commences with a meticulous examination on whether financial, social and institutional determinants associate with the migration performance in Europe and accordingly in Greece. Motivated by the intensity, the magnitude and the financial recession, this thesis presents three empirical chapters on the examination of the determinants that affect the phenomenon of migration. Prior to these three empirical studies a chapter introduces and defines all the variables used as wel...

  3. International Migration: A Panel Data Analysis of the Determinants of Emigration from Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burulcha SULAIMANOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents empirical evidence on determinants of international migration from the perspective of a source country and applies the gravity model of migration to empirically assess the determinants of emigration from Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan from 1998 to 2011. The findings of the study unveil that economic factors such as, GDP per capita, real wage(s, value added per worker in agriculture, remittances, exchange rates and demographic factor as amount of labor force influence the emigration decision.

  4. Migration to middle-income countries and tuberculosis-global policies for global economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescarini, Julia Moreira; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Gomes, M Gabriela M; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2017-03-15

    International migration to middle-income countries is increasing and its health consequences, in particular increasing transmission rates of tuberculosis (TB), deserve consideration. Migration and TB are a matter of concern in high-income countries and targeted screening of migrants for active and latent TB infection is a main strategy to manage risk and minimize transmission. In this paper, we discuss some aspects of TB control and migration in the context of middle-income countries, together with the prospect of responding with equitable and comprehensive policies. TB rates in middle-income countries remain disproportionally high among the poorest and most vulnerable groups in large cities where most migrant populations are concentrated. Policies that tackle migrant TB in high-income countries may be inadequate for middle-income countries because of their different socio-economic and cultural scenarios. Strategies to control TB in these settings must take into account the characteristics of middle-income countries and the complexity of TB as a disease of poverty. Intersectoral policies of social protection such as cash-transfer programs help reducing poverty and improving health in vulnerable populations. We address the development of new approaches to improve well-established strategies including contact tracing and active and latent TB screening as an 'add on' to the existing health care guidelines of conditional cash transfer programs. In addition, we discuss how it might improve health and welfare among both poor migrants and locally-born populations. Authorities from middle-income countries should recognise that migrants are a vulnerable social group and promote cooperation efforts between sending and receiving countries for mitigation of poverty and prevention of disease in this group. Middle-income countries have long sent migrants overseas. However, the influx of large migrant populations into their societies is relatively new and a growing phenomenon and

  5. Sociopolitical determinants of international health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Pol; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    For decades, two opposing logics have dominated the health policy debate: a comprehensive health care approach, with the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration as its cornerstone, and a private competition logic, emphasizing the role of the private sector. We present this debate and its influence on international health policies in the context of changing global economic and sociopolitical power relations in the second half of the last century. The neoliberal approach is illustrated with Chile's health sector reform in the 1980s and the Colombian reform since 1993. The comprehensive "public logic" is shown through the social insurance models in Costa Rica and in Brazil and through the national public health systems in Cuba since 1959 and in Nicaragua during the 1980s. These experiences emphasize that health care systems do not naturally gravitate toward greater fairness and efficiency, but require deliberate policy decisions. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Asylum migration and the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy: evidence from the Greek case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lucía Forero Castañeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the recent evolution of asylum migration has affected the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy (EU-CFSP, taking the Greek case during the 2001-2012 period as a starting point. With this in mind, the normative progress of the EU-CFSP facing the reception of asylum seekers in Greece is analyzed, under the scope of what Barry Buzan and Ole Waever would call Securitization Process. Both legal and political frameworks on asylum migration in Greece and in the European Union are approached, in the context of the evolution of the EU-CFSP in three main areas: Neighborhood Policy, Development and Cooperation Policy, and Human Rights Protection. The conclusión points toward the partial influence of asylum migration in the configuration of the UE-CFSP during the studied period.

  7. Impact of policies regulating foreign physician migration to Switzerland: a modelling case study in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Guy; Combescure, Christophe; Mamie, Chantal; Zoccatelli, Davide; Clergue, François

    2015-05-22

    Several countries have developed policies that restrict or limit duration of stay, clinical privileges or the number of residency permits allocated to migrating physicians. Switzerland is currently preparing a new law limiting overall foreign immigration. The impact of such restrictive policies is currently unknown. In a case study of anaesthesia care in Switzerland we modelled, trends in the size of physicians' workforce until 2024, following the implementation of a strict quota policy for foreign medical trainees. We developed a computer-based Markov model with Monte-Carlo simulations to project, in the context of a strict quota policy for foreign trainees, supply and demand for anaesthesia positions until 2024. We used data from a cross-sectional study performed in the French- and Italian-speaking cantons of Switzerland and the Health dataset from the OECD. With 8 to 12 (95% CI 4-20) anaesthetists retiring per year, the implementation of strict quotas of foreign graduates would result in a 38% decrease in the number of anaesthetists in intermediary (senior registrars) positions by 2024. This decrease would be particularly important in district hospitals where nearly half (49%) of the non-Swiss anaesthetists are practising. Swiss graduates are unlikely to balance the shortage. Despite efforts by Swiss universities to increase the number of medical graduates, their number has dropped from 10.5 to 9.7/100 000 inhabitants between 2000 and 2012, due to the growth of the population. This case study in Latin Switzerland shows that a restrictive policy limiting foreign immigration of trainees would result in a major deficit in the number of anaesthetists available to meet population needs. These aspects should be carefully considered when countries develop restrictions and limitations of foreign immigration.

  8. THE ECONOMIC CRISIS AFFECTS THE COHESION POLICY AND SLOWS DOWN THE MIGRATION IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Daniela Feraru

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has made it difficult to achieve the key objectives of the European Union and the cohesion policy as a result of the increase in regional disparities. The main causes are the decrease of employment rates, increasing poverty and social exclusion. Among the effects of the crisis, there have been identified within the present work, on the one hand, some Member States of the European Union, who are facing more problems, but also fewer public resources and, on the other hand, the trend of population migration slowdown in regions marked by large flows of migrant workers in the pre-crisis period. All these issues highlight the need to reconsider the cohesion policy. In the present work, we are trying to establish to what extent the tools for the reduction of discrepancies between EU Member States on the management and impact can be successfully developed within the new cohesion policy for 2014-2020, starting from the compromises made for the purpose of connecting the European objectives to the national ones.

  9. Recommendations for the determination of migration parameters by field experiments (tracer tests)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeologic review and assessment of candidate sites for nuclear power plants includes expertises on the potential subsurface migration of radionuclides in the event of accident conditions. To this end, knowledge of representative migration parameters is required. Detailed recommendations are given for determining such parameters by tracer field tests, for using standardized terminology in their practical conduct as well as for interpreting the data obtained. Also, mention has been made of recent work reported by other authors on this topic. 31 refs. (author)

  10. [Xenophobia in Austria? Attitudes toward migration, foreign population, and the state's policy on foreigners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, W; Munz, R

    1995-01-01

    "At present some 700,000 foreigners (almost 9% of the total population) are living in Austria, about 280,000 of which are in the labor market. A representative sample of Austrians between 20 and 54 years [of age] were asked about their attitudes toward foreign population and migration policy." The findings indicate that various degrees of higher tolerance were correlated with being young, male, urban, living in a province with a high foreign population, and high socioeconomic status. "Stepping up the integration of the foreign population...is supported by a minority of Austrians only; as for the education of the children of immigrants, the Austrian attitude is a more generous one." (EXCERPT)

  11. Migration and Development: The Policies of China and India with regard to their Overseas Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Elie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanFocusing on India and China, two countries with high levels of emigration that have developed policies aimed at promoting ties with their nationals who live abroad, this article contributes to the academic and political debate about the relationships between the phenomenon of migration and the development of migrants’ countries of origin. In light of the measures that both these countries have amassed for the benefit of their overseas communities, one can identify the need to create one or more institutional structures to promote individual initiatives. The importance of reciprocity is emphasised, which is an essential aspect of relations between the government of the country of origin and its migrants.

  12. The Determinants and the Size of International Migration in Central and Eastern Europe After 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Organiściak-Krzykowska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a very important socio‑economic issue in the contemporary world. One of the interesting and pertinent research problems worth considering concerns the scale and nature of migration from countries which entered the European Union in 2004 and in the subsequent years. As a result of integration within the European Community, the citizens of member states acquired citizenship within the entire European Union (which is complementary to citizenship in the country of origin. The right of free movement led to the emergence of the migration phenomenon within the territory of the European Union. A well educated and young labour force may be an influential factor in the social and economic development of the European Union members. The enlargement of the EU led to a significant increase in the number of part‑time/temporary migrants. According to statistical data, the number of emigrants from the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEE to the more prosperous European countries increased from 1,66 million in 2004 to 7,3 million in 2016. Within the context of the scale of economic migration from the CEE, questions should be asked about the determinants and economic consequences of this mobility. The main objective of this article is a diagnosis and evaluation of the determinants and size of migration from the CEE. The analyses are based on Eurostat data. The determinants of migration are presented from the point of view of the push and pull factors theory and related to the situation in the European labour market. An analysis of the size of migration outflow from the CEE countries made it possible to classify them into three groups: countries with a high emigration potential (Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, a moderate emigration potential (Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Estonia, Slovakia and a low emigration potential (the Czech Republic, Slovenia. The economic consequences of migration are shown from the perspective of remittances received from

  13. Making Migration Work: Labour Market and Skills Solutions. Policy Solutions Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Migration is an important part of UK society and the evidence clearly demonstrates that migration has contributed socially and economically over many centuries to the Britain we know today. However, much of the discourse about migration focuses on the negative concerns about the level and impact of migration at the expense of reasoned debate about…

  14. Labour migration from South and South-East Asia: some policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, M I

    1984-01-01

    The rise in migration for employment since the mid-1970s has had serious consequences for many Asian countries. This discussion examines the issues raised by the migration abroad of thousands of skilled workers and the efforts that sending countries have made in recent years to bring the effects of labor migration more closely into line with their development objectives. It also considers several problem areas requiring the attention of policymakers and authorities responsible for the administration of overseas employment policies. It is estimated that between 1976-81 annual labor migrant flows from the 8 major sending countries in Asia increased sevenfold, from a mere 146,400 to over 1 million. The Asian migrant workers tend to be young, male, married (with dependents in the sending country), and better educated than the average home population. Most of them come from rural areas and are predominantly employed in construction and labor. The most distinctive feature of these workers is their concentration in a few blue collar occupations--carpenters, masons, electricians, plumbers, lorry drivers, mechanics, and heavy equipment operators. These production and trnasport workers outnumber the professional and technical workers by anywhere from 3 to 1 (Philippines) to 17 to 1 (Pakistan and Sri Lanka). At the aggregate level labor emigration affects the sending country's economy through its impact on the labor market, on the financial market, and on the market for goods and services. It can be argued that the outflow of a significant proportion of the labor force should lead directly to a rise in labor projectivity in the sending country since capital per worker among those left behind will increase, yet it can also be argued that since migration sifts out the most skilled and experienced workers there will be an erosion of the country's human captial resources. Specific measures have been adopted in most labor sending Asian countries to protect the welfare of migrant

  15. International labour migration and local rural activities in the Kyrgyz Republic: determinants and trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanov, A.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a representative household-budget survey from the Asian Development Bank to analyse the determinants of international labour migration, distinguishing between seasonal and permanent (long-term) moves and comparing them with determinants of rural local income-generating activities in

  16. Determinants of Romanians' Migration within the European Union: Static and Dynamic Panel Gravity Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ana Maria Davidescu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1st of January 2007 marked Romania’s accession to the European Union (EU and represented its 'ticket' to a free access to the common market. This soon evolved into an important trigger for the increased migration flows from Romania towards the more developed western countries, members of the EU. Not only the opportunity of a free movement of persons – emerged with the integration - but also the existing socio-economic disparities between Romania and the more developed western countries in the EU, led to unidirectional migration flows. Using both static and dynamic panel gravity models, we aim to identify the main determinants of Romanians' migration towards 10 EU member states – Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Netherlands, Finland, Germany, Norway, Poland, Spain, and Sweden – for the period 2007-2014. Our empirical findings support the results of other studies performed on different economies. The most important pull factor for Romanians' migration is represented by the economic conditions in the destination countries, proxied by the GDP/capita. Other important pull factors fuelling Romanians' migration refer to the unemployment rate, life expectancy, education spending, and population density. A key role is also played by the existing social networks in the destination countries which are proxied in our model by the lagged migration flows

  17. The Glide/Gcm fate determinant controls initiation of collective cell migration by regulating Frazzled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tripti; Kumar, Arun; Cattenoz, Pierre B.; VijayRaghavan, K; Giangrande, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Collective migration is a complex process that contributes to build precise tissue and organ architecture. Several molecules implicated in cell interactions also control collective migration, but their precise role and the finely tuned expression that orchestrates this complex developmental process are poorly understood. Here, we show that the timely and threshold expression of the Netrin receptor Frazzled triggers the initiation of glia migration in the developing Drosophila wing. Frazzled expression is induced by the transcription factor Glide/Gcm in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the glial determinant also regulates the efficiency of collective migration. NetrinB but not NetrinA serves as a chemoattractant and Unc5 contributes as a repellant Netrin receptor for glia migration. Our model includes strict spatial localization of a ligand, a cell autonomously acting receptor and a fate determinant that act coordinately to direct glia toward their final destination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15983.001 PMID:27740455

  18. Wave of Middle East migration raises questions of policy in many countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerakis, A S; Thayanithy, S

    1978-09-04

    Since 1973 the increase in revenues from petroleum has resulted in a substantial migration of workers to the oil exporting countries of the Middle East. Discussion focuses on the policies being used to minimize the costs and maximize the advantages of emigration, including description and evaluation of measures and proposals for further action. No action seems to have been taken to regulate the present wave of Middle Eastern emigration, probably because in its initial stages it proved an unmixed blessing for the labor exporting countries. Steps should have been taken to protect the emigrants. Their living conditions are unsatisfactory in some host countries, and frequently they are exploited by the unscrupulous middlemen who arranged their employment and wages. No effective international agreements, multilateral or bilateral, have been concluded to deal with these problems. A policy response is required as labor shortages emerge in the later phases of emigration, especially as the balance of payments situation improves and reserves rise. An appropriate strategy should combine both supply and demand management measures. It should avoid overambitious antiinflationary objectives. For the majority of the labor exporting countries discussed here, foreign exchange earnings from migrants have reached sizable amounts, exceeding, for example, $1 billion in Egypt, India, Pakistan, and the Yemen Arab Republic. Countries are maximizing those receipts by resorting to compulsion and surrender requirements. Emigrants should be coaxed and not compelled to remit currently a high proportion of savings and to invest a low percentage in the country where they work or in 3rd countries. Remittances by workers during the period of their stay in foreign countries are made for family maintenance and for investment. The most effective way to satisfy emigrants that they will be able to reexport their assets is to remove all restrictions on payments. Going beyond general policies to create a

  19. A regional perspective on the environment-climate change-migration nexus: Governance and policy responses to environmental refugees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conference 9 – 11 October 2017 A regional perspective on the environment-climate change-migration nexus Governance and policy responses to environmental refugees Dr Inga Jacobs-Mata 2Key human mobility terms 4Background – 1 billion by 2050: fact... or fiction? • Worldwide, between 2008 - 2015, an average of 26.4 million people were displaced by disasters each year - equivalent to one person every second. Africa particularly vulnerable in this regard. • The migration - environmental degradation...

  20. Features of Legal and Social Policy of Germany Regarding "Young Grown-ups" with Migrational Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruin S.E.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the concept of "young adults" from the point of view of law enforcement and social practices in Germany, designed to help and support this population in legally relevant situations, such as criminal justice, prevention of illegal behavior and criminal involvement, problems of social integration. We provide a characteristic of the social and psychological characteristics of this group of young people, allowing to include them in the system of juvenile justice. We present the data on the nature of the crime of young adults, including those with a migration background, and on the kinds of social control and legal sanctions against them. We present models and the specific experience of working in state, municipal and non-governmental organizations with young adults in need of re-socialization and further integration into society. The comparative aspect of this problem is considered from the standpoint of the Russian legal and social policy for young adults in conflict with the law.

  1. Job satisfaction among 'migrant dentists' in Australia: implications for dentist migration and workforce policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, M; Spencer, A J; Short, S D; Watkins, K; Chrisopoulos, S; Brennan, D S

    2016-06-01

    Migrants occupy a significant proportion of the dental workforce in Australia. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of job satisfaction of employed migrant dentists in Australia, and to examine the association between various migrant dentist characteristics and job satisfaction. All migrant dentists resident in Australia were surveyed using a five-point Likert scale that measured specific aspects of job, career and satisfaction with area and type of practice. A total of 1022 migrant dentists responded to this study; 974 (95.4%) were employed. Responses for all scales were skewed towards strongly agree (scores ≥4). The overall scale varied by age group, marital status, years since arrival to Australia and specialist qualification (chi-square, p migrated through the examination pathway (mainly from low- and middle-income countries) had a lower probability of being satisfied with the area and type of practice (OR = 0.71; 0.51-0.98), compared with direct-entry migrant dentists (from high-income countries). The high level of job satisfaction of migrant dentists reflects well on their work-related experiences in Australia. The study offers policy suggestions towards support for younger dentists and examination pathway migrants, so they have appropriate skills and standards to fit the Australian health care environment. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  2. Public policy and media frames: the debate over migration in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Veloso Leão

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to provide a good basis to assess the way media frames are embedded in a wider social scenario, and how public and political preferences can be researched through media debate. The methodology adopted allows for an analysis of newspaper articles that can show broader trends of the debate and serve as a thermometer to measure public debate. It can further highlight details and enable in-depth analyses of media discourse. The article explores the interconnectedness of media debate and policy-making process by means of the analysis of articles published in a Brazilian newspaper between 2009 and 2010. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies are employed to identify the frames used in media and to offer insights of their relationship with the political debate. The ongoing political debate has raised attention to the issue of migration, with a great numbers of actors expressing very diverse points of view. A broader public debate has been initiated and some portions of it find voice in different means of communication. The paper argues that changes in the public and in the media debate are a response to changes in the political debate, while at the same time the first two also help to outline the latter.

  3. Determination of the migration of a plasticizer by 14C-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troparevsky, Alejandro; Pisarello de Troparevsky, M.L.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1975-05-01

    The migration rate of a plasticizer (dioctyl phthlate 14 C) from a P.V.C. film, with different media in contact with it, was determined by measurements of radioactivity in the extraction liquids. Mineral oil, vegetal, oil aliphatic hidrocarbon and detergent solution were used for this purpose. The resulting figures were compared to those obtained from weight loss determinations and in some cases the percentage of ''swelling'' of the plastic could be established. (author)

  4. Experiences of migration and the determinants of obesity among recent Iranian immigrants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Maryam; Farrelly, Ashley; Renzaho, Andre; Mellor, David; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that immigrant groups from low- or medium-human development index countries show a significant adoption of obesogenic behaviors and experience weight gain following migration to Australia. The objective of this study is to understand the changes that Iranian immigrants experience in relation to the determinants of obesity after migration to Victoria, Australia. We conducted five focus group discussions with 33 recent Iranian immigrants. This study took an interpretive qualitative approach to data analysis using the constant comparative method. Participants discussed individual level acculturation (e.g., in diet, body size, attitudes), as well as environmental level changes (e.g., physical/structural and sociocultural) that occurred after immigration. Stress during the initial immigration transition, which affected diet and physical activity habits, was a common experience among participants. Gender and the effect of political/religious changes were also important factors. Participants' discourse largely focused on their ability and willingness to adopt positive health behaviors after migration. This study provides insight into the effect of migration on the determinants of obesity among Iranian immigrants in Victoria, Australia, and offers a contrast with the existing evidence by considering the experience of a group that is generally well educated, often emigrates for reasons related to personal freedom as opposed to material deprivation, and has rates of obesity similar to high-income countries.

  5. A universal laboratory method for determining physical parameters of radon migration in dry granulated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Feng; Dai, Xin-Tao; Ding, De-Xin

    2017-10-01

    The particle size and heaped methods of exhalation media have important effects on physical parameters, such as the free radon production rate, porosity, permeability, and radon diffusion coefficient. However, existing methods for determining those parameters are too complex, and time-consuming. In this study, a novel, systematic determining method was proposed based on nuclide decay, radon diffusion migration theory, and the mass conservation law, and an associated experimental device was designed and manufactured. The parameters of uranium ore heap and sandy soil of radon diffusion coefficient (D), free radon production rate (α), media permeability (k), and porosity (ε) were obtained. At the same time, the practicality of the novel determining method was improved over other methods, with the results showing that accuracy was within the acceptable range of experimental error. This novel method will be of significance for the study of radon migration and exhalation in granulated porous media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of bisphenol A in, and its migration from, PVC stretch film used for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cervantes, J; Paseiro-Losada, P

    2003-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used as an additive in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products, including stretch films used for food packaging. The BPA contents were investigated of several brands of stretch film bought locally but marketed internationally or throughout Spain and which were presumably produced at different manufacturing plants. Their major components were identified by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry) and horizontal attenuated total reflectance, and the migration of BPA from these materials into the standard European Union food simulants was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using both fluorescence (FL) and ultraviolet (UV) detection, the identity of the analyte being confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The two HPLC detection methods had different detection limits (30 microg x l(-1) for UV, 3 microg x l(-1) for FL), but afforded virtually identical BPA determinations for the samples tested. BPA contents ranging from 40 to 100 mg x kg(-1) were found in three of the five PVC-based films analysed, and a content of 500 mg x kg(-1) was found in a fourth; for these determinations, extraction into acetonitrile was used. In standard tests of migration into water, 3% acetic acid and olive oil over 10 days at 40 degrees C, migration from a given film was in all cases greatest into olive oil. Migration from the films with non-zero BPA contents ranged from 3 to 31 microg x dm(-2), values higher than those reported for many other food-contact materials, but lower than the European Union specific migration limit for BPA. PVC stretch film nevertheless may make a significant contribution to contamination of foodstuffs by BPA, and should be taken into account in estimating BPA intake or exposure to this substance.

  7. Migration for Labor, Migration for Love: Marriage and Family Formation across Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Addresses how marriage and migration interacted using migration to the United States as an example; the key variables determining this relationship were demographics, legal policies, cultural perceptions, and information and technology. Maintains that the influence of an international marriage market affected the migration decisions of women who…

  8. Development of computer code for determining prediction parameters of radionuclide migration in soil layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    1986-07-01

    A computer code (MIGSTEM-FIT) has been developed to determine the prediction parameters, retardation factor, water flow velocity, dispersion coefficient, etc., of radionuclide migration in soil layer from the concentration distribution of radionuclide in soil layer or in effluent. In this code, the solution of the predicting equation for radionuclide migration is compared with the concentration distribution measured, and the most adequate values of parameter can be determined by the flexible tolerance method. The validity of finite differential method, which was one of the method to solve the predicting equation, was confirmed by comparison with the analytical solution, and also the validity of fitting method was confirmed by the fitting of the concentration distribution calculated from known parameters. From the examination about the error, it was found that the error of the parameter obtained by using this code was smaller than that of the concentration distribution measured. (author)

  9. The Determinants of Actual Migration and the Role of Wages and Unemployment in Albania: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cattaneo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the determinants of internal migration in Albania, adopting the Harris-Todaro approach to migration: an internal migration function is estimated using district wage and unemployment rate differentials. The aggregate level wages and unemployment, included in the migration equation, are retrieved from a first stage wage and unemployment equations, estimated controlling for personal characteristics. Moreover, in order to test the predictions of the human capital model of migration, the difference between migrants and non-migrants is emphasized in the estimation. The data source is the "Living Standard Measurement Survey for Albania" (2002, undertaken by the national Institute of Statistics and the World Bank jointly. The results reveal that both wage and unemployment differentials are important determinants of the propensity to migrate in Albania. This conclusion is further emphasized by noting that migrants gain substantially in terms of higher returns to individual characteristics after emigration.

  10. Migration as a social determinant of health for irregular migrants: Israel as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Yonina; Willen, Sarah S; Davidovitch, Nadav; Mor, Zohar

    2015-12-01

    More than 150,000 irregular migrants reside in Israel, yet data regarding their utilization of and perceived barriers to health care services are limited. Drawing on semi-structured interviews conducted with 35 irregular migrant adults between January and September 2012, this article analyzes the role of migration as a social determinant of health for irregular migrants, and especially asylum seekers. We analyze two kinds of barriers faced by migrants when they attempt to access health care services: barriers resulting directly from their migration status, and barriers that are common among low-income communities but exacerbated by this status. Migration-related barriers included a lack of clear or consistent legislation; the threat of deportation; the inability to obtain work permits and resulting poverty and harsh living and working conditions; and discrimination. Barriers exacerbated by migrant status included prohibitive cost; poor and confusing organization of services; language barriers; perceived low quality of care; and social isolation. These findings support recent arguments that migrant status itself constitutes a social determinant of health that can intersect with other determinants to adversely affect health care access and health outcomes. Findings suggest that any meaningful effort to improve migrants' health will depend on the willingness of clinicians, public health officials, and policymakers to address the complex array of upstream political and socio-economic factors that affect migrants' health rather than focusing on narrower questions of access to health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Family Friendly Policies in STEM Departments: Awareness and Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xuhong; Bozeman, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Focused on academic departments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in the United States, we attempt to map department chairs' awareness of family friendly policies and investigate possible determinants of their knowledge levels. Based on a sample of STEM department chairs in American research universities, we find…

  12. The Economical and Behavioral Determinants of Cash Dividends Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Juma'h

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cash dividend policy is affected by financial and behavioral factors. Available information in the financial markets reduces the uncertainty and leads to better decisions for the performance and organizational effectiveness. Companies face uncertainty with respect to the world-wide policy, growth, stability, technology and the changes in consumers’ tastes. The determinants and factors that influence the decision to pay dividends include the stakeholders’ perceptions on dividends announcements, the pattern of dividends payments, the opportunities of investments, the effects on share price, the effects of taxes, and the companies’ size.

  13. Determination of aims military-technical policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Salnikova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the aims of military-technical policy are considered. Determination of aims (tasks of military-technical policy, its maintenance, requirements to it and directions of its further development it must come true by the analysis of different factors of external and internal environment. Among such factors: geopolitical and military-political position of Ukraine and its military doctrine; realized and operating programs of development (reformation of the soldiery forming and them technical rigging; terms of future military operations and progress of their maintenance, forms, methods and characteristic signs of battle actions trend; substantive provisions of art of war; conceptions, theories and doctrines of battle application of the soldiery forming of the different states; resources dedicated by the state on development of military-technical sphere and others like that. The fundamental chart of sequence of forming of public military-technical policy is presented in the article.

  14. Interregional migration in socialist countries: the case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y

    1997-03-01

    "This paper analyzes changing interregional migration in China and reveals that the recent eastward migration reverses patterns of migration under Mao. It finds that investment variables are more important than the conventional variables of income and job opportunities in determining China's recent interregional migration. It suggests that both state policy and the global force influence interregional migration, challenging the popular view that the socialist state is the only critical determinant. This paper also criticizes Mao's approach to interregional migration and discusses the impact of migration on development." excerpt

  15. Policy-dependent determinants of several important health problems and related actors in policy-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucht F van der; Jansen J; NsPh; VTV

    2002-01-01

    The exploratory study reported on here investigated the possibilities offered by intersectoral (health) policy. The study consisted of two parts. First, a broad description was given of determinants of five health problems (cancer, Chronic non specific lung disease (CNSLD), heart disease, injury due

  16. Determination of a method to inhibit technetium migration at the repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statler, V.; Tulenko, J.; Cloke, P.

    1990-01-01

    The long-term migration of 99 Tc (213,000-yr half-life) must be considered when examining the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a geologic repository. This report outlines an investigation of the effects of iron, tin, stannous chloride, copper, manganese, and vanadium as reactants added to a mixture of technetium and J-13 well water to cause technetium precipitation. The J-13 well water was chosen because it is representative of the groundwater located at Yucca Mountain. A state-of-the-art computer software package, EQ3/6, was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and was utilized in this study to project the result when metallic iron, tin, copper, manganese, and vanadium and the compound stannous chloride are individually added to a mixture of metallic technetium and J-13 well water. The computer codes in this study indicate that the problems associated with technetium migration at the federal repository are not insurmountable if a reactant capable of producing reducing conditions to the incoming groundwater is integrated into the waste package. Further work will focus on the laboratory experimentation to validate the computer results and to determine the best materials and configurations to inhibit technetium migration at the repository

  17. Migration and wintering sites of Pelagic Cormorants determined by satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Factors affecting winter survival may be key determinants of status and population trends of seabirds, but connections between breeding sites and wintering areas of most populations are poorly known. Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus; N= 6) surgically implanted with satellite transmitters migrated from a breeding colony on Middleton Island, northern Gulf of Alaska, to wintering sites in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Winter locations averaged 920 km (range = 600-1190 km) from the breeding site. Migration flights in fall and spring lasted ???5 d in four instances. After reaching wintering areas, cormorants settled in narrowly circumscribed inshore locations (~10-km radius) and remained there throughout the nonbreeding period (September- March). Two juveniles tagged at the breeding colony as fledglings remained at their wintering sites for the duration of the tracking interval (14 and 22 mo, respectively). Most cormorants used multiple sites within their winter ranges for roosting and foraging. Band recoveries show that Pelagic Cormorants in southern British Columbia and Washington disperse locally in winter, rather than migrating like the cormorants in our study. Radio-tagging and monitoring cormorants and other seabirds from known breeding sites are vital for understanding migratory connectivity and improving conservation strategies for local populations. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  18. Fall migration routes, timing, and wintering sites of North American ospreys as determined by satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, M.S.; Henny, Charles J.; Nye, P.; Solensky, Matthew J.

    2001-01-01

    Satellite telemetry was used to determine fall migratory movements of Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) breeding in the United States. Study areas were established along the lower Columbia River between Oregon and Washington; in north-central Minnesota; on Shelter Island, New York; and in southern New Jersey. Seventy-four adults (25 males, 49 females) were tracked from 1995 through 1999. Migration routes differed among populations but not by sex. Western Ospreys migrated through California and to a lesser degree other western states and wintered in Mexico (88%), El Salvador (6%), and Honduras (6%) (25.9A?N to 13.0A?N and 108.3A?W to 87.3A?W). Minnesota Ospreys migrated along three routes: (1) through the Central U.S. and then along the east coast of Mexico, (2) along the Mississippi River Valley, then across the Gulf of Mexico, or (3) through the southeastern U.S., then across the Caribbean. East Coast birds migrated along the eastern seaboard of the U.S., through Florida, and across the Caribbean. Midwestern birds wintered from Mexico south to Bolivia (22.35A?N to 13.64A?S, and 91.75A?W to 61.76A?W), while East Coast birds wintered from Florida to as far south as Brazil (27.48A?N to 18.5A?S and 80.4A?W to 57.29A?W). Dates of departure from breeding areas differed significantly between sexes and geographic regions, with females leaving earlier than males. Western birds traveled a shorter distance than either midwestern or eastern Ospreys. Females traveled farther than males from the same population, which resulted in females typically wintering south of males.

  19. Can education policy be health policy? Implications of research on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, M David; Low, Barbara J; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Huynh, Phuong T

    2005-12-01

    Research on the social determinants of health has demonstrated robust correlations between several social factors, health status, and life expectancy. Some of these factors could be modified through policy intervention. National-level public policies explicitly based on population health research are in various stages of development in many Western countries, but in spite of evident need, seemingly not at all in the United States. Because research shows such a strong association between education and good health, we offer evidence to show that at least two pressing problems in American society, namely the uneven distribution of educational attainment and health disparities linked to socioeconomic position, may be ameliorated through policy initiatives that link quality early childhood care, child development programs, and parental training in a seamless continuum with strengthened K-12 education.

  20. Managed Labor Migration in Afghanistan : Institutional Requirements and Policy Processes with and in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Rebekah

    2018-01-01

    International labor migration is becoming an increasingly important employment strategy for developing countries. However, while increasing mobility creates huge potential increases in global welfare, accessing these gains requires careful management and facilitation of labor flows to avoid low-level equilibria. Sending countries will need to design labor-sending systems that balance incre...

  1. Migration of antimony from PET trays into food simulant and food: determination of Arrhenius parameters and comparison of predicted and measured migration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldimann, M; Alt, A; Blanc, A; Brunner, K; Sager, F; Dudler, V

    2013-01-01

    Migration experiments with small sheets cut out from ovenable PET trays were performed in two-sided contact with 3% acetic acid as food simulant at various temperatures. The fraction of diffusible antimony (Sb) was estimated to be 62% in the PET sample under study. Apparent diffusion coefficients of Sb in PET trays were determined experimentally. Measurement of migration between 20 and 150°C yielded a linear Arrhenius plot over a wide temperature range from which the activation energy (E(a)) of 188 ± 36 kJ mol(-1) and the pre-exponential factor (D(0)) of 3.6 × 10(14) cm(2) s(-1) were determined for diffusing Sb species. E (a) was similar to previously reported values for PET bottles obtained with a different experimental approach. E (a) and D (0) were applied as model parameters in migration modelling software for predicting the Sb transfer in real food. Ready meals intended for preparation in a baking oven were heated in the PET trays under study and the actual Sb migration into the food phase was measured by isotope dilution ICP-MS. It was shown that the predictive modelling reproduces correctly experimental data.

  2. Migrações internacionais: teorias, políticas e movimentos sociais International migrations: theories, policies and social movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Lopes Patarra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available APRESENTAM-SE subsídios para o debate sobre políticas de migração internacional que já se estende para movimentos sociais de expressivos contingentes documentados e não-documentados nos principais países de destino. Recomendações de organismos internacionais defendem políticas migratórias em termos de direitos humanos e na supervisão de remessas, consideradas um dos aspectos positivos das migrações e auxílio no combate à pobreza dos países de origem. O contraponto com formulações teóricas sobre o fenômeno evidencia incoerências e inviabilidades dessas propostas se não forem articuladas com esforços para o desenvolvimento econômico e social dos países envolvidos.THE TEXT presents arguments for the debate concerning international migration policies; this debate, nowadays, involve social movements of increasing number of documented and undocumented migrants in the main destination countries. International organisms recommend migration policies based on human rights and remittances, considered as a way of reducing poverty in origin countries. Nevertheless, considering theoretical approaches and recent mass movements we can argue about the viability of the propositions as well as the necessity of also considering the structural conditions for the development efforts in these countries as a fundamental manner of combating poverty and improving their level of life.

  3. Small heat shock proteins are necessary for heart migration and laterality determination in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvic, Jamie L.; Ji, Yongchang; Marin, Paloma; Zuflacht, Jonah P.; Springel, Mark W.; Wosen, Jonathan E.; Davis, Leigh; Hutson, Lara D.; Amack, Jeffrey D.; Marvin, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) regulate cellular functions not only under stress, but also during normal development, when they are expressed in organ-specific patterns. Here we demonstrate that two small heat shock proteins expressed in embryonic zebrafish heart, hspb7 and hspb12, have roles in the development of left-right asymmetry. In zebrafish, laterality is determined by the motility of cilia in Kupffer’s vesicle (KV), where hspb7 is expressed; knockdown of hspb7 causes laterality defects by disrupting the motility of these cilia. In embryos with reduced hspb7, the axonemes of KV cilia have a 9+0 structure, while control embyros have a predominately 9+2 structure. Reduction of either hspb7 or hspb12 alters the expression pattern of genes that propagate the signals that establish left-right asymmetry: the nodal-related gene southpaw (spaw) in the lateral plate mesoderm, and its downstream targets pitx2, lefty1 and lefty2. Partial depletion of hspb7 causes concordant heart, brain and visceral laterality defects, indicating that loss of KV cilia motility leads causes coordinated but randomized laterality. Reducing hspb12 leads to similar alterations in the expression of downstream laterality genes, but at a lower penetrance. Simultaneous reduction of hspb7 and hspb12 randomizes heart, brain and visceral laterality, suggesting that these two genes have partially redundant functions in the establishment of left-right asymmetry. In addition, both hspb7 and hspb12 are expressed in the precardiac mesoderm and in the yolk syncytial layer, which supports the migration and fusion of mesodermal cardiac precursors. In embryos in which the reduction of hspb7 or hspb12 was limited to the yolk, migration defects predominated, suggesting that the yolk expression of these genes rather than heart expression is responsible for the migration defects. PMID:24140541

  4. Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader.

  5. The effect of agricultural price-support policies on interregional and rural-to-urban migration in Korea: 1976-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, D

    1987-08-01

    The impact of rice price-support policies, designed to increase farmers' income and reduce rural-urban migration in the Republic of Korea, is examined for the period 1976-1980 using a polytomous logistic model. "Our findings revealed that the elasticity of migration with respect to rice yield per origin farm household is positive and is significantly different from zero. The elasticities of migration with respect to rate of urbanization, particularly urban concentration-agglomeration, and population size of the destination are also positive and are significantly different from zero.... Our findings questioned the wisdom of employing rice price price-support programs as a viable policy for reducing interregional and rural-to-urban migration in Korea." excerpt

  6. Analysis of carbon stable isotope to determine the origin and migration of gaseous hydrocarbon in the Brazilian sedimentary basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, T.; Rodrigues, R.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of natural gases to determine the origin and gaseous hydrocarbon migration of Brazilian sedimentar basins is analysed. The carbon isotopic ratio of methane from natural gases depends on the process of gas formation and stage of organic matter maturation. In the geochemical surface exploration the biogenic gases are differentiated from thermogenic gases, because the last one is isotopically heavier. As the isotopic composition of methane has not changed during migration, the migrated gases from deeper and more mature source rocks are identified by its relative 13 C enrichment. The methane was separated from chromatography and and the isotopic analysis was done with mass spectrometer. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Between life cycle model, labor market integration and discrimination: An econometric analysis of the determinants of return migration

    OpenAIRE

    Schuss, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of return migration by applying the Cox hazard model to longitudinal micro data from 1996 to 2012, including immigrants of a wide range of nationalities. The empirical results reveal the validity of the life cycle model of Migration Economics and a strong return probability decreasing effect of labor market integration and societal integration. Modeling non-proportional effects of qualification and social benefits supports the human capital thesis and suppl...

  8. Brain Gain / Circulation Policy and International Student Policy in Korea : In Light of its Migration Policy and Implications for Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yuriko

    2015-01-01

    In the knowledge based economy, brain gain has vital importance for many countries. However, the non-English speaking countries, such as Korea and Japan, face a similar disadvantage in attracting talented foreigners. International student policy plays an important role in attracting and fostering future talents in such countries. In this paper, the characteristics of international student policy and brain gain/circulation policy of Korea will be analyzed in light of its emigration history and...

  9. A política do Brasil para as migrações internacionais Brazilian policy for international migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Rocha Reis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a maneira como o Estado brasileiro vem se posicionando em relação às migrações internacionais, e seu comportamento em relação aos fluxos migratórios contemporâneos que envolvem o país. Ao longo dos últimos vinte anos, o Brasil adotou uma série de novas políticas voltadas ao atendimento dos brasileiros no exterior, à gestão dos movimentos transfronteiriços e aos imigrantes no Brasil, políticas estas que respondem não somente ao ativismo dos migrantes e seus aliados, mas também à estratégia da política externa brasileira, sobretudo ao longo do governo Lula. Nos últimos anos, as migrações internacionais despontam como um tema estratégico para as relações internacionais no século XXI, e o Estado brasileiro tem explorado a questão como uma plataforma para criticar determinados países e demandar mudanças na ordem internacional.The purpose of this article is to analyze how the Brazilian State has positioned itself with respect to the international migration, and to analyze its behavior regarding contemporary migratory flows involving the country. Over the last twenty years, Brazil has adopted a set of new policies concerning the treatment of Brazilians abroad and the management of the cross-borders movements, including the issue of immigrants in Brazil. These policies not only respond to the activism of migrants and their partners, but also reflect the strategy of Brazilian foreign policy, mainly conducted during the Lula administration. In recent years, international migration has become a strategic issue in the international relations' agenda of the twenty-first century, and Brazil has engaged with this question as a basis to criticize some countries and to demand changes in the international order.

  10. A note on brain gain and brain drain : permanent migration and education policy

    OpenAIRE

    Haupt, Alexander; Krieger, Tim; Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we present a novel channel for a brain gain. Students from a developing country study in a developed host country. A higher permanent migration probability of these students appears to be a brain drain for the developing country in the first place. However, it induces the host country to improve its education quality, as a larger share of the generated benefits accrue in this host country. A higher education quality raises in turn the human capital of the returning students. As ...

  11. Migration of antimony from PET bottles into beverages: determination of the activation energy of diffusion and migration modelling compared with literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, F; Franz, R

    2011-01-01

    Plastics bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are increasingly used for soft drinks, mineral water, juices and beer. In this study a literature review is presented concerning antimony levels found both in PET materials as well as in foods and food simulants. On the other hand, 67 PET samples from the European bottle market were investigated for their residual antimony concentrations. A mean value of 224 ± 32 mg kg(-1) was found, the median was 220 mg kg(-1). Diffusion coefficients for antimony in PET bottle materials were experimentally determined at different temperature between 105 and 150°C. From these data, the activation energy of diffusion for antimony species from the PET bottle wall into beverages and food simulants was calculated. The obtained value of 189 kJ mol(-1) was found to be in good agreement with published data on PET microwave trays (184 kJ mol(-1)). Based on these results, the migration of antimony into beverages was predicted by mathematical migration modelling for different surface/volume ratios and antimony bottle wall concentrations. The results were compared with literature data as well as international legal limits and guidelines values for drinking water and the migration limit set from food packaging legislation. It was concluded that antimony levels in beverages due to migration from PET bottles manufactured according to the state of the art can never reach or exceed the European-specific migration limit of 40 microg kg(-1). Maximum migration levels caused by room-temperature storage even after 3 years will never be essentially higher than 2.5 microg kg(-1) and in any case will be below the European limit of 5 microg kg(-1) for drinking water. The results of this study confirm that the exposure of the consumer by antimony migration from PET bottles into beverages and even into edible oils reaches approximately 1% of the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by World Health Organisation (WHO). Having

  12. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  13. The global dynamics of diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of migration and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Girardi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The convergence between tuberculosis (TB and diabetes mellitus (DM will represent a major public health challenge in the near future. DM increases the risk of developing TB by two to three times and also increases the risk of TB treatment failure, relapse, and death. The global prevalence of DM is predicted to rise significantly in the next two decades, particularly in some of the low- and middle-income countries with the highest TB burden. Migration may add further complexity to the effort to control the impact on TB of the growing DM pandemic. Migration may increase the risk of DM, although the magnitude of this association varies according to country of origin and ethnic group, due to genetic factors and lifestyle differences. Migrants with TB may have an increased prevalence of DM compared to the native population, and the risk of TB among persons with DM may be higher in migrants than in autochthonous populations. Screening for DM among migrants, screening migrants with DM for active and latent TB, and improving access to DM care, could contribute to mitigate the effects of DM on TB.

  14. Migrations to Ankara by Railway and Settlement Policy (1890-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Seddar Kaynar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Anatolian Railway began running between Ankara and Haydarpaşa in Istanbul via İzmit and Eskişehir in early 1893, making transportation from Istanbul to the interior of Anatolia very easy. In late 1892, before the railroad was opened, policymakers prepared official reports on the resettlement of migrants along the rail route from Eskişehir to Ankara; and made regulations accordingly. This studyexamines the route of this migration, which first run to the port of İzmit by sea and then reached Ankara by rail. This article discusses the politics of resettlement and the conditions of migrants settled on the railway route during the twenty-year period between 1890 and 1910, when the Balkan Wars provoked mass migration to Anatolia from the Balkans. It analyzes the locations of the new settlements, the conditions in newly founded villages, and the habitability of the wasteland along the railway route. Daily rations, state aid for housing, types of production, agricultural styles, and the position of artisans will also be considered.

  15. Social determinants of health and health equity policy research: exploring the use, misuse, and nonuse of policy analysis theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embrett, Mark G; Randall, G E

    2014-05-01

    Despite a dramatic growth in SDH/HE (social determinants of health/health equity) public policy research and demonstrated government interest in promoting equity in health policies, health inequities are actually growing among some populations and there is little evidence that "healthy public policies" are being adopted and implemented. Moreover, these issues are typically failing to even reach governments' policy agendas, which is a critical step towards serious debate and the identification of policy options. This systematic review pursues three main objectives. First, is to identify barriers to SDH/HE issues reaching the government policy agenda. Second, to evaluate the characteristics of peer-reviewed research articles that utilize common policy analysis theories. And third, to determine the extent to which the SDH/HE literature utilizes common policy analysis theories. Our systematic review, conducted in June 2012, identified 6200 SDH/HE related articles in the peer-reviewed literature; however, only seven articles explicitly used a commonly recognized policy analysis theory to inform their analysis. Our analysis revealed that the SDH/HE policy literature appears to be focused on advocacy rather than analysis and that the use of policy analysis theory is extremely limited. Our results also suggest that when such theories are incorporated into an analysis they are often not comprehensively employed. We propose explanations for this non-use and misuse of policy analysis theory, and conclude that researchers may have greater influence in helping to get SDH/HE issues onto government policy agendas if they gain a greater understanding of the policy process and the value of incorporating policy analysis theories into their research. Using a policy analysis lens to help identify why healthy public policies are typically not being adopted is an important step towards moving beyond advocacy to understanding and addressing some of the political barriers to reforms

  16. Taylor rule and EMU Monetary Policy Determination and ECB's Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate the preferences of the ECB in monetary policy and to compare them with preferences of the central banks of new EU member countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The ECB's responsibility for the primary objective (price stability often contrasts with the requirement for economic growth stabilization policy from the national governments. There are doubts if the current members of Eurozone constitute an optimum currency area (the Eurozone 12 is recently the combination of rapidly growing and slow-growing - low inflationary countries. The differences between the countries will even expand during the European monetary union enlargement by new EU member countries. Consequently the probability of asymmetric shocks will increase. The main question is the ability of ECB to fulfill the needs of all EMU member countries in terms of optimal monetary policy. In the first part the authors analyze differences between the preferences of the ECB and national authorities (governments. The negative experiences of Ireland, Italy and other EMU members with current status quo help us to understand fear of future member countries from possible impact of common monetary policy on their national economies. The second part of the paper deals with interest rates determination by ECB and compares it with expectations (requirements from EMU member and EMU candidate countries. The main contribution of the article may be seen in central bank's preferences analyses – the preferences are defined as the parameters in Taylor rule (the weights given by ECB and national authorities to the price stability and economic growth stimulation. The hypothesis is defined as following: are the preferences of ECB in line with the preferences of national central banks of EMU candidate countries? The empirical analysis is based on the Taylor rule decomposition. The hypothesis is tested by regression analysis. Time series regression model uses relations

  17. The State Fiscal Policy: Determinants and Optimization of Financial Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitash Tetiana D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the determinants of the state fiscal policy at the present stage of global transformations. Using the principles of financial science it is determined that regulation of financial flows within the fiscal sphere, namely centralization and redistribution of the GDP, which results in the regulation of the financial capacity of economic agents, is of importance. It is emphasized that the urgent measure for improving the tax model is re-considering the provision of fiscal incentives, which are used to stimulate the accumulation of capital, investment activity, innovation, increase of the competitiveness of national products, expansion of exports, increase of the level of the population employment. The necessity of applying the instruments of fiscal regulation of financial flows, which should take place on the basis of institutional economics emphasizing the analysis of institutional changes, the evolution of institutions and their impact on the behavior of participants of economic relations. At the same time it is determined that the maximum effect of fiscal regulation of financial flows is ensured when application of fiscal instruments is aimed not only at achieving the target values of parameters of financial flows but at overcoming institutional deformations as well. It is determined that the optimal movement of financial flows enables creating favorable conditions for development and maintenance of financial balance in the society and achievement of the necessary level of competitiveness of the national economy.

  18. A Welfare Magnet in the South? : Migration and Social Policy in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Voorend (Koen)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe incorporation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica’s welfare arrangements is polemic, especially because the country’s ‘exceptional’ social policy regime and its flagship healthcare institution are under (financial) pressure, and the principle of universalism is in erosion. In

  19. Education Premiums and Skilled Migration in Mexico: Lessons for an Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigau, Camelia; Guerra, Bernardo Bolaños

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between skills prices (wage premiums) and inequality in migrant sending countries (mainly from Latin America) and explores the implications for education policies. Most of the evidence is based on the case of Mexico, a Latin American country that is also an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development…

  20. Is migration status a determinant of urban nutrition insecurity? Empirical evidence from Mumbai city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neetu; Parthasarathy, D

    2009-09-01

    From an economic perspective that understood it as a spillover of development, migration is now also the subject of socioeconomic investigation incorporating the problems of assimilation, relative deprivation and isolation. The corollary is an increased emphasis on economic and social understanding of migration and its consequences. This entails studying migration or migrants in terms of factors beyond income. Health outcome is important among these non-income factors but at the same time remains less studied. Although there have been a few influential studies on health issues as linked to migration status, the issue of malnutrition in this context continues to be under-researched. This paper explores, theoretically and empirically, migration status and malnutrition in Mumbai in India. An econometric analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data gives insight into the dynamics of child and maternal undernutrition as mediated by migration status in Mumbai.

  1. The Factors that Affect Indian Migrants' Decision to Stay in or Counter Migrate from the United States: A Study with Special Reference to the Role of Tourism Related Imagery as a Determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu P. GEORGE

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the changing socio-economic realities of the presenttimes, this paper explores the complex dynamics underlying Indian immigrants' decision to continue to stay in the United States or to counter migrate back to India. In a reversal of fortunes, the specific set of conditions that once triggered a massive inflow of economic migrants from India to the US has been causing a counter migration to India. Based on a review of literature and an exploratory study involving focus groups the paper identifiessome of the major migration / counter migration related factors. Then, employing a survey, the relative importance of each of these factors is gauged for individuals associated with different professions. In addition, the study explores as a special case the role of tourism related images about the US being held by immigrants as determinants of their migration related decisions. Tourism images held by the migrants and the tourism opportunities provided by the US act more as hygiene factors than as motivators. In course of theexploration, a number of hypotheses are emerged that are of interest to future researchers. The study has got significant implications for migration / counter migration policy makers, industry practitioners, and the migrants themselves.

  2. Determination of the appropriate energy policy for Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulutas, B.H. [Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Industrial Engineering

    2005-06-01

    Energy is an inevitable necessity for human beings. But the energy source is predicted to be scarce in the coming years as a result of population growth. Therefore people prefer energy sources that are renewable, clean and cost effective. Unfortunately there is not a sole energy source to meet these demands. Determination of the appropriate energy policy problem with interactive criteria and alternatives can be viewed as a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) problem within the context of the long range and strategic process. The analytic network process (ANO), one of MCDM methods, deals with the dependency and feedback that the problem has. The goal of this paper is to apply the ANP model to evaluate the alternative energy sources for the country. Finally when the results are discussed, it is apparent that the model can produce reasonable and applicable solutions for the case. (author)

  3. Determinants and consequences of internal and international migration: The case of rural populations in the south of Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto del Rey Poveda

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the current migration in rural population in the south of Veracruz state (Mexico. We identify three different spaces of migration, traditional markets, the northern border and the United States. Applying a multinomial logistic model and taking into account individual, family, and local characteristics of the migrants, we find different determinants in each space. These determinants are related to the objectives, needs and means of the migrants and their families. Otherwise, each space involves different consequences to the family in terms of the relationships between migrants and the rest of their relatives.

  4. Seasonal migration determined by a trade-off between predator avoidance and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brönmark, C.; Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.

    2008-01-01

    on commercially important fish species, such as salmon and trout. However, seasonal mass-migrations may occur also among other freshwater fish, e.g. in cyprinids that leave lakes and migrate into streams and wetlands in the fall and return back to the lake in spring. In a conceptual model, we hypothesized...

  5. Role of disease and demographic factors as determinants of return migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Petersen, Jorgen Holm; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2017-01-01

    migration and disease incidence, as well as demographic characteristics, were estimated using Cox regressions. RESULTS: The tendency to return-migrate when ill was not the same among younger and elderly migrants; migrants return-migrate if they had......, the tendency to return increased with age at obtainment of residence; among those who were ≥55 years, more men than women return-migrated. CONCLUSIONS: In Denmark, younger migrants are less inclined to return-migrate if they are ill compared with healthy migrants, whereas elderly migrants are more inclined......AIMS: A number of aspects of the health status of migrants who return to their country of origin have been explored in the literature; however, a more general description of the incidence of disease and demographic characteristics is lacking. The aim of this research was to contribute...

  6. Seasonal migration determined by a trade-off between predator avoidance and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brönmark, Christer; Skov, Christian; Brodersen, Jakob; Nilsson, P Anders; Hansson, Lars-Anders

    2008-04-16

    Migration is a common phenomenon in many organisms, terrestrial as well as aquatic, and considerable effort has been spent to understand the evolution of migratory behaviour and its consequences for population and community dynamics. In aquatic systems, studies on migration have mainly been focused on commercially important fish species, such as salmon and trout. However, seasonal mass-migrations may occur also among other freshwater fish, e.g. in cyprinids that leave lakes and migrate into streams and wetlands in the fall and return back to the lake in spring. In a conceptual model, we hypothesized that this is an adaptive behaviour in response to seasonal changes in predation (P) and growth (G) and that migrating fish change habitat so as to minimise the ratio between predation mortality and growth rate (P/G). Estimates from bioenergetic modelling showed that seasonal changes in the ratio between predator consumption rate and prey growth rate followed the predictions from the conceptual model and also gave more precise predictions for the timing of the habitat change. By quantifying the migration of more than 1800 individually marked fish, we showed that actual migration patterns followed predictions with a remarkable accuracy, suggesting that migration patterns have evolved in response to seasonally fluctuating trade-offs between predator avoidance and foraging gains. Thus, the conceptual model provides a mechanistic understanding to mass-migration in prey fish. Further, we also show that the dominant prey fish is actually absent from the lake during a major part of the year, which should have strong implications for the dynamics of the lake ecosystem through direct and indirect food-web interactions.

  7. Seasonal migration determined by a trade-off between predator avoidance and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Brönmark

    Full Text Available Migration is a common phenomenon in many organisms, terrestrial as well as aquatic, and considerable effort has been spent to understand the evolution of migratory behaviour and its consequences for population and community dynamics. In aquatic systems, studies on migration have mainly been focused on commercially important fish species, such as salmon and trout. However, seasonal mass-migrations may occur also among other freshwater fish, e.g. in cyprinids that leave lakes and migrate into streams and wetlands in the fall and return back to the lake in spring. In a conceptual model, we hypothesized that this is an adaptive behaviour in response to seasonal changes in predation (P and growth (G and that migrating fish change habitat so as to minimise the ratio between predation mortality and growth rate (P/G. Estimates from bioenergetic modelling showed that seasonal changes in the ratio between predator consumption rate and prey growth rate followed the predictions from the conceptual model and also gave more precise predictions for the timing of the habitat change. By quantifying the migration of more than 1800 individually marked fish, we showed that actual migration patterns followed predictions with a remarkable accuracy, suggesting that migration patterns have evolved in response to seasonally fluctuating trade-offs between predator avoidance and foraging gains. Thus, the conceptual model provides a mechanistic understanding to mass-migration in prey fish. Further, we also show that the dominant prey fish is actually absent from the lake during a major part of the year, which should have strong implications for the dynamics of the lake ecosystem through direct and indirect food-web interactions.

  8. Pre- and Post-Migration Determinants of Socio-Cultural Integration of African Immigrants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, T.; de Haas, H.

    2015-01-01

    Using a unique dataset (N=2,014), we examine the pre- and post-migration determinants of socio-cultural integration among first-generation immigrant groups in southern Europe: Moroccan and Senegalese migrants in Spain, and Egyptian and Ghanaian migrants in Italy. The results of the pooled and

  9. Human capital on the move: Education as a determinant of internal migration in selected INDEPTH surveillance populations in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carren Ginsburg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education, as a key indicator of human capital, is considered one of the major determinants of internal migration, with previous studies suggesting that human capital accumulates in urban areas at the expense of rural areas. However, there is fragmentary evidence concerning the educational correlates of internal migration in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: The study questions whether more precise measures of migration in Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS populations support the hypothesis that migrants are self-selected on human capital and more educated people are more likely to leave rural areas or enter urban areas within a geographical region. Methods: Using unique longitudinal data representing approximately 900,000 people living in eight sub-Saharan African HDSS sites that are members of the INDEPTH Network, the paper uses Event History Analysis techniques to examine the relationship between formal educational attainment and in- and out-migration, over the period 2009 to 2011. Results: Between 7Š and 27Š of these local populations are moving in or out of the HDSS area over this period. Education is positively associated with both in- and out-migration in the Kenyan HDSS areas; however, the education effect has no clear pattern in the HDSS sites in Burkina Faso, Mozambique, and South Africa. Conclusions: Empirical results presented in this paper confirm a strong age profile of migration consistent with human capital expectation, yet the results point to variability in the association of education and the propensity to migrate. In particular, the hypothesis of a shift of human capital from rural to urban areas is not universally valid.

  10. Monetary Policy, Determinancy and Learnability in the Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2005-01-01

    We study how determinacy and learnability of global rational expectations equilibrium may be affected by monetary policy in a simple, two country, New Keynesian framework.The two blocks may be viewed as the U.S. and Europe, or as regions within the euro zone.We seek to understand how monetary policy

  11. Condition-dependent individual decision-making determines cyprinid partial migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, J.; Nilsson, P.A.; Hansson, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Partial migration is a common phenomenon among many animals and occurs in many types of ecosystems. Understanding the mechanisms behind partial migration is of major importance for the understanding of population dynamics and, eventually, ecosystem processes. We studied the effects of food...... availability on the seasonal partial migration of cyprinid fish from a lake to connected streams during winter by the use of passive telemetry. Fish with increased access to food were found to migrate in higher proportion, earlier in the season, and to reside in the streams for a longer period compared to fish...... with decreased access to food. Furthermore, fewer unfed migrants returned to the lake, indicating higher overwinter mortality. Our results suggest that individual fish trade off safety from predation and access to food differently depending on their body condition, which results in a condition-dependent partial...

  12. Determinants of corporate dividend policy: evidence from romanian listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Ciprian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a vast literature that has investigated the dividend policies of firms from developed countries, relatively little research has been published exploring the dividend policies of firms from emerging countries. The literature regarding establishing the relationship between dividend policy and the attributes of non-financial companies listed on Romanian stock market, to the best of our knowledge, remains inexistent. The aim of this study is to identify the main factors influencing dividend policy for the non-financial companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange for a period of ten years from 2007 to 2016. In order to achieve this aim, panel data were collected from the listed companies’ reports and financial statements. The study reveals that dividend policy is positively related to corporate profitability and liquidity and negatively associated with leverage, size, growth, and the state of the economy.

  13. Patterns and Determinants of Off-Farm Migration: Transfer frictions and persistency of relative income gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Olper, Alessandro; Raimondi, Valentina; Bertoni, Danilo; Cavicchioli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The inter-sectoral migration of agricultural labour is a complex but fundamental process of economic development largely affected by the growth of agricultural productivity and the evolution of the agricultural relative income gap. Theory and some recent anecdotal evidence suggest that as an effect of large fixed and sunk costs of out-farm migration, the productivity gap between the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors should behave non-monotonically or following a U-shaped evolution dur...

  14. Determinants and dynamics of banded vegetation pattern migration in arid climates

    OpenAIRE

    Deblauwe, Vincent; Couteron, Pierre; Bogaert, J.; Barbier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Dense vegetation bands aligned to contour levels and alternating at regular intervals with relatively barren interbands have been reported at the margins of all tropical deserts. Since their discovery in the 1950s, it has been supposed that these vegetation bands migrate upslope, forming a space time cyclic pattern. Evidence to date has been relatively sparse and indirect, and observations have remained conflicting. Unequivocal photographic evidence of upslope migration (a few decimeters per ...

  15. Determining labour shortages and the need for labour migration from third countries in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Sommarribas, Adolfo; Becker, Fabienne; Nienaber, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Since almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to the other EU Member States, Luxembourg is the country with the largest proportion of foreigners; however, this foreign population is mainly composed of EU citizens. Due to its size and geographic position, Luxembourg was able to have access to a very particular form of economic migration: cross-border workers. Globalisati...

  16. What factors in the policy-making process determine the priority given to a policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erisa Xhixho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenda setting is the process by which problems and alternative solutions gain or lose public attention (Birkland T. (2007, p.63; Werner J. and Wegrich K. (2007, p.46.. The main factor that determine an issue that it could become a priority, drawing the attention of decision makers, the public, reaching for it to become part of the agenda are: “Window of Opportunity”, which is a strategy used by less powerful groups, which are benefiting from the fact that powerful groups in certain situations may lose control of the agenda, they manage this circumstances to make their case to the priority. Another factor are the “Focus Event” that emphasizes the fact that unexpected events that shock the public opinion, as were the cases of corruption of officials, case “Snowden” or 11 September in the USA, affecting an issue that directly lead the decision-making agenda. Advocacy coalitions, is a form that use less powerful groups by joining on the basis of certain principles, values, beliefs they have about a particular issue. This alliance of values, resources and coordination of actions helps to advance the issue becoming a priority. “Venue shop” as a factor that aims to reach groups through institutions, be heard, be able to attract the attention of decision makers, also using the media as a very important factor nowadays for sensitizing public opinion on the issue and influence in order to become a priority issue. “Policy network” has come as a need of developing a relationship between government and the private sector, thus forming a power dependency relationship mainly the exchange of resources and thereby influencing the political agenda on particular issues. Therefore in this article I will try to argue that these factors affect in various ways becoming determinant that the issue be the priority on the decision agenda. Also, I can say that after the development of the analysis, I think that the two factors have a greater influence

  17. Determining whether observed eukaryotic cell migration indicates chemotactic responsiveness or random chemokinetic motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmary, A C; Nossal, R

    2017-07-21

    Chemotaxis, the motion of cells directed by a gradient of chemoattractant molecules, guides cells in immune response, development, wound healing, and cancer. Unfortunately, this process is difficult to distinguish from chemokinesis, i.e., stimulated random cell motion. Chemotaxis is frequently inferred by determining how many cells cross a boundary in a chemotaxis assay, for example how many cells crawl into a chemoattractant-infused filter, or how many cells enter a defined region in an under-agarose assay or agarose spot assay. To mitigate possible ambiguity in whether motion observed in these assays is directed by the chemoattractant gradient or by chemokinesis, we developed a mathematical model to determine when such methods indeed indicate directed motion of cells. In contrast to previous analyses of chemotaxis assays, we report not just the gradients that arise in the assays but also resulting cell motion. We applied the model to data obtained from rigorous measurements and show, as examples, that MDA-MB-231 breast-cancer cells are at least 20 times less sensitive to gradients of EGF or CXCL12 than neutrophils are to formyl peptides; we then used this information to determine the extent to which gradient sensing increases the rate of boundary crossing relative to a random-motility control. Results show, for example, that in the filter assay, 2-4 times as many neutrophils pass through the filter when exposed to a gradient as when the gradient is absent. However, in the other combinations of cells and assays we considered, only 10-20% more cells are counted as having migrated in a directed, rather than random, motility condition. We also discuss the design of appropriate controls for these assays, which is difficult for the under-agarose and agarose spot assays. Moreover, although straightforward to perform with the filter assay, reliable controls are often not done. Consequently, we infer that chemotaxis is frequently over-reported, especially for cells like

  18. Determinants of Renewable Energy Innovation: Environmental Policies vs. Market Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nesta, Lionel; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    This paper carries out a comprehensive analysis of renewable energy innovations considering four mechanisms suggested by innovation models: 1. policy-inducement; 2. market structure; 3. demand and social cohesion- mainly proxied by income inequality; 4. characteristics of country knowledge base. For OECD countries and years 1970-2005, we build a unique dataset containing time-varying information on quality-adjusted patent production in renewable energy, the latter being a function of environmental policies, green R and D, entry barriers, knowledge stock, knowledge diversity and income inequality. We develop count data models using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity of policy support. Our synthetic policy index positively affects innovations especially in countries with deregulated energy markets and low entry barriers. The effect of entry barriers and inequality is negative and of similar magnitude as that of policy. Product market liberalization positively affects green patent generation, especially so when ambitious policies are adopted, when the initial level of public R and D expenditures and when the initial share of distributed energy generation is high. Our results are robust to alternative specifications, to the inclusion of technology-specific effects and to the use of quality-adjusted patents as dependent variables. In the latter case, the estimated effect of lowering entry barriers and of knowledge diversity almost double on citation count relatively to patent count. (authors)

  19. Migration, acculturation and environment: determinants of obesity among Iranian migrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Maryam; Sønderlund, Anders Larrabee; Mellor, David; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-01-22

    While migration from low- to high-income countries is typically associated with weight gain, the obesity risks of migration from middle-income countries are less certain. In addition to changes in behaviours and cultural orientation upon migration, analyses of changes in environments are needed to explain post-migration risks for obesity. The present study examines the interaction between obesity-related environmental factors and the pattern of migrant acculturation in a sample of 152 Iranian immigrants in Victoria, Australia. Weight measurements, demographics, physical activity levels and diet habits were also surveyed. The pattern of acculturation (relative integration, assimilation, separation or marginalization) was not related to body mass index, diet, or physical activity behaviours. Three relevant aspects of participants' perception of the Australian environment (physically active environments, social pressure to be fit, unhealthy food environments) varied considerably by demographic characteristics, but only one (physically active environments) was related to a pattern of acculturation (assimilation). Overall, this research highlighted a number of key relationships between acculturation and obesity-related environments and behaviours for our study sample. Theoretical models on migration, culture and obesity need to include environmental factors.

  20. Determinants of evidence use in Public Health Policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Goor, Ien; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Syed, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    evidence, evidence on costs, and a lack of joint understanding were specific hindrances. Also users' characteristics and the role media play were identified as factors of influence. Attention for individual and social factors within the policy context might provide the key to enhance more sustainable......, lacking the most effective approaches, thus limiting the impact of health promotion strategies. This article focuses on facilitators and barriers in the use of evidence in developing health enhancing physical activity policies. Data was collected in 2012 by interviewing 86 key stakeholders from six EU...... evidence use. Developing and evaluating tailored approaches impacting on networking, personal relationships, collaboration and evidence coproduction is recommended....

  1. An Analysis of the Determinants of Rural to Urban Migration Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of rural to urban migration is a relatively old and ubiquitous phenomenon globally. However, in recent years, it has become a cause of concern at the global, regional and national levels. The unprecedented levels of urbanization characteristic to most developing countries have resulted in the movement of ...

  2. An Analysis of the Determinants of Rural to Urban Migration Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    skills, public and private sector partnerships and management of value chains for effective mainstreaming of disadvantaged youths into ..... service, water, electricity, and public transport. Migrants are blamed, for causing, the rise in ...... expressed their intention to migrate to urban areas. A larger percentage (83.3%) of the ...

  3. Models for Determining the Efficiency of Student Loans Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dente, Bruno; Piraino, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    For both efficiency and equity reasons, student loans schemes have been introduced by several countries. Empirical work has been carried out in order to measure the effectiveness of these policies, but, with few exceptions, their results are not comparable because of their concentration on specific aspects. The present work suggests a…

  4. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make appointments...

  5. Indochinese Refugees in France and the U.S.: Public Policy and the Dynamics of Secondary Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patrick

    1981-01-01

    Compares the French and American approaches to the resettlement of Indochinese refugees. Analyzes data from both countries regarding secondary migration patterns and proposes an explanation of this migration as an attempt by refugees to achieve family unity, preferred occupations, and adequate housing. (APM)

  6. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  7. Chloride diffusivity in red mud-ordinary portland cement concrete determined by migration tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mud, which is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process, is classified as dangerous due to its high pH. In this work, the concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which initially was distilled water. The steady and nonsteady-state chloride diffusion coefficients were estimated from the "time lag"� and "equivalent time" between diffusion and migration experiments. The capillary water absorption, apparent porosity and pore size distribution of concretes were also analyzed. The addition of red mud apparently ensured lower chloride diffusion in the tested mixtures due to its superfine particle-size distribution and its "filler"� effect. Red mud lengthened the service life of the concrete to 35 years (double that of the reference concrete. This finding is very positive since it indicates a delay in the onset of the rebar corrosion process caused by the migration of chloride ions.

  8. Determination of the Solute Diffusion Coefficient by the Droplet Migration Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan Liu; Jing Teng; Jeongyun Choi

    2007-07-01

    Further analysis of droplet migration in a temperature gradient field indicates that different terms can be used to evaluate the solute diffusion coefficient in liquid (D{sub L}) and that there exists a characteristic curve that can describe the motion of all the droplets for a given composition and temperature gradient. Critical experiments are subsequently conducted in succinonitrile (SCN)-salol and SCN-camphor transparent alloys in order to observe dynamic migration processes of a number of droplets. The derived diffusion coefficients from different terms are the same within experimental error. For SCN-salol alloys, D{sub L} = (0.69 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and for SCN-camphor alloys, D{sub L} = (0.24 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s.

  9. Inhomogeneous Oxygen Vacancy Distribution in Semiconductor Gas Sensors: Formation, Migration and Determination on Gas Sensing Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianqiao; Gao, Yinglin; Wu, Xu; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia; Liu, Huan

    2017-01-01

    The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacanc...

  10. Theoretical foundations of international migration process studies: analysis of key migration theories development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymanska K.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for transformation of Ukraine's migration policy based on globalized world development trends and in response to the challenges of European integration transformations causes the need of researching the theoretical and methodological basis of migration studies, and the regulations of existing theories of international migration. The bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on international migration in cites indexes found that the recent researches on these problems acquire interdisciplinary character. It necessitates the transformation of migration study approaches basing on economic, social, institutional theories and concepts synthesis. The article is devoted to the study of theoretical regulations of existing international migration theories in the context of the evolution of scientists’ views on this phenomenon. The author found that the existing theories of international migration should be divided into three categories (microeconomic, macroeconomic, globalizational that contributes to their understanding in the context of implementation possibilities in migrational public administration practice. It allows to determine the theories which should be used for Ukrainian state migration policy constructing and eliminating or reducing the external migration negative effects.

  11. Forms and determinants of migration and HIV/AIDS-related stigma on the Mexican-Guatemalan border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Cesar; Aggleton, Peter; Pridmore, Pat

    2009-12-01

    In this study we examined the origins and consequences of HIV/AIDS-related stigma on the Mexican-Guatemalan border. To explore these issues, an inductive/deductive approach was taken. Data were collected using qualitative methods including nonparticipant observation, in-depth interviews, and informal conversation. Informants included Central American immigrants, locals, and contextual key informants. Findings reveal that gender, social class, and race/ ethnicity function as key determinants of HIV/AIDS-related stigma, but serve also as the basis around which migration-related stigma is constructed within this particular context. These issues need to be taken into account in addressing the vulnerability of mobile populations, as well as the stigma attached to migration and HIV/AIDS. To be effective, responses should be based in the social and contextual realities faced by migrants and mobile populations, and be part of a more general process of empowerment that improves their legal, social, economic, and health status.

  12. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of eight phthalates in total and migrated portions of plasticized polymeric toys and childcare articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natsheh, Mais; Alawi, Mahmoud; Fayyad, Manar; Tarawneh, Ibrahim

    2015-03-15

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in toys and child care articles that are made of plasticized plastic. The novel method was used to determine the total concentration of the PAEs in addition to the migrated PAEs values into artificial saliva, under conditions that simulate real life situations. The extraction method, which was developed for the first time to determine the total concentration of PAEs, utilized a novel optimization of four parameters involving the solvent, time, temperature and weight of sample. The PAEs were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, as extraction the solvent, and using the ultrasonic water bath shaker for 30min, at room temperature. Another extraction method was developed to determine the migrated PAEs into artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 37°C, implementing a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. Both methods were subjected to validation steps in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, which ensured that all obtained results were well within the norms of acceptable limits and specifications. The analytes were separated at the following retention times: 4.99, 5.21, 5.31, 6.63, 7.41, 9.05min for di-"isobutyl" phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate (DMEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), respectively. The chromatographic peaks corresponding to di-"isononyl" phthalate (DINP) and di-"isononyl" phthalate (DIDP), were separated, using the extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode within the time ranges of 8.05-12.10min for DINP and 8.50-14.50min for DIDP. The instrument detection limits for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP, DINP and DIDP were determined at 0.100, 0.100, 0.045, 0.035, 0.015, 0.370, 0.320, 0.260μg/ml, respectively. The calibration curve working ranges were determined at 0.5-25μg/ml for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP and DEHP, 2-100μg/ml for

  13. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  14. T he normative concept of labour citizenship as a determinant of the global value of economic migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni DI LIETO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of the key studies on conceptions of labour, citizenship, and migration, which combine to lay the theoretical foundations of the contemporary global governance in economic migration. The initial concern of this study is to build upon traditional accounts of labour and citizenship in order to develop a link between industrial citizenship and migrant workers’ mobility. Such approach aims at establishing the normative concept of industrial citizenship as a determinant of the social and economic value of human mobility for the purpose of work. This is intended to further the idea that cross-border labour can be not only a pathway to national citizenship for migrants, but also the avenue to the transnational evolution of citizenship in general. The variety of analytical treatments of the concept of labour, citizenship and migration span from ancient Greek philosophy through to the Scholastics and mercantilists, to the forerunners of the classical political economy, and finally to present labour economics, law and political science. Such an interdisciplinary approach challenges the traditional hypothesis of labour as a basic analytical category in which the worker is increasingly invisible, and where the price of labour is regulated through the market in a manner similar to other factors of production.

  15. Not on the radar: the impact of rural health realities on Canadian public policy and HHR migration from Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Arminée; Apland, Lars E; Labonté, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The policy environment of Health Human Resource (HHR) demands in rural and remote areas of Canada seems to compel health system planners either to ignore or only pay lip service to memoranda of understanding and other non-binding international agreements on ethical principles of recruitment. Despite common acknowledgement that the migration of health professionals from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the resultant loss of capacity to deliver health services are devastating for populations in that region, Canadian public policy consideration of the "brain drain" of health human resources from SSA seems cursory, at best. As a result, broadly based domestic HHR policies and international development policy objectives invariably seem to conflict and produce unsatisfactory results that continue to be detrimental to populations of source countries in the developing world, while doing little to alleviate the continued reliance of Canada's rural and remote "'gateways" on foreign-trained health professionals. A key challenge for Canadian public policy, at all levels of government, is to coordinate and find common ground, whereby brain drain issues and specific domestic Canadian HHR needs can be simultaneously and effectively addressed. This research explored the congruity between rural HHR policy principles and international development objectives in the context of federal, provincial, and territorial government relations in Canada.

  16. Managing migration: the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  17. Determinants of health policy impact: comparative results of a European policymaker study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rütten, A.; Lüschen, G.; Lengerke, T. von; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article will use a new theoretical framework for the analysis of health policy impact introduced by Rutten et al. (2003). In particular, it will report on a comparative European study of policymakers' perception and evaluation of specific determinants of the policy impact, both in

  18. Rethinking international migration: a review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, D G

    1983-01-01

    A new style of international migration, temporary and often illegal immigration in order to work, began to emerge after World War II. Many countries initiated immigration policies that gave the appearance of control, while their back doors remained open and, possibly, unclosable. In the US, it is slowly becoming obvious that foreign workers cannot be used as a temporary labor force at will. 2 usual theories of migration are the classical and the conflicts schools. The classical school presents migration as a rational, economic act that leads to economic adjustment between sending and receiving countries. The conflict school, often Marxist, views migration as an unequal process that leads to the inclusion of developing countries into the world capitalist system and to a widenin gap between rich and poor countries. The convergence of these 2 theories leads to the idea that although migration may be a survival strategy of individuals and households, it is also determined by a country's integration in the world economic system. The author reviews several books on immigration theory, which appreciate the complexity and worldwide character of migration; indicate that migration patterns are persistent; and support the view that migration is an economic, social, and political problem; and recommend that policies must be integrated and address the entire issue.

  19. Investigation of Di-ethylhexyl Phthalate Migration by Applying Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Method Followed by GC-FID Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faraji

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The addition of plasticizers (mainly phthalates and adipates makes plastic flexible and popular for packaging, storing and preserving food, water, and so on. The most widely used plasticizer in food contact applications is di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP though being suspected to have carcinogenic and estrogenic properties. The aim of this study is application of magnetic solid phase extraction as new absorbent for determination of DEHP in water samples by gas chromatography (GC. Materials and Methods: Important factors in extraction, separation and determination processes were optimized using the one-variable-at-a-time method. For optimization, all tests were performed two times. Figures of merit of the proposed method were evaluated. The amount of DEHP in some water samples was determined using the proposed method. Results: The results showed that the obtained chromatogram of extract was free of significant interference. The preservatives’ recoveries ranged from 91.6% to 102.2%. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.1 mg kg-1 and 0.3 µg L-1, respectively. Concentration of DEHP in the studied samples was in the range of N.D-2.3 µg L-1. Conclusions: The acceptable performance and reliability of the proposed method were demonstrated. Temperature and time were fount as the most effective parameters in migration of DEHP. Keywords: Di-ethylhexyl phthalate, Magnetic solid phase extraction, Migration, Gas chromatography

  20. Intermingling and seasonal migrations of Greenland halibut ( Reinhardtius hippoglossoides ) populations determined from tagging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    A total of 7244 Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides' Walbaum) were tagged in Greenland waters between 1986 and 1998 to increase information on stock delineations, to clarify migration routes, and to describe the seasonal movements of cord populations. At present 517 recaptured Greenland...... fish provided evidence of intermingling between the population in Denmark Strait and the populations in Davis Strait and the southwest Greenland fjords. These observations support those of other studies that indicate that Greenland halibut inhabiting Davis Strait and the fjords of southwestern...... to be resident in behavior and do not intermingle with offshore or more southerly inshore populations. A seasonal pattern in the recovery of these fish indicates that Greenland halibut aggregate in the inner part of cords during the second half of the year (when inshore waters are not covered with ice)...

  1. Simultaneous determination of warehouse layout and control policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodbergen, Kees Jan; Vis, Iris F. A.; Taylor, G. Don

    2015-01-01

    In a supply chain's order fulfilment process, it is often the warehouse that plays a central role in making the right product available to the right customer at the right time. This paper aims to improve warehouse performance by deriving an effective design method for the simultaneous determination

  2. The Impact of Fiscal Policies on the Socioeconomic Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Isabel; González-Rábago, Yolanda; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-04-01

    There has been considerable recent debate around the alleged impact of discretionary fiscal policies - especially austerity policies - on health and health inequalities. Assuming that most of the impact will have to run via the effect of fiscal policies on socioeconomic determinants of health (SDH), it is of interest to gain a further understanding of the relationship between fiscal policies and SDH. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the recent evidence on the impact of discretionary fiscal policies on key SDH, i.e. income, poverty, education, and employment, in high income OECD countries. We find that there are no simple answers as to how fiscal policy affects those determinants of health. The effects of contractionary and expansionary fiscal policies on the analyzed SDH vary considerably across countries and will largely depend on the pre-crisis situation. Contractionary fiscal policies seem to have increased poverty, while their impact on income inequality will be influenced by the composition of the implemented measures. More empirical research trying to directly link fiscal policies to health outcomes, while taking into account of some of the mechanisms encountered here, would be worthwhile.

  3. Law Policy Implementation as the Determinant of the Legal Development of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakardzhiev Ya. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the forms and mechanism of implementation of law policy, aspects of its interaction with different legal and social factors and determinants specifying its formation and enforcement.

  4. Timing and pattern of annual silver eel migration in two European watersheds are determined by similar cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlund, Odd Terje; Diserud, Ola H; Poole, Russell; Bergesen, Knut; Dillane, Mary; Rogan, Gerard; Durif, Caroline; Thorstad, Eva B; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2017-08-01

    Many animals perform long-distance migrations in order to maximize lifetime reproductive success. The European eel migrates several thousand kilometers between their feeding habitats in continental waters (fresh-, brackish, and sea water) and their spawning area in the Sargasso Sea. Eels residing in freshwaters usually initiate their spawning migration as silver eels during autumn, triggered by diverse environmental cues. We analyzed the time series of silver eel downstream migration in Burrishoole, Ireland (1971-2015), and Imsa, Norway (1975-2015), to examine factors regulating the silver eel migration from freshwater to the sea. The migration season (90% of the run) generally lasted from 1 August to 30 November. Environmental factors acting in the months before migration impacted timing and duration of migration, likely through influencing the internal processes preparing the fish for migration. Once the migration had started, environmental factors impacted the day-to-day variation in number of migrants, apparently stimulating migration among those eels ready for migration. Both the day-to-day variation in the number of migrants and the onset of migration were described by nearly identical models in the two rivers. Variables explaining day-to-day variation were all associated with conditions that may minimize predation risk; number of migrants was reduced under a strong moon and short nights and increased during high and increasing water levels. Presence of other migrants stimulated migration, which further indicates that silver eel migration has evolved to minimize predation risk. The onset of migration was explained mainly by water levels in August. The models for duration of the migration season were less similar between the sites. Thus, the overall migration season seems governed by the need to reach the spawning areas in a synchronized manner, while during the actual seaward migration, antipredator behavior seems of overriding importance.

  5. Competition Between Barrier Island Migration and Marsh-Upland Migration Could Determine the Fate of Coastal Lagoons Under Sea Level Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran Vinent, O.; Kirwan, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Although marshes can modulate their vertical growth to adjust to sea level rise, wave-induced marsh edge erosion seems to be unstoppable, eating away large chunks of marshes around coastal lagoons in low-sediment environments. Because lagoon size is ultimately constrained by barrier islands, a positive feedback ensues by which barrier migration decreases lagoon size and wind fetch, which in turn reduces marsh edge erosion. Under sea level rise, back-barrier marshes and bay sediments are eventually exposed at the seashore where they are eroded away by waves, thereby increasing barrier island migration rate and further mitigating fetch-driven marsh erosion. We study this feedback using a simple model that couples barrier, lagoon, marsh, and upland components of the coastal landscape. We find that the final state of the ecosystem is controlled by the relation between barrier migration rate, marsh edge erosion rate and marsh upland propagation rate. Our results suggest there are two stable, extreme long-term scenarios, which are a function of the rate of sea level rise and sediment availability: (i) a growing lagoon devoid of marshes, for slowly migrating barrier islands and limited upland marsh transgression; and (ii) a marsh filled lagoon, for fast migrating barrier islands, and unconstrained upland marsh transgression.

  6. Conditions for addressing environmental determinants of health behavior in intersectoral policy networks : A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Dorothee T.J.M.; Verweij, Stefan; Grêaux, K.; Stronks, Karien; Harting, Janneke

    2017-01-01

    Improving health requires changes in the social, physical, economic and political determinants of health behavior. For the realization of policies that address these environmental determinants, intersectoral policy networks are considered necessary for the pooling of resources to implement different

  7. Youths on labour market.Features. Particularities. Pro-mobility factors for graduates. Elements of a balanced policy for labour migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The youths’ labour market, and especially insertion employment has a series of particularities defined by aspects such as: flexibility, efficient employment, interest for career but also informal employment, external mobility, including brain drain, segmentation, employment precariousness, income disadvantages, etc. Therefore, also the labour market policy and particularly managing labour mobility especially through the economic and social effects that might be triggered on the local labour market in the origin country, presents a special importance under the conditions of the economic turnaround stage, by promoting new and sustainable jobs, based on knowledge and competences. In the present paper an analysis is made about the youths’ labour market features, and the outcomes of an empirical analysis about graduates’ migration propensity are presented. Suggestions are made for developing a balanced policy for youths’ labour mobility to the benefit of the country of origin.

  8. Inhomogeneous Oxygen Vacancy Distribution in Semiconductor Gas Sensors: Formation, Migration and Determination on Gas Sensing Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianqiao; Gao, Yinglin; Wu, Xu; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia; Liu, Huan

    2017-08-10

    The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy was proposed based on the effects of cooling rate and re-annealing on semiconductive thin films. The model established the diffusion equations of oxygen vacancy according to the defect kinetics of diffusion and exclusion. We described that the steady-state and transient-state oxygen vacancy distributions, which were used to calculate the gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor resistance and response to reducing gases under two different conditions. The gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model had the applications in simulating the sensor performances, such as the power law, the grain size effect and the effect of depletion layer width.

  9. Cofilin determines the migration behavior and turning frequency of metastatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Mazen; Wessels, Deborah; Mouneimne, Ghassan; Ghosh, Mousumi; Goswami, Sumanta; Sarmiento, Corina; Wang, Weigang; Kuhl, Spencer; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Backer, Jonathan M.; Eddy, Robert; Soll, David; Condeelis, John

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of inhibiting the expression of cofilin to understand its role in protrusion dynamics in metastatic tumor cells, in particular. We show that the suppression of cofilin expression in MTLn3 cells (an apolar randomly moving amoeboid metastatic tumor cell) caused them to extend protrusions from only one pole, elongate, and move rectilinearly. This remarkable transformation was correlated with slower extension of fewer, more stable lamellipodia leading to a reduced turning frequency. Hence, the loss of cofilin caused an amoeboid tumor cell to assume a mesenchymal-type mode of movement. These phenotypes were correlated with the loss of uniform chemotactic sensitivity of the cell surface to EGF stimulation, demonstrating that to chemotax efficiently, a cell must be able to respond to chemotactic stimulation at any region on its surface. The changes in cell shape, directional migration, and turning frequency were related to the re-localization of Arp2/3 complex to one pole of the cell upon suppression of cofilin expression. PMID:18025308

  10. Inhomogeneous Oxygen Vacancy Distribution in Semiconductor Gas Sensors: Formation, Migration and Determination on Gas Sensing Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiao Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy was proposed based on the effects of cooling rate and re-annealing on semiconductive thin films. The model established the diffusion equations of oxygen vacancy according to the defect kinetics of diffusion and exclusion. We described that the steady-state and transient-state oxygen vacancy distributions, which were used to calculate the gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor resistance and response to reducing gases under two different conditions. The gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model had the applications in simulating the sensor performances, such as the power law, the grain size effect and the effect of depletion layer width.

  11. Eastern migrations vs western welfare states - (unbiased fears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry considers some effects of migration on the labour markets and the welfare systems found in the EU-15, and from the perspectives of sustainability of the current welfare state regimes. Our inquiry aims to determine whether and to what extent different approaches in regulation of migration flows between the new and old member states are compatible with related economic and demographic findings. Within this context, our research considers regulations affecting migration flows. Our findings suggest that some effects of migration from the EU8+2 on the labour markets and social protection systems found in the EU-15, both with respect to level and structure, do indeed generate effects on migration, especially considering whether migration is based upon economic or welfare decisions. In addition, our inquiry considers perspectives upon restrictive versus liberal migration policies.

  12. International migration and national development in sub-Saharan Africa : viewpoints and policy initiatives in the countries of origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adepoju, Aderanti; Naerssen, Ton van; Zoomers, Annelies

    2008-01-01

    This book aims at achieving a better understanding of the implications of international migration for national development from the perspective of the sending countries, with an emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa. More specifically, the volume explores (1) current perceptions of the links between

  13. Re-Positioning Australia's International Education in Global Knowledge Economies: Implications of Shifts in Skilled Migration Policies for Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Cate; Blackmore, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, many key host nations have made it easier for foreign graduates to migrate after graduation. These students are often considered ideal migrants, possessing local qualifications along with a degree of acculturation, language skills and, in many cases, relevant local work experience. For the student, the opportunity to obtain…

  14. Migration processes in SCO member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sergeevna Antonyuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns modern state and development of migration processes in SCO member states. As a main method of research statistical analysis was applied. The article shows that migration streams between SCO member states are rather intensive, and the problem of labor migration becomes more and more urgent. The countries of consuming and supplying of labour force are clearly differentiated in the region. For some countries, labor export is the key sector of economy. At the same time, interstate relations between SCO member states sometimes are rather disputed. The most urgent factors causing the development of migration processes in the region were determined. Among them, thefactor of growing outflows from China isespecially noted. It is noted that migration processes are discussed by SCO member states nowadays in terms of illegal migration and international criminality connected with it. It means that the question of labor migration is a real problem. It is indicated that the creation of a specific joint commission on migration policy affiliated with the Council of Foreign Ministers of SCO member states is the necessary condition of effective interaction in migration questions within the framework of Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

  15. Determination of migration monomer styrene from GPPS (general purpose polystyrene) and HIPS (high impact polystyrene) cups to hot drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksar, Mohammad-Reza; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2009-03-01

    In this study, 162 samples were analysed for monomer styrene content with using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method in hot tea, milk, cocoa milk. The monomer styrene content, expressed in microg/l of drink and the level of migration of styrene monomer were varied from 0.61 to 8.15 for hot tea, from 0.65 to 8.30 for hot milk, from 0.71 to 8.65 for hot cocoa milk in GPPS (general purpose polystyrene), from 0.48 to 6.85 for hot tea, from 0.61 to 7.65 for hot milk, from 0.72 to 7.78 for hot cocoa milk in HIPS (high performance polystyrene) cups in different temperatures and times. The estimated limit of detection of (HPLC) method for all samples was 0.001 mg/kg. There is linear regression for styrene monomer from 1 to 10 ng/ml. Several samples spiked with a known amount of styrene monomer. The results of the recovery in study for styrene monomer were determinate to be mean, 96.1 +/- 1.92 to 99.7 +/- 1.15%. The results of this study indicate that styrene monomer from polystyrene disposable into hot and fat drinks was migrated and this migration was highly dependent on fat content and temperature of drinks. The derived concentration of styrene monomer in this study was above the EPA (Environmental protection agency) recommended level, especially in MCLG (Maximum contaminant level goal) standard. More study is needed to further elucidate this finding.

  16. Determination of residual volatile organic compounds migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food simulant by headspace solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Ling, Susie Lu; Zalilah Nasir; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Abu Naim, Ahmedy

    2008-01-01

    The residual styrene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the polystyrene food packaging are of concern as these compounds have the potential to migrate into the food in contact. This work describes a method for quantitative determination of VOCs, namely styrene, toluene, ethyl benzene, iso-propylbenzene and n-propylbenzene that have migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food stimulant by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) technique was applied for migration test using water as food stimulant. The effects of extraction variables including sample volume, eluotropic strength, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time, sample agitation, and salt addition on the amounts of the extracted analyses were studied to obtain the optimal HS-SPME conditions. The optimized method was applied to test the VOCs migrated from polystyrene bowls and cups at storage temperatures ranging from 24 to 80 degree Celsius for 30 min. Styrene and ethyl benzene were found to migrate from the samples into the food stimulant. The migration of analyze was found to be strongly dependent upon the storage temperature. The HS-SPME is useful as an alternative method to determine the migration of VOCs from food packaging material into food stimulant. (author)

  17. Environmental concerns and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1996-01-01

    "This article focuses on international migration occurring as a result of environmental changes and processes. It briefly reviews attempts to conceptualize environment-related migration and then considers the extent to which environmental factors have been and may be significant in initiating migration. Following is an examination of migration as an independent variable in the migration-environment relationship. Finally, ethical and policy dimensions are addressed."

  18. Migration of health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  19. [International migration and income redistribution: a trade-theoretic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, N; Meckl, J

    1995-05-01

    "We analyze the income-redistribution effects of international migration in the host and source country in a general equilibrium framework. The well-known result that marginal migration leaves the welfare of nonmigrants unaffected is discussed in more detail with regard to shifts in national income distributions. With endogenous goods' prices the consequences for the income distribution are in general ambiguous--we show possibilities for an estimation of their magnitude. As long as wage disparities determine the direction of migration it increases world efficiency. However, redistributive policies may generate migration towards the low-wage country." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  20. Determinants of dividend policy: Evidence from listed firms in the African stock exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnadi Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrates that much of the existing theoretical literature on dividend policy can be applied to the emerging capital markets of Africa. Using available financial data of listed firms in the 29 stock exchanges in Africa, the study finds similarities in the determinants of dividend policy in African firms with those in most developed economies. In particular, agency costs are found to be the most dominant determinant of dividend policy among African firms. The finding is non-synonymous with emerging capital markets which have a high concentration of private ownership and trading volumes. Agency cost theory may be important in both emerging and developed capital markets but the nature of the agency problem may be different in each case. Other factors such as level of market capitalization, age and growth of firms, as well as profitability also play key roles in the dividend policy of listed African firms.

  1. Implementing nationally determined contributions: building energy policies in India’s mitigation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Tan, Qing; Gupta, Ashu; Patel, Pralit

    2018-03-01

    The Nationally Determined Contributions are allowing countries to examine options for reducing emissions through a range of domestic policies. India, like many developing countries, has committed to reducing emissions through specific policies, including building energy codes. Here we assess the potential of these sectoral policies to help in achieving mitigation targets. Collectively, it is critically important to see the potential impact of such policies across developing countries in meeting national and global emission goals. Buildings accounted for around one third of global final energy use in 2010, and building energy consumption is expected to increase as income grows in developing countries. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study finds that implementing a range of energy efficiency policies robustly can reduce total Indian building energy use by 22% and lower total Indian carbon dioxide emissions by 9% in 2050 compared to the business-as-usual scenario. Among various policies, energy codes for new buildings can result in the most significant savings. For all building energy policies, well-coordinated, consistent implementation is critical, which requires coordination across different departments and agencies, improving capacity of stakeholders, and developing appropriate institutions to facilitate policy implementation.

  2. Determining the privacy policy deficiencies of health ICT applications through semi-formal modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Peter R

    2011-02-01

    To ensure that patient confidentiality is securely maintained, health ICT applications that contain sensitive personal information demand comprehensive privacy policies. Determining the adequacy of these policies to meet legal conformity together with clinical users and patient expectation is demanding in practice. Organisations and agencies looking to analyse their Privacy and Security policies can benefit from guidance provided by outside entities such as the Privacy Office of their State or Government together with law firms and ICT specialists. The advice given is not uniform and often open to different interpretations. Of greater concern is the possibility of overlooking any important aspects that later result in a data breach. Based on three case studies, this paper considers whether a more formal approach to privacy analysis could be taken that would help identify the full coverage of a Privacy Impact Analysis and determine the deficiencies with an organisation's current policies and approach. A diagrammatic model showing the relationships between Confidentiality, Privacy, Trust, Security and Safety is introduced. First the validity of this model is determined by mapping it against the real-world case studies taken from three healthcare services that depend on ICT. Then, by using software engineering methods, a formal mapping of the relationships is undertaken to identify a full set of policies needed to satisfy the model. How effective this approach may prove as a generic method for deriving a comprehensive set of policies in health ICT applications is finally discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Developments in Australian Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to make a comprehensive assessment of recent developments in international migration to Australia.  In doing so we will be discussing changes in the scale and composition of migration into Australia, the dispersal of migrants throughout Australia and also the influence of policy-decisions and various departmental programmes on this movement.

  4. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Martinez Valle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation (M&E have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH. This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  5. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  6. Radioactive waste: institutional determinants of management and disposal policy in three European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, Frans.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this thesis has been to write a detailed historical account of the policy and practice of radioactive waste management in Britain, Sweden and West Germany, and to draw out implications for theory and public policy. By comparing the evolution of the policy process in three countries it has been possible to develop a better understanding of the particular operational, regulatory and political factors determining policy in each case. The main conclusions are three-fold. First, the presence or absence of commitments to the reprocessing of spent fuel for a wide range of strategic, industrial and legal reasons have been critical to the success in finding an acceptable radwaste management and disposal policy (or strategy). Politically it is not possible to make a clear distinction between radwaste management and policy for the rest of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Second, because of this complex but intimate relationship to reprocessing policy, the dynamism and consistency of radwaste policies are highly dependent on the industrial and political contexts of the drive to reprocessing. Traditionally a view on reprocessing has been virtually synonymous with a faith or scepticism in the future of nuclear power. Third, the policy process, and indeed its goals was rather unique to national circumstances (the legal and institutional framework, industrial and political structures). This demonstrates one of the principle arguments of the thesis which is that the innovation process for radwaste management and disposal technologies cannot be seen merely as a technical process, but has to be seen as a process of political and institutional negotiations. (author)

  7. Moroccans in Spain: an analysis by gender of the determinant factors on family migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Montoro-Gurich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the most influential factors over the migratory calendar of Moroccan married people moving to Spain from the gender-related perspective. It uses data coming from an ethnographic survey (=262 individuals applied in 2013 to Moroccan population in Navarre. Logistic regression models are estimated to forecast which variables have more influence on the accelerated family reunification of such individuals. Results show that in both models, male and female, the most relevant determinant is the fact about if women do work in the same year of the reunification, followed by the time interval between the reunification and year 2008. Moreover, in the male model, the opinion of men about female occupation outside the home is very important, while in the female one there are remarkable variables related to social capital such as: spouse’s age, having small children and being the head of householdor not. The conclusion is that early family reunification in Moroccans reveals a reality wich is conditioned both by economic motivations and gender differences.

  8. Nonequilibrium ab initio molecular dynamics determination of Ti monovacancy migration rates in B 1 TiN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, D.; Sangiovanni, D. G.; Alling, B.; Abrikosov, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    We use the color diffusion (CD) algorithm in nonequilibrium (accelerated) ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine Ti monovacancy jump frequencies in NaCl-structure titanium nitride (TiN), at temperatures ranging from 2200 to 3000 K. Our results show that the CD method extended beyond the linear-fitting rate-versus-force regime [Sangiovanni et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 094305 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.094305] can efficiently determine metal vacancy migration rates in TiN, despite the low mobilities of lattice defects in this type of ceramic compound. We propose a computational method based on gamma-distribution statistics, which provides unambiguous definition of nonequilibrium and equilibrium (extrapolated) vacancy jump rates with corresponding statistical uncertainties. The acceleration-factor achieved in our implementation of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics increases dramatically for decreasing temperatures from 500 for T close to the melting point Tm, up to 33 000 for T ≈0.7 Tm .

  9. Determination of six polyynes in Oplopanax horridus and Oplopanax elatus using polyethylene glycol modified reversed migration microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-mei; Zhao, Jing; Lao, Ka-meng; Chen, Xiao-jia; Leong, Fong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Li, Shao-ping

    2014-10-01

    A PEG-modified reversed migration MEEKC method was developed for simultaneous determination of six polyynes, including oplopandiol, falcarindiol, oplopandiol acetate, (11S, 16S, 9Z)-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol,1-acetate, oplopantriol B, and oplopantriol A, in Oplopanax horridus and Oplopanax elatus. The running buffer containing 0.8% v/v ethyl acetate, 3.8% w/v SDS, 6.6% v/v n-butanol in 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5), followed by mixing with propan-2-ol at 30% v/v and PEG-1000 at 15% w/v, was applied in the analysis. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the six polyynes in five samples of Oplopanax horridus and one of O. elatus. The result showed that the types and amounts of polyynes present were obviously different when comparing the two herbs. Besides, the developed PEG-modified reversed MEEKC method might be suitable for the analysis of hydrophobic analytes in herbal medicines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Population prospects for Sub-Saharan Africa: determinants, consequences and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, M J

    1986-01-01

    Population projections for nine Sub-Saharan African countries (excluding southern Africa) are reviewed for the period to the year 2020. Consideration is given to the determinants of fertility and to the consequences of rapid population growth. Suggestions for population policies that will resolve population-related development problems are discussed.

  11. Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…

  12. Maternal age, education level and migration: Socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanik Feride A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Method Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256. The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with χ2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the χ2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Results Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1% were daily smokers. Young mothers ( Conclusions Systematic attention should be paid to socioeconomic determinants in smoking for pregnant women, especially in countries like Turkey with high rates of infant and mother mortality and substantial health inequalities. Young mothers (

  13. The dynamics of health and return migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita A Davies

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance and complexity of migration globally also implies a global increase in return migration, and thus an increased interest in the health of returning migrants. The health of returning migrants is impacted by the cumulative exposure to social determinants and risk factors of health during the migration process, during the return movement, and following return. Circular migration often occurs among the diaspora, which can result in the transfer of knowledge and skills that contribute to development, including health system strengthening. Migrants with dual nationality often return to countries with better health services than their country of origin when they are sick and can not get care at home. To maintain and improve the health of returning migrants, multi-sectoral policies at global and national levels should facilitate access to appropriate and equitable health services, social services, and continuity of care across and within borders.

  14. Migration as a form of workforce attrition: a nine-country study of pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Sarah

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of evidence to inform policy development on the reasons why health professionals migrate. Few studies have sought to empirically determine factors influencing the intention to migrate and none have explored the relationship between factors. This paper reports on the first international attempt to investigate the migration intentions of pharmacy students and identify migration factors and their relationships. Methods Responses were gathered from 791 final-year pharmacy students from nine countries: Australia, Bangladesh, Croatia, Egypt, Portugal, Nepal, Singapore, Slovenia and Zimbabwe. Data were analysed by means of Principal Components Analysis (PCA and two-step cluster analysis to determine the relationships between factors influencing migration and the characteristics of subpopulations most likely and least likely to migrate. Results Results showed a significant difference in attitudes towards the professional and sociopolitical environment of the home country and perceptions of opportunities abroad between those who have no intention of migrating and those who intend to migrate on a long-term basis. Attitudes of students planning short-term migration were not significantly different from those of students who did not intend to migrate. These attitudes, together with gender, knowledge of other migrant pharmacists and past experiences abroad, are associated with an increased propensity for migration. Conclusion Given the influence of the country context and environment on migration intentions, research and policy should frame the issue of migration in the context of the wider human resource agenda, thus viewing migration as one form of attrition and a symptom of other root causes. Remuneration is not an independent stand-alone factor influencing migration intentions and cannot be decoupled from professional development factors. Comprehensive human resource policy development that takes into account the

  15. An examination of the causes, consequences, and policy responses to the migration of highly trained health personnel from the Philippines: the high cost of living/leaving-a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Palaganas, Erlinda; Spitzer, Denise L; Kabamalan, Maria Midea M; Sanchez, Marian C; Caricativo, Ruel; Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2017-03-31

    Dramatic increases in the migration of human resources for health (HRH) from developing countries like the Philippines can have consequences on the sustainability of health systems. In this paper, we trace the outflows of HRH from the Philippines, map out its key causes and consequences, and identify relevant policy responses. This mixed method study employed a decentered, comparative approach that involved three phases: (a) a scoping review on health workers' migration of relevant policy documents and academic literature on health workers' migration from the Philippines; and primary data collection with (b) 37 key stakeholders and (c) household surveys with seven doctors, 329 nurses, 66 midwives, and 18 physical therapists. Filipino health worker migration is best understood within the context of macro-, meso-, and micro-level factors that are situated within the political, economic, and historical/colonial legacy of the country. Underfunding of the health system and un- or underemployment were push factors for migration, as were concerns for security in the Philippines, the ability to practice to full scope or to have opportunities for career advancement. The migration of health workers has both negative and positive consequences for the Philippine health system and its health workers. Stakeholders focused on issues such as on brain drain, gain, and circulation, and on opportunities for knowledge and technology transfer. Concomitantly, migration has resulted in the loss of investment in human capital. The gap in the supply of health workers has affected the quality of care delivered, especially in rural areas. The opening of overseas opportunities has commercialized health education, compromised its quality, and stripped the country of skilled learning facilitators. The social cost of migration has affected émigrés and their families. At the household level, migration has engendered increased consumerism and materialism and fostered dependency on overseas

  16. Maternal age, education level and migration: socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Isil; Hassoy, Hur; Tanik, Feride A; Aslan, Gokce

    2010-06-09

    Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC) in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256). The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with chi2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the chi2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1%) were daily smokers. Young mothers (educated women and migrants were at increased risk for smoking during pregnancy. Low education and being a migrant were risk factors for daily consumption (p educated women and migrants are important groups to focus on.

  17. Use of electrical tomography methods to determinate the extension and main migration routes of uncontrolled landfill leachates in fractured areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, Ismael; Mahjoub, Himi; Lovera, Raul; Fernández, Jesús; Casas, Albert

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the uses of the electrical tomography and its relationship with hydrochemical data in order to characterize contaminated groundwater flows in fractured aquifers. The studied area is contaminated with different hazardous substances like lyndanes, organochlorinated compounds and benzenes coming from the old non-controlled Sardas landfill. The enormous volumes of wastes filling the landfill have generated a convoluted mixture of leachates. Due to the lack of a landfill liner, the leachates have migrated through the fractured Eocene marls towards the Gallego River. The striking correlation between high concentrations of polluted groundwater and low electrical resistivity of the subsurface (< 8 Ω·m) allows defining the principal contaminant migration route thanks to the distribution of these conductive anomalies. This mapping verifies that there is intense tectonical–structural control of the leachate migration, because the deep migration presents the same direction as the geological axis fold. - Highlights: • The outcrop topographic reconstruction is done using cores and aerial photographs. • Hydrochemical and geophysical data allow defining two leachate migration paths. • Conductive anomalies in ERT are linked to high contaminant concentration. • The distribution of conductive anomalies defines the fractured basement migration. • The plume direction reflects important tectonic control in the migration process

  18. Draft EEC method for the determination of the global migration of plastics constituents into fatty-food simulants: Applicability to lacquers, plastics and laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battum, D. van; Rijk, M.A.H.; Verspoor, R.; Rossi, L.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to establish whether the draft EEC method for the determination of the global migration of constituents from plastics packaging materials into fatty food stimulants could be applied to all plastics, including lacquers and laminates. Some difficulties were

  19. THE UNILATERAL DETERMINATION OF PRICE – A QUESTION OF CERTAINTY OR PUBLIC POLICY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanri M du Plessis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The unilateral determination of price has been a controversial issue for an extended period of time. During the 1990s the Supreme Court of Appeal asked if the rule should still form part of South African law. Specifically, the court raised a few questions in respect of the rule and commented that the rule as applied in South African law is illogical. The court also remarked that public policy, bona fides and contractual equity might also be employed when considering such issues. Despite the criticisms of the Supreme Court of Appeal, it would seem that the rule still forms part of our law. This article investigates whether or not the rule should be retained in the South African common law. The answer will depend on two separate questions: Is the rule a manifestation of the requirement of certainty of price? If not, does public policy require that the rule be retained? The article shows that the rule prohibiting the unilateral determination of price should not be seen as a manifestation of the requirement of certainty of price. This is because there are various circumstances where the unilateral determination of the price results in certainty of price or can be applied in such a way as to arrive at certainty of price. Most of these arguments require that the discretion to determine the price should not be unfettered and should be subject to some objective standard. This can be done expressly or tacitly in the contract, or an objective standard (in the form of reasonableness will be implied by law. Thereafter, the article considers various public policy considerations that could be used to determine if a discretion to determine the price should be enforced. The article argues that public policy may dictate that such a discretion should be valid and enforceable provided that it is not unfettered and subject to an external objective standard or reasonableness. However, in cases where an unfair bargaining position is present, public policy may dictate

  20. Determining Optimal Replacement Policy with an Availability Constraint via Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengliang Zong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a model and a genetic algorithm for determining an optimal replacement policy for power equipment subject to Poisson shocks. If the time interval of two consecutive shocks is less than a threshold value, the failed equipment can be repaired. We assume that the operating time after repair is stochastically nonincreasing and the repair time is exponentially distributed with a geometric increasing mean. Our objective is to minimize the expected average cost under an availability requirement. Based on this average cost function, we propose the genetic algorithm to locate the optimal replacement policy N to minimize the average cost rate. The results show that the GA is effective and efficient in finding the optimal solutions. The availability of equipment has significance effect on the optimal replacement policy. Many practical systems fit the model developed in this paper.

  1. Social determinants of health in nursing education, research, and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Deborah; Jones, Emily J

    2013-07-01

    The adoption of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the recent Institute of Medicine report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, have brought about a resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health as the basis for healthcare decisions in nursing education, research, and health policy. Nurses are positioned to be at the forefront of crucial healthcare reform to affect health outcomes and reduce health disparities profoundly. However, for nurses of the 21st century to improve the health of U.S. citizens and promote health equity effectively, we must first intently address the social determinants of health in our current nursing educational models, research agendas, and public health policies.

  2. Determining Optimal Replacement Policy with an Availability Constraint via Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Zong, Shengliang; Chai, Guorong; Su, Yana

    2017-01-01

    We develop a model and a genetic algorithm for determining an optimal replacement policy for power equipment subject to Poisson shocks. If the time interval of two consecutive shocks is less than a threshold value, the failed equipment can be repaired. We assume that the operating time after repair is stochastically nonincreasing and the repair time is exponentially distributed with a geometric increasing mean. Our objective is to minimize the expected average cost under an availability requi...

  3. Physicians' tacit and stated policies for determining patient benefit and referral to cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, Jason W; Pezzo, Mark V; Beckie, Theresa M; Shahraki, Farnaz; Kentner, Amanda C; Grace, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of prescribing cardiac rehabilitation (CR) for patients following heart surgery is well documented; however, physicians continue to underuse CR programs, and disparities in the referral of women are common. Previous research into the causes of these problems has relied on self-report methods, which presume that physicians have insight into their referral behavior and can describe it accurately. In contrast, the research presented here used clinical judgment analysis (CJA) to discover the tacit judgment and referral policies of individual physicians. The specific aims were to determine 1) what these policies were, 2) the degree of self-insight that individual physicians had into their own policies, 3) the amount of agreement among physicians, and 4) the extent to which judgments were related to attitudes toward CR. Thirty-six Canadian physicians made judgments and decisions regarding 32 hypothetical cardiac patients, each described on 5 characteristics (gender, age, type of cardiovascular procedure, presence/absence of musculoskeletal pain, and degree of motivation) and then completed the 19 items of the Attitude towards Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral scale. Consistent with previous studies, there was wide variation among physicians in their tacit and stated judgment policies, and self-insight was modest. On the whole, physicians showed evidence of systematic gender bias as they judged women as less likely than men to benefit from CR. Insight data suggest that 1 in 3 physicians were unaware of their own bias. There was greater agreement among physicians in how they described their judgments (stated policies) than in how they actually made them (tacit policies). Correlations between attitude statements and CJA measures were modest. These findings offer some explanation for the slow progress of efforts to improve CR referrals and for gender disparities in referral rates.

  4. Physicians’ Tacit and Stated Policies for Determining Patient Benefit and Referral to Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, Jason W.; Pezzo, Mark V.; Beckie, Theresa M.; Shahraki, Farnaz; Kentner, Amanda C.; Grace, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The benefits of prescribing cardiac rehabilitation (CR) for patients following heart surgery is well documented. However physicians continue to underutilize CR programs and disparities in the referral of women are common. Previous research into the causes of these problems has relied on self-report methods which presume that physicians have insight into their referral behavior and can describe it accurately. In contrast, the research presented here employed clinical judgment analysis (CJA) to discover the tacit judgment and referral policies of individual physicians. Purpose The specific aims were to determine 1) what these policies were, 2) the degree of self-insight that individual physicians had into their own policies, 3) the amount of agreement among physicians, and 4) the extent to which judgments were related to attitudes toward CR. Method Thirty-six Canadian physicians made judgments and decisions regarding 32 hypothetical cardiac patients, each described on five characteristics (gender, age, type of surgical procedure, presence/absence of musculoskeletal pain, and degree of motivation) and then completed the 19 items of the Attitude towards Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral instrument. Results There was wide variation among physicians in their tacit and stated judgment policies. Physicians exhibited greater agreement in what they believed they were doing (stated policies) than in what they actually did (tacit policies). Nearly one-third of the physicians showed evidence of systematic, and perhaps subliminal, gender bias as they judged women as less likely than men to benefit from CR. Correlations between attitude statements and CJA measures were modest. Conclusions These findings offer some explanation for the slow progress of efforts to improve CR referrals and for gender disparities in referral rates. PMID:23784848

  5. Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Berk, Istemi

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index (OIVI) based on four factors, which are crude oil import dependency of primary energy consumption, crude oil import bill as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), non-diversification of import sources, and share of oil in total energy import. The contribution of these factors to the OIVI is found to be approximately equal. While an overall deterioration in the OIVI has been observed during periods of increasing oil prices, better diversification of oil import sources has lead to significant improvements. We suggest Turkish policy-makers implement sound policies, emphasizing diversification of crude oil import sources and reduction of the share of crude oil in primary energy imports to increase energy supply security. This study has also demonstrated that it is possible to construct an index representing crude oil vulnerability caused by import dependency. - Research highlights: →We examine the factors lying behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey. → We measure the contribution of each factor to a well-organized import strategy. → We constrtuct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index using principle component analysis. → We suggest that four factors affect oil import policies with almost equal weights. → Source diversification is found to be the core issue in oil import policies.

  6. The role of family decision in internal migration: the case of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, B

    1985-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of family decisions and individual decisions on rural-urban migration in India under 2 different rural institutions--family farm and wage labor systems. An analytical framework for explaining family migration decisions reveals that whenever a member of the extended family migrates, he gives up his share in the produce of the family farm. When this happens, the number of adult members on the farm goes down and the total product is affected. 3 case studies of Indian villages are analyzed for this study. 2 empirical relations are examined: 1) if individual migration decisions are predominant, and 2) if family decisions are important in determining the overall flow of migration. Relationships between migration decisions and other variables, such as: 1) number of males in urban areas; 2) urban wages; 3) daily wage rate; 4) average agricultural income; 5) railway distance between rural and urban areas; 6) size of the labor market in destination region; 7) probability that a migrant arriving in an urban area will find a job; and 8) comsumption expenditure, in urban areas estimated by working class consumer price index, are determined. Results show that: 1) the market determined wage variable does not play a very significant role in migration decisions; 2) distance is one of the most important variables in analyzing migration; and 3) the aggregate flow of migration is affected if migration decisions are predominantly family decisions. These findings have relevant policy implications for less developed countries (LDCs), especially because large flows of rural-urban migration in recent years have forced governments to adopt policies for controlling the flows to reduce the burden of unemployment in the urban areas. Government policies affecting rural institutions will have an impact on migration flow; those that lead to a reduction of uncertainty in agriculture will affect average per-capita consumption levels in family farms and hence

  7. Determinants and policy implications for household electricity-saving behaviour: Evidence from Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaohua; Zhang Bin; Yin Jianhua; Zhang Yixiang

    2011-01-01

    This research sets out to explore the possibilities for further saving in household electricity consumption through a study of the residents' willingness and behavioural characteristics in electricity saving, as applied within a Chinese context. Based on an extensive literature review, the authors argue that economic benefits, policy and social norms, and past experience may have a positive correlation with household electricity-saving behaviour, while the discomfort caused by electricity-saving activities, may exert a negative effect on it. Through a sample of 816 randomly selected residents in Beijing, the propositions are examined using logit regression analysis. The conclusions support the ideas, concerning both the positive influence of economic benefits, policy and social norms, and past experience as they affect broader electricity-saving behaviour, and the negative influence of the discomfort caused by electricity-saving activities. Finally, some inferences are drawn, and suggestions are offered for policy makers and further studies. - Highlights: → We develop a logistic regression to investigate household electricity saving behaviour. → Determinants for household electricity saving are verified with a questionnaire survey. → Environmental awareness does not impact on household electricity saving directly. → It is prerequisite to focus on both financial subsidy and technology improvement. → Tiered price reform is considered an effective policy for electricity saving.

  8. Politics, policies and processes: a multidisciplinary and multimethods research programme on policies on the social determinants of health inequity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Friel, Sharon

    2017-12-21

    The development and implementation of multisectoral policy to improve health and reduce health inequities has been slow and uneven. Evidence is largely focused on the facts of health inequities rather than understanding the political and policy processes. This 5-year funded programme of research investigates how these processes could function more effectively to improve equitable population health. The programme of work is organised in four work packages using four themes (macroeconomics and infrastructure, land use and urban environments, health systems and racism) related to the structural drivers shaping the distribution of power, money and resources and daily living conditions. Policy case studies will use publicly available documents (policy documents, published evaluations, media coverage) and interviews with informants (policy-makers, former politicians, civil society, private sector) (~25 per case). NVIVO software will be used to analyse the documents to see how 'social and health equity' is included and conceptualised. The interview data will include qualitative descriptive and theory-driven critical discourse analysis. Our quantitative methodological work assessing the impact of public policy on health equity is experimental that is in its infancy but promises to provide the type of evidence demanded by policy-makers. Our programme is recognising the inherently political nature of the uptake, formulation and implementation of policy. The early stages of our work indicate its feasibility. Our work is aided by a Critical Policy Reference Group. Multiple ethics approvals have been obtained with the foundation approval from the Social and Behavioural Ethics Committee, Flinders University (Project No: 6786).The theoretical, methodological and policy engagement processes established will provide improved evidence for policy-makers who wish to reduce health inequities and inform a new generation of policy savvy knowledge on social determinants. © Article author

  9. Landowner behavior can determine the success of conservation strategies for ecosystem migration under sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher R; Dayer, Ashley A; Elphick, Chris S

    2017-08-22

    The human aspects of conservation are often overlooked but will be critical for identifying strategies for biological conservation in the face of climate change. We surveyed the behavioral intentions of coastal landowners with respect to various conservation strategies aimed at facilitating ecosystem migration for tidal marshes. We found that several popular strategies, including conservation easements and increasing awareness of ecosystem services, may not interest enough landowners to allow marsh migration at the spatial scales needed to mitigate losses from sea-level rise. We identified less common conservation strategies that have more support but that are unproven in practice and may be more expensive. Our results show that failure to incorporate human dimensions into ecosystem modeling and conservation planning could lead to the use of ineffective strategies and an overly optimistic view of the potential for ecosystem migration into human dominated areas.

  10. Determination of Swimming Speeds and Energetic Demands of Upriver Migrating Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) in the Klickitat River, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington

    2002-08-30

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program during the fall of 2001. The objective was to study the migration and energy use of adult fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) traveling up the Klickitat River to spawn. The salmon were tagged with either surgically implanted electromyogram (EMG) transmitters or gastrically implanted coded transmitters and were monitored with mobile and stationary receivers. Swim speed and aerobic and anaerobic energy use were determined for the fish as they attempted passage of three waterfalls on the lower Klickitat River and as they traversed free-flowing stretches between, below, and above the falls. Of the 35 EMG-tagged fish released near the mouth of the Klickitat River, 40% passed the first falls, 24% passed the second falls, and 20% made it to Lyle Falls. None of the EMG-tagged fish were able to pass Lyle Falls, either over the falls or via a fishway at Lyle Falls. Mean swimming speeds ranged from as low as 52.6 centimeters per second (cm s{sup -1}) between falls to as high as 189 (cm s{sup -1}) at falls passage. Fish swam above critical swimming speeds while passing the falls more often than while swimming between the falls (58.9% versus 1.7% of the transmitter signals). However, fish expended more energy swimming the stretches between the falls than during actual falls passage (100.7 to 128.2 kilocalories [kcals] to traverse areas between or below falls versus 0.3 to 1.0 kcals to pass falls). Relationships between sex, length, and time of day on the success of falls passage were also examined. Average swimming speeds were highest during the day in all areas except at some waterfalls. There was no apparent relationship between either fish condition or length and successful passage of waterfalls in the lower Klickitat River. Female fall chinook salmon, however, had a much lower likelihood of

  11. Radionuclide Migration Program: strategy document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Radionuclide Migration Program (RNM) is composed of projects to obtain data that will define the hydrologic system on NTS and determine the radionuclides available for migration in that system. Specific objectives are: (1) determine the kinds and amounts of radionuclides available for migration in groundwater (Hydrologic Source Term); (2) determine regional and local hydrology; and (3) predict the direction and migration rates of radionuclides in groundwater and the radionuclide concentration at any given distance for the source

  12. The current status of local medicare payment policy: how specialty societies can influence local coverage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bibb; Pennington, Anita; Keysor, Kathryn J

    2008-06-01

    The Medicare Fee-for-Service Program is in the midst of numerous administrative and regulatory changes that may affect the way local Medicare payment policy is implemented. These changes involve redefining the contractors' jurisdictions, competitive bidding for the contractor selection process, combining the administration of Part A and Part B services, and error rate auditing. In addition, the roles of the Contractor Medical Directors and Contractor Advisory Committees are yet to be defined, and the future of the existing advisory process, while currently unchanged, remains uncertain. Most likely, the majority of coverage decisions will continue to be made at the local level; however, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has begun to increase its use of Technology Assessments and National Coverage Determinations for new technology and has developed a new payment category for coverage of new technology: Coverage with Evidence Development. Specialty societies continue to have the ability to exert influence on the coverage process. The American College of Radiology (ACR) monitors the activity of the local contractors and assists local physicians through the ACR Carrier Advisory Committee Network. The ACR has used a combination of clinical and economic experts to develop model Local Coverage Determinations for use by the local contractors, and some of these model policies have been developed in conjunction with other specialty societies, which bolsters their effectiveness. The changing administrative environment presents challenges and opportunities for specialty societies to influence local CMS payment policy.

  13. External determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells-Infrastructure and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karger, Cornelia R.; Bongartz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relevance of external determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells (FCs) by different user groups with respect to the marketability of this innovative technology. FCs allow electricity and heat to be decentrally generated in an energy-efficient and potentially environmentally friendly manner. European energy policy is undertaking efforts to increase the proportion of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. A series of studies have spoken of their considerable market potential. A qualitative study was conducted with six focus groups consisting of 49 commercial users and six focus groups with 54 private consumers. The results of the study show that the specific infrastructure required for decentralisation and policy issues are highly relevant for the user adoption of FCs. Security of supply when energy generation is more strongly decentralised, reliable maintenance of the system, and clear political objectives are examples of factors that are considered essential prerequisites for the adoption of this technology

  14. Determination of Endograft Apposition, Position, and Expansion in the Aortic Neck Predicts Type Ia Endoleak and Migration After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmann, Richte C L; van Noort, Kim; Overeem, Simon P; van Veen, Ruben; Ouriel, Kenneth; Jordan, William D; Muhs, Bart E; 't Mannetje, Yannick W; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Fioole, Bram; Ünlü, Çağdaş; Brummel, Peter; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M

    2018-03-01

    To describe the added value of determining changes in position and apposition on computed tomography angiography (CTA) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to detect early caudal displacement of the device and to prevent type Ia endoleak. Four groups of elective EVAR patients were selected from a dataset purposely enriched with type Ia endoleak and migration (>10 mm) cases. The groups included cases of late type Ia endoleak (n=36), migration (n=9), a type II endoleak (n=16), and controls without post-EVAR complications (n=37). Apposition of the endograft fabric with the aortic neck, shortest distance between the fabric and the renal arteries, expansion of the main body (or dilatation of the aorta in the infrarenal sealing zone), and tilt of the endograft toward the aortic axis were determined on the first postoperative and the last available CTA scan without type Ia endoleak or migration. Differences in these endograft dimensions were compared between the first vs last scan and among the 4 groups. No significant differences in endograft configurations were observed among the groups on the first postoperative CTA scan. On the last CTA scan before a complication arose, the position of the fabric relative to the renal arteries, expansion of the main body, and apposition of the fabric with the aortic neck were significantly different between the type Ia endoleak (median follow-up 15 months) and migration groups (median follow-up 23 months) compared with the control group (median follow-up 19 months). Most endograft dimensions had changed significantly compared with the first postoperative CTA scan for all groups. Apposition had increased in the control group but had decreased significantly in the type Ia endoleak and migration groups. Progressive changes in dimensions of the endograft within the infrarenal neck could be detected on regular CTA scans before the complication became urgent in many patients.

  15. Bosnia: Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Pavičić

    2000-12-01

    river, where the Catholic Church was better organised, the population either adopted Islam or remained Catholic; c in the West (in regions that had been part of Croatia, constant war, war loses and emigration had devastated the population, so that new Muslim settlers had to be brought in; the remaining local population converted to Islam, except a small group in Bihaš that remained Catholic; d along the Neretva the situation was similar to the one along the Sava. In this period, several migration flows intensified. The Ottomans had built many forts, around which commercial suburbs soon developed and evolved into prosperous towns. This stimulated urbanisation, especially of Muslims, and corresponding depopulation in areas near successful towns, such as Sarajevo (Vrhbosna and Banja Luka. Also with the arrival of Ottoman rule, there was a lesser migration of Catholics to Croatia and more distant lands. A much more intense Muslim migration followed – i.e. during Ottoman expansion to parts of Croatia and also to Hungary, in accord with Ottoman policy Muslims were settled in newly acquired lands in order to consolidate the conquests. Bosnia was the only area in the region with a large Muslim population on which the Ottomans could count on for this purpose. As a result, in the 16th century and into the 17th two fifths of the Bosnian Muslim population emigrated to other lands. The least originated from Central Bosnia and the most from the North West and parts of the Drina Valley. To correct the loss, the Turks brought in large groups of Vlachs. All in all, by the late 17th century the Bosnian population included some 100.000 Catholics, 120.000 Eastern Orthodox Christians (mostly Vlachs and 450.000 Muslims. The wars of 1683–1699 marked the beginning of the second migration period. The Muslims suffered heavy war losses, primarily in the North and in the Bosna river valley, along which the Austrian army had advanced to capture and burn Sarajevo, and also in West Bosnia (where

  16. Interplay between cell migration and neurite outgrowth determines SH2B1β-enhanced neurite regeneration of differentiated PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Wu

    Full Text Available The regulation of neurite outgrowth is crucial in developing strategies to promote neurite regeneration after nerve injury and in degenerative diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of an adaptor/scaffolding protein SH2B1β promotes neurite re-growth of differentiated PC12 cells, an established neuronal model, using wound healing (scraping assays. Cell migration and the subsequent remodeling are crucial determinants during neurite regeneration. We provide evidence suggesting that overexpressing SH2B1β enhances protein kinase C (PKC-dependent cell migration and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT-, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK kinase (MEK-ERK-dependent neurite re-growth. Our results further reveal a cross-talk between pathways involving PKC and ERK1/2 in regulating neurite re-growth and cell migration. We conclude that temporal regulation of cell migration and neurite outgrowth by SH2B1β contributes to the enhanced regeneration of differentiated PC12 cells.

  17. Interplay between Cell Migration and Neurite Outgrowth Determines SH2B1β-Enhanced Neurite Regeneration of Differentiated PC12 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Nan-Yuan; Hsu, Hsin-Ling; Chen, Linyi

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of neurite outgrowth is crucial in developing strategies to promote neurite regeneration after nerve injury and in degenerative diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of an adaptor/scaffolding protein SH2B1β promotes neurite re-growth of differentiated PC12 cells, an established neuronal model, using wound healing (scraping) assays. Cell migration and the subsequent remodeling are crucial determinants during neurite regeneration. We provide evidence suggesting that overexpressing SH2B1β enhances protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent cell migration and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK-dependent neurite re-growth. Our results further reveal a cross-talk between pathways involving PKC and ERK1/2 in regulating neurite re-growth and cell migration. We conclude that temporal regulation of cell migration and neurite outgrowth by SH2B1β contributes to the enhanced regeneration of differentiated PC12 cells. PMID:22539954

  18. Determination of Matrix Pore Size Distribution in Fractured Clayey Till and Assessment of Matrix Migration of Dechlorinationg Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Lu; Broholm, Mette Martina; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    The pore structure and pore size distribution (PSD) in the clayey till matrix from three Danish field sites were investigated by image analysis to assess the matrix migration of dechlorinating bacteria in clayey till. Clayey till samples had a wide range of pore sizes, with diameters of 0.1–100 μ...

  19. Role of disease and demographic factors as determinants of return migration: A nationwide register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Petersen, Jorgen Holm; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Norredam, Marie

    2018-03-01

    A number of aspects of the health status of migrants who return to their country of origin have been explored in the literature; however, a more general description of the incidence of disease and demographic characteristics is lacking. The aim of this research was to contribute such a description. A nationwide cohort study was conducted of 114,331 migrants who obtained residence in Denmark between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010. Demographic characteristics and ten disease groups were included as explanatory variables and hazards ratios for the association between return migration and disease incidence, as well as demographic characteristics, were estimated using Cox regressions. The tendency to return-migrate when ill was not the same among younger and elderly migrants; migrants disease during the 18 years of follow-up compared with those who had not had a disease, whereas migrants ≥55 years of age were more prone to return if ill. The likelihood of returning decreased with increasing comorbidity in both age groups. Among those who were <55 years of age, the tendency to return increased with age at obtainment of residence; among those who were ≥55 years, more men than women return-migrated. In Denmark, younger migrants are less inclined to return-migrate if they are ill compared with healthy migrants, whereas elderly migrants are more inclined to return if ill. The returnees also differ demographically from non-returnees in various ways.

  20. San Francisco Estuary Striped Bass Migration History Determined by Electron-microprobe Analysis of Otolith Sr/Ca Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrach, D J; Phillis, C C; Weber, P K; Ingram, B L; Zinkl, J G

    2004-09-17

    Habitat use has been shown to be an important factor in the bioaccumulation of contaminants in striped bass. This study examines migration in striped bass as part of a larger study investigating bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of xenobiotics to progeny in the San Francisco Estuary system. Habitat use, residence time and spawning migration over the life of females (n = 23) was studied. Female striped bass were collected between Knights Landing and Colusa on the Sacramento River during the spawning runs of 1999 and 2001. Otoliths were removed, processed and aged via otolith microstructure. Subsequently, otoliths were analyzed for strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratio using an electron-microprobe to measure salinity exposure and to distinguish freshwater, estuary, and marine habitat use. Salinity exposure during the last year before capture was examined more closely for comparison of habitat use by the maternal parent to contaminant burden transferred to progeny. Results were selectively confirmed by ion microprobe analyses for habitat use. The Sr/Ca data demonstrate a wide range of migratory patterns. Age of initial ocean entry differs among individuals before returning to freshwater, presumably to spawn. Some fish reside in freshwater year-round, while others return to more saline habitats and make periodic migrations to freshwater. Frequency of habitat shifts and residence times differs among fish, as well as over the lifetime of individual fish. While at least one fish spent its final year in freshwater, the majority of spawning fish spent their final year in elevated salinity. However, not all fish migrated to freshwater to spawn in the previous year. Results from this investigation concerning migration history in striped bass can be combined with contaminant and histological developmental analyses to better understand the bioaccumulation of contaminants and the subsequent effects they and habitat use have on fish populations in the San Francisco Estuary system.

  1. Migration: the trends converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Formerly, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the US have served as permanent destinations for immigrants, while Europe's migrants have moved to more northerly countries to work for a time and then returned home. From 1973-1975 Europe's recruitment of foreign workers virtually ended, although family reunion for those immigrants allowed in was encouraged. Problems resulting from this new settlement migration include low paying jobs for immigrant women, high unemployment, and inadequate education for immigrant children. Illegal migrants from Latin America and the Caribbean enter the US and Canada each year while illegal North African immigrants enter Italy, Spain, and Greece. North America, Australia, and Europe have all received political refugees from Asia and Latin America. Increasingly, these foreigners compete in the labor market rather than simply fill jobs the native workers do not want. All the receiving countries have similar policy priorities: 1) more effective ways for controlling and monitoring inflows and checking illegal immigration; 2) encouraging normal living patterns and accepting refugees; and 3) integrating permanent migrants into the host country. Europe's public immigration encouragement prior to the first oil shock, has left some countries with a labor force that is reluctant to return home. It is unlikely that Europe will welcome foreign labor again in this decade, since unemployment among young people and women is high and family reunion programs may still bring in many immigrants. Less immigration pattern change will probably occur in North America, Australia, and New Zealand since these countries' populations are still growing and wages are more flexible. Immigration, regulated by policy, and emigration, determined by market forces, now are working in the same direction and will likely reduce future migration flows.

  2. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  3. A Heuristic Approach for Determining Lot Sizes and Schedules Using Power-of-Two Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Ekinci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining realistic and easy-to-schedule lot sizes in a multiproduct, multistage manufacturing environment. We concentrate on a specific type of production, namely, flow shop type production. The model developed consists of two parts, lot sizing problem and scheduling problem. In lot sizing problem, we employ binary integer programming and determine reorder intervals for each product using power-of-two policy. In the second part, using the results obtained of the lot sizing problem, we employ mixed integer programming to determine schedules for a multiproduct, multistage case with multiple machines in each stage. Finally, we provide a numerical example and compare the results with similar methods found in practice.

  4. Albania: Trends and patterns, proximate determinants and policies of fertility change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Mencarini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available For a very long time, Albania has had one of the highest levels of fertility in Europe: in 2002 the total fertility rate of 2.2 children per woman was the highest in Europe. Although this current level is high, the country has experienced a rapid fertility reduction during the last 50 years: a TFR decline from 7 to 2.2. This reduction has occurred in the absence of modern contraception and abortion, which indicates the significance of investments in the social agenda during the communist regime that produced policies with indirect effects on fertility. Most significant of these were policies focused on education, in particular on female education. Social and demographic settings for a further fertility reduction in Albania have been present since 1990. Contraception and abortion have been legalized and available since the early 1990s, but knowledge of their use is still not widespread in the country, largely due to the interplay between traditional and modern norms of Albanian society. This chapter points out that future fertility levels will be determined not only by new policies that might be introduced, but predominantly by the balance of this interplay.

  5. Moving policies upstream to mitigate the social determinants of early childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The teen birth rate in the United States is one of the highest in the post-industrialized world. International comparisons suggest that U.S. rates reflect high levels of social disadvantage and misguided policies that frame teen parenting as costly for mothers, children, and taxpayers. Studies that control for background factors that predispose teens to become parents highlight the social inequities that contribute to early childbearing and unfavorable maternal-child outcomes, regardless of maternal age. After reviewing these studies, federal policies that target and scrutinize teenage and single mothers are described and critiqued for the ways they disregard the social determinants of early childbearing and further the marginalization and social exclusion of low-income families. This review calls for public health nurses to challenge the ideological assumptions driving downstream policies and to advocate for comprehensive reforms that reduce the wide and growing inequities in education, income, and health among U.S. citizens. Building the public support and political will to move upstream will remain daunting in light of the pervasive stereotypes of teen parents and the ideological assumptions that early childbearing and poor maternal-child outcomes stem more from individual choices and lifestyles than from social inequities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N at TNG . XIV. Investigating giant planet migration history via improved eccentricity and mass determination for 231 transiting planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, A. S.; Desidera, S.; Benatti, S.; Borsa, F.; Crespi, S.; Damasso, M.; Lanza, A. F.; Sozzetti, A.; Lodato, G.; Marzari, F.; Boccato, C.; Claudi, R. U.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Gratton, R.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Poretti, E.; Smareglia, R.; Affer, L.; Biazzo, K.; Bignamini, A.; Esposito, M.; Giacobbe, P.; Hébrard, G.; Malavolta, L.; Maldonado, J.; Mancini, L.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A.; Masiero, S.; Nascimbeni, V.; Pedani, M.; Rainer, M.; Scandariato, G.

    2017-06-01

    We carried out a Bayesian homogeneous determination of the orbital parameters of 231 transiting giant planets (TGPs) that are alone or have distant companions; we employed differential evolution Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to analyse radial-velocity (RV) data from the literature and 782 new high-accuracy RVs obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph for 45 systems over 3 years. Our work yields the largest sample of systems with a transiting giant exoplanet and coherently determined orbital, planetary, and stellar parameters. We found that the orbital parameters of TGPs in non-compact planetary systems are clearly shaped by tides raised by their host stars. Indeed, the most eccentric planets have relatively large orbital separations and/or high mass ratios, as expected from the equilibrium tide theory. This feature would be the outcome of planetary migration from highly eccentric orbits excited by planet-planet scattering, Kozai-Lidov perturbations, or secular chaos. The distribution of α = a/aR, where a and aR are the semi-major axis and the Roche limit, for well-determined circular orbits peaks at 2.5; this agrees with expectations from the high-eccentricity migration (HEM), although it might not be limited to this migration scenario. The few planets of our sample with circular orbits and α> 5 values may have migrated through disc-planet interactions instead of HEM. By comparing circularisation times with stellar ages, we found that hot Jupiters with arevised the planetary parameters of CoRoT-1b, which turned out to be considerably more inflated than previously found. Full Tables 1, 2, 5-9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/602/A107

  7. Labor migration in Russia - problem or prospect?

    OpenAIRE

    POMOZGOV ANATOLY IVANOVICH; KISIEV ZAUR EDUARDOVICH

    2016-01-01

    The article shows that international labor migration is an important part of the internationalization process of international economic life. So, the migration processes of the population should be carefully monitored and analyzed in order to develop effective state migration policy. Population mass migration became one of the characteristic phenomena of the second part of XX century world society life. Labor power international migration from this time appears to be the important part of int...

  8. South-South Migration and Remittances

    OpenAIRE

    Ratha, Dilip; Shaw, William

    2007-01-01

    South-South Migration and Remittances reports on preliminary results from an ongoing effort to improve data on bilateral migration stocks. It sets out some working hypotheses on the determinants and socioeconomic implications of South-South migration. Contrary to popular perception that migration is mostly a South-North phenomenon, South-South migration is large. Available data from nation...

  9. Social determinants of health in Canada: Are healthy living initiatives there yet? A policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gore Dana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Preventative strategies that focus on addressing the social determinants of health to improve healthy eating and physical activity have become an important strategy in British Columbia and Ontario for combating chronic diseases. What has not yet been examined is the extent to which healthy living initiatives implemented under these new policy frameworks successfully engage with and change the social determinants of health. Methods Initiatives active between January 1, 2006 and September 1, 2011 were found using provincial policy documents, web searches, health organization and government websites, and databases of initiatives that attempted to influence to nutrition and physical activity in order to prevent chronic diseases or improve overall health. Initiatives were reviewed, analyzed and grouped using the descriptive codes: lifestyle-based, environment-based or structure-based. Initiatives were also classified according to the mechanism by which they were administered: as direct programs (e.g. directly delivered, blueprints (or frameworks to tailor developed programs, and building blocks (resources to develop programs. Results 60 initiatives were identified in Ontario and 61 were identified in British Columbia. In British Columbia, 11.5% of initiatives were structure-based. In Ontario, of 60 provincial initiatives identified, 15% were structure-based. Ontario had a higher proportion of direct interventions than British Columbia for all intervention types. However, in both provinces, as the intervention became more upstream and attempted to target the social determinants of health more directly, the level of direct support for the intervention lessened. Conclusions The paucity of initiatives in British Columbia and Ontario that address healthy eating and active living through action on the social determinants of health is problematic. In the context of Canada's increasingly neoliberal political and economic policy, the

  10. Making Migrants Responsible for Development: Cape Verdean Returnees and Northern Migration Policies Wenn Migranten für Entwicklung verantwortlich gemacht werden: Rückkehrer nach Kap Verde und vom „Norden“ geprägte Migrationspolitik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Åkesson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a surge of “Northern” policy documents concerned with increasing the positive effects of international migration in countries of origin. This article contrasts some basic assumptions in policies on migration, return and development with an anthropological study of Cape Verdean returnees, and it reveals some important disparities between the returnees’ experiences and the ideas underpinning policy documents. The article analyses the role returnees’ savings and skills play in local change in Cape Verde, and in particular it looks into entrepreneurial activities. This is related to a discussion of the conditions that must be fulfilled in order to make it possible for return migrants to contribute to positive social change. In conclusion, the article shows that structural conditions have a fundamental impact on individual migrants’ abilities to support development, a perspective often left out of contemporary policies.In jüngster Zeit entstand eine Flut politischer Dokumente im “Norden”, die sich mit den positiven Effekten internationaler Migration in den Ursprungsländern der Migranten beschäftigen. Der vorliegende Beitrag kontrastiert einige grundlegende Annahmen im Bereich der Migrations-, Rückkehrer- und Entwicklungspolitik mit den Ergebnissen einer anthropologischen Studie über Rückkehrer nach Kap Verde und deckt einige gravierende Differenzen zwischen diesen Grundannahmen und den Erfahrungen der Rückkehrer auf. Die Autorin analysiert, welche Bedeutung die Ersparnisse und die Qualifikationen der Rückkehrer für den lokalen gesellschaftlichen Wandel haben und ist dabei insbesondere an unternehmerischen Aktivitäten interessiert. Darauf aufbauend diskutiert sie, unter welchen Bedingungen zurückkehrende Migranten positiv zum sozialen Wandel beitragen können. Sie kommt zu dem Schluss, dass die Möglichkeiten für einzelne Rückkehrer, die Entwicklung ihres Heimatlandes positiv zu beeinflussen

  11. Social determinants of health in selected slum areas in Jordan: challenges and policy directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlouni, Musa T

    2016-01-01

    The unplanned urbanization in Jordan has over time created many informal settlements "slums" around big cities as Amman, Zerka and Aqaba. The purpose of this study was to highlight the most common challenges related to social determinants of health in two selected slum areas in Amman and Aqaba and suggest policy directions and interventions to meet these challenges. In addition to a prestructured interview with all household heads living in the two slum sites, focus group meetings with a purposefully selected sample of 12 slum dwellers in each site were used to assess the structural and intermediary determinants of health as perceived by slum residents in the two study locations. The study found that slum residents in the two locations suffer from many challenges as severe poverty; unemployment; illiteracy and low education attainments; gender discrimination; insufficient and poor diet; social and official exclusion; unhealthy environment; lack of water supply, electricity and basic sanitation facilities; high prevalence of diseases; and insufficient and inappropriate health services. Specific policy directions to meet these challenges were recommended and grouped into three main clusters: social protection, social inclusion and empowerment. New plans and tools should be developed by local authorities in Jordan to understand, protect, include and empower those vulnerable people who are forced to live in these unhealthy and inhuman environments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Determinants of Dividend Payout Policy: A Case of Pakistan Engineering Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Imran

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The return on investment can be divided in capital gain and dividend payouts. It is a difficult task for management to allocate a sufficient amount in both segments, especially to prevent from agency problems. The firms pay dividends only when enough amounts have after meeting their requirements and short term needs. The purpose of the present study is to empirically investigate the factors determine the dividend payout decisions in the case of Pakistan’s engineeringsector by using the data of thirty-six firms listed on Karachi Stock Exchange from the period 1996 to 2008. By employing various panel data techniques like fixed and random effects, the results suggest that the previous dividend per share, earnings per share, profitability, cash flow, sales growth, and size of the firm are the most critical factors determining dividend policy in the engineering sector of Pakistan.

  13. Family migration and migrant integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Kraler, A.; Triandafyllidou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Family migration and integration are intimately related concepts in contemporary policy discourses in major migrant receiving countries. In these discourses, both family related migration as such and the migrant family as an institution are problematised with regard to their relation to integration.

  14. Brain Migration Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  15. Migration and Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace...

  16. Migration and access to maternal healthcare: determinants of adequate antenatal care and institutional delivery among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yadlapalli S; Kumari, Rita; Kaushal, Sonia

    2013-10-01

    To identify the determinants of adequate antenatal care (ANC) utilisation and institutional deliveries among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants living in Delhi, India. In a cross-sectional survey, 809 rural-urban migrant mothers with a child aged below 2 years were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Data on receiving antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, migration history and other social, demographic and income were collected. Recent migrants used the services significantly less than settled migrants. ANC was adequate only among 37% (35% of recent migrant women and 39% of settled migrants). Multinomial regression revealed that being a recent migrant, multiparous, illiterate and married to an unskilled worker were significant risk factors for receiving inadequate ANC. Around 53% of deliveries took place at home. ANC seeking has a strong influence on place of delivery: 70% of births to women who received inadequate ANC were at home. Women who are educated, had their first delivery after the age of 20 years and received adequate ANC were more likely to deliver their child in hospital. Post-natal care is grossly neglected among these groups. Migrant women, particularly recent migrants, are at the risk of not receiving adequate maternal healthcare. Because migration is a continuing phenomenon, measures to mitigate disadvantage due to migration need to be taken in the healthcare system. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: context, determinants and health policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. J.; Kinra, S.; Casas, J. P.; Smith, G. Davey; Ebrahim, S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The rise of non-communicable diseases and their impact in low- and middle-income countries has gained increased attention in recent years. However, the explanation for this rise is mostly an extrapolation from the history of high-income countries whose experience differed from the development processes affecting today’s low- and middle-income countries. This review appraises these differences in context to gain a better understanding of the epidemic of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Theories of developmental and degenerative determinants of non-communicable diseases are discussed to provide strong evidence for a causally informed approach to prevention. Health policies for non-communicable diseases are considered in terms of interventions to reduce population risk and individual susceptibility and the research needs for low- and middle-income countries are discussed. Finally, the need for health system reform to strengthen primary care is highlighted as a major policy to reduce the toll of this rising epidemic. PMID:18937743

  18. US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy: impact on exports and nuclear industry could not be determined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staats, E.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 established new measures to prevent the diversion to weapons use of peaceful nuclear exports. It also created a policy to confirm US reliability as a nuclear supplier. GAO did not identify any export sales lost as a result of the Act, but did find indications that nonprofileration policies can influence export sales. Based on avavailable data, GAO could not determine the impact of the Act on the competitiveness of US nuclear exports. However, US companies are at some disadvantage because importers perceive that implementation of the Act may result in delayed export licenses. The United States dominated the nuclear export market through the early 1970s. However, foreign competitors, some aided by US technology transfers, emerged to monopolize home markets and complete for third-country business. Further, the market has been depressed since 1974 and prospects for US nuclear power plant exports have dimmed greatly. However, US companies continue to view exports as important to sustain production capacity

  19. Cell-to-cell heterogeneity of EWSR1-FLI1 activity determines proliferation/migration choices in Ewing sarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, G-A; Laud-Duval, K; van der Ent, W; Brisac, A; Irondelle, M; Aubert, S; Dirksen, U; Bouvier, C; de Pinieux, G; Snaar-Jagalska, E; Chavrier, P; Delattre, O

    2017-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is characterized by the expression of the chimeric EWSR1-FLI1 transcription factor. Proteomic analyses indicate that the decrease of EWSR1-FLI1 expression leads to major changes in effectors of the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton and the adhesion processes with a shift from cell-to-cell to cell-matrix adhesion. These changes are associated with a dramatic increase of in vivo cell migration and invasion potential. Importantly, EWSR1-FLI1 expression, evaluated by single-cell RT-ddPCR/immunofluorescence analyses, and activity, assessed by expression of EWSR1-FLI1 downstream targets, are heterogeneous in cell lines and in tumours and can fluctuate along time in a fully reversible process between EWSR1-FLI1high states, characterized by highly active cell proliferation, and EWSR1-FLI1low states where cells have a strong propensity to migrate, invade and metastasize. This new model of phenotypic plasticity proposes that the dynamic fluctuation of the expression level of a dominant oncogene is an intrinsic characteristic of its oncogenic potential. PMID:28135250

  20. APPLICATION OF FUZZY COGNITIVE MAPS ON POLICY ANALYSIS: DETERMINING THE POLICY OF SUPPORTING THE ACADEMIC SPIN OFFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny P. Soetanto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM is a type of artificial neural network. It can be viewed as a weighted directed graph in which vertices represent concepts and edges represent causal links between them. An FCM can be used as an intelligent decision support system (DSS tool. It works by representing important issues in a given situation and their causal relationships. The evolution of a dynamic system with time can be simulated and the behavior of the systems can be predicted and explained using an FCM. In this case FCM is used to ditermine the policy to support the academic spin off. Simulation brings forth some conclusions and the best policy can be chosen.

  1. Determinants Of Dividend Policy: A Study Of Selected Listed Firms In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwuigbe Olubukunola Ranti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the determinants of dividends policy in the Nigerian stock exchange market. To achieve the objectives of this study, a total of 50 listed firms in the Nigerian stock exchange market were selected and analyzed for the study using the judgmental sampling technique. Also, the corporate annual reports for the period 2006-2011 were used for the study. The paper was basically modeled to examine the effects of financial performance of firms, firm size, financial leverage and board independence on the dividend payout decisions of listed firms operating in the Nigerian stock exchange market using the regression analysis method. The study in its findings observed that there is a significant positive relationship between firms’ financial performance, size of firms and board independence on the dividend payouts decisions of listed firms in Nigeria.

  2. CULTURAL PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY – DETERMINANTS OF CULTURAL POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA MIHAELA NITA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultural phenomena and processes in the contemporary society, influenced by the social development models and by the fact that the constitutive elements of the culture have become the decisive factors of social change, are the determinants of the cultural policies. They are centered on the active process of cultural globalization that emphasizes besides the assimilation of the European principles, also the preservation of the cultural dialog without identity loss. Contemporary culture cannot be appreciated unless we know the main processes and phenomena that lately have generated impressive changes in the area of technology and means of communication. Due to these transformations we witness a change of the cultural paradigms, a mutation of values.

  3. Cyber Security Policy. A methodology for Determining a National Cyber-Security Alert Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Constantin TOFAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, assuring the security of the national cyber-space has become a big issue that can only be tackled through collaborative approaches. Threats cannot be confined to a single computer system just as much as computer systems are rendered useless without being con-nected to a supporting network. The authors of this article propose an innovative architecture of a system designated to help governments collect and analyze data about cyber-security in-cidents, from different organizations, dispersed nationwide, and acting within various economic sectors. The collected data will make us able to determine a national cyber-security alert score that could help policy makers in establishing the best strategies for protecting the national cyber-space.

  4. The consequences of Ireland's culture of medical migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Niamh; Crowe, Sophie; McDermott, Cian; McAleese, Sara; Brugha, Ruairi

    2017-12-28

    In recent years, Ireland has experienced a large-scale, outward migration of doctors. This presents a challenge for national policy makers and workforce planners seeking to build a self-sufficient medical workforce that trains and retains enough doctors to meet demand. Although, traditionally, medical migration has been considered beneficial to the Irish health system, austerity has brought a greater level of uncertainty to the health system and, with it, a need to reappraise the professional culture of migration and its impact on the Irish health system. This paper illustrates how a culture of migration informs career and migration plans. It draws on quantitative data-registration and migration data from source and destination countries-and qualitative data-in-depth interviews with 50 doctors who had undertaken postgraduate medical training in Ireland. Of 50 respondents, 42 highlighted the importance of migration. The culture of medical migration rests on two assumptions-that international training/experience is beneficial to all doctors and that those who emigrate will return to Ireland with additional skills and experience. This assumption of return is challenged by a new generation of doctors whose professional lives have been shaped by globalisation and by austerity. Global comparisons reveal the comparatively poor working conditions, training and career opportunities in Ireland and the relative attractiveness of a permanent career abroad. In light of these changes, there is a need to critically appraise the culture of medical migration to determine if and in what circumstances migration is appropriate to the needs of the Irish health system. The paper considers the need to reappraise the culture of medical migration and the widespread emigration that it promotes.

  5. Conditions for addressing environmental determinants of health behavior in intersectoral policy networks: A fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D T J M; Verweij, S; Grêaux, K; Stronks, K; Harting, J

    2017-12-01

    Improving health requires changes in the social, physical, economic and political determinants of health behavior. For the realization of policies that address these environmental determinants, intersectoral policy networks are considered necessary for the pooling of resources to implement different policy instruments. However, such network diversity may increase network complexity and therefore hamper network performance. Network complexity may be reduced by network management and the provision of financial resources. This study examined whether network diversity - amidst the other conditions - is indeed needed to address environmental determinants of health behavior. We included 25 intersectoral policy networks in Dutch municipalities aimed at reducing overweight, smoking, and alcohol/drugs abuse. For our fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis we used data from three web-based surveys among (a) project leaders regarding network diversity and size (n = 38); (b) project leaders and project partners regarding management (n = 278); and (c) implementation professionals regarding types of environmental determinants addressed (n = 137). Data on budgets were retrieved from project application forms. Contrary to their intentions, most policy networks typically addressed personal determinants. If the environment was addressed too, it was mostly the social environment. To address environmental determinants of health behavior, network diversity (>50% of the actors are non-public health) was necessary in networks that were either small (environmental determinants also were addressed by small networks with large budgets, and by large networks with small budgets, when both provided network management. We conclude that network diversity is important - although not necessary - for resource pooling to address environmental determinants of health behavior, but only effective in the presence of network management. Our findings may support intersectoral policy networks in

  6. Determinants of the Rigor of State Protection Policies for Persons With Dementia in Assisted Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Matthew C; Kaskie, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Continued growth in the number of individuals with dementia residing in assisted living (AL) facilities raises concerns about their safety and protection. However, unlike federally regulated nursing facilities, AL facilities are state-regulated and there is a high degree of variation among policies designed to protect persons with dementia. Despite the important role these protection policies have in shaping the quality of life of persons with dementia residing in AL facilities, little is known about their formation. In this research, we examined the adoption of AL protection policies pertaining to staffing, the physical environment, and the use of chemical restraints. For each protection policy type, we modeled policy rigor using an innovative point-in-time approach, incorporating variables associated with state contextual, institutional, political, and external factors. We found that the rate of state AL protection policy adoptions remained steady over the study period, with staffing policies becoming less rigorous over time. Variables reflecting institutional policy making, including legislative professionalism and bureaucratic oversight, were associated with the rigor of state AL dementia protection policies. As we continue to evaluate the mechanisms contributing to the rigor of AL protection policies, it seems that organized advocacy efforts might expand their role in educating state policy makers about the importance of protecting persons with dementia residing in AL facilities and moving to advance appropriate policies.

  7. Relations between information and communication technologies and international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the topic of the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT on the international migration phenomenon According to the discussed literature, there is an impression that ICTs change the essence of migration and monitoring of migration flows. It also suggests that migration and migrants’ needs shape the development of ICT services intended to them, but they also shape the content of social media. The impact of new technologies on international migration (before migration, during migration and upon arrival in the country of destination has been discussed through an overview of empirical research findings in Serbia and other countries. In this context, the ICT users relevant to the migration process (individuals and interest groups have been more closely determined and discussed, the aspects of the relations between ICTs and migration have been highlighted, as well as their implications for individuals and society. The considered aspects of relations of ICTs and international migration at different stages of the migration process and their severe implications for individuals and society, in our opinion, point to the need for cooperation of users of information and communication technologies relevant to the migration process in different domains ‒ the spheres of influence of ICTs. We believe that is how the potential of ICTs will be exploited in an adequate way, for benefit of both ‒ migrants and other relevant interested parties. While widely accepted by individuals, information and communication technologies have just begun to be recognized as important for migration policy in Serbia and generally, in terms of their opportunities and challenges. In Serbia, only recently (as of the 2011 Census there has been data available on the use of ICTs by certain migrant groups (long-term settled refugees from former Yugoslav republics. Also, the qualitative surveys on the use of ICTs during the migration by transit

  8. Influence of humic acids on the migration behavior of radioactive and non-radioactive substances under conditions close to nature. Synthesis, radiometric determination of functional groups, complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Schmeide, K.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G.; Nitsche, H.

    2000-04-01

    The interaction behavior of humic acids with uranium(VI) and the influence of humic substances on the migration behavior of uranium was investigated. A main focus of this work was the synthesis of four different humic acid model substances and their characterization and comparison to the natural humic acid from Aldrich. A radiometric method for the determination of humic acid functional groups was applied in addition to conventional methods for the determination of the functionality of humic acids. The humic acid model substances show functional and structural properties comparable to natural humic acids. Modified humic acids with blocked phenolic OH were synthesized to determine the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids. A synthesis method for 14 C-labeled humic acids with high specific activity was developed. The complexation behavior of synthetic and natural humic acids with uranium(VI) was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthetic model substances show an interaction behavior with uranium(VI) that is comparable to natural humic acids. This points to the fact that the synthetic humic acids simulate the functionality of their natural analogues very well. For the first time the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids was investigated by applying a modified humic acid with blocked phenolic OH groups. The formation of a uranyl hydroxy humate complex was identified by laserspectroscopic investigations of the complexation of Aldrich humic acid with uranium(VI) at pH7. The migration behavior of uranium in a sandy aquifer system rich in humic substances was investigated in column experiments. A part of uranium migrates non-retarded through the sediment, bound to humic colloids. The uranium migration behavior is strongly influenced by the kinetically controlled interaction processes of uranium with the humic colloids

  9. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Cameroon - burden, determinants and current policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echouffo-Tcheugui Justin B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cameroon is experiencing an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, which accounted for 43% of all deaths in 2002. This article reviews the published literature to critically evaluate the evidence on the frequency, determinants and consequences of NCDs in Cameroon, and to identify research, intervention and policy gaps. The rising trends in NCDs have been documented for hypertension and diabetes, with a 2-5 and a 10-fold increase in their respective prevalence between 1994 and 2003. Magnitudes are much higher in urban settings, where increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity (by 54-82% was observed over the same period. These changes largely result from the adoption of unfavorable eating habits, physical inactivity, and a probable increasing tobacco use. These behavioral changes are driven by the economic development and social mobility, which are part of the epidemiologic transition. There is still a dearth of information on chronic respiratory diseases and cancers, as well as on all NDCs and related risk factors in children and adolescents. More nationally representative data is needed to tract risk factors and consequences of NCDs. These conditions are increasingly been recognized as a priority, mainly through locally generated evidence. Thus, national-level prevention and control programs for chronic diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension have been established. However, the monitoring and evaluation of these programs is necessary. Budgetary allocations data by the ministry of health would be helpful, to evaluate the investment in NCDs prevention and control. Establishing more effective national-level tobacco control measures and food policies, as well as campaigns to promote healthy diets, physical activity and tobacco cessation would probably contribute to reducing the burden of NCDs.

  10. Socioeconomic determinants of children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure and family's home smoking policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Gabriele; Fromme, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have analysed the impact of different socioeconomic indicators on the prevalence of children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at several indoor environments and on family's home smoking policy. Data on 12 422 pre-school children (48% female) from two cross-sectional surveys conducted during 2004-06 in Germany were analysed. Exposure assessment was based on parental report. Independent effects of socioeconomic indicators were determined by mutually adjustment in logistic regression analyses. Low parental education, unemployment, low household equivalent income, non-German nationality, single-parent family and family size were independently associated with children's ETS exposure at home and in cars. The strongest associations were observed for low parental education [at home: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.46-4.49; in cars: 5.00; 3.84-6.50]. Indicators of material living conditions (relative poverty: 0.48; 0.39-0.57, parental unemployment: 0.55; 0.46-0.65), as well as single-parent family, non-German nationality and family size, but not parental education, were independently associated with ETS exposure at hospitality venues. Smoking households with low parental education, unemployment, poverty, single-parent family and non-German nationality were less likely to have the rule of exclusively smoking on the balcony or terrace. Low parental education and unemployment were negatively associated with no smoking in presence of the child in households with smoking inside the flat. Several dimensions of socioeconomic position have to be considered in explanations of social inequalities in children's ETS exposure and family's home smoking policy as well as in development of targeted interventions.

  11. Gendering Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Morokvašić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration patterns, migration discourse and underlying representations, migrants’ experiences, obligations and duties as well as the expectations relative to their migration are gendered. Since the pioneering feminist migration scholars’ questioning of men as a universal reference and the invisibility of women or their stereotypical representations as dependents in the mainstream production of knowledge on migration, the scholarship has evolved considerably. It is argued in the paper that the ongoing process of cross-fertilization of developments in two separate epistemologies, each initially questioning monolithic and essentialist visions of a “migrant” on one hand and a “woman” on the other, produced a fecund subfield of research “migration and gender”. The paper provides an insight into this, reviewing work on the issues related to gendering different phases of migration. Bridging migration and gender brought to the top of research agendas issues that used to be on the margins, creating new visibilities but leaving out other gendered dimensions of complex realities of migrant experience.

  12. Household catastrophic medical expenses in eastern China: determinants and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohong; Shen, Jay J; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Chang, Fengshui; Hao, Mo

    2013-12-05

    Much of research on household catastrophic medical expenses in China has focused on less developed areas and little is known about this problem in more developed areas. This study aimed to analyse the incidence and determinants of catastrophic medical expenses in eastern China. Data were obtained from a health care utilization and expense survey of 11,577 households conducted in eastern China in 2008. The incidence of household catastrophic medical expenses was calculated using the method introduced by the World Health Organization. A multi-level logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants. The incidence of household catastrophic medical expenses in eastern China ranged from 9.24% to 24.79%. Incidence of household catastrophic medical expenses was lower if the head of household had a higher level of education, labor insurance coverage, while the incidence was higher if they lived in rural areas, had a family member with chronic diseases, had a child younger than 5 years old, had a person at home who was at least 65 years old, and had a household member who was hospitalized. Moreover, the impact of the economic level on catastrophic medical expenses was non-linear. The poorest group had a lower incidence than that of the second lowest income group and the group with the highest income had a higher incidence than that of the second highest income group. In addition, region was a significant determinant. Reducing the incidence of household catastrophic medical expenses should be one of the priorities of health policy. It can be achieved by improving residents' health status to reduce avoidable health services such as hospitalization. It is also important to design more targeted health insurance in order to increase financial support for such vulnerable groups as the poor, chronically ill, children, and senior populations.

  13. The Evolution of Renewable Energy Policy in OECD Countries: aggregate indicators and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, Francesco; Vona, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes different methods to aggregate heterogeneous policies for renewable energy. We compare time-varying indicators built using principal component analysis with average-based indicators. The main goal of the paper is to account for the evolution of both types of policy indicators with a set of common variables. Our empirical results are consistent with predictions of political-economy models of environmental policies as lobbying, income and, to a less extent, inequality have expected effects on policy. The brown lobbying power, proxied by entry barriers in the energy sector, has negative influence on the policy indicators even when taking into account endogeneity in its effect. The results are also robust to dynamic panel specifications and to the exclusion of groups of countries. Interestingly, too, corruption has only an indirect effect on policy mediated by entry barriers, while the negative effect of inequality is much stronger for the richer countries. (authors)

  14. Determination of polyadipates migrating from lid gaskets of glass jars. Hydrolysis to adipic acid and measurement by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driffield, M; Bradley, E L; Harmer, N; Castle, L; Klump, S; Mottier, P

    2010-10-01

    Polyadipate plasticizers can be present in the polyvinylchloride (PVC) gaskets used to seal the lids of glass jars. As the gaskets can come into direct contact with the foodstuffs inside the jar, the potential exists for polyadipate migration into the food. The procedure and performance characteristics of a test method for the analysis of polyadipates in food simulants (3% aqueous acetic acid and 10% aqueous ethanol) and the volatile test media used in substitute fat tests (isooctane and 95% aqueous ethanol) are described. The PVC gaskets were exposed to the food simulants or their substitutes under standard test conditions. Studies were initially carried out using direct measurement of the polyadipate oligomers by liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (LC-TOF-MS) but this was not practical due to the number of peaks detected. Instead, the migrating polyadipates were hydrolysed to adipic acid and measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). The amount of polyadipate that this measurement of adipic acid represents was then calculated. Method performance was assessed by analysis of gaskets from two types of jar lids by single-laboratory validation. Linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, intermediate reproducibility and recovery were determined to be suitable for checking compliance with the 30 mg/kg specific migration limits for polyesters of 1,2-propane diol and/or 1,3- and/or 1,4-butanediol and/or polypropylene-glycol with adipic acid, which may be end-capped with acetic acid or fatty acids C(12)-C(18) or n-octanol and/or n-decanol. The method was found to be much quicker than previous methods involving extraction, clean-up, hydrolysis, esterification, derivatisation and GC measurement, consequently saving time and money.

  15. The Determinants Of United States Government Policy And Practice Towards Offsets In International Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milligan, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    .... US policy considers offsets to be economically inefficient and market distorting, restricts US government agency involvement in offsets, and places responsibility for such arrangements with businesses...

  16. Characterization of molecular determinants of the conformational stability of macrophage migration inhibitory factor: leucine 46 hydrophobic pocket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah El-Turk

    Full Text Available Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF is a key mediator of inflammatory responses and innate immunity and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The oligomerization of MIF, more specifically trimer formation, is essential for its keto-enol tautomerase activity and probably mediates several of its interactions and biological activities, including its binding to its receptor CD74 and activation of certain signaling pathways. Therefore, understanding the molecular factors governing the oligomerization of MIF and the role of quaternary structure in modulating its structural stability and multifunctional properties is crucial for understanding the function of MIF in health and disease. Herein, we describe highly conserved intersubunit interactions involving the hydrophobic packing of the side chain of Leu46 onto the β-strand β3 of one monomer within a hydrophobic pocket from the adjacent monomer constituted by residues Arg11, Val14, Phe18, Leu19, Val39, His40, Val41, Val42, and Pro43. To elucidate the structural significance of these intersubunit interactions and their relative contribution to MIF's trimerization, structural stability and catalytic activity, we generated three point mutations where Leu46 was replaced by glycine (L46G, alanine (L46A and phenylalanine (L46F, and their structural properties, stability, oligomerization state, and catalytic activity were characterized using a battery of biophysical methods and X-ray crystallography. Our findings provide new insights into the role of the Leu46 hydrophobic pocket in stabilizing the conformational state of MIF in solution. Disrupting the Leu46 hydrophobic interaction perturbs the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein but has no effect on its oligomerization state.

  17. Hydrogen-bonding recognition-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles for the determination of the migration of melamine monomers using dynamic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Long; Chen, Kun; Lu, Zhicheng; Li, Tingting; Shao, Kang; Shao, Feng; Han, Heyou

    2014-10-03

    The migration of melamine monomers from food contact materials has aroused particular attention since the 2008 melamine-tainted milk scandal in China. However, the determination of melamine monomer's migratory quantity (MMMQ) has remained an open question because of the complex sample pretreatment and the low sensitivity. Based on the hydrogen bonding interaction between DNA thymine and melamine, this paper described a simple and rapid method focusing on the measurement of MMMQ from melamine tableware by gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). With the presence of probe DNA (p-DNA), the GNPs were stable in NaCl solution (0.06 M), whereas they became aggregated when the p-DNA hybridized with melamine. The change in the hydrodynamic diameter of GNPs could be detected by DLS technology. Under the optimal conditions, the average diameter increased linearly with the concentration of melamine over the range from 5.0 to 320.0 μg L(-1), and showed a detection limit of 2.0 μg L(-1) (3σ/slope). The MMMQ was investigated within a range from 6.00×10(-4) to 2.58×10(-1) mg dm(-2) (n≥3) in four different food simulants at different temperatures and time points. The results suggest that the DLS method has great potential in the analysis of the migration of melamine monomers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determinants of Self-Employment Dynamics and their Implications on Entrepreneurial Policy Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Millán

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main results of the empirical research on self-employment dynamics —particularly entry and success— and discusses their possible implications on entrepreneurial policy effectiveness. The main goal of this study is to promote a debate on this topic, encouraging conditional analyses that serve as guidance in the design of a policy agenda.

  19. Influenza vaccination policy-making processes in France and The Netherlands: framework and determinants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M.L.; Perrier, L.; Paget, W.J.; Mosnier, A.; Buthion, V.; Cohen, J.M.; Späth, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Target groups for seasonal influenza vaccination are nationally defined based on several factors. However, few studies have explored the policy-making processes at the country-level. We investigated key differences in the policy-making process for the development of vaccination

  20. Globalization, migration and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Angela

    2002-01-01

    The term 'globalization' describes the integration of economic systems through improved communication, but it also represents increased insecurity for those with few resources--particularly refugees. This article examines why people migrate, their numbers, constraints on their movement and their particular health care needs. Immigrants have much to contribute to their recipient countries, but at some loss to their homelands. Both economically and morally, more liberal immigration policies would be beneficial. Policies towards asylum seekers should not be more restrictive in the aftermath of 11 September 2001 and detention should be the exception rather than the rule. Globalization should be managed so as to improve people's lives throughout the world.

  1. The migration of doctors and nurses from South Pacific Island Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard P C; Connell, John

    2004-06-01

    Little is known of the structure of the international migration of skilled health professionals. Accelerated migration of doctors and nurses from the Pacific island states of Fiji, Samoa and Tonga to the Pacific periphery is part of the globalization of health care. The findings from a recent survey of 251 doctors and nurses from the three island countries are reported here. Key determinants of both present migration status and future migration intentions were analyzed using econometric methods. Nurses' and doctors' propensities to migrate are influenced by both income and non-income factors, including ownership of businesses and houses. Migrants also tend to have more close relatives overseas, to have trained there, and so experienced superior working conditions. Migration propensities vary between countries, and between nurses and doctors within countries. Tongan nurses have a higher propensity to migrate, mainly because of greater relative earnings differentials, but are also more likely to return home. The role of kinship ties, relative income differentials and working conditions is evident in other developing country contexts. Remittances and return migration, alongside business investment, bring some benefits to compensate for the skill drain. National development policies should focus on encouraging return migration, alongside retention and recruitment, but are unlikely to prevent out migration.

  2. The Monetary Rewards of Migration Within the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Richard F., II

    This study focuses on the economic benefits derived by the migrant from migration. The report presents a methodology for computing monetary benefits, an estimate of these benefits, and implications of the findings for public policy. Included are a discussion of domestic migration and public policy, an economic theory of migration, an explanation…

  3. An Investigation into the Socio-Psychological Determinants of Farmers' Conservation Decisions: Method and Implications for Policy, Extension and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, E.; Mathijs, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to present and apply a method to investigate farmers' socio-psychological determinants of conservation practice adoption, as an aid in extension, policy and conservation practice design. Design/methodology/approach: We use a sequential mixed method, starting with qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 24),…

  4. Acknowledging Individual Responsibility while Emphasizing Social Determinants in Narratives to Promote Obesity-Reducing Public Policy: A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity’s social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story’s main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity. PMID:25706743

  5. Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.

  6. Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Niederdeppe

    Full Text Available This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718 to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.

  7. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, L.

    1992-05-01

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional K D concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  8. Façade insulation retrofitting policy implementation process and its effects on health equity determinants: A realist review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camprubí, Lluís; Malmusi, Davide; Mehdipanah, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    Fuel poverty and cold housing constitute a significant public health problem. Energy efficiency interventions, such as façade retrofitting, address the problem from a structural and long-term perspective. Despite evidence of the health benefits of insulation, little is known about the political and social contexts that contribute to social inequalities in receiving and experiencing health benefits from these interventions. We used a realist review methodology to better understand the mechanisms that explain how and why variations across different social groups appear in receiving energy efficiency façade retrofitting interventions and in their impact on health determinants. We considered the four stages of the policy implementation framework: public policy approach; policy; receiving intervention and impact on health determinants. We found strong evidence that certain social groups (low-income, renters, elderly) suffering most from fuel poverty, experience more barriers for undertaking a building retrofitting (due to factors such as upfront costs, “presentism” thinking, split incentives, disruption and lack of control), and that some public policies on housing energy efficiency may exacerbate these inequalities. This can be avoided if such policies specifically aim at tackling fuel poverty or social inequities, are completely free to users, target the most affected groups and are adapted to their needs. - Highlights: •Health benefits of housing façade insulation more pronounced in fuel poor groups. •Social groups suffering most from fuel poverty least likely to undergo insulation. •Energy efficiency policies focused solely on CO 2 reduction may increase inequalities. •Split Incentives and “Take-Back” effect show socioeconomic and contextual variability. •Universal policies without targeting increase inequalities in retrofitting uptake.

  9. Introduction of a method for determining uranium isotope ratio by α-spectroscopy and application to study the migration of this element in uranium occurence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    A method of U and Th isotope ratio determination by α-spectroscopy to analyse the migration process of these elements at an uranium bearing region in Goias, Brazil, is described. The method consists of simultaneous extraction of U and Th with TOPO/cyclohexane, reextraction of Th with H 2 SO 4 (0.3M) and further purification of both phases. The interferent coextracted ions are eliminated by scrubbing with EDTA/NaNO 3 , and pure U is extracted with (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 . The counting sources are prepared via extraction with TTA or MIBK, and evaporation of suitable aliquots on stainless steel disks. The recovery of U about 98% is obtained. The energy resolutions of U 238 peak (E α =4.195 MeV) are 52 and 83 KeV. The counting efficiencies are between 11 and 21+. Th is separated from the stripping solution by direct coprecipitation with macro amounts of LaF 3 and subsequent extraction with TTA/benzene for source preparation. Alternatively coprecipitation is proposed with micro quantities of LaF 3 and posterior filtration with membrane filters, where LaF 3 layer was previously deposited. This method allows direct counting of the filters and is superior in relation to energy resolution and counting efficiency. The U 238 /U 234 and U 234 /Th 230 isotope ratios in geological standards and prospecting samples were determined. The U 234 /Th 230 isotope ratio was used for analysing the migration of these elements because the most of analysed samples presented values, for this ratio, greater than unity, indicating that the anomalous concentrations of U are due to secondary enrichment processes. Aditional results of non equilibrium of the radioactivity of samples by γ-spectroscopy, are presented. (author) [pt

  10. “What is the Spirit of this Gathering?” Indigenous Sport Policy-Makers and Self-Determination in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braden P. Te Hiwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examine how the process of Indigenous participation in policy-making pertaining to the development of federal sport policy in Canada is connected to Indigenous forms of self-determination. By conducting semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous sport policy-makers, I investigate how their respective thoughts, experiences, and actions shape their perspective on self-determination. My analysis shows that a focus on relationships was at the center of the interviewed Indigenous sport policy-makers’ approaches to the promotion of Indigenous self-determination. Furthermore, the relational nature of Indigenous policy-makers’ identities was also central to their pursuit of self-determination. The promotion of family and community type relationships with government representatives could be used as an outcome of policy-making, in addition to traditional policy directives.

  11. The Determinants Of United States Government Policy And Practice Towards Offsets In International Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milligan, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    .... Offsets are increasing as a percentage of defense exports. Because US industry leads worldwide defense exports, US offsets policy and the potential impact of offsets on US national security are highly significant...

  12. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  13. MIGRATION IMPACT ON ECONOMICAL SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia COJOCARU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent trends and flows of labor migration and its impact on economic and social life. Main aim of this research sets up the influence of the migration on the European economics and its competitiveness. Methods of research are: method of comparison, analysis method, method of deduction, method of statistics, modeling method. The economic impact of migration has been intensively studied but is still often driven by ill-informed perceptions, which, in turn, can lead to public antagonism towards migration. These negative views risk jeopardising efforts to adapt migration policies to the new economic and demographic challenges facing many countries. Migration Policy looks at the evidence for how immigrants affect the economy in three main areas: The labour market, public purse and economic growth. In Europe, the scope of labour mobility greatly increased within the EU/EFTA zones following the EU enlargements of 2004, 2007 and 2014-2015. This added to labour markets’ adjustment capacity. Recent estimates suggest that as much as a quarter of the asymmetric labour market shock – that is occurring at different times and with different intensities across countries – may have been absorbed by migration within a year.

  14. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  15. Brain death determination: the imperative for policy and legal initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru-Siika, Wangari; Clement, Meredith Edwards; Lukoko, Lilian; Nadel, Simon; Rosoff, Philip M; Naanyu, Violet; Kussin, Peter S

    2017-05-01

    The concept of brain death (BD), defined as irreversible loss of function of the brain including the brainstem, is accepted in the medical literature and in legislative policy worldwide. However, in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) there are no legal guidelines regarding BD. Hypothetical scenarios based on our collective experience are presented which underscore the consequences of the absence of BD policies in resource-limited countries (RLCs). Barriers to the development of BD laws exist in an RLC such as Kenya. Cultural, ethnic, and religious diversity creates a complex perspective about death challenging the development of uniform guidelines for BD. The history of the medical legal process in the USA provides a potential way forward. Uniform guidelines for legislation at the state level included special consideration for ethnic or religious preferences in specific states. In SSA, medical and social consensus on the definition of BD is a prerequisite for the development BD legislation. Legislative policy will (1) limit prolonged and futile interventions; (2) mitigate the suffering of families; (3) standardise clinical practice; and (4) facilitate better allocation of scarce critical care resources in RLCs. There is a clear-cut need for these policies, and previous successful policies can serve to guide these efforts.

  16. Selection or Network Effects? Migration Flows into 27 OECD Countries, 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P.J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    patterns may be affected by the relatively generous welfare schemes in most OECD countries, but also network effects and migration policy changes may be important factors behind the observed development. This paper presents empirical evidence on immigration flows into 27 OECD countries during a period...... of 11 years, 1990- 2000. Using a panel data model, we analyze the determinants of the migration flows. Our results indicate that traditional factors as cultural and linguistic distance are important. Network effects are also strong, but vary between source and destination countries. We do not find clear......Recent migration patterns show growing migration pressure and changing composition of immigrants in many Western countries. During the latest decade, an increasing proportion of the OECD immigrants have been from poor countries, where the educational level of the population is low. The migration...

  17. To stay or not to stay? Out-migration of immigrants from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2007-01-01

    A major portion of migration flows are temporary, ending with return migration to the home country or migration to a third country. However, the propensity to return differs according to migrants' countries of origin. This paper presents a discussion of the theoretical approaches to return...... migration and a brief survey of the actual flows in Denmark. We then present a panel data set of immigrants to Denmark covering the years 1986 - 1995 and run a number of logit models where return migration is related to individual background factors. Our research shows significant differences in decisions...... of return depending on country of origin, age at entry, education, and family ties. One of the most important determinants is found to be a migrant's success, or lack thereof, regarding labour market integration. This research suggests that policy instruments such as education, training, and temporary wage...

  18. Myanmar’s China Policy since 2011: Determinants and Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maung Aung Myoe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that a key factor in Myanmar’s new approach towards China since 2011 has been the Myanmar government’s foreign policy goal to reintegrate itself into the international community. The success of this approach is dependent on Myanmar’s rapprochement with the United States, which requires both domestic political reforms and a foreign policy realignment – a need to reduce Myanmar’s dependence on China, particularly in the context of US–China strategic competition in the Indo-Pacific region. In the context of China–Myanmar relations, the factors that have influenced Myanmar’s China policy since 2011 are growing anti-China sentiment in Myanmar, growing concern over China’s interference in Myanmar affairs, and the rapprochement with the United States. Myanmar’s China policy shift, in terms of direction, is by no means to seek to be independent of China, but rather for there to be an increased interdependence between the two countries.

  19. “What is the Spirit of this Gathering?” Indigenous Sport Policy-Makers and Self-Determination in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Braden P. Te Hiwi

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I examine how the process of Indigenous participation in policy-making pertaining to the development of federal sport policy in Canada is connected to Indigenous forms of self-determination. By conducting semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous sport policy-makers, I investigate how their respective thoughts, experiences, and actions shape their perspective on self-determination. My analysis shows that a focus on relationships was at the center of the interviewed Indig...

  20. Dateline Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…

  1. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  2. In-Migration of College Students to the State of New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Wonseon

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the determinants affecting the number of out-of-state students coming to New York colleges and universities. The analysis, based on 1986 New York migration data, provides evidence that student migrants' home state characteristics (education policies, test scores, per capita income, admission rate, age cohort size, geographic…

  3. 39: CONNECTING THE DOTS BETWEEN BEST EVIDENCES REGARDING SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF PATIENTS OUTCOMES AND HEALTH CARE POLICY MAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Pezeshki, Mohammad Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    Four out of 5 American primary care physicians do believe that addressing social needs of their patients are as important as addressing medical conditions of their patients. There are several researches showing that addressing social determinants of health improve the clinical outcome of the patients considerably. In this review we discuss how physician's evidence based advocacy and negotiation with policy makers may create opportunity for addressing social needs of the patients. The recent r...

  4. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author) [pt

  5. What Enables and Constrains the Inclusion of the Social Determinants of Health Inequities in Government Policy Agendas? A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Kay, Adrian; Baum, Fran; Strazdins, Lyndall; Mackean, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite decades of evidence gathering and calls for action, few countries have systematically attenuated health inequities (HI) through action on the social determinants of health (SDH). This is at least partly because doing so presents a significant political and policy challenge. This paper explores this challenge through a review of the empirical literature, asking: what factors have enabled and constrained the inclusion of the social determinants of health inequities (SDHI) in government policy agendas? Methods: A narrative review method was adopted involving three steps: first, drawing upon political science theories on agenda-setting, an integrated theoretical framework was developed to guide the review; second, a systematic search of scholarly databases for relevant literature; and third, qualitative analysis of the data and thematic synthesis of the results. Studies were included if they were empirical, met specified quality criteria, and identified factors that enabled or constrained the inclusion of the SDHI in government policy agendas. Results: A total of 48 studies were included in the final synthesis, with studies spanning a number of country-contexts and jurisdictional settings, and employing a diversity of theoretical frameworks. Influential factors included the ways in which the SDHI were framed in public, media and political discourse; emerging data and evidence describing health inequalities; limited supporting evidence and misalignment of proposed solutions with existing policy and institutional arrangements; institutionalised norms and ideologies (ie, belief systems) that are antithetical to a SDH approach including neoliberalism, the medicalisation of health and racism; civil society mobilization; leadership; and changes in government. Conclusion: A complex set of interrelated, context-dependent and dynamic factors influence the inclusion or neglect of the SDHI in government policy agendas. It is better to think about these factors

  6. Using research to determine support for a policy on family presence during resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basol, Roberta; Ohman, Kathleen; Simones, Joyce; Skillings, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    National guidelines and professional organizations have recommended allowing family presence during resuscitation and bedside invasive procedures. Studies found that only 5% of critical care units have written policies. Periodic requests by family members prompted the creation of a task force, including nurses, physicians, and respiratory therapists, to develop this controversial policy. Before development, a research study of healthcare personnel attitudes, concerns, and beliefs toward family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and bedside invasive procedures was done. This descriptive and correlational study showed support for family presence by critical care and emergency department nurses. Findings revealed both support and non-support for families to be present during resuscitative efforts. Providing family presence as an option offers an opportunity for reluctant healthcare team members to refuse their presence and an opportunity for those who support family presence to welcome the family.

  7. Determining the Optimal Inventory Management Policy for Naval Medical Center San Diego’s Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    budget. It is a very good tool for those hospitals that have a restrictive formulary. There is also the option to combine these to analyses into the...evaluating the inventory of a pharmacy and should be used in conjunction with a tool that takes non- monetary factors into consideration. The VEN analysis...OPTIMAL INVENTORY MANAGEMENT POLICY FOR NAVAL MEDICAL CENTER SAN DIEGO’S PHARMACY by Jason S. Galka December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Eddine

  8. French Policies towards the Chinese in Vietnam Les politiques françaises envers les Chinois du Viêt Nam : études des migrations et des réponses du colonisateur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramses Amer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the patterns of Chinese migration to and from Vietnam as well as the demographic changes relating to the Chinese residing in the country. It also outlines how the French authorities responded to the arrival of the Chinese and how they treated them. The focus is on the period of French control over the whole of Vietnam from 1883 to 1954. The French authorities did pay considerable attention to the Chinese migration to Vietnam. The policies of the French aimed at keeping a close surveillance on the Chinese. To administer the Chinese communities the French opted to maintain the system of indirect control introduced by the Vietnamese Emperors. During the period of French rule the Chinese population grew considerably. Chinese migration to and from Vietnam was influenced by the political evolution in China and by repercussions of international economic developments. Thus, the French authorities could influence the migrants when they arrived or departed, but the decision to migrate was primarily due to other factors.Cette étude examine les modèles de la migration chinoise à destination et en provenance du Viêt Nam de même que les changements démographiques concernant les Chinois résidant dans le pays. Elle précise également les réponses des autorités françaises à l’arrivée des Chinois et le traitement qui leur était réservé. Elle traite tout spécialement la période du contrôle français sur le Viêt Nam de 1883 à 1954. Car les autorités françaises ont porté un intérêt considérable à la migration des Chinois au Viêt Nam. La politique française consistait à surveiller de près les Chinois. Pour l’administration des communautés chinoises les Français ont choisi de conserver le système de contrôle indirect mis en place par les empereurs vietnamiens. La population chinoise connut une croissance considérable pendant la période française. La migration vers et depuis le Viêt Nam était influenc

  9. Current Migration Movements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zlatković Winter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available After a brief historical review of migrations in Europe, the paper focuses on current migration trends and their consequences. At the end of the 1950s, Western Europe began to recruit labour from several Mediterranean countries – Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia, and later from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey. Some countries, such as France, Great Britain and the Netherlands, recruited also workers from their former colonies. In 1970 Germany had the highest absolute number of foreigners, followed by France, and then Switzerland and Belgium. The total number of immigrants in Western Europe was twelve million. During the 1970s mass recruitment of foreign workers was abandoned, and only the arrival of their family members was permitted, which led to family reunification in the countries of employment. Europe closed its borders, with the result that clandestine migration increased. The year 1989 was a turning point in the history of international migrations. The political changes in Central and Eastern Europe brought about mass migration to the West, which culminated in the so-called “mass movement of 1989–1990”. The arrival of ethnic Germans in Germany, migration inside and outside of the territory of the former Soviet Union, an increase in the number of asylum seekers and displaced persons, due to armed conflicts, are – according to the author – the main traits of current migration. The main part of the paper discusses the causes and effects of this mass wave, as well as trends in labour migration, which is still present. The second part of the paper, after presenting a typology of migrations, deals with the complex processes that brought about the formation of new communities and led to the phenomenon of new ethnic minorities and to corresponding migration policies in Western European countries that had to address these issues.

  10. Exploring discourses of equity, social justice and social determinants in Australian health care policy and planning documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Janette; McGrath, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Australian National Health Reform agenda includes aims to reduce health disadvantages and provide equitable access. However, this reform will be implemented through state and territory governments, and as such will be built on existing conceptualisations of health as a social justice concept (core to understandings of social determinants). A selection of state and territory health policy documents were analysed within a critical discourse framework focussing on their use of terms relating to social determinants. Analysis revealed that the understandings of social justice concepts vary across Australia and are generally apolitical, belying core concerns inherent in a social determinants understanding. Such differentiation bears recognition by reformers seeking to implement national consistency. This paper also considers how health professionals might become aware of their own cultural enmeshment in neo-liberal frameworks of understanding, recognising a social determinants framework as counter-cultural and hence requiring radical thinking.

  11. Migration control, documentation, and state transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.; Segatti, A.; Landau, L.B.

    2011-01-01

    Examines undocumented migration, one of the main outcomes of the transition from formal labor migration to a mixed system, gauges the long-term impacts of the bureaucratic stasis on governance in South Africa, and explores how an ongoing state of crisis in this policy sphere is shaping the everyday

  12. The OECD and International Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The document focuses on various aspects of the social, economic, and policy implications of migration in Europe based on the actions undertaken by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). A discussion of issues which may remedy the disequilibrium between the relative portions of the factors of production is presented: (1)…

  13. [International migration: backgrounds and developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, J

    1997-03-01

    "Net migration [in the Netherlands] has fluctuated strongly during the past decades. In 1983 net migration (including net administrative corrections) was almost zero. In the early 1990s net migration rose to almost 50 thousand per year. In 1994 net migration dropped sharply to a level of 20 thousand, followed by a further decrease in 1995. In 1996 there was a moderate increase. One cause of the strong decline in immigration in the mid-1990s may be the increasingly strict immigration policy. Another explanation of fluctuations in immigration is the business cycle. A regression analysis for the period 1973-1995 shows that there is a negative relationship between immigration of non-Dutch nationals and the unemployment rate in the Netherlands and a positive relationship between emigration and the unemployment rate." (EXCERPT)

  14. The Healthy Immigrant Effect on Mental Health: Determinants and Implications for Mental Health Policy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Currais, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Since the mid-1990s, Spain has started to receive a great number of migrant populations. The migration process can have a significantly negative impact on mental health of immigrant population and, consequently, generate implications for the delivery of mental health services. The aim of this article is to provide empirical evidence to demonstrate that the mental health of immigrants in Spain deteriorates the longer they are resident in the country. An empirical approach to this relationship is carried out with data from the National Survey of Health of Spain 2011-2012 and poisson and negative binomial models. Results show that immigrants who reside Spain appear to be in a better state of mental health than that observed for the national population. Studying health disparities in the foreign population and its evolution are relevant to ensure the population's access to health services and care. The need for further research is especially true in the case of the immigrant population's mental health in Spain because there is scant evidence available on their situation.

  15. Determination of migration speed and the partition ratios of 137 Cs in the soils of the future waste repository in Abadia de Goias, GO, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose Carlos Alves

    1996-01-01

    The dispersion of a 51 TBq 137 Cs source to the environment in Goiania city, has originated approximately 3500 m 3 of radioactive waste. In order to segregate such waste in a definite form, a repository is being built in Abadia de Goias, GO near the site where it has been temporarily stored. This study had the following objectives: the determination of the 137 Cs partition rate (K D ) and the estimate of its migration velocity in soil samples from the site where the repository is being built. The determination of 137 Cs K D was carried out by using two methods: 'batch method' and 'in-situ' method. In relation to the 'batch method'; 6 soil profiles cut into sections according to its pedologic horizons and 13 surface soil samples were collected, whereas for the 'in-situ' method 6 soil profiles with 28 cm depth were collected and each profile has been cut into 14 soil sections of a 1-3 cm range. Studies were carried out by using the 'batch method' to relate the influence from v/m and from shaking in K D determination and also studies about 137 Cs adsorption reversibility in soil, time necessary for the equilibrium of 137 Cs between water/soil phases to be reached and K D correlation with pedological parameters (pH values in water and clay, silt and organic material percent concentration, electrical conductivity of solution and the cation exchange - Ca +2 , Mg +2 , K +2 , Na + , Al +3 , H + ). It has been noticed that in work conditions, K D has increased according to the rate increase v/m and the use of agitation in water/soil phases had no influence in K D determination. The absorbed 137 Cs desorption process by water has shown to be slow but continued. Nevertheless, 137 Cs cationic exchange for NH 4 + has presented two steps: the first one very fast where approximately 50% of 137 Cs adsorbed has been exchanged for NH 4 + ions in just two days and the second one slow. Results indicate that 137 Cs adsorption process in this kind of soil may be considered reversible

  16. Trade and migration: the case of NAFTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P L

    1993-01-01

    "This article provides background information on NAFTA [the North American Free Trade Agreement], reviews data on its economic effects, and summarizes studies and projections of NAFTA's likely effects on Mexico-to-U.S. migration. Migration factors (demand-pull, supply-push, and networks) are examined to determine whether NAFTA's effect on economic development particularly in the border areas will accelerate or retard migration. The conclusion is that NAFTA is likely to produce a temporary migration hump, slightly raising already high migration levels in the 1990s, but reducing the volume of Mexico-to-U.S. migration that would otherwise occur over subsequent decades." excerpt

  17. MicroRNA-101 Inhibits Growth, Proliferation and Migration and Induces Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Cells by Targeting Sex-Determining Region Y-Box 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjie Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs play a critical role in breast cancer (BC progression. microRNA-101 (miR-101 has been considered a tumor suppressive miRNA in different cancer types. This study aimed to investigate miR-101 expression in BC tissues and to investigate its roles in BC progression that are mediated by Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2, a critical oncogene in various cancers. Methods: qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect miR-101 and SOX2 expression in BC tissues and paired normal tissues or BC cell lines. MTT, transwell migration, wound healing, colony formation, flow cytometric and xenograft assays were performed to determine the influence of miR-101 and SOX2 on the malignant behaviors of BC cells in vitro and in vivo. Results: miR-101 was significantly downregulated in BC tissues and cell lines. miR-101 overexpression inhibited the malignant behaviors of BC cells, both in vitro and in vivo. miR-101 downregulation had the converse effect. A miR-101 binding site was identified by luciferase reporter assay in the 3’UTR of SOX2. SOX2 was upregulated in BC tissues and cell lines, and its upregulation was associated with lymph node metastasis, pathological grade and TNM classification. SOX2 knockdown mimicked the effects of miR-101 overexpression on the malignant behaviors of BC cells, while SOX2 overexpression mitigated the miR-101-induced inhibition of these effects. Conclusions: Our study revealed that miR-101 plays a critical role in suppressing tumor progression by directly targeting SOX2.

  18. The Determinants of won/dollar Exchange Rate Volatility and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Shick Chung

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This thesis analyzed the feature and different points of the changing of the exchange rate of Korea won against US dollar, then discussed the direction of the completion of Korea exchange rate system. The prediction result of the model GARCH which vividly shows the phenomenon of the auto-regression of the exchange rate has indicated the level of the exchange rate yesterday could explain the circumstance of the change of exchange rate today. Meanwhile, the policy of the US exchange rate will affect the exchange rate of Korea won against US dollar and the volatility of foreign exchange rate. In the present situation of Korean economy in which the liberalization of capital and the independence of the central bank has been established, the choosing range of the exchange system could only be completely changeable exchange rate system or exchange rate system of multilateral arrangement like Europe. However, in terms of the condition of the world economy, the introduction of the latter system is too early. There is an idea that under the changeable exchange rate system which is the only choice, it is the right time to activate the main body of private economy, the financial derivatives market in which the exchange risk could be trade-off. Government should work on and create a policy that would be able to satisfy the expectations of the market participants.

  19. Probabilistic Decision Tools for Determining Impacts of Agricultural Development Policy on Household Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cory W.; Lanzanova, Denis; Muchiri, Caroline; Shepherd, Keith D.; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Krawinkel, Michael; Tabuti, John R. S.; Luedeling, Eike

    2018-03-01

    Governments around the world have agreed to end hunger and food insecurity and to improve global nutrition, largely through changes to agriculture and food systems. However, they are faced with a lot of uncertainty when making policy decisions, since any agricultural changes will influence social and biophysical systems, which could yield either positive or negative nutrition outcomes. We outline a holistic probability modeling approach with Bayesian Network (BN) models for nutritional impacts resulting from agricultural development policy. The approach includes the elicitation of expert knowledge for impact model development, including sensitivity analysis and value of information calculations. It aims at a generalizable methodology that can be applied in a wide range of contexts. To showcase this approach, we develop an impact model of Vision 2040, Uganda's development strategy, which, among other objectives, seeks to transform the country's agricultural landscape from traditional systems to large-scale commercial agriculture. Model results suggest that Vision 2040 is likely to have negative outcomes for the rural livelihoods it intends to support; it may have no appreciable influence on household hunger but, by influencing preferences for and access to quality nutritional foods, may increase the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency. The results highlight the trade-offs that must be negotiated when making decisions regarding agriculture for nutrition, and the capacity of BNs to make these trade-offs explicit. The work illustrates the value of BNs for supporting evidence-based agricultural development decisions.

  20. Multilateral, regional, and national determinants of policy adoption: the case of HIV/AIDS legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benjamin Y

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the global legislative response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic with a particular focus on how policies were diffused internationally or regionally, or facilitated internally. This article uses event history analysis combined with multinomial logit regression to model the legislative response of 133 countries. First, the results demonstrate that the WHO positively influenced the likelihood of a legislative response. Second, the article demonstrates that development bank aid helped to spur earlier legislative action. Third, the results demonstrate that developed countries acted earlier than developing countries. And finally, the onset and severity of the HIV/AIDS epidemic was a significant influence on the legislative response. Multilateral organizations have a positive influence in global policy diffusion through informational advocacy, technical assistance, and financial aid. It is also clear that internal stressors play key roles in legislative action seen clearly through earlier action being taken in countries where the shock of the onset of HIV/AIDS occurred earlier and earlier responses taken where the epidemic was more severe.

  1. The core determinants of health expenditure in the African context: some econometric evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Vasudeva N R; Okunade, Albert A

    2009-06-01

    This paper, using cross-sectional data from 44 (83% of all) African countries for year 2001, presents econometric model estimates linking real per-capita health expenditure (HEXP) to a host of economic and non-economic factors. The empirical results of OLS and robust LAE estimators indicate that real per-capita GDP (PRGDP) and real per-capita foreign aid (FAID) resources are both core and statistically significant correlates of HEXP. Our empirical results suggest that health care in the African context is technically, a necessity rather than a luxury good (for the OECD countries). This suggests that the goal of health system in Africa is primarily 'physiological' or 'curative' rather than 'caring' or 'pampering'. The positive association of HEXP with FAID hints that external resource inflows targeting health could be instrumental for spurring economic progress in good policy environments. Most African countries until the late 1990s experienced economic and political instability, and faced stringent structural adjustment mandates of the major international financial institution lenders for economic development. Therefore, our finding a positive effect of FAID on HEXP could suggest that external resource inflows softened some of the macroeconomic fiscal deficit impacts on HEXP in the 2000s. Policy implications of country-specific elasticity estimates are given.

  2. American Indian Migration and Economic Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefur, Gary D.

    1986-01-01

    Explores the determinants of interstate migration and the impact of migration on labor force participation for American Indians, in comparison to White and intermarried Indian/White couples. Interstate migration was much lower for endogenous American Indian couples, but its effect on labor force participation was the same for all couples. (ETS)

  3. Determinants of corporate dividend payment policies: A case of the banking industry in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Kasozi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dividends are of strategic importance to organisations because they form the nexus of organisations’ capital structures and have an important bearing on firm value. Consequently, this study sought to investigate factors affecting dividend policy formulations and practices of South African banks by assessing the application of ex ante dividend theory literature on these firms. Our approach followed a mixed-methods design of analysis with a behavioural stand point of eliciting responses from banking experts through a survey. Findings indicate that factors relating to financial performance, investor needs and preferences and regulatory considerations are crucial for dividend decisions among banks. Overall, findings cast doubt on signalling, clientele and catering hypotheses, yet find favourable support for agency and lifecycle theories

  4. What Enables and Constrains the Inclusion of the Social Determinants of Health Inequities in Government Policy Agendas? A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Baker

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite decades of evidence gathering and calls for action, few countries have systematically attenuated health inequities (HI through action on the social determinants of health (SDH. This is at least partly because doing so presents a significant political and policy challenge. This paper explores this challenge through a review of the empirical literature, asking: what factors have enabled and constrained the inclusion of the social determinants of health inequities (SDHI in government policy agendas? Methods A narrative review method was adopted involving three steps: first, drawing upon political science theories on agenda-setting, an integrated theoretical framework was developed to guide the review; second, a systematic search of scholarly databases for relevant literature; and third, qualitative analysis of the data and thematic synthesis of the results. Studies were included if they were empirical, met specified quality criteria, and identified factors that enabled or constrained the inclusion of the SDHI in government policy agendas. Results A total of 48 studies were included in the final synthesis, with studies spanning a number of country-contexts and jurisdictional settings, and employing a diversity of theoretical frameworks. Influential factors included the ways in which the SDHI were framed in public, media and political discourse; emerging data and evidence describing health inequalities; limited supporting evidence and misalignment of proposed solutions with existing policy and institutional arrangements; institutionalised norms and ideologies (ie, belief systems that are antithetical to a SDH approach including neoliberalism, the medicalisation of health and racism; civil society mobilization; leadership; and changes in government. Conclusion A complex set of interrelated, context-dependent and dynamic factors influence the inclusion or neglect of the SDHI in government policy agendas. It is better to think about

  5. What Enables and Constrains the Inclusion of the Social Determinants of Health Inequities in Government Policy Agendas? A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Kay, Adrian; Baum, Fran; Strazdins, Lyndall; Mackean, Tamara

    2017-11-11

    Despite decades of evidence gathering and calls for action, few countries have systematically attenuated health inequities (HI) through action on the social determinants of health (SDH). This is at least partly because doing so presents a significant political and policy challenge. This paper explores this challenge through a review of the empirical literature, asking: what factors have enabled and constrained the inclusion of the social determinants of health inequities (SDHI) in government policy agendas? A narrative review method was adopted involving three steps: first, drawing upon political science theories on agenda-setting, an integrated theoretical framework was developed to guide the review; second, a systematic search of scholarly databases for relevant literature; and third, qualitative analysis of the data and thematic synthesis of the results. Studies were included if they were empirical, met specified quality criteria, and identified factors that enabled or constrained the inclusion of the SDHI in government policy agendas. A total of 48 studies were included in the final synthesis, with studies spanning a number of country-contexts and jurisdictional settings, and employing a diversity of theoretical frameworks. Influential factors included the ways in which the SDHI were framed in public, media and political discourse; emerging data and evidence describing health inequalities; limited supporting evidence and misalignment of proposed solutions with existing policy and institutional arrangements; institutionalised norms and ideologies (ie, belief systems) that are antithetical to a SDH approach including neoliberalism, the medicalisation of health and racism; civil society mobilization; leadership; and changes in government. A complex set of interrelated, context-dependent and dynamic factors influence the inclusion or neglect of the SDHI in government policy agendas. It is better to think about these factors as increasing (or decreasing) the

  6. Analysis of metal ions migration to determine electro-osmotic flow for the in-situ cleanup of a tar-contaminated site

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2012-03-01

    An electro-osmosis experiment was set up on a former asphalt factory site, which is currently contaminated by tar, in Olst, the Netherlands. The main goal of this experiment was to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a contaminated clay layer by applying an electric gradient. But before calculating PAH removal, the direction and intensity of electro-osmosis have to be estimated. In field situations, tracers are used to get information about the water flow. In the present study, the inorganic elements concentration oscillations during electro-osmosis application are used as tracers. The experiment was set up in a clay layer, with the configuration 1m×1m×0.3m, at a depth of 4m below soil surface. Al, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S, Si, Ti and Zn concentrations were determined in 28 measurements and were performed during the experimental period of 159days. Then they were used in a first evaluation where auto and cross-correlations were analyzed to aid in the geochemical interpretation and select the most conservative elements. The second part of this study is devoted to estimate the migration of water based on the concentrations development of Cl - at the anode and Na + at the cathode. Electro-osmotic flow was estimated to be intense (2.9 -10 -9-2.18 -10 -8m -s -1) during the first 10 to 50days of experiment and to cease after this period. © 2012.

  7. Evaluation of peak overlap in migration-time distributions determined by organelle capillary electrophoresis: Type-II error analogy based on statistical-overlap theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe M; Arriaga, Edgar A

    2009-08-28

    Organelles commonly are separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser-induced-fluorescence detection. Usually, it is assumed that peaks observed in the CE originate from single organelles, with negligible occurrence of peak overlap. Under this assumption, migration-time and mobility distributions are obtained by partitioning the CE into different regions and counting the number of observed peaks in each region. In this paper, criteria based on statistical-overlap theory (SOT) are developed to test the assumption of negligible peak overlap and to predict conditions for its validity. For regions of the CE having constant peak density, the numbers of peaks (i.e., intensity profiles of single organelles) and observed peaks (i.e., maxima) are modeled by probability distributions. For minor peak overlap, the distributions partially merge, and their mergence is described by an analogy to the Type-II error of hypothesis testing. Criteria are developed for the amount of peak overlap, at which the number of observed peaks has an 85% or 90% probability of lying within the 95% confidence interval of the number of peaks of single organelles. For this or smaller amounts of peak overlap, the number of observed peaks is a good approximation to the number of peaks. A simple procedure is developed for evaluating peak overlap, requiring determination of only the peak standard deviation, the duration of the region occupied by peaks, and the number of observed peaks in the region. The procedure can be applied independently to each region of the partitioned CE. The procedure is applied to a mitochondrial CE.

  8. Global environmental ratings as an instrument of environmental policies: what factors determine the rank of Russia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Nina; Arshinova, Marina; Milanova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Systems of global environmental rankings have emerged as a result of the escalating need for revealing the trends of ecological development for the world and for certain countries and regions. Both the environmental indicators and indexes and the ratings made on their basis are important for the assessment and forecast of the ecological situation in order to tackle the global and regional problems of sustainable development and help to translate the research findings into policy developments. Data sources for the global environmental ratings are most often the statistical information accumulated in databases of the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, FAO, WHO, etc.) These data are highly reliable and well-comparable that makes the ratings very objective. There are also good examples of using data of sociological polls, information from social networks, etc. The global environmental ratings are produced by the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Program), non-governmental associations (WWF, Climate Action Network Europe (CAN-E), Germanwatch Nord-Süd-Initiative, Friends of the Earth, World Development Movement), research structures (scientific centers of the Yale and Colombian universities, the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory, the New Economic Foundation), and also individual experts, news agencies, etc. Thematic (sectoral) ratings cover various spheres from availability of resources and anthropogenic impact on environment components to nature protection policies and perception of environmental problems. The environmental indicators cover all parameters important for understanding the current ecological situation and the trajectories of its development (the DPSIR model, i.e. drivers, pressures, state, impact and response). Complex (integral) ratings are based on environmental indexes which are combined measurement tools using a complex of aggregated indicators based on a wide range of

  9. International migration desires related to subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ruohong; Esipova, Neli; Oppenheimer, Michael; Feng, Shuaizhang

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the determinants of international migration has largely focused on objective factors, such as income. We instead use subjective well-being (SWB) to explain international migration desires, an expressed willingness to migrate. We find that individuals with higher SWB have lower international migration desires. At the individual level, the SWB-migration relationship appears to be more robust than the income-migration relationship. At the country level, national average SWB ...

  10. Wages, Welfare Benefits and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennan, John; Walker, James R

    2010-05-01

    Differences in economic opportunities give rise to strong migration incentives, across regions within countries, and across countries. In this paper we focus on responses to differences in welfare benefits across States. We apply the model developed in Kennan and Walker (2008), which emphasizes that migration decisions are often reversed, and that many alternative locations must be considered. We model individual decisions to migrate as a job search problem. A worker starts the life-cycle in some home location and must determine the optimal sequence of moves before settling down. The model is sparsely parameterized. We estimate the model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Our main finding is that income differences do help explain the migration decisions of young welfare-eligible women, but large differences in benefit levels provide surprisingly weak migration incentives.

  11. Measuring International Migration in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yüksel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International migration significantly affects economic, social, cultural, and political factors of the country. Owing to this situation, it can be said that the reasons of international migration should be analyzed in order to control this problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the influencing factors of international migration in Azerbaijan. In this scope, annual data of 11 explanatory variables for the period of 1995–2015 was analyzed via Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS method. According to the results of this analysis, it was identified that people prefer to move other countries in case of high unemployment rates. In addition, the results of the study show that population growth and high mortality rate increases the migration level. While considering these results, it was recommended that Azerbaijan should focus on these aspects to control international migration problem.

  12. Determining optimal planning target volume and image guidance policy for post-prostatectomy intensity modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Linda J; Cox, Jennifer; Eade, Thomas; Rinks, Marianne; Herschtal, Alan; Kneebone, Andrew

    2015-07-26

    There is limited information available on the optimal Planning Target Volume (PTV) expansions and image guidance for post-prostatectomy intensity modulated radiotherapy (PP-IMRT). As the prostate bed does not move in a uniform manner, there is a rationale for anisotropic PTV margins with matching to soft tissue. The aim of this study is to find the combination of PTV expansion and image guidance policy for PP-IMRT that provides the best balance of target coverage whilst minimising dose to the organs at risk. The Cone Beam CT (CBCT) images (n = 377) of 40 patients who received PP-IMRT with daily online alignment to bony anatomy (BA) were reviewed. Six different PTV expansions were assessed: 3 published PTV expansions (0.5 cm uniform, 1 cm uniform, and 1 + 0.5 cm posterior) and 3 further anisotropic PTV expansions (Northern Sydney Cancer Centre (NSCC), van Herk, and smaller anisotropic). Each was assessed for size, bladder and rectum coverage and geographic miss. Each CBCT was rematched using a superior soft tissue (SST) and averaged soft tissue (AST) match. Potential geographic miss was assessed using all PTV expansions except the van Herk margin. The 0.5 cm uniform expansion yielded the smallest PTV (median volume = 222.3 cc) and the 1 cm uniform expansion yielded the largest (361.7 cc). The Van Herk expansion includes the largest amount of bladder (28.0 %) and rectum (36.0 %) and the 0.5 cm uniform expansion the smallest (17.1 % bladder; 10.2 % rectum). The van Herk PTV expansion had the least geographic miss with BA matching (4.2 %) and the 0.5 cm uniform margin (28.4 %) the greatest. BA matching resulted in the highest geographic miss rate for all PTVs, followed by SST matching and AST matching. Changing from BA to an AST match decreases potential geographic miss by half to two thirds, depending on the PTV expansion, to image guidance policy for PP-IMRT is daily average soft tissue matching using CBCT scans with a small anisotropic PTV expansion of 0

  13. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Alexia; Oulami, Halima; Zekraoui, Wahiba; Hikmat, Halima; Temmerman, Marleen; Leye, Els

    2013-10-16

    In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO's and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and policy framework should go hand in hand

  14. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Methods A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO’s and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Results Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. Conclusion The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and

  15. Strategic Choice Analysis by Expert Panels for Migration Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourtit, K.; Nijkamp, P.

    2011-01-01

    International migration is a source of policy and research interest in many countries. This paper provides a review of experiences and findings from migration impact assessment worldwide. Various findings are briefly summarised in the context of a systematic migration SWOT analysis for five distinct

  16. The Trends in International Migration of Human Resources under Conditions of Geo-Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymanska Kateryna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the influence of geo-economic transformations on the trends in international migration of human resources as an element of the resource potential of countries and regions. The current state of geo-economic transformations is analyzed, and their influence on the processes of international migration of human resources is revealed. The relevance of analyzing international movement of human resources, not labor ones, in building the geo-economic strategy of a country or a regional grouping is justified. The connection between the international migration of human resources and the trends in development of individual countries and regions (oil exporting countries, newly industrialized countries and least developed agrarian countries is determined, the general patterns of migration flows in these countries are described. Furthermore, the topical issues in studying international migration of human resources in the context of the directions of geo-economics identified by scientists are formulated. It is determined that the regional migration policy should contribute to maximizing the benefits of migration of human resources for the development of the region and the use of immigrants in the countries of the region as an economic resource that becomes strategically important under conditions of geo-economic transformations.

  17. A model based on stochastic dynamic programming for determining China's optimal strategic petroleum reserve policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaobing; Fan Ying; Wei Yiming

    2009-01-01

    China's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is currently being prepared. But how large the optimal stockpile size for China should be, what the best acquisition strategies are, how to release the reserve if a disruption occurs, and other related issues still need to be studied in detail. In this paper, we develop a stochastic dynamic programming model based on a total potential cost function of establishing SPRs to evaluate the optimal SPR policy for China. Using this model, empirical results are presented for the optimal size of China's SPR and the best acquisition and drawdown strategies for a few specific cases. The results show that with comprehensive consideration, the optimal SPR size for China is around 320 million barrels. This size is equivalent to about 90 days of net oil import amount in 2006 and should be reached in the year 2017, three years earlier than the national goal, which implies that the need for China to fill the SPR is probably more pressing; the best stockpile release action in a disruption is related to the disruption levels and expected continuation probabilities. The information provided by the results will be useful for decision makers.

  18. Political activism of the migrant civil society and local government: migration public policy in San Francisco / Activismo político de la sociedad civil migrante y gobierno local: la política pública migratoria en San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Virginia Suárez Ávila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article stems from the analysis of historical and ethnographic data: (1 political interactions between civil society and local and state governments concerning the field of migration public policy in the city of San Francisco, California; (2 based on the governmental and societal actors that are interrelated in a specific field of immigration policy; (3 that express cultural-political projects for local development of public policy in immigration matters; (4 which express the trajectories and codes of action of the social and political groups which are interrelated in the process, and 5 are studied through the analysis of socio-state interfaces.

  19. Family reunification: policies and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, G

    1995-01-01

    "International standards provide for protection of the family as the fundamental unit of society. However, a consequent right to family reunification for migrants is not sanctioned and continues to be resisted. This article reviews the formulation of the possibility for family reunification as provided for in international and regional standards and by migration policies. It argues that family separation, if inherent in some forms of migration, should not be institutionalized by migration policies and that state sovereignty is limited when dealing with human rights. More specifically it argues that labor migration, as currently developing in Asia, will require appropriate family reunification policies, because it will evolve into some form of settlement." excerpt

  20. State and legal regulation of refugees’ and asylum seekers’ migration in EU as institutional basis of management of international migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Ievdokymov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the analysis of World Bank data on the dynamics of migration indicators in Europe and Fragile State Index data the authors determine the groups of EU countries in geo-economic risk, which forms the pushing factors in the refugee flow formation. The geographic structure of refugees’ migratory flows to the EU is analyzed and the migration corridor dynamics is determined, in particular, it is found out that the overwhelming majority of refugees arrive to the EU through the Central and Eastern Mediterranean channels. In addition, It is determined that strengthening military and political instability in Africa and the Middle East, the tight policies and institutional mechanisms for crossing the EU's borders cause the increased flows of illegal migrants entering the EU in dangerous ways, in particular through the Mediterranean Sea, where a significant number of such persons, especially women and children, die. In addition, EU countries are structured by their migration policies (views on immigration, using of quantitative restrictions on immigration including highly skilled workers. As a result of the legal document study, the authors establish the system of documents identifying the institutional frameworks for the refugees’ and asylum seekers’ migratory flow management.

  1. Mediterranean Migrations: Regionalisms Versus Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baldwin-Eduards

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the claim of globalisation as a cause ofimmigration into Southern Europe and, on an empirical basis, identifies regionalisation as being the primary issue, along with networked migratory patterns. However, the changing patterns of immigration do present challenges to both state and society. It is argued here that recent policy responses in Portugal, Italy and Spain have been inconsistent and irrational – reflecting more the ‘securitisation’ of migration than European reality. Earlier policy innovations are identified, by country and date: most of these have now been abandoned. It is suggested that all of Southern Europe has converged onto a statist, restrictionist model of immigration control that was formerly held only by Greece. The principal characteristics of this model are outlined, along with a migration flowchart and indicative data for migrant flows and sub-flows in Italy and Spain. In the final section, I try to show that the needs of the economy cannot be predicted, immigration cannot becontrolled in the manner currently being enforced across Southern Europe, and attempts to do so will damage rather than improve economic productivity and growth. The concept of an accomodating immigration policy is advanced, whereby the state tries to manage the needs of both employers and potential migrants. Six guidelines for policy development are suggested – most of which have alreadybeen successfully carried out in the European Union. These are the following: migration in order to find a job; circular cross-border migration; EU level negotiation of readmission agreements; the need for a variety of migration-for-employment schemes; legal residence should not depend upon continuity of employment; and discreet legalisation will still be needed in Southern Europe.

  2. International nurse migration: lessons from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Barbara L; Sochalski, Julie

    2007-02-01

    Developed countries facing nursing shortages have increasingly turned to aggressive foreign nurse recruitment, primarily from developing nations, to offset their lagging domestic nurse supplies and meet growing health care demands. Few donor nations are prepared to manage the loss of their nurse workforce to migration. The sole country with an explicit nurse export policy and the world's leading donor of nurse labor - the Philippines - is itself facing serious provider maldistribution and countrywide health disparities. Examining the historical roots of Philippines nurse migration provides lessons from which other nurse exporting countries may learn. The authors discuss factors that have predicated nurse migration and policies that have eased the way. Furthermore, the authors analyze how various stakeholders influence migratory patterns, the implications of migration for nurses and the public in their care, and the challenges that future social policy and political systems face in addressing global health issues engendered by unfettered recruitment of nurses and other health workers.

  3. Migration pathways in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronow, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    This study looked at diffusive migration through three types of deformation; the projectile pathways, hydraulic fractures of the sediments and faults, and was divided into three experimental areas: autoradiography, the determination of diffusion coefficients and electron microscopy of model projectile pathways in clay. For the autoradiography, unstressed samples were exposed to two separate isotopes, Pm-147 (a possible model for Am behaviour) and the poorly sorbed iodide-125. The results indicated that there was no enhanced migration through deformed kaolin samples nor through fractured Great Meteor East (GME) sediment, although some was evident through the projectile pathways in GME and possibly through the GME sheared samples. The scanning electron microscopy of projectile pathways in clay showed that emplacement of a projectile appeared to have no effect on the orientation of particles at distances greater than two projectile radii from the centre of a projectile pathway. It showed that the particles were not simply aligned with the direction of motion of the projectile but that, the closer to the surface of a particular pathway, the closer the particles lay to their original orientation. This finding was of interest from two points of view: i) the ease of migration of a pollutant along the pathway, and ii) possible mechanisms of hole closure. It was concluded that, provided that there is no advective migration, the transport of radionuclides through sediments containing these defects would not be significantly more rapid than in undeformed sediments. (author)

  4. Voluntary income redistribution with migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R

    1992-01-01

    This study is concerned with the welfare magnet problem, in which disparities in transfer policies across states are believed to encourage recipient and possibly resource migration. "This study clarifies the terms of the debate by showing how the value of redistributing local resources depends not only on the value of income to each group, but also on the cost of the transfer in erosion of the resource base through migration and through the general equilibrium effects of such activity on local prices." The geographical focus is on the United States. excerpt

  5. 10 CFR 26.185 - Determining a fitness-for-duty policy violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... medical explanation for the presence of the drugs or drug metabolites in the specimen, and a clinical... that there is no legitimate medical explanation for the presence of the drug(s) or drug metabolite(s... concentration. The MRO may not determine that the consumption of food products is a legitimate medical...

  6. A model for determining condition-based maintenance policies for deteriorating multi-component systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez, J.A.M.; Wijnmalen, D.J.D.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss a method to determine strategies for preventive maintenance of systems consisting of gradually deteriorating components. A model has been developed to compute not only the range of conditions inducing a repair action, but also inspection moments based on the last known condition value so

  7. Migration and European integration of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on migration in the context of European integration which implies, on the one hand, internal integration, integration within the EU and, on the other hand, the enlargement process related to the countries that have applied to join the EU. The aim is to determine in which way the migration, especially refugee crisis in 2015, had influence on the EU, as a supranational political community, and what was the impact on Serbia which is in the process of integration into the European Union. Migrant crisis has shown that the EU has to confront many different issues including several issues of great importance for its survival and strengthening: how to influence on global processes to a greater extent instead of dealing with the consequences of the global politics of others; how to preserve and keep the values that the EU itself is founded and the values on which should be built upon further construction of the political community and, finally, weather the EU can be transformed in the direction of the United European States, in both the functional and in terms of values, or the EU will move towards deepening of Europe of concentric circles. Faced with extremely complex migration situation, Serbia does not have the appropriate institutional and regulatory framework, nor a political response to a series of complex issues in the area of migration and migration-related issues, such as asylum system, irregular migration, sustainable return of our citizens asylum seekers in EU member states, implementation of the agreement on readmission, the departure of highly educated - brain drain, migration and development, the fight against human trafficking (protection of victims, prevention, criminal prosecution of traffickers, and smuggling of migrants, issues of border management, demarcation and boundary determination (as well as the agreement that should be concluded. Some of these problems migrant crisis has made visible by encouraging coping

  8. Laboratory determination of migration of Eu(III) in compacted bentonite–sand mixtures as buffer/backfill material for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Lang; Zhang, Huyuan; Yan, Ming; Chen, Hang; Zhang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    For the safety assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the migration of Eu(III) through compacted bentonite–sand mixtures was measured under expected repository conditions. Under the evaluated conditions, advection and dispersion is the dominant migration mechanism. The role of sorption on the retardation of migration was also evaluated. The hydraulic conductivities of compacted bentonite–sand mixtures were K=2.07×10 −10 –5.23×10 −10 cm/s, The sorption and diffusion of Eu(III) were examined using a flexible wall permeameter for a solute concentration of 2.0×10 −5 mol/l. The effective diffusion coefficients and apparent diffusion coefficients of Eu(III) in compacted bentonite–sand mixtures were in the range of 1.62×10 –12 –4.87×10 –12 m 2 /s, 1.44×10 –14 –9.41×10 –14 m 2 /s, respectively, which has a very important significance to forecast the relationship between migration length of Eu(III) in buffer/backfill material and time and provide a reference for the design of buffer/backfill material for HLW disposal in China. - Highlights: • The migration progress of Eu(III) in compacted bentonite–sand mixtures was researched. • The hydraulic conductivity of cominpacted bentonite–sand mixtures was measured. • The migration length of Eu(III) in buffer/backfill material after a certain period of time was forecasted

  9. Immigration Policy and Interethnic Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sadilek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of migration is gaining in importance throughout the world and involves the appropriate policy compatible with the contemporary state of society. The article offers the insight into migration policies in Great Britain, France, Germany and Russia and provides their comparative analysis.

  10. DETERMINING TACTICAL OPERATIONAL PLANNING POLICIES FOR AN AUTO CARRIER – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Du Plessis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study was done to assist a local auto carrier company with tactical operational planning. The objective of the planning process is to maximise the number of vehicles delivered while being on time and adhering to staff and maintenance schedule constraints.

    We investigated the feasibility of allowing part of the fleet to roam the closed spatial network, as opposed to the traditional assignment of the complete fleet to fixed routes. We developed decision-making rules for roaming and fixed-to-route auto carriers, and evaluated the quality of these proposed rules, in combination with different fleet compositions, using discrete event simulation and four performance measures.

    We found that the auto carrier company should adopt a tactical operations policy where at least 50% of the fleet is allowed to roam, while roaming auto carriers pick vehicles to transport according to specific rules.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie is gedoen om ’n plaaslike motorvervoer-onderneming te help met taktiese bedryfsbeplanning. Die doelwit van die beplanningsproses is om die aantal voertuie wat betyds afgelewer word te maksimeer met inagneming van personeel- en instandhoudingbeperkings. Ons het die moontlikheid dat ’n deel van die vragmotorvloot swerwend in die geslote ruimtelike roete-network moet opereer, ondersoek. Dit is in teenstelling met die tradisionele vaste toedeling van vragmotors aan roetes. Besluitnemingreëls vir swerwende en vaste-roete vragmotors is ontwikkel, en die gehalte van die reëls is met diskrete simulasie en vier prestasiemaatstawwe evalueer.

    Ons het bevind dat die vervoeronderneming ’n bedryfsbeleid behoort te aanvaar wat toelaat dat ten minste 50% van die vloot swerf, terwyl hierdie swerwende vragmotors voertuie volgens spesifieke reëls by oplaaipunte moet kies.

  11. Migration in Asia-Europe Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn

    2010-01-01

    There is a remarkable difference between viewing migration as a 'social integration' issue, on the one hand, and migration as a 'social relation'. The idea of ‘social integration’ has unrealistic assumptions that see migration as a one-way process, that societies and human relations are static......, and that migrants are mechanical. Policies that are founded on unrealistic assumptions are most likely to generate tensions, conflicts, and contradictions. For a migration process to succeed in forging social harmony and development, it is therefore of decisive and crucial importance to regard migration...... as a ‘social relation’. This is simply because successful migration has to be a harmonious synergy between the migrants (and also the sending countries where they come from) and the receiving society (and its people). As indicated, migrants enter into the receiving society not merely as a passive commodity...

  12. Expectations, gender, and norms in migration decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Jong, Gordon F

    2000-01-01

    This paper argues that expectations - the process of evaluating the chances for future attainment of valued goals in the home community (stay decision) vs. alternative locations (move decision) - along with family norms about migration are major predictors of intention to move, which in turn is a proximate determinant of migration behaviour. Utilizing longitudinal data from the 1992 and 1994 waves of the Thailand National Migration Survey, logistic regression models show that a strikingly different set of expectations, household demographic indicators, and migrant capital factors were significant determinants of migration intentions for men and women; reflecting Thai gender roles. Migration intentions, in turn, predicted more permanent, but not temporary, survival strategy migration behaviour, while low household income predicted temporary but not more permanent migration behaviour. The measure of perceived family migration norms was a powerful determinant of migration behaviour, but the size of migrant networks was not a statistically significant determinant of either migration intentions or behaviour.

  13. ILLEGAL MIGRATION-CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA FLORINA POPESCU (PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Illegal migration is a mobile phenomenon, which ignores national borders, a threat that originates outside the community and extends to Western societies. This phenomenon is becoming larger and irregular migrants are often in a precarious situation and exposed to the criminals involved in various manifestations of organized crime. The future risk factors of the illegal migration are the demographic bomb, because the population is decreasing in European countries and increasing rapidly in poorer countries, droughts, floods, deforestation, that cause conflicts between climate refugees , extreme poverty, totalitarian regimes, epidemics, can trigger millions of people, the elderly and the working population imbalance which leads to the permanent import of immigrants To combat this phenomenon, states must engage and cooperate with each other. Measures taken by states must balance their integration policy for immigrants, legally residents and asylum policy to comply with international conventions. Also, states must adopt anti-immigrant policies, consisting of subordination visa policy to the interests of international security and exchange of information and, not least, to continue the Schengen process, as a value of humanitarian law applied in the field. The aim of the research is to characterize this dangerous phenomenon for the society and the goal is to identify strategies to combat illegal migration.

  14. [The productive structure and migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the possibility of determining the proper approach to the study of migration, with a focus on the importance of global, structural, and historical analysis of the phenomenon. A general theoretical outline is presented that tends to show migration as an integral part of the process of social change. The sociological focus on modernization as a theoretical guide influencing the study of migration in Latin America is evaluated. The concept of overpopulation is explained in relation to the migratory process, with reference to capitalist and non-capitalist forms of production.

  15. Uncontrolled organ donation after circulatory determination of death: US policy failures and call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Stephen P; Munjal, Kevin G; Dubler, Nancy N; Goldfrank, Lewis R

    2014-04-01

    In the United States, more than 115,000 patients are wait-listed for organ transplants despite that there are 12,000 patients each year who die or become too ill for transplantation. One reason for the organ shortage is that candidates for donation must die in the hospital, not the emergency department (ED), either from neurologic or circulatory-respiratory death under controlled circumstances. Evidence from Spain and France suggests that a substantial number of deaths from cardiac arrest may qualify for organ donation using uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death (uDCDD) protocols that rapidly initiate organ preservation in out-of-hospital and ED settings. Despite its potential, uDCDD has been criticized by panels of experts that included neurologists, intensivists, attorneys, and ethicists who suggest that organ preservation strategies that reestablish oxygenated circulation to the brain retroactively negate previous death determination based on circulatory-respiratory criteria and hence violate the dead donor rule. In this article, we assert that in uDCDD, all efforts at saving lives are exhausted before organ donation is considered, and death is determined according to "irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions" evidenced by "persistent cessation of functions during an appropriate period of observation and/or trial of therapy." Therefore, postmortem in vivo organ preservation with chest compressions, mechanical ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is legally and ethically appropriate. As frontline providers for patients presenting with unexpected cardiac arrest, emergency medicine practitioners need be included in the uDCDD debate to advocate for patients and honor the wishes of the deceased. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determinants of the AUD/USD Exchange Rate and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hsing

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines short-run determinants of the Australian dollar/U.S. dollar (AUD/USD) exchange rate based on a simultaneous-equation model. Applying the EGARCH method, the paper finds that the AUD/USD exchange rate is positively associated with the 10-year U.S. real government bond yield, U.S. real GDP, the U.S. real stock price and the expected exchange rate and negatively influenced by the Australian real government bond yield, Australian real GDP, and the real Australian stock price.

  17. JOINT DETERMINATION OF PRICE, WAR RANTY LENGTH AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY FOR NEW PRODUCTS UNDER FREE RENEWAL WARRANTY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyakumar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An optimal business strategy which integrates the decisions, such as pricing, production quantity, and custom er service, in or der to maximize profit is vital for any manufacturing industry. Post sale factors like warranty, spare parts availability, maintenance, service and cost play an important role in the sale of a product. As better warranty signals higher product quality which provides greater assurance to customers, warranty is an important factor in marketing new products. In this paper, a decision model with the price, warranty length and production quantity of a product as decision variables to maximize profit based on the pre-determined product life cycle is presented. The study considers free renewal warranty policy for producers in the static sales market. The expected number of renewals based on the warranty length is derived for lognormally distributed products. The effect of model parameters on the profit is studied.

  18. The International Migration of Population in the Current Phase: Tendencies and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurchenko Svitlana O.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the characteristics of contemporary international migration of population. It has been shown that international migration encompasses all countries over the world and is an important constituent of the globalization of the world-wide economy. Tendencies in the international migration have been described by regions of the world and by type of country. It has been shown that a concentration of international migrants is present in a relatively small number of world countries, while the developed world is more attractive to migrants than the developing countries. The structure of migrants by sex and age has been considered and the most attractive regions for the migration of women and men have been identified. The problems and tendencies of the forced migration of population have been identified. It has been determined that, in many developed countries, the migration inflow of population will increase in importance in the demographic situation. The need to develop a migration policy in the regions of different hierarchical levels and to implement it in practice has been indicated.

  19. Hydrogen migration in Lu at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    The migration of hydrogen in Lu is determined by electrical resistance measurements in temperature range of 140-170 K. Disordered hydrogen atoms, which are formed by quenching, migrate to order during annealing in the above temperature range. The rate of the resistance decrease depends on the ordering rate of hydrogen. From the resistance decrease during isothermal annealings, the activation energy of hydrogen migration is determined as 0.43 eV (41.5 kJ mol -1 ). (orig.)

  20. The Globalisation of migration

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mesić

    2002-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities). First, in ...

  1. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  2. Selection or Network Effects? Migration Flows into 27 OECD Countries, 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P.J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    patterns may be affected by the relatively generous welfare schemes in most OECD countries, but also network effects and migration policy changes may be important factors behind the observed development. This paper presents empirical evidence on immigration flows into 27 OECD countries during a period...... of 11 years, 1990-2000. Using a panel data model, we analyze the determinants of the migration flows. Our results indicate that traditional factors as cultural and linguistic distance are important. Network effects are also strong, but vary between source and destination countries. We do not find clear...

  3. Selection or network effects? Migration flows into 27 OECD countries, 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    patterns may be affected by the relatively generous welfare schemes in most OECD countries, but also network effects and migration policy changes may be important factors behind the observed development. This paper presents empirical evidence on immigration flows into 27 OECD countries during a period...... of 11 years, 1990- 2000. Using a panel data model, we analyze the determinants of the migration flows. Our results indicate that traditional factors as cultural and linguistic distance are important. Network effects are also strong, but vary between source and destination countries. We do not find clear...

  4. International migration: a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Widgren, J

    1996-04-01

    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements.

  5. You can lead a horse to water … what Self-Determination Theory can contribute to our understanding of clinical policy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey P; Williams, Theresa M

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing reliance on policy directives as instruments for shaping clinical practice in health care, despite it being widely recognized that there is a significant translation gap between clinical policy and its implementation. Self-Determination Theory, a widely researched and empirically validated theory of human needs' fulfilment and motivation, offers a potentially valuable theoretical framework for understanding not only why the current policy environment has not led to the anticipated improvement in the quality and safety of clinical care but, importantly, also provides guidance about how organizations can create an environment that can nurture behavioural change in the workforce. We describe an alternative approach to clinical policy-making underpinned by Self-Determination Theory, which we believe has broad application for the science of clinical implementation theory.

  6. Boundary Migration in Rutile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliss, S.R.; Ravishankar, N.; Farrer, J.K.; Carter, C.B.

    2003-08-01

    o} boundaries within this crystal. While the boundary migrates from the left to the right with respect to the image, the 3{sup o} boundaries propagate into the reprecipitated rutile. The (001) boundary plane and (110) free surface grow at the expense of the (110) boundary plane and (001) free surface (free surface determined by EBSD). A FIB was used to prepare a cross-section TEM specimen at the migrated boundary. The FIB section was taken from an area in which the migrated boundary was 40 {micro}m from the groove remnant. A wide and shallow groove is formed at this migrated boundary and is illustrated in the bright-field (BF) TEM image in Figure 2. Of particular interest in this image is the nearly 120{sup o} groove at the free surface (see schematic in Figure 3) and the location of the grain boundary. Often in EBSD analysis and grain-boundary grooving work, grain boundaries are assumed to have a perpendicular intersection to the free surface. This FIB-prepared specimen shows in this particular case, this assumption does not hold true. Due to the grooving at the free surface and therefore a reduction in energy at the free surface, the speed of migration is faster away from the surface. Figure 3 is a schematic of this migrated boundary. The original boundary consisted of (110) and (001) planes. The side with the (001) initial boundary plane migrates into the other crystal. A benefit of using a site-specific specimen preparation technique such as FIB allows for the grain-boundary profile to accurately be determined. A variety of microscopy techniques has been used to study boundary migration in rutile. Migration in this case has originated at low-angle boundaries. The groove formed at the free surface slows the rate of migration at the surface. FIB allows the profile of the groove to be determined accurately.

  7. Language Policy in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  8. Kids at the Border: Unaccompanied Child Migration from the Northern Triangle and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Migration , and the Humanitarian Crisis at the line with Central America (Washington, DC: Washington Office of Latin America , 2014), 3...Alien Children.” 10 Marc R. Rosenblum and Isabel Ball, “Trend in Unaccompanied Child and Family Migration from Central America ” (Washington, DC... Migration Policy Institute, 2016), http://www.migrationpolicy.org/ research/trends-unaccompanied-child- and -family- migration - central -

  9. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R

    1978-07-01

    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force.

  10. Syrian Refugees, Health and Migration Legislation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the crucial effects of Turkish health and migration laws on Syrian refugees' access to public health services and social determinants of health. Key aspects of current Turkish laws affect the health of both refugees and Turkish citizens in many ways. The huge influx of refugees is increasing communicable disease risks, overcrowding hospitals, and more generally straining financial and health resources. Turkey's United Nations membership and its candidacy for European Union (EU) have led to increased alignment of Turkey's refugee and migration policies with international law. Major differences remain, however, and Turkey's remaining noncompliance with international refugee laws is a major force driving Syrian refugee's flight to EU countries, as refugees desperately seek the right to better health and social services.

  11. Migration and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decosas, J; Kane, F; Anarfi, J K; Sodji, K D; Wagner, H U

    1995-09-23

    A successful short-term solution to transmission of AIDS in Western Africa by migrants involves provision of accessible and acceptable basic health and social services to migrants at their destination. The aim is to establish a sense of security and community, which is a health requirement. When migrants are excluded from community life or victimized as carriers of HIV infections, they will be driven by basic survival needs and dysfunctional social organization, which results in the rapid spread of HIV. Closing borders and mass deportation may not be an option. The long-term solution is population policy, environmental protection, and economic development. The focus on mapping the spread of AIDS must shift to a consideration of the migrant social conditions that make them vulnerable to AIDS. The issue of migration and AIDS will be addressed at the First European Conference on Tropical Medicine in October 1995 in Hamburg, Germany. In Uganda, HIV seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.5% among the stable population to 12.4% among internal migrants moving between villages to 16.3% among migrants from other areas. A World Bank project is operating in Western Africa, which traces seasonal male migration from the Cameroon to Liberia, Senegal to Nigeria, and from the Sahel to the coast during dry seasons. National border rules may influence the routes but not the extent of migration. A major destination place is Cote d' Ivoire, which has 25% of total population comprised of migrants from other countries and one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Western Africa. On plantations prostitutes are brought in. Each prostitute serves about 25 workers. The pattern of sexual mixing contributes to the high HIV rates. Female migration is smaller and usually concentrated in prostitution at place of destination. Illiteracy and poverty drive women migrants into the trade. Their frequent health problems are malaria, pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, vaginal discharge, and genital

  12. Migration and gender in the mexican context: scientific literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rebolledo Gámez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Female migration is a phenomenon with socioeducational considerations thar determine their analysis.The prensent article presents a literature review aims to analyze the aspect thar are discussed in relation to the issue of migration and gender in Mexico. Therefore, it has selected more than forty articles from magazines, discussion forums and books in the last decade hace collected reflexions and research on this reality. As a result of this review, it has taken three areas in the contributions published: Human Rights and policy migratory; female migration characteristics; and vulnerability and risk situation. Despite the thematic diversity, appear repeatedly ideas like the idiosyncasies of female migration, vulnerability and risk assumed by women in border transit and the violation of rights of women to political and institutional level.Received: 04/12/2013 / Accepted: 17/01/2014How to reference this articleRebolledo Gámez, T., Rodríguez Casado, M. R. (2014. Migraciones y género en el contexto mexicano: revisión de la literatura científica. Foro de Educación, 12(17, pp. 165-185. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2014.012.017.008

  13. From migration to settlement: the pathways, migration modes and dynamics of neurons in the developing brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    HATANAKA, Yumiko; ZHU, Yan; TORIGOE, Makio; KITA, Yoshiaki; MURAKAMI, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal migration is crucial for the construction of the nervous system. To reach their correct destination, migrating neurons choose pathways using physical substrates and chemical cues of either diffusible or non-diffusible nature. Migrating neurons extend a leading and a trailing process. The leading process, which extends in the direction of migration, determines navigation, in particular when a neuron changes its direction of migration. While most neurons simply migrate radially, certain neurons switch their mode of migration between radial and tangential, with the latter allowing migration to destinations far from the neurons’ site of generation. Consequently, neurons with distinct origins are intermingled, which results in intricate neuronal architectures and connectivities and provides an important basis for higher brain function. The trailing process, in contrast, contributes to the late stage of development by turning into the axon, thus contributing to the formation of neuronal circuits. PMID:26755396

  14. Optimization of mass spectrometry acquisition parameters for determination of polycarbonate additives, degradation products, and colorants migrating from food contact materials to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Laganà, Carmen; Salvadeo, Paola; Corradini, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The interest towards "substances of emerging concerns" referred to objects intended to come into contact with food is recently growing. Such substances can be found in traces in simulants and in food products put in contact with plastic materials. In this context, it is important to set up analytical systems characterized by high sensitivity and to improve detection parameters to enhance signals. This work was aimed at optimizing a method based on UHPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry to quantify the most common plastic additives, and able to detect the presence of polymers degradation products and coloring agents migrating from plastic re-usable containers. The optimization of mass spectrometric parameter settings for quantitative analysis of additives has been achieved by a chemometric approach, using a full factorial and d-optimal experimental designs, allowing to evaluate possible interactions between the investigated parameters. Results showed that the optimized method was characterized by improved features in terms of sensitivity respect to existing methods and was successfully applied to the analysis of a complex model food system such as chocolate put in contact with 14 polycarbonate tableware samples. A new procedure for sample pre-treatment was carried out and validated, showing high reliability. Results reported, for the first time, the presence of several molecules migrating to chocolate, in particular belonging to plastic additives, such Cyasorb UV5411, Tinuvin 234, Uvitex OB, and oligomers, whose amount was found to be correlated to age and degree of damage of the containers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The relationships between the impact of alcoholic beverage control policies, selected contextual determinants, and alcohol drinking in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrai, Silvia; Casajuana, Cristina; Allamani, Allaman; Baccini, Michela; Pepe, Pasquale; Massini, Giulia; Gual, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol prevention policies alone neither cause nor explain changes in alcohol consumption, nor in related harm. Alcohol consumption in Spain throughout the period 1962-2008 was analyzed considering selected contextual factors and alcohol policies. Increased urbanization was found to be associated with higher consumption, especially of beer. Restrictive policies regulating purchase age, advertising, and licensing premises to sell alcohol were associated with decreased alcohol consumption, while lower blood alcohol concentration limits were followed by an increase. Study limitations are noted. Changes in the evolution of socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and cultural factors should be carefully analyzed to inform alcohol policy planning and evaluation.

  16. Using election registration data to measure migration trends in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maritz, Johan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Migration is an issue that remains critical for policy agendas and government planning. Over time migration, in addition to population growth or decline, changes the demographic composition of towns, cities and regions which in turn requires...

  17. The Bush Administration's Policy on Haitian Migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baptista, A. L

    1995-01-01

    ... (notably the French and U S Ambassador). Aristide was allowed to leave for exile, setting up a long-running crisis that spanned both the latter half of the Bush Administration and part of the Clinton Administration's tenure The purpose...

  18. Migration of the Talented: Can Europe catch up with the U.S.?

    OpenAIRE

    Mechtenberg, Lydia; Strausz, Roland

    2010-01-01

    We develop a model to analyze the determinants and effects of an endogenous imperfect transferability of human capital on natives and immigrants. The model reveals that high migration flows and high skill-transferability are mutually interdependent. Moreover, we show that high mobility within a Federation is necessary to attract highly skilled immigrants into the Federation. We study in how far and in what way the European public policy behind the Bologna and the Lisbon Process can contribute...

  19. Inter-Provincial Migration Intentions of Family Physicians in Canada: The Roles of Income and Community Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Haizhen; Olfert, M Rose

    2015-11-01

    The inter-provincial migration patterns of family physicians in canada show that some provinces like newfoundland and saskatchewan experience persistent net out-migration, while others, including ontario and british columbia, are destinations more often than origins of migrants. Governments in provinces exhibiting net out-migration have responded with a number of incentive and recruitment programs. In this study, we investigate the determinants of the stated interprovincial migration intentions of 3,995 rural and urban family physicians in the 2010 wave of the national physician survey. We consider a range of physician characteristics, community attributes and working conditions. We find that in the intention to move, higher compensation has a modest effect, while the community characteristics have a consistently important influence. Our results suggest that policy and program designers should acknowledge the critical role of community-level living and working conditions in their family physician recruitment and retention efforts. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.

  20. Refugee Migration and Electoral Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Dustmann, Christian; Vasiljeva, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the causal effect of refugee migration on voting outcomes in parliamentary and municipal elections in Denmark, our study is the first that addresses the key problem of immigrant sorting by exploiting a policy that assigned refugee immigrants to municipalities on a quasi-random basis. We....... However, in the largest and most urban municipalities refugee allocation has – if anything – the opposite effect on vote shares for anti-immigration parties. We demonstrate response heterogeneity according to municipal characteristics, with a more pronounced response in less urban municipalities in which...... the pre-policy shares of both immigrants and the more affluent is high, and in urban municipalities with high unemployment. At the same time, higher pre-policy crime rates are associated with more support for anti-immigration parties in response to refugee allocation in both urban and non...

  1. Determinants of use of supervised delivery care under Ghana's fee exemption policy for maternal healthcare: the case of the Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante-Sarpong, Henrietta; Owusu, Adobea Yaa; Saravanan, Sheela; Appiah, Ernest; Abu, Mumuni

    2016-07-19

    Improving access to supervised and emergency obstetric care resources through fee reduction/exemption maternity care initiatives has been touted as one major strategy to avoiding preventable maternal deaths. Evaluations on the effect of Ghana's fee exemption policy for maternal healthcare have largely focused on how it has influenced health outcomes and patterns of use of supervised care with little attention to understanding the main factors influencing use. This study therefore sought to explore the main individual and health system factors influencing use of delivery care services under the policy initiative in the Central Region. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 412 mothers with children aged less than one year in one largely rural and another largely urban districts in the Central Region of Ghana from September to December 2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey on the socio-demographic characteristics of mothers, their knowledge and use of care under the fee free policy. Chi-square and Binary Logistic Regression tests were used to evaluate the main determinants of delivery care use under the policy. Out of the 412 mothers interviewed, 268 (65 %) reported having delivered their most recent birth under the fee exemption policy even though awareness about the policy was almost universal 401 (97.3 %) among respondents. Utilization however differed for the two study districts. Respondents in the Cape Coast Metropolis (largely urban) used delivery service more (75.7 %) than those in the largely rural Assin North Municipal area (54.4 %). Binary logistic regression results identified maternal age, parity, religion, place of residence, awareness and knowledge about the fee exemption policy for maternal healthcare as significantly associated with the likelihood of delivery care use under the policy. The likelihood of using supervised delivery care under the policy was lower for mothers aged 20-29 compared to those in the age bracket of 40

  2. Rural-urban migration and urban unemployment in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigbokhan, B E

    1988-01-01

    This paper argues that urban unemployment in Nigeria has been due largely to a failure on the part of the government to pursue policies that reflect commitment on its part to its stated objectives, particularly with regard to employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration has been taking place in the country since the 1960s and at an increasing rate since the 1970s. Economic policies have contributed to this, notably the rural-urban imbalance resulting from the pattern of allocation of public investment expenditures and the wages determination process which tends to concentrate more on the urban sector. These have contributed to the widening urban-rural income differentials. In the face of such migration, the urban industrial sector has been able to absorb only a negligible proportion of migrants. A major factor that has contributed to this is the increased capital-intensity of the sector. Some laudable measures have been introduced this year, notably the establishment of the Directorate of Employment and the Directorate of Food, Road, and Rural infrastructure. The latter, if effectively implemented, should enhance rural income and thereby reduce the rural-urban income gap. The former should reduce the problem of open unemployment. While it is too early to assess the effects of these 2 measures on urban unemployment, they may not improve urban unemployment significantly. There is still the need to design policies to increase labor absorption in general.

  3. Laboratory and in situ determination of the migration processes of actinide complexes and colloids in a fissured granitic environment. El Berrocal project (preliminary activities - phase 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astudillo, J.; Del Olmo, C.; Commission of the European Communities, Ispra

    1993-01-01

    The experimental site of El Berrocal has been chosen for a study of the migration of natural radionuclides in a fractured granitic environment. The granite is classified as an alkaline feldspar-rich quartz granite with two micas. The fresh granite is affected by hydrothermal alteration processes related to fractures, which has led to a strong sericitization of albite, and the precipitation of secondary chlorites and carbonates. The most important U-bearing and Th-bearing accessory minerals are uraninite, thorite-auerlite, monazite, anatase, apatite and zircon. Approximately 65% of the total of U in the rock is held as uraninite. In the altered granite, most of the U is held as autunite. Hydrogeochemical data show that Co 2 /H 2 CO 3 is the dominant system, followed by the silica-silicate system. Based on their stability analyses, two zones can be defined: (i) waters north of the dyke and from deep zones where calcite is in equilibrium and albite and gibbsite precipitate, and (ii) surface waters, south of the dyke, subsaturated in relation to calcite, producing the alteration of albite and the precipitation of montmorillonite. The size distribution of the colloids varies, depending on the treatment given to the water samples. The particles are mainly composed of K-feldspars and clay minerals (smectite) and occasionally by quartz, mica, calcite and pollen. The El Berrocal groundwaters have a very low amount of organic matter. Column migration tests have been carried out and were performed with intact granitic cores and with crushed granite. Np proved to be an adequate radionuclide for these experiments. Under oxic conditions and in the absence of organic matter, it was completely retained in both types of columns, whereas in the presence of organic matter a more rapid breakthrough was observed. Under anoxic conditions, and with or without organic matter, Np was found to move faster than under oxic conditions. (author). 13 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs

  4. Irregular migration: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, S M

    1984-01-01

    Despite the heightened awareness of irregular migrations worldwide, a certain misappreciation or underestimation of the saliency of irregular migration issues persists. Conflict in the strife-torn Indian state of Assam, for example, has been widely publicized, but its roots in immigration issues linked to communal tensions are insufficiently understood. Conflict around the globe seems increasingly to involve, both as cause and effect, migrants in irregular status whose problematical or illegitimate presence itself is at issue. The global recession prompted governments in immigration-welcoming countries to adopt more restrictive stances vis-a-vis immigration at a time when global migratory pressures were expanding enormously. As if by a process of demonstration effect, 1 country after another began to view migratory flows with alarm--flows which previously had been regarded as benign or quantitatively unimportant. Part I of this special issue examines a variety of public responses to irregular migration. Part II looks at legalization issues in a number of national contexts. Part III contains 3 comparative reflections on immigration reform in industrial democracies. Part IV provides an overview and sampling of recent empirical and survey research findings on irregular status migrants, primarily in the US. This special issue is intended to encourage further research on irregular migration, foster better understanding of this complex phenomenon, and contribute to enlightened public policy-making.

  5. [Migration of dentists within Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2010-09-01

    Concerning the human resource management in the health care, Hungarian analysts focus mainly on cross-national migration, which was instigated considerably by joining the European Union in 2004. Contrasted to other health care professionals, dentists emphasized also the importance of in-country migration (mobility) indicating serious dangers of developing inequalities in the dental service. From the point of view of health system planning, the main problem is to balance the needs and the number of professionals in regions and areas with extremely different socio-economic conditions. Under dictatorial governments, this "balancing" (which was experienced also in Hungary) is a forced allocation of young professionals to the target regions. In political freedom and free market economy, these measures are unthinkable. The present domestic area distribution, concerning also the supply through vacancies by old age inactivity and cross-national migration, is ruled by personal decisions of actually graduated and immigrant professionals respectively. Therefore, it is unavoidable to investigate the interrelation of factors (dentists' births place, study migration and decisions for practice allocation) ruling the in-country geographic patterns of dental practices. This evidence-based knowledge can only explain the present situation and provide guidelines for health policy decision makers.

  6. Migration delays caused by anthropogenic barriers: modeling dams, temperature, and success on migrating salmon smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Mather, Martha E.; Parrish, Donna; Allison, Gary W.; McMenemy, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption to migration is a growing problem for conservation and restoration of animal populations. Anthropogenic barriers along migration paths can delay or prolong migrations, which may result in a mismatch with migration-timing adaptations. To understand the interaction of dams (as barriers along a migration path), seasonally changing environmental conditions, timing of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) downstream migration, and ultimate migration success, we used 10 years of river temperature and discharge data as a template upon which we simulated downstream movement of salmon. Atlantic salmon is a cool-water species whose downstream migrating smolts must complete migration before river temperatures become too warm. We found that dams had a local effect on survival as well as a survival effect that was spatially and temporally removed from the encounter with the dam. While smolts are delayed by dams, temperatures downstream can reach lethal or near-lethal temperatures; as a result, the match between completion of migration and the window of appropriate migration conditions can be disrupted. The strength of this spatially and temporally removed effect is at least comparable to the local effects of dams in determining smolt migration success in the presence of dams. We also considered smolts from different tributaries, varying in distance from the river mouth, to assess the potential importance of locally adapted migration timing on the effect of barriers. Migration-initiation temperature affected modeled smolt survival differentially across tributaries, with the success of smolts from upstream tributaries being much more variable across years than that of smolts with a shorter distance to travel. As a whole, these results point to the importance of broadening our spatial and temporal view when managing migrating populations. We must consider not only how many individuals never make it across migration barriers, but also the spatially and temporally removed

  7. Migration delays caused by anthropogenic barriers: Modeling dams, temperature, and success of migrating salmon smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, E.A.; Mather, M. E.; Parrish, D.L.; Allison, G.W.; McMenemy, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption to migration is a growing problem for conservation and restoration of animal populations. Anthropogenic barriers along migration paths can delay or prolong migrations, which may result in a mismatch with migration-timing adaptations. To understand the interaction of dams (as barriers along a migration path), seasonally changing environmental conditions, timing of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) downstream migration, and ultimate migration success, we used 10 years of river temperature and discharge data as a template upon which we simulated downstream movement of salmon. Atlantic salmon is a cool-water species whose downstream migrating smolts must complete migration before river temperatures become too warm. We found that dams had a local effect on survival as well as a survival effect that was spatially and temporally removed from the encounter with the dam. While smolts are delayed by dams, temperatures downstream can reach lethal or near-lethal temperatures;as a result, the match between completion of migration and the window of appropriate migration conditions can be disrupted. The strength of this spatially and temporally removed effect is at least comparable to the local effects of dams in determining smolt migration success in the presence of dams. We also considered smolts from different tributaries, varying in distance from the river mouth, to assess the potential importance of locally adapted migration timing on the effect of barriers. Migration-initiation temperature affected modeled smolt survival differentially across tributaries, with the success of smolts from upstream tributaries being much more variable across years than that of smolts with a shorter distance to travel. As a whole, these results point to the importance of broadening our spatial and temporal view when managing migrating populations. We must consider not only how many individuals never make it across migration barriers, but also the spatially and temporally removed

  8. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  9. Plasticity of Cell Migration In Vivo and In Silico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, V. Te; Preziosi, L.; Friedl, P.

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration results from stepwise mechanical and chemical interactions between cells and their extracellular environment. Mechanistic principles that determine single-cell and collective migration modes and their interconversions depend upon the polarization, adhesion, deformability,

  10. Plasticity of cell migration: a multiscale tuning model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedl, P.H.A.; Wolf, K. van der

    2010-01-01

    Cell migration underlies tissue formation, maintenance, and regeneration as well as pathological conditions such as cancer invasion. Structural and molecular determinants of both tissue environment and cell behavior define whether cells migrate individually (through amoeboid or mesenchymal modes) or

  11. Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, B.B.; Hulthén, K.; Brodersen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Partial migration, where only some individuals from a population migrate, has been widely reported in a diverse range of animals. In this paper, what is known about the causes and consequences of partial migration in fishes is reviewed. Firstly, the ultimate and proximate drivers of partial...... migration are reflected upon: what ecological factors can shape the evolution of migratory dimorphism? How is partial migration maintained over evolutionary timescales? What proximate mechanisms determine whether an individual is migratory or remains resident? Following this, the consequences of partial...... with a reflection on the future opportunities in this field, and the avenues of research that are likely to be fruitful to shed light on the enduring puzzle of partial migration in fishes...

  12. Endogenous timing factors in bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    Several species of warbler birds were observed in an effort to determine what initiates and terminates migration. Environmental and endogenous timing mechanisms were analyzed. The results indicate that endogenous stimuli are dominant factors for bird migration especially for long distances. It was concluded that environmental factors act as an assist mechanism.

  13. Rural migration and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn

    This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role...

  14. The migration of university graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Nielsen, Kristian

    Several studies have documented that highly educated citizens contribute to regional economic performance (Moretti, 2013; Faggian and McCann,2009b; Sterlacchini 2008). Moreover, Åstebro et al. (2012) emphasize the importance of promoting start-up by recent university graduates. Thus, the retention...... of university graduates is an important issue for regional policy makers. The present paper analyzes the migration patterns of university graduates from two very different regions in Denmark: the Greater Capital region around Copenhagen and the peripheral region of North Denmark. Studies of the migration...... of university graduates have been carried out in several countries. These studies are typically based on extensive surveys among recent graduates. The present analysis differs from such studies through its application of register data for all individuals and companies in Denmark, which allows us to identify...

  15. Population, migration and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  16. Radionuclide migration through fractured granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grondin, D.M.; Vandergraaf, T.T.; Drew, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fractures in granite blocks of up to 30 cm in length. Results are reported for four migration experiments involving synthetic groundwaters containing tritiated water, 95m Tc, 75 Se, 137 Cs, or 60 Co-labelled natural colloids, which were injected into the fractures at flow rates of 0.4-0.45 mL/h, giving residence times in the fractures of up to 15 h. Also presented are the results of the post-experiment analyses, including an autoradiograph of one of the fracture surfaces, and the spatial distribution of the sorbed radionuclides determined by γ-scanning and selective chemical extractions

  17. Historical institutionalism and economic policymaking ??? determinants of the pattern of economic policy in Brazil, 1930???1960

    OpenAIRE

    Guimar??es, Alexandre Queiroz

    2005-01-01

    From 1930 to 1960, Brazil adopted a pattern of economic policy marked by strong state intervention, high levels of protectionism, disregard of exports and a permissive treatment of inflation. These policies distorted the model of industrialisation and had a negative impact on the prospects for economic development. This article employs a historical institutionalist approach to investigate how the international context, the ideology of the policymakers, the role of the techno...

  18. The Malaysian state's response to migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, P

    1999-04-01

    This paper aims to provide a profile of migration trends in Malaysia since 1970 and to analyze public policy on migration in the context of economic growth and the labor market. The discussion centers on the impact of the Asian financial crisis. There is long history of immigration to Malaysia. The development strategy of the 1970s and 1980s was to create more jobs and restructure employment to meet equity goals. Labor shortages on plantations and construction booms led to a more organized, sustained effort to import labor. Recession in the mid-1980s led to unemployment, but many Malaysians were unwilling to work on plantations, in construction, or in low paying jobs. Economic growth during 1987-96 was very high, and labor shortages spread to service and manufacturing sectors. Migration policy has shifted over the decades. Both the market and the government's promotion of export-based industrialization require access to low cost migrant labor. Public and official recognition of the large number of migrants was not made until 1995. The financial crisis in 1998 led to enforcement of a new migration policy on illegal migrants and greater outflow of migrants. The economic crisis has increased job and income inequities in the region; this encourages continued migration. It is argued that it would be best for Malaysia to maximize short-term gains while minimizing long-term economic, social, and political costs.

  19. Environmental Disasters and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaye, Linguère Mously; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the effect of environmental disasters on migration. Although there is an increase of environmental disasters and migration over the past years, the relationship is complex. While some authors find that environmental disasters increase migration, others show that they have only a marginal or no effect or are even negative. Migration appears to be an insurance mechanism against environmental shocks. Remittances help to decrease households' vulnerability to shocks but also dam...

  20. [Internal migration studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stpiczynski, T

    1986-10-01

    Recent research on internal migration in Poland is reviewed. The basic sources of data, consisting of censuses or surveys, are first described. The author discusses the relationship between migration studies and other sectors of the national economy, and particularly the relationship between migration and income.

  1. Regulators of Intestinal Epithelial Migration in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Mei; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Liang, Zhe; Lyons, John D; Fay, Katherine T; Chen, Ching-Wen; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2018-02-08

    The gut is a continuously renewing organ, with cell proliferation, migration and death occurring rapidly under basal conditions. Since the impact of critical illness on cell movement from crypt base to villus tip is poorly understood, the purpose of this study was to determine how sepsis alters enterocyte migration. Wild type, transgenic and knockout mice were injected with 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label cells in S phase before and after the onset of cecal ligation and puncture and were sacrificed at pre-determined endpoints to determine distance proliferating cells migrated up the crypt-villus unit. Enterocyte migration rate was decreased from 24-96 hours following sepsis. BrdU was not detectable on villi 6 days after sham laparotomy, meaning all cells had migrated the length of the gut and been exfoliated into its lumen. However, BrdU positive cells were detectable on villi 10 days after sepsis. Multiple components of gut integrity altered enterocyte migration. Sepsis decreased crypt proliferation, which further slowed enterocyte transit as mice injected with BrdU after the onset of sepsis (decreased proliferation) had slower migration than mice injected with BrdU prior to the onset of sepsis (normal proliferation). Decreasing intestinal apoptosis via gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented sepsis-induced slowing of enterocyte migration. In contrast, worsened intestinal hyperpermeability by genetic deletion of JAM-A increased enterocyte migration. Sepsis therefore significantly slows enterocyte migration, and intestinal proliferation, apoptosis and permeability all affect migration time, which can potentially be targeted both genetically and pharmacologically.

  2. Changing patterns of migration in Latin America: how can research develop intelligence for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena; Pickett, Kate E; Gideon, Jasmine

    2013-07-01

    Migration patterns in Latin America have changed significantly in recent decades, particularly since the onset of global recession in 2007. These recent economic changes have highlighted and exacerbated the weakness of evidence from Latin America regarding migration-a crucial determinant of health. Migration patterns are constantly evolving in Latin America, but research on migration has not developed at the same speed. This article focuses on the need for better understanding of the living conditions and health of migrant populations in Latin America within the context of the recent global recession. The authors explain how new data on migrant well-being could be obtained through improved evidence from censuses and ongoing research surveys to 1) better inform policy-makers about the needs of migrant populations in Latin America and 2) help determine better ways of reaching undocumented immigrants. Longitudinal studies on immigrants in Latin America are essential for generating a better representation of migrant living conditions and health needs during the initial stages of immigration and over time. To help meet this need, the authors support the promotion of sustainable sources of data and evidence on the complex relationship between migration and health.

  3. Changing patterns of migration in Latin America: how can research develop intelligence for public health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltica Cabieses

    Full Text Available Migration patterns in Latin America have changed significantly in recent decades, particularly since the onset of global recession in 2007. These recent economic changes have highlighted and exacerbated the weakness of evidence from Latin America regarding migration-a crucial determinant of health. Migration patterns are constantly evolving in Latin America, but research on migration has not developed at the same speed. This article focuses on the need for better understanding of the living conditions and health of migrant populations in Latin America within the context of the recent global recession. The authors explain how new data on migrant well-being could be obtained through improved evidence from censuses and ongoing research surveys to 1 better inform policy-makers about the needs of migrant populations in Latin America and 2 help determine better ways of reaching undocumented immigrants. Longitudinal studies on immigrants in Latin America are essential for generating a better representation of migrant living conditions and health needs during the initial stages of immigration and over time. To help meet this need, the authors support the promotion of sustainable sources of data and evidence on the complex relationship between migration and health.

  4. Migration in Deltas: An Integrated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Hutton, Craig W.; Lazar, Attila; Adger, W. Neil; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Vincent, Katharine; Rahman, Munsur; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Sugata, Hazra; Ghosh, Tuhin; Codjoe, Sam; Appeaning-Addo, Kwasi

    2017-04-01

    Deltas and low-lying coastal regions have long been perceived as vulnerable to global sea-level rise, with the potential for mass displacement of exposed populations. The assumption of mass displacement of populations in deltas requires a comprehensive reassessment in the light of present and future migration in deltas, including the potential role of adaptation to influence these decisions. At present, deltas are subject to multiple drivers of environmental change and often have high population densities as they are accessible and productive ecosystems. Climate change, catchment management, subsidence and land cover change drive environmental change across all deltas. Populations in deltas are also highly mobile, with significant urbanization trends and the growth of large cities and mega-cities within or adjacent to deltas across Asia and Africa. Such migration is driven primarily by economic opportunity, yet environmental change in general, and climate change in particular, are likely to play an increasing direct and indirect role in future migration trends. The policy challenges centre on the role of migration within regional adaptation strategies to climate change; the protection of vulnerable populations; and the future of urban settlements within deltas. This paper reviews current knowledge on migration and adaptation to environmental change to discern specific issues pertinent to delta regions. It develops a new integrated methodology to assess present and future migration in deltas using the Volta delta in Ghana, Mahanadi delta in India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta across India and Bangladesh. The integrated method focuses on: biophysical changes and spatial distribution of vulnerability; demographic changes and migration decision-making using multiple methods and data; macro-economic trends and scenarios in the deltas; and the policies and governance structures that constrain and enable adaptation. The analysis is facilitated by a range of

  5. Managing International Labour Migration in ASEAN | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    term migration of (usually skilled) workers and the second is the high-frequency short-term cross-border movement of (mostly unskilled) workers. The two streams have different policy implications and require different management arrangements.

  6. Globalization, migration and social development | Craig | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , reflected in increasingly harsh policies and attitudes towards migrants amongst northern countries that are creating stronger barriers to most forms of migration. The paper concludes by arguing that community development, informed by the ...

  7. La 72: an oasis along the migration routes in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Olayo-Méndez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Locally run shelters along the migration routes in Mexico provide sorely needed respite and support. In the face of violence, stricter migration policies and daily obstacles, those working at the La 72 shelter strive to respect people’s sense of dignity while caring for their safety.

  8. Transnational Migration of Vietnamese Women in Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the last decade, Asia has witnessed rapid growth in the feminization of migration. For example, during that period, more than 100 000 Vietnamese women migrated to other countries to work and a similar number to marry, through commercial arrangements. But, sending countries often lack the appropriate policies and ...

  9. Managing Migration: Time for a New International Regime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Handmaker (Jeff)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractFor anyone concerned with understanding the complex factors behind contemporary migration and its impact on international refugee law, and especially for those attempting to develop policies to manage migration, this book makes a valuable contribution. This collection of articles from a

  10. Migration, Gender and Social Justice : Connecting Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migration, Gender and Social Justice : Connecting Research and Practice Networks. Gender equality in migration as a policy objective requires an understanding of the intersections between different power structures (gender, class, ethnicity and age) and how they produce different experiences with regard to identity ...

  11. Impacts and Risks of Migration and Refugee Flows in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    frameworks, policies, and structures giving effect to international protection obligations; redoubling efforts to find durable solutions for...education opportunities, poverty, overpopulation and food scarcity. As migration involves origin, transit and destination countries, inter-state, inter...and intra-regional cooperation are crucial for the management of migration. As a result, Governments should look for collective solutions to

  12. Migration, Gender and Social Justice : Connecting Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migration, Gender and Social Justice : Connecting Research and Practice Networks. Gender equality in migration as a policy objective requires an understanding of the ... Claiming migrants' rights in Costa Rica through constitutional law. Dossiers. Protecting rights and reducing stigma against Vietnamese women married ...

  13. Migrations across International Boundaries and the Nationality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is indicated that these migrations were influenced by the changing political, economic security and demographic impact on both countries across their common borders; from the colonial era to date. These trans-border migrations, their trend, character including the British policy of encouraging immigration to south west ...

  14. Hungary in the Context of European Economic Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Nagy

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available On 19th June 2001, the Hungarian Parliament adopted an Act on “Hungarians living in neighboring countries” or the so-called “Status Law”. It came into force on 1st January 2002, giving special rights to Hungarian minority living in neighboring countries. This step was taken in order to exempt Hungarians living in Romania, Ukraine, Slovakia, Yugoslavia and Croatia from visa requirements for non-Schengen countries in the case of EU enlargement. The law raised controversy in the aforementioned neighboring countries and in EU itself, because it was adopted by the Hungarian Parliament without consultation with the EU Council, a matter made worse by the fact that some of the provisions laid down in this law are apparently in conflict with the prevailing European standards on minority protection. The present article concentrates on the peculiarities of migration processes in Hungary, whilst analyzing Hungarian migration policy (the so-called ethnic approach and discussing the consequences of Status Law implementation. Hungary is becoming more and more Western in its migration and demographic pattern. Like other Western countries it is faced with a lack of labor force and is trying to find its own solution to this problem, even to the extent of acting against EU regulations and international legal norms. The migration policy of the country is determined by the national policy for maintenance of close relations with Hungarians in neighboring countries, where a significant number of Hungarians live. The implementation of this law will help Hungarians (in the Hungarian government’s opinion to restrict emigration from one side, and will simultaneously moderate the process of assimilation of Hungarians into these neighboring countries as well. However, analysis of the migration history of Hungary over the last decade shows that this statement is very doubtful. In reality, the well-organized financial provisions, which are provided by the Status Law

  15. Managing International Labour Migration in ASEAN | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Philippines Institute for Development Studies and research partners in Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand to undertake joint research on existing policy and institutional arrangements for managing labour migration flows, and their development impacts. Researchers will ...

  16. Migration, Rural Poverty and Community Natural Resource ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will place the migration phenomenon in the context of cyclical household processes, community social capital, broad agrarian change, and government and donor policies. The research will explore how different forms of population mobility affect the management of agricultural land and other resources, where these are ...

  17. The challenges from globalisation and migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and migration has increased diversities and inequalities within and between nation states and has created new problems for public policies to regulate political and socio- economic problems on the national and global levels. The paper addresses the challenges from globalisation...

  18. Transnationalism, Migration and Emotions: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    This article is concerned with the emotional dynamics of transnationalism and migration and the impact on education. This impact is discussed in terms of how the movement of people involves complex emotional processes that have important consequences for educational policy, practice and research. The purpose of the author is to theorise how…

  19. 66 THE CHALLENGES OF MIGRATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in effective planning system by redefining our well being and ensuring good governmental policies that can ... Introduction. The idea of migration and African technological development is a very crucial issue in our quest .... desertification; famine or drought; political fear or persecution or crisis; slavery or forced labor; poor ...

  20. The multilevel governance of migration and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, P.; Penninx, R.; Garcés–Mascareñas, B.; Penninx, R.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on migration and integration as multilevel policy issues and explores the consequences in terms of multilevel governance. Immigration policymaking has been characterized by continued struggle between national governments and the EU about the amount of discretion states have in

  1. Migration status, reproductive health knowledge and sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive health is an essential aspect of the wellbeing of adolescents. Therefore reproductive health knowledge and sexual behaviour deservedly attract the attention of researchers, programme planners and policy implementers working with young people. Yet in Nigeria, little is known about the effect of migration ...

  2. Asian student migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  3. International labor migration: between human rights and political objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Musetescu

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the relation between the human right to migrate and the objectives of immigration policies. We argue that the temporary work migration is the clearest sign of the failure of political governance in both the host and native states, even if we may argue, to a different degree. The only way to reduce the pressure of immigration in developed countries would be to allow a freer global environment, in trade, industrial and taxation policies.

  4. Variation of 137Cs migration parameters in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silant'ev, A.N.; Shkuratova, I.G.

    1988-01-01

    Quasidiffusion model accounting the oriented migration is used to describe the observed profiles of 137 Cs distribution in soil. A way of model use in case of real soil, the quasidiffusion migration factor being varied, is suggested. It is shown that in the upper thin soil layer the quasidiffusion migration factor and oriented migration rate values are constant. With further increase of depth the quasidiffusion coefficient grows, the oriented migration rate is unchanged. On the basis of location data characteristic values of migration parameters for different soils of the USSR European territory depending on the soil texture, vegetative cover and moistening are determined

  5. Determinants of fertility in urban and rural Kenya: estimates and a simulation of the impact of education policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, D E; Milne, W J

    1993-03-01

    Fertility behavior and population growth and its impact on economics in Kenya are a concern because of recent trends. The aim of this research study was to examine the impact of multiple factors on fertility in urban and rural areas based on the 1984 Kenya contraceptive Prevalence Survey. Simulation models were used to project the number of births expected with the current educational program. The expectation was that increasing female education in rural areas would have an impact on birth probabilities. Policy implications are discussed in terms of increasing educational expenditures, particularly for rural women. The empirical model selected was based on theories on proximate determinants, demographic effects, and neoclassical models. A probit model was used to estimate whether or not a woman had a child in the year preceding the survey. Explanatory variables were economic (female employment and years of schooling), biological (mother's age and child mortality), and cultural (marital state, number of live births, and religion). The sample included 6405 women aged 15-49 years. Married urban women were 37% more likely than unmarried urban women to have given birth. Married rural women in monogamous marriages were 23% more likely to have given birth than their unmarried counterparts. The number in a marital union of wives did not affect the probability of birth in urban areas; the effect was quite small in rural areas. Probability of birth increased until age 25 in urban areas and to age 28 in rural areas. Previous live births had a small impact, and the inhibiting effect of an additional child is 2.7 times larger in urban than in rural areas. Only in urban areas did employment reduce the probability of a birth (by 7.4%). In rural areas, increases in education after the primary level were related to a decline in the probability of a birth (for a 26-year old woman there is a reduction in the probability of .18). The fertility rate of a woman completing secondary

  6. Environmental Change and Human Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 30th anniversary of the journal Migration and Ethnic Themes (MET is an occasion to announce a new key issue in the modern world’s future, which, in the authors’ opinion, is becoming the central theme within multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary field of migration studies. This concerns the displacement of people in the local and national context as well as migration across national borders, at the regional and global level, which are directly or indirectly caused by environmental change. The recent genetic studies on the origins and development of the human race further confirm that the human ecological migrations are the first and the oldest type of migrations at all. In addition, as archaeological and other findings suggest, just this type of migration sometimes played a key role in the emergence, decay and changing of ancient civilizations. It seems that the early researchers of migration studies had a lot in mind considering changes in natural environment as an important determinant of human spatial movements. The interest for this topic in the social sciences had trailed off until the re-emergence in the second half of the 1980s. The authors accept the classification on the causal categories of “environmental migration” as: a “natural” disasters; b “urban-industrial” disasters, and c exploitation and degradation of resources. Further, they deal with the definition of basic concepts, first of all with disputes about the definition of “environmental refugees” as opposed to “environmental migrants”. Finally, the authors systematize two major competing approaches to migration and migrants caused by environmental change. The first one is “the alarmist” and the second one “the sceptic” approach. Luckily, the Sceptics are able (for now to prove that deterrent worse-case scenarios on increasingly powerful and unstoppable “waves” of environmental migrants (refugees have not been achieved. This serves them as

  7. High-performance liquid chromatography - Ultraviolet method for the determination of total specific migration of nine ultraviolet absorbers in food simulants based on 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidine and organic phase anion exchange solid phase extraction to remove glyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianling; Xiao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Tong; Liu, Tingfei; Tao, Huaming; He, Jun

    2016-06-17

    The glyceride in oil food simulant usually causes serious interferences to target analytes and leads to failure of the normal function of the RP-HPLC column. In this work, a convenient HPLC-UV method for the determination of the total specific migration of nine ultraviolet (UV) absorbers in food simulants was developed based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and organic phase anion exchange (OPAE) SPE to efficiently remove glyceride in olive oil simulant. In contrast to the normal ion exchange carried out in an aqueous solution or aqueous phase environment, the OPAE SPE was performed in the organic phase environments, and the time-consuming and challenging extraction of the nine UV absorbers from vegetable oil with aqueous solution could be readily omitted. The method was proved to have good linearity (r≥0.99992), precision (intra-day RSD≤3.3%), and accuracy(91.0%≤recoveries≤107%); furthermore, the lower limit of quantifications (0.05-0.2mg/kg) in five types of food simulants(10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, 20% ethanol, 50% ethanol and olive oil) was observed. The method was found to be well suited for quantitative determination of the total specific migration of the nine UV absorbers both in aqueous and vegetable oil simulant according to Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Migration levels of the nine UV absorbers were determined in 31 plastic samples, and UV-24, UV-531, HHBP and UV-326 were frequently detected, especially in olive oil simulant for UV-326 in PE samples. In addition, the OPAE SPE procedure was also been applied to efficiently enrich or purify seven antioxidants in olive oil simulant. Results indicate that this procedure will have more extensive applications in the enriching or purification of the extremely weak acidic compounds with phenol hydroxyl group that are relatively stable in TMG n-hexane solution and that can be barely extracted from vegetable oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Networks and Selection in International Migration to Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubecker, Nina; Smolka, Marcel; Steinbacher, Anne

    This paper provides new evidence on migrant networks as determinants of the scale and skill structure of migration, using aggregate data from a recent migration boom to Spain. We develop a three-level nested multinomial logit migration model. Our model accommodates varying degrees of similarity...

  9. Sand wave migration predictor based on shape information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaapen, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    [1] Migration of offshore seabed waves, which endangers the stability of pipelines and communication cables, is hard to measure. The migration rates are small compared to the measurement errors. Here, sandwave migration rates are determined from the change in the crest position deduced from long

  10. Transverse entanglement migration in Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K. W.; Torres, J. P.; Eberly, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    We show that, although the amount of mutual entanglement of photons propagating in free space is fixed, the type of correlations between the photons that determine the entanglement can dramatically change during propagation. We show that this amounts to a migration of entanglement in Hilbert space, rather than real space. For the case of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, the migration of entanglement in transverse coordinates takes place from modulus to phase of the biphoton state and back again. We propose an experiment to observe this migration in Hilbert space and to determine the full entanglement

  11. Depth migration and de-migration for 3-D migration velocity analysis; Migration profondeur et demigration pour l'analyse de vitesse de migration 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assouline, F.

    2001-07-01

    3-D seismic imaging of complex geologic structures requires the use of pre-stack imaging techniques, the post-stack ones being unsuitable in that case. Indeed, pre-stack depth migration is a technique which allows to image accurately complex structures provided that we have at our disposal a subsurface velocity model accurate enough. The determination of this velocity model is thus a key element for seismic imaging, and to this end, migration velocity analysis methods have met considerable interest. The SMART method is a specific migration velocity analysis method: the singularity of this method is that it does not rely on any restrictive assumptions on the complexity of the velocity model to determine. The SMART method uses a detour through the pre-stack depth migrated domain for extracting multi-offset kinematic information hardly accessible in the time domain. Once achieved the interpretation of the pre-stack depth migrated seismic data, a kinematic de-migration technique of the interpreted events enables to obtain a consistent kinematic database (i.e. reflection travel-times). Then, the inversion of these travel-times, by means of reflection tomography, allows the determination of an accurate velocity model. To be able to really image geologic structures for which the 3-D feature is predominant, we have studied the implementation of migration velocity analysis in 3-D in the context of the SMART method, and more generally, we have developed techniques allowing to overcome the intrinsic difficulties in the 3-D aspects of seismic imaging. Indeed, although formally the SMART method can be directly applied to the case of 3-D complex structures, the feasibility of its implementation requires to choose well the imaging domain. Once this choice done, it is also necessary to conceive a method allowing, via the associated de-migration, to obtain the reflection travel-times. We first consider the offset domain which constitutes, still today, the strategy most usually used

  12. Negar la política, negar sus sujetos y derechos (Las políticas migratorias y de asilo como emblemas de la necropolitica | Deny the Politics, their Subjects and Rights (Migration and Asylum Policies as Emblems of Necropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier De Lucas Martín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las políticas europeas de inmigración y refugio han sido criticadas por quienes las consideran emblemas de una concepción que pone en grave riesgo elementos básicos del Estado de Derecho y aun de la democracia. El epítome es la aparición de mercados de esclavos en Libia, a las puertas de la UE, un Estado fallido que la UE y sus Estados miembros se empeñan en elevar a la condición de partner privilegiado de sus políticas de externalización. Tomando como base los análisis de Lochak, Agambem y Bauman y la concepción de la propuesta por el filósofo camerunés Mbembé, desarrollando tesis de Foucault (biopolítica, se proponen algunas alternativas que vienen presididas por la exigencia de reconocimiento y garantía de derechos básicos de inmigrantes y refugiados. Abstract: European immigration and refuge policies have been criticized by those who see them as emblems of a conception that puts in serious risk basic elements of the Rule of Law and even of democracy. The epitome is the emergence of slave markets in Libya (at the gates of the EU, a failed state that, nevertheless, the EU and its Member States are determined to raise to the status of privileged partner of their outsourcing policies. Based on the analysis of Lochak, Agambem and Bauman and the conception of the proposed by the Cameroonian philosopher Mbembé who develops Foucault's thesis about biopolitics, this text will propose some alternatives that are leaded by the requirement of recognition and guarantee of rights of immigrants and refugees.

  13. Public social monitoring reports and their effect on a policy programme aimed at addressing the social determinants of health to improve health equity in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, Frank; Valentine, Nicole B; Matheson, Don; Rasanathan, Kumanan

    2014-01-01

    The important role that monitoring plays in advancing global health is well established. However, the role of social monitoring as a tool for addressing social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity-focused policies remains under-researched. This paper assesses the extent and ways in which New Zealand's (NZ) Social Reports (SRs) supported a SDH- and health equity-oriented policy programme nationally over the 2000-2008 period by documenting the SRs' history and assessing its impact on policies across sectors in government and civil society. We conducted key-informant interviews with five senior policy-makers and an e-mail survey with 24 government and civil society representatives on SRs' history and policy impact. We identified common themes across these data and classified them accordingly to assess the intensity of the reports' use and their impact on SDH- and health equity-focused policies. Bibliometric analyses of government publications and media items were undertaken to empirically assess SRs' impact on government and civil society. SRs in NZ arose out of the role played by government as the "benevolent social welfare planner" and an understanding of the necessity of economic and social security for "progress". The SRs were linked to establishing a government-wide programme aimed at reducing inequalities. They have been used moderately to highly in central and local government and in civil society, both within and outside the health sector, but have neither entered public treasury and economic development departments nor the commercial sector. The SRs have not reached the more universal status of economic indicators. However, they have had some success at raising awareness of, and have stimulated isolated action on, SDH. The NZ case suggests that national-level social monitoring provides a valuable tool for raising awareness of SDH across government and civil society. A number of strategies could improve social reports' effectiveness in stimulating

  14. Internal migration: why do Filipinos move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolipa, N

    1980-01-01

    The rapid movement of Filipinos from 1 part of the Philippines to another is not a new phenomenon, but mobility has been increasing. A study conducted by Peter C. Smith revealed that interprovincial lifetime mobility of the national population increased from 15.8% in 1960 to 17.6% in 1970, while interregional mobility increased from 12.7% to 13.4%. People still disagree as to whether the size and rate of growth of the population are excessive, but there seems to be total consensus as regards its spatial imbalance. Because internal migration appears to be an important factor in national development, a need exists to examine different aspects of internal migration, such as the directions taken by migration flows, the migrants' reasons for moving, the migrants' characteristics, the migrants' success or lack of success at their places of destination, the social problems accompanying internal migration, effforts to deal with the problems caused by internal migration, and the implications of migration trends for policy and for the country's development programs. The most dominant migration trend in the Philippines in recent years has been toward the urban, or more accurately the suburban, areas adjacent to Metropolitan Manila. The city of Manila itself suffered a net outflow, further pointing to the trend toward suburbanization. Migration flows are primarily caused by economic reasons. About one half the sample of a Filipinas Foundation Study moved to provinces other than the province of birth in the pursuit of employment and other economic opportunities. A study of the country's migrant population age 15 and older showed that 53% of migrants were female. For male migrants, age ranges from 20-40; it ranges from 15-35 for females. Where cash income is concerned, migrants in Pernia's study of rural urban migration were better off than nonmigrants. Migrants were, on the average, as well off as native urbanites or metropolitanites. Among the more significant points raised by

  15. Environmental impact of flood: the study of arsenic speciation in exchangeable fraction of flood deposits of Warta river (Poland) in determination of "finger prints" of the pollutants origin and the ways of the migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lidia; Skolasińska, Katarzyna; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents the application of the hyphenated technique - high-performance liquid chromatography with atomic absorption spectrometry detection with hydride generation (HPLC-HG-AAS) - in the determinations of inorganic forms of arsenic: As(III) and As(V) in the exchangeable fraction of flood deposits. The separation of analytical signals of the determined arsenic forms was obtained using an ion-exchange column in a chromatographic system with the atomic absorption spectrometer as a detector, at the determination limits of 5 ngg(-1) for As(III) and 10 ngg(-1) for As(V). Flood deposits were collected after big flood event in valley of the Warta river which took place in summer 2010. Samples of overbank deposits were taken in Poznań agglomeration and vicinity (NW Poland). The results of determinations of arsenic forms in the exchangeable fraction of flood deposits allowed indication of a hypothetical path of deposits migration transported by a river during flood and environmental threats posed by their deposition by flood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. OECD migration, welfare and skill selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    of the immigrants have been from poor countries, where the educational level of the population is low. The comprehensive income support schemes, social safety net and a high tax pressure, may play a role in changing the composition of migration flows. This paper presents empirical evidence on immigration flows...... into 27 OECD countries over the period of 12 years, 1989-2000. Using a fixed effects panel data model, we analyze the determinants of the migration flows during the latest decade. We study whether there are significant selectivity effects in international migration flows, i.e. whether the countries......Recent migration patterns show growing migration pressure and changing composition of immigrants in many Western countries. According to theory, the impact of immigration depends on the skill distribution of immigrants compared to the natives. During the latest decade, an increasing proportion...

  17. The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacPherson Douglas W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented.

  18. Migration, violence, and safety among migrant sex workers: a qualitative study in two Guatemalan communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Silverman, Jay G; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2016-09-01

    Despite reports of high levels of violence among women migrants in Central America, limited evidence exists regarding the health and safety of migrant sex workers in Central America. This study is based on 16 months of field research (November 2012-February 2014), including ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews, and focus groups conducted with 52 internal and international migrant female sex workers in Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, key transit and destination communities for both international and internal migrants. The analysis explored migration-related determinants of susceptibility to violence experienced by migrant sex workers across different phases of migration. Violence in home communities and economic considerations were key drivers of migration. Unsafe transit experiences (eg undocumented border crossings) and negative interactions with authorities in destination settings (eg extortion) contributed to migrant sex workers' susceptibility to violence, while enhanced access to information on immigration policies and greater migration and sex work experience were found to enhance agency and resilience. Findings suggest the urgent need for actions that promote migrant sex workers' safety in communities of origin, transit, and destination, and programmes aimed at preventing and addressing human rights violations within the context of migration and sex work.

  19. Political freedom and the response to economic incentives: labor migration in Africa, 1972-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, A P; Mcmillan, J

    1994-12-01

    This study examines the thesis that political institutions and the freedoms and civil rights generated by these institutions affect migration decisions. The hypothesis is based on one stated by Adam Smith in 1776, that economic conditions that reflect greater political freedoms and civil liberties harbor higher levels of resource mobility in response to economic incentives. Pooled cross-sectional and time-series analysis is based on data from the World Bank for 32 African countries during 1972-87. Findings support the hypothesis that migration rate is more affected by the expected returns ratio to labor in countries where civil liberties are greater than in nations with fewer civil liberties. The implication, from the inclusion of institutional factors in the model, is that civil liberties have an indirect impact on the rate of labor migration out of agriculture in Africa. The impact is a mix of economic incentives and civil liberties. In the political rights model, the most free countries had the largest migration elasticity. The findings on political rights impacts support findings by Friedman and McMillan that civil liberties are a more important determinant of economic growth than political rights. Further testing for measurement error confirmed that the data were flawed, but not so greatly that the basic findings were overturned. The migration out of African agriculture was found to be sensitive to the effect of price signals, which were conditioned by the degree of political rights and civil liberties. Policy makers are urged to consider both changes in pricing and institutions.

  20. The Impact of International Migration on the Labor Market – A Case Study from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Oláh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic, political and social changes experienced globally in recent years have influenced international migration in various countries. The aim of our study is to present the economic and non-economic aspects which determine the quantitative evaluation of migration and to reveal which of the two main factor groups is more dominant. In January 2017, an online questionnaire survey was conducted on the subject of migration. The group of respondents consisted of 438 full-time BSc, MSc and PhD students in Hungarian higher education institutions. Based on these questionnaires, two independent samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA, factor analysis and binary logistic regression procedures were performed. Based on the findings obtained, it was concluded that anti-migration behaviour cannot be explicitly explained by its economic impacts on the labour market. The rejecting attitudes observed on behalf of certain respondents were not in significant correlation with their highest educational levels or their given social class. As a result of the statistical analysis performed, it was concluded that the integration of foreigners is hindered by the so-called socio-cultural barriers, which cannot be removed solely by economic policy measures. Social conflicts of interest have to be eliminated in order for migration to have an active and permanently positive impact on the economy.

  1. Automation of Flexible Migration Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk von Suchodoletz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Many digital preservation scenarios are based on the migration strategy, which itself is heavily tool-dependent. For popular, well-defined and often open file formats – e.g., digital images, such as PNG, GIF, JPEG – a wide range of tools exist. Migration workflows become more difficult with proprietary formats, as used by the several text processing applications becoming available in the last two decades. If a certain file format can not be rendered with actual software, emulation of the original environment remains a valid option. For instance, with the original Lotus AmiPro or Word Perfect, it is not a problem to save an object of this type in ASCII text or Rich Text Format. In specific environments, it is even possible to send the file to a virtual printer, thereby producing a PDF as a migration output. Such manual migration tasks typically involve human interaction, which may be feasible for a small number of objects, but not for larger batches of files.We propose a novel approach using a software-operated VNC abstraction layer in order to replace humans with machine interaction. Emulators or virtualization tools equipped with a VNC interface are very well suited for this approach. But screen, keyboard and mouse interaction is just part of the setup. Furthermore, digital objects need to be transferred into the original environment in order to be extracted after processing. Nevertheless, the complexity of the new generation of migration services is quickly rising; a preservation workflow is now comprised not only of the migration tool itself, but of a complete software and virtual hardware stack with recorded workflows linked to every supported migration scenario. Thus the requirements of OAIS management must include proper software archiving, emulator selection, system image and recording handling. The concept of view-paths could help either to automatically determine the proper pre-configured virtual environment or to set up system

  2. Cash seeking behaviour and migration: a place-to-place migration function for Cote d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velenchik, A D

    1993-12-01

    "This paper presents estimates of an aggregate place-to-place migration function for Cote d'Ivoire based on the premise that migration is motivated by rural residents' desire for cash income. The results indicate that migration from a region responds differently to changes in cash and food income, which supports the idea that it is the composition of rural income, and not just its level, that determines migration flows." excerpt

  3. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    decrease fertility, control international migration, and modify the spatial distribution of the population. To reduce its population growth rate, Pakistan has adopted a multi-sectoral, multidimensional approach to family planning. The policy of the government of the Philippines is to bring the population growth rate in line with the availability of natural resources and employment opportunities. In its 5-year plan covering 1982-86, the government of the Republic of Korea emphasized social development, attempting to more fully integrate population and development policies and programs within relevant sectors. To reduce its population growth rate to 1.3% by 1992, the government of Thailand is expanding the reach of its family planning program.

  4. Migration: a concept analysis from a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michelle; Baumann, Andrea; Blythe, Jennifer; Fisher, Anita; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2012-05-01

      This article is a report of a concept analysis of nurse migration.   International migration is increasing and nurse migrants are active participants in this movement. Migration is a complex term and can be examined from a range of perspectives. Analysis of nurse migration is needed to guide policy, practice and research.   A literature search was undertaken using electronic literature indexes, specific journals and websites, internet search engines and hand searches. No timeframe was placed on the search. Most literature found was published between 2001 and 2009. A sample of 80 documents met the inclusion criteria.   Walker and Avant's approach guided the analysis.   Nurse migration can be defined by five attributes: the motivation and decisions of individuals; external barriers and facilitators; freedom of choice to migrate; freedom to migrate as a human right, and dynamic movement. Antecedents of migration include the political, social, economic, legal, historical and educational forces that comprise the push and pull framework. The consequences of migration are positive or negative depending on the viewpoint and its affect on the individual and other stakeholders such as the source country, destination country, healthcare systems and the nursing profession.   This concept analysis clarified the complexities surrounding nurse migration. A nursing-specific middle-range theory was proposed to guide the understanding and study of nurse migration. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Migration and income distribution.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers G

    1981-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper based on a conference paper on models for analysis of interrelationships between labour mobility of migrant workers (migration) and income distribution in developing countries - includes a literature survey of empirical research, and covers labour market absorption of migrant rural workers, effects of rural areas-urban areas wage differentials on migration, impact of migration on wages, etc. References. Conference held in Ahmedabad 1981 Jan.

  6. Determining the Impact of Federal Antidiscrimination Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks: A Study of South Carolina.

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, James J; Payner, Brook S

    1989-01-01

    This paper evaluates alternative explanations for the dramatic increase in black employment in South Carolina manufacturing that occurred in the mid-1960s. Black progress in traditionally segregated sectors of manufacturing in operation at the time Jim Crow laws were passed cannot be attributed to tight labor markets, the decline of agriculture, or the growth of education of the black workforce. The only plausible explanation is federal government civil rights and affirmative action policy. F...

  7. Determinants of evidence use in public health policy making: Results from a study across six EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Goor, Ien; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Syed, Ahmed; Juel Lau, Cathrine; Sandu, Petru; Spitters, Hilde; Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Dulf, Diana; Valente, Adriana; Castellani, Tommaso; Aro, Arja R

    2017-03-01

    The knowledge-practice gap in public health is widely known. The importance of using different types of evidence for the development of effective health promotion has also been emphasized. Nevertheless, in practice, intervention decisions are often based on perceived short-term opportunities, lacking the most effective approaches, thus limiting the impact of health promotion strategies. This article focuses on facilitators and barriers in the use of evidence in developing health enhancing physical activity policies. Data was collected in 2012 by interviewing 86 key stakeholders from six EU countries (FI, DK, UK, NL, IT, RO) using a common topic guide. Content analysis and concept mapping was used to construct a map of facilitators and barriers. Barriers and facilitators experienced by most stakeholders and policy context in each country are analysed. A lack of locally useful and concrete evidence, evidence on costs, and a lack of joint understanding were specific hindrances. Also users' characteristics and the role media play were identified as factors of influence. Attention for individual and social factors within the policy context might provide the key to enhance more sustainable evidence use. Developing and evaluating tailored approaches impacting on networking, personal relationships, collaboration and evidence coproduction is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure and behavior as determinants: United States nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    US efforts to control chemical and biological warfare and nuclear testing are examined with the aim of explaining the paucity of US backed agreements in these areas. Two theoretical perspectives, the behavioral and structural approaches, are used to explore US arms control outcomes. In the behavioral approach, the effects of governmental organization and the bargaining dynamics of policy-making elites with different cognitive styles are posited as important influences on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes. The behavioral perspective accounts for the timing of all US failed and successful entries (with one exception) into nuclear test bans and chemical and biological warfare restraints. A shortcoming of the behavior approach, however, is that it tends to overemphasize the chances for successful US entry into nuclear test and chemical and biological warfare limitations. Analysis of the same events from the structural perspective helps to correct for expectations generated by behavioral variables for a higher success rate than ultimately resulted. In the structural approach, the focus is on the effect of the organization of international politics on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes

  9. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  10. Migration into art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    This book addresses a topic of increasing importance to artists, art historians and scholars of cultural studies, migration studies and international relations: migration as a profoundly transforming force that has remodelled artistic and art institutional practices across the world. It explores...... contemporary art's critical engagement with migration and globalisation as a key source for improving our understanding of how these processes transform identities, cultures, institutions and geopolitics. The author explores three interwoven issues of enduring interest: identity and belonging, institutional...... visibility and recognition of migrant artists, and the interrelations between aesthetics and politics, including the balancing of aesthetics, politics and ethics in representations of forced migration....

  11. Norms and the development of new knowledge as determinants of climate policy. Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schymura, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of long-term effects of climate change in cost-benefit analysis has a long tradition in environmental economics. Since the publication of the ''Stern Review'' in 2006, the debate about the impacts of climate change on the economy and how to compare cost and benefits with each other was revived. The assessment of climate change mitigation policies mainly depends on three not mutually exclusive decisions: First, the discount rate chosen, since costs are incurred today and long-term benefits occur in the future. Second, the uncertainties related to the problem of climate change. This debate was spurred by the literature surrounding Martin Weitzman's ''dismal theorem'', stating that the unknown unknowns could be too large for cost-benefit analysis of long-term climate policy measures. And third, the treatment of technological change in economic models of climate policy. This dissertation contributes to all three mentioned aspects and consists of two interrelated parts. First, I discuss norms, economic welfare criteria, and catastrophic risks in the context of climate change. This first part is closely bound to a discussion of the Stern Review. The second part of the dissertation deals with technological change in its various dimensions and addresses several questions: How is technological change taken into consideration in large-scale environment-economy models? How do certain inputs substitute each other? And how does technology affect energy intensity, a key parameter for meeting targets set by climate policy? Alongside these questions, I also discuss how the production of knowledge takes place in an environmental and resource economics framework and how knowledge production patterns have changed during previous decades. While the first part is of theoretical nature, the second part is mainly empirical. Summing up, I suggest approaches towards long-term evaluation of climate policies and how some methodological drawbacks of the ''Stern Review'' could

  12. Nuclide-migration field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdal, B.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Johnstone, J.K.; Erickson, K.L.; Friedman, A.M.; Fried, S.; Hines, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    When considering groundwater flow and radionuclide retention in the complex flow systems that can occur in geologic formations, one has a serious problem in determining if laboratory studies are being performed under conditions appropriate to natural systems. This document is the project plan for a program designed to begin to address these problems. The project is being carried out jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Argonne National Laboratory. The work has three principal objectives: (1) to develop the experimental, instrumental, and safety techniques necessary to conduct controlled, small-scale radionuclide migration field experiments, including those involving actinides; (2) to use these techniques to define radionuclide migration through rock by performing generic, at-depth experiments under closely monitored conditions; and (3) to determine whether available lithologic, geochemical, and hydrologic properties together with existing or developing transport models are sufficient and appropriate to describe real field conditions

  13. Migration and adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacoli, Cecilia

    2007-11-15

    Climate change is having an undeniable impact on many human systems and behaviours, including population mobility. This is hardly surprising: migration is an adaptive response to changes in people's circumstances. Yet environmental factors are not the whole story. Socio-economic, political and cultural factors are also closely linked to population movement, and heavily influence vulnerability to both direct and indirect impacts of climate change. Shifts in migration patterns are a strategy of adaptation to complex transformations, and recognising and accommodating this is key in policies for sustainable development and poverty reduction in the context of growing environmental stress.

  14. Migration and health: fact, fiction, art, politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Clarence C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent Immigration Bill debate in the United States Congress has again re-ignited the polemic regarding immigration policy. In this essay, I argue that disputes surrounding the legality of migrant workers highlight chronic, underlying problems related to factors that drive migration. The public health field, although concerned primarily with addressing the health needs of migrant populations, cannot remain disengaged from the wider debates about migration. The health needs of migrants, although in themselves important, are merely symptoms of deeper structural process that are intrinsically linked to equity and human rights, and simply focusing on health issues will be insufficient to address these societal pathologies.

  15. Migration: a core public health ethics issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, V; Dawson, A

    2018-03-29

    In this article, we outline the link between migration, public health and ethics. Discussing relevant arguments about migration from the perspective of public health and public health ethics. Critical review of theories and frameworks, case-based analysis and systematic identification and discussion of challenges. Migration is a core issue of public health ethics and must take a case-based approach: seeking to identify the specific ethical dimensions and vulnerabilities in each particular context. Public health as a practice, built upon the core value of justice, requires the protection and promotion of migrants' well-being (even if this produces tension with immigration services). Ethical analysis should take all phases of migration into account: before, during and after transit. We argue that migration policies, at least as they relate to migrants' well-being, should be founded upon a shared humanity, respect for human rights and on the idea that effective public health cannot and should not be confined within the borders and to the citizens of any host country. We make the case for migration to be seen as a core issue of public health ethics. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Migration processes and self-rated health among marriage migrants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Chieh; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Research on migrant health mostly examines labor migrants, with some attention paid to the trauma faced by refugees. Marriage migrants represent an understudied vulnerable population in the migration and health literature. Drawing on a Social Determinants of Health (SDH) approach, we use a large Korean national survey and stratified multivariate regressions to examine the link between migration processes and the self-rated health of Korea's three largest ethnic groups of marriage migrants: Korean-Chinese, Vietnamese, and Han Chinese. We find that post-migration socioeconomic status and several social integration factors are associated with the health of marriage migrants of all three groups. Specifically, having more social relationships with Koreans is associated with good health among marriage migrants, while having more social relationships with co-ethnics is associated with worse health. Marriage migrants' perceived social status of their natal and marital families is a better predictor of their health than more objective measures such as their education attainment and that of their Korean husbands. The post-migration social gradients among all ethnic groups demonstrate a dose-response effect of marital family's social standing on marriage migrants' health, independent of their own education and the social standing of their natal families. Lastly, we find some ethnicity-specific predictors such as the association between higher educational level and worse health status among the Vietnamese. This variability by group suggests a more complex set of SDH occurred during the marriage migration processes than a basic SDH framework would predict. Using a new immigrant destination, South Korea, as an example, we conclude that migration and health policies that reduce ethnicity-specific barriers and offer integration programs in early post-migration stages may offer a pathway to good health among marriage migrants.

  17. ASIC proteins regulate smooth muscle cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Samira C; Jernigan, Nikki L; Hamilton, Gina; Drummond, Heather A

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Acid Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) protein expression and importance in cellular migration. We recently demonstrated that Epithelial Na(+)Channel (ENaC) proteins are required for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration; however, the role of the closely related ASIC proteins has not been addressed. We used RT-PCR and immunolabeling to determine expression of ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4 in A10 cells. We used small interference RNA to silence individual ASIC expression and determine the importance of ASIC proteins in wound healing and chemotaxis (PDGF-bb)-initiated migration. We found ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3, but not ASIC4, expression in A10 cells. ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3 siRNA molecules significantly suppressed expression of their respective proteins compared to non-targeting siRNA (RISC) transfected controls by 63%, 44%, and 55%, respectively. Wound healing was inhibited by 10, 20, and 26% compared to RISC controls following suppression of ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3, respectively. Chemotactic migration was inhibited by 30% and 45%, respectively, following suppression of ASIC1 and ASIC3. ASIC2 suppression produced a small, but significant, increase in chemotactic migration (4%). Our data indicate that ASIC expression is required for normal migration and may suggest a novel role for ASIC proteins in cellular migration.

  18. Measuring the Environmental Dimensions of Human Migration: The Demographer's Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth; Hunter, Lori M; Gray, Clark L

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the empirical literature linking environmental factors and human migration has grown rapidly and gained increasing visibility among scholars and the policy community. Still, this body of research uses a wide range of methodological approaches for assessing environment-migration relationships. Without comparable data and measures across a range of contexts, it is impossible to make generalizations that would facilitate the development of future migration scenarios. Demographic researchers have a large methodological toolkit for measuring migration as well as modeling its drivers. This toolkit includes population censuses, household surveys, survival analysis and multi-level modeling. This paper's purpose is to introduce climate change researchers to demographic data and methods and to review exemplary studies of the environmental dimensions of human migration. Our intention is to foster interdisciplinary understanding and scholarship, and to promote high quality research on environment and migration that will lead toward broader knowledge of this association.

  19. Using election registration data to measure migration trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration is critical for policy agendas and government planning as it changes the demographic composition of towns, cities and regions – this requires adjustments to service and infrastructure provision. To develop suitable policy responses, reliable, comparable and timely information is required. Obvious sources of ...

  20. The spring migration of adult North American Ospreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Washburn, Brian E.; Elliott, John E.; Henny, Charles J.; Kennedy, Robert S.; MacLeod, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Most North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) are migratory, breeding in northern latitudes and migrating long distances to and from their wintering grounds in the tropics. Although fall migration patterns of North American Ospreys have been described and studied, very little has been published about the spring migration of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to: (1) determine the characteristics (timing, duration, migratory routes) of spring migrations of Ospreys; (2) determine if differences in spring migration patterns existed between sexes and among three breeding populations (east coast, midwestern, and western); and (3) compare consecutive fall and spring migrations of individual Ospreys. The median dates for departure from the wintering grounds and arrival on the breeding grounds did not differ significantly between adult male and female Ospreys. Compared to their fall migrations, all male and all east coast Ospreys spent fewer days on migration, fewer days in stopover periods along the migration route, traveled shorter distances overall, and traveled farther (on average) each day during spring. In contrast, fall and spring migration characteristics of all female and western Ospreys were similar. Our findings suggest that, although sex and breeding location might influence the spring migration strategy used by individual Ospreys, both males and females minimize the time spent on migration to ensure a timely arrival on the breeding grounds to establish or defend a nesting territory.