WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy context cycles

  1. The Policy Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    Green project. The term ‘green’ is used in the sustainability context, meaning that it features economic and social dimensions in addition to the usual environmental one. The most important EU transport policy documents are reviewed and briefly presented by transportation mode. Horizontal documents covering all...

  2. Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    in different life phases. In this paper I discuss the state of lifelong learning policy in two European societies with different educational contexts, histories, system models and development issues, Denmark and Portugal. As part of the paper will give a brief overview of EU policies and initiatives...... in the area of lifelong learning and discuss how national policies in the two contexts are influenced by EU policies and funding....

  3. National Policy on Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo, S.

    1996-01-01

    National policy on nuclear fuel cycle is aimed at attaining the expected condition, i.e. being able to support optimality the national energy policy and other related Government policies taking into account current domestic nuclear fuel cycle condition and the trend of international nuclear fuel cycle development, the national strength, weakness, thread and opportunity in the field of energy. This policy has to be followed by the strategy to accomplish covering the optimization of domestic efforts, cooperation with other countries, and or purchasing licences. These policy and strategy have to be broken down into various nuclear fuel cycle programmes covering basically assesment of the whole cycle, performing research and development of the whole cycle without enrichment and reprocessing being able for weapon, as well as programmes for industrialization of the fuel cycle stepwisery commencing with the middle part of the cycle and ending with the edge of the back-end of the cycle

  4. Lifelong learning policy in two national contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies...... have significant common elements. As a basis for the discussion an inventory of policy elements is presented. Denmark and Portugal have been chosen as examples of smaller EU member states with different historical, social and cultural characteristics. Developments and policies in the two countries......, including the links with EU education policy, are described. The discussion includes comparison drawing on the inventory of policy elements. A main conclusion is that the different historical trajectories of the two countries remain very important for present-day education and for the advancement...

  5. MARKETING POLICY FORMULATION IN MULTIPLE STRATEGIC CONTEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU N EAMŢU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Strategy, as part adaptation of company’s actions in a particular business area to specific demand and competition or conversely opening new market positions, is the main strategic move that ensures competitiveness in the market and ensuring appreciable profitability of the business. Marketing policies adopted by one firm are fundamental decisions concerning the product and its conditioning elements. Marketing decisions are manifold; the most important for a company is selection of those marketing elements that can support business strategy as defined at the level of a whole company's strategic units. This paper brings to the fore just correlations between marketing actions that are at the reach of the company and strategic business contexts in which it may lie. Thus, according to the four strategic situation of the market, will analyze key sets of strategic action in the field of marketing that companies can use in order to support the business strategy and not undermine the production and marketing efforts with the costs involved.

  6. Canada's climate change policy in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.

    2000-10-01

    Climate change has a wide range of implications for the health, well-being, and economic prospects for Canadians, and for the ecological systems that sustain life on this planet. The overwhelming scientific opinion, world leaders and even a growing number of corporate leaders now agree that the Earth is undergoing a significant and unusual warming period as a result of the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. There is also wide agreement that much of this build-up is anthropogenic, and that a global effort is required to slow this trend. Because climate change is a global problem, it requires global solutions by way of reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the Kyoto Agreement of 1997 constitutes a major breakthrough, even though it takes only a small step towards towards altering the human impact on global climate. Although some 80 states, plus the European Union signed the Kyoto Protocol, it remains unclear when it will come into force because the majority of states have failed to ratify it, pending the resolution of a variety of technical and operational details. Canada is the second highest emitter of greenhouse gases (16 tonnes per capita, compared to world average of 3.6 tonnes per capita). This, combined with Canada's foreign policy goals of playing a leading role in taking action and preserving its reputation as an honest broker, makes the challenge of meeting Canada's Kyoto commitments especially pressing. The purpose of this paper is to explain Canada's climate change policy in the context of these international and domestic pressures. The paper identifies the main climate change-related policy challenges, international responses to date and the constraints and opportunities open to Canada in the light of its economy, its federalist political structure, and place in the world as a middle power, as well as its geographic situation, natural resources and environmental endowment. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto

  7. Bioenergy, the Carbon Cycle, and Carbon Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    The evolving energy and land-use policies across North America and Africa provide critical case studies in the relationship between regional development, the management of natural resources, and the carbon cycle. Over 50 EJ of the roughly 430 EJ total global anthropogenic energy budget is currently utilized in the form of direct biomass combustion. In North America 3 - 4 percent of total energy is derived from biomass, largely in combined heat and power (CHP) combustion applications. By contrast Africa, which is a major consumer of 'traditional' forms of biomass, uses far more total bioenergy products, but largely in smaller batches, with quantities of 0.5 - 2 tons/capita at the household level. Several African nations rely on biomass for well over 90 percent of household energy, and in some nations major portions of the industrial energy supply is also derived from biomass. In much of sub-Saharan Africa the direct combustion of biomass in rural areas is exceeded by the conversion of wood to charcoal for transport to the cities for household use there. There are major health, and environmental repercussions of these energy flows. The African, as well as Latin American and Asian charcoal trade has a noticeable signature on the global greenhouse gas cycles. In North America, and notably Scandinavia and India as well, biomass energy and emerging conversion technologies are being actively researched, and provide tremendous opportunities for the evolution of a sustainable, locally based, energy economy for many nations. This talk will examine aspects of these current energy and carbon flows, and the potential that gassification and new silvicultural practices hold for clean energy systems in the 21st century. North America and Africa will be examined in particular as both sources of innovation in this field, and areas with specific promise for application of these energy technologies and biomass/land use practices to further energy and global climate management.

  8. Philippine linguistic policy in the global context

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Jiménez, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    The Philippines suffers an enduring linguistic problem that is not identified as such. Through the 20th century the goal has been to study a foreign language hoping for economical competitiveness in an Asian context. At present, this very context has revealed the fallacy of abandoning the education of the citizens in its own setting, if not pointed out the problem—Diglossia. By using an alien means of communication in the schools, the whole education has been alienated, and the result is a so...

  9. A Potentially Heteroglossic Policy Becomes Monoglossic in Context: An Ethnographic Analysis of Paraguayan Bilingual Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographic and discursive approaches to educational language policy (ELP) that explore how policy is appropriated in context are important for understanding policy success/failure in meeting goals of educational equity for language-minoritized students. This study describes how Paraguayan national policy for universal bilingual education…

  10. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  11. What is good governance in the context of drug policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Nicola; Rubin, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The concept of governance is applied in a wide range of contexts, but this paper focuses on governance in relation to public administration, i.e. states and how they take action, and specifically governance of particular policy areas. In the current context of financial austerity and an era of globalisation, policy-makers face pressures and challenges from a growing range of interests and local, national and supranational actors. Drug policy is an example of a particularly contentious and polarised area in which governance-related challenges abound. In response to these challenges, interest has grown in developing agreed policy governance standards and processes and articulating policy-making guidelines, including the use of available evidence to inform policy-making. Attempts have been made to identify 'policy fundamentals' - factors or aspects of policy-making apparently associated with successful policy development and implementation (Hallsworth & Rutter, 2011; Laughrin, 2011) and, in the drug policy field, Hughes et al. (2010) reflecting on the co-ordination of Australian drug policy highlighted some of what they considered principles of good governance. But how useful is the concept of 'good governance'; how well can it be defined, and to what purpose? As part of a wider project considering the governance of drug policy, RAND Europe and the UK Drug Policy Commission undertook a targeted review of other research and sought expert views, from within and beyond drug policy, on principles, processes, structures and stakeholders associated with good drug policy governance. From this emerged some perceived characteristics of good governance that were then used by the UK Drug Policy Commission to assess the extent to which drug policy making in the UK fits with these perceived good governance characteristics, and to suggest possible improvements. Particular consideration was given to the range of interests at stake, the overarching aims of drug policy and the

  12. Structural policy in the context of international competition aggravation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bodrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article researches the essence and peculiarities of the structural policy, performs classification of its models and determines possibilities of their use in the context of increasing international competition. It discovers the main components of the economic structure and trends of the state policy regarding their modernization. Measures on improvement of state regulation instruments are offered, factors of influence upon improvement of the Ukrainian economy structure are analyzed and priority goals are systematized which require urgent implementation in the terms of competitive struggle aggravation at the global markets. The article also researches the matter of importance of performing a complex of state functional and selective measures in the form of matrix policy for the purpose of protecting national interests of the country in the context of global challenges

  13. Replacement and inspection policies for products with random life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won Young; Nakagawa, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider maintenance policies for products in which the economical life cycle of products is a random variable. First, we study a periodic replacement policy with minimal repair. The system is minimally repaired at failure and is replaced by new one at age T (periodic replacement policy with minimal repair of Barlow and Hunter). The expected present value of total maintenance cost of products with random life cycle is obtained and the optimal replacement interval minimizing the cost is found. Second, we consider an inspection policy for products with random life cycle to detect the system failure. The expected total cost is obtained and the optimal inspection interval is found. Numerical examples are also included.

  14. The climate impacts of bioenergy systems depend on market and regulatory policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Derek M; Plevin, Richard J; Cohn, Avery S; Jones, Andrew D; Brandt, Adam R; Vergara, Sintana E; Kammen, Daniel M

    2010-10-01

    Biomass can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by displacing petroleum in the transportation sector, by displacing fossil-based electricity, and by sequestering atmospheric carbon. Which use mitigates the most emissions depends on market and regulatory contexts outside the scope of attributional life cycle assessments. We show that bioelectricity's advantage over liquid biofuels depends on the GHG intensity of the electricity displaced. Bioelectricity that displaces coal-fired electricity could reduce GHG emissions, but bioelectricity that displaces wind electricity could increase GHG emissions. The electricity displaced depends upon existing infrastructure and policies affecting the electric grid. These findings demonstrate how model assumptions about whether the vehicle fleet and bioenergy use are fixed or free parameters constrain the policy questions an analysis can inform. Our bioenergy life cycle assessment can inform questions about a bioenergy mandate's optimal allocation between liquid fuels and electricity generation, but questions about the optimal level of bioenergy use require analyses with different assumptions about fixed and free parameters.

  15. PREDICTABLE TRENDS OF EU TARIFF POLICY IN GLOBALIZATION'S CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of information regarding current situation of international trade relations, in particular those pertaining to EU, concerning to preferential trade agreements, the trend towards globalization and custom policies. The importance of this document is given by the identification of strategy trends in respect to EU tariff policy in the context of changes at commercial exchange level, as a consequence of international trade globalization's trend. The tariff policy, as a component of the trade one, represents a factor which influences companies behavior and, consequently the structure of import-export interstates relations. Specialty literature has lately identified a less natural phenomenon: starting with adoption by WTO states members of some measures and principles that emphasize the trade globalization tendency, a significant number of preferential agreements were settled in the meanwhile, many of them being bilateral, fact at least at first view is opposite to globalization phenomenon. The causes of this phenomenon have not been yet completely identified by economic analysts, so that these preferential trade agreements can be translated as a an impediment in the way of globalization and, on the contrary an intermediate phase and an accelerator of global extension trade exchange phenomenon. The present work ideas are based on analysis by bibliographic guide that link to historical GATT/WTO and principles which sustain its operation and to dynamic of international trade. Also, there have been studied data related to strategies of trade policy adopted by EU. The results consist of information about tariff policy elements adopted or forecasted by EU in general strategic context of participation to international trade. Particularly, it is emphasized the new competencies that must be achieved by custom personnel because of changes in trade exchanges. The main idea is represented by the necessity of custom authorities responsibility

  16. Optimal fleet conversion policy from a life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyung Chul Kim; Ross, M.H.; Keoleian, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicles typically deteriorate with accumulating mileage and emit more tailpipe air pollutants per mile. Although incentive programs for scrapping old, high-emitting vehicles have been implemented to reduce urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases, these policies may create additional sales of new vehicles as well. From a life cycle perspective, the emissions from both the additional vehicle production and scrapping need to be addressed when evaluating the benefits of scrapping older vehicles. This study explores an optimal fleet conversion policy based on mid-sized internal combustion engine vehicles in the US, defined as one that minimizes total life cycle emissions from the entire fleet of new and used vehicles. To describe vehicles' lifetime emission profiles as functions of accumulated mileage, a series of life cycle inventories characterizing environmental performance for vehicle production, use, and retirement was developed for each model year between 1981 and 2020. A simulation program is developed to investigate ideal and practical fleet conversion policies separately for three regulated pollutants (CO, NMHC, and NO x ) and for CO 2 . According to the simulation results, accelerated scrapping policies are generally recommended to reduce regulated emissions, but they may increase greenhouse gases. Multi- objective analysis based on economic valuation methods was used to investigate trade-offs among emissions of different pollutants for optimal fleet conversion policies. (author)

  17. Finnish and Swedish business cycles in a global context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael

    2008-01-01

    measures of the international business cycle, a European and a non-European cycle. The Finnish cycle has become more synchronized to the European cycle but less synchronized to the non-EU cycle after 1999. For Sweden we find the opposite result. The decision by the Finnish government to join EMU......This paper evaluates the decisions made by the Finnish government to join EMU and the Swedish government not to join EMU in the early 1990s. Focusing on the characteristics of business cycles during the postwar period, we find that output fluctuations in Sweden and Finland are correlated to two...

  18. Marriage, violence and HIV: the shifting policy context in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Margaret S

    2016-06-01

    The policy environment for vulnerable women in Uganda is rapidly changing, with the aim of introducing more punitive measures for violent offenders and more options for women seeking help. This paper examines HIV-positive women who experienced intimate partner violence in two regions of Uganda prior to the enactment of the Domestic Violence Act of 2010. Based on in-depth interviews and observations, it reports on women's views of marriage and relationships, and their strategies for help seeking to show the interaction between the two phenomena within the local cultural and political context. HIV-positive women in Uganda reshape their notions of marriage and love based on experiences of violence, illness management and broader social factors. Their narratives of relationships and conflict reveal an ambivalence toward formal marriage because of both its security and rights and its potential to inhibit leaving, as well as a reluctance to seek help through formal means. This construction of marriage is intertwined with the shifting social backdrop in Uganda, in particular the increasing rollout of antiretroviral treatment for HIV and the development of new policies surrounding violence, marriage and divorce. Women's experiences show potential points of intervention and the need for multi-sectoral responses to violence.

  19. Cognitive enhancement kept within contexts: neuroethics and informed public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John R; Galvagni, Lucia; Giordano, James

    2014-01-01

    Neurothics has far greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements arriving from novel brain-centered biotechnologies and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize the best cognitive and neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could possibly count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely "cognitive" enhancement. Where cognitive processing and the mental life is concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what has actually been cognitively improved. And what can concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by the classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. Additionally, where the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements, we mustn't presume that public approval towards enhancers will somehow automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of any nuanced appreciation for the control which performance contexts and public contexts exert over what "cognitive" enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can all too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as surely good for us and for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of oft-heard observations about serious hurdles for reliable enhancement from neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications to those hurdles for a sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and a wise policy review over cognitive enhancement. We offer some crucial recommendations for undertaking such investigations, so that cognitive enhancers

  20. An integrated life cycle inventory for demolition processes in the context of life cycle sustainability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Hu, Mingming; van Roekel, Eric

    2012-01-01

    According to the Life Cycle Assessment in Building and Construction: State-of-the-Art Report (2003), the dismantling and demolition stage of the building life cycle is only sometimes included in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) when doing Life Cycle Assessments (LCA). The reason that it is less...... inventoried in a traditional LCA maybe because this stage is expected to have a negligible environmental impact comparing to other stages in the life cycle of the buildings. When doing a life cycle sustainability assessment considering not only environmental but also economic and social impacts, the impacts...

  1. Cognitive Enhancement Kept within Contexts: Neuroethics and Informed Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eShook

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroethics has greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements ascribed to brain science, and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize current neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely ‘cognitive’ enhancement. Where cognitive processing and mental life are concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what is actually cognitively improved. And, what concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. As well, the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements; we mustn’t presume that public approval towards enhancers will automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of a nuanced appreciation for the control which performance and public contexts exert over what ‘cognitive’ enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as good for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of hurdles for reliable enhancement through neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications of such hurdles for both sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and development of policy to guide cognitive enhancement. In this essay, we seek to more accurately define and contextualize cognitive performance enhancement, and offer recommendations to ensure that cognitive enhancers that truly deserve public approval can be better

  2. Teaching Systems Thinking in the Context of the Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tammy D.; Gail Jones, M.; Chesnutt, Katherine

    2017-06-01

    Complex systems affect every part of our lives from the ecosystems that we inhabit and share with other living organisms to the systems that supply our water (i.e., water cycle). Evaluating events, entities, problems, and systems from multiple perspectives is known as a systems thinking approach. New curriculum standards have made explicit the call for teaching with a systems thinking approach in our science classrooms. However, little is known about how elementary in-service or pre-service teachers understand complex systems especially in terms of systems thinking. This mixed methods study investigated 67 elementary in-service teachers' and 69 pre-service teachers' knowledge of a complex system (e.g., water cycle) and their knowledge of systems thinking. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of participants. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of content assessment data and questionnaires were conducted. Results from this study showed elementary in-service and pre-service teachers applied different levels of systems thinking from novice to intermediate. Common barriers to complete systems thinking were identified with both in-service and pre-service teachers and included identifying components and processes, recognizing multiple interactions and relationships between subsystems and hidden dimensions, and difficulty understanding the human impact on the water cycle system.

  3. Drivers of cycling demand and cycling futures in the Danish context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Analysis of the time trend in cycling mode share based on longest possible time series. Logistic regression model of cycling as mode choice as basis for studying ‘driver variables’ contribution to time trend. Describing important vectors of change behind the time trend.......Analysis of the time trend in cycling mode share based on longest possible time series. Logistic regression model of cycling as mode choice as basis for studying ‘driver variables’ contribution to time trend. Describing important vectors of change behind the time trend....

  4. Ada education in a software life-cycle context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Anne J.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the experience gained from a comprehensive educational program undertaken at The Charles Stark Draper Lab. to introduce the Ada language and to transition modern software engineering technology into the development of Ada and non-Ada applications is described. Initially, a core group, which included manager, engineers and programmers, received training in Ada. An Ada Office was established to assume the major responsibility for training, evaluation, acquisition and benchmarking of tools, and consultation on Ada projects. As a first step in this process, and in-house educational program was undertaken to introduce Ada to the Laboratory. Later, a software engineering course was added to the educational program as the need to address issues spanning the entire software life cycle became evident. Educational efforts to date are summarized, with an emphasis on the educational approach adopted. Finally, lessons learned in administering this program are addressed.

  5. European and United States Political Contexts for Family Policy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumon, Wilfried; Aldous, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Presents how and why programs embodying family policy in Western Europe and the United States differ. By indicating current changes in these programs and how political decisions affect them, fruitful areas for family policy research are suggested. Family policy meeting needs of pragmatically defined parent-child units will be most successful.…

  6. Performance of municipal cycling policies in medium-sized cities in the Netherlands since 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, L.; Bertolini, L.; te Brömmelstroet, M.

    2016-01-01

    With its high cycling mode share, the Netherlands is often seen as a best practice for cycling policies. However, there is little insight into the drivers behind this phenomenon, specifically which policy interventions increased cycling rates and which did not. The knowledge gap on the effectiveness

  7. Development of oral health policy in Nigeria: an analysis of the role of context, actors and policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiaba, Enyi; Uguru, Nkoli; Ebenso, Bassey; Russo, Giuliano; Ezumah, Nkoli; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-05-06

    In Nigeria, there is a high burden of oral health diseases, poor coordination of health services and human resources for delivery of oral health services. Previous attempts to develop an Oral Health Policy (OHP) to decrease the oral disease burden failed. However, a policy was eventually developed in November 2012. This paper explores the role of contextual factors, actors and the policy process in the development of the OHP and possible reasons why the current approved OHP succeeded. The study was undertaken across Nigeria; information gathered through document reviews and in-depth interviews with five groups of purposively selected respondents. Analysis of the policy development process was guided by the policy triangle framework, examining context, policy process and actors involved in the policy development. The foremost enabling factor was the yearning among policy actors for a policy, having had four failed attempts. Other factors were the presence of a democratically elected government, a framework for health sector reform instituted by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH). The approved OHP went through all stages required for policy development unlike the previous attempts. Three groups of actors played crucial roles in the process, namely academics/researchers, development partners and policy makers. They either had decision making powers or influenced policy through funding or technical ability to generate credible research evidence, all sharing a common interest in developing the OHP. Although evidence was used to inform the development of the policy, the complex interactions between the context and actors facilitated its approval. The OHP development succeeded through a complex inter-relationship of context, process and actors, clearly illustrating that none of these factors could have, in isolation, catalyzed the policy development. Availability of evidence is necessary but not sufficient for developing policies in this area. Wider socio

  8. Shaping the Educational Policy Field: "Cross-Field Effects" in the Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui

    2018-01-01

    This paper theorises how politics, economy and migrant population policies influence educational policy, utilising Bourdieusian theoretical resources to analyse the Chinese context. It develops the work of Lingard and Rawolle on cross-field effects and produces an updated three-step analytical framework. Taking the policy issue of the schooling of…

  9. The terrestrial carbon cycle on the regional and global scale : modeling, uncertainties and policy relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, van J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Contains the chapters: The importance of three centuries of climate and land-use change for the global and regional terrestrial carbon cycle; and The terrestrial C cycle and its role in the climate change policy

  10. Situating School District Resource Decision Making in Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Angeline K.

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization and deregulation policies assume that local educational leaders make better resource decisions than state policy makers do. Conceptual models drawn from organizational theory, however, offer competing predictions about how district central office administrators are likely to leverage their professional expertise in devolved…

  11. MONETARY, MACROPRUDENTIAL POLICIES AND HOUSING CYCLES: EXPLORING THE NEXUS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Doğruel, Ali; Polat, Umurcan

    2018-01-01

    Given the pro-cyclicality of the financial cycles on the business cycles, it is ofimportance to analyze whether the use of the traditional monetary policy instruments along with the prudential responsibilities result in the prevention of unsustainable financial cycles e.g., housing cycles. Still, there is not enough empirical evidence regarding the exploration of the nexus between housing variables and monetary – macroprudential policy rules. Observing the developments in housing market in Tu...

  12. Policy and Programs for Cycling in the City of Zagreb – A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Pilko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying cycling traffic issues in a beginner city – City of Zagreb, stems from unclear development policy, an increase in cycling volume, a large number of traffic accidents, an inadequate infrastructure and legislation, a small number of high quality studies and published papers, and the question, did current cycling policy and programs advance cycling? A comprehensive search of available literature, including data from the Zagreb Traffic Department, was made. These data do not adequately address the direction of causality, such as whether current cycling policy and programs advance cycling or whether cycling demand led to increased levels of cycling. This review paper suggests that, it is not yet possible to evaluate which pro-bicycle packages are the most effective and, development of cycling traffic requires a coordinated holistic planning strategy. Results could serve as a beacon light for similarly sized beginner cities, especially those who are located in South-eastern and Eastern Europe.

  13. Local authorities in the context of energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Cioccolanti, Luca; Polonara, Fabio; Brandoni, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Several measures to boost the energy system towards a low-carbon future can be planned and implemented by local authorities, such as energy-saving initiatives in public buildings and lighting, information campaigns, and renewable energy pilot projects. This work analyzes the public administration's role in energy and climate policies by assessing carbon-lowering measures for properties and services managed directly by local governments in central Italy. Both short- and long-term schemes were considered in the analysis of local authority energy strategies. The MARKAL-TIMES energy model was applied to long-term energy planning to assess the effect of low-carbon initiatives on public-sector energy consumption up to 2030. Two energy scenarios were built, i.e. a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on current or soon-to-be-adopted national policies, and an Exemplary Public Scenario (EPS) including some further virtuous local policies suggested by local authorities. Our results show that a 20% primary energy reduction can be achieved with respect to the baseline year by means of short-term energy policies (5-year time span), while a primary energy saving of about 30% can be reached with longer-term energy policies (25-year time span), even after taking the increase in energy demand into account. This work goes to show the part that local governments can play in energy policy and their contribution to the achievement of climate goals. - Highlights: ► Assessment of Local Administration (LA) role in energy and climate policy. ► Analysis of both short-term and long-term carbon lowering measures. ► Use of MARKAL-TIMES model generator for long-term energy analysis. ► 20% primary energy reduction can be reached with short-term energy policies. ► 30% primary energy reduction can be reached with longer-term energy policies.

  14. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ... goals to eliminate current threats and risks such as terrorism. As far as Poland is concerned, its priority is to be an active leader in improving common security policy within the boundaries of the European Union (EU...

  15. ROMANIA’S AUSTERITY POLICIES IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor ARPAD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic recession starting in 2007 with the collapse of the US Bank Lehman Brothers triggered waves of economic shock across the world. Various states were hit more or less hard through different mechanisms and reacted with different intensities to adjust to the crisis situation. In this article, I employ a comparative methodology to assess the austerity policies undertook by Romania during the Great recession period as regards the policies adopted at the level of other EU member states. Thus, I aim to offer an initial evaluation of the degree of similarity of Romania’s recession policy responses to that of some other EU member states, and the degree to which Romania can be labeled as an outlier. The comparative analysis tests the explanatory power of three different theoretical approaches on the causal factors explaining variation in policy responses: power resources theories, functionalist approaches and blame-avoidance.

  16. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  17. Climate change policy instruments in a least regrets context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Bonney, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Spatial Planning and Environment

    1995-12-31

    The Dutch CO{sub 2} target - which was set down in the National Environmental Policy Plan Plus (NMP-plus) and sent to Parliament in 1990 - is to reduce emissions by 3 to 5 % in 2000 relative to 1989/1990. The second National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP-2), issued in December 1993, confirmed this target but also concluded that policies will have to be enhanced and additional measures taken in order to achieve it. The measures developed in NMP-plus assumed that real energy prices would rise substantially during the 1990`s. However, the prices are at their lowest level since the early 1970`s and official projections now assume that real energy prices will remain more or less constant between 1990 and 2000. Under these conditions, application of existing policy instruments will have to be intensified and additional policy instruments will have to be deployed in order to attain even the 3 % emission reduction target for CO{sub 2}. In December 1993 the Government`s second National Environmental Policy Plan and second Memorandum on Energy Conservation indicated how policy efforts in the area of climate change will be enhanced. Targets were set for improving energy efficiency in different sectors in the period 1989-2000: 23 % for households, 23 % for non-residential buildings, 19 % for industry, 26 % for agriculture, 10 % for transport and 26 % for power stations. The overall efficiency improvement (including renewables) will lead to energy consumption of 2865 PJ in 2000 (550 PJ less than what it would have been without the policy measures; slightly more than what it was in 1990). Energy efficiency (including renewables) will be responsible for roughly two thirds of the CO{sub 2} reduction needed, with the remainder coming from transport, recycling, reduced coal use, afforestation and structural changes

  18. Knowledge translation in context: indigenous, policy, and community settings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banister, Elizabeth M; Leadbeater, Bonnie J. Ross; Marshall, E. Anne

    2011-01-01

    .... While recognizing the specificity of each situation, Knowledge Translation in Context highlights the most important elements that have led KT to succeed (or fail) as a dynamic, multidirectional process."--pub. desc.

  19. Considering Literacy and Policy in the Context of Digital Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzer, Charles K.

    2010-01-01

    This article (1) argues that literacy is being redefined as a result of the use of digital media, and (2) provides suggestions for policy makers, budget decision-makers, teachers, researchers, and interested others about literacy and language arts standards, assessment, and teaching related to "new literacies," including: (a) Maximize the…

  20. Parenting Support: Policy and Practice in the Irish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Nuala; Devaney, Carmel

    2018-01-01

    Increasing government interest in parenting support has emerged in response to the increasingly diverse form of families, a growing emphasis on children's rights and a policy shift towards prevention and early intervention. This has contributed to a range of stakeholder activity in the area, with the notion that parenting is a set of skills that…

  1. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  2. Impact assessment modelling of matter-less stressors in the context of Life Cycle Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucurachi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In the last three decades, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework has grown to establish itself as the leading tool for the assessment of the environmental impacts of product systems.LCA studies are now conducted globally both in and outside the academia and also used as a basis for policy

  3. Schooling Closer to Home: Desegregation Policy and Neighborhood Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Ellen; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Smrekar, Claire; Taylor, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    This article uses census data, information collected by health and police departments, and GIS mapping software to analyze the neighborhood contexts surrounding schools in one Southern school district. When courts lifted Nashville's desegregation order in 1999, the district agreed to implement a new student assignment plan geared toward…

  4. Energy policy and externalities: the life cycle analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virdis, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    In the energy sector, getting the prices right is a prerequisite for market mechanisms to work effectively towards sustainable development. However, energy production and use creates 'costs' external to traditional accounting practices, such as damages to human health and the environment resulting from residual emissions or risks associated with dependence on foreign suppliers. Energy market prices do not fully reflect those external costs. For example, the costs of climate change are not internalized and, therefore, consumers do not get the right price signals leading them to make choices that are optimised from a societal viewpoint. Economic theory has developed approaches to assessing and internalizing external costs that can be applied to the energy sector and, in principle, provide means to quantify and integrate relevant information in a comprehensive framework. The tools developed for addressing these issues are generally aimed at monetary valuation of impacts and damages and integration of the valued 'external costs' in total cost of the product, e.g. electricity. The approach of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) provides a conceptual framework for a detailed and comprehensive comparative evaluation of energy supply options. This paper offers a summary of the LCA methodology and an overview of some of its limitations. It then illustrates, through a few examples, how the methodology can be used to inform or correct policy making and to orient investment decisions. Difficulties and issues emerging at various stages in the application and use of LCA results are discussed, although in such a short note, it is impossible to address all issues related to LCA. Therefore, as part of the concluding section, some issues are left open - and areas in which further analytical work may be needed are described. (author)

  5. Space-Policy Education: Contexts and Constraints, Content and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    pertain to US space activities. Near the conclu- sion of our meeting, Dr. Johnson, an adjunct professor at George Washington and Georgetown...their professions ’ organizational goals? NSSI’s three-week Space 300 course was designed within contextual constraints, partly due to budgetary... professor at George Washington University’s Space Policy Institute. He is editor and author of multiple books and articles on outer space activities. 4

  6. Cycling Cities: The European Experience: Hundred Years of Policy and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, Ruth; Emanuel, Martin; Albert de la Bruheze, Adri A.; Veraart, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Cycling Cities is a richly illustrated volume analyzing 100 years of urban cycling‒policy, use, and practice in 14 European cities in 9 countries. Why did some capitals and business centers became real cycling cities and others not? The book has gained traction in the news. Cycling Cities traces how

  7. Playing by the Rules? The Professional Values of Head Teachers Tested by the Changing Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    School leaders face potential conflicts between the demands of national and local education policy and the values and ethics that brought them into teaching and subsequently into school leadership. This article asks whether head teachers' values are changed by the policy context, and looks at incidents in head teachers' professional lives that…

  8. Adjusting policy to institutional, cultural and biophysical context conditions: The case of conservation banking in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsten Mann; James D. Absher

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the political construction of a policy instrument for matching particular institutional, biophysical and cultural context conditions in a social–ecological system, using the case of conservation banking in California as an example. The guiding research question is: How is policy design negotiated between various actors on its way from early...

  9. Professional Development Policy and Politics across International Contexts: From Mutuality to Measurability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ian; Ronnerman, Karin; Furu, Eli Moksnes; Salo, Petri; Forsman, Liselott

    2010-01-01

    This article reveals how educational policies and policy contexts in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Australia establish the circumstances which enable and constrain individual and collective teacher professional development as praxis. We provide insights into existing partnerships between universities and schools, and, municipalities and the state as…

  10. Public policies and health systems in Sahelian Africa: theoretical context and empirical specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre; Ridde, Val?ry

    2015-01-01

    This research on user fee removal in three African countries is located at the interface of public policy analysis and health systems research. Public policy analysis has gradually become a vast and multifaceted area of research consisting of a number of perspectives. But the context of public policies in Sahelian Africa has some specific characteristics. They are largely shaped by international institutions and development agencies, on the basis of very common 'one-size-fits-all' models; the...

  11. Evaluation of optimal monetary policy strategy in Romania in the context of fulfilment of convergence criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica DAMIAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the euro currency implies the fulfilment of Maastricht convergence criteria, which implies a number of challenges for the macroeconomic policy mix, due to the existence of the conflict between them. The paper analyzes empirically the main monetary policy strategy in the context of euro in Romania.The results of the study show that inflation targeting is an optimal monetary policy strategy to achieve real and nominal convergence criteria.

  12. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krasko, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  13. Safety Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management in Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Policies, a Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad Allah, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand of energy worldwide, and due to the depletion of conventional natural energy resources, energy policies in many countries have been devoted to nuclear energy option. On the other hand, adopting a safe and reliable nuclear fuel cycle concept guarantees future nuclear energy sustain ability is a vital request from environmental and economic point of views. The safety aspects of radioactive waste management in the nuclear fuel cycle is a topic of great importance relevant to public acceptance of nuclear energy and the development of nuclear technology. As a part of nuclear fuel cycle safety evaluation studies in the department of nuclear fuel cycle safety, National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), this study evaluates the radioactive waste management policies and radiological safety aspects of three different nuclear fuel cycle policies. The once-through fuel cycle (OT- fuel cycle) or the direct spent fuel disposal concept for both pressurized light water reactor ( PWR) and pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR or CANDU) systems and the s elf-generated o r recycling fuel cycle concept in PWR have been considered in the assessment. The environmental radiological safety aspects of different nuclear fuel cycle options have been evaluated and discussed throughout the estimation of radioactive waste generated from spent fuel from these fuel cycle options. The decay heat stored in the spent fuel was estimated and a comparative safety study between the three fuel cycle policies has been implemented

  14. What shapes research impact on policy? Understanding research uptake in sexual and reproductive health policy processes in resource poor contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Andy; Crichton, Jo; Theobald, Sally; Zulu, Eliya; Parkhurst, Justin

    2011-06-16

    Assessing the impact that research evidence has on policy is complex. It involves consideration of conceptual issues of what determines research impact and policy change. There are also a range of methodological issues relating to the question of attribution and the counter-factual. The dynamics of SRH, HIV and AIDS, like many policy arenas, are partly generic and partly issue- and context-specific. Against this background, this article reviews some of the main conceptualisations of research impact on policy, including generic determinants of research impact identified across a range of settings, as well as the specificities of SRH in particular. We find that there is scope for greater cross-fertilisation of concepts, models and experiences between public health researchers and political scientists working in international development and research impact evaluation. We identify aspects of the policy landscape and drivers of policy change commonly occurring across multiple sectors and studies to create a framework that researchers can use to examine the influences on research uptake in specific settings, in order to guide attempts to ensure uptake of their findings. This framework has the advantage that distinguishes between pre-existing factors influencing uptake and the ways in which researchers can actively influence the policy landscape and promote research uptake through their policy engagement actions and strategies. We apply this framework to examples from the case study papers in this supplement, with specific discussion about the dynamics of SRH policy processes in resource poor contexts. We conclude by highlighting the need for continued multi-sectoral work on understanding and measuring research uptake and for prospective approaches to receive greater attention from policy analysts.

  15. Exploring Nurse Leaders' Policy Participation Within the Context of a Nursing Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Ashley; Adams, Jeffrey M; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to describe and quantify the experiences of nurse leaders working to influence policy and to build consensus for priority skills and knowledge useful in policy efforts within the context of a nursing conceptual framework. The conceptual model for nursing and health policy and the Adams influence model were combined into a conceptual framework used to guide this two-round modified Delphi study. Twenty-two nurse leaders who were members of a state action coalition participated in the Round 1 focus group; 15 of these leaders completed the Round 2 electronic survey. Round 1 themes indicated the value of a passion for policy, the importance of clear communication, and an understanding the who and when of policy work. Round 2 data reinforced the importance of clear communication regarding policy engagement; knowing the who and when of policy closely followed, and having a passion for policy work was identified as least important. These themes inform learning objectives for nursing education and preparation for interactions with public officials because influencing policy requires knowledge, skills, and persistence. Study findings begin to describe how nurse leaders influence policy within the context of a nursing conceptual framework and generate implications for research, education, and professional practice.

  16. Environmental life cycle assessment of different domestic wastewater streams: policy effectiveness in a tropical urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Bernard J H; Zhou, Jin; Giannis, Apostolos; Chang, Victor W-C; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To enhance local water security, the Singapore government promotes two water conservation policies: the use of eco-friendly toilets to reduce yellow water (YW) disposal and the installation of water efficient devices to minimize gray water (GW) discharge. The proposed water conservation policies have different impacts on the environmental performance of local wastewater management. The main purpose of this study is to examine and compare the impacts of different domestic wastewater streams and the effectiveness of two water conservation policies by means of life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA is used to compare three scenarios, including a baseline scenario (BL), YW-reduced scenario (YWR) and GW-reduced scenario (GWR). The BL is designed based on the current wastewater management system, whereas the latter two scenarios are constructed according to the two water conservation policies that are proposed by the Singapore government. The software SIMPARO 7.3 with local data and an eco-invent database is used to build up the model, and the functional unit is defined as the daily wastewater disposal of a Singapore resident. Due to local water supply characteristics, the system boundary is extended to include the sewage sludge management and tap water production processes. The characterization results indicate that the GWR has a significant impact reduction (22-25%) while the YWR has only a 2-4% impact reduction compared with the BL. The contribution analysis reveals that the GW dominates many impact categories except eutrophication potential. The tap water production is identified as the most influential process due to its high embodied energy demand in a local context. Life cycle costing analysis shows that both YWR and GWR are financially favorable. It is also revealed that the current water conservation policies could only achieve Singapore's short-term targets. Therefore, two additional strategies are recommended for achieving long-term goals. This study provides a

  17. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  18. A Country Specific Approach To IFRS Accounting Policy Choice In The European, Australian And Turkish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Akdogan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available IAS 8 defines the concept of accounting policy as "the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements". Within the framework of this concept, this research that is derived from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS contributes to the accounting literature by focusing on the alternative accounting policies' debate related to presentation and recognition issues in the European, Australian and Turkish context and concludes that there is an influence of local accounting policies over IFRS practice in Turkey and this influence still exists in Europe and Australia. This shows that as long as diversity in accounting policies of IFRS is present, entities are expected to be inclined to select their local accounting policies by leading to comparability of financial statements within the country rather than between countries in the IFRS context.

  19. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  20. Economic Transformation of European Union in the Context of Kondratieff Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Marinas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The global economy of the twenty-first century is characterised by rapid changes which create both threats and opportunities. The biggest challenge for the european economy is to become sufficiently flexible so as to avail of the opportunities and surmount the threats. This requires, above all, reforming labour market and social policies. In this paper we analyse the evolutions of the european economy in relation with Kondratieff cycles, aspects tied to the influences between the objectives of the EU agenda and those supposed by the real Kondratieff cycle, perceptible at the global economy level. Particulary, we are concerned about the chances of an european construction to consolidate specific values corresponding to the strategic options of Lisabona Agenda, as a possible compatibility with the essential lines of the current Kondratieff cycle. Analysing the european economy by submodels seemed to us relevant to define the previsible directions of the evolution.

  1. The impact of the multilateral approach to the nuclear fuel cycle in Malaysia's nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, B.; Ferdinand, P.

    2014-01-01

    Since the Pakistan-India nuclear weapon race, the North Korean nuclear test and the September 11 attack revealed Abdul Qadeer Khan's clandestine nuclear black market and the fear that Iran's nuclear program may be used for nuclear weapon development, scrutiny of activities related to nuclear technologies, especially technology transfer has become more stringent. The nuclear supplier group has initiated a multilateral nuclear fuel cycle regime with the purpose of guaranteeing nuclear fuel supply and at the same time preventing the spread of nuclear proliferation. Malaysia wants to develop a programme for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and it needs to accommodate itself to this policy. When considering developing a nuclear fuel cycle policy, the key elements that Malaysia needs to consider are the extent of the fuel cycle technologies that it intends to acquire and the costs (financial and political) of acquiring them. Therefore, this paper will examine how the multilateral approach to the nuclear fuel cycle may influence Malaysia's nuclear fuel cycle policy, without jeopardising the country's rights and sovereignty as stipulated under the NPT. (authors)

  2. Learning to Teach Elementary Science Through Iterative Cycles of Enactment in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, SueAnn I.; Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.; Hartman, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Iterative cycles of enactment embedded in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts provide rich opportunities for preservice teachers (PSTs) to enact core practices of science. This study is situated in the larger Families Involved in Sociocultural Teaching and Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (FIESTAS) project, which weaves together cycles of enactment, core practices in science education and culturally relevant pedagogies. The theoretical foundation draws upon situated learning theory and communities of practice. Using video analysis by PSTs and course artifacts, the authors studied how the iterative process of these cycles guided PSTs development as teachers of elementary science. Findings demonstrate how PSTs were drawing on resources to inform practice, purposefully noticing their practice, renegotiating their roles in teaching, and reconsidering "professional blindness" through cultural practice.

  3. Fiscal policy convergence and business cycle synchronization in the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Jeanette Pjaaka; Skulevold, Pia-Suzann Valheim

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to detect whether fiscal policy convergence (or divergence) is a determinant of business cycle synchronization in the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) of the European Union. The thesis is based on the literature on Optimum Currency Areas (OCA) which states that a common currency and a collective monetary policy are most appropriate if business cycles are synchronized across countries. We contribute to the discussion on the European Union (EU) as an optimum currency ...

  4. The Credibility of Fiscal Rules Policy and Business Cycle Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncoro Haryo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is two-fold; first, it studies the impact of the credibility of fiscal rule policy on the stability of output growth; second, it compares the effectiveness of fiscal rule policy to discretionary and automatic stabilizer fiscal policies to address the fluctuation of output growth. Employing quarterly data over the period 2001-2013 in the case of Indonesia, we obtain that the credible debt rule leads to a decrease in the volatility of output growth while the non-credible deficit rule does not have any effect. Both unsystematic and systematic components of discretionary fiscal policy have a stabilizing function. Interestingly, the automatic stabilization tends to induce the volatility of output growth. Given those results, we infer that government spending is not a good automatic stabilizer. It seems that the lower ratio of government expenditure to GDP along with improving credibility of deficit rule policy has a smoother effect on the economy. Therefore, they implicitly support expenditure cuts when implementing fiscal adjustment with the purpose of reaching fiscal sustainability in the short-run and a stable economic growth in the long-run.

  5. CONTEXT AND JUSTIFICATION OF EDUCATION STANDARDS AS DEFINED BY EDUCATIONAL POLICY FOR BASIC EDUCATION IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Martínez García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to think about the educational context in Mexico designed from official sectors with the participation and support of some social actors; the same that has been used tendentiously to construct opinions that support it, justify and show like pertinent the implementation of an educational policy for basic education that has as a core the curricular and learning standards. Policy that were made concrete in 2011 in the document named Agreement No. 592.

  6. Carbon cycle observations: gaps threaten climate mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Birdsey; Nick Bates; MIke Behrenfeld; Kenneth Davis; Scott C. Doney; Richard Feely; Dennis Hansell; Linda Heath; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Successful management of carbon dioxide (CO2) requires robust and sustained carbon cycle observations. Yet key elements of a national observation network are lacking or at risk. A U.S. National Research Council review of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program earlier this year highlighted the critical need for a U.S. climate observing system to...

  7. The Cycle of Family Homelessness: A Social Policy Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    Research on homeless children and families carried out by the Institute for Children and Poverty over the last 6 years is compiled in this document. The contents range from programmatic solutions and policy recommendations to simple "snapshots" of homeless families. Much of the research is based on the experiences of Homes for the…

  8. Examining Practice Across International Policy Contexts: Organizational Roles and Distributed Leadership in the US and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornskov, Søren; Bjerg, Helle; Kelley, Carolyn

    Scholars of educational leadership, school-based practitioners, and education policy-makers have been focused on the ways in which the members of their respective professions can engage in the work required to improve the school environment for all students. Education researchers and school...... the contexts in which these latest education policies may be implemented vary by nation and locale, the content and intended outcomes of the policies are similar and run parallel to each other in this current era of globalization, where national policies on education share similar themes and goals across...... nations (Lingard et al., 2016). The similarities in policy content include an increased focus on accountability for school teachers and leaders, augmented testing programs for students, and changes to the working or professional culture for teachers, leaders and other professions often achieved through...

  9. Life cycle theory and dividend payout policy: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role and the effect of the life cycle theory on explanation of dividend payout policy in Tehran Stock exchange listed companies over the period 2006-2011. For measuring the firm’s life cycle, two criteria namely retained earnings to equity ratio and retained earnings to assets ratio have been used as proxies of firm’s life cycle. The findings of this research show that only retained earnings to assets ratio has a meaningful and positive effect on dividend payout policy; In the companies that are growing, retained earnings to assets ratio is low; Whereas this ratio is high in the more mature companies and these firms have abundant retained earnings, hence they are good candidates to pay dividends. However, there was no meaningful relationship between another life cycle criteria namely retained earnings to equity ratio and dividend payout policy.

  10. Cultural Explanations of Electoral Reform: A Policy Cycle Model

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Pippa

    2010-01-01

    The standard explanation of electoral reform is offered by rational choice accounts. These regard the choice of rules as an elite-level issue, dominated by partisan interests bargaining within the legislature, where citizens are usually marginalized and powerless. Such accounts may help to explain what specific reforms are enacted but they lack the capacity to account satisfactorily for the logically prior questions: when and why are any successful reforms raised on the policy agenda? Part I ...

  11. New one cycle criteria for optimizing preventive replacement policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidi, Maryam; Szidarovszky, Ferenc; Szidarovszky, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Models are introduced and examined for the optimum scheduling of preventive replacements. The “replace first” and “replace last” models are known from the literature if the long term expected cost per unit time is minimized. We will first introduce the one cycle counterparts of these models when the expected costs per unit time in a single cycle is minimized. If the unit performs identical projects sequentially then the “replace next” model assumes that the preventive replacement is postponed until the ongoing project is finished. The termination time of this project is random which also depends on the scheduled time of the preventive replacement in contrary to the “replace first” and “replace last” models. The mathematical models are formulated and conditions are given for the existence of finite optima. Numerical examples and a simulation study illustrate the methodology and the numerical results show interesting comparisons of the different models. - Highlights: • The Single cycle age replacement model is extended incorporating repairable failures. • In order to avoid project interruption costs, three model variants are discussed. • Model variants are replace first, replace last and replace next. • In many cases analytic solutions are derived and illustrated by numerical examples. • The different model variants and their results are compared based on simulation studies.

  12. Political contexts and maternal health policy: insights from a comparison of south Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 300,000 women die from pregnancy-related complications each year. One-fifth of these deaths occur in India. Maternal survival rose on India's national policy agenda in the mid-2000s, but responsibility for health policy and implementation in the federal system is largely devolved to the state level where priority for the issue and maternal health outcomes vary. This study investigates sources of variation in maternal health policy and implementation sub-nationally in India. The study is guided by four analytical categories drawn from policy process literature: constitutional, governing and social structures; political contexts; actors and ideas. The experiences of two south Indian states-Tamil Nadu a leader and Karnataka a relatively slow mover-are examined. Process-tracing, a case study methodology that helps to identify roles of complex historical events in causal processes, was employed to investigate the research question in each state. The study is informed by interviews with public health policy experts and service delivery professionals, observation of implementation sites and archival document analysis. Historical legacies-Tamil Nadu's non-Brahmin social movement and Karnataka's developmental disparities combined with decentralization-shape the states' political contexts, affecting variation in maternal health policy and implementation. Competition to advance consistent political priorities across regimes in Tamil Nadu offers fertile ground for policy entrepreneurship and strong public health system administration facilitates progress. Inconsistent political priorities and relatively weak public health system administration frustrate progress in Karnataka. These variations offer insights to the ways in which sub-national political and administrative contexts shape health policy and implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How Do School Leaders Navigate ICT Educational Reform? Policy Learning Narratives from a Singapore Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua Reyes, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research inquiry focuses on how school leaders "make sense" of educational reform in their local contexts. In order to do this, an exploratory qualitative case study of two schools that took part in policy reform initiatives directed at ubiquitous use of information communication and technology (ICT) in the Singapore…

  14. The Development of U.S. Refugee and Migration Policies: An International Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the current U.S. policy response to refugee and immigration problems in an international context and identifies instruments of international cooperation. Emphasizes the interrelationship between refugee and migration issues and proposes long term solutions. Makes recommendations based on the experience of the Intergovernmental Committee…

  15. Bringing the Brain to Bear on Context and Policy in Primary Languages Practice in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Magdalen

    2017-01-01

    The learning of modern languages in primary school (PL) was recently promoted to statutory status in the curriculum of England and Wales, but practice remains patchy. Low PL capacity amongst primary school teachers and constraints on curricular time persist. Viewed through the lenses of policy, learning theory and context, current PL practice can…

  16. Daisaku Ikeda's Educational Philosophy in the Context of English Education Policy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Kazuma

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author considers Daisaku Ikeda's (1928-) educational philosophy in the context of English education policies in Japan. The author begins by explicating Ikeda's concepts of wisdom versus knowledge and "society for education" (e.g., Ikeda, 2000; Sadovnichy & Ikeda, 2002). He then suggests consideration of these…

  17. Biliteracy Contexts, Continua, and Contrasts: Policy and Curriculum for Cambodian and Puerto Rican Students in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a framework of biliteracy development focusing on the following three continua: (1) the macro-micro continuum of policy; (2) the monolingual-bilingual continuum; and (3) the oral-literate continuum. These are discussed in the contexts of Cambodian and Puerto Rican students in two public elementary schools in Philadelphia. (SLD)

  18. Overview of National Policy Contexts for Entrepreneurialism in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth; Kitaev, Igor

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on seven national reports on national policies concerned with entrepreneurialism in universities as the context for a more detailed study of entrepreneurial behaviour in universities in the seven countries. It claims that the entrepreneurial university is a useful generic epithet to describe the manifold changes in mission,…

  19. Variation in facial masculinity and symmetry preferences across the menstrual cycle is moderated by relationship context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C

    2012-07-01

    In women, changes in preference during the menstrual cycle have been documented for attractiveness judgements of odour and various physical and behavioural male traits. Although many studies have demonstrated greater attraction to masculine traits, such as male faces, bodies, and voices, at high fertility, several recent studies present null results for these shifts in preferences. Moreover, evidence for stronger attraction to symmetric faces at high fertility is equivocal. Here we examined variation in preferences across the cycle for both facial masculinity and symmetry according to relationship context. Using both within-subject (Study 1) and between-subject (Study2) designs, we show that women prefer masculinity and symmetry in male faces at times when their fertility is likely to be highest (during the follicular phase of their cycle) when judging the faces for short-term relationship attractiveness. No effect of cycle was seen for long-term judgements. These results indicate that cyclic shifts in women are most apparent when judging for short-term relationships, which may explain the null results in studies where only general attractiveness was assessed. Cyclical preferences could influence women to select a partner who possesses traits that may enhance her offspring's quality at times when conception is most likely and/or serve to improve partner investment when investment is important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrating Mercury Science and Policy in the Marine Context: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kathleen F.; Evers, David C.; Warner, Kimberly A.; King, Susannah L.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant and presents policy challenges at local, regional, and global scales. Mercury poses risks to the health of people, fish, and wildlife exposed to elevated levels of mercury, most commonly from the consumption of methylmercury in marine and estuarine fish. The patchwork of current mercury abatement efforts limits the effectiveness of national and multi-national policies. This paper provides an overview of the major policy challenges and opportunities related to mercury in coastal and marine environments, and highlights science and policy linkages of the past several decades. The U.S. policy examples explored here point to the need for a full life cycle approach to mercury policy with a focus on source reduction and increased attention to: (1) the transboundary movement of mercury in air, water, and biota; (2) the coordination of policy efforts across multiple environmental media; (3) the cross-cutting issues related to pollutant interactions, mitigation of legacy sources, and adaptation to elevated mercury via improved communication efforts; and (4) the integration of recent research on human and ecological health effects into benefits analyses for regulatory purposes. Stronger science and policy integration will benefit national and international efforts to prevent, control, and minimize exposure to methylmercury. PMID:22901766

  1. Features of cycles of Russian modernization in the context of the world-systems analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Pashkovsky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the historical cycle of Russian modernization. It is shown that the first cycle lasted from the late XVII before the second decade of the XIX century. At this time modernization in the form of «westernization» contributed to the fact that in the XVIII century (in the period between the reigns of Peter I and Catherine II Russia integrated into the world capitalist system and she was positioned as semi­periphery. But Russia was an empire in her characteristics also she has been active in foreign policy. And her desire to overcome the peripheral processes and closer to the core of the world­system resulted in «catch­up» nature of modernization of Russian society. Russia’s victory in the Patriotic War of 1812 characterizes the overall positive outcome for her of this cycle of modernization. The second cycle dates from the late 50’s XIX – beginning of XX century. It was an example of the liberal model of modernization. As a result the lack of economic resources, «the nationalist conservatism» of the authorities, «bureaucratically directed industrialization» and accelerated modernization led to the tragedy of Russia in World War I and the revolutionary events of 1917. The choice in favor of self­sufficiency was made in the late 1920’s – early 1930’s, this marked the beginning of the third cycle of modernization of Russia in the form of industrialization, which has produced results. Economic growth continued after World War II as a result of implementation of five­year plans. The fourth cycle of Russian modernization characterized the events of «perestroika» the second half of the 1980’s and the period of post­Soviet Russia of the 1990’s. Consequently, Russian Federation is in a position semi­periphery, and most of the New Independent States – within the periphery of the world capitalist system. It is proved that the first and third cycles belonged to the imperial model of modernization, and the

  2. Health policy evolution in Lao People's Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-05-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People's Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally. Published by Oxford University Press

  3. PUBLIC POLICIES TO R&D IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EU STATE AID POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacila Nicolae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From an economic perspective, the importance of EU state aid policy refers to correcting “market failure” situations that may occur in the economy, aiming at maintaining an undistorted competition in the economic environment. In the context of the Commission focusing its efforts towards promoting R&D investment through Europe 2020 strategy, Romania is a modest innovator and is facing a relatively low level of economic competitiveness. The present paper aims at providing a contribution to the literature on public policies to R&D in the EU, developing both a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of public policies to R&D in Romania in the context of the EU state aid policy. Our research hypothesis considers that public policies to R&D in Romania, as in other Central and Eastern European countries, are following a convergence process with the practices from the EU level. Based on data provided by Eurostat, we have stressed that the existing gap between the national level and the EU level tends to maintain in the state aid field even in the future, in spite of Romanian government sector R&D expenditure tending to converge with the EU level, which highlights the potential of catching up with the European model. We believe that the success of the convergence process will depend in the future, to a large extent, on the implementation of the modernised legal and institutional framework of state aid policy, as well as on the capacity to build consensus by policy makers around the necessity to structure future economic development around R&D investment. In order to successfully address these structural R&D problems, the National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation aims to establish R&D as engine for increasing economic competitiveness, while at the same time strengthening strategic areas with comparative advantages, supporting public-private partnerships, funding clusters in areas of smart specialisation, developing intellectual

  4. Challenges in implementing individual placement and support in the Australian mental health service and policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Yolande; Higgins, Kate; Petrakis, Melissa

    2018-02-01

    Objective Although Australia's service and policy context differs from that of the US, studies have highlighted potential for individual placement and support (IPS) to support competitive employment outcomes for people with severe and persistent mental illness. The aim of the present study was to explore why the model is not yet widely available. Methods A document analysis was conducted to discern reasons for challenges in implementation of IPS practice principles within the Australian service context. Results The document analysis illustrated that although policy acknowledges the importance of increasing employment rates for people with severe and persistent mental illness, consistent measures, change indicators, direction and time frames are lacking in policy and strategy documentation. Further, IPS principles are not consistently evident in guiding operational documentation that government-funded Disability Employment Services (DES) programs are mandated to adhere to. Conclusions For IPS to be readily implemented, it is necessary for government to offer support to agencies to partner and formal endorsement of the model as a preferred approach in tendering processes. Obligations and processes must be reviewed to ensure that model fidelity is achievable within the Australian Commonwealth policy and service context for programs to achieve competitive employment rates comparable to the most successful international programs. What is known about the topic? The IPS model has been established as the most efficacious approach to support people with severe and persistent mental ill health to gain and sustain employment internationally, yet little is known as to why this model has had very limited uptake in the Australian adult mental health service and policy context. What does this paper add? This paper provides an investigation into the achievability of IPS within DES philosophical and contractual arrangements. What are the implications for practitioners? Mental

  5. Computable general equilibrium modelling in the context of trade and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesler, Simon Tobias

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the evaluation of environmental policies in the context of climate change. Its objectives are twofold. Its first part is devoted to the development of potent instruments for quantitative impact analysis of environmental policy. In this context, the main contributions include the development of a new computable general equilibrium (CGE) model which makes use of the new comprehensive and coherent World Input-Output Dataset (WIOD) and which features a detailed representation of bilateral and bisectoral trade flows. Moreover it features an investigation of input substitutability to provide modellers with adequate estimates for key elasticities as well as a discussion and amelioration of the standard base year calibration procedure of most CGE models. Building on these tools, the second part applies the improved modelling framework and studies the economic implications of environmental policy. This includes an analysis of so called rebound effects, which are triggered by energy efficiency improvements and reduce their net benefit, an investigation of how firms restructure their production processes in the presence of carbon pricing mechanisms, and an analysis of a regional maritime emission trading scheme as one of the possible options to reduce emissions of international shipping in the EU context.

  6. Evaluating Environmental Governance along Cross-Border Electricity Supply Chains with Policy-Informed Life Cycle Assessment: The California-Mexico Energy Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolorinos, Jose; Ajami, Newsha K; Muñoz Meléndez, Gabriela; Jackson, Robert B

    2018-04-12

    This paper presents a "policy-informed" life cycle assessment of a cross-border electricity supply chain that links the impact of each unit process to its governing policy framework. An assessment method is developed and applied to the California-Mexico energy exchange as a unique case study. CO 2 -equivalent emissions impacts, water withdrawals, and air quality impacts associated with California's imports of electricity from Mexican combined-cycle facilities fueled by natural gas from the U.S. Southwest are estimated, and U.S. and Mexican state and federal environmental regulations are examined to assess well-to-wire consistency of energy policies. Results indicate most of the water withdrawn per kWh exported to California occurs in Baja California, most of the air quality impacts accrue in the U.S. Southwest, and emissions of CO 2 -equivalents are more evenly divided between the two regions. California energy policy design addresses generation-phase CO 2 emissions, but not upstream CO 2 -eq emissions of methane during the fuel cycle. Water and air quality impacts are not regulated consistently due to varying U.S. state policies and a lack of stringent federal regulation of unconventional gas development. Considering local impacts and the regulatory context where they occur provides essential qualitative information for functional-unit-based measures of life cycle impact and is necessary for a more complete environmental impact assessment.

  7. Environmental policy-making in a difficult context: motorized two-wheeled vehicle emissions in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badami, Madhav G.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle activity is growing rapidly in India and other less-industrialized countries in Asia. This growth is contributing to serious health and welfare effects due to vehicle emissions, and energy insecurity, acidification and climate change. This paper applies the problem-structuring tools of 'value-focused thinking' to inform policy-making and implementation related to this complex problem in a difficult context, with specific reference to motorized two-wheeled vehicles, which play an important role in transport air pollution but also provide affordable mobility to millions with few other attractive options. The paper describes the process used to elicit and structure objectives and measures, based on interviews conducted by the author, and demonstrates how the objectives and measures can be used to more effectively characterize policy impacts, and create policy packages that have a better chance of long-term success

  8. Practices, environments and knowledges: ICT Policies in the context of the Colombian higher education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Ernesto Rojas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review article’s has the purpose to show a state of the art on the academic and investigative reflection produced in the context of the relation: Higher Education and ICT policies. In order to achieve this purpose, the text is structured in three parts. Initially, a historic, brief context of the reflections, and systematization and analysis studies of the theme is accomplished. Said context was limited between the beginning of the nineties and mid 2000. At a later time, the state of the issue is registered in terms of the proposal of problems, used methodologies, obtained results and approached discussions. Finally, some considerations in relation to the found results are done.

  9. Animal Welfare Policy: Implementation in the Context of Wildlife Research--Policy Review and Discussion of Fundamental Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ellen; Sikes, Robert S; Beaupre, Steven J; Wingfield, John C

    2016-01-01

    The use of vertebrate animals in research and education in the United States is subject to a number of regulations, policies, and guidelines under the immediate oversight of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), which are charged with ensuring the ethical and appropriate use of the animal subjects. In almost all instances, this regulatory and oversight landscape of animal use has been developed around domesticated animals in biomedical research environments. When the research activities involve wild species, especially in their natural habitat rather than a laboratory, oversight personnel and investigators alike struggle with determining what constitutes ethical and appropriate activities. These difficulties stem from fundamental differences in biology between wild and domesticated animals and from the differences in research objectives and methods in wildlife compared with biomedical research. Here we discuss the various policies, regulations, and guidance documents for animal use in the context of wildlife research. We compare the expectations of the various oversight agencies and how these expectations are met when working with wild vertebrates. We make recommendations for how IACUCs can use available resources to ensure that activities involving wild species are conducted in compliance with existing regulations and policies and in ways that are biologically appropriate for these nondomesticated species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENGLISH-ONLY POLICY IN THE TERTIARY EFL CONTEXT IN TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dirkwen Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The implementation of English-only policy in the English classes at Wenzao Ursuline College of Languages in Taiwan has continued for nearly 40 years. Its advantages and disadvantages have also been debated and challenged because of the rising demands on students’ English proficiency in Taiwan. This study intended to reexamine the efficiency of the implementation of English-only policy in the English learning at a college of languages in Taiwan. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the process of data collection. 279 English major and non-English major students were invited to answer questionnaires, and six participants were invited to join interviews. The process of data analysis included the analysis of both the quantitative questionnaire data and the qualitative interview data. This study found students’ progress in English listening and speaking proficiency in the basic and lower-intermediate levels because of English-only policy. However, the interaction between teachers and some students was hampered because of the policy. Also, the ambiguity emerging in the insistence on using English only blocked some learners from comprehending the meanings of the texts they were learning, specifically the texts in the upper-intermediate and intermediate-advanced levels of English reading and writing courses. This study also found that proper tolerance of using both students’ native language and English in TEFL classes in the way of code-switching may help students more than the implementation of English-only policy in a tertiary TEFL context.

  11. Combining agent-based modeling and life cycle assessment for the evaluation of mobility policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florent, Querini; Enrico, Benetto

    2015-02-03

    This article presents agent-based modeling (ABM) as a novel approach for consequential life cycle assessment (C-LCA) of large scale policies, more specifically mobility-related policies. The approach is validated at the Luxembourgish level (as a first case study). The agent-based model simulates the car market (sales, use, and dismantling) of the population of users in the period 2013-2020, following the implementation of different mobility policies and available electric vehicles. The resulting changes in the car fleet composition as well as the hourly uses of the vehicles are then used to derive consistent LCA results, representing the consequences of the policies. Policies will have significant environmental consequences: when using ReCiPe2008, we observe a decrease of global warming, fossil depletion, acidification, ozone depletion, and photochemical ozone formation and an increase of metal depletion, ionizing radiations, marine eutrophication, and particulate matter formation. The study clearly shows that the extrapolation of LCA results for the circulating fleet at national scale following the introduction of the policies from the LCAs of single vehicles by simple up-scaling (using hypothetical deployment scenarios) would be flawed. The inventory has to be directly conducted at full scale and to this aim, ABM is indeed a promising approach, as it allows identifying and quantifying emerging effects while modeling the Life Cycle Inventory of vehicles at microscale through the concept of agents.

  12. National public health policy in a local context--implementation in two Swedish municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Elisabeth; Fosse, Elisabeth; Tillgren, Per

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 the wide-ranging Swedish National Public Health Policy (SNPHP), with a focus on health determinants, was adopted by the Swedish parliament. In the context of multilevel governance, SNPHP implementation is dependent on self-governed municipalities and counties. The aim of the study is, from a municipal perspective, to investigate public-health policies in two municipalities. Content analysis of documents and interviews provided a foundation for an explorative case study. The SNPHP at national level is overriding but politically controversial. At local level, a health-determinants perspective was detectable in the policies implemented, but none regarding to health equality. At local level, the SNPHP is not regarded as implementable; rather, limited parts have, to varying degrees, been reconciled with local public-health goals, according to municipal needs and conditions. A success-promoting factor in the two municipalities was the presence of committed and knowledgeable actors/implementers. Also, the municipality with a more centrally controlled and stable party-political leadership succeeded better in implementing structural and intersectoral community-wide policies for coordinated local health promotion. The contents of national and local public-health policies differ, and municipalities that have implemented their own local health policies do not seem to regard the SNPHP as justifiable or adoptable. If the SNPHP overall aim regarding equal health is to be achieved homogeneously in Swedish municipalities, its contents and purpose need clearer management and negotiation, so that implementation of the national policy locally is understandable and motivated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biography, policy and language teaching practices in a multilingual context: Early childhood classrooms in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Ankiah-Gangadeen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Language policies in education in multilingual postcolonial contexts are often driven by ideological considerations more veered towards socio-economic and political viability for the country than towards the practicality at implementation level. Centuries after the advent of colonisation, when culturally and linguistically homogenous countries helped to maintain the dominion of colonisers, the English language still has a stronghold in numerous countries due to the material rewards it offers. How then are the diversity of languages – often with different statuses and functions in society – reconciled in the teaching and learning process? How do teachers deal with the intricacies that are generated within a situation where children are taught in a language that is foreign to them? This paper is based on a study involving pre-primary teachers in Mauritius, a developing multilingual African country. The aim was to understand how their approach to the teaching of English was shaped by their biographical experiences of learning the language. The narrative inquiry methodology offered rich possibilities to foray into these experiences, including the manifestations of negotiating their classroom pedagogy in relation to their own personal historical biographies of language teaching and learning, the policy environment, and the pragmatic classroom specificities of diverse, multilingual learners. These insights become resources for early childhood education and teacher development in multilingual contexts caught within the tensions between language policy and pedagogy.

  14. Review of life-cycle approaches coupled with data envelopment analysis: launching the CFP + DEA method for energy policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Iribarren, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Life-cycle (LC) approaches play a significant role in energy policy making to determine the environmental impacts associated with the choice of energy source. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) can be combined with LC approaches to provide quantitative benchmarks that orientate the performance of energy systems towards environmental sustainability, with different implications depending on the selected LC + DEA method. The present paper examines currently available LC + DEA methods and develops a novel method combining carbon footprinting (CFP) and DEA. Thus, the CFP + DEA method is proposed, a five-step structure including data collection for multiple homogenous entities, calculation of target operating points, evaluation of current and target carbon footprints, and result interpretation. As the current context for energy policy implies an anthropocentric perspective with focus on the global warming impact of energy systems, the CFP + DEA method is foreseen to be the most consistent LC + DEA approach to provide benchmarks for energy policy making. The fact that this method relies on the definition of operating points with optimised resource intensity helps to moderate the concerns about the omission of other environmental impacts. Moreover, the CFP + DEA method benefits from CFP specifications in terms of flexibility, understanding, and reporting.

  15. Cultural, gender, and socioeconomic contexts in therapeutic and social policy work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldegrave, Charles

    2009-03-01

    The contention of this paper is that the context of social and therapeutic problems is critical to their resolution, and that many of them stem from historical and structural injustice. It focuses on the contextual issues of cultural, gender, and socioeconomic equity as providing important insights into authentic notions of social inclusion and well-being, and encourages therapists, service providers, researchers, and policy makers to take responsibility to ensure that these injustices are addressed, and become part of the public discourse about the sources and solutions of endemic social problems. Critique and deconstruction of institutional power in our public, private, and voluntary services is encouraged in a manner that honors diversity and enables sensitive therapy, other forms of service delivery and policy making that genuinely reflect the range of cultural, gender, and socioeconomic experiences of citizens.

  16. Transformation of Polish Energy Policy in the Context of Changes in European Union Member States

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    Radosław Szczerbowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the Polish energy system in the context of the changes taking place in the energy systems of other European Union Member States. Power system development plans in selected European countries were analysed, as well as their impact on the development of the national energy system. To be effective, an energy policy must affect the investment decisions of business entities. Poland is at the time when it should create the optimal energy mix concept and consistently strive for its implementation. This paper aims to show the real direction of growth in the electricity generation assets in Poland, as well as to indicate the possible impact of trends in the policies of European Union Member States on the electricity market in Poland.

  17. Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the EU integration process

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    Marta Stojić-Mitrović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to present Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the attempts of the Serbian state to become a member of the European Union. I would describe the history of the asylum system prior and after the implementation of the independent asylum system in Serbia in 2008. My presentation of the Serbian migration policy would be channelled by the analysis of some particular political issues, such as the externalization of the EU borders’ control, as well as some relevant elements of the European integration process, like visa liberalization. The second, more culturally specific dimension of the issue would be accessed through the demonstration of both legislative and public conceptualizations of the irregular migrants, asylum seekers and refugees in Serbia.

  18. Republican policies in practical politics : placing contemporary Sinn Féin in a European context

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, John

    2005-01-01

    Sinn Féin, the party most associated in public discourse with the term “republican” in Ireland, is a party undergoing a process of development. It has been suggested that its recent electoral success would result in Sinn Féin moving to the centre and abandoning the civic republican focus on equality, political participation or activism, and a national political project with a strong internationalist context with which it has identified. However, while aspects of Sinn Féin policy remain fluid ...

  19. Public policies and health systems in Sahelian Africa: theoretical context and empirical specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This research on user fee removal in three African countries is located at the interface of public policy analysis and health systems research. Public policy analysis has gradually become a vast and multifaceted area of research consisting of a number of perspectives. But the context of public policies in Sahelian Africa has some specific characteristics. They are largely shaped by international institutions and development agencies, on the basis of very common 'one-size-fits-all' models; the practical norms that govern the actual behaviour of employees are far removed from official norms; public goods and services are co-delivered by a string of different actors and institutions, with little coordination between them; the State is widely regarded by the majority of citizens as untrustworthy. In such a context, setting up and implementing health user fee exemptions in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger was beset by major problems, lack of coherence and bottlenecks that affect public policy-making and implementation in these countries. Health systems research for its part started to gain momentum less than twenty years ago and is becoming a discipline in its own right. But French-speaking African countries scarcely feature in it, and social sciences are not yet fully integrated. This special issue wants to fill the gap. In the Sahel, the bad health indicators reflect a combination of converging factors: lack of health centres, skilled staff, and resources; bad quality of care delivery, corruption, mismanagement; absence of any social security or meaningful commitment to the worst-off; growing competition from drug peddlers on one side, from private clinics on the other. Most reforms of the health system have various 'blind spots'. They do not take in account the daily reality of its functioning, its actual governance, the implicit rationales of the actors involved, and the quality of healthcare provision. In order to document the numerous neglected problems of the health

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  1. Life-Cycle inventory/impact Assessment in the context of Chemical Risk Assessment: An Informatics-driven Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the goals of Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is to compare the full range of environmental effects assignable to products and services in order to improve processes, support policy and provide a sound “systems-thinking” basis for decision support. How in fact LCA can be incorp...

  2. Buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable consumption policy pursued in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Korpysa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable consumption has been actively promoted among modern societies. It has gained a special importance in the context of pursuing sustainable consumption policy and supporting actions taken as part of corporate social responsibility. The fulfilment of strategic goals defined under this concept minimizes negative effects of industrialization and globalization. Furthermore, it contributes to efficient allocation of natural resources and natural environment protection. It is beyond any doubt that a 21st century consumer should take account of a number of issues while buying and subsequently using goods and services. These issues include wastage reduction, lower emission of pollution and limited production of waste, as well as selection of products whose development conforms to the code of ethics and socio-environmental norms. This awareness is observed in most countries all over the world, nevertheless certain differences can be noticed between the developed and developing states. Although the concept of sustainable consumption is being actively promoted among consumers in the developing countries (e.g. in Poland, they are still less aware of the necessity to conform to socio-ecological norms in the process of consumption. The main aim of the article is to analyse buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable development policy pursued in Poland. The first part will be devoted to theoretical issues relating to the subject of the analysis. In the second part of the paper the author will present the results of a survey examining the aforementioned behaviour.

  3. Can legality verification enhace local rights to forest resources? Piloting the policy learning protocol in the Peruvian forest context

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Cashore; I. Visseren-Hamakers; P. Caro Torres; W. de Jong; A. Denvir; D. Humphreys; Kathleen McGinley; G. Auld; S. Lupberger; C. McDermott; S. Sax; D. Yin

    2016-01-01

    This report, “Can Legality Verification Enhance Local Rights to Forest Resources? Piloting the policy learning protocol in the Peruvian forest context,” reports on the testing of the application of the 11-step Policy Learning Protocol in Peru in 2015-16. The Protocol (Cashore et al. 2014) enables actors to draw from international policy initiatives in order to improve...

  4. The European Union's Mediterranean Policy in the Context of the "Arab Spring"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the policy of the European Union aimed at the export of its democratic values, acquis communautaire and governance models to the neighbour countries in the Southern Mediterranean. The process of Europeanization reflects a particular case of global megatrend -democratization which in its turn positioned as democracy promotion through soft power instruments. From the EU point of view the goal of the Barcelona process launched in 1995 was to construct Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and common identity in order to promote democratic transitions in Southern Mediterranean. While the EU Foreign Policy in the Mediterranean region was historically conditioned by the security interests of the European Union, it suffered from securitization/democratization dilemma. The article analyses the process of external Europeanization in the Southern Mediterranean as a regional dimension of global democratization process in the context of Union for the Mediterranean development before and after the Arab Spring and new approach in the framework of the ENP Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity with the Southern Mediterranean. The article proposes that the lack of political strategic vision in the EU toward the Arab democratic transition during 2011-2013 narrows its role as a transformative democratic power, hinders Europeanization/ democratization process in the macro-region of North Africa and Middle East and presents the EU with a new dilemma - to continue its traditional democratization policy or to shift towards a more pragmatic approach to cooperating with new Arab regimes.

  5. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia

  6. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, Vuthy, E-mail: vuthy.khun@gmail.com; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  7. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  8. A review of the role of carbon cycle science in supporting carbon management policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.; Doney, S.; Edmonds, J.; Gurney, K. R.; Harriss, R.; Schimel, D.; Stephens, B.; Stokes, G.

    2003-12-01

    Over the past few centuries, concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have increased in the atmosphere, leading to potential changes in climate. Concern has risen such that societies are now contemplating actions designed to mitigate or prevent further increases. A variety of approaches has been suggested: direct reduction of emissions, deliberate manipulation of the natural carbon cycle to enhance sequestration, and capture and isolation of carbon from fossil fuel use. Policy development to date has laid out some of the principles to which carbon management should adhere, including quantification and verification, additionality and separation, permanence, and environmental acceptability. Much of this policy is still being debated, however, and many of the issues involve significant scientific and technological challenges. This presentation will summarize these carbon management principles, and briefly review examples of the scientific knowledge base available to support specific application of policy options. The issues of scaling of observations and mechanistic understanding of the carbon cycle in North America will be emphasized.

  9. Imagined in Policy, Inscribed on Bodies: Defending an Ethic of Compassion in a Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    In response to the International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) editorial, this commentary adds to the debate about ethical dimensions of compassionate care in UK service provision. It acknowledges the importance of the original paper, and attempts to explore some of the issues that are raised in the context of nursing practice, research and education. It is argued that each of these fields of the profession are enacted in an escalating culture of corporatism, be that National Health Service (NHS) or university campus, and global neoliberalism. Post-structuralist ideas, notably those of Foucault, are borrowed to interrogate healthcare as discursive practice and disciplinary knowledge; where an understanding of the ways in which power and language operate is prominent. Historical and contemporary evidence of institutional and ideological degradation of sections of humanity, a ‘history of the present,’ serve as reminders of the import, and fragility, of ethical codes. PMID:26673179

  10. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of ceramic versus concrete roof tiles in the Brazilian context

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA DANIELLE MAIA; LAFONTAINE Mia; CHARRON-DOUCET François; BENGOA Xavier; CHAPPERT Benoit; DUARTE Fernanda; LIMA Luis

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian ceramic industry is responsible for providing more than 90% of the roof coverings and wall bricks in the country, producing more than 15 billion pieces per year. Aiming to compare the life cycle impacts of ceramic versus concrete roofing tiles and identify potential improvements in ceramic products, the Brazilian National Ceramics Industry Association commissioned a life cycle impact assessment of these products. This study aims to compare the life cycle impacts of ceramic and c...

  11. Non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: context, determinants and health policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. J.; Kinra, S.; Casas, J. P.; Smith, G. Davey; Ebrahim, S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The rise of non-communicable diseases and their impact in low- and middle-income countries has gained increased attention in recent years. However, the explanation for this rise is mostly an extrapolation from the history of high-income countries whose experience differed from the development processes affecting today’s low- and middle-income countries. This review appraises these differences in context to gain a better understanding of the epidemic of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Theories of developmental and degenerative determinants of non-communicable diseases are discussed to provide strong evidence for a causally informed approach to prevention. Health policies for non-communicable diseases are considered in terms of interventions to reduce population risk and individual susceptibility and the research needs for low- and middle-income countries are discussed. Finally, the need for health system reform to strengthen primary care is highlighted as a major policy to reduce the toll of this rising epidemic. PMID:18937743

  12. The core determinants of health expenditure in the African context: some econometric evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Vasudeva N R; Okunade, Albert A

    2009-06-01

    This paper, using cross-sectional data from 44 (83% of all) African countries for year 2001, presents econometric model estimates linking real per-capita health expenditure (HEXP) to a host of economic and non-economic factors. The empirical results of OLS and robust LAE estimators indicate that real per-capita GDP (PRGDP) and real per-capita foreign aid (FAID) resources are both core and statistically significant correlates of HEXP. Our empirical results suggest that health care in the African context is technically, a necessity rather than a luxury good (for the OECD countries). This suggests that the goal of health system in Africa is primarily 'physiological' or 'curative' rather than 'caring' or 'pampering'. The positive association of HEXP with FAID hints that external resource inflows targeting health could be instrumental for spurring economic progress in good policy environments. Most African countries until the late 1990s experienced economic and political instability, and faced stringent structural adjustment mandates of the major international financial institution lenders for economic development. Therefore, our finding a positive effect of FAID on HEXP could suggest that external resource inflows softened some of the macroeconomic fiscal deficit impacts on HEXP in the 2000s. Policy implications of country-specific elasticity estimates are given.

  13. Philosophy of Public Governance: Manpower Policy of Modern Ukraine in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Naumenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent global civilization shift from material to non-material production caused the fundamental change in information industry. The globalization concept is usually associated with the brands expansion and the activity of transnational corporations. Mentioned significant markers of globalization describe only the superficial consequences of deeper shifts in society, which have to be discovered and researched for better understanding of contemporary social system. Modern philosophy of public administration has to take into consideration the issue of man. It is necessary for its construction and future explications. It is well known, that human factor is always in charge. In this article author focuses on the philosophical foundations of the state manpower policy and reveal its importance for achieving Ukraine’s strategic stability in the context of globalization. In particular, the current status of some personnel processes in the sphere of public administration is examined and their legal support is analyzed. Moreover, key problems of inefficiency of the state manpower policy are distinguished.

  14. Maintenance overtime policies in reliability theory models with random working cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces a new concept of replacement in maintenance and reliability theory. Replacement overtime, where replacement occurs at the first completion of a working cycle over a planned time, is a new research topic in maintenance theory and also serves to provide a fresh optimization technique in reliability engineering. In comparing replacement overtime with standard and random replacement techniques theoretically and numerically, 'Maintenance Overtime Policies in Reliability Theory' highlights the key benefits to be gained by adopting this new approach and shows how they can be applied to inspection policies, parallel systems and cumulative damage models. Utilizing the latest research in replacement overtime by internationally recognized experts, readers are introduced to new topics and methods, and learn how to practically apply this knowledge to actual reliability models. This book will serve as an essential guide to a new subject of study for graduate students and researchers and also provides a...

  15. Life Cycle Thinking and the Use of LCA in Policies Around the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnemann, G.; Gemechu, E. D.; Sala, S.

    2018-01-01

    is the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP adopted in 2012 and the global agreements on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted in 2015. Life cycle thinking has become mature, moving from its academic origins and limited uses, primarily in-house in large companies, to more powerful approaches...... that can support the provision of more sustainable goods and services through efficient use in product development, external communications, in support of customer choice, and in public debates. Now governments can use LCA for SCP policies. For this purpose LCA databases are needed. LCA is in particular...

  16. Policies Supporting Innovation In The European Union In The Context Of The Lisbon Strategy And The Europe 2020 Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Marek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of increasing globalization, global competition and rapid change the EU sees innovation and its commercialization as an effective way to build long-term global competitive advantage. Innovation policy is a link between research and technological development policy and industrial policy and makes it possible to create conditions conducive to bringing ideas to the market. It is also closely linked to other EU policies regarding e.g. employment, competitiveness, environment, industry and energy. This paper presents the evolution, conditions and objectives of the innovation policy of the European, and describes the main assumptions of the Lisbon and Europe 2020 strategies. Additionally it indicates possible ways of assessing the measures undertaken within the above-mentioned policies and of determining the tools necessary to implement the strategies.

  17. Information and communication technology (ICT) and eHealth policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of national policies and assessment of socioeconomic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Marroquin, Maria Carolina; Deber, Raisa; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the availability of national information and communication technology (ICT) or eHealth policies produced by countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and to determine the influence of a country's socioeconomic context on the existence of these policies. Documents describing a national ICT or eHealth policy in any of the 33 countries belonging to the LAC region as listed by the United Nations were identified from three data sources: academic databases; the Google search engine; and government agencies and representatives. The relationship between the existence of a policy and national socioeconomic indicators was also investigated. There has been some progress in the establishment of ICT and eHealth policies in the LAC region. The most useful methods for identifying the policies were 1) use of the Google search engine and 2) contact with Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) country representatives. The countries that have developed a national ICT policy seem to be more likely to have a national eHealth policy in place. There was no statistical significant association between the existence of a policy and a country's socioeconomic context. Governments need to make stronger efforts to raise awareness about existing and planned ICT and eHealth policies, not only to facilitate ease of use and communication with their stakeholders, but also to promote collaborative international efforts. In addition, a better understanding of the effect of economic variables on the role that ICTs play in health sector reform efforts will help shape the vision of what can be achieved.

  18. Analysis of fertility decline in Vietnam in the context of population policy and in comparison with China

    OpenAIRE

    Papřoková, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of fertility decline in Vietnam in the context of population policy and in comparison with China Abstract Vietnam was unified in 1976 after a 20-year war which left the country devastated. Since that time, Vietnam has experienced dynamic population changes. The Government has introduced an interesting population policy with successful programs. From the end of the 80s until the beginning of the 21st century, Vietnam experienced a huge decline in fertility, one of the most significant...

  19. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  20. Climate-based policies may increase life-cycle social costs of vehicle fleet operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac; Mbonimpa, Eric; Thal, Alfred E.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability guidelines and regulations in the United States often focus exclusively on carbon or petroleum reductions. Though some of these policies have resulted in substantial progress toward their goals, the effects of these efforts on other social and environmental externalities are often ignored. In this study, we examine the life-cycle air pollutant emissions for alternative fuel and vehicle purchase scenarios at a military installation near a typical urban area in the United States (U.S.). We find that scenarios which minimize petroleum use or greenhouse gas emissions do not concomitantly minimize criteria air pollutant emissions. We also employ social cost methodologies to quantify economic externalities due to climate change and health-related air pollutant impacts. Accounting for the social costs of climate change and air pollution from vehicle use reveals that criteria air pollutants may have a greater total impact than greenhouse gas emissions in locations similar to the urban area examined in this study. Use of first-generation biofuels, particularly corn grain ethanol, may reduce net petroleum use at the cost of increased total health impacts. More comprehensive policies may be needed to ensure that sustainability policies result in a net benefit to society. - Highlights: • U.S. energy and transportation policies focus on petroleum use and greenhouse gases. • Use of corn ethanol at a military base in Ohio, U.S. increases total social costs vs. gasoline. • Renewable electricity provides cost-effective climate and health protection. • DOD strategy to improve energy security may damage Americans' health. • More inclusive policies needed to protect health and climate.

  1. The Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report: A Scientific Basis for Policy and Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, R.; Mayes, M. A.; Reed, S.; Najjar, R.; Romero-Lankao, P.

    2017-12-01

    The second "State of the Carbon Cycle of North America Report" (SOCCR-2) includes an overview of the North American carbon budget and future projections, the consequences of changes to the carbon budget, details of the carbon budget in major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems (including coastal ocean waters), information about anthropogenic drivers, and implications for policy and carbon management. SOCCR-2 includes new focus areas such as soil carbon, arctic and boreal ecosystems, tribal lands, and greater emphasis on aquatic systems and the role of societal drivers and decision making on the carbon cycle. In addition, methane is considered to a greater extent than before. SOCCR-2 will contribute to the next U.S. National Climate Assessment, as well as providing information to support science-based management decisions and policies that include climate change mitigation and adaptation in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Although the Report is still in the review process, preliminary findings indicate that North America is a net emitter of carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere, and that natural sinks offset about 25% of emitted carbon dioxide. Combustion of fossil fuels represents the largest source of emissions, but show a decreasing trend over the last decade and a lower share (20%) of the global total compared with the previous decade. Forests, soils, grasslands, and coastal oceans comprise the largest carbon sinks, while emissions from inland waters are a significant source of carbon dioxide. The Report also documents the lateral transfers of carbon among terrestrial ecosystems and from terrestrial to near-coastal ecosystems, to complete the carbon cycle accounting. Further, the Report explores the consequences of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on terrestrial and oceanic systems, and the capacity of these systems to continue to act as carbon sinks based on the drivers of future carbon cycle changes, including carbon-climate feedbacks

  2. Introduction to nuclear supply chain management. In the context of fuel cycle strategy from LWR cycle system to FR cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Ono, Kiyoshi; Namba, Takashi; Yasumatsu, Naoto; Heta, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    Supply chain management (SCM) is an important technique to maintain supply and demand balance and to achieve total optimization from upstream to downstream in manufacturers' management. One of the major reasons why SCM receives much attention recently is the trend in production and sales systems from 'Push type' to 'Pull type'. 'Push type' can be restated as 'Make to Stock' (MTS). MTS is a type of supply chain in which the production is not connected to actual demand. On the contrary, 'Pull type' can be restated as 'Make to Order' (MTO) in which the production is connected to actual demand. In this paper, the terminologies and ideas of SCM was introduced into the scenario study to give a fresh perspective for considering LWR cycle to FR cycle transition strategies in Japan. Then, an analytical tool (SCM tool) which has been developed by the authors is used to survey Japanese nuclear energy system in transition with the SCM terminologies and viewpoints. When some of the Japanese nuclear fuel cycle strategies and tools are thought back with the framework of SCM, they tend to treat nuclear fuel cycle system as 'Push type' supply chain in their simulations. For example, a reprocessing plant separates SFs (spent fuels) without considering the actual Pu demand. However, because future reprocessing plants and fuel fabrication plants will act as Pu suppliers (front-end facility) to FR as well as back-end facilities of LWRs, the reasonable plant operation principle can be 'Pull type'. The analysis was conducted by the SCM tool to simulate the behaviors of both MTS and MTO type facilities during the LWR to FR transition period. If there are large uncertainties in the Pu demand or the load factor, etc. of future reprocessing plants, SCM framework is beneficial. Furthermore, the realization of MTO type operation by SCM can reduce the recovered Pu stock in spite of the increase of the SF interim storage. As the result of the investigation on the boundary location of 'Push type

  3. Possibility of regional fuel cycle centres in the context of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innas, A.M.; Ahsan, M.; Husain, S.R.; Chowdhury, R.K.; Rahman, A.

    1977-01-01

    The region consisting of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Ceylon, Bangladesh, Burma, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Indonesia is considered for a model study on the possibility of establishing regional fuel cycle centres. Nuclear power generation capacity for this region is estimated and projected through 2000 A.D. and accordingly the demands for various nuclear fuel cycle services are determined. Preliminary calculations show that for the region conversion and fuel fabrication plants may be economically feasible before 1990 whereas reprocessing plants may become feasible only after 1990. The possibility of enrichment plant is even more uncertain. Ore, enrichment and fabrication in future may constitute more than 95-98% of the total fuel cycle cost. For fuel cycle economy, therefore, regional cooperation should be emphasized for these services. Reprocessing has to be considered because of the valuable fissile materials present in the spent fuel. Assuming that regional fuel cycle centre/centres may be established in Bangladesh, the study considered the local advantages and disadvantages of such an effort. Though no major problem could be identified in the case of conversion and fabrication plants, considerable difficulty is anticipated from a large reprocessing plant because of waste management and disposal problems. Bangladesh does not appear to have any suitable waste disposal site in view of the present technology. However, if the long term leaching problemns of solidified wastes are resolved then wastes may be dumped in the sea-canyon in the Bay of Bengal (called the ''Swatch of no ground'') or in the deep underground caverns

  4. The development of health policy in Malawi: The influence of context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the health policy field, a growing literature is attempting to understand the diverse responses of policy makers to research, and to explain why certain research findings make their way into policy while others are effectively ignored. In this paper we apply a policy analysis framework to the development of cotrimoxazole ...

  5. Policy alienation of public professionals : Application in a New Public Management context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor); A.J. Steijn (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Today, many public professionals feel estranged from the policy programmes they implement; that is, they experience ‘policy alienation’. This is of concern as, for satisfactory implementation, some identification with the policy is required. We conceptualise policy alienation

  6. Combating social exclusion of the youth : Challenges and opportunities of programmes and policies in three different contexts. Commonwealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelen, Jacobus

    This paper reports and reflects on studies about the problems encountered in the implementation of education policies in several contexts in developed and developing countries. In these studies special attention is paid to the problems of the youth at risk between education and the labour market. In

  7. Immigration Policy of Spain in the Context of Problems of Ceuta and Melilla in the 90-ies of XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Salamov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the migration policy of Spain in the context of immigration processes from Morocco through the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla, which are the territory of the European Union. The problem of immigration to the cities is one of the most serious in the relationship between the two countries.

  8. Learning Organizations and Policy Transfer in the EU: Greece's State Scholarships Foundation in a Reform-Resistant Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavdas, Kostas A.; Papadakis, Nikos E.; Rigopoulou, Yiota G.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of policy change in the EU, lifelong-learning has acquired a growing significance due to its promise to foster both professional development and personal fulfillment and thus contribute to the enhancement of social inclusion, active citizenship, competitiveness, and employability. The need for developing a smart and sustainable…

  9. Challenges and opportunities of Reverse Logistics in the context of the National Solid Waste Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elaje Azevedo Simões da Mota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Law 12.305/2010, passed in 2010, made companies responsible for the solid waste issued from their production and clients’ post-consumption. In this situation, and considering the low rate of Reverse Logistics (RL activities within the metropolitan regions of Brazil’s largest cities compared to the high rate of waste produced per day, this article introduces the challenges and opportunities of introducing RL operations in the context of the National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP, in order to support and encourage companies to apply reverse processes in their production and clients’ post-consumption. To this end, the methodology used was to review the literature on the NSWP and RL, as well as unstructured interviews, allowing the challenges and opportunities for RL under the perspective of the NSWP to be presented as the main results. After checking the relevance of each topic, it was concluded that RL systems associated to the NSWP are crucial to overcoming challenges and exploiting the opportunities presented

  10. Gender Equity in Physics Practice: The Indian Context & the Social Impact of Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Prajval

    2015-04-01

    The gender gap in the physics profession that is seen world-wide has been attributed to multiple factors. The applicability of these factors is explored in the context of physics practice in India, using available empirical investigations and theoretical insights from gender studies. Indications are that girls are as interested in science as boys at the high-school level. In the profession, however, there is a significant gender gap. Data show that it is caused not only by the discriminatory familial responsibilities that women encounter in their personal lives, but also by gender-discriminatory attitudes in the scientific workplace. Although the Government of India, which is the major funder of scientific research and higher education, has acknowledged the gender disparity and initiated several measures to address it, these measures also come from a gendered perspective, and are therefore likely to be limited in their long-term effectiveness. Policy measures must address the gender discrimination in the workplace as well in order to achieve gender equity.

  11. A qualitative model of the salmon life cycle in the context of river rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noble, R.A.A.; Bredeweg, B.; Linnebank, F.; Salles, P.; Cowx, I.G.; Žabkar, J.; Bratko, I.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative model was developed in Garp3 to capture and formalise knowledge about river rehabilitation and the management of an Atlantic salmon population. The model integrates information about the ecology of the salmon life cycle, the environmental factors that may limit the survival of key life

  12. Studying the Water Cycle in an Environmental Context: The "Blue Planet" Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-zvi-assaraf, Orit; Orion, Nir

    The Blue Planet program aims to develop an understanding of and insight into the environment among students by introducing environmental problems such as pollution. This paper presents a study investigating junior high school students' previous knowledge and understanding of environmental issues and perceptions on the nature of the water cycle.…

  13. Connecting the dots: Stopover strategies of an intercontinental migratory songbird in the context of the annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Kristina L; Moore, Frank R

    2017-09-01

    The phases of the annual cycle for migratory species are inextricably linked. Yet, less than five percent of ecological studies examine seasonal interactions. In this study, we utilized stable hydrogen isotopes to geographically link individual black-and-white warblers ( Mniotilta varia) captured during spring migration with breeding destinations to understand a migrant's stopover strategy in the context of other phases of the annual cycle. We found that stopover strategy is not only a function of a bird's current energetic state, but also the distance remaining to breeding destination and a bird's time-schedule, which has previously been linked to habitat conditions experienced in the preceding phase of the annual cycle. Birds in close proximity to their breeding destination accumulate additional energy reserves prior to arrival on the breeding grounds, as reflected by higher migratory condition upon arrival, higher refueling rates measured via blood plasma metabolites, and longer stopover durations compared to birds migrating to breeding destinations farther from the stopover site. However, late birds near their breeding destination were more likely to depart on the day of arrival (i.e., transients), and among birds that stopped over at the site, the average duration of stopover was almost half the time of early conspecifics, suggesting late birds are trying to catch-up with the overall time-schedule of migration for optimal arrival time on the breeding grounds. In contrast, birds with long distances remaining to breeding destinations were more likely to depart on the day of arrival and primarily used stopover to rest before quickly resuming migration, adopting similar strategies regardless of a bird's time-schedule. Our study demonstrates that migrants adjust their en route strategies in relation to their time-schedule and distance remaining to their breeding destination, highlighting that strategies of migration should be examined in the context of other phases

  14. Optimal household refrigerator replacement policy for life cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Horie, Yuhta A.

    2006-01-01

    Although the last decade witnessed dramatic progress in refrigerator efficiencies, inefficient, outdated refrigerators are still in operation, sometimes consuming more than twice as much electricity per year compared with modern, efficient models. Replacing old refrigerators before their designed lifetime could be a useful policy to conserve electric energy and greenhouse gas emissions. However, from a life cycle perspective, product replacement decisions also induce additional economic and environmental burdens associated with disposal of old models and production of new models. This paper discusses optimal lifetimes of mid-sized refrigerator models in the US, using a life cycle optimization model based on dynamic programming. Model runs were conducted to find optimal lifetimes that minimize energy, global warming potential (GWP), and cost objectives over a time horizon between 1985 and 2020. The baseline results show that depending on model years, optimal lifetimes range 2-7 years for the energy objective, and 2-11 years for the GWP objective. On the other hand, an 18-year of lifetime minimizes the economic cost incurred during the time horizon. Model runs with a time horizon between 2004 and 2020 show that current owners should replace refrigerators that consume more than 1000 kWh/year of electricity (typical mid-sized 1994 models and older) as an efficient strategy from both cost and energy perspectives

  15. Towards real energy economics: Energy policy driven by life-cycle carbon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, R.; Law, C.; Pearce, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative energy technologies (AETs) have emerged as a solution to the challenge of simultaneously meeting rising electricity demand while reducing carbon emissions. However, as all AETs are responsible for some greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during their construction, carbon emission 'Ponzi Schemes' are currently possible, wherein an AET industry expands so quickly that the GHG emissions prevented by a given technology are negated to fabricate the next wave of AET deployment. In an era where there are physical constraints to the GHG emissions the climate can sustain in the short term this may be unacceptable. To provide quantitative solutions to this problem, this paper introduces the concept of dynamic carbon life-cycle analyses, which generate carbon-neutral growth rates. These conceptual tools become increasingly important as the world transitions to a low-carbon economy by reducing fossil fuel combustion. In choosing this method of evaluation it was possible to focus uniquely on reducing carbon emissions to the recommended levels by outlining the most carbon-effective approach to climate change mitigation. The results of using dynamic life-cycle analysis provide policy makers with standardized information that will drive the optimization of electricity generation for effective climate change mitigation.

  16. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Tuija; Hankonen, Nelli; Korkiakangas, Eveliina; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana

    2017-08-02

    Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT) Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such "retrofitting" of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) approach for this purpose. We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6). Policy recommendations targeting employees' nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB) were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy. A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively), whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%). Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence) were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46%) and changing the physical environment (44%) were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%). The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying assumptions regarding behavioural change processes may help to

  17. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Seppälä

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such “retrofitting” of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW approach for this purpose. Method We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6. Policy recommendations targeting employees’ nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy. Results A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively, whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%. Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46% and changing the physical environment (44% were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%. Conclusions The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying

  18. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS - CHALLENGES AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrisor Mihai - Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Public spending is a key component for both public finances and government financial policy. In this situation, government expenditures are made in direct relation with the results of governance with economic and financial crises and global social welfare of the nation. From this perspective, our article aims to highlight the correlation between public expenditure and budgetary financial and economic crisis and, also, state government responses, anticipating their impact on medium and long term. Also, in the context of the crisis and the concomitent lack of public revenue, we identify the pillars on which to base the budget reduction in public expenditure. The implications of the economic crisis in Romania are analyzed along with proposed measures to be followed by the Government through budgetary fiscal strategy. In relation to the purpose and objectives of the research, documentation was made both in terms of bibliographic resources and the plan of legislative documents and quantitative reporting. We believe that the issue of increasing allocative efficiency of resources is vital to counter the current crisis, but also to maximize the positive effects of public interventions in general and from another state, we consider that state and, consequently, public expenditure budget which should be used to replace the market, can not be regarded as some suggest to be founded and we suggest a line for developed countries. This work was supported by the grant “Post-doctoral studies in Economics: program for continuous forming of elite researchers – SPODE”, contract POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61755, project financed by the European Social Fund, by the Operational Sectorial Program Development of Human Resources 2007-2013.

  19. THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE FISCAL-BUDGETARY POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF TAXATION SYSTEM REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian MOCAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the budgetary impact determined by the Government’s proposition of modifying Law no. 571/2003 regarding the Fiscal code, respectively the diminution of the central levies and taxes (VAT, profit tax, income tax, microenterprises’ income tax, excises, etc., represents a mandatory condition provided by the legislation in the field, having as primary role the observance of the fiscal budgetary policy’s objectives on medium-term and long-term assumed by Romania through the Treaty regarding the stability, coordination and governance in the European Union. The tax sustainability on medium-term and long-term supposes that the Government promotes a cautious fiscal-budgetary policy and an efficient administration of the appeared risks that wouldn’t imply adjustments of the expenses, incomes or a budgetary deficit with adverse economic and social effects.This work intends to analyze the financial impact on Romania’s budget following the proposition of the Government to reduce the central levies and taxes, the opportunity of adopting a high fiscal relaxation while observing the medium-term and long-term budgetary objectives and the consolidation of the existing macroeconomic balances. The data used in the proposed scientific work takes into consideration the estimated VAT and GDP for 2015-2017 in Romania. The set of used data was available in the database of ANAF and the data provided in the Fiscal budgetary strategy 2015-2017.The results of the study highlight the importance of the correct dimensioning of the effects of the first round and those of the second round represented by the fiscal relaxation measures in the revision project of law no. 571/2003 regarding the Fiscal code in the context of using fiscal multipliers and the elasticity of the budgetary aggregates.

  20. "Health in all policies" in practice: guidance and tools to quantifying the health effects of cycling and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlmeier, Sonja; Racioppi, Francesca; Cavill, Nick; Rutter, Harry; Oja, Pekka

    2010-03-01

    There is growing interest in "Health in All Policies" approaches, aiming at promoting health through policies which are under the control of nonhealth sectors. While economic appraisal is an established practice in transport planning, health effects are rarely taken into account. An international project was carried out to develop guidance and tools for practitioners for quantifying the health effects of cycling and walking, supporting their full appraisal. A systematic review of existing approaches was carried out. Then, the products were developed with an international expert panel through an extensive consensus finding process. Methodological guidance was developed which addresses the main challenges practitioners encounter in the quantification of health effects from cycling and walking. A "Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) for cycling" was developed which is being used in several countries. There is a need for a more consistent approach to the quantification of health benefits from cycling and walking. This project is providing guidance and an illustrative tool for cycling for practical application. Results show that substantial savings can be expected. Such tools illustrate the importance of considering health in transport policy and infrastructure planning, putting "Health in All Policies" into practice.

  1. Context-dependent cell cycle checkpoint abrogation by a novel kinase inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Massey

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1/Chk2, and the Aurora kinases play a critical role in the activation of the DNA damage response and mitotic spindle checkpoints. We have identified a novel inhibitor of these kinases and utilized this molecule to probe the functional interplay between these two checkpoints.Fragment screening, structure guided design, and kinase cross screening resulted in the identification of a novel, potent small molecule kinase inhibitor (VER-150548 of Chk1 and Chk2 kinases with IC(50s of 35 and 34 nM as well as the Aurora A and Aurora B kinases with IC(50s of 101 and 38 nM. The structural rationale for this kinase specificity could be clearly elucidated through the X-ray crystal structure. In human carcinoma cells, VER-150548 induced reduplication and the accumulation of cells with >4N DNA content, inhibited histone H3 phosphorylation and ultimately gave way to cell death after 120 hour exposure; a phenotype consistent with cellular Aurora inhibition. In the presence of DNA damage induced by cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs, VER-150548 abrogated DNA damage induced cell cycle checkpoints. Abrogation of these checkpoints correlated with increased DNA damage and rapid cell death in p53 defective HT29 cells. In the presence of DNA damage, reduplication could not be observed. These observations are consistent with the Chk1 and Chk2 inhibitory activity of this molecule.In the presence of DNA damage, we suggest that VER-150548 abrogates the DNA damage induced checkpoints forcing cells to undergo a lethal mitosis. The timing of this premature cell death induced by Chk1 inhibition negates Aurora inhibition thereby preventing re-entry into the cell cycle and subsequent DNA reduplication. This novel kinase inhibitor therefore serves as a useful chemical probe to further understand the temporal relationship between cell cycle checkpoint pathways, chemotherapeutic agent induced DNA damage and cell death.

  2. School smoking policy characteristics and individual perceptions of the school tobacco context: are they linked to students' smoking status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Lovato, Chris Y; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K Stephen

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10-11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-level modeling results revealed that the school a student attended was associated with his/her smoking behavior. Individual-level variables that were associated with student smoking included lower school connectedness, a greater number of family and friends who smoked, higher perceptions of student smoking prevalence, lower perceptions of student smoking frequency, and stronger perceptions of the school tobacco context. School-level variables associated with student smoking included weaker policy intention indicating prohibition and assistance to overcome tobacco addiction, weaker policy implementation involving strategies for enforcement, and a higher number of students smoking on school property. These findings suggest that the school environment is important to tobacco control strategies, and that various policy dimensions have unique relationships to student smoking. School tobacco policies should be part of a comprehensive approach to adolescent tobacco use.

  3. THE CYCLE OF VIOLENCE IN CONTEXT: EXPLORING THE MODERATING ROLES OF NEIGHBORHOOD DISADVANTAGE AND CULTURAL NORMS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    WRIGHT, EMILY M.; FAGAN, ABIGAIL A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the cycle of violence theory has received empirical support (Widom, 1989a, 1989b), in reality, not all victims of child physical abuse become involved in violence. Therefore, little is known regarding factors that may moderate the relationship between abuse and subsequent violence, particularly contextual circumstances. The current investigation used longitudinal data from 1,372 youth living in 79 neighborhoods who participated in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), and it employed a multivariate, multilevel Rasch model to explore the degree to which neighborhood disadvantage and cultural norms attenuate or strengthen the abuse–violence relationship. The results indicate that the effect of child physical abuse on violence was weaker in more disadvantaged communities. Neighborhood cultural norms regarding tolerance for youth delinquency and fighting among family and friends did not moderate the child abuse–violence relationship, but each had a direct effect on violence, such that residence in neighborhoods more tolerant of delinquency and fighting increased the propensity for violence. These results suggest that the cycle of violence may be contextualized by neighborhood structural and cultural conditions. PMID:25147403

  4. Vested interests in addiction research and policy alcohol policies out of context: drinks industry supplanting government role in alcohol policies in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a 'partnership' role with governments to design national alcohol policies. A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study methods. The comparison indicated that the four drafts are almost identical in wording and structure and that they are likely to originate from the same source. The processes and the draft policy documents reviewed provide insights into the methods, as well as the strategic and political objectives of the multi-national drinks industry. This initiative reflects the industry's preferred version of a national alcohol policy. The industry policy vision ignores, or chooses selectively from, the international evidence base on alcohol prevention developed by independent alcohol researchers and disregards or minimizes a public health approach to alcohol problems. The policies reviewed maintain a narrow focus on the economic benefits from the trade in alcohol. In terms of alcohol problems (and their remediation) the documents focus upon individual drinkers, ignoring effective environmental interventions. The proposed policies serve the industry's interests at the expense of public health by attempting to enshrine 'active participation of all levels of the beverage alcohol industry as a key partner in the policy formulation and implementation process'.

  5. Explaining willingness of public professionals to implement public policies: Content, context and personality characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Steijn, Bram; Tummers, Lars; Bekkers, Victor

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, there is an intense debate on pressures facing public professionals. This debate often focuses on the (un)willingness of professionals - such as teachers and physicians - to implement new policies. In explaining this willingness, scholars often looked at the policy content, using qualitative case-studies. This has not led to a satisfactory explanatory framework. The aim of this research is twofold: (1) building a more all-encompassing, three-factor model (policy content...

  6. Energy trends, policies and role of nuclear energy in the Indian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.R.; Mahadeva Rao, K.V.

    1986-10-01

    India has an area of 3.3 million square kilometres and a population of over 700 million. Major energy resources in India are coal, hydro and nuclear. Oil and gas resources are relatively much smaller. India has pursued a consistent policy with regard to the development of nuclear energy for power generation over the last three decades. In order to enable full utilisation of the limited uranium resource and the vast thorium resource, development of all fuel cycle activities has been pursued vigorously and indigenous capability established. Current nuclear power projects have an indigenous content over 90%. Indigenous capabilities have also been established in efficient operation and maintenance of nuclear power stations. Results of environmental surveys at Tarapur, Rajasthan and Kalpakkam confirm that there has been no adverse impact on the environment from the operation of nuclear power stations. Besides the three stations in operation and two projects at Narora and Kakrapar under construction, work on two more projects each consisting of 2x235 MW at Kaiga and Rajasthan has been initiated. It is proposed to set up 4 additional units of 235 MW each and 12 units of 500 MW each by the year 2000 increasing the installed capacity for nuclear power to about 10,000 MW. The Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam has been commissioned and design of a 500 MW prototype Fast Breeder Reactor of pool type has been taken up. The capital cost of nuclear power projects in India has remained stable around US$ 1000/KW (1985 US$). All the operating nuclear power units in India are supplying electricity cheaper than coal based electricity in the region. MAPS, the most recent unit supplies power at 34 mills/KWh. The coal fired thermal power station at Raichur in the same region supplies power at 60 mills/KWh. Nuclear power has reached a stage of maturity and is the only available energy technology that can supplement coal, hydro and oil. Indian experience has demonstrated that the usual

  7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLISH AND CROATIAN MARITIME POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE INTEGRATED MARITIME POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Skrzeszewska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional activities based on sea resources (maritime transport, shipyards, fishery always played the key role in increasing production possibilities of the economies with the access to the sea. The development of technique and technology distinctly contributed to broadening the horizons and diversification of activities based on exploitation of maritime basins. Despite the positive results connected with greater and more intense exploration of seas resources, there also appeared the negative effects. First and foremost, they are connected with degradation of the natural environment and growing conflicts of interests of different groups of the basins users. The issue of split entitlement to use seas resources was brought to the world forum in 1982 by enacting the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS. The European Commission, having contucted consultations on a large scale, accepted the Integrated Maritime Policy of the European Union (IMP EU. It was based on the assumption, that all maritime activities are interconnected and that is why they should be performed in a coordinated manner to achive the established goals. The Integrated Maritime Policy created the framework, in which the member states were to find appropiate solutions to their economy specificity, inter alia – the maritime economy. In the paper, the results of the research of maritime policies of two countries - Poland and Croatia are presented. The goal of the research is to check how far the policies of these two countries are coherent with each other and with the assumptions of the IMP. In the research the deductive method was used - it was based at conclusions from the comparative analysis. The surveys were conducted on the basis of the EU, Polish and Croatian strategic documents.

  8. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Ciais; A. J. Dolman; A. Bombelli; R. Duren; A. Peregon; P. J. Rayner; C. Miller; N. Gobron; G. Kinderman; G. Marland; N. Gruber; F. Chevallier; R. J. Andres; G. Balsamo; L. Bopp; F.-M. Bréon; G. Broquet; R. Dargaville; T. J. Battin; A. Borges; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. Butler; J. G. Canadell; R. B. Cook; R. DeFries; R. Engelen; K. R. Gurney; C. Heinze; M. Heimann; A. Held; M. Henry; B. Law; S. Luyssaert; J. Miller; T. Moriyama; C. Moulin; R. B. Myneni; C. Nussli; M. Obersteiner; D. Ojima; Y. Pan; J.-D. Paris; S. L. Piao; B. Poulter; S. Plummer; S. Quegan; P. Raymond; M. Reichstein; L. Rivier; C. Sabine; D. Schimel; O. Tarasova; R. Valentini; R. Wang; G. van der Werf; D. Wickland; M. Williams; C. Zehner

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires...

  9. Do loss profiles on the mortgage market resonate with changes in macro economic prospects, business cycle movements or policy measures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.J. Noordegraaf-Eelens (Liesbeth); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Over the years we see that mortgages with less risk of loss, due to more asset accumulation, have become more popular. We examine if this popularity resonates with macroeconomic features, business cycle movements and policy measures. Using detailed data from an

  10. The Association between Education and Work Stress: Does the Policy Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. Methods We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies (‘Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe’ and the ‘English Longitudinal Study of Ageing’; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) ‘protective’ policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) ‘integrative’ policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Results Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced ‘integrative’ policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Conclusions Our results point to

  11. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Our results point to different types of policies that may help to reduce

  12. Opportunities for biomaterials. Economic, environmental and policy aspects along their life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, B.

    2010-08-30

    Little was known at the start of these studies regarding the environmental impacts of bulk chemicals production from biomass and whether they could be produced economically. We have therefore analysed the entire life cycle of bio materials: the production of bio-based chemicals, the application of bio-based polymers in packaging and finally the waste treatment of biodegradable materials. Numerous bio-based chemicals offer economic opportunities, the extent of which depends on the prices of the petrochemical and bio-based feed-stocks and can be further improved by technological progress in the future. Almost all bio-based chemicals have lower carbon and energy footprints than their petrochemical counterparts, and savings can be substantially increased in the future. Bio-based materials also offer savings when used for a specific food packaging application, but these savings can become smaller when the comparison is made not per kg of material but considering the functionality and material properties. Biodegradable materials are advantageous in that they are suitable for biological waste treatment options whose carbon and energy footprints are currently at least equally good as incineration, but have the additional benefit of producing a soil conditioner which can improve soil carbon content. Finally, consistent policy measures supporting bio-based and/or biodegradable materials are necessary to ensure this market's success. The progress made in terms of quantifying the benefits, the start of major research and development programmes and the start-up of production facilities have increased the likelihood for many bio-based chemicals and plastics to enter the market. So there are clear opportunities for bio materials, but policy measures are needed to ensure that they can start competing on a larger scale.

  13. Life cycle assessment of stormwater management in the context of climate change adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    Expected increases in pluvial flooding, due to climatic changes, require large investments in the retrofitting of cities to keep damage at an acceptable level. Many cities have investigated the possibility of implementing stormwater management (SWM) systems which are multi-functional and consist ...... in both alternatives. The uncertainty analysis shows the advantages of conducting an environmental assessment in the early stages of the planning process, when the design can still be optimised, but it also highlights the importance of detailed and site-specific data....... of different elements interacting to achieve desired safety levels. Typically, an economic assessment is carried out in the planning phase, while environmental sustainability is given little or no attention. In this paper, life cycle assessment is used to quantify environmental impacts of climate change...... adaptation strategies. The approach is tested using a climate change adaptation strategy for a catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark. A stormwater management system, using green infrastructure and local retention measures in combination with planned routing of stormwater on the surfaces to manage runoff...

  14. Explaining willingness of public professionals to implement public policies: Content, context and personality characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Steijn (Bram); L.G. Tummers (Lars); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, there is an intense debate on pressures facing public professionals. This debate often focuses on the (un)willingness of professionals - such as teachers and physicians - to implement new policies. In explaining this willingness, scholars often looked at the policy content,

  15. EXplaining The Willingness Of Public Professionals To Implement Public Policies: Content, Context, And Personality Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe willingness of public professionals to implement policy programmes is important for achieving policy performance. However, few scholars have developed and tested systematic frameworks to analyze this issue. In this study, we address this by building and testing an appropriate

  16. Social Exclusion, and Educational Opportunity: The Case of British Education Policies within a European Union Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadou, Nafsika

    2005-01-01

    This paper first examines the New Labour government's redefinition of equality of opportunity in Britain, mainly with regard to education and the ways in which it mediates "opportunity". In doing so, it also draws on wider social policy issues, such as the use of education policies to combat social exclusion. Second, the paper reviews…

  17. Public-private Partnership in the Context of Realisation of the State Financial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Victoriia M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the result of the study the article analyses modern tendencies of development of economy of Ukraine. It marks out problems connected with realisation of the state financial policy. It considers the essence of the state financial policy, its directions (such as budget-tax and monetary-credit, structural components and tasks. It emphasises the place of the public-private partnership as an instrument of realisation of the financial policy. It justifies tasks in the process of realisation of goals of the modern financial policy, which could be carried out with the help of the public-private partnership. The prospect of further studies in this direction is formation of practical recommendations on the use of the public-private partnership in the process of realisation of the state financial policy. Further improvement of the public-private partnership is connected with development of efficient mechanisms of its introduction and optimisation of its financial structure.

  18. Can distributed generation offer substantial benefits in a Northeastern American context? A case study of small-scale renewable technologies using a life cycle methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amor, Mourad Ben; Samson, Rejean; Lesage, Pascal; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Renewable distributed electricity generation can play a significant role in meeting today's energy policy goals, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions, improving energy security, while adding supply to meet increasing energy demand. However, the exact potential benefits are still a matter of debate. The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle implications (environmental, economic and energy) of distributed generation (DG) technologies. A complementary objective is to compare the life cycle implications of DG technologies with the centralized electricity production representing the Northeastern American context. Environmental and energy implications are modeled according to the recommendations in the ISO 14040 standard and this, using different indicators: Human Health; Ecosystem Quality; Climate Change; Resources and Non-Renewable Energy Payback Ratio. Distinctly, economic implications are modeled using conventional life cycle costing. DG technologies include two types of grid-connected photovoltaic panels (3 kWp mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline) and three types of micro-wind turbines (1, 10 and 30 kW) modeled for average, below average and above average climatic conditions in the province of Quebec (Canada). A sensitivity analysis was also performed using different scenarios of centralized energy systems based on average and marginal (short- and long-term) technology approaches. Results show the following. First, climatic conditions (i.e., geographic location) have a significant effect on the results for the environmental, economic and energy indicators. More specifically, it was shown that the 30 kW micro-wind turbine is the best technology for above average conditions, while 3 kWp poly-crystalline photovoltaic panels are preferable for below average conditions. Second, the assessed DG technologies do not show benefits in comparison to the centralized Quebec grid mix (average technology approach). On the other hand, the 30 kW micro

  19. THREE MODELS OF NATIONAL CRIMINAL POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author identifies three models of national criminal policy: the sovereign, reformist and experimental. The main criteria of such differentiation are the exposure to global influence, the criminological soundness and stability of criminal policy. Identification of the model of criminal policy in a particular state is a complex task that requires independent research.The subject. The article is devoted to modeling of the national criminal policy in modern conditions of globalization. The article discusses various models of criminal policy in the conditions of globalization.The purpose of the author is to describe the basic models of national criminal policy in modern conditions of globalization.The methodology. The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method as well as sociological methods (survey.The results, scope of application. The author identifies three models of national criminal policy: the sovereign, reformist and experimental. The main criteria of such differentiation are the exposure to global influence, the criminological soundness and stability of criminal policy. The sovereign model is based on doctrine of weak state and a strong combat criminal activity. It is distinguished by the pursuit of the realization of the equality of all before the law, criminal strategic and political planning system with a clear definition of goals and objectives; criminological security. The reform of criminal policy is characterized byuncertainty goals and objectives, utopianism and pretentiousness, dependence on standards of the international organization, the lower prestige of criminology, reduction of social programs, lobbying of group interests, permanent amendments to the criminal and criminal procedure legislation. Experimental model of criminal policy is connected with approbation of such technologies of management of society that are criminal and contrary to human experience in fighting crime.Conclusions. Criminal

  20. Life cycle assessment of stormwater management in the context of climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rygaard, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Expected increases in pluvial flooding, due to climatic changes, require large investments in the retrofitting of cities to keep damage at an acceptable level. Many cities have investigated the possibility of implementing stormwater management (SWM) systems which are multi-functional and consist of different elements interacting to achieve desired safety levels. Typically, an economic assessment is carried out in the planning phase, while environmental sustainability is given little or no attention. In this paper, life cycle assessment is used to quantify environmental impacts of climate change adaptation strategies. The approach is tested using a climate change adaptation strategy for a catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark. A stormwater management system, using green infrastructure and local retention measures in combination with planned routing of stormwater on the surfaces to manage runoff, is compared to a traditional, sub-surface approach. Flood safety levels based on the Three Points Approach are defined as the functional unit to ensure comparability between systems. The adaptation plan has significantly lower impacts (3-18 person equivalents/year) than the traditional alternative (14-103 person equivalents/year) in all analysed impact categories. The main impacts are caused by managing rain events with return periods between 0.2 and 10 years. The impacts of handling smaller events with a return period of up to 0.2 years and extreme events with a return period of up to 100 years are lower in both alternatives. The uncertainty analysis shows the advantages of conducting an environmental assessment in the early stages of the planning process, when the design can still be optimised, but it also highlights the importance of detailed and site-specific data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Getting food policy on the Mayoral table: a comparison of two election cycles in New York and London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, N; Atkinson, S

    2015-04-01

    Cities and Mayors are increasingly being recognized as important in shaping social policy and improving social well-being. And municipal food policies are increasingly important as a tool to reduce food insecurity and prevent diet-related chronic diseases. Thus city governments have a unique ability to improve local food environments. To realize this potential for improving urban food environments, nutrition advocates will need to find innovative approaches for influencing municipal food policy. This paper examines Mayoral elections as a vehicle to advance food policy. To explore this strategy, Mayoral elections in two cities, New York City (NYC) and London, during two recent cycles were compared. To gather evidence multiple sources were used including campaign documents, media and opinion polls as well as the authors' own observations as food policy observers and participants in the two cities. Mayoral governance differs between NYC and London, with the Mayor in NYC having greater powers of management and administration, whilst the London Mayor has a more strategic role and may need to also use 'influence'. Food policy and related issues did not feature strongly in the first election cycles in either city. However by the 2012 and 2013 elections food issues were definitely 'on the table' and featured in main candidates' campaign literature. These latter elections also saw the importance of food advocates coming together to form common alliances and place food issues higher on the municipal agenda. In this way, food policy has become part of the election dialogue in both cities and candidates are expected to consider food policy issues. This analysis leads to make observations which could guide advocates as to how to use Mayoral elections to raise policy objectives for the benefit of public health. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Norwegian policy position in a national and global ECT context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akselsen, Olav

    2008-01-01

    The presentation presents views on global warming, greenhouse gases, Co2 emissions, the Norwegian climate policies and environmental preservation contributions and the future emission situation. Various management and research aspects are discussed (tk)

  3. CHOICE IN CONTEXT: RATIONALITY, CONTINGENCY AND RISK IN THE DIVIDEND POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Tulbure

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of the recent literature regarding the dividend policy with regards to the different conceptualizations of rationality demonstrated by managers of companies or individual investors. This approach gives us the opportunity to reassess the latest contributions to dividend policy analysis and to adopt an alternative perspective to those of authors that have split the literature on dividends in the normative vs. descriptive approaches, empirical vs. theoretical cont...

  4. A Country Specific Approach To IFRS Accounting Policy Choice In The European, Australian And Turkish Context

    OpenAIRE

    Nalan Akdogan; Can Ozturk

    2015-01-01

    IAS 8 defines the concept of accounting policy as "the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements". Within the framework of this concept, this research that is derived from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) contributes to the accounting literature by focusing on the alternative accounting policies' debate related to presentation and recognition issues in the European, Australian and Turkis...

  5. Using of Protectionism Policy Tools in the context of WTO from the Perspective of Dependency Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel KARAŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, when neoliberal policies have been intensively implemented, the distribution of income between developed and less developed countries in the world has begun to increase inequality. There are discourses that the neoliberal view suggests that today's wealthy countries are successful with free market economics, so that all countries in the world must move to a free market economy system and that neoliberal policies are the only way for development. According to the neoliberal policy which advocates the state neutrality in the economy, the role of the state in the economy should be reduced. As a result, weakening the effectiveness of government policy-setting and implementation in the economy is intended. Thus, developed countries direct the underdeveloped or developing countries in the direction of their own interests. The result of these discourses, the theory of dependence which states that there is a relationship between developed and underdeveloped countries based on power and control, that underdevelopment of underdeveloped countries should be sought in the development process of developed countries has come out. The aim of the study is to assess the results of the use of defense measures in the trade policy implemented under the World Trade Organization (WTO, based on the assumptions of the dependency theory. When the use of defense instruments in trade policy is examined, it appears that these instruments have been effectively used by developed countries that advocate and enforce the free market economy in the world.

  6. Reflexões sobre as políticas de ciclos no Brasil Thoughts on learning cycle policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Siqueira de Sá Barretto

    2005-12-01

    itself, with the purpose of assuring that the great number of students who were until not long ago excluded from basic school may continue education and acquire socially relevant knowledge. This paper aims at locating learning cycles introduction policies within the context of Brazilian education. Its points out the different meanings given to them by experiences in state and municipal school systems, the issues that result from its implementation, and makes considerations on their results and impacts. It is based on a review of academic studies on the subject, from 1990 to today.

  7. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Effect of feeding strategy on environmental impacts of pig fattening in different contexts of production: evaluation through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A N T R; Garcia-Launay, F; Brossard, L; Wilfart, A; Dourmad, J-Y

    2016-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading. Impacts were calculated at the farm gate, and the functional unit considered was 1 kg of BW gain over the fattening period. The performances of pigs were simulated for each scenario using the InraPorc population model (2,000 pigs per scenario considering between-animal variability). The LCA calculations were performed for each pig according to its own performance and excretion, and the results were subjected to variance analysis. The results indicate that for some impacts there are clear interactions between the effects of the feeding program, the origin of soybean, and the location of production. For climate change, interest in phase feeding and incorporation of crystalline AA (CAA) is limited and even counterproductive in Brazil with soybeans from the South (without deforestation), whereas they appear to be efficient strategies with soybeans from the Center West (with deforestation), especially in France. Rather similar effects, as those for climate change, were observed for cumulative energy demand. Conversely, potential eutrophication and acidification impacts were reduced by phase feeding and CAA addition in a rather similar way in all situations. Individual daily feeding, the only strategy that took into account between-animal variability, was the most effective approach for reducing the life cycle impact of pig

  9. Financing national policy on oral health in Brazil in the context of the Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the model of oral health care implemented in the Unified Health System of Brazil in the last decade. This model was conceived as a sub-sector policy that, over the years, has sought to improve the quality of life of the Brazilian population. Through a chronological line, the study presents the National Policy on Oral Health as a counter-hegemonic patient care model for the dentistry practices existing in the country before this policy was implemented. The reorganization of the levels of oral health care, the creation of reference facilities for secondary and tertiary care, through Centers of Dental Specialties and Regional Dental Prosthesis Laboratories, and the differential funding and decentralized management of financial resources were able to expand the actions of oral health for more than 90 million inhabitants. The evolution shown after the deployment of the National Oral Health Policy, as of 2004, demonstrates the greater integration of oral health care under the Unified Health System and provides feedback information to help this policy to continue to be prioritized by the Federal Government and receive more support from the state and local levels in the coming years.

  10. Uncertainty analysis of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from petroleum-based fuels and impacts on low carbon fuel policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Aranya; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-01-01

    The climate change impacts of U.S. petroleum-based fuels consumption have contributed to the development of legislation supporting the introduction of low carbon alternatives, such as biofuels. However, the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions estimated for these policies using life cycle assessment methods are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty in outcomes. This may lead to unreliable and expensive decision making. In this study, the uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels consumed in the U.S. is determined using a process-based framework and statistical modeling methods. Probability distributions fitted to available data were used to represent uncertain parameters in the life cycle model. Where data were not readily available, a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model based on existing data was developed. This was used in conjunction with probability mixture models to select appropriate distributions for specific life cycle stages. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed to generate sample output distributions. As an example of results from using these methods, the uncertainty range in life cycle GHG emissions from gasoline was shown to be 13%-higher than the typical 10% minimum emissions reductions targets specified by low carbon fuel policies.

  11. New Housing in the Municipal Land-Use Policy Context - Lodz Agglomeration Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Milewska-Osiecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Local spatial policy in Poland is based on the obligatory document, which is a study of conditions and directions of spatial management. In this document, particular communities define land use forms according to specific functions. One of the fundamental functions, which appear in the study, is housing. Communities assign various, usually very big, percentage of their areas for housing. The research conducted by the author was aimed at answering the question: what is the connection between pro-housing policy in particular municipalities and the actual new housing investments? This problem was analysed on the example of communities in Łódź agglomeration.

  12. Policies to promote the waste management hierarchy : with special attention to the paper cycle in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukering, van P.J.H.; Brander, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to review policy instruments available to promote aspects of the waste management hierarchy. The motivation of this review is embedded in two questions: (1) What policy instruments are most effective in promoting the waste hierarchy? and, (2) Should EU policies

  13. LATERAL MARKETING IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SUCCESSFUL PRODUCT POLICY OF WINERIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana GHENOVA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This scientific publication is aimed at solving application of lateral marketing the issues of in the context of commodity policy of wineries in the Republic of Moldova. Currently, Moldovan wineries face with a high level of competition,both in foreign and domestic market of alcoholic beverages, which leads to an unstable dynamics of growth of volumes of production and sales of their products. We have also studied examples of applying the lateral technology of Moldovan wineries, which revealed the level of the problem and their implementation. Along with this, a number of recommendations have been made in the framework of lateral marketing at the product level, market and marketing mix, allowing increasing the efficiency of commodity policy of domestic wineries.

  14. Meeting Students’ Expectations in an Arab ICLHE/EMI Context: Implications for ELT Education Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S.M. Al-Issa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Students’ expectations have seldom received any attention in English Language Teaching (ELT education research in the Arab World in general and in Integrated Content and Language in Higher Education (ICLHE/English Medium Instruction (EMI English for Academic Purposes (EAP in particular, despite their importance for policy and practice. This mixed-method study investigates the expectations of 50 students attending an ICLHE/EMI EAP course at College of Law, Sultan Qaboos University (SQU in the Sultanate of Oman. The results have shown that the students had course materials and content and course pedagogy and design implementation expectations. The results have further revealed that the teacher played a key role in meeting his students’ expectations through his effective teaching. The findings have important implications for ICLHE/EMI policy implementation in other similar local, regional and global contexts.

  15. Institutionalized Ghosting: Policy Contexts and Language Use in Erasing the Person with Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Boyd H.; Pope, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    The ordinary social engagement of human life would not usually be considered an arena for language policy. Yet clinical evidence mounts that social interaction improves our lives as we age. Since social engagement decreases cardiovascular risks (Ramsay et al. in "Ann Epidemiol" 18:476-483, 2008) and delays memory loss among those living in…

  16. Argentina: resettling refugees within the context of an open migration policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cavaleri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Argentina’s human rights-based migration policy has helped regulariseregional migrant flows and has also benefitted refugees with specialprotection needs. Far from jeopardizing the local economy orundermining social cohesion, migrants and resettled refugeeshave been instrumental in Argentina’s swift economic recoveryin recent years.

  17. Innovation in agro-food supply chains – The EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Materia, V.C.; Dries, L.K.E.; Pascucci, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides insights into the definition of innovation and specifically how policies affect knowledge creation and innovation in agro-food supply chains (D9.1a, objective 1), considering innovation as a key determinant for competitiveness. The innovation system – rather than the linear

  18. A Race to the Bottom--Prison Education and the English and Welsh Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawski, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    This article examines prison education in England and Wales arguing that a disjuncture exists between the policy rhetoric of entitlement to education in prison at the European level and the playing out of that entitlement in English and Welsh prisons. Caught between conflicting discourses around a need to combat recidivism and a need for…

  19. Canada in Context: An Overview of Information Policies in Four Industrialized Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Cheryl Cowan

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview and comparison of the historical trends in information policy-making and recent proposals for the information infrastructure in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, the European Union, and Canada. The role of the private sector, including transnational corporations, is also considered. (MES)

  20. Plurilingual Pedagogical Practices in a Policy-Constrained Context: A Northern Ugandan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiria, Doris Maandebo; Early, Margaret; Kendrick, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Uganda is a linguistically diverse nation where plurilingualism is common. Its language education policy dictates that, except in large urban areas, one local language be selected as the medium of instruction (MoI), to Primary 3, transitioning to English MoI, in Primary 4. Yet, as Ramanathan and Morgan ([Ramanathan, V., 2007]) argue, "the…

  1. Leading Schools of Education in the Context of Academic Capitalism: Deans' Responses to State Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.; Teitelbaum, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    State education policy changes have contributed to a reduced interest in teaching and a decreased enrollment in education degree programs in North Carolina, USA. Pressure to cut budgets and generate revenue has added to a climate of academic capitalism influencing the ways in which deans lead schools of education. The purpose of this mixed-methods…

  2. CHOICE IN CONTEXT: RATIONALITY, CONTINGENCY AND RISK IN THE DIVIDEND POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Tulbure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a critical review of the recent literature regarding the dividend policy with regards to the different conceptualizations of rationality demonstrated by managers of companies or individual investors. This approach gives us the opportunity to reassess the latest contributions to dividend policy analysis and to adopt an alternative perspective to those of authors that have split the literature on dividends in the normative vs. descriptive approaches, empirical vs. theoretical contributions, according to the distinct paradigms various approaches illustrate, or according to chronological criteria. We surmise that the issue of rationality / irrationality occasions a better understanding of the latest contributions to corporate finance from the subfields of behavioral finance and of cultural finance. Such contributions challenge the premises of rational choice, one that is foundational for the neoclassic paradigm. Behavioral corporate finance and cultural corporate finance underline the role of psychological and socio-cultural factors for the dividend policy. They facilitate the emergence of notions of situated / contingent rationality considered responsible for the diverse shapes taken by the financial policies of the corporation.

  3. Using supervised machine learning to code policy issues: Can classifiers generalize across contexts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burscher, B.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Content analysis of political communication usually covers large amounts of material and makes the study of dynamics in issue salience a costly enterprise. In this article, we present a supervised machine learning approach for the automatic coding of policy issues, which we apply to news articles

  4. Competitive low-tech manufacturing and challenges for regional policy in the European context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars

    2014-01-01

    , and the understanding of innovation in national and regional strategies is dominated by a science-based perspective. There is a strong policy focus on human capital and research and development in manufacturing. Human capital is vital to manufacturing in general, but the latter is of less importance for low-tech firms...

  5. The emergence of innovation policy as a field: The international context and the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Fagerberg, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This chapter traces the development of scholarly interest in innovation and innovation policy in the Western world in general and in Denmark in particular, ranging from the early post-war period to the early years of the new millennium. In the early post-war world, innovation was commonly identif...

  6. "But I'm a Language Teacher!" Dual Immersion Teacher Identities in a Complex Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnut, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined dual immersion teachers' identities as they engaged in policy implementation within their school, collaborating in professional learning communities (PLC) with one-way immersion teachers. Data derived from participant observation, interviews, and interpersonal process recall were analyzed through a theoretical lens…

  7. Academic Performance in the Context of a "Three Excused Absences" Psychiatry Clerkship Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillerstrom, Jason E.; Lutz, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In order to better manage medical student absences during the psychiatry clerkship, a policy allowing students to miss up to 3 days without penalty was developed. The purpose of this study was to describe absence patterns and compare academic performance between students with and without absences. Method: Authors reviewed the academic…

  8. Parents' Assessment of Their Preschool Children's Bilingual Development in the Context of Family Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Parents' assessment of children's development in the first and the second language is an essential part of their family language policy (FLP) and an important component of parent-child communication. This paper presents a pilot study focused on Russian-speaking immigrant parents' assessment of their children's language knowledge in Russian as a…

  9. Public Policy Focus in the Context of a Globalised Economy: Debt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidently, there appears to be a growing appetite for Nigerian markets on the part of foreign investors seeking opportunities for good returns on investment. As an emerging market, Nigeria must strive to articulate public policy to manage the process of economic integration, especially in the area of public debt management.

  10. Changes in the Field of Finance of Education in Turkey within the Context of Neoliberal Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Tarik; Abali, Hüseyin Gürkan

    2014-01-01

    In today's world characterized by increasingly effective neoliberal policies, not only the sphere of public services is being constricted but also the concept of "public service" --which traditionally has been pointing at a responsible state providing public services based on social principles and methods-- is being transformed. In…

  11. Context-based online policy instantiation for multiple tasks and changing environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available are rendered manageable by the fact that all instances of a task can be generated from a finite set of qualitatively meaningful contexts. We present an approach to online decision making that exploits this decomposability in a two part procedure. In a task...

  12. Family Language Policy and School Language Choice: Pathways to Bilingualism and Multilingualism in a Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a survey with 170 school-age children growing up with two or more languages in the Canadian province of Ontario where English is the majority language, French is a minority language, and numerous other minority languages may be spoken by immigrant or Indigenous residents. Within this context the study focuses on minority…

  13. Present supply and demand on the world uranium market and decision of the nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Luqing

    1994-01-01

    The present supply and demand relationship on the world uranium market due to the change of international situation in the last years is described and the falling price on the world uranium market is estimated. It is pointed out that the falling price would continue for a long time. Based on it the three different policy decisions on the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed

  14. The Historical Context of Land Reform in South Africa and Early Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk J Kloppers

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for the current land reform programme arose from the racially discriminatory laws and practices which were in place for the largest part of the twentieth century, especially those related to land ownership. The application of these discriminatory laws and practices resulted in extreme inequalities in relation to land ownership and land use. This article provides an overview of the most prominent legislation which provides the framework for the policy of racially-based territorial segregation. It further discusses the legislative measures and policies which were instituted during the period from 1991 to 1997, aimed at abolishing racially-based laws and practices related to land and which eventually provided the basis to the current land reform programme.

  15. INDUSTRIAL POLICY OF REGIONS OF THE NORTH CAUCASIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT IN THE CONTEXT OF GEOECONOMIC CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Kiseleva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a short review of influence of geoeconomic restrictions on the economy and industrial policy of the Russian Federation. The authors mention the list of economically restricted companies with the indication of their industry affiliation. The characteristic of import dependence scales in key industries of the Russian economy is given. The mechanism of influence of geoeconomic restrictions on economic and social situation in Russia is shown on the example of the food market. It is proved that the agro-industrial complex couldn’t replenish the shortage at the domestic food market. The authors also point to strengths and weaknesses of import substitution policy in the economy and the social sphere of national economy. The main directions ofimport substitution policy in the Russian Federation are revealed with the indication of standard and legal documents, in which they are enshrined. The comparative analysis of import substitution plans of regions of the North Caucasian Federal District is carried out. The plans include such provisions as branch priorities, accounting of the developed branch structure of economy, strengths and weaknesses. From the authors’ viewpoint, the import substitution plans of the Republics of Dagestan, Karachay-Cherkess Republic, the Republic of Northern Ossetia, the Chechen Republic are the most developed, as they take into account branch structure and promote regional growth. In these documents the directions of further deepening of regional specialization of an access into the markets of other regions of Russia are proved. It is noted that there are measures of regional policy, which have been used within the last decades and have not proved their efficiency. The authors make a valid conclusion about the insufficient innovation of regional plans of import substitution in the North Caucasian Federal District that hinders development and search of a niche for each of the regions in the system of

  16. FDI Global Caries Initiative; implementing a paradigm shift in dental practice and the global policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Johnston, S; Hewson, N; van Dijk, W; Reich, E; Eiselé, J-L; Bourgeois, D

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of a new paradigm for caries management is necessary for the profession to respond effectively to changing population health needs. The FDI Global Caries Initiative (GCI) is a 10 year programme aimed at developing and implementing a new paradigm for caries management, one that would contribute to a common vision of health. The article reviews the global health policy landscape and examines how it might influence and shape the implementation of the GCI. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  17. Increasing adolescent vaccination: barriers and strategies in the context of policy, legal, and financial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Carol A; English, Abigail; Davenport, Amy F; Stinnett, Amy J

    2009-06-01

    To increase understanding of the policy, legal, and financial issues influencing efforts to achieve high rates of adolescent vaccination. We conducted semistructured telephone interviews with 49 key informants in nine states, five jurisdictions, and at the national level. We elicited: (a) experiences with human papillomavirus (HPV) and meningococcal vaccine programs; (b) perspectives on policy, legal, and financing issues influencing adolescent vaccine program effectiveness; and (c) strategies to increase rates of adolescent vaccination. Common and informative themes were identified by content analyses. Participants reported that barriers to adolescent vaccination included: public concerns (insufficient knowledge, negative attitudes, safety concerns, controversy); practitioner concerns (insufficient knowledge or ambivalence about recommendations); delivery issues (insufficient access to or use of healthcare, vaccines not at healthcare site or part of routine care); minor consent issues; cost/financing issues; and lack of coordination in timing of vaccine recommendations, supply, and financing. Many barriers and promising strategies for overcoming them vary depending on adolescent age. For example, concerns about providing vaccines to prevent sexually transmitted diseases are less frequent with respect to older adolescents; issues of consent vary widely between 11 and 25 years of age; and financial barriers/potential solutions vary by age. We develop a framework to address policy, legal, and financial issues influencing adolescent vaccination based on adolescent age. A comprehensive description of factors influencing adolescent vaccination reveals variation based on age. A framework that incorporates this complexity may enhance strategies to increase rates of vaccine delivery to adolescent populations.

  18. Context, cultural bias, and health risk perception: the "everyday" nature of pesticide policy preferences in London, Calgary, and Halifax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Rachel A; Baxter, Jamie

    2011-05-01

    Risk perception and the cultural theory of risk have often been contrasted in relation to risk-related policy making; however, the local context in which risks are experienced, an important component of everyday decision making, remains understudied. What is unclear is the extent to which localized community beliefs and behaviors depend on larger belief systems about risk (i.e., worldviews). This article reports on a study designed to understand the relative importance of health risk perceptions (threat of harm); risk-related worldviews (cultural biases); and the experiences of local context (situated risk) for predicting risk-related policy preferences regarding cosmetic pesticides. Responses to a random telephone questionnaire are used to compare residents' risk perceptions, cultural biases, and pesticide bylaw preferences in Calgary (Alberta), Halifax (Nova Scotia), and London (Ontario), Canada. Logistic regression shows that the most important determinants of pesticide bylaw preference are risk perception, lack of benefit, and pesticide "abstinence." Though perception of health risk is the best single predictor of differences in bylaw preferences, social factors such as gender and situated risk factors like conflict over chemical pesticides, are also important. Though cultural biases are not important predictors of pesticide bylaw preference, as in other studies, they are significant predictors of health risk perception. Pesticide bylaw preference is therefore more than just a health risk perception or worldview issue; it is also about how health risk becomes situated-contextually-in the experiences of residents' everyday lives. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Notices and Policies for Retractions, Expressions of Concern, Errata and Corrigenda: Their Importance, Content, and Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dobránszki, Judit

    2017-04-01

    A retraction notice is an essential scientific historical document because it should outline the reason(s) why a scientific manuscript was retracted, culpability (if any) and any other factors that have given reason for the authors, editors, or publisher, to remove a piece of the literature from science's history books. Unlike an expression of concern (EoC), erratum or corrigendum, a retraction will usually result in a rudimentary vestige of the work. Thus, any retraction notice that does not fully indicate a set of elements related to the reason and background for the retraction serves as a poor historical document. Moreover, poorly or incompletely worded retraction notices in fact do not serve their intended purpose, i.e., to hold all parties accountable, and to inform the scientific and wider public of the problem and reason for the paper's demise. This paper takes a look at the definitions and the policies of clauses for retractions, EoCs, errata and corrigenda in place by 15 leading science, technology and medicine (STM) publishers and four publishing-related bodies that we believe have the greatest influence on the current fields of science, technology and medicine. The primary purpose was to assess whether there is a consistency among these entities and publishers. Using an arbitrary 5-scale classification system, and evaluating the different categories of policies separately, we discovered that in almost all cases (88.9 %), the wording used to define these four categories of polices differs from that of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), which is generally considered to be the guiding set of definitions in science publishing. In addition, as much as 61 % deviation in policies (wording and meaning), relative to COPE guidelines, was discovered. When considering the average pooled deviation across all categories of policies, we discovered that there was either no deviation or a small deviation, only in the wording, in the definition of policies when

  20. The New Generation of Social Policies in the European Context: Workfare and Activation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Moser

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the configuration – in the nation sates that constitute the European Union – of a new generation of social policies governed by the logic of activation, aimed predominately at the insertion of people in the labor market. It reviews articles by European authors who analyze the transformations that have occurred in social protection systems in these countries. It found that this logic combines a series of characteristics that support programs, projects and actions marked by their disciplinary and punitive content and which require recipients to offer counterparts for the benefits received.

  1. The absorption of UE funds in the current context of the cohesion policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania continues to be affected by the global recession. It has suffered a significant reduction in foreign investment since the start of the recession, as investors have moved away from emerging markets in search for security. Developing an appropriate, focused strategy for the allocation of EU funds is only the first, though perhaps the most important step in implementing the EU cohesion policy. The successful implementation of EU co-funded projects is contingent not only upon the effectiveness of these countries’ administrative systems, but also on the activity of the potential beneficiaries.

  2. Support schemes and ownership structures - The policy context for fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropenus, S.; Thorsten Schroeder, S.; Costa, A.; Obe, E.

    2010-05-15

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects of the ongoing fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) demonstration projects by addressing the socio-economic and systems analyses perspectives of a large-scale promotion scheme of fuel cells. This document constitutes the deliverable of Work Package 1 of the FC4Home project and provides an introduction to the policy context for mCHP. Section 1 describes the rationale for the promotion of mCHP by explaining its potential contribution to European energy policy goals. Section 2 addresses the policy context at the supranational European level by outlining relevant EU Directives on support schemes for promoting combined heat and power and energy from renewable sources. These Directives are to be implemented at the national level by the Member States. Section 3 conceptually presents the spectrum of national support schemes, ranging from investment support to market-based operational support. The choice of support scheme simultaneously affects risk and technological development, which is the focus of Section 4. Subsequent to this conceptual overview, Section 5 takes a glance at the national application of support schemes for mCHP in practice, notably in the three country cases of the FC4Home project, Denmark, France and Portugal. Another crucial aspect for the diffusion of the mCHP technology is possible ownership structures. These may range from full consumer ownership to ownership by utilities and energy service companies, which is discussed in Section 6. Finally, a conclusion (Section 7) wraps up previous findings and provides a short 'preview' of the quantitative analyses in subsequent Work Packages by giving some food for thought on the way. (author)

  3. Assessing the potential of hybrid fossil–solar thermal plants for energy policy making: Brayton cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardos, Eva; López, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Javier; Abánades, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a first study in-depth of solar–fossil hybridization from a general perspective. It develops a set of useful parameters for analyzing and comparing hybrid plants, it studies the case of hybridizing Brayton cycles with current solar technologies and shows a tentative extrapolation of the results to integrated combined cycle systems (ISCSS). In particular, three points have been analyzed: the technical requirements for solar technologies to be hybridized with Brayton cycles, the temperatures and pressures at which hybridization would produce maximum power per unit of fossil fuel, and their mapping to current solar technologies and Brayton cycles. Major conclusions are that a hybrid plant works in optimum conditions which are not equal to those of the solar or power blocks considered independently, and that hybridizing at the Brayton cycle of a combined cycle could be energetically advantageous. -- Highlights: •We model a generic solar–fossil hybrid Brayton cycle. •We calculate the operating conditions for maximum ratio power/fuel consumption. •Best hybrid plant conditions are not the same as solar or power blocks separately. •We study potential for hybridization with current solar technologies. •Hybridization at the Brayton in a combined cycle may achieve high power/fuel ratio

  4. Main directions and priorities of Ukraine state migration policy in the context of its european integration changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.V. Shymanska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exceptional socio-economic importance of migration and its significant impact on the living standards and welfare of the population, labor market, ethnic and religious profile of Ukrainians, cultural and educational environment and migration activation social context cause the raising of the relevance of the research issues on international migration. This article is devoted to the study of existing approaches to identification of main directions and priorities of state migration policy for eliminating of external migration negative effects in Ukraine, ensuring an adequate level of social and economic protection of people and national security of Ukraine. The article considers the current problems of Ukraine's migration policy formation, characterizes the main priorities of Ukraine's migration policy according to its basic component, and describes the tendencies of migration processes in Ukraine and over the world. It is determined that the cooperation between Ukraine and the EU in the case of migratory flow regulating will have a number of advantages including the reduction of illegal migration, preservation of the professional level of Ukrainian migrants and receiving work experience abroad, strengthening their social protection and reduction of illegal employed migrants.

  5. Academic performance in the context of a "three excused absences" psychiatry clerkship policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillerstrom, Jason E; Lutz, Mary

    2013-05-01

    In order to better manage medical student absences during the psychiatry clerkship, a policy allowing students to miss up to 3 days without penalty was developed. The purpose of this study was to describe absence patterns and compare academic performance between students with and without absences. Authors reviewed the academic record of 3rd-year medical students rotating through the psychiatry clerkship between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2011. The number of clerkship absences during the 6-week rotation, NBME shelf performance, and clinical evaluation scores were extracted. The sample was dichotomized into "absent" and "non-absent" groupings, and mean NBME shelf exam and subjective grades were compared by Student's t-test. During this period of observation, 249 students (57.5%) had no absences; 96 (22.1%) had one absence; 62 (14.3%) had two absences; 25 (5.8%) had three absences; and 1 (0.2%) had four absences. Students with no absences had higher mean NBME psychiatry shelf exam scores than students with ≥1 absences. Mean clinical grades, which include a professionalism component, and final course letter grade distribution did not differ significantly between absent and non-absent students. Given that students with absences seemed as academically successful as students who were not absent, we conclude that this policy may effectively manage commonly-expressed attendance concerns.

  6. Environmental Tax Policy in Romania in the Context of the EU: Double Dividend Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Radulescu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, environment protection gained much more significance in designing the economic policies in the European Union (EU countries. There are many economic and policy differences between the European countries, despite of the harmonization process inside the EU area. The path of implementation of the environmental tax reforms in the EU countries differs greatly from one country to another and the effects of such taxation in the economic and environmental areas are manifold. The authors of this paper have agreed to undertake the task of testing the double dividend hypothesis of the environmental taxation in Romania (an energy-intensive country versus the EU area as a whole, using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM techniques and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS estimations. Our findings show that this hypothesis is validated neither in Romania (in the economic growth area nor in the EU area as a whole (in the unemployment area. Therefore, Romania cannot increase the level of the environmental tax for supporting economic growth, but it can grant environmental subsidies for decreasing the emissions and supporting the economic growth. This could be achieved by expanding the tax labor base and by collecting higher budgetary revenues to sustain such environmental subsidies. As far as the EU area is concerned, it is a necessary measure to continue the descending trend for the labor taxation to achieve the goal of improving the employment rate.

  7. Curriculum policies and teaching evaluation in the Ibero-American context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne Evangelista Dias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching has become a central issue in the Ibero-American discourses for basic education, in order to attribute, as a privilege, to the teaching work the guarantee of students‟ school success and, consequently, reach quality in education. From such discourses, the policy texts have defended the production of evaluation policies aiming at controlling the curriculums of teaching education (initial and continuous development and action. In this paper, which is theoretically and methodologically guided by Ernesto Laclau‟s and Chantal Mouffe‟s Discourse Theory, I analyze the processes of discourse articulation present in the texts by Organização dos Estados Iberoamericanos – OEI (Ibero-American States Organization and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, highlighting the significant performance as the focus of evaluation. In the analysis of discourses regarding teachers‟ education and work established as a target for the Ibero-American region, with focus on the professional performance, the competences gain importance as a model of curricular organization. I conclude pointing out that the attempts to control the teaching professional community regarding their education and work assign new roles, marked by accountability, to the teachers.

  8. Criminal law policy of Latvia in the context of European Union: The treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilks A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the content of EU Treaty of Lisbon, which deals with ensurance of freedom, security and justice in the joint European space. The Treaty of Lisbon describes the attempts of the European Union to ensure a high security level to prevent and fight crime, rasism and xenophobia, to develop particular measures of coordination and cooperation between police and judicial authorities and other competent authorities for their further development, as well as for the mutual recognition of judgements in criminal matters. Correspondingly, the implementation of the requirements of the Treaty of Lisbon identifies the need to form an adequate national criminal law policy in our country as well.

  9. Privacy in context technology, policy, and the integrity of social life

    CERN Document Server

    Nissenbaum, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is one of the most urgent issues associated with information technology and digital media. This book claims that what people really care about when they complain and protest that privacy has been violated is not the act of sharing information itself—most people understand that this is crucial to social life —but the inappropriate, improper sharing of information. Arguing that privacy concerns should not be limited solely to concern about control over personal information, Helen Nissenbaum counters that information ought to be distributed and protected according to norms governing distinct social contexts—whether it be workplace, health care, schools, or among family and friends. She warns that basic distinctions between public and private, informing many current privacy policies, in fact obscure more than they clarify. In truth, contemporary information systems should alarm us only when they function without regard for social norms and values, and thereby weaken the fabric of social life.

  10. German coal and the Ruhrkohle AG in an energy policy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessling, M.

    1993-01-01

    German coal output has fallen since 1957. The Ruhrkohle AG was established in 1968 to reorganise the mining industry in the Ruhr district. It comprised 52 collieries with 186000 employees. The number of collieries was reduced to 15 and the number of employees to 79000 by 1992. Output fell from 91 to 46 mill. t/a. A time frame was created by Coal Concept 2005. The contribution of German coal to energy supply has been reduced for financial policy reasons, but the mining industry has acquired long-term prospects. The required retrenchment is already extremely difficult to implement and handle according to the agreements of November 1991, but the current steel crisis has necessitated that the measures be brought forward. (orig.)

  11. Current policies, strategies and aspects of environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has already shown its value for implementing and strengthening sustainable development, as it combines the precautionary principles with the principle of preventing environmental damage and also arranges for public participation. EIA is already used as an effective instrument for improving the quality of the environment at the national level and it is understood that the EIA Convention will lead to environmentally sound and sustainable development by providing information on the interrelationship between economic activities and their environmental consequences in particular in a transboundary context. The Convention obliges Parties to assess the environmental impacts at an early stage of planning and includes measures and procedures to prevent, control or reduce any significant adverse effect on the environment, particularly any transboundary effect, which is likely to be caused by a proposed activity or any major change to an existing activity

  12. Energy policy in the Caribbean green economy context and the Institutional Analysis and Design (IAD) framework as a proposed tool for its development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Kalim U.; Niles, Keron

    2016-01-01

    Market integration efforts of Caribbean small island developing states have become transposed on the growing paradigm shift towards green economy pathways. Central to this is the challenge of implementing Caribbean energy policy in a manner that is aligned with green economy ideals and face the realities of regional indebtedness and environmental impacts. Here we analyze the current state of the Caribbean energy policy development arena and propose that the currently weak policy and institutional design regime might potentially benefit from the application of the Institutional Analysis and Design (IAD) model especially within the operational context of the green economy. It allows us to identify current policy dilemmas, bottlenecks and discrepancies and to disentangle some of them while offering up a way forward with others. We do not so much offer distinct recommendations but focus more on delineating how to clear the pathway for sound policy intervention and outcomes. By doing so we set forth a challenging agenda for future policy analysis research that will advance Caribbean energy policy in more robust ways. - Highlights: • Un-coordinated Caricom energy policy can benefit from an institutional analysis and design approach. • Policy reform hinges on the patterns of interaction among key actors in the regional context. • Regional policy remains weak across efficiency, equity, accountability and adaptability parameters.

  13. Regulatory policy governing cadmium-telluride photovoltaics: A case study contrasting life cycle management with the precautionary principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Kriegner, Christopher J.; Schew, William A.; Kaczmar, Swiatoslav W.; Traister, Matthew; Wilson, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Market projections for cadmium-telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaics (PV) are tempered by global environmental policies based on the precautionary principle which restrict electronic products containing cadmium, a known human carcinogen. An alternative to the precautionary principle is life cycle management, which involves manufacturers assuming product stewardship from beginning to end of product life. Both approaches have the aim of minimizing environmental contamination, but attempt to do so in different ways. Restrictions on electronic products containing cadmium by the precautionary principle-based restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) directive in the European Union and a similar policy in China are presented, relative to their potential impact on CdTe PV. Life cycle environmental risks with respect to potential release of cadmium to the environment are also presented for routine operation of CdTe PV panels, potential catastrophic release of cadmium from a residential fire, and at the end of the product life. There is negligible risk of environmental cadmium contamination during routine operation and insignificant risk during catastrophic exposure events such as fire. At the end of the product life, risks of contamination are minimized by take-back programs that may be paid for by insurance premiums incorporated into the cost of the product. Therefore, policies based on the precautionary principle that could potentially ban the product based on its cadmium content may not be warranted

  14. Regulatory policy governing cadmium-telluride photovoltaics: A case study contrasting life cycle management with the precautionary principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Kriegner, Christopher J.; Schew, William A.; Kaczmar, Swiatoslav W.; Traister, Matthew; Wilson, David J. [O' Brien and Gere, Ecological Sciences, E. 512 Township Line Road, Two Valley Square, Suite 120, Blue Bell, PA 19422 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Market projections for cadmium-telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaics (PV) are tempered by global environmental policies based on the precautionary principle which restrict electronic products containing cadmium, a known human carcinogen. An alternative to the precautionary principle is life cycle management, which involves manufacturers assuming product stewardship from beginning to end of product life. Both approaches have the aim of minimizing environmental contamination, but attempt to do so in different ways. Restrictions on electronic products containing cadmium by the precautionary principle-based restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) directive in the European Union and a similar policy in China are presented, relative to their potential impact on CdTe PV. Life cycle environmental risks with respect to potential release of cadmium to the environment are also presented for routine operation of CdTe PV panels, potential catastrophic release of cadmium from a residential fire, and at the end of the product life. There is negligible risk of environmental cadmium contamination during routine operation and insignificant risk during catastrophic exposure events such as fire. At the end of the product life, risks of contamination are minimized by take-back programs that may be paid for by insurance premiums incorporated into the cost of the product. Therefore, policies based on the precautionary principle that could potentially ban the product based on its cadmium content may not be warranted. (author)

  15. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B; Andrews, Anthony; Holt, Mark

    2008-01-01

    .... In the United States, interest appears driven, in part, by provisions in the 2005 Energy Policy Act authorizing streamlined licensing that combine construction and operating permits, and tax credits...

  16. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B; Parillo, Jill M; Squassoni, Sharon; Andrews, Anthony; Holt, Mark

    2007-01-01

    .... In the United States, interest appears driven, in part, by provisions in the 2005 Energy Policy Act authorizing streamlined licensing that combine construction and operating permits, and tax credits...

  17. Globalization, Edu-Business and Network Governance: The Policy Sociology of Stephen J. Ball and Rethinking Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces developments across Stephen J. Ball's policy sociology in education "oeuvre" and considers their implications for doing research on education policy today. It begins with an account of his policy sociology trilogy from the 1990s, which outlined his conception of the policy cycle consisting of the contexts of influence,…

  18. SCALS: a fourth-generation study of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joe; Hughes, Gemma; Lynch, Jenni; A'Court, Christine; Hinder, Sue; Fahy, Nick; Byrne, Emma; Finlayson, Alexander; Sorell, Tom; Procter, Rob; Stones, Rob

    2016-02-15

    Research to date into assisted living technologies broadly consists of 3 generations: technical design, experimental trials and qualitative studies of the patient experience. We describe a fourth-generation paradigm: studies of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context. Fourth-generation studies are necessarily organic and emergent; they view technology as part of a dynamic, networked and potentially unstable system. They use co-design methods to generate and stabilise local solutions, taking account of context. SCALS (Studies in Co-creating Assisted Living Solutions) consists (currently) of 5 organisational case studies, each an English health or social care organisation striving to introduce technology-supported services to support independent living in people with health and/or social care needs. Treating these cases as complex systems, we seek to explore interdependencies, emergence and conflict. We employ a co-design approach informed by the principles of action research to help participating organisations establish, refine and evaluate their service. To that end, we are conducting in-depth ethnographic studies of people's experience of assisted living technologies (micro level), embedded in evolving organisational case studies that use interviews, ethnography and document analysis (meso level), and exploring the wider national and international context for assisted living technologies and policy (macro level). Data will be analysed using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. Research ethics approval for the first 4 case studies has been granted. An important outcome will be lessons learned from individual co-design case studies. We will document the studies' credibility and rigour, and assess the transferability of findings to other settings while also recognising unique aspects of the contexts in which they were generated. Academic outputs will include a cross-case analysis and

  19. The Challenges of Digital Literacy in the Context of the Spanish Government Educational Policies: The Statement of the Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Carmen Guillén; Quílez, Mariá Teresa Blasco

    The "(r)evolution" of the literacy concept and our duty as Languages' Teachers' Trainers at the Faculty of Education and Social Work in Valladolid's University (Spain), guides this research in progress. Our research develops in the framework of the Spanish Higher Education System, within the development of the eight key competences established by the European Council, for the Education and Training of the European citizens for lifelong learning in the knowledge society. We focus on the competences 1, 2 and 4: Communication in the mother tongue, Communication in foreign languages and Digital competence, both as essential competences in the professional language's teacher's profile and as a challenge in the Teacher's Education and Training in the Spanish government policies context.

  20. FLOOD RISK FACTORS IN SUBURBAN AREA IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION POLICIES – CASE STUDY OF WROCLAW, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Szewrański

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled sprawl of urban development exerts environmental impact in rural areas. The aim of this study is to identify areas vulnerable to climate change in the context of implementation of policies adapting to climate change at the local level. Such areas can be defined as those where the negative implication of flesh flood overlapping with soil sealing is observed. The study areas composed of municipalities which are influenced by the urban sprawl process of the city of Wroclaw, Poland. The analyses were performed using publicly available spatial data from aerial orthophotomaps from 2004–2012, the satellite images; archival and current land use maps. The database CORINE 1990, 2000, 2006; Urban Atlas and geodatabase of the European Environment Agency were also of an important usage for this study.

  1. Anti-immigration stance in the context of crisis tendencies of European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V Marusyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the formation of contemporary migration flows to Europe, factors and characteristics of ambiguous perception of the process by the local population, particularly in the context of crisis tendencies at the beginning of XXI century. The key features of the new far-right parties, the fundamental differences between the ruling parties of totalitarian regimes and neo-Nazi or neo-fascist organizations, the problems of their positioning in the realities of the European integration process and the use of anti-immigration rhetoric are distinguished. The peculiarities of electoral success at the national and European level, the reasons of differences in results at these levels are defined. The differences of electoral systems and the impact of new voting behavior in elections to the legislatures of various levels are analyzed. The author highlighted the trends of mitigation of anti-immigration rhetoric of the far-right and the spread of this theme among less radical parties. A special attention is also drawn to the referendum in Switzerland, as an example of the majority of voters’ support of immigration restrictions. The analysis is made of electoral processes in recent years, which have become increasingly linked and actively respond to general European crisis. Through the prism of this crisis the anti-immigration position is one of the brightest, but it’s no longer self-sufficient problem of European integration processes.

  2. Exploring Eco-Costs and Externalities Absorption Policies and Procedures in the Context of Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Raluca Guse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of recent international studies reveal the scarcity of coherent entity-level estimation systems able to lead to an adequate identification and valuation of social and environmental performance, despite the large number of entities claiming their concern for the environmental impact of their business activities.The status quo is mainly caused by the lack of domain-specific accounting regulation, along with a general "information gap" in the field of the potential benefits eco-costs and externalities absorption may generate. Eco-costs and externalities absorption technologies for the costing model are still going through their experimental stages, aiming to reflect both the historicalpolitical context and the philosophical motivations of an organization's management and stakeholders. We held as appropriate (and the paper at hand will speak for the intent to promote this class of technologies for the Romanianbusiness environment, mainly by reviewing the relevant literature in the field and developing an eco-costing model able to provide cost levels consistent with the sustainable development goals.

  3. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  4. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China. Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources. (author)

  5. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  6. The USA Space Policy in the Context of the Termination of the Arms Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Zhuravlova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The USA Space Policy as one of the leading factors in the process of the arms race’ stop in late 80’s and early 90’s has been examined in the article. American Presidential Directives, international agreements and a wide range of research provided an opportunity to make informative conclusions about the positive role of space topics in the process of a detente and «Cold War» ending. It is important to note that the development of astronautics became one of the spin-offs from «Cold War» and the arms race, as it was the nuclear race logic that stimulated the development of weapons. At the same time, in the process of US-Soviet competition, space became a new sphere of international relations. Therefore, the cooperation in the space sphere became a symbol of the compromise and good will that were required during the most difficult negotiations about arms reduction. The warming and detente periods of international relations have been indicated. Furthermore, the majority of American and Russian researchers conclude that the Strategic Defense Initiative of Reagan became an important element of the USA strategy on the Soviet Union’s pressure, pushing it to more constructive position in negotiations on disarmament. Further results showed the effectiveness of the detente policies’ process of the USA government in this sphere. In addition, the uncertainty in the possibilities of the Soviet economy to respond to the challenge of a new stage of the space systems’ scientific and technological rivalry led to the reduction of armaments of the Soviet Union. At the same time, it was space topics discussion that provided the deepening of the detente process. It is worth to note, that space cooperation relations, which recovered during 80’s-early 90’s, have turned into an important political signal transmission channel between the two countries and caused the facilitating interaction between the parties on wider range of problems. And in the

  7. AZERBAIJAN’S BALANCED FOREIGN POLICY TRAPPED IN A VOLATILE GEOPOLITICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina STRIMBOVSCHI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a study visit in Baku, the author exposes in this paper some of the research results, being also embedded the opinions of Azerbaijanis experts that were interviewed. The aim is to perform an analysis on the evolution of Azerbaijani state interpreted both from the European and Azerbaijani perspective. On the one hand, it is approached the development of the Republic of Azerbaijan after the collapse of Soviet Union and the way the Nagorno-Karabakh unsolved conflict has influenced Azerbaijan’s foreign policy. On the other hand, it is researched the manner in which the European Union – Azerbaijan relations have evolved since 1991, but especially once the Eastern Partnership has been created. Considering the fundamental purpose of the European Neighborhood Union, to ensure security, stability and prosperity in the EU’s vicinity, it is analyzed the impact of two multilateral platforms within the Eastern Partnership (Democracy, good governance and stability, and Energy security was achieved on the Republic of Azerbaijan. At the same time, it is investigated whether the European Union should accept an authoritarian leadership, as a legitimate actor and partner on the international stage just because the EU has a strategic interest to diversify its energy sources and, eventually, reduce the dependence on Russian Federation, or it should change its approach and adopt a firmer stance. Last but not least, are revealed the geopolitical frictions in the South Caucasus region and the reasons for which Azerbaijan tries to maintain its status as a sovereign and independent country, avoiding to ally with any geopolitical bloc, but opting for economic, energy and military cooperation with both sides.

  8. Ethanol as a transportation fuel : Canadian policies and challenges in the context of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, R.; Sam, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviewed the current and potential scenarios in Canada's Ethanol Expansion Program with particular reference to the adequacy of a 10 per cent blending target in one third of Canada's gasoline by 2010, and the actual amount of reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that can be achieved. The cost of these reductions was also examined. Emissions from transportation are increasing faster than the average for all emissions. Therefore, the use of a blended gasoline as a transportation fuel has received much attention as a means for Canada to meet its Kyoto target of reducing GHGs to 6 per cent below 1990 levels during the 2008-2012 period. In order to compare the actual GHGs that are emitted during the production and use of ethanol itself and make informed decisions about the development of these fuels, policy and decision-makers need data on the potential impact of ethanol fuels on GHG emissions in Canada. This study examined the currently known emissions data on ethanol production data and usage. The ethanol related initiatives in the United States were also summarized. The study revealed that ethanol production in Canada would have to increase by more than 6 times the current levels of 238 million litres per year in order to achieve the Federal Ethanol Plan's 2010 target. If the target is achieved, GHG reductions can be expected to be in the order of 1.8 MT of carbon dioxide equivalent per year. The cost of reduction would be $264 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in subsidies to the ethanol industry. It was concluded that the outlook of sustained growth of ethanol as a transportation fuel is limited due to expensive production costs and limited feedstock supply. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Sustainability of egg production in the United States--the policy and market context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mench, J A; Sumner, D A; Rosen-Molina, J T

    2011-01-01

    The US egg industry is being pressured from many directions to change its production practices, particularly to address concerns about hen welfare in conventional cage systems. Responding to similar pressures, in 1999, the European Union banned conventional laying cages starting in 2012. This now impending European ban has led to the development of several alternative housing systems. These include noncage systems like aviaries and modified (enriched or furnished) cages that include perches, areas in which the hens can forage and dustbathe, and nests. Understanding the European experience is valuable as the United States considers the future direction of the egg industry. In the United States, the proportion of eggs produced in alternative systems is small (less than 5% of output) but growing, in part due to market and political incentives for systems that provide hens with more behavioral freedom than conventional cages. Animal welfare, however, is only one element of a sustainable production system. Other elements include those related to public values, the environment, economics, worker health, and food safety and quality. Eggs are a primary source of animal protein globally, and the United States is the third largest producer of eggs in the world, behind China and the European Union. The national table egg flock comprises about 280 million hens housed in all regions but with approximately 60% of eggs produced in the 10 leading states. Adopting new housing systems will have substantial effects on costs and other aspects of egg production on both a regional and national scale, with some positive effects but also potential negative effects that need to be carefully considered. This paper discusses the US egg industry in the context of legislation and standards related to hen housing systems. It also addresses initiatives by retailers, nongovernmental organizations, and private certification organizations to shape production practices in the egg industry as well as

  10. Culture, mobility and human rights: considerations on social occupational therapy in the context of immigrants municipal policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Takao Sato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the need to revise education and professional action, in the context of social occupational therapy, facing the growing phenomenon of international migration, especially in the current construction of the municipal policy for immigrant populations in São Paulo, SP. The discussion is methodologically structured into three complementary lines of analysis results from documentary research accompanied by field study, visits, participations in meetings, inter-institutional forums, public hearings, thematic debates, in addition to literature review. In the first analysis axis, we discuss the current legislation in Brazil, the construction of migration policy at the municipal level and civil society articulations about human mobility, understood as a fundamental right. In the second, we discuss people care services, families and groups in migratory situation in São Paulo, SP. Finally, on the third axis, we discuss the cultural developments in social occupational therapy for professional action and training in the field of human mobility. As a result it was observed that the current panorama poses new professional challenges, forcing the occupational therapist to review its technical-political position face to the new realities of the contemporary world.

  11. Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the global carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, W.M.; Dale, V.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; O' Neill, R.V.; Peng, T.-H.; Farrell, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs. 87 refs.

  12. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  13. Comparative Review of Selected Educational Policies of 1st and 2nd Cycle Institutions in Ghana and Burkina Faso, and That of United Kingdom and United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi, Asamoah Moses; Seidu, Abarichie Adamu

    2017-01-01

    This article examines some selected Educational Policies of First and Second Cycle Institutions in Ghana and Burkina Faso, in comparison with that of the UK and US. The purpose of the study is to itemise the commonalities and differences in Educational Policies of both developed (UK and US) and developing countries (Ghana and Burkina Faso) in…

  14. What is going to change in EU rural development policies after 2013? Main implications in different national contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mantino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the changes the CAP post‐2013 may bring to its second pillar in EU countries. After the presentation of the legislative package put forward by the European Commission, a debate emerged in some countries on how to define rural development strategies for the period 2014‐2020. The paper will discuss positive innovations and main challenges of the new rural development policies with respect to what happened in the 2007‐2013 period. In particular, the paper intends to focus on the following issues: 1 which relevant changes have been introduced in the rural development framework; 2 how these changes can influence the preparation of the next programming period 2014-2020, looking more in depth at three countries (Italy, Spain and France; 3 what lessons can be drawn from this reform and the initial implementation in three countries in terms of institutional changes and their likely success and failure. This analysis concludes that the success or failure of the 2014-2020 reform of rural development will significantly depend on what types of transaction costs and incentive systems will be brought about within the programming system. These two factors in turn will strongly depend on the way the different actors will perceive the different costs and incentives, their expectations on the role of rural development programmes in a context where budget for agriculture is shrinking everywhere, and finally their capability to build new strategic alliances and cooperation at every level (national, regional and local with other economic and social actors. Future policy scenarios might bring new and heavy constraints to rural development policies and consequently might also reduce the opportunities of institutional innovations.

  15. Indian Interest in the Arctic in the Context of China’s Arctic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Nikolaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the general and excellent in the Arctic policy of India and China and the likelihood of rivalry between the two Asian powers in the allocation of resources to the Arctic. Also, Indian and Chinese research trends on Arctic topics were considered.Since the middle of XX century. India and China act as long-standing rivals. Periodically, military clashes broke out between the two sides on a common border. Despite the fact that the key territorial issues on the common border between India and China are resolved military provocations from both sides do not stop. The latest incident was the transfer of Indian troops to the Chinese border zone in the province of Sikkim. Both powers of Asia are major consumers of energy resources, they are more or less interested in the situation on the global energy market.In the Arctic there are colossal reserves of various resources. Certain difficulties and limitations with access to resources and their equitable distribution can force these countries to compete with each other. However, the lack of a specific position on Arctic issues or the formulated regional strategy for India and China creates a lot of doubt about their true intentions. The study of research trends, the activity of Indian and Chinese business structures, as well as the arctic activities of India and China, gives approximate answers to this question.The potentials of India and China are very different in the Arctic. China’s strengths are active participation in international scientific research, the availability of a qualified ice-class crew, active investment in energy and infrastructure projects in the Arctic countries, and fairly stable trade relations with most Arctic countries. The weak side of China is its negative image. Residents of many Arctic countries are very wary of the «rise of China» and its growing interest in the Arctic.Strengths of India are a positive image and a representative diaspora in the Arctic

  16. Groundwater/Surface-Water Interaction in the Context of South African Water Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J.; Xu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    preservation of the groundwater reserve, the reduction of which will require the application of an adaptive management approach, iteratively applied to discrete locations chosen for their social, economic and ecological importance, a process that must begin and end with stakeholder participation. As South Africa’s NWA has already been emulated in many countries including Zambia, Zimbabwe and Kenya, the successes and failures of the South African experience dealing with the groundwater/surface-water interaction will be analyzed to guide future policy directions.

  17. Opportunities for biomaterials : economic, environmental and policy aspects along their life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Little was known at the start of these studies regarding the environmental impacts of bulk chemicals production from biomass and whether they could be produced economically. We have therefore analysed the entire life cycle of biomaterials: the production of bio-based chemicals, the application of

  18. Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

  19. Optimal Tax-Transfer Policies, Life-Cycle Labour Supply and Present-Biased Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnersen, Lasse Frisgaard; Rasmussen, Bo Sandemann

    and correction of undersaving due to present-biasedness. Policies must comply with incentive-compatibility constraints that restricts both how much income redistribution that can take place and how much savings should be subsidized. A main result is that the degree of present-biasedness has important...

  20. Elaboration of the methodological referential for life cycle analysis of first generation biofuels in the French context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study was made under the particular context of a strong growth of biofuels market, and the implication of French and European public authorities, and certain Member States (Germany, Netherlands, UK), for the development of certification schemes for first generation biofuels. The elaboration of such schemes requires a consensus on the methodology to apply when producing Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of biofuels. To answer this demand, the study built up the methodological referential for biofuels LCAs in order to assess the Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions, fossil fuels consumptions and local atmospheric pollutants emissions induced by the different biofuel production pathways. The work consisted in methodological engineering, and was accomplished thanks to the participation of all the members of the Technical Committee of the study. An initial bibliographic review on biofuels LCAs allowed the identification of the main methodological issues (listed below). For each point, the impact of the methodological choices on the biofuels environmental balances was assessed by several sensitivity analyses. The results of these analyses were taken into account for the elaboration of the recommendations: - Consideration of the environmental burdens associated with buildings, equipments and their maintenance - Quantification of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from fields - Impact of the Land Use Change (LUC) - Allocation method for the distribution of the environmental impacts of biofuel production pathways between the different products and coproducts generated. Within the framework of this study, we made no distinction in terms of methodological approach between GHG emissions and local pollutants emissions. This results from the fact that the methodological issues cover all the environmental burdens and do not require specific approaches. This executive summary presents the methodological aspects related to biofuels LCAs. The complete report of the study presents in addition

  1. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Ramodikoe Nylon Marishane

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the “no-fee schools” policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and in-depth interviews held with their principals. The study has found that though the no-fee policy has come to relieve poor parents of the burden of paying school fe...

  2. Support Policies in Clusters: Prioritization of Support Needs by Cluster Members According to Cluster Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Salıngan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.

  3. Fixed and variable-rate mortgages, business cycles and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Rubio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, I study how the proportion of fixed and variable-rate mortgages in an economy can affect the way shocks are propagated. Second, I analyze optimal implementable simple monetary policy rules and the welfare implications of this proportion. I develop and solve a New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model that features a housing market and a group of constrained individuals who need housing collateral to obtain loans. A given proportion of ...

  4. Global research, practice, and policy issues on the care of infants and young children at risk: the articles in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Robert B; Groark, Christina J; Rygaard, Niels P

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue includes articles that contribute to (a) the global research base pertaining to the development of infants and toddlers at risk, primarily those who are institutionalized in lower resource countries; (b) interventions in institutions and to promote family alternatives to institutionalization; and (c) attempts to create modern child welfare systems emphasizing family care in entire states and countries. This introduction places these articles into the broader contexts of the literature in these three domains of interest. Across the world, urbanization, migration, armed conflict, epidemics, and famine disrupt families. Add poverty, abuse, neglect, and parental incapacity due to substance abuse and mental health problems, and the result is millions of children without parental care who come under governmental responsibility, often to be reared in institutions, and at risk for long-term developmental deficiencies and problems. Over the last 2 decades and especially recently, national and international governments and nongovernment organizations have increased efforts to help such children, especially those in low-resource countries. Two types of efforts have been made: one to improve the quality of care provided by institutions and the other to minimize the use of institutions and promote family residential care alternatives. The latter effort includes preventing family separations in the first place, reunification of children with birth families, and developing systems of kinship care, foster care, and adoption. This Special Issue of IMHJ is devoted to reports pertaining to issues in the research knowledge base, program practices, and countrywide policies for infants and young children at risk. We attempt in this introduction to place these reports in the broader context of this field, identify their unique contributions, and highlight lessons learned that can contribute to improved care practices and better child welfare systems. © 2014 Michigan

  5. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Constantine; Meisterling, Kyle

    2008-05-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. However, meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. We assess life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs and find that they reduce GHG emissions by 32% compared to conventional vehicles, but have small reductions compared to traditional hybrids. Batteries are an important component of PHEVs, and GHGs associated with lithium-ion battery materials and production account for 2-5% of life cycle emissions from PHEVs. We consider cellulosic ethanol use and various carbon intensities of electricity. The reduced liquid fuel requirements of PHEVs could leverage limited cellulosic ethanol resources. Electricity generation infrastructure is long-lived, and technology decisions within the next decade about electricity supplies in the power sector will affectthe potential for large GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs for several decades.

  6. Immigration policy and economic cycle effects on spousal reunification in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Mato Díaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of immigration policy and the Great Recession on spousal reunification in Spain. After a significant immigration boom (2000-2008, family-related migration has contributed to the significant flows that continued to arrive in Spain during the economic crisis. But this type of migration was subject to both the crisis and immigration policy changes, such as visa conditions, which may not have been specifically addressed to influence these flows. Using data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey (LFS, the research considers married primary immigrants who came to Spain from the four main countries of origin (Ecuador, Colombia, Romania and Morocco and concludes, first, that tighter conditions to visit the country—particularly tourist border controls—discourage spousal reunification. The reason could be that during the immigration boom, illicit immigration abounded and secondary immigrants were arriving as tourists. Secondly, reunification was slowed down by the Great Recession for the majority of the countries considered, except Ecuador. Unsurprisingly, given the job losses in typical male jobs, the negative influence of the crisis is greater for female primary immigrants. Third, contrary to the expectations that placed secondary immigrants as people with relatively low ties to the labor market, the research shows that because spousal reunification coincided with a deep economic and job crisis, female secondary immigrants increased the family labor supply in order to maintain consumption and/or remittance in what looks like an added-worker effect.

  7. Re-Conceptualizing Teachers' Continuous Professional Development within a New Paradigm of Change in the Indian Context: An Analysis of Literature and Policy Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subitha, G. V.

    2018-01-01

    Located within the context of Indian education reforms, this study is a critique of the current model of continuous professional development of teachers. The study, by reviewing national policy documents and research literature, argues that there is a need to re-conceptualize and re-define the current model of professional development of teachers.…

  8. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishane, Ramodikoe Nylon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the "no-fee schools" policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and…

  9. Buddhist Religious Education in the Context of Modern Russian Policy of Multicultural Education: A Case of the Republic of Buryatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyuna Dorzhigushaeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of ethnocultural and ethnoconfessional interactions in the context of modern cultural and religious diversity of Russia demands modernization of learning process according to the existing educational policy of multicultural education and defines the relevancy of the article. The purpose of the article is to analyze retrospectively the functioning of Buddhist religious education system in the Republic of Buryatia taking into account the multicultural component. The central methods in this research along with analysis, synthesis, abstraction, induction, deduction, generalization are the analysis of interactive documents and the method of case-study, an active problem-contextual analysis. The article briefly characterizes the main stages of Buddhist education development and the current religious situation in the Republic of Buryatia, reveals the peculiarities of introducing the subjects studying the basics of religious cultures and secular ethics in educational process, defines national and territorial characteristics of Buddhist education implementation in secular schools in the Republic of Buryatia, justifies its preventive educational potential for multicultural society. The study material can be useful for orientalist scholars and also both theorists and practitioners of general pedagogics, Buddhist and multicultural education.

  10. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing: From research to policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, M A; Demoly, P; Casale, T

    2016-01-01

    group of AIRWAYS integrated care pathways for airways diseases, the model of chronic respiratory diseases of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing (DG CONNECT and DG Santé). It considered (1) the political background, (2) the rationale for allergen immunotherapy across...... the life cycle, (3) the unmet needs for the treatment, in particular in preschool children and old age adults, (4) the strategic framework and the practical approach to synergize current initiatives in allergen immunotherapy, its mechanisms and the concept of active and healthy ageing. © 2016 The Author(s).......Allergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a working...

  11. Is recycling the best policy option? Insights from life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1996-03-01

    The public perceives that the more we recycle, the better off we are. However, both the concept of recycling and the benefits to be achieved from recycling are somewhat vague. To determine the best option for disposition of a material at the end of its first use, we need to first define the available options and then clarify the possible goals that can be achieved by them. The best option will depend on the material, goals to be achieved, and location-dependent factors, such as costs, resources, and regulations. This paper presents the results of a life-cycle energy analysis of kraft paper and newsprint by Argonne National Laboratory. They indicate that under some circumstances, the option of fiber-energy recovery will maximize the benefits that can. be realized from the U.S. used paper resource.

  12. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the annual cycle: Linking policy alternatives, landowner decisions, and biological population outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Grant, Edward C.; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, D.C.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  13. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine A.; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds. PMID:26569108

  14. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G; Ribic, Christine A; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  15. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Drum

    Full Text Available Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  16. Design of the Curriculum for a Second-Cycle Course in Civil Engineering in the Context of the Bologna Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the curriculum for a Master of Engineering programme in civil engineering at University College Dublin. The revised programme was established to meet the requirements of the Bologna process and this paper specifically considers the design of a new, second-cycle master's component of the programme. In addition to…

  17. Globalizing Policy Sociology in Education: Working with Bourdieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Rawolle, Shaun; Taylor, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses Bourdieu to develop theorizing about policy processes in education and to extend the policy cycle approach in a time of globalization. Use is made of Bourdieu's concept of social field and the argument is sustained that in the context of globalization the field of educational policy has reduced autonomy, with enhanced cross-field…

  18. Continuous Improvement in the Public School Context: Understanding How Educators Respond to Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Wachen, John; Cannata, Marisa; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2017-01-01

    The last 5 years have witnessed growing support amongst government institutions and educational foundations for applying continuous improvement research (CIR) in school settings. CIR responds to the challenge of implementing effective educational innovations at scale by working with practitioners in local contexts to understand "what works,…

  19. Continuous Improvement in the Public School Context: Understanding Educator Responses to Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Wachen, John; Cannata, Marisa; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2017-01-01

    The last 5 years have witnessed growing support amongst government institutions and educational foundations for applying continuous improvement research (CIR) in school settings. CIR responds to the challenge of implementing effective educational innovations at scale by working with practitioners in local contexts to understand ''what works, for…

  20. Health economic assessment tools (HEAT) for walking and for cycling. Methodology and user guide.:Economic assessment of transport infrastructure and policies. 2014 Update

    OpenAIRE

    Kahlmeier, Sonja; Kelly, Paul; Foster, Charles; Gotschi, Thomas; Cavill, Nick; Dinsdale, Hywell; Woodcock, James; Schweizer, Christian; Rutter, Harry; Lieb, Christoph; Oja, Pekka; Racioppi, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of cycling and walking for everyday physical activity not only promotes health but can also have positive effects on the environment.This booklet summarizes the tools and guidance developed to facilitate this shift: the methodology for the economic assessment of transport infrastructure and policies in relation to the health effects of walking and cycling; systematic reviews of the economic and health literature; and guidance on applying the health economic assessment tools and ...

  1. Education Policy Convergence through the Open Method of Coordination: Theoretical Reflections and Implementation in "Old" and "New" National Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadou, Nafsika; Fink-Hafner, Danica; Lange, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses two key questions about the convergence of education policies in the European Union (EU). How does the open method of coordination (OMC), a new governance instrument for the Europeanisation of education policies, change existing national education policy making and how can the OMC and national responses to it be researched?…

  2. Monitoring the Carbon Cycle: Improving Our Ability to Proved Policy Relevant Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhwiler, L.

    2017-12-01

    Humans have altered the energy balance of the climate system mainly by producing and consuming fossil fuels, but also by emissions from food production. Manufacture and use of halocarbons, many of which are also strong greenhouse gases (GHGs) have added to anthropogenic radiative forcing. In response, the global atmosphere has warmed over the last half century at a rate of 0.17°C. The largest contribution to radiative forcing is due to CO2, and at present, about half of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions have been taken up by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere. The size of this "carbon emission discount" may change in the future as more carbon accumulates in the oceans, as human alter landscapes, and as climate changes. Efforts to limit global average temperature increases to 2°C and avoid the most catastrophic consequences of climate change depend on keeping track of both human emissions of greenhouse gases and changes in natural fluxes of carbon and nitrogen that occur in response to human activities and changing climate. Global in situ network observations provide information about changes in global GHG abundances over recent decades, as well as changing distributions between hemispheres. This information gives insight into changes in global and hemispheric sources and sinks of GHGs. It is, however, currently difficult to obtain robust information about regional sources and to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic fluxes. Information about regional sources is needed for GHG policymaking, while discrimination of natural sources is necessary for detection of trends in GHG fluxes and evaluation of coupled carbon cycle climate models. Although column average GHG abundances from space-based remote sensing data could provide considerable constraints on GHG budgets, there are still technical challenges to be overcome. Possible strategies for making progress involve greater increased observational coverage and more international collaboration, as well as

  3. Changes of Changes: Personal Life Strategy in the Context of Regional Social and Labour Policy: Purchase of Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Sergeevna Zemlyanukhina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of three articles in cycle that is dedicated to the regional aspect of change of Russians life strategy in solving the important personal problems like provision of housing, acquisition of income in terms of the profession and merited pension maintenance in the context of the current and prospective changes. The first article concentrates on the solution of housing problem by young Russians and young families. The methods, which are accessible for the citizens of Saratov, were analyzed in terms of the hardest ways without privileges and government support: pledge, housing rent and deposit. The authors presented the digital data on comparison between the popular pledge of OJSC Sberbank and similar ones at the start conditions of housing rent and deposits. Theyve specified the possibility of the reducing time and the amount of payment of the purchased apartment from 20 years, where is the amount of overpayment is 1 850 498, to 4.5-7 years, altogether without overpayments. The basic risks when using discussed ways of the accommodation purchase were demonstrated and specific examples of risks in Saratov were given. There are no absolute priorities when choosing the way of the accommodation purchase, there are examples in the article of a sharp increase of the efficiency within the pledge, and the rent on condition that only one factor has changed. Besides, there are examples of mixed ways including social housing and service housing. Nowadays there is a psychological aspect of the underestimate of the cost-effectively housing rent. As a result we made a conclusion that in spite of the real impossibility to plan and predict the changes, the success of individual strategy of life in solving housing and other important problems depends on the perception and understanding of the changes, on the early use for practical purposes and on the existing life stereotypes.

  4. Linking Data Choices and Context Specificity in Life Cycle Assessment of Waste Treatment Technologies: A Landfill Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Trine; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    To generate meaningful results, life cycle assessments (LCAs) require accurate technology data that are consistent with the goal and scope of the analysis. While literature data are available for many products and processes, finding representative data for highly site-specific technologies, such as...... addressed by a systematic analysis of the key process parameters. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the targeted waste treatment technologies is necessary to ensure that appropriate data choices are made within the boundaries of the defined scope of the study.......To generate meaningful results, life cycle assessments (LCAs) require accurate technology data that are consistent with the goal and scope of the analysis. While literature data are available for many products and processes, finding representative data for highly site-specific technologies......, such as waste treatment processes, remains a challenge. This study investigated representative life cycle inventory (LCI) modeling of waste treatment technologies in consideration of variations in technological level and climate. The objectives were to demonstrate the importance of representative LCI modeling...

  5. Exploring the Life Expectancy Increase in Poland in the Context of CVD Mortality Fall: The Risk Assessment Bottom-Up Approach, From Health Outcome to Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Joanna; Geremek, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Life expectancy at birth is considered the best mortality-based summary indicator of the health status of the population and is useful for measuring long-term health changes. The objective of this article was to present the concept of the bottom-up policy risk assessment approach, developed to identify challenges involved in analyzing risk factor reduction policies and in assessing how the related health indicators have changed over time. This article focuses on the reasons of the significant life expectancy prolongation in Poland over the past 2 decades, thus includes policy context. The methodology details a bottom-up risk assessment approach, a chain of relations between the health outcome, risk factors, and health policy, based on Risk Assessment From Policy to Impact Dimension project guidance. A decline in cardiovascular disease mortality was a key factor that followed life expectancy prolongation. Among basic factors, tobacco and alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity, and new treatment technologies were identified. Poor health outcomes of the Polish population at the beginning of 1990s highlighted the need of the implementation of various health promotion programs, legal acts, and more effective public health policies. Evidence-based public health policy needs translating scientific research into policy and practice. The bottom-up case study template can be one of the focal tools in this process. Accountability for the health impact of policies and programs and legitimization of the decisions of policy makers has become one of the key questions nowadays in European countries' decision-making process and in EU public health strategy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Leka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area.

  7. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area.

  8. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.; Peregon, A.; Chevallier, F.; Bopp, L.; Breon, F.M.; Broquet, G.; Luyssaert, S.; Moulin, C.; Paris, J.D.; Poulter, B.; Rivier, L.; Wang, R.

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The paper is addressed to scientists, policy makers, and funding agencies who need to have a global picture of the current state of the (diverse) carbon observations. We identify the current state of carbon observations, and the needs and notional requirements for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy-relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests, and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote-sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in situ and remotely sensed data at much higher

  9. Temperature and precipitation in the context of the annual cycle over Asia: Model evaluation and future change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suyeon; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2017-05-01

    Since the early or late arrival of monsoon rainfall can be devastating to agriculture and economy, the prediction of the onset of monsoon is a very important issue. The Asian monsoon is characterized by a strong annual cycle with rainy summer and dry winter. Nevertheless, most of monsoon studies have focused on the seasonal-mean of temperature and precipitation. The present study aims to evaluate a total of 27 coupled models that participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) for projection of the time evolution and the intensity of Asian monsoon on the basis of the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation. And future changes of onset, retreat, and intensity of monsoon are analyzed. Four models for good seasonal-mean (GSM) and good harmonic (GH) groups, respectively, are selected. GSM is based on the seasonal-mean of temperature and precipitation in summer and winter, and GH is based on the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation which represents a characteristic of the monsoon. To compare how well the time evolution of the monsoon is simulated in each group, the onset, retreat, and duration of Asian monsoon are examined. The highest pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) of onset, retreat, and duration between the reanalysis data and model outputs demonstrates that GH models' MME predicts time evolution of monsoon most precisely, with PCC values of 0.80, 0.52, and 0.63, respectively. To predict future changes of the monsoon, the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP 4.5) experiments for the period of 2073-2099 are compared with historical simulations for the period of 1979-2005 from CMIP5 using GH models' MME. The Asian monsoon domain is expanded by 22.6% in the future projection. The onset date in the future is advanced over most parts of Asian monsoon region. The duration of summer Asian monsoon in the future projection will be lengthened by up to 2 pentads over the Asian monsoon region, as a result of advanced

  10. Case study of an organic Rankine cycle applied for excess heat recovery: Technical, economic and policy matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmens, Sanne; Lecompte, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Case study of an organic Rankine cycle for heat recovery from an industrial kiln. • The costs and financial feasibility of the system are discussed in detail. • The cost structure is most defined by the capital costs, annual costs are limited. • The system is financially feasible, but subsidies remain important. • The results are most sensitive to changes in load hours and electricity price. - Abstract: Many industrial processes inevitably produce excess heat as by-product. Recovering this heat is a matter of waste management and provides opportunities to improve the energy use efficiency. The excess heat can be used for heating purposes (e.g., in processes, or delivered to district heating systems or buildings) or to generate electricity. An increasingly applied technology for industrial excess heat recovery is the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), suitable to recover low-grade heat from 90 °C onwards. Although ORCs are studied intensively, few studies have examined the economics of commissioned ORC systems. This paper investigates a 375 kW gross ORC system employed for flue gas heat recovery from an industrial kiln in Flanders, Belgium. The purpose of the study is twofold: providing insight into a practical ORC case; and evaluating the financial feasibility while taking the specific policy circumstances into account. The financial appraisal takes account of the specific technical setup, the diverse costs of the system, the external economic parameters, and the policy circumstances in Europe, Belgium and Flanders. A sensitivity analysis illustrates the influence of each parameter on the results. The analysis demonstrates the dominance of the investment costs (4217 € 2013 /kW gross ) in the expenses. Under the valid conditions the investment has a positive financial return, but the financial support from the government is indispensable. Finally, the sensitivity analysis reveals the importance of attaining sufficient load hours and the

  11. The rise and fall of Australian physical activity policy 1996 – 2006: a national review framed in an international context

    OpenAIRE

    Bellew, Bill; Schöeppe, Stephanie; Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper provides an historical review of physical activity policy development in Australia for a period spanning a decade since the release of the US Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health in 1996 and including the 2004 WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Using our definition of 'HARDWIRED' policy criteria, this Australian review is compared with an international perspective of countries with established national physical activity policie...

  12. School Smoking Policy Characteristics and Individual Perceptions of the School Tobacco Context: Are They Linked to Students? Smoking Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10?11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-le...

  13. In Vivo Toxicity Assessment of Occupational Components of the Carbon Nanotube Life Cycle To Provide Context to Potential Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lindsey; Cena, Lorenzo; Orandle, Marlene; Yanamala, Naveena; Dahm, Matthew M; Birch, M Eileen; Evans, Douglas E; Kodali, Vamsi K; Eye, Tracy; Battelli, Lori; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Casuccio, Gary; Bunker, Kristin; Lupoi, Jason S; Lersch, Traci L; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Sager, Tina; Afshari, Aliakbar; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Friend, Sherri; Kang, Jonathan; Siegrist, Katelyn J; Mitchell, Constance A; Lowry, David T; Kashon, Michael L; Mercer, Robert R; Geraci, Charles L; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Sargent, Linda M; Erdely, Aaron

    2017-09-26

    Pulmonary toxicity studies on carbon nanotubes focus primarily on as-produced materials and rarely are guided by a life cycle perspective or integration with exposure assessment. Understanding toxicity beyond the as-produced, or pure native material, is critical, due to modifications needed to overcome barriers to commercialization of applications. In the first series of studies, the toxicity of as-produced carbon nanotubes and their polymer-coated counterparts was evaluated in reference to exposure assessment, material characterization, and stability of the polymer coating in biological fluids. The second series of studies examined the toxicity of aerosols generated from sanding polymer-coated carbon-nanotube-embedded or neat composites. Postproduction modification by polymer coating did not enhance pulmonary injury, inflammation, and pathology or in vitro genotoxicity of as-produced carbon nanotubes, and for a particular coating, toxicity was significantly attenuated. The aerosols generated from sanding composites embedded with polymer-coated carbon nanotubes contained no evidence of free nanotubes. The percent weight incorporation of polymer-coated carbon nanotubes, 0.15% or 3% by mass, and composite matrix utilized altered the particle size distribution and, in certain circumstances, influenced acute in vivo toxicity. Our study provides perspective that, while the number of workers and consumers increases along the life cycle, toxicity and/or potential for exposure to the as-produced material may greatly diminish.

  14. The rise and fall of Australian physical activity policy 1996 - 2006: a national review framed in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellew, Bill; Schöeppe, Stephanie; Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-07-31

    This paper provides an historical review of physical activity policy development in Australia for a period spanning a decade since the release of the US Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health in 1996 and including the 2004 WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Using our definition of 'HARDWIRED' policy criteria, this Australian review is compared with an international perspective of countries with established national physical activity policies and strategies (New Zealand, Canada, Brazil, Scotland, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Finland). Methods comprised a literature and policy review, audit of relevant web sites, document searches and surveys of international stakeholders. All these selected countries embraced multi-strategic policies and undertook monitoring of physical activity through national surveys. Few committed to policy of more than three years duration and none undertook systematic evaluation of national policy implementation. This Australian review highlights phases of innovation and leadership in physical activity-related policy, as well as periods of stagnation and decline; early efforts were amongst the best in the world but by the mid-point of this review (the year 2000), promising attempts towards development of a national intersectoral policy framework were thwarted by reforms in the Federal Sport and Recreation sector. Several well received reviews of evidence on good practices in physical activity and public health were produced in the period but leadership and resources were lacking to implement the policies and programs indicated. Latterly, widespread publicity and greatly increased public and political interest in chronic disease prevention, (especially in obesity and type 2 diabetes) have dominated the framework within which Australian policy deliberations have occurred. Finally, a national physical activity policy framework for the Health sector emerged, but not as a policy vision that was

  15. Life-cycle private-cost-based competitiveness analysis of electric vehicles in China considering the intangible cost of traffic policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Qinghua; Sun, Wei; Yuan, Xinmei; Li, Lili; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LCCs of BEVs and CVs are compared, considering the effects of traffic policy. • BEVs are economically competitive with both national and local subsidies. • Traffic policies have a significant impact on the competitiveness of BEVs. • The promotion of electric vehicles should prioritize mega-cities. - Abstract: Electric vehicles produce zero tailpipe emissions during operation and have thus been considered a most promising method for providing mobility while reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of the transportation sector in the future. The life-cycle cost of electric vehicles has been widely studied to evaluate their competitiveness compared to conventional vehicles. However, the competitiveness of electric vehicles is highly dependent on government promotion policies, and the effects of non-economic incentive policies are currently difficult to include in life-cycle cost analysis. These non-economic effects are usually measured by the intangible cost. Traffic policies represent typical non-economic incentive policies. In China, electric vehicles are exempted from purchase restrictions (license plate control policy) and driving restrictions; thus, the intangible cost of traffic policies has significant effects on the comparison of electric vehicles and conventional vehicles. In this paper, from the consumers’ perspective, the intangible cost of purchase and driving restrictions is modeled and expressed in monetary terms; then, the impact of these non-economic incentive policies are compared with subsidies and other costs of vehicles. Thus, a more comprehensive comparison between electric and conventional vehicles can be provided. Using three selected typical battery electric vehicles and three correspondingly similarly sized conventional vehicles in China, the private life-cycle costs of battery electric vehicles and conventional vehicles are calculated and compared, a parametric variation analysis is performed, and the effects of economic

  16. Photovoltaic power: public policies and economic impacts. The French choices in the international context 1973-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, Alain

    2013-06-01

    This article summarizes 40 years of international public policies in favour of solar cells development and deployment with their economic impacts: strengths and weaknesses of solar energy and its societal impact; French R and D, financial support, competition and national energy policy; the US pioneering role; the Japanese take over; the German example; the European Union federating role; the Chinese leading position

  17. The dilemmas and complexities of implementing language-in-education policies: perspectives from urban and rural contexts in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.; Moorcroft, S.; van der Draai, H.

    2014-01-01

    Language-in-education policies are a highly debated topic in Africa and at the root of understanding inequalities in Africa's education systems. This article explores the implementation of Uganda's recent local language education policy; how it has been received and practiced in urban and rural

  18. Cultivating sustainable development? An analysis of the Brazilian public policy for biodiesel within the context of sustainable development and environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gucciardi Garcez, C.A.

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the Brazilian public policy related to biodiesel within the context of sustainable development and environmental management. Biofuels have been steadily increasing in popularity on a global scale. Brazil, a country that boasts abundant natural resources and agricultural land, has emerged as a world leader in the production of biofuels. In order to verify biodiesel's potential to contribute to sustainable development, it is necessary to analyze the biofuel in a larger social, environmental, and economic context. The methodology applied to this study included a brief review of the evolution of the concept of sustainable development and instruments of environmental management, which served as a basis to evaluate the policy documents and data relating to the policy's implementation. Although the implementation is still within its initial stage, significant weakness has been found in the policy. One consequence is the domination of soy as a primary material for biodiesel. Other weaknesses identified are related to the Selo (''certification of a socially inclusive fuel'') to promote social inclusion, as well as a lack of support for family-based agriculture to aggregate value to the primary material that they produce. (auth)

  19. Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and modified for the African Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences (AJFNS). Michael Abu Sakara ..... the spiraling cycle of diminishing returns has set in and ... External nutrients applied on small grains were minimal and only supplemented organic manure. Rotations were encouraged and tree crops coffee and bananas.

  20. The effect of political cycles on power investment decisions: Expectations over the repeal and reinstatement of carbon policy mechanisms in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ShahNazari, Mahdi; McHugh, Adam; Maybee, Bryan; Whale, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of political cycles quantified in power generation investments. • Expected repeal and reinstatement of carbon policy modelled dynamically. • A survey of experts informed the decision making model. • Expectations over reinstatement of policy dampens the effect of expected repeal. - Abstract: Political uncertainty over global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy is likely to defer investment in cleaner technologies. It may also incentivise short-lived, high-cost interim investments while businesses wait for the uncertainty to subside. The range of possible policy responses to the issue has created uncertainty over the future of national mitigation pathways. Given that the electricity sector, globally, is a major emitter of GHGs, this represents a systematic risk to investment in electricity generation assets. This paper uses a real options analysis framework informed by a survey of experts conducted in Australia – used as a proxy to model the degree of the uncertainty – to investigate the optimal timing for investment in the conversion of a coal plant to a combined cycle gas turbine plant using the American-style option valuation method. The effect of market and political uncertainty is studied for the Clean Energy Act 2011 in Australia. Political uncertainty is addressed bi-modally in terms of: (1) uncertainty over the repeal of the carbon pricing policy, and (2) if it is repealed, uncertainty over the reinstatement of the policy, to represent the effect of electoral cycles and the possibility of more stringent future global mitigation efforts. Results of the analysis show that although political uncertainty with respect to GHG mitigation policy may delay investment in the conversion of the coal plant, expectations over the reinstatement of the carbon pricing reduces the amount of option premium to defer the conversion decision

  1. The taxation of unhealthy energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs): An overview of patterns observed in the policy content and policy context of 13 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaars, Luc Louis; Jeurissen, Patrick Paulus Theodoor; Klazinga, Niek Sieds

    2017-08-01

    Taxation of energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is increasingly of interest as a novel public health and fiscal policy instrument. However academic interest in policy determinants has remained limited. We address this paucity by comparing the policy content and policy context of EDF/SSB taxes witnessed in 13 case studies, of which we assume the tax is sufficiently high to induce behavioural change. The observational and non-randomized studies published on our case studies seem to indicate that the EDF/SSB taxes under investigation generally had the desired effects on prices and consumption of targeted products. The revenue collection of EDF/SSB taxes is minimal yet significant. Administrative practicalities in tax levying are important, possibly explaining why a drift towards solely taxing SSBs can be noted, as these can be demarcated more easily, with levies seemingly increasing in more recent case studies. Despite the growing body of evidence suggesting that EDF/SSB taxes have the potential to improve health, fiscal needs more often seem to lay their policy foundation rather than public health advocacy. A remarkable amount of conservative/liberal governments have adopted these taxes, although in many cases revenues are earmarked for benefits compensating regressive income effects. Governments voice diverse policy rationales, ranging from explicitly describing the tax as a public health instrument, to solely explicating revenue raising. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Context-dependent consequences of Marenzelleria spp. (Spionidae: Polychaeta invasion for nutrient cycling in the Northern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Maximov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marenzelleria spp. are among the most successful non-native benthic species in the Baltic Sea. These burrowing polychaetes dig deeper than most native Baltic species, performing previously lacking ecosystem functions. We examine evidence from experiments, field sampling and modelling that the introduction of Marenzelleria spp. affects nutrient cycling and biogeochemical processes at the sediment–water interface. Over longer time scales, bioirrigation by Marenzelleria spp. has the potential to increase phosphorus retention in bottom deposits because of deeper oxygen penetration into sediments and formation of a deeper oxidized layer. In contrast, nitrogen fluxes from the sediment increase. As a consequence of a decline of the phosphate concentration and/or rising nitrogen/phosphorus ratio, some Northern Baltic ecosystems may experience improvement of the environment because of mitigation of eutrophication and harmful cyanobacteria blooms. Although it is difficult to unambiguously estimate the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion, in many cases it could be considered as positive due to increased structural and functional diversity. The long-term interactions with the native fauna still remain unknown, however, and in this paper we highlight the major knowledge gaps.

  3. Smallholder Livelihood Adaptation in the Context of Neoliberal Policy Reforms: A Case of Maize Farmers in Southern Veracruz, Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, S.F.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Governments around the world have embraced trade liberalisation as a means of enhancing efficiency to realise economic growth and alleviate poverty. Likewise, the Mexican government implemented neoliberal policy reforms, the NAFTA in particular, to stimulate sustainable development. Using the

  4. Overview of the infant and young child feeding policy environment in Pakistan: Federal, Sindh and Punjab context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF practices have been identified as important for appropriate child growth and development. (Ministry of Planning and Development, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination (2012 Children in Pakistan still experience high rates of malnutrition, indicating a likely need for stronger IYCF policy. The purpose of this study was to identify major stakeholders who shape the IYCF policy environment and analyze which policies protect, promote and support IYCF practices, either directly or indirectly. Methods This study was conducted at the federal level, and in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab. We identified policies relevant to IYCF using a matrix developed by the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network (SAIFRN, designed to capture policies at a range of levels (strategic policy documents through to implementation guidelines in sectors relevant to IYCF. We analyzed the content using predetermined themes focused on support for mothers, and used narrative synthesis to present our findings. For the stakeholder analysis, we conducted four Net-Map activities with 49 interviewees using the Net-Map methodology. We analyzed the quantitative data using Organizational Risk Analyzer ORA and used the qualitative data to elucidate further information regarding relationships between stakeholders. Results We identified 19 policy documents for analysis. Eleven of these were nutrition and/or IYCF focused and eight were broader policies with IYCF as a component. The majority lacked detail relevant to implementation, particularly in terms of: ownership of the policies by a specific government body; sustainability of programs/strategies (most are donor funded, multi-sectoral collaboration; and effective advocacy and behavior change communication. Data collected through four Net-Map activities showed that after devolution of health ministry, provincial health departments were

  5. Overview of the infant and young child feeding policy environment in Pakistan: Federal, Sindh and Punjab context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hana; Suleman, Yasmeen; Hazir, Tabish; Akram, Durre Samin; Uddin, Shahadat; Dibley, Michael J; Abassi, Saleem; Shakeel, Amara; Kazmi, Narjis; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices have been identified as important for appropriate child growth and development. (Ministry of Planning and Development, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination (2012)) Children in Pakistan still experience high rates of malnutrition, indicating a likely need for stronger IYCF policy. The purpose of this study was to identify major stakeholders who shape the IYCF policy environment and analyze which policies protect, promote and support IYCF practices, either directly or indirectly. This study was conducted at the federal level, and in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab. We identified policies relevant to IYCF using a matrix developed by the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network (SAIFRN), designed to capture policies at a range of levels (strategic policy documents through to implementation guidelines) in sectors relevant to IYCF. We analyzed the content using predetermined themes focused on support for mothers, and used narrative synthesis to present our findings. For the stakeholder analysis, we conducted four Net-Map activities with 49 interviewees using the Net-Map methodology. We analyzed the quantitative data using Organizational Risk Analyzer ORA and used the qualitative data to elucidate further information regarding relationships between stakeholders. We identified 19 policy documents for analysis. Eleven of these were nutrition and/or IYCF focused and eight were broader policies with IYCF as a component. The majority lacked detail relevant to implementation, particularly in terms of: ownership of the policies by a specific government body; sustainability of programs/strategies (most are donor funded), multi-sectoral collaboration; and effective advocacy and behavior change communication. Data collected through four Net-Map activities showed that after devolution of health ministry, provincial health departments were the key actors in the government whereas UNICEF and

  6. Message framing in the context of the national menu-labelling policy: a comparison of public health and private industry interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Colgrove, James; Lee, Grace; Truong, Michelle; Wingood, Gina M

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a content analysis of public comments to understand the key framing approaches used by private industry v. public health sector, with the goal of informing future public health messaging, framing and advocacy in the context of policy making. Comments to the proposed menu-labelling policy were extracted from Regulations.gov and analysed. A framing matrix was used to organize and code key devices and themes. Documents were analysed using content analysis with Dedoose software. Recent national nutrition-labelling regulations in the USA provide a timely opportunity to understand message framing in relation to obesity prevention and policy. We examined a total of ninety-seven documents submitted on behalf of organizations (private industry, n 64; public health, n 33). Public health focused on positive health consequences of the policy, used a social justice frame and supported its arguments with academic data. Industry was more critical of the policy; it used a market justice frame that emphasized minimal regulation, depicted its members as small, family-run businesses, and illustrated points with humanizing examples. Public health framing should counter and consider engaging directly with non-health-related arguments made by industry. Public health should include more powerful framing devices to convey their messages, including metaphors and humanizing examples.

  7. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Seppälä, Tuija; Hankonen, Nelli; Korkiakangas, Eveliina; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT) Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our...

  8. Carbon Emission Mitigation Potentials of Different Policy Scenarios and Their Effects on International Aviation in the Korean Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Yoon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to seek better policy options for greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction in Korea’s international aviation industry by analyzing economic efficiency and environmental effectiveness with a system dynamics (SD model. Accordingly, we measured airlines sales and CO2 emission reductions to evaluate economic efficiency and environmental effectiveness, respectively, for various policies. The results show that the average carbon emission reduction rates of four policies compared to the business-as-usual (BAU scenario between 2015 and 2030 are 4.00% (Voluntary Agreement, 7.25% (Emission Trading System or ETS-30,000, 8.33% (Carbon Tax or CT-37,500, and 8.48% (Emission Charge System or EC-30,000. The average rate of decrease in airline sales compared to BAU for the ETS policy is 0.1% at 2030. Our results show that the ETS approach is the most efficient of all the analyzed CO2 reduction policies in economic terms, while the EC approach is the best policy to reduce GHG emissions. This study provides a foundation for devising effective response measures pertaining to GHG reduction and supports decision making on carbon tax and carbon credit pricing.

  9. Plague cycles in two rodent species from China: Dry years might provide context for epizootics in wet years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Plague, a rodent-associated, flea-borne zoonosis, is one of the most notorious diseases in history. Rates of plague transmission can increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas commonly desiccate and die when reared under dry conditions in laboratories, suggesting fleas will be suppressed during droughts in the wild, thus reducing the rate at which plague spreads among hosts. In contrast, fleas might increase in abundance when precipitation is plentiful, producing epizootic outbreaks during wet years. We tested these hypotheses using a 27-yr data set from two rodents in Inner Mongolia, China: Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). For both species of rodents, fleas were most abundant during years preceded by dry growing seasons. For gerbils, the prevalence of plague increased during wet years preceded by dry growing seasons. If precipitation is scarce during the primary growing season, succulent plants decline in abundance and, consequently, herbivorous rodents can suffer declines in body condition. Fleas produce more offspring and better survive when parasitizing food-limited hosts, because starving animals tend to exhibit inefficient behavioral and immunological defenses against fleas. Further, rodent burrows might buffer fleas from xeric conditions aboveground during dry years. After a dry year, fleas might be abundant due to the preceding drought, and if precipitation and succulent plants become more plentiful, rodents could increase in density, thereby creating connectivity that facilitates the spread of plague. Moreover, in wet years, mild temperatures might increase the efficiency at which fleas transmit the plague bacterium, while also helping fleas to survive as they quest among hosts. In this way, dry years could provide context for epizootics of plague in wet years.

  10. The Workload for the Structural Implementation of eDemocracy: Local Government Policy Issues Combined With the Policy Cycle and Styles of Citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. (Martijn) Hartog; A.W. (Bert) Mulder

    2011-01-01

    Today, governmental bodies in many countries acknowledge ICT applications to be powerful tools for increasing involvement of citizens in public policy-making, and as such a sound investment in better public policy (OECD 2003: 9). Within the Dutch governmental bodies a study by Prof. Dr. Kickert

  11. Educational policies and higher education: analysis of its internationalization in the context of the work in the academic profession in portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Galego

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is in the context of the increasing Europeanization of educational policies that the latest and important legislative changes generated in the Portuguese higher education system must be understood. Convergent with the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA, Portugal allied to the Bologna process and reformed, in the second half of the 2000s, its higher education system in the structures and ways of institutional government. Considering that the academic profession is a key element in the mission of the university (WILSON 1962; ALTABCH, 2011, it also is central in the construction of the EHEA. The purpose of this article is to examine how the new educational policies have produced changes in the context and working conditions of teachers/researchers at public universities in Portugal. The text begins by identifying the main policy measures that form the new legal framework of higher education, with particular emphasis to the new Statute of Teaching Career. Then we analyze the perceptions of academics around the development of the academic profession occurred over the past forty years linking it with the dimension of the internationalization of higher education. The results obtained allow us to state that the academic profession is international by nature. However, this nature complicated itself and diversified, resizing the internationalization, moving from ‘optionality logic' to 'mandatory logic'.

  12. Modelisation temporelle de la consommation electrique en analyse du cycle de vie appliquee au contexte des TIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Elsa

    Fossil fuels are a scarce energy resource. Since the industrial revolution, mankind uses and abuses of non-renewable energies. They are responsible for many environmental damages. The production of energy is one of the main challenges for a global sustainable development. In our society, we can witness an exponential increase of the usage of the systems of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) such as Internet, phone calls, etc. The ICT development allows the creation and optimization of many smart systems, the pooling of services, and it also helps damping the climate change. However, because of their electric consumption, the ICT are also responsible for some green house gases (GHG) emissions: 3% in total. This fact gives them the willingness to change in order to limit their GHG emissions. In order to properly evaluate and optimize the ICT services, it is necessary to use some methods of evaluation that comply with the specificity of these systems. Currently, the methods used to evaluate the GHG emissions are not adapted to dynamic systems, which include the ICT systems. The variations of the production of electricity in a day or even a month are not yet taken into account. This problem is far from being restricted to the modelling of GHG emissions, it widens to the global variation in production and consumption of electricity. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method grants useful and complete tools to analyse their environmental impacts, but, as with the GHG computation methods, it should be dynamically adapted. In the ICT framework, the first step to solve this LCA problem is to be able to model the variations in time of the electricity production. This master thesis introduces a new way to include the variation in time of the consumption and production of electricity in LCA methods. First, it generates an historical hourly database of the electricity production and import-export of three Canadian states: Alberta, Ontario and Quebec. Then it develops

  13. Sex differences in conditioned stimulus discrimination during context-dependent fear learning and its retrieval in humans: the role of biological sex, contraceptives and menstrual cycle phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Haaker, Jan; Schümann, Dirk; Sommer, Tobias; Bayer, Janine; Brassen, Stefanie; Bunzeck, Nico; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than in men. Despite this sexual dimorphism, most experimental studies are conducted in male participants and studies focusing on sex differences are sparse. In addition, the role of hormonal contraceptives and menstrual cycle phase in fear conditioning and extinction processes remain largely unknown. We investigated sex differences in context-dependent fear acquisition and extinction (day 1) and their retrieval/expression (day 2). Skin conductance responses (SCRs), fear and unconditioned stimulus expectancy ratings were obtained. We included 377 individuals (261 women) in our study. Robust sex differences were observed in all dependent measures. Women generally displayed higher subjective ratings but smaller SCRs than men and showed reduced excitatory/inhibitory conditioned stimulus (CS+/CS-) discrimination in all dependent measures. Furthermore, women using hormonal contraceptives showed reduced SCR CS discrimination on day 2 than men and free-cycling women, while menstrual cycle phase had no effect. Possible limitations include the simultaneous testing of up to 4 participants in cubicles, which might have introduced a social component, and not assessing postexperimental contingency awareness. The response pattern in women shows striking similarity to previously reported sex differences in patients with anxiety. Our results suggest that pronounced deficits in associative discrimination learning and subjective expression of safety information (CS- responses) might underlie higher prevalence and higher symptom rates seen in women with anxiety disorders. The data call for consideration of biological sex and hormonal contraceptive use in future studies and may suggest that targeting inhibitory learning during therapy might aid precision medicine.

  14. Future of Allotment Gardens in the Context of City Spatial Policy – A Case Study of Poznań

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poniży Lidia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional allotment gardens are an important part of the green infrastructure of cities. In spite of this, they are given little attention in the plans and policies of cities. One of the major threats to the existence of allotment gardens within the spatial structure of cities is the pressure of investment, which results from an underestimation of the role of gardens. The task of preserving allotment gardens in the ecosystems of cities rests with the local spatial planning. Urban spatial policy towards allotment gardening is exemplified by the case study of Poznan. The bases for the analysis include the study of the conditions and directions of spatial planning, as the spatial policy document that sets forth the city and local spatial development plans, which are Acts of local laws.

  15. Beyond physical access: a qualitative analysis into the barriers to policy implementation and service provision experienced by persons with disabilities living in a rural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neille, Joanne; Penn, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Persons with disabilities make up approximately 15% of the world's population, with vulnerable communities disproportionately affected by the incidence of disability. Research reflects that persons with disabilities are vulnerable to stigma and discrimination, social isolation, and have physical barriers to accessing support services, all of which serve to perpetuate a sense of uncertainty and vulnerability within their lives. Recently a number of policies and models of intervention have been introduced intended to protect the rights of those affected by disability, yet limited research has been conducted into the lived experiences of persons with disabilities, particularly in rural contexts. This implies that little is known about the impact of the rural context on the lived experience of disability and the ways in which context impacts on the implementation of policies and practices. The current study employed a qualitative design underpinned by the principles of narrative inquiry and participant observation. Thirty adults with a variety of congenital and acquired disabilities (15 men and 15 women, ranging in age from 19 to 83 years) living in 12 rural communities in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa were recruited through snowball sampling. Data collection comprised a combination of narrative inquiry and participant observation. Narratives were collected in SiSwati with the assistance of a SiSwati-speaking research mediator and were transcribed and translated into English. Data were analysed inductively according to the principles of thematic analysis. Findings confirmed that the experience of living with a disability in a rural area is associated with discrimination, social exclusion, and isolation and barriers to accessing services, underpinned by numerous context-specific experiences, including mortality rates, exposure to numerous and repeated forms of violence across the lifespan, and corruption and lack of transparency in the implementation of

  16. A Critical Study of Stationary Energy Storage Policies in Australia in an International Context: The Role of Hydrogen and Battery Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Moore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical study of current Australian and leading international policies aimed at supporting electrical energy storage for stationary power applications with a focus on battery and hydrogen storage technologies. It demonstrates that global leaders such as Germany and the U.S. are actively taking steps to support energy storage technologies through policy and regulatory change. This is principally to integrate increasing amounts of intermittent renewable energy (wind and solar that will be required to meet high renewable energy targets. The relevance of this to the Australian energy market is that whilst it is unique, it does have aspects in common with the energy markets of these global leaders. This includes regions of high concentrations of intermittent renewable energy (Texas and California and high penetration rates of residential solar photovoltaics (PV (Germany. Therefore, Australian policy makers have a good opportunity to observe what is working in an international context to support energy storage. These learnings can then be used to help shape future policy directions and guide Australia along the path to a sustainable energy future.

  17. Continuity of Care, Professional Community, and the Policy Context: Potential Benefits for Infant and Toddler Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Debra J.

    2008-01-01

    Practice or Policy: Continuity of care (COC) has many benefits for young children's development but is not the norm in infant/toddler classrooms. As a consequence, policymakers might not realize how such an approach might also benefit the professional development of infant and toddler teachers, particularly if they come to the field with little…

  18. Interests and Conflicts: Exploring the Context for Early Implementation of a Dual Language Policy in One Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Dual language immersion program models represent a potentially effective way to serve growing numbers of English language learners (ELLs) in schools and districts. However, local challenges, such as interpersonal conflict, can impact the process of implementing dual language policies and programs, limiting the extent to which they are able to meet…

  19. The «Special» Relationship between Germany and China in the Context of Germany’s China Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Tsvyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China are both economic powers in Asia and Europe with a shared international responsibility in many international fields. Germany is China's number-one trade partner in the EU and China is the top foreign investment destination for German companies. This article highlights the relationship between Germany and China since the beginning of Gerhard Schroeder's «Wandel dutch Handel» policy in 1998. Germany's policy toward China was based on the idea that economic exchange and increase in trade between both countries would lead to political and societal change in China. In the author's point of view Germany's China policy shifted significantly to one which focused more heavily on human rights at the beginning of the first term under Chancellor Angela Merkel in 2005. The author argues that Germany's China policy at present time is motivated first of all by economic interests and the needs of its exporters. In recent years, there have been efforts to extend cooperation to other fields like security and world order. The author comes to the conclusion that both Germany and China increasingly consider a strategic partnership within mutual interest.

  20. Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting at School in Contemporary South African Contexts: Deconstructing School Narratives and Understanding Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Tamara; Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African national education policy is committed to promoting gender equality at school and to facilitating the successful completion of all young people's schooling, including those who may become pregnant and parent while at school. However, the experience of being pregnant and parenting while being a learner is shaped by broader social and…

  1. Evidence-based health promotion for older people and instrumentalisation: comparing the influence of policy contexts in Austria and England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, P.; Lang, G.; Resch, K.

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion (HP) amongst older people is an increasingly prominent policy concern for governments. The development of an evidence-base and the advocacy of effective interventions in the light of this act as legitimation tools for the overall HP phenomenon - assisting the growth of state and

  2. New directions in stabilisation policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Fendel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new class of macroeconomic business cycle models has emerged. Stochastic dynamic general equilibrium models with rational expectations originally employed by RBC researchers are combined with nominal rigidities and imperfect competition traditionally highlighted by New Keynesian economists. This class of models leads to a new paradigm in business cycle theory and stabilization policies. The paper presents the main characteristics and implications of the new class of models in a predominantly non-technical way. In order to highlight the progress connected with the new class of models, it puts them into the context of former debates on stabilization policy, such as the Phillips curve dispute.

  3. Analysis of Drug Policy in the Republic of Slovenia and in the EU Context: A Platform for Prevention in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaternik, Ines; Rihter, Liljana

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This article presents an overview of the strategies and measures used in the context of school-based prevention in Slovenia, both on a declaratory and on a practical level. Methods: A review of the Resolution on the National Programme on Drugs in the Republic of Slovenia [ReNPPD (2004). Resolucija o nacionalnem programu na podrocju drog…

  4. Inclusive Cultures, Policies and Practices in Spanish Compulsory Secondary Education Schools: Teachers' Perceptions in Ordinary and Specific Teaching Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, Odet; Sales, Auxiliadora; Ferrandez, Reina; Traver, Joan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a study that attempts to inquire into the indicators related with inclusive education by taking into account teachers' responses in the ordinary and specific teaching contexts (experts in special education needs, specialists in therapeutic pedagogy and compensatory education or specific programmes organised to accommodate…

  5. The Economic Sovereignty of the State as the Defining Instrument of Economic Policy in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytas Viktoriia V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern world is characterized by rapid integration and globalization processes, which have both a positive and a negative impact on the development of each country. National economies operate in the midst of global uncertainty, which is becoming the platform for the formation and implementation of the State economic policy, which should not only describe the conditions for strategic development of country but also adequately respond to the risks emerging out of the complex integration processes. The failure of the State to respond in a timely and adequate manner to the risks will result in lesser benefits and positive effects of integration processes than the impact of destabilizing factors. In such circumstances, economic sovereignty becomes the most important instrument of the State through which it can defend its national economic interests and form an effective economic policy.

  6. The impact of labor policies on the health of young children in the context of economic globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Jody; Earle, Alison; McNeill, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has transformed the workplace at the same time that increasing numbers of children live in families in which all adults work for pay outside the home. Extensive research evidence demonstrates the importance of parental involvement in the early years of a child's life. Yet, parents caring for young children may face challenges in fulfilling both work and family responsibilities under current labor force conditions. In this article, we review the evidence on the importance of parental care for meeting young children's routine care needs, preventive health care needs, and curative medical treatment requirements. We examine the evidence regarding the impact of four policies in particular on young children's health and development: parental leave, breastfeeding breaks, early childhood care and education, and leave for children's health needs. Last, we examine the availability of these policies worldwide and discuss the potential economic implications.

  7. Changing the malaria treatment protocol policy in Timor-Leste: an examination of context, process, and actors’ involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 2007 Timor-Leste, a malaria endemic country, changed its Malaria Treatment Protocol for uncomplicated falciparum malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine. The change in treatment policy was based on the rise in morbidity due to malaria and perception of increasing drug resistance. Despite a lack of nationally available evidence on drug resistance, the Ministry of Health decided to change the protocol. The policy process leading to this change was examined through a qualitative study on how the country developed its revised treatment protocol for malaria. This process involved many actors and was led by the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and the WHO country office. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities identified during this period of treatment protocol change. PMID:23672371

  8. Meeting Students’ Expectations in an Arab ICLHE/EMI Context: Implications for ELT Education Policy and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ali S.M. Al-Issa

    2016-01-01

    Students’ expectations have seldom received any attention in English Language Teaching (ELT) education research in the Arab World in general and in Integrated Content and Language in Higher Education (ICLHE)/English Medium Instruction (EMI) English for Academic Purposes (EAP) in particular, despite their importance for policy and practice. This mixed-method study investigates the expectations of 50 students attending an ICLHE/EMI EAP course at College of Law, Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in...

  9. THE STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL IN CONTEXT OF THE STRENGTHENING OF OPERABILITY OF BUDGETARY POLICY OF STIMULATION OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dyachenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the essence of state financial control as an important factor of strengthening of operability of budgetary policy of stimulation of the socio-economic development of regions is disclosed. The main institutions of control and their authority are defined; the instruments of control and levers of influence are indicated. It is marked the importance of the auditing of efficiency. The estimating index of the level of execution of the budgetary stimulative programs is offered.

  10. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Constantine

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 50-80% of 2000 levels by 2050 to increase the likelihood of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to achieve the large GHG reductions by 2050 recommended by the IPCC, a fundamental shift and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors represent the largest GHG emissions sources in the United States, a unique opportunity for coupling these systems via electrified transportation could achieve synergistic environmental (GHG emissions reductions) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, this thesis finds that life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs depend on the electricity source that is used to charge the battery, so meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. Power plants and their associated GHGs are long-lived, and this work argues that decisions made regarding new electricity supplies within the next ten years will affect the potential of PHEVs to play a role in a low-carbon future in the coming decades. This thesis investigates the life cycle engineering, economic, and policy decisions involved in transitioning to PHEVs and low-carbon electricity. The government has a vast array of policy options to promote low-carbon technologies, some of which have proven to be more successful than others. This thesis uses life

  11. Policy stakeholders and deployment of wind power in the sub-national context: A comparison of four U.S. states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischlein, Miriam; Larson, Joel; Hall, Damon M.; Chaudhry, Rumika; Rai Peterson, Tarla; Stephens, Jennie C.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    As climate change mitigation gains attention in the United States, low-carbon energy technologies such as wind power encounter both opportunities and barriers en route to deployment. This paper provides a state-level context for examining wind power deployment and presents research on how policy stakeholders perceive wind energy in four states: Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, and Texas. Through semi-structured interviews, state-level energy policy stakeholders were asked to explain their perceptions of wind energy technology within their state. Interview texts were coded to assess how various drivers promote or hinder the deployment of wind power in sub-national contexts. Responses were dominated by technical, political, and economic frames in all four states, but were often driven by a very different rationale. Environmental, aesthetic, and health/safety frames appeared less often in the discourse. This analysis demonstrates that each state arrived at its current level of deployment via very different political, economic, and technical paths. In addition to helping explain why and how wind technology was - or was not - deployed in each of these states, these findings provide insight into the diversity of sub-national dialogues on deployment of low-carbon energy technologies.

  12. Working Paper 78: Policy recommendations to the EU Commission, Changing families and sustainable societies: Policy contexts and diversity over the life course and across generations (2017) : Collaborative research project financed by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme 2013-2017 (Grant no. 320116, FP7-SSH-2012-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Laura; Oláh, Livia; Hobson, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    These policy recommendations are based on main findings of the largescale EU Seventh Framework project, Changing families and sustainable societies: Policy contexts and diversity over the life course and across generations (FamiliesAndSocieties). This executive summary highlights a few of the key policy recommendations: • Policy makers ought to be aware of the remarkable diversity of family forms and relationships in contemporary Europe, and aim for a better understanding of the nature and me...

  13. The role of the University in the context of Inclusive Education Policy: reflections about human resources formation and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Glat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present text aims to discuss and present, briefly action lines about the role of University in the promotion of psicossocial and educational development of people with handicap and other special needs. Taking the framework of specialized literature, it brings different questions dealing with human resources formation, specially, teacher formation, and the production of knowledge in the area of Special Education, obtained through research and extension projects, done, preferentially, in partnership with the educational agents that work in the field. It also analyses how these actions may influence the implementation of policies regarding school, labor, and social inclusion of people with handicap and other developmental disorders.

  14. The management of conflict in nutrition policy formulation: choosing growth-monitoring indicators in the context of dual burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Lesli; Pelletier, David L

    2011-06-01

    We argue in this paper that a shared desire to find a solution to malnutrition and agreement at a broad level concerning priority, evidence-based interventions are important but not sufficient conditions for effective policy development. This paper illustrates this point, and draws out general implications, through a detailed analysis of a case in which conflict emerged when committed nutrition policy actors began discussing the details of program design and implementation. The case involves one country's effort to select "the best" anthropometric indicator for use in its national child growth-monitoring program. In this case the interested parties approached this deceptively simple decision for different reasons, using different sources and standards of evidence and focusing their attention on opposite, but equally critical, operational considerations, while being heavily influenced by global, national, and interorganizational events and relationships. We suggest that actors seeking to translate political commitment for nutrition into effective action should recognize the technical and sociopolitical complexity of seemingly simple decisions related to intervention design and employ more systematic, intentional, and inclusive decision-making procedures. Without attention to such practical matters, the current window of opportunity to reduce malnutrition on a global scale may quickly close.

  15. Free movement of capital in the context of the implementation of monetary policy in EMU and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Tafaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Free movement of capital has been one of the main objectives of Article 3 of the EC Treaty, as part of the development of the common market. Nowadays, the domestic market and almost all of other freedoms (eg. workers, goods and services depends on the freedom of movement of capital. Unlike other freedoms, freedom of movement is more liberalized. European investment, cross-border transfers, bank accounts, purchases and authorization of purchases of real estate, inheritance etc., are included in the free movement of capital. Free movement of capital has lost somehow its sense with the entry into force of EMU and the introduction of the Euro. This liberalization aimed at realizing a collaboration and coordination of economic policies and to some extent even political at the higher levels of the central banks where the fulfillment of the convergence criteria (four criteria, was a prerequisite for a country to adopt the single currency. But EMU and its implementation in the third phase brought significant consequences with regard to the institutional, economic and monetary policy having an impact directly on the free movement of capital in the EU, which will be the object of analysis in this paper.

  16. Institutional Transition from Welfare Enterprise to Social Enterprise: the Localization of Legislation and Policy in Chinese Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaomeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare enterprises, which are intended to create jobs for disabled people, are the core component of China's welfare system. As the economic environment and regulations change, China's welfare enterprises, which cannot take effective measures from within and emerge strong in market competition, are stuck in a bottleneck where further development is difficult. Welfare enterprises have hit the ceiling in their development for lacking sustainable sources of capital and capabilities of capital operation, inefficient management model and uncompetitive products and services. To reverse the trend of decline and grow into strong market players, the transformation from welfare enterprise to social enterprise, embracing the features of enterprise and social objectives, as an alternative is of crucial importance. As a new hybrid economic form, social enterprise combines the efficiency of businesses and the public-good nature of welfare enterprises, representing win-win cooperation among the government, society, and business sector. Such development is an institutional transformation which boosts competitiveness and tackles tough issues welfare enterprises are facing. Shifting from welfare enterprises to social enterprises means an institutional transition, during the process of which international experience in legislation shall be learned and localized. This paper analyzes the development history of welfare enterprises by taking a comprehensive look at the salient points of existing laws, policies promulgated throughout history, implementation and performance, major problems etc. so as to explore the institutional transition from welfare enterprises to social enterprises, revealing possible legal and policy problems and making suggestions.

  17. A Simple Object-Oriented and Open Source Model for Scientific and Policy Analyses of the Global Carbon Cycle-Hector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, C.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Patel, P.; Link, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in policy and scientific communities. They are used in climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe, Hector an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global scale earth system processes, e.g., carbon fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere, and respiration and primary production on land. Hector has three main carbon pools: an atmosphere, land, and ocean. The terrestrial carbon cycle is represented by a simple design with respiration and primary production, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. The ocean carbon cycle actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air-sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the large-scale global trends found in historical data of atmospheric [CO2] and surface temperature and simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways. Hector's results compare well with current observations of critical climate variables, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), as well as, model output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5. Hector has the ability to be a key analytical tool used across many scientific and policy communities due to its modern software architecture, open source, and object-oriented structure. In particular, Hector can be used to emulate larger complex models to help fill gaps in scenario coverage for future scenario processes.

  18. Context in a wider context

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    John Traxler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to review and reconsider the role of context in mobile learning and starts by outlining definitions of context-aware mobile learning as the technologies have become more mature, more robust and more widely available and as the notion of context has become progressively richer. The future role of context-aware mobile learning is considered within the context of the future of mobile learning as it moves from the challenges and opportunities of pedagogy and technology to the challenges and opportunities of policy, scale, sustainability, equity and engagement with augmented reality, «blended learning», «learner devices», «user-generated contexts» and the «internet of things». This is essentially a perspective on mobile learning, and other forms of technology-enhanced learning (TEL, where educators and their institutions set the agenda and manage change. There are, however, other perspectives on context. The increasing availability and use of smart-phones and other personal mobile devices with similar powerful functionality means that the experience of context for many people, in the form of personalized or location-based services, is an increasingly social and informal experience, rather than a specialist or educational experience. This is part of the transformative impact of mobility and connectedness on our societies brought about by these universal, ubiquitous and pervasive technologies. This paper contributes a revised understanding of context in the wider context (sic of the transformations taking place in our societies. These are subtle but pervasive transformations of jobs, work and the economy, of our sense of time, space and place, of knowing and learning, and of community and identity. This leads to a radical reconsideration of context as the notions of ‹self› and ‹other› are transformed.

  19. Testing spatial measures of alcohol outlet density with self-rated health in the Australian context: Implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Mavoa, Suzanne; Livingston, Michael; David, Stephanie; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-05-01

    Reducing access to alcohol is an important and cost-effective strategy for decreasing alcohol consumption and associated harm. Yet this is a less common approach to alcohol control in Australia. The aim of this research was to ascertain which alcohol outlet density spatial measures were related to long-term health outcomes, and the extent to which this differs for those living in more or less disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Existing Australian state-level spatial alcohol policies were reviewed. No appropriate spatial policies were identified; therefore, the literature was used to identify potential alcohol-related spatial measures. Spatial measures of alcohol outlet density were generated in a geographical information system and linked with health survey data drawn from 3141 adults living in metropolitan Melbourne. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between alcohol outlet density measures, self-rated health and area-level disadvantage. Twelve spatial measures of alcohol outlet density were generated. Alcohol outlet density and self-rated health associations varied by area-level disadvantage. For those living in more disadvantaged areas, not having off-licenses available within 800 m, or on-licenses available within 400 m were protective of self-rated health. Local alcohol outlet density may have a more detrimental effect on self-rated health for those living in more disadvantaged neighbourhoods, compared with those living in more advantaged areas. There is a need for spatial alcohol policies to help reduce alcohol-related harm. This research proposes a set of spatial measures to generate a more consistent understanding of alcohol availability in Australia. [Badland H, Mavoa S, Livingston M, David S, Giles-Corti B. Testing spatial measures of alcohol outlet density with self-rated health in the Australian context: Implications for policy and practice. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:298-306]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol

  20. Implementation of a Positive Youth Development Program in a Chinese Context: The Role of Policy, Program, People, Process, and Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a case study is presented based on one school, conducted to examine the factors that influenced the process and quality of implementation of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. Through interviews with the school contact person and focus group interviews with the instructors, an integration of the findings showed that several factors related to the program, people, process, policy, and place (5 “P”s facilitated the implementation process of the Tier 1 Program in the school. Obstacles and difficulties with reference to the 5 “P”s that affected the quality of implementation were also identified. Overall, the quality of program implementation in the school was good, and the program was well received by the program implementers. Implications of the present findings for future program implementation with reference to school administrative arrangements and implementation issues are discussed.

  1. Security Policy and Infrastructure in the Context of a Multi-Centeric Information System Dedicated to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mohamed; Robel, Laurence; Golse, Bernard; Jais, Jean Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neuro-developmental disorders affecting children in their early age. The diagnosis of ASD relies on multidisciplinary investigations, in psychiatry, neurology, genetics, electrophysiology, neuro-imagery, audiology and ophthalmology. In order to support clinicians, researchers and public health decision makers, we designed an information system dedicated to ASD, called TEDIS. TEDIS was designed to manage systematic, exhaustive and continuous multi-centric patient data collection via secured Internet connections. In this paper, we present the security policy and security infrastructure we developed to protect ASD' patients' clinical data and patients' privacy. We tested our system on 359 ASD patient records in a local secured intranet environment and showed that the security system is functional, with a consistent, transparent and safe encrypting-decrypting behavior. It is ready for deployment in the nine ASD expert assessment centers in the Ile de France district.

  2. The concept of «soft power» in the context of strategy of foreign policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Korotkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the basic principles and conceptual approaches to the concept of «power». Modern globalizational processes in the world (political, economic influence the emergence of new concepts of power. The basic theoretical concepts of international relations ­ «hard power» and «soft power» and the possibility of using them in  ukrainian foreign policy are under consideration. The causes of emergence of the «soft power» concept is studied in the article. Among the mentioned causes we examine the end of «Cold War» and formation of multipolar international system. It brings us to the changes of the nature of the power itself and makes the strategy of «soft power» more potential. The attention is drawn to the relevance of the essence of the «soft power» concept and possibility of its usage in  ukrainian foreign policy, in its political scientific discussions. The annexation of the Crimea in 2014 and the military conflict with Russia influenced the future implementation of this concept. The potential of the «soft power» concept in Ukraine is already exhausted. The «Orange Revolution» in 2004 and «Revolution of Dignity» in 2014 are the symbolic events of modern Ukraine and the main tools of the «soft power». These events formed a positive image of Ukraine in Europe. It is necessary to restrict (financially and informationally the usage of this concept and give priority to the «hard power». Concept of «soft power» is only effective in the countries with significant military and economic potential. The events in Ukraine show that in order to ensure its national security for the ‘second­tier’ states the development of its own military force should be on a priority basis.

  3. Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context--analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as "swine flu", since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term "swine flu" to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: "Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them," wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt.

  4. Regulatory policies in education: the organization of schooling in cycles in the State of Goiânia, Brazil (1998-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Peixoto Mundim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the organization of schooling in cycles in the State of Goiânia, Brazil, in the light of the regulation of education policies that took place in the country from the 1990’s onwards. Our theoretical-bibliographical research took advantage of former analysis of the social regulation performed in the fi elds ofEconomy and Political Sociology, using as reference the theoretical-methodological framework developed by Marx and perfected by Gramsci. It is presumed that, in the current scenario, that are new forms of social regulation that, in its developments, have echoed in the regulation of educational policies and that, in a sense, have informed principles for new forms of organization of the school.

  5. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at

  6. A Longitudinal Study of State Strategies and Policies to Accelerate Evidence-Based Practices in the Context of Systems Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Abraham, Amanda; Zwick, Janet; Rasplica, Caitlin; McCarty, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Objective To profile state agency efforts to promote implementation of three evidence-based practices (EBPs): screening and brief intervention (SBIRT), psychosocial interventions, and medication-assisted treatment (MAT). Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collected from representatives of 50 states and the District of Columbia’s Single State Authorities from 2007 to 2009. Study Design/Data Collection The study used mixed methods, in-depth, semistructured interviews and quantitative surveys. Interviews assessed state and provider strategies to accelerate implementation of EBPs. Principal Findings Statewide implementation of psychosocial interventions and MAT increased significantly over 3 years. In the first two assessments, states that contracted directly with providers were more likely to link use of EBPs to reimbursement, and states with indirect contract, through counties and other entities, increased recommendations, and some requirements for provision of specific EBPs. The number of states using legislation as a policy lever to promote EBPs was unchanged. Conclusions Health care reform and implementation of parity in coverage increases access to treatment for alcohol and drug use. Science-based substance abuse treatment will become even more crucial as payers seek consistent quality of care. This study provides baseline data on service delivery, contracting, and financing as state agencies and treatment providers prepare for implementation of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25532616

  7. A Longitudinal Study of State Strategies and Policies to Accelerate Evidence-Based Practices in the Context of Systems Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Abraham, Amanda; Zwick, Janet; Rasplica, Caitlin; McCarty, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    To profile state agency efforts to promote implementation of three evidence-based practices (EBPs): screening and brief intervention (SBIRT), psychosocial interventions, and medication-assisted treatment (MAT). Primary data collected from representatives of 50 states and the District of Columbia's Single State Authorities from 2007 to 2009. The study used mixed methods, in-depth, semistructured interviews and quantitative surveys. Interviews assessed state and provider strategies to accelerate implementation of EBPs. Statewide implementation of psychosocial interventions and MAT increased significantly over 3 years. In the first two assessments, states that contracted directly with providers were more likely to link use of EBPs to reimbursement, and states with indirect contract, through counties and other entities, increased recommendations, and some requirements for provision of specific EBPs. The number of states using legislation as a policy lever to promote EBPs was unchanged. Health care reform and implementation of parity in coverage increases access to treatment for alcohol and drug use. Science-based substance abuse treatment will become even more crucial as payers seek consistent quality of care. This study provides baseline data on service delivery, contracting, and financing as state agencies and treatment providers prepare for implementation of the Affordable Care Act. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Review of atmospheric ammonia data in the context of developing technologies, changing climate, and future policy evidence needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braban, Christine; Tang, Sim; Bealey, Bill; Roberts, Elin; Stephens, Amy; Galloway, Megan; Greenwood, Sarah; Sutton, Mark; Nemitz, Eiko; Leaver, David

    2017-04-01

    Ambient ammonia measurements have been undertaken both in the atmosphere to understand sources, concentrations at background and vulnerable ecosystems and for long term monitoring of concentrations. As a pollutant which is projected to increase concentration in the coming decades with significant policy challenges to implementing mitigation strategies it is useful to assess what has been measured, where and why. In this study a review of the literature, has shown that ammonia measurements are frequently not publically reported and in general not reposited in the open data centres, available for research. The specific sectors where measurements have been undertaken are: agricultural point source assessments, agricultural surface exchange measurements, sensitive ecosystem monitoring, landscape/regional studies and governmental long term monitoring. Less frequently ammonia is measured as part of an intensive atmospheric chemistry field campaign. Technology is developing which means a shift from chemical denuder methods to spectroscopic techniques may be possible, however chemical denuding techniques with off-line laboratory analysis will likely be an economical approach for some time to come. This paper reviews existing datasets from the different sectors of research and integrates them for a global picture to allow both a long term understanding and facilitate comparison with future measurements.

  9. POLICIES FOR PROMOTING COMPETITIVENESS IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPE 2020 STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Cristina Popovici

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to identify the competitiveness gap between ten Eastern and Central European (ECE countries and effective measures for bridging this gap. We find that Romania and Bulgaria are far behind the European countries that joined the European Union (EU in 2004 in terms of competitiveness. Moreover, since the adhesion year, Romania and Bulgaria competitiveness improved very slowly, while other European countries accelerated their growth in terms of competitiveness. For this reason, the living standard of Romanians and Bulgarians increased very little compared to the increases in the rest of the ECE countries. For proving that increasing competitiveness drives an increase in GDP per capita, we also identify the gap between the actual GDP per capita and the potential GDP per capita if each of the analysed countries would apply the European Commission recommended measures for boosting competitiveness, as described in the Europe 2020 Strategy. We conclude that, unless harsh measures are imposed for increasing competitiveness, Romania and Bulgaria risk to remain far behind the rest of the analyzed countries. In this respect, we propose public policies actions based on other ECE countries good practices focused on the domains Romania and Bulgaria must improve.

  10. Imagined in Policy, Inscribed on Bodies: Defending an Ethic of Compassion in a Political Context: Comment on "Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Dave

    2015-07-10

    In response to the International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) editorial, this commentary adds to the debate about ethical dimensions of compassionate care in UK service provision. It acknowledges the importance of the original paper, and attempts to explore some of the issues that are raised in the context of nursing practice, research and education. It is argued that each of these fields of the profession are enacted in an escalating culture of corporatism, be that National Health Service (NHS) or university campus, and global neoliberalism. Post-structuralist ideas, notably those of Foucault, are borrowed to interrogate healthcare as discursive practice and disciplinary knowledge; where an understanding of the ways in which power and language operate is prominent. Historical and contemporary evidence of institutional and ideological degradation of sections of humanity, a 'history of the present,' serve as reminders of the import, and fragility, of ethical codes. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  11. The nuclear fuel cycle: review on R and D policies in the Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of research in the field of the nuclear fuel cycle in the Member States of the European Communities. It covers the following steps of the fuel cycle: uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, waste management and, in addition, decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Research carried out both in the public and private sectors has been covered. However, information on the scope and volume of research carried out in the private sector is only in part available, as access to such information is difficult, in particular where it concerns activities which have a competitive commercial character

  12. Reunion of Crimea and Russia in the Context of Trends and Contradictions of Contemporary Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina G. Kirsanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of reunification of Crimea and the Russian Federation is considered in the context of the content, the basic trends and contradictions of the modern political process at the global, regional and national government levels. Analyzing the reunification of Crimea with Russia, the authors reveal the problem of observing the principle of sovereign equality of the states, territorial integrity, non-interference into the internal affairs of the states, the right of peoples to self-determination. The authors highlight the geopolitical threats and risks arising from the violation of the principle of force non-use or threat of force in the situation of “Ukrainian crisis”. This process is analyzed through the prism of the political history of Russia, the establishment and strengthening of its statehood. Interpreted documentary sources reveal the organizational, legal, and political contradictions of the transfer of Crimean region from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1954. Socio-political importance of the reunification of Crimea and the Russian Federation for the present stage of modernization transformations of the society and the state are considered. The possible scenarios of development of the internal political and international situation with regard to the sanctions confrontation of Russia and some foreign countries are analyzed. The authors identified the resources for: effective assertion of the national interests of the Russian Federation; ensuring stability and security of life for all people living on its territory; permanent reproduction of national elite abilities (political, administrative, military, economic, etc. to act decisively in critical situations, to make fateful decisions of geopolitical nature. The article uses the results of sociological surveys of public opinion about the attitude of the Russians and citizens of Ukraine to the process of reunification

  13. TRANSFORMATION THE ROLE OF THINK TANKS IN THE PROCESS OF GOVERNMENT POLICY FORMATION IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS IN 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsukov Anton Yuryevich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the evolution of think tanks role as a political tool of government policy formation in the context of world financial crisis. The main purpose of the study was the description of such evolution, revealing of the basic differences with the analytical centers, founded before 2008 in China, and finding-out of think tank’ role in the process of anticrisis campaign. The actuality of the study is obvious, proceeding from there are not any other study dedicated to the Chinese “new type” think tanks in Russian politologycal science. The appearance of “new type” think tanks in the PRC is mentioned in the study. The special meaning devoted to the increasing of returnees’ role in the process of government policy formation. The author makes the conclusion that “new type” think tanks have a very important meaning just as in the process of anticrisis campaign so in the public life. “New type” think tanks have more independence from the official authorities.

  14. TRANSFORMATION THE ROLE OF THINK TANKS IN THE PROCESS OF GOVERNMENT POLICY FORMATION IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS IN 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антон Юрьевич Барсуков

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the evolution of think tanks role as a political tool of government policy formation in the context of world financial crisis. The main purpose of the study was the description of such evolution, revealing of the basic differences with the analytical centers, founded before 2008 in China, and finding-out of think tank’ role in the process of anticrisis campaign.The actuality of the study is obvious, proceeding from there are not any other study dedicated to the Chinese “new type” think tanks in Russian politologycal science.The appearance of “new type” think tanks in the PRC is mentioned in the study. The special meaning devoted to the increasing of returnees’ role in the process of government policy formation. The author makes the conclusion that “new type” think tanks have a very important meaning just as in the process of anticrisis campaign so in the public life. “New type” think tanks have more independence from the official authorities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-38

  15. The Recent Change in the Italian Policies for Photovoltaics: Effects on the Energy Demand Coverage of Grid-Connected PV Systems Installed in Urban Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Orioli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In July 2013, the Italian photovoltaic (PV support policies changed the feed-in tariff (FIT mechanism and turned to a tax credits program, which is currently in force. The aim of this paper is to investigate how such a radical change has influenced the electricity demand coverage of the PV systems installed in urban contexts. A methodology, which connects the economic assessment to a detailed architectural and energy suitability analysis, was applied to some case studies to analyse the relationships between the physical parameters related to multi-storey buildings (roof shapes, number of floors and area of flats and the most relevant economic and financial features affecting the viability of rooftop PV systems. The study, which considers only the electricity produced by the PV systems that are economically profitable, highlighted that the tax credits scheme is even more effective in covering the electrical consumption of densely urbanised Italian city districts. The results, which are significantly influenced by the latitude of the analysed districts, underline the opportunity for governments to adopt PV promoting policies that are more sensitive to the amount of solar energy available in the different regions of their national territory.

  16. Exploring Cross-National Changes in Instructional Practices: Evidence from Four Cycles of TIMSS. Policy Brief No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožman, Mojca; Klieme, Eckhard

    2017-01-01

    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's (IEA's) Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) can reveal a great deal about national teaching cultures and policies. Changes in instructional practices over more than a decade may be studied from a cross-cultural perspective. Using teacher and…

  17. Patient and carer participation in old age psychiatry in England. Part I: a systemic perspective of the historical and policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Susan Mary

    2012-02-01

    Patient and carer participation in old age psychiatry is less developed than in other areas of mental health. What can we learn from the historical context about increasing participation and how can it be conceptualized? The historical and policy context of patient and carer participation in the National Health Service is reviewed and related to the development of old age psychiatry in England and the parallel development of the mental health user movement. Systemic theory is offered as a way of understanding how partnership between healthcare professionals, patients and carers might lead to service evolution by bringing a range of perspectives together in order to co-construct a mutually influenced outcome. It is further suggested that this might empower not only patients and carers but also healthcare staff at a time when they are under increasing pressures. Old age psychiatry patients and carers struggle to be heard but have much to offer to services in partnership with healthcare professionals as partners and allies in service development.

  18. Non-medical sex-selective abortion in China: ethical and public policy issues in the context of 40 million missing females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly growing imbalance of the sex ratio at birth (SRB) in China since the late 1980s demonstrates that, despite an extensive official prohibition, sex-selective abortion has been widely practised there in the past two or three decades. Given the reality of 30-40 million missing females, China has a more challenging set of ethical and social policy issues to be addressed regarding sex-selective abortion than is the case in Western and many other countries. This article is based on a search and review of Chinese and English-language literature, including several very recent books in Chinese on the imbalance of the sex ratio at birth in China. It also draws on first-hand information gathered from the author's extensive fieldwork on Chinese views and experiences of abortion. The current female deficit is a real and serious problem in China-not a 'false alarm' as earlier alleged. It is a direct consequence of the widespread practice of sex-selective abortion and is chiefly caused by the strong socio-cultural preference for sons in China. Chinese academics-demographers and medical ethicists-in general agree with the official position that sex-selective abortion is morally wrong and should be legally prohibited. Some critical voices, mainly in the English-language literature, have asked whether coercive state intervention in this area is ethically justifiable. Another controversial question is whether and to what degree China's ambitious and rigorous population control programme, widely known as the 'one child' policy, is a contributing factor to the phenomenon of millions of missing females. Much further research on the ethical and social policy issues surrounding sex-selective abortion in the Chinese context needs to be done. Systematic quantitative and in-depth qualitative sociological investigations into Chinese people's attitudes toward the subject, and the role of medical professionals, are long overdue.

  19. Geographic heterogeneity in cycling under various weather conditions: Evidence from Greater Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M.; Böcker, L.; Dijst, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    With its sustainability, health and accessibility benefits, cycling has nowadays been established on research and policy agendas. Notwithstanding the decision to cycle is closely related to local weather conditions and interwoven with the geographical context, research dealing with both aspects is

  20. Combination of equilibrium models and hybrid life cycle-input–output analysis to predict the environmental impacts of energy policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igos, Elorri; Rugani, Benedetto; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico; Drouet, Laurent; Zachary, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental impacts of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg are assessed. • Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and Partial Equilibrium (PE) models are used. • Results from coupling of CGE and PE are integrated in hybrid Life Cycle Assessment. • Impacts due to energy related production and imports are likely to grow over time. • Carbon mitigation policies seem to not substantially decrease the impacts’ trend. - Abstract: Nowadays, many countries adopt an active agenda to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions by moving towards less polluting energy generation technologies. The environmental costs, directly or indirectly generated to achieve such a challenging objective, remain however largely underexplored. Until now, research has focused either on pure economic approaches such as Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and partial equilibrium (PE) models, or on (physical) energy supply scenarios. These latter could be used to evaluate the environmental impacts of various energy saving or cleaner technologies via Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These modelling efforts have, however, been pursued in isolation, without exploring the possible complementarities and synergies. In this study, we have undertaken a practical combination of these approaches into a common framework: on the one hand, by coupling a CGE with a PE model, and, on the other hand, by linking the outcomes from the coupling with a hybrid input–output−process based life cycle inventory. The methodological framework aimed at assessing the environmental consequences of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg between 2010 and 2025. The study highlights the potential of coupling CGE and PE models but also the related methodological difficulties (e.g. small number of available technologies in Luxembourg, intrinsic limitations of the two approaches, etc.). The assessment shows both environmental synergies and trade-offs due to the implementation of

  1. Approaches of eco-innovation: Uncertainty assessment and the integration of green technology foresight and life cycle assessment as a policy tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, M.

    2005-01-01

    The perspective of eco-innovation is gaining increasing attention in European policy development as well as in a number of individual countries. As basis for this lies the acknowledgement that we on the one hand live in a technology andinnovation-oriented society and that some new technologies em...... oriented technologyforesight methods integrated with the perspective of life cycle assessments of new technologies. The paper describes a number of examples of these approaches and discusses further perspectives for an eco-innovation policy.......The perspective of eco-innovation is gaining increasing attention in European policy development as well as in a number of individual countries. As basis for this lies the acknowledgement that we on the one hand live in a technology andinnovation-oriented society and that some new technologies...... embed environmental opportunities. On the other hand, that technology is usually a double-edged sword not only offering new opportunities but also centrally involved in creation of newenvironmental hazards and problems in connection with the emergence of new socio-technical systems, new production...

  2. Levels of Governance in Policy Innovation Cycles in Community Education: The Cases of Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kolleck

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While there is little doubt that social networks are essential for processes of implementing social innovations in community education such as Climate Change Education (CCE or Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, scholars have neglected to analyze these processes in the multilevel governance system using Social Network Analysis. In this article, we contribute to closing this research gap by exploring the implementation of CCE and ESD in education at the regional and global levels. We compare the way CCE is negotiated and implemented within and through the global conferences of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC with the way the UN Decade of ESD is put into practice through networks in five different German municipalities. We argue that the role of social networks is particularly strong in policy areas like CCE and ESD, which are best characterized as multi-level and multi-actor governance. Based on data derived from standardized surveys and from Twitter we analyze the complex interactions of public and private actors at different levels of governance in the two selected policy areas. We find, amongst others, that the implementation of CCE and ESD in community education depends in part on actors that had not been assumed to be influential at the outset. Furthermore, our analyses suggest the different levels of governance are not well integrated throughout the phases of the policy innovation cycle.

  3. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  4. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  5. Trajectories of objectively measured sedentary time among secondary students in Manitoba, Canada in the context of a province-wide physical education policy: A longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Fei; Comte, Melisa; So, Jannice; Rosella, Laura; McGavock, Jonathan; Hobin, Erin

    2016-06-27

    Canadian adolescents' sedentary behaviour (SB) is poorly understood and greatly understudied compared to physical activity (PA). Accumulating evidence suggests that SB poses long-term health risks regardless of PA levels. To design effective interventions that target SB, it is critical to first understand adolescents' sedentary time (ST) trajectories in a Canadian context. Therefore, we examined longitudinal trajectories of Manitoba students' ST from 2008 to 2011 and identified associated factors in the context of a province-wide physical education (PE) policy. Secondary schools offering grades 9 through 12 were randomly selected in blocks to represent the urban and rural geography of Manitoba. In each selected school (n = 31), a convenience sample of grade 9 or 10 PE classes was recruited, leading to a final sample of 447 students. To assess ST, participants wore accelerometers on 7 consecutive days at baseline (2008) and during at least one follow-up period (2009, 2010 and 2011). At baseline, students accumulated an average of 540 minutes/day of ST. Over the course of secondary school, students' ST trajectories remained stable. Females compared to males had a slightly higher rate of decline in ST (p = 0.035), adjusting for socio-demographic variables. ST trajectories were not associated with baseline PA, body mass index and school neighbourhood socio-economic status. Adolescent ST remained high throughout secondary school. SB may be well established by early adolescence and track through late adolescence. Our findings suggest the potential need for additional interventions to reduce SB before and over the course of secondary school.

  6. The position of place in governing global problems: A mechanistic account of place-as-context, and analysis of transitions towards spatially explicit approaches to climate science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGillivray, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Place is a central yet undertheorised concept within sustainability science. • Introduces an account of place as the context in which social and environmental mechanisms operate. • Uses this account to critique historical aspatial approaches to climate science and policy. • Traces out shifts towards spatially explicit approaches to climate governance. • A focus on place, heterogeneity, and context maximizes the credibility and policy-relevance of climate science. - Abstract: Place is a central concept within the sustainability sciences, yet it remains somewhat undertheorised, and its relationship to generalisation and scale is unclear. Here, we develop a mechanistic account of place as the fundamental context in which social and environmental mechanisms operate. It is premised on the view that the social and environmental sciences are typically concerned with causal processes and their interaction with context, rather than with a search for laws. We deploy our mechanistic account to critique the neglect of place that characterised the early stages of climate governance, ranging from the highly idealised general circulation and integrated assessment models used to analyze climate change, to the global institutions and technologies designed to manage it. We implicate this neglect of place in the limited progress in tackling climate change in both public and policy spheres, before tracing out recent shifts towards more spatially explicit approaches to climate change science and policy-making. These shifts reflect a move towards an ontology which acknowledges that even where causal drivers are in a sense global in nature (e.g. atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases), their impacts are often mediated through variables that are spatially clustered at multiple scales, moderated by contextual features of the local environment, and interact with the presence of other (localised) stressors in synergistic rather than additive ways. We conclude that a

  7. Life cycle thinking and assessment tools on environmentally-benign electronics: Convergent optimization of materials use, end-of-life strategy and environmental policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying

    linking environmental impact with the cellular phone production activities focusing on the upstream manufacturing and end-of-life life cycle stages. The last part of this work, the quantitative elicitation of weighting factors facilitates the comparison of trade-offs in the context of a multi-attribute problem. An integrated analytical approach, Integrated Industrial Ecology Function Deployment (I2-EFD), is proposed to assess alternatives at the design phase of a product system and is validated with the assessment of desktop display technologies and lead-free solder alternatives.

  8. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Nonsmokers in New York City in the Context of Recent Tobacco Control Policies: Current Status, Changes Over the Past Decade, and National Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Sharon E; Chernov, Claudia; Farley, Shannon M; Greene, Carolyn M; Aldous, Kenneth M; Freeman, Amy; Rodriguez-Lopez, Jesica; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2016-11-01

    years ago allows for an assessment of changes in the last decade in the context of municipal tobacco control policies. Results may be helpful to jurisdictions considering implementing similar tobacco control policies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Prospective analysis of energy security: A practical life-cycle approach focused on renewable power generation and oriented towards policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gusano, Diego; Iribarren, Diego; Garraín, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Formulation and application of the Renewable Energy Security Index (RESI). • Prospective analysis combining Energy Systems Modelling and Life Cycle Assessment. • Feasibility proven through two case studies of power generation in Spain and Norway. • Good coverage of key energy security aspects (availability, affordability, etc.). • Novel and easy-to-report index suitable for energy policy-making. - Abstract: Energy security is a wide-ranging term to encompass issues such as security of supply, reliability of infrastructures, affordability and environmental friendliness. This article develops a robust indicator – the Renewable Energy Security Index, RESI – to enrich the body of knowledge associated with the presence of renewable energy technologies within national electricity production mixes. RESI is built by combining environmental life cycle assessment and techno-economic energy systems modelling. Spain and Norway are used as illustrative case studies for the prospective analysis of power generation from an energy security standpoint. In the Spanish case, with a diversified electricity production mix and a growing presence of renewable technologies, RESI favourably “evolves” from 0.36 at present to 0.65 in 2050 in a business-as-usual scenario, reaching higher values in a highly-restricted CO 2 scenario. The Norwegian case study attains RESI values similar to 1 due to the leading role of renewable electricity (mainly hydropower) regarding both satisfaction of national demand and exportation of electricity surplus. A widespread use of RESI as a quantifiable energy security index of national power generation sectors is found to be feasible and practical for both analysts and energy policy-makers, covering a significant number of energy security aspects.

  10. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario

  11. Effects of EU harmonization policies on national public supervision of clinical trials: A dynamic cycle of institutional change and institutional work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oijen, Jacqueline C F; Grit, Kor J; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M; Bal, Roland A

    2017-09-01

    The EU Clinical Trials Directive (EUCTD) and the EU Clinical Trials Regulation aim to harmonize good clinical practice (GCP) of clinical trials across Member States. Using the Netherlands as a case study, this paper analyzes how endeavours to implement the EUCTD set in motion a dynamic process of institutional change and institutional work. This process lead to substantial differences between policy and actual practice; therefore, it is important to learn more about the implementation of harmonization policies. Relevant documents, such as legal texts and previous research, were analyzed. Interviews were conducted with stakeholders in clinical trials and inspectors from (inter)national supervisory bodies (n=33), and Dutch Health Care Inspectorate inspections were observed (n=4). Dutch legislators' efforts to implement the EUCTD created a new level of governance in an already multilevel legislative framework. Institutional layering caused a complex and fragmented organizational structure in public supervision, leading to difficulties in achieving GCP. This instigated institutional work by actors, which set in motion further incremental institutional change, principally drift and conversion. Harmonization processes can create dynamic cycles between institutional change and institutional work, leading to significant divergence from the intended effects of legislation. If legislation intended to strengthen harmonization is not carefully implemented, it can become counterproductive to its aims. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment On Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yong

    1998-04-01

    This book deals with history of life cycle assessment, methodology of life cycle assessment, software system and database, simplification, application of life cycle assessment, life cycle design, calculation of cost of life cycle, application of public policy over life cycle, prospect in Europe, materials in life cycle assessment, application of life cycle assessment in business, system analysis, assessment of value as a state of influence valuation, application of LCA for management situation of solidity waste and view for the future.

  13. The taxation of unhealthy energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs): An overview of patterns observed in the policy content and policy context of 13 case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, Luc Louis; Jeurissen, Patrick Paulus Theodoor; Klazinga, Niek Sieds

    2017-01-01

    Taxation of energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is increasingly of interest as a novel public health and fiscal policy instrument. However academic interest in policy determinants has remained limited. We address this paucity by comparing the policy content and policy

  14. On the Consideration of Adoption and Implementation of The Next Generation Science Standards in a Local-Control Context: Supporting the Epistemology of Science through Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Christopher C.

    On the Consideration of Adoption and Implementation of The Next Generation Science Standards in a Local-Control Context: Supporting the Epistemology of Science through Education Policy. Christopher C Lazzaro. The primary purpose of this research is to understand how and why members at each of the three levels of the education system within a local-control state made the decisions they did in supporting or hindering the adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards. This research concentrates on three levels of the education system in a local-control state; 1) the state level, 2) the district level, and 3) the school/teacher level, while investigating the following questions: 1. To what extent, and in what ways, do members in each of the three levels of the state education system advocate for adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards? 2. Are the members in each of the three levels motivated or compelled to consider adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards, why or why not? 3. To what extent, and in what ways, do the members in each of the three levels take into account science epistemology in their overall consideration of adoption/implementation of the NGSS? The data drew from a series of interviews from a prior study, "Challenges of Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards in Local-Control States in the U.S." (Sevian, Foster, & Scheff, 2012). After these data were coded and analyzed around the three research questions, this phenomenographic research study identified four key findings: Key Finding 1 - As the District Coordinators are uniquely situated within the state education system to be able to see both the on-the-ground practical implications and the high-level policy pressures of adopting and implementing the NGSS, they reflect the deepest level of awareness of how to best advocate for adoption and implementation of the NGSS. Key Finding 2 - Motivation to adopt and

  15. Overview of Nuclear Fuel-Cycle Policy and the Role of the Nuclear Safety Commission in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, K.; Nishinosono, S.

    2008-01-01

    Since the first generation of electricity by the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor in 1963, Japan has been extensively developing nuclear technologies solely for peaceful purposes. The country now operates 55 nuclear power plants consisted of BWRs and PWRs. Although Japan is one of the largest consumers of energy in the world, the country has very limited domestic energy resources. Therefore, Japan considers the nuclear power generation very important as plutonium and uranium recovered from spent fuels can be used in new nuclear fuels as quasi-domestic energy resource. For recycle use of nuclear fuels, the establishment of nuclear fuel recycling technologies including reprocessing technologies is essential. Since 1977, Japan has been recovering plutonium and uranium by a small scale reprocessing plant built by French technology. Recently, 800 ton/year scale commercial reprocessing plant is under construction. After overcoming the current technical problem in the vitrification facility, the commercial plant is expected to be in full operation soon. Concerning the disposal of radioactive wastes, which arises from nuclear utilization, sallow land disposal has already been implemented and medium depth (50 to 100 m) disposal plan is in progress. For high-level waste, possible candidate sites for disposal are being sought. In this paper, the statuses of nuclear power plants and of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Japan are summarized. As safety is essential for these nuclear installations, safety regulations in Japan are briefly presented from the viewpoint of Nuclear Safety Commission. Furthermore, as the most significant recent safety issue in Japan, the impacts of the large near-site earthquake hit Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP last July are reported.(author)

  16. Life cycle management (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  17. Effects of Poland’s Pro‑Export Policy Implementation in the Context of the Plan for Responsible Development – a Preliminary Comparative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokińska Zofia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a preliminary assessment of Poland’s export expansion policy in relation to the export of commodities, which is a result of the Government’s Plan for Responsible Development, in the context of existing barriers and the external and internal conditions reported by small and medium‑sized enterprises sector (SMEs. In the latest ranking of its competitive position in the global market for the period 2016-2017, Poland ranked 36th in the world. It should also be stressed that in this most recent world ranking Poland held the 16th position among EU Member States. A positive phenomenon in relation to Poland’s foreign trade in 2016, as compared to previous years, was that the value of export exceeded import, which allowed for a turnover surplus of nearly EUR 4.8 billion, i.e. two times higher than in 2015. In 2016 (and also in the first half of 2017 there was a favorable diversification of Polish export, demonstrating an increase in export to non‑EU markets of economically developed countries. After two years of relatively slow growth, export to this group of countries in 2016 increased by 5.6% (to EUR 12 billion, i.e. nearly 2.5 times faster than the total export. Despite the tariff‑free and quota‑free access to the single European market, there are still limits and barriers to the free movement of goods, and especially services. There are also many internal barriers in small and medium‑sized enterprises’ export to foreign markets, which limit their export expansion. Despite the gradual increase in export observed in recent years, the internationalization of non‑Polish enterprises is still much lower than in Western European countries. As a result, the share of Polish SMEs in the EU market is one third smaller than the EU average.

  18. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  19. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  20. The demand-side innovation policies in the context of small EU member country. Nõudluspoolsed innovatsioonipoliitikad Euroopa Liidu väikese liikmesriigi kontekstis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand-side innovation policies, in the form of regulations, public procurement, subsidies for private demand, and other measures, are often viewed as valuable additions to more traditional supply-side policies. The demand-side innovation policies should enable to facilitate the emergence of vital and sustainable links between innovation outputs and various markets. However, without sufficient institutional framework and policy experiences such measures could also contribute to new market distortions or crowding-out effects, which do not facilitate sustainable growth in innovations. The charting of possible risks of such policies should help to outline the criteria for aiming at sustainable effects. The purpose of this contribution is to offer suggestions about preconditions and policy characteristics, which should help to avoid the misuse of demand-side measures and facilitate the sustainability of desired changes in society. It is predominantly conceptual contribution but draws also extensively on case evidence about the effects of relevant policies and their discontinuation

  1. Holidays for Children and Families in Need: An Exploration of the Research and Policy Context for Social Tourism in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Although provision of holidays for families in need has been mainstreamed within the social care policies of many countries in the rest of Europe, "social tourism" has yet to be adopted in the United Kingdom. This article reports on a scoping study of research and policy in this area. While there is limited robust research on the impact…

  2. The Formation of Accounting Policies for Processing Enterprises in the Context of Adaptation of National Regulations to the International Standards of Accounting and Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozheliuk Viktoriia M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article defines principles for preparation of accounting policies using both domestic and foreign experience, generalizes scientific and theoretical approaches, and improves the wordings of the concept of «accounting policy». The feasibility of conducting a preliminary assessment of efficiency of organizational activities through the use of the criteria generalized in the accounting policy has been substantiated, the legal and regulatory levels have been highlighted, taking into consideration the existing legislation. The procedure for determining the accounting policy parameters and directions has been disclosed, requirements to the formation of accounting policy have been defined, influencing of factors on its formation in market conditions has been researched. Recommendations for the main sections of the accounting policy order in the processing enterprise have been formulated, a list of parts of the accounting policy order has been determined, taking into consideration the organization and technology of the working process of processing enterprises in the circumstances of market economy. A comparison of international and national regulations on the formation of accounting policies for the market-based enterprises has been carried out.

  3. Life cycle assessment and sustainable engineering in the context of near net shape grown components: striving towards a sustainable way of future production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Christoph; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Beger, Anna-Lena; Jacobs, Georg; Löwer, Manuel; Moser, Franziska; Reimer, Julia; Trautz, Martin; Usadel, Björn; Wormit, Alexandra; Hollert, Henner

    2017-01-01

    Technical product harvesting (TEPHA) is a newly developing interdisciplinary approach in which bio-based production is investigated from a technical and ecological perspective. Society's demand for ecologically produced and sustainably operable goods is a key driver for the substitution of conventional materials like metals or plastics through bio-based alternatives. Technical product harvesting of near net shape grown components describes the use of suitable biomass for the production of technical products through influencing the natural shape of plants during their growth period. The use of natural materials may show positive effects on the amount of non-renewable resource consumption. This also increases the product recyclability at the end of its life cycle. Furthermore, through the near net shape growth of biomass, production steps can be reduced. As a consequence such approaches may save energy and the needed resources like crude oil, coal or gas. The derived near net shape grown components are not only considered beneficial from an environmental point of view. They can also have mechanical advantages through an intrinsic topology optimization in contrast to common natural materials, which are influenced in their shape after harvesting. In order to prove these benefits a comprehensive, interdisciplinary scientific strategy is needed. Here, both mechanical investigations and life cycle assessment as a method of environmental evaluation are used.

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal food waste and sewage sludge: A comparative life cycle assessment in the context of a waste service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Crossin, Enda; Burn, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    This study used life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) and compared it against the current waste management system in two case study areas. Results indicated AcoD to have less environmental impact for all categories modelled excluding human toxicity, despite the need to collect and pre-treat food waste separately. Uncertainty modelling confirmed that AcoD has a 100% likelihood of a smaller global warming potential, and for acidification, eutrophication and fossil fuel depletion AcoD carried a greater than 85% confidence of inducing a lesser impact than the current waste service. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Future Studies and Policy Design: Reflections on a 20-year experience at FORO Nacional Internacional in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Bazán; Pasko Kisic; Jorge Chávez

    2013-01-01

    Future studies are methodological tools that have affected policy design over the past decades. In Peru, these tools have developed hand in hand with a cycle of institutional volatility in a context of socioeconomic and political turmoil. While the context has improved, the relevance of future studies in relation with policy design is still questionable. New approaches developed and implemented by key actors have created spaces for discussion, application and development of future studies. As...

  6. Getting back on tap: the policy context and cost of ensuring access to low-cost drinking water in Massachusetts schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Angie L; Wilking, Cara L; Olliges, Sarah A; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2012-09-01

    Adequate water intake may have important health benefits for schoolchildren. Layers of federal, state, and local policy are relevant to provision of water within schools. Recently passed state and federal laws require free drinking-water access for students during mealtimes. To review Massachusetts local district wellness policies related to water access, provide estimates of costs for three water-provision strategies, and discuss implications for policy relevant to adequate drinking-water access. Legal research was conducted using the LexisNexis legal database and government websites. Local wellness policies were double-coded using existing research tools. Costs of three water-delivery options were estimated using a 10-year school-district perspective. Prior to 2010, most Massachusetts public school district wellness policies (92%-94%) did not address access to free drinking water. Ten-year costs per school for providing water during mealtimes to students, including dispenser unit, installation, water testing, water, cups, and labor, range between $12,544 and $27,922 (depending on water-delivery option) assuming the average Massachusetts school enrollment. Water-provision strategies relying on tap water are more economical than bottled water in the long term. Policy recommendations and cost considerations deserve attention at the local, state, and federal levels. Recommendations are discussed to ensure access to safe, free drinking water for all students. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Evolution of Humanities : Reviewing The History of Translation Movement in the Context of Public Policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shah Abadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is about forty years that some of Iran’s policy makers and experts in social and human sciences are of the opinion that there should be an evolution in humanities. They are of the view that principles and basic assumptions of current humanities are in conflict with Islamic framework and consequently these doctrines are not appropriate to address local issues of Islamic countries. Since the Islamic Revolution of Iran of 1979, any change in these doctrines has been a matter of debate. But we need a new plan for making a change in our policies. Applying interdisciplinary approach permit us to find a new way for policy making in society. History is full of lessons to guide us in our present situations. Therefore, by taking into account, the sociology of science and issues of policy-making, we study the Translation Movement. This article shows the transfer and transformation of Greek philosophy to Islamic philosophy in 7- 10 A.D. in Islamic civilization and also proposes an alternative approach for the policy makers. We identify actors of transferring knowledge, scientific translators and the Abbasid State. Research model of this paper has been chosen from the sociology of science and also makes use of "Implication Research Methodology” with regard to history. Our suggestion is "Transformational Translation (Transforlation " that includes selecting best texts, translations, correction, explanation, criticism and innovation. Accordingly, policies should be revised after identifying discipline on Transforlation Chain and structures and human resources have to be formalized on the basis of revised policies.

  8. Be quick about it. Endogenous estradiol level, menstrual cycle phase and trait impulsiveness predict impulsive choice in the context of reward acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". Variations in the steroid hormone 17ß-estradiol (E2) may promote intra-individual differences in reward seeking behavior and temporal decision-making (Reimers et al., 2014; Front. Neurosci. 8: 401). Yet, in humans the exact role of E2 in impulsive choice still needs to be determined. The present study assessed the effect of a cycle-dependent rise in endogenous E2 on temporal response adaptation across the follicular phase (FP). For this purpose a reward acquisition paradigm was employed that is sensitive to hormone-induced changes in central dopamine (DA) level. The present data show that women acted more impulsively in the early as opposed to the late FP. Early follicular E2 further correlated with an increased capacity to speed up for reward maximization, while simultaneously the ability to wait for higher reward was compromised. This correlation was most pronounced in women with low trait impulsiveness. In contrast, E2 and optimized response speed failed to correlate in women with high trait impulsiveness and in the late FP, despite a generally higher E2 level. Collectively, these findings support the theory that E2 may act as an endogenous DA agonist. The fact that the hormone-behavior relationship was restricted to women with low trait impulsiveness and thus supposedly lower central DA level provides indirect support for this idea. Yet, choices became relatively less impulsive in the state of heightened E2 (i.e., in the late FP), suggesting that the relationship between E2 and impulsive choice may not be linear, but might resemble an inverted U-function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mere Objectives or Hard Law? A Case Study on the EU‘s Social Policy in the Context of Free Market Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Jędrzejowska-Schiffauer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this contribution is to assess the impact of the EU Internal Market rules on the development of Union’s social policy. To that end the author analyses trends in the EU’s social policy over time, also following the outbreak of the economic and financial crisis in 2008, synthesising selected Union’s legislation, soft measures and case law relating to social policy, with a view to determining their immediate or potential impact on social rights and social protection. It is submitted that to date, the Union has made but a very restricted use of its powers to develop the social dimension of its Single Market, which contributes to the difficulties in reconciling social and labour rights with competition law and economic freedoms. This problem is ascribed not exclusively to the commonly blamed inequality of arms resulting from the prevalence of soft measures in the area of social policy and the hard law regulatory framework for the implementation of the Single Market rules. Its core is identified in the lack of will on the part of national governments to advance economic integration on common (European social foundations. Hence the necessary prerequisite for the further advance of the EU social policy and a sustainable European socio-economic model is the attitude change in the Member States.

  10. Implementing Local Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Actions: The Role of Various Policy Instruments in a Multi-Level Governance Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.; Juhola, Sirkku; Baron, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Recently, considerable focus, e.g., in the fifth IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Assessment Report (2014) has been trained on why adaptation and mitigation have not been developed more than at present, with relatively few local government actions taken compared with, for example,....... This constitutes an important consideration for the development of adaptation and mitigation as policy areas, including on the local level......., more discursive policy agreement on the importance of the issue of climate change. Going beyond a focus on general limits and barriers, this comment suggests that one important issue is that climate change has not yet been sufficiently integrated into the state regulative structure of legislation...... and policy-making. A comparison between three cases suggests that local developments that are not supported in particular by binding regulation are unlikely to achieve the same general level of implementation as issues for which such regulative demands (and thereby also requirements for prioritization) exist...

  11. Implementing Local Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Actions: The Role of Various Policy Instruments in a Multi-Level Governance Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carina H. Keskitalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable focus, e.g., in the fifth IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report (2014 has been trained on why adaptation and mitigation have not been developed more than at present, with relatively few local government actions taken compared with, for example, more discursive policy agreement on the importance of the issue of climate change. Going beyond a focus on general limits and barriers, this comment suggests that one important issue is that climate change has not yet been sufficiently integrated into the state regulative structure of legislation and policy-making. A comparison between three cases suggests that local developments that are not supported in particular by binding regulation are unlikely to achieve the same general level of implementation as issues for which such regulative demands (and thereby also requirements for prioritization exist. This constitutes an important consideration for the development of adaptation and mitigation as policy areas, including on the local level.

  12. Decision makers, scientists and the public as stakeholders: the connection between traffic intervention policy and air quality in a local context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiand, L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmitz, S.; Niehoff, N.

    2017-12-01

    Urban mobility is a key issue to make cities more inclusive, safer, and more environmentally friendly. To ensure a sustainable future, local policy should, among other actions, aim to improve access to sustainable transport systems and enhance mobility opportunities, while at the same time addressing critical environmental and health targets. In order to assess whether these objectives are met, measures should be informed and evaluated from a social and environmental perspective. Citizens' opinions and the acceptance of environmental policies are crucial to successful implementation of urban mobility measures. The complexity of urban air quality issues require transparent decision-making processes that are grounded in evidence-based research and embrace local knowledge. From this basis, our research group and the city council collaborated to assess a new policy action intended to address environmental and health targets. This talk will present the results from the assessment of this new policy, that was implemented in large part to alleviate air quality exceedances, from the perspective of public acceptability of the measure and the approach taken by the city council to implement the measure. Parallel to assessing the effect of this policy on the recorded levels of air pollution and traffic counts, we conducted a social survey to examine public opinions of this measure, as well as the link between air quality awareness and mobility decisions. 4661 responses were collected over a one month period. Survey participants were those most affected by the traffic measure, including commuters and local residents. The results show that there is an overall low acceptance rate of the measure (8%) as well as low concern for air quality (2,90 - where 1 = not concerned and 6 = very concerned). We also found that there is a negative relationship between air quality rating and air quality concern. A similar approach was taken to understand climate change concern, which will be

  13. National responses to global health targets: exploring policy transfer in the context of the UNAIDS '90-90-90' treatment targets in Ghana and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobie, Ellen; Matovu, Fred; Nanyiti, Aisha; Nonvignon, Justice; Abankwah, Daniel Nana Yaw; Case, Kelsey K; Hallett, Timothy B; Hanefeld, Johanna; Conteh, Lesong

    2018-01-01

    Global health organizations frequently set disease-specific targets with the goal of eliciting adoption at the national-level; consideration of the influence of target setting on national policies, programme and health budgets is of benefit to those setting targets and those intended to respond. In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS set 'ambitious' treatment targets for country adoption: 90% of HIV-positive persons should know their status; 90% of those on treatment; 90% of those achieving viral suppression. Using case studies from Ghana and Uganda, we explore how the target and its associated policy content have been adopted at the national level. That is whether adoption is in rhetoric only or supported by programme, policy or budgetary changes. We review 23 (14 from Ghana, 9 from Uganda) national policy, operational and strategic documents for the HIV response and assess commitments to '90-90-90'. In-person semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively sampled key informants (17 in Ghana, 20 in Uganda) involved in programme-planning and resource allocation within HIV to gain insight into factors facilitating adoption of 90-90-90. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically, inductively and deductively, guided by pre-existing policy theories, including Dolowitz and Marsh's policy transfer framework to describe features of the transfer and the Global Health Advocacy and Policy Project framework to explain observations. Regardless of notable resource constraints, transfer of the 90-90-90 targets was evident beyond rhetoric with substantial shifts in policy and programme activities. In both countries, there was evidence of attempts to minimize resource constraints by seeking programme efficiencies, prioritization of programme activities and devising domestic financing mechanisms; however, significant resource gaps persist. An effective health network, comprised of global and local actors, mediated the adoption and adaptation

  14. Historical overview of development policies and institutions in the Netherlands, in the context of private sector development and (productive) employment creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazimierczuk, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the Dutch development cooperation policies for the years 1949-2015 with particular attention for private sector development (PSD). Over the years, poverty alleviation, private sector development and security have been dominant focus areas of Dutch development cooperation, with PSD

  15. Rural Education as Rural Development: Understanding the Rural School-Community Well-Being Linkage in a 21st-Century Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafft, Kai A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant proportions of rural Americans, schools, and public school students situated in the geographic peripheries of an increasingly urbanizing country, rural education in the United States has consistently occupied both scholarly and policy peripheries. This is to the detriment of rural America, especially to the extent that…

  16. Conceptions and Expectations of Research Collaboration in the European Social Sciences: Research Policies, Institutional Contexts and the Autonomy of the Scientific Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Yann; Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactions between policy drivers and academic practice in international research collaboration. It draws on the case of the Open Research Area (ORA), a funding scheme in the social sciences across four national research agencies, seeking to boost collaboration by supporting "integrated" projects. The paper…

  17. Creating (In)Equalities in Access to Higher Education in the Context of Structural Adjustment and Post-Adjustment Policies: The Case of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    By analyzing the access of different socio-economic groups to post-secondary institutions by quintile, this paper examines the impact produced by higher education financing policies in Chile during the Pinochet (1973-1990), the Aylwin (1990-1994) and the Frei (1994-2000) administrations. To this purpose, CASEN databases and semi-structured…

  18. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms......The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational...... men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported...

  19. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  20. [Institutional support as a method of analysis-intervention in the context of public health policies: the experience in a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Maria Elizabeth Barros de; Guedes, Carla Ribeiro; Roza, Monica Maria Raphael

    2011-12-01

    The article addresses the elaboration of a method for analysis/intervention in the sphere of public health policies. It describes the introduction of the National Humanization Policy of the Unified Health System (SUS) in a general hospital. It proposes institutional support expressed as a method for doing things that seeks the creation of group action, work process analysis and involves examining work management methods. It relies on promotion of health, which implies the production of subjects. The promotion of health is a networking process that involves individuals, work processes, knowledge and power. The challenge of supporting this network is to foster the exercise of the role of individuals and summon the inherent creative potential of life for the construction of new ways of work management that are not new forms of subjection. The study aims to show that by means of institutional support it is possible to bring to the fore the forces involved in the promotion of health and thereby summon the groups for an analysis of its implications. The effects produced indicate that this is a powerful strategy for the intervention of work processes within the scope of public health policies.

  1. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    , Sweden, and the United Kingdom in the context of economic booms and busts and deindustrialization. People with the double burden of chronic illness and low education have become increasingly marginalized from the labor market. Deindustrialization may have played a part in this process. In addition...... differences suggest that other macro-level factors, such as active and passive labor market polices, may be important, as examined in part II....

  2. Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive General email updates Enter email Submit Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is the hormonal process ... Preventing problems with your menstrual cycle View more Menstrual Cycle resources Related information Endometriosis Infertility Polycystic ovary ...

  3. BlogForever D3.3: Development of the Digital Rights Management Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Tracie; Kim, Yunhyong; Pinsent, Ed; Kopidaki, Stella; Rynning, Morten; Manolopoulos, Ioanis; Papadopoulou, Olympia; Arampatzis, Stratos; Trochidis, Ilias; Zioga, Despoina

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a set of recommended practices and approaches that a future BlogForever repository can use to develop a digital rights management policy. The report outlines core legal aspects of digital rights that might need consideration in developing policies, and what the challenges are, in particular, in relation to web archives and blog archives. These issues are discussed in the context of the digital information life cycle and steps that might be taken within the workflow of the...

  4. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Low employment rates of chronically ill and disabled people are of serious concern. Being out of work increases the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which may further damage the health of these groups, exacerbating health inequalities. Macro-level policies have a potentially tremendous impact...... on their employment chances, and these influences urgently need to be understood as the current economic crisis intensifies. In Part I of this two-part study, the authors examine employment trends for people who report a chronic illness or disability, by gender and educational level, in Canada, Denmark, Norway......, periods of high unemployment have sparked a downward trend in employment for already marginalized groups who did not feel the benefits when the economy improved. Norway and Sweden have been better able to protect the employment of these groups than the United Kingdom and Canada. These contextual...

  5. Point Climat no. 32 'One billion tonnes of CO2 avoided since 2005 in Europe: half due to energy-climate policies and half due to economic context'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, Olivier; Alberola, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: - CO 2 emissions generated by installations covered by the EU ETS decreased by 12.3 % since 2005, i.e a decline by 2.6% per year during Phase 2 of the EU ETS while the emission cap increased by 1% per year. - The EU ETS ended Phase 2 with a surplus of 1,742 million of allowances. All sectors recorded an overall net surplus, except for the power generation and co-generation sectors. - Based on a 'business-as-usual' scenario, we estimate that around 1.1 GtCO 2 were avoided between 2005 and 2011: around 30% of the reduction was the result of a fall in manufacturing output, while around 60% of the reduction was caused by the development of renewable energy and the improvement of the energy intensity

  6. Life cycle assessment of intensive striped catfish farming in the Mekong Delta for screening hotspots as input to environmental policy and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Pham Thi Ahn,; Potting, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Intensive striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta has, in recent years, raised environmental concerns. We conducted a stakeholder-based screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of the intensive farming system to determine the critical environmental impact and their causative processes in

  7. Evaluating urban form and location effects on cycling based on Danish micro-data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    Extended abstract The paper analyses the environmental correlates of cycling based on Danish transportation and urban form micro-data. Established walkability factors such as density, connectivity and diversity are related to cycling, but access to retail concentrations/centers, public...... transportation level-of-service, as well a competition between walking and cycling depending on environmental features can be added Attractive conditions for using public transportation or walking relate to less cycling. Highly relevant in the context of cycling promotion the results points to some opposite...... can be seen as a potential means to reduce congestion and increase the sustainability of transportation, but also as a means to increase physical activity and public health. Consequently the factors conditioning cycling have received increasing attention in public policy as well as in research...

  8. Imagined in Policy, Inscribed on Bodies: Defending an Ethic of Compassion in a Political Context; Comment on “Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Mercer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to the International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPMeditorial, this commentary adds to the debate about ethical dimensions of compassionate care in UK service provision. It acknowledges the importance of the original paper, and attempts to explore some of the issues that are raised in the context of nursing practice, research and education. It is argued that each of these fields of the profession are enacted in an escalating culture of corporatism, be that National Health Service (NHS or university campus, and global neoliberalism. Post-structuralist ideas, notably those of Foucault, are borrowed to interrogate healthcare as discursive practice and disciplinary knowledge; where an understanding of the ways in which power and language operate is prominent. Historical and contemporary evidence of institutional and ideological degradation of sections of humanity, a ‘history of the present,’ serve as reminders of the import, and fragility, of ethical codes.

  9. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...... teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...... periods and partly reverse this during politically safer points in the electoral cycle. Cycles are mediated by issue salience: heightened attention to German public schooling after the notorious PISA-2000 tests further strengthens the manipulation of new teacher hiring for electoral purposes....

  10. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...... teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...... periods and partly reverse this during politically safer points in the electoral cycle. Cycles are mediated by issue salience: heightened attention to German public schooling after the notorious PISA-2000 tests further strengthens the manipulation of new teacher hiring for electoral purposes....

  11. Macro-environmental policy: Principles and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The central theme of this book is how macro-environmental policy can be developed, which does not prescribe or suggest specific technologies and products bu realizes the environmental quality desired by changing the general context. The publication is composed of four main parts. The framework for analysis and the normative principles for policy design and evaluation, the first two parts, form the analytic core. The framework for analysis gives a classification of instruments in terms of permutations of a limited number of defining elements. The normative principles guide choices in instrument design and, as the flexible response strategy, guide their application in specific policies. Detailing two main new instruments (the standard method for life cycle analysis and the substance deposit, and applying the instrument strategy as developed to the cases make up the next two parts

  12. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  13. Climate policy in the Netherlands. Climate Policy Dossier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M.

    2001-01-01

    A brief evaluation is given of the Dutch national climate policy in the last 10-11 years. It is argued that an efficient and effective climate policy can only be realized in an international context. 8 refs

  14. Operation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  15. Water SA: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. This journal publishes refereed, original work in all branches of water science, technology, engineering and policy. This includes: water resource development; the hydrological cycle; surface hydrology; geohydrology, hydropedology and hydrometeorology; limnology; freshwater and estuarine ecology; ...

  16. Trends and determinants of cycling in the Washington, DC region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report analyzes cycling trends, policies, and commuting in the Washington, DC area. The analysis is divided into two parts. : Part 1 focuses on cycling trends and policies in Washington (DC), Alexandria (VA), Arlington County (VA), Fairfax Count...

  17. Predicting the Sunspot Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The 11-year sunspot cycle was discovered by an amateur astronomer in 1844. Visual and photographic observations of sunspots have been made by both amateurs and professionals over the last 400 years. These observations provide key statistical information about the sunspot cycle that do allow for predictions of future activity. However, sunspots and the sunspot cycle are magnetic in nature. For the last 100 years these magnetic measurements have been acquired and used exclusively by professional astronomers to gain new information about the nature of the solar activity cycle. Recently, magnetic dynamo models have evolved to the stage where they can assimilate past data and provide predictions. With the advent of the Internet and open data policies, amateurs now have equal access to the same data used by professionals and equal opportunities to contribute (but, alas, without pay). This talk will describe some of the more useful prediction techniques and reveal what they say about the intensity of the upcoming sunspot cycle.

  18. Context matters!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...

  19. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  20. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  1. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis by Integrated AHP and TOPSIS Method Using an Equilibrium Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. R. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S. Y. [UNIST, Ulju (Korea, Republic of); Koc, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Determining whether to break away from domestic conflict surrounding nuclear power and step forward for public consensus can be identified by transparent policy making considering public acceptability. In this context, deriving the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle for Korea is the key task in current situation. Assessing nuclear fuel cycle is a multicriteria decision making problem dealing with multiple interconnected issues on efficiently using natural uranium resources, securing an environment friendliness to deal with waste, obtaining the public acceptance, ensuring peaceful uses of nuclear energy, maintaining economic competitiveness compared to other electricity sources, and assessing technical feasibility of advanced nuclear energy systems. This paper performed the integrated AHP and TOPSIS analysis on three nuclear fuel cycle options against 5 different criteria including U utilization, waste management, material attractiveness, economics, and technical feasibility. The fuel cycle options analyzed in this paper are three different fuel cycle options as follows: PWR-Once through cycle(PWR-OT), PWR-MOX cycle, Pyro- SFR cycle. These fuel cycles are most likely to be adopted in the foreseeable future. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The analyzed nuclear fuel cycle options include the once-through cycle, the PWR-MOX recycle, and the Pyro-SFR recycle.

  2. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis by Integrated AHP and TOPSIS Method Using an Equilibrium Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, S. R.; Choi, S. Y.; Koc, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    Determining whether to break away from domestic conflict surrounding nuclear power and step forward for public consensus can be identified by transparent policy making considering public acceptability. In this context, deriving the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle for Korea is the key task in current situation. Assessing nuclear fuel cycle is a multicriteria decision making problem dealing with multiple interconnected issues on efficiently using natural uranium resources, securing an environment friendliness to deal with waste, obtaining the public acceptance, ensuring peaceful uses of nuclear energy, maintaining economic competitiveness compared to other electricity sources, and assessing technical feasibility of advanced nuclear energy systems. This paper performed the integrated AHP and TOPSIS analysis on three nuclear fuel cycle options against 5 different criteria including U utilization, waste management, material attractiveness, economics, and technical feasibility. The fuel cycle options analyzed in this paper are three different fuel cycle options as follows: PWR-Once through cycle(PWR-OT), PWR-MOX cycle, Pyro- SFR cycle. These fuel cycles are most likely to be adopted in the foreseeable future. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The analyzed nuclear fuel cycle options include the once-through cycle, the PWR-MOX recycle, and the Pyro-SFR recycle

  3. ROTC Policy Regarding Homosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S. Duemer

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a policy analysis, in a historical context, of how Association of American University institutions responded to Reserve Officer Training Corps policy excluding homosexuals. The time period for this study is 1982 to 1992. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data and arrive at conclusions. Secondary data provide additional depth and background. This study reveals seven different positions institutions have taken in response to ROTC policy, these include: supporting ROTC policy, neutrality, collective action, barring military recruiters from campus, distancing the institution from ROTC, and changing the campus climate. This includes examples taken from AAU institutions and rationales behind making policy decisions.

  4. Context matters!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...... and the social - has major consequences for the specific enactment of competence. The paper argues in favour of a second order observation strategy for the context of competence. But in doing so it also shows that prevailing second-order competence theories so far, in criticising (counter) positions (and...

  5. The interference of paid work with household demands in different social policy contexts: perceived work-household conflict in Sweden, the UK, the Netherlands, Hungary, and the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Mattias; Nordenmark, Mikael

    2006-12-01

    The article explores whether people experiences a lower level of work-household conflict in a context that is characterized by extensive family policies (Sweden and to some extent Hungary and Czech Republic) aimed at facilitating participation in the labour market. This is done by studying perceived work-household conflict among women and men living in Sweden, the UK, the Netherlands, Hungary, and the Czech Republic. The analyses are based on the answers to a questionnaire distributed to nearly 6,000 randomly selected individuals within the framework of the European Union financed 'Household, Work, and Flexibility' (HWF) study. The results show that women in Sweden experience conflicts between work and household demands to a higher degree than any other category in all five countries. The differences between Swedish women and women living in the Netherlands and the UK are explained by variables indicating qualifications and workload in the main job, but the lower degree of work-household conflict among Czech and Hungarian women is still significant when controlling for household composition and working conditions. Data indicate that a possible explanation for this can be found in the interplay between men's and women's attitudes toward gender roles and the actual situation in terms of division of labour.

  6. Analysing Policy Contexts as a Political Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Krishnavani Shervani

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of South Africa from a deeply iniquitous apartheid regime to a more inclusive democratic dispensation remains a huge challenge for all South Africans and its social institutions. The university remains one institution that is under severe pressure to transform. This pressure is exacerbated by the deeply entrenched apartheid…

  7. Financial globalization and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Devereux, Michael B.; Sutherland, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The process of financial globalization has significantly altered the environment in which national monetary policy authorities operate. What implications does this have for the design of monetary policy? The question can be properly addressed only in the context of a model where monetary policy interacts with financial market efficiency. This paper is concerned with the effects of monetary policy when international portfolio choice is endogenous. We analyze the link between monetary policy an...

  8. Linking the actors and policies throughout the disaster management cycle by "Agreement on Objectives" – a new output-oriented management approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Greiving

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Current management of disaster risks is often fragmented due to a lack of coordination between involved actors, i.e. civil protection and spatial planning – a phenomenon which is known as the "problem of interplay". This paper presents an output-oriented risk management approach ("parametric governance". Here, the modality of the achievement of objectives remains in the hands of the given addressees. This implies a shift from a top-down to a more collaborative, process-oriented form of decision-making. The approach has been successfully applied in two hazard cases and three administrative contexts: (a the City of Dortmund (Germany facing flash floods, (b East Attica region (Greece facing forest fires, and (c Lazio Region (Italy also facing forest fires. As proved by the applications of the concept, a dialogue among experts, stakeholders, and decision-makers is indispensable in order to guarantee inclusion of all diverse and competing values, opinions, and claims. Moreover, a structured communication path is needed to meet the requirements of a risk governance process. Finally, a win-win-situation among the involved actors has to be created to reach an agreement on common goals and actions to achieve them in due time.

  9. The European context of the Dutch renewable electricity policy. A comparison of renewable electricity policy in the European Union and its consequences for the Netherlands; De Europese context van het Nederlandse duurzame elektriciteitsbeleid. Een vergelijking van de vormgeving van duurzaam elektriciteitsbeleid in de EU en de consequenties voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Van Thuijl, E.; Roos, C.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2003-05-01

    The 2001 EU renewable electricity directive set the target to increase the share of renewable electricity in the overall EU electricity consumption to 22.1% in 2010. The largest contribution towards meeting this target will come from large-scale hydropower (83%). Of the remaining share small-scale hydropower, biomass and onshore wind energy are the largest sources. The biggest growth in capacity is anticipated for onshore and offshore wind energy and biomass. The different EU Member States employ different policy instruments to promote renewable electricity. The main instruments are feed-in tariffs and quota obligations. In the Netherlands renewable electricity until 2003 was stimulated through the ecotax regulations. However, this instrument turned out to be neither effective, nor efficient. Therefore, as of July 2003 a new support framework based on a combination of feed-in tariffs with an ecotax exemption will be implemented. This report also provides a preliminary assessment of the new Dutch renewable electricity policy in the light of policy developments in other Member States and the harmonisation of the European renewable electricity market. [Dutch] Op Europees niveau is in de Duurzame elektriciteitsrichtlijn van 2001 de doelstelling vastgelegd om aandeel duurzame elektriciteit in de totale EU-elektriciteitsconsumptie tot 2010 te verhogen tot 22,1%. Op basis van ramingen wordt verwacht dat in 2010 naast grootschalige waterkracht (83%) het grootste deel van de EU-doelstelling wordt voldaan d.m.v. kleinschalige waterkracht, biomassa en wind op land. De grootste groei van vermogen wordt verwacht bij wind op zee en op land en biomassa. De EU-lidstaten hanteren verschillende beleidsinstrumenten ter bevordering van duurzame elektriciteit. De belangrijkste zijn terugleververgoedingen en verplichtingen. In Nederland werden tot 2003 vanuit de regulerende energiebelasting (REB) prikkels voor duurzame elektriciteit verschaft. Dit beleid bleek noch effectief, noch

  10. Global energy context: future scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    After a brief analysis of the history of global energy consumption, this paper discusses a plausible scenario of energy needs and related carbon emissions for the rest of the century. The global outlook and the probable evolution of several factors that impact on energy policy considerations - even on the local scale - demonstrate the great complexity and planetary dimension of the problems, as well as the almost certain sterility of out-of-context domestic energy-policy measures [it

  11. Nuclear Energy in Western Europe: At the End of its Business Cycle? A review of policies in selected West European countries and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangen, Kristian

    1997-12-31

    A series of seminars were held in Norway in 1995-97 focusing on nuclear energy policies, mainly in Europe. The key questions were: (1) What are the major driving forces behind the development of the nuclear industry?, and (2) Are we seeing the end of the nuclear energy era, or will we actually discover that the nuclear energy is moving towards its second blossom? This report summarizes the discussions at the seminars and discusses the above questions. The nature of the driving forces depends on the country in question. In France and Russia the nuclear sectors are large and prestigious and the course is difficult to change. In Germany and Sweden, political parties have adopted an anti-nuclear attitude and the issue is controversial, involving arguments both pro and con. The British nuclear sector has come to the end of the road. The main driving force has been the deregulation of the electricity market. In all countries, climate issues, independence from energy import, prestige and low costs have been arguments against close-downs. Massive expansion of nuclear power in Europe is unlikely. However, new plants might appear in Finland, Turkey or France. It is likely that technological development of the nuclear power sector, if any, will come in Asia. It is unclear whether this sector will benefit from climate issues. Renewable energy could become an important competitor if enough electricity could be produced. A state has been reached in which nuclear energy is both difficult to expand and to phase out. The nuclear energy issues are unlikely to affect the European gas market significantly. 53 refs., 10 refs., 13 tabs.

  12. Two Quantum Polytropic Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Hernández, L. A.; Morales-Serrano, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we follow the Bender et al paper [1] to study the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson polytropic cycles. In the context of the classical thermodynamics, the Stirling and Ericsson cycles correspond to reversible heat engines with two isothermal processes joined by two polytropic branches which occur in a device called regenerator. If this device is an ideal one, the efficiency of these cycles is the Carnot efficiency. Here, we introduce the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson cycles, the first one based on a double square potential well with a finite potential barrier, since in this system the tunnel effect could be the analogue to the regeneration classical process, therefore the isochoric quantum branches would really correspond to an internal energy storage, and the last one with an unknown system where the isobaric quantum processes don't induce changes in its quantum state. With these systems the quantum engines have cycles consisting of polytropic and isothermal quantum processes analogues to the corresponding classical processes. We show that in both cases the quantum cycles have an efficiency given by ηCQM = 1 - EC/EH, which is the same expression for the quantum analogue of the Carnot cycle studied by Bender.

  13. Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    The Ph. D. thesis describes and analyses how environmental obejctives and strategies have materialised in the real-life context of local transport policies and plans, how environmental perspectives have been picked up by policy makers concerned with transport issues, how policy and planning...

  14. Political Budget Cycle: Mexican Town Halls Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Alfredo Nande Vazque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context, one of the issues of concern is the growth of public spending of municipalities of Mexico and thus increasing public debt. This combines the traditional interest that literature has been devoted to the relationship between economics and politics from the perspective of Political Budget Cycle. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of elections in public expenditure management. To this end, a system based on the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM, which uses instrumental variables based on delays and differences of all variables in the model estimator was used. Our findings indicate that there is an expansion of total expenditure, spending on public works and infrastructure and current expenditure contracted work, indicating the preference of politicians for using investment spending to influence voter behavior. The work also notes that citizens value the policies of public expenditure management when making their voting decisions.

  15. Digital Citizenship within Global Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searson, Michael; Hancock, Marsali; Soheil, Nusrat; Shepherd, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    EduSummIT 2013 featured a working group that examined digital citizenship within a global context. Group members recognized that, given today's international, regional, political, and social dynamics, the notion of "global" might be more aspirational than practical. The development of informed policies and practices serving and involving…

  16. Acción colectiva de las organizaciones de población desplazada en Medellín: Ciclos, contextos, repertorios y perspectivas The Collective Action of the Organizations of Displaced Populations in Medellín: Cycles, Contexts, Repertoires and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gilberto Granada Vahos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo ubica, como asunto de preocupación académica y social, el papel activo que los desplazados internos han jugado como sujetos colectivos en la lucha por la garantía y el restablecimiento de sus derechos. Retomando la teoría sobre los movimientos sociales construida por Sidney Tarrow, se reflexiona acerca de dos ciclos de acción colectiva: 1996-2003 y 2004-2009. En ellos se muestra el aumento y diferenciación de las acciones llevadas a cabo por la población desplazada que se asienta en el municipio de Medellín; se referencian las estructuras de contexto que incentivaron, abrieron oportunidades o limitaron la puesta en marcha de las acciones colectivas; se analizan los repertorios para la acción y las diversas formas de interacción entre los sujetos afectados y la administración municipal. Con esto se busca constatar, en el último ciclo, que aparecen formas re-creadas de acción y participación de la población desplazada, tanto a la hora de relacionarse con las instancias e instituciones encargadas de la política, como en el fragor de las acciones de hecho, y que ambas son formas de acción que llaman la atención sobre la garantía de sus derechos conculcados, lo cual se constituye, sin duda, como un reto para la Mesa de Organizaciones de Población Desplazada en Medellín.The present article locates, as a matter of social and academic concern, the active role that internal displaced persons have played as collective subjects in the fight to guarantee the re-establishment of their rights. Using the theory on the social movements proposed by Sidney Tarrow, the article reflects on two cycles of collective action, carried out between 1996-2003 and 2004-2009. In them, one finds the increase and differentiation of the actions carried out by the population of displaced person that have settled in the municipality of Medellín; it references the context structures that encouraged, opened opportunities or limited the

  17. Future fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cycle must offer both financial and resource savings if it is to be considered for introduction into Ontario's nuclear system. The most promising alternative CANDU fuel cycles are examined in the context of both of these factors over a wide range of installed capacity growth rates and economic assumptions, in order to determine which fuel cycle, or cycles, should be introduced, and when. It is concluded that the optimum path for the long term begins with the prompt introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle. For a wide range of conditions, this cycle remains the optimum throughout the very long term. Conditions of rapid nuclear growth and very high uranium price escalation rates warrant the supersedure of the low-enriched-uranium cycle by either a plutonium-topped thorium cycle or plutonium recycle, beginning between 2010 and 2025. It is also found that the uranium resource position is sound in terms of both known resources and production capability. Moreover, introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle and 1250 MWe reactor units will assure the economic viability of nuclear power until at least 2020, even if uranium prices increase at a rate of 3.5% above inflation. The interrelationship between these two conclusions lies in the tremendous incentive for exploration which will occur if the real uranium price escalation rate is high. From a competitive viewpoint, nuclear power can withstand increases in the price of uranium. However, such increases will likely further expand the resource base, making nuclear an even more reliable energy source. (auth)

  18. Supporting Active Mobility and Green Jobs through the Promotion of Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotini, Rodrigo; Skinner, Ian; Racioppi, Francesca; Fusé, Virginia; Bertucci, Jonas de Oliveira; Tsutsumi, Rie

    2017-12-19

    This article is a summary of the main findings of the study "Riding towards the green economy: cycling and green jobs", which was developed in the context of the Transport, Health and Environment pan-European Programme (THE PEP). It builds on previous work under THE PEP, which demonstrated the job creation potential of cycling and of green and healthy transport more generally. The report summarized in this article collected data on jobs associated with cycling directly from city authorities and analysed these to re-assess previous estimates of the job creation potential of cycling. It concluded that the number of cycling-related jobs in the pan-European Region could increase by 435,000 in selected major cities if they increased their cycling share to that of the Danish capital Copenhagen. The implications and potential role of municipal and sub-national authorities in facilitating cycling while supporting economic development are then discussed. These findings indicate that investment in policies that promote cycling could deliver not only important benefits for health, the environment and the quality of urban life, but could also contribute to a sizable creation of job opportunities. Authorities need to be proactive in promoting cycling in order to deliver these benefits.

  19. Supporting Active Mobility and Green Jobs through the Promotion of Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Scotini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a summary of the main findings of the study “Riding towards the green economy: cycling and green jobs”, which was developed in the context of the Transport, Health and Environment pan-European Programme (THE PEP. It builds on previous work under THE PEP, which demonstrated the job creation potential of cycling and of green and healthy transport more generally. The report summarized in this article collected data on jobs associated with cycling directly from city authorities and analysed these to re-assess previous estimates of the job creation potential of cycling. It concluded that the number of cycling-related jobs in the pan-European Region could increase by 435,000 in selected major cities if they increased their cycling share to that of the Danish capital Copenhagen. The implications and potential role of municipal and sub-national authorities in facilitating cycling while supporting economic development are then discussed. These findings indicate that investment in policies that promote cycling could deliver not only important benefits for health, the environment and the quality of urban life, but could also contribute to a sizable creation of job opportunities. Authorities need to be proactive in promoting cycling in order to deliver these benefits.

  20. Elaboration of the methodological referential for life cycle analysis of first generation biofuels in the French context; Elaboration d'un referentiel methodologique pour la realisation d'Analyses de Cycle de Vie appliquees aux biocarburants de premiere generation en France. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This study was made under the particular context of a strong growth of biofuels market, and the implication of French and European public authorities, and certain Member States (Germany, Netherlands, UK), for the development of certification schemes for first generation biofuels. The elaboration of such schemes requires a consensus on the methodology to apply when producing Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of biofuels. To answer this demand, the study built up the methodological referential for biofuels LCAs in order to assess the Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions, fossil fuels consumptions and local atmospheric pollutants emissions induced by the different biofuel production pathways. The work consisted in methodological engineering, and was accomplished thanks to the participation of all the members of the Technical Committee of the study. An initial bibliographic review on biofuels LCAs allowed the identification of the main methodological issues (listed below). For each point, the impact of the methodological choices on the biofuels environmental balances was assessed by several sensitivity analyses. The results of these analyses were taken into account for the elaboration of the recommendations: - Consideration of the environmental burdens associated with buildings, equipments and their maintenance - Quantification of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from fields - Impact of the Land Use Change (LUC) - Allocation method for the distribution of the environmental impacts of biofuel production pathways between the different products and coproducts generated. Within the framework of this study, we made no distinction in terms of methodological approach between GHG emissions and local pollutants emissions. This results from the fact that the methodological issues cover all the environmental burdens and do not require specific approaches. This executive summary presents the methodological aspects related to biofuels LCAs. The complete report of the study presents in

  1. Studio CONTEXT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilberth, Thomas Roger

    2015-01-01

    showcase how to build a sustainable, environment friendly sanitation facility even in remote areas. 18 students from Aarhus School of Architecture and their Indian counterparts together with local craftsmen erected the bamboo and brick structure within 5 weeks time. Previously, planning, design...... determined the design of the facility. The program included an exhibition/education space for teenagers to receive an alternative schooling in farming. Farm products could be exhibited and a shaded space could shelter various activities. An additional combusting toilet was part of the program and should...... of Vijaykumar Sengottuvelan. They suggested an organisation and site on a nearby farm for agricultural education. At the same time we teamed up with Korean architects Byong Cho and Sara Kim who actively followed the design and construction process of studio CONTEXT. Climatic and social sustainable aspects...

  2. The environmental public policy context in the prevention and control aspects of oil incidents for the exploration and production phases in Brazil; O contexto das politicas publicas ambientais nos aspectos de prevencao e controle dos incidentes com oleo durante as etapas de exploracao e producao de petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert Junior, Carlos Alberto; Walter, Tatiana; Nicolodi, Joao Luis [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    It is not possible to state that Brazil is unprepared to respond oil incidents emergencies, in Coastal Zone, Continental Shelf and EEZ oil E and P, without an analysis with clear premises. First, we need to understand the context that lays this question, which it is not limited in the National Contingency Plan, as lately evidenced in media. Thus, we note that Brazil has a complex political and legal arrangements targeted to oil incidents prevention and control. In this context, comes this paper, in order to reveal this curtain, listing actors, legislation and other aspects that underlie the public policy governance in reference. (author)

  3. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module L, Life-cycle inventory of hardwood lumber manufacturing in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact of hardwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of hardwood sawmills in the Southeastern United States (SE). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Life-cycle impact...

  4. Historicising the Hydrosocial Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy J. Schmidt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the historical claims made in support of the hydrosocial cycle. In particular, it considers how arguments advancing the hydrosocial cycle make historical claims regarding modernist conceptions of what water is (i.e. H2O and its fit with society. The paper gives special emphasis to the society/nature dualism and to the notion of agency as key sites of contest in arguments regarding the hydrosocial cycle. It finds that, while several versions of the hydrosocial cycle seek to advance a political ecology more sensitive to non-human actions, these same accounts often do not address the robust account of non-human agency in the historical record. Evidence is presented regarding water’s agency amongst late 19th and early 20th century architects of key water management norms in the United States. This evidence troubles accounts of the hydrosocial cycle that critique the US experience and suggests new directions for rethinking the role of historical and institutional norms in water policy.

  5. Planning, climate change, and transportation : thoughts on policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Ideally, policy should be informed by social welfare analyses that carefully assess costs and benefits. In the context of : GHG policies, such analyses face particular challenges. The decades-long span of GHG policy-making will require introduction :...

  6. Globalization, crises and industrial policy; Globalizacion, crisis y politica industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, X.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we review the fundamentals of industrial policy and its implementation in the European context. We also analyze the relationship between industrial policy and competition policy. (Author) 6 refs.

  7. Context Construction through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...... reconstructs how the institutionalisation of competition as a specific type of policy tool which has been used by emerging modern states to establish its authority vis-à-vis competing claims to authority. It furthermore engages in an examination of corporatist and governance based attempts to respectively curb...... and expand the use of competition as a tool for organising social processes and the implications of the se attempts for the state of statehood....

  8. Cost aspects of the research reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Research reactors have made valuable contributions to the development of nuclear power, basic science, materials development, radioisotope production for medicine and industry, and education and training. In doing so, they have provided an invaluable service to humanity. Research reactors are expected to make important contributions in the coming decades to further development of the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, in particular for advanced nuclear fission reactors and fuel cycles, fusion, high energy physics, basic research, materials science, nuclear medicine, and biological sciences. However, in the context of decreased public sector support, research reactors are increasingly faced with financial constraints. It is therefore of great importance that their operations are based on a sound understanding of the costs of the complete research reactor fuel cycle, and that they are managed according to sound financial and economic principles. This publication is targeted at individuals and organizations involved with research reactor operations, with the aim of providing both information and an analytical framework for assessing and determining the cost structure of fuel cycle related activities. Efficient management of fuel cycle expenditures is an important component in developing strategies for sustainable future operation of a research reactor. The elements of the fuel cycle are presented with a description of how they can affect the cost efficient operation of a research reactor. A systematic review of fuel cycle choices is particularly important when a new reactor is being planned or when an existing reactor is facing major changes in its fuel cycle structure, for example because of conversion of the core from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, or the changes in spent fuel management provision. Review and optimization of fuel cycle issues is also recommended for existing research reactors, even in cases where research reactor

  9. Ethnosocial processes and ethnonational policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Popkov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Article arises the issues of ethnicity in context of globalization, as well as axiological dominants of collective public consciousness, trends of Siberian people ethnosocial evolution, problems of actual national policy of government in Russia.

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries. Sweden 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Sweden, including recommendations on future policy developments. Electricity is a focal point of Sweden's energy policy. After a shift in the energy mix to favour electricity in the early 1970's, nuclear and hydro power each make up about half of the electricity supply. Two key events have occurred since then: the 1980 referendum, which calls for the phase-out of all nuclear plants by 2010; the recent restructuring and liberalization of the electricity sector with the creation of a Nordic electricity market. In this context, the report argues the case for making a decision now on the nuclear issue to clarify Sweden's electricity future. Other key issues highlighted in the report include Sweden's use of economic policy instruments such as a carbon tax to achieve energy and environment goals, and the adequacy and effectiveness of government efforts to promote biofuels and energy efficiency. This report forms part of a series of periodic in-depth reviews conducted and discussed by the IEA Member countries on a four-year cycle. Short reviews of energy policy developments in all twenty-three Member countries are published annually in Energy Policies of IEA Countries. (author). 13 figs., 9 tabs., 4 appends

  11. Shortening the Defense Acquisition Cycle: A Transformational Imperative?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vollmecke, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    .... The acquisition system is both political and complex. This Strategy Research Project paper explores the effectiveness of past policy changes to reduce cycle time, and reviews current acquisition issues or problems related to cycle time reduction...

  12. Fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Gerhard J.

    1990-01-01

    TRIGA reactor operators are increasingly concerned about the back end of their Fuel Cycle due to a new environmental policy in the USA. The question how to close the Fuel Cycle will have to be answered by all operators sooner or later. Reprocessing of the TRIGA fuel elements is not available. Only long term storage and final disposal can be considered. But for such a storage or disposal a special treatment of the fuel elements and of course a final depository is necessary. NUKEM plans to undertake efforts to assist the TRIGA operators in this area. For that reason we need to know your special needs for today and tomorrow - so that potential processors can consider whether to offer these services on the market. (orig.)

  13. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  14. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexi...

  15. CYCLE CONTROL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changed to gestodene. Although large- scale comparative trials are needed to confirm this finding, evidence suggests that cycle control with gestodene is better than for monophasic preparations containing desogestrel, norgestimate or levonorgestrel,10 as well as for levonorg- estrel-or norethisterone-containing triphasics.

  16. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  17. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  18. Life-cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report : an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module N, Life-cycle inventory of manufacturing prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes the environmental performance of prefinished engineered wood flooring using life-cycle inventory (LCI) analysis. Using primary mill data gathered from manufacturers in the eastern United States and applying the methods found in Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines and International Organization of...

  19. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module D, Life cycle inventory of softwood lumber manufacturing in the Northeastern and North Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact for softwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of softwood sawmills in the northeastern and north central United States (NE/NC). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Material (CORRIM) Research Guidelines (...

  20. Estimating Externalities of Hydro Fuel Cycles, Report 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-12-01

    There are three major objectives of this hydropower study: (1) to implement the methodological concepts that were developed in the background document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles and, by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the hydroelectric fuel cycle (different fuel cycles have unique characteristics that need to be addressed in different ways); (2) to develop, given the time and resources, the best range of estimates of externalities associated with hydroelectric projects, using two benchmark projects at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information that is available to support the estimation of externalities associated with the hydroelectric fuel cycle and, by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities and a better method for estimating them. As set forth in the agreement between the US and the EC, the study is explicitly and intentionally not directed at any one audience. This study is about a methodology for estimating externalities. It is not about how to use estimates of externalities in a particular policy context.

  1. Public Policy and Manpower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John W.; Skolnik, Michael L.

    This monograph was written in response to the perceived need for an examination of the role of manpower programs as components of public policy. Both manpower programs and related policies are examined in the context of the overall activities and purposes of government in Ontario and in the Canadian federal system. The importance of societal…

  2. Securitization: Conceptualizing Qatari Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Betul

    2017-01-01

    The role of security in Qatari foreign policy is one of the central discussions in the literature on the Gulf security. This thesis represents Qatari foreign policy strategies through lenses of the Copenhagen School for security studies, established by seminal publications of Barry Buzan, Ole Waever and Jaap de Wilde. The research highlights the question of how can the dynamics of Qatari foreign policy be evaluated within the context of Copenhagen School's security sectors in seven chapters. ...

  3. Consistent Regulatory Policy under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Brennan; Eduardo S. Schwartz

    1982-01-01

    This article is concerned with the effects of regulation on the risk and value of the regulated firm in a dynamic context. Current regulatory practice is shown to be logically deficient, since it ignores the effect of regulatory policy on the cost of capital and therefore on the appropriate allowed rate of return. A notion of consistency in regulatory policy is developed, and it is shown how consistent regulatory policies may be implemented once the valuation problem is solved.

  4. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  5. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  6. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F.

    2003-08-01

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  7. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F

    2003-08-15

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  8. Fuel cycles for the 80's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the American Nuclear Society's topical meeting on the fuel cycle are summarized. Present progress and goals in the areas of fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, accountability, and safeguards are reported. Present governmental policies which affect the fuel cycle are also discussed. Individual presentations are processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  9. Monetary transmission and business cycle asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates asymmetric effects of monetary policy over the business cycle. A two-state Markov Switching Model is employed to model both recessions and expansions. For the United States and Germany, strong evidence is found that monetary policy is more effective in a recession than during

  10. Polity age and political budget cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Incumbent incentive for competence-signaling and lack of voter information are generally thought to be factors that increase the prevalence of political budget cycles. These mechanisms should be more prevalent in new political units. Since the creation of new political units is rarely exogenous......-experimental to study whether political budget cycles are larger in new political units. Contrary to theoretical predictions, political budget cycles seem to be of a smaller scale in the new municipalities, but only regarding budget cycles in budgetary overruns. The findings are of wider interest for discussions about...... the mechanisms behind context-conditional political budget cycles....

  11. Improving health through policies that promote active travel: a review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Antó, Josep M; Brauer, Michael; Briggs, David; Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Cavill, Nick; Cooper, Ashley R; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Fruin, Scott; Hoek, Gerard; Panis, Luc Int; Janssen, Nicole; Jerrett, Michael; Joffe, Michael; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; van Kempen, Elise; Kingham, Simon; Kubesch, Nadine; Leyden, Kevin M; Marshall, Julian D; Matamala, Jaume; Mellios, Giorgos; Mendez, Michelle; Nassif, Hala; Ogilvie, David; Peiró, Rosana; Pérez, Katherine; Rabl, Ari; Ragettli, Martina; Rodríguez, Daniel; Rojas, David; Ruiz, Pablo; Sallis, James F; Terwoert, Jeroen; Toussaint, Jean-François; Tuomisto, Jouni; Zuurbier, Moniek; Lebret, Erik

    2011-05-01

    Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding further co-benefits. Little is known, however, about the interconnections among effects of policies considered, including potential unintended consequences. We review available literature regarding health impacts from policies that encourage active travel in the context of developing health impact assessment (HIA) models to help decision-makers propose better solutions for healthy environments. We identify important components of HIA models of modal shifts in active travel in response to transport policies and interventions. Policies that increase active travel are likely to generate large individual health benefits through increases in physical activity for active travelers. Smaller, but population-wide benefits could accrue through reductions in air and noise pollution. Depending on conditions of policy implementations, risk tradeoffs are possible for some individuals who shift to active travel and consequently increase inhalation of air pollutants and exposure to traffic injuries. Well-designed policies may enhance health benefits through indirect outcomes such as improved social capital and diet, but these synergies are not sufficiently well understood to allow quantification at this time. Evaluating impacts of active travel policies is highly complex; however, many associations can be quantified. Identifying health-maximizing policies and conditions requires integrated HIAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The policy trail methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holford, John; Larson, Anne; Melo, Susana

    In recent years, the “policy trail” has been proposed as a methodology appropriate to the shifting and fluid governance of lifelong learning in the late modern world (Holford et al. 2013, Holford et al. 2013, Cort 2014). The contemporary environment is marked by multi-level governance (global....../national/regional/local), but also by a diversification of types of actor (public/private; for-profit/not-for-profit). Multi-level governance has been particularly marked – and has taken specific forms – in the European context, but it is by no means limited to the EU. The policy trail method aims to capture the increased influence...... of transnational organisations and public-private networks in policymaking. The concept of policy trails sought to theorise how this widened policy space – including new and variously-sited actors – is negotiated and how power is distributed across sites (Holford & McKenzie, 2013). Cort (2014) developed the notion...

  13. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance of the t......We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... of the topic. We move on to discuss the organisation of industriesin a dynamic context and draw out consequences for competition policy. We concludewith an outlook on the underlying tensions between technology alliances, competitionpolicy, and industrial policy.JEL codes: L4, L5, O31Keywords: Competition...... policy, innovation, alliances, industrial policy...

  14. Evaluation and Policy Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Højlund, Steven

    2015-01-01

    emanating from them are examined. The findings are that only two types of actors involved in the evaluation are actually learning (programme units and external evaluators), that learners learn different things (programme overview, small-scale programme adjustments, policy change and evaluation methods......This article examines how evaluation induces policy learning – a question largely neglected by the scholarly literature on evaluation and policy learning. Following a learner's perspective, the article attempts to ascertain who the learners are, and what, and how, learners actually learn from...... evaluations. In so doing, it focuses on what different types of learners actually learn within the context of the evaluation framework (the set of administrative structures defining the evaluation goals and process). Taking the empirical case of three EU programme evaluations, the patterns of policy learning...

  15. Social Media Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stohl, Cynthia; Etter, Michael; Banghart, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Three global developments situate the context of this investigation: the increasing use of social media by organizations and their employees, the burgeoning presence of social media policies, and the heightened focus on corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this study the intersection...... of these trends is examined through a content analysis of 112 publicly available social media policies from the largest corporations in the world. The extent to which social media policies facilitate and/or constrain the communicative sensibilities and values associated with contemporary notions of CSR...... negotiation and participation in the social responsibilities of corporations. Moreover, policies generally enact organizational communication practices that are contrary to international CSR guidelines (e.g., the UN Global Compact and other international agreements). Findings suggest that social media...

  16. Here today, gone tomorrow: the issue attention cycle and national print media coverage of prescription drug financing in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Jamie R; Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Law, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    Canada is the only developed country that has established universal coverage for hospital care and physician services that excludes medically necessary prescription drugs. Lack of public interest in expanding universal coverage to prescription medicines may be one critical factor in explaining this policy puzzle. Historical levels and patterns of attention to financing issues in the media may have implications for public awareness and support for such major health reform. We thus examined the quantity, context, and patterns of coverage of public drug financing in national print media in Canada from 1990 to 2010. We conducted a time series analysis of monthly newspaper article counts to quantify trends in coverage and analyzed article content by applying Down's theory of the "issue-attention cycle" of political attention. We found that baseline coverage of this issue was low throughout the past twenty years with few cycles of increased attention, initiated by focusing events related to general health reform. Issue-attention cycles were driven by coverage of proposed policy solutions simultaneously accompanied by lower levels of coverage of policy problems and barriers to change, before fading rapidly from attention. The observed patterns of media coverage and the intrinsic characteristics of this policy issue suggest that any momentum for reform (or lack thereof) is likely to be driven by elite members of the policy community rather than by way of public engagement. This has implications for the probability of reform and which options may be considered or eventually implemented, as policies developed within elite policy communities may tend to reflect niche interests rather than being reflective of principled policy goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Traverso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is nowadays accepted by all stakeholders as a guiding principle for both public policy making and corporate strategies. However, the biggest challenge for most organizations remains in the real and substantial implementation of the sustainability concept. The core of the implementation challenge is the question, how sustainability performance can be measured, especially for products and processes. This paper explores the current status of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA for products and processes. For the environmental dimension well established tools like Life Cycle Assessment are available. For the economic and social dimension, there is still need for consistent and robust indicators and methods. In addition to measuring the individual sustainability dimensions, another challenge is a comprehensive, yet understandable presentation of the results. The “Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard” and the “Life Cycle Sustainability Triangle” are presented as examples for communication tools for both experts and non expert stakeholders.

  18. Research on Climate Change Policies and Rural Development in Latin America: Scope and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Locatelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on climate change policies can contribute to policy development by building an understanding of the barriers faced in policy processes, and by providing knowledge needed throughout policy cycles. This paper explores the thematic coverage of research on climate change policies related to rural areas, rural development, and natural resource management in Latin America. A three-tier framework is proposed to analyse the selected literature. The results show that research studies have focussed on the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from forests, and adaptations to climate change in agriculture. There is little policy research on other vulnerable sectors (e.g., water and health and emitting sectors (e.g., energy and industry in the context of rural development. Our analysis highlights the various research gaps that deserve increased scientific attention, including: cross-sector approaches, multi-level governance, and the stages of policy adoption, implementation and evaluation. In addition, the selected literature has a limited contribution to theoretical discussions in policy sciences.

  19. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Artiklens formål er at diskutere oplevede kvaliteter og adfærdsaspekter af mobilitet med udgangspunkt i spørgsmålet om cykling i byer og relationen mellem design og adfærd. Artiklen tager afsæt i et studie forløb der involverede studerende fra Urban Design, Industriel Design Arkitektskolen Aarhus...... og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  20. Peculiarities of Modern Foreign Policy of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Yourtaev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focuses on the analysis of the main peculiarities of modern foreign policy of iranian President M. Ahmadinejad, his constructive interaction concept in foreign policy. The formation of the nuclear gate for entering into world policy and basic problems of Iranian development as a new regional leader in the context of globalization and international relations transformation process are considered.

  1. Education Policy-Making and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the global policy convergence toward high-stakes testing in schools and the use of test results to "steer at a distance", particularly as it applies to policy-makers' promise to improve teacher quality. Using Deleuze's three syntheses of time in the context of the Australian policy blueprint Quality Education, this…

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle synergies and regional scenarios for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadores, M.; Romanello, V.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Boucher, L.; Meyer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Regional strategies can provide a useful framework for implementing innovative nuclear fuel cycles. The appropriate sharing of efforts and facilities among different countries is necessary in today's context, as is taking into account proliferation concerns and resource optimisation. The preliminary studies examined in this report show that the expected benefits deriving from partitioning and transmutation (P and T), notably the reduction of radiotoxicity and heat load in a shared repository, can bring advantages to all countries of the region concerned, even when different nuclear energy policies are pursued. The studies also demonstrate that regional strategies tend to favour a nuclear renaissance in some countries. A regional approach is proposed in order to implement the innovative fuel cycles associated with partitioning and transmutation in Europe. The impact of different deployment strategies and policies in various countries is addressed. Regional facilities characteristics and potential deployment schedules are also discussed. Further studies should be undertaken to investigate practical issues (fuel transport in particular) and institutional issues which will, without doubt, be very challenging. (authors)

  3. Safe cycling!

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  4. Research policy and review 7. Developments in environment-behaviour-design research: a critical assessment in the context of geography and planning with special reference to the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokor, B A

    1986-01-01

    Environment-behavior-design research has received no significant attention in developing countries, despite its potential benefits for geography and environmental planning. Much insight could be gained from exploring the values and attitudes that underlie phenomena such as rural-urban migration and the subsequent urban explosion and growth of slums and squatter settlements. By linking these problems with structural-political issues, a more comprehensive context is provided for debating and resolving environmental crises in the Third World. Key themes in such research include culture and environment, design and people, migration and economic opportunities, urban images and environmental identity, urban planning and redevelopment, and academic research and university programs. The methodology for such studies must be broad-based, culturally receptive, and social survey oriented. Humanistic approaches should be combined with a wider consideration of societal and economic constraints. The failure of behavioralism and idealism is largely due to their lack of attention to the cultural context of environmental experiences.

  5. Energy policy of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.

    2001-01-01

    In November 1997, the French senate decided the creation of an inquiry commission in order to start up a study about the future of the French energy policy. The commission has interviewed the overall actors of the energy policy: ministers, heads of energy companies, higher officials, syndicates, consumer and environment protection associations, scientists and economists. The inquiry has been extended to other countries of the European community, and also to China, Japan, the USA and Canada. Despite various economical contexts and resources, all these countries have developed energy policies which aim at ensuring an energy independence and at supplying energy at the best price for a better economic competitiveness. This report presents first the French experience and the evolution of the French energy policy during the last 50 years with respect to the economical and political constraints encountered. The second part is a reflection about the principles that will guide the French energy policy in the context of deregulation of the European energy market and of the environmental constraints imposed by the Kyoto summit. Detailed proposals for the increase of the French energy independence are presented in conclusion of the report. (J.S.)

  6. Energy in Ireland: context, management and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saintherant, N.; Lerouge, Ch.; Welcker, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the climatic change and the fossil fuels shortage, the Ireland defined a new energy policy. The priority is the energy supply security and the research programs present a great interest in the ocean energies, which represent an important source in Ireland. The report presents the context, the irish energy policy, the research programs on energy and the different actors of the domain. (A.L.B.)

  7. The State of the Carbon Cycle: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A. W.; Dilling, L.; Fairman, D. M.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Rose, A.; Wilbanks, T. J.; Zimmerman, G.

    2015-12-01

    It has been nearly ten years since the First State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-1) was published in 2007. Much has changed in the intervening years, but much has remained the same. In anticipation of a Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-2), we, the members of the SOCCR-1 Coordinating Team, felt that a perspective from the first SOCCR and reflection on changes in the state of carbon cycle science and policy in the intervening years would be appropriate. The purpose of SOCCR-1 was to provide "…a synthesis and integration of the current knowledge of the North American carbon budget and its context within the global carbon cycle [i]n a format useful to decision makers." Being "useful to decision makers" was a guiding theme with three stakeholder workshops an integral part of the process. Drafting and revision of SOCCR-1 took place between 2005 and early 2007; the report's carbon budget was for circa 2003. In 2003, North America's fossil-fuel CO2 emissions were approximately 27% of global emissions. Nearly 85% of North American emissions were from the US, still at that time the world's largest emitter of fossil-fuel CO2. China's annual CO2 emissions exceeded those of the US for the first time while SOCCR-1 was being written. Today global CO2 emissions are dominated by emissions from China (28% in 2013), with US emissions only 14% of global emissions. Emissions from the US and North America have actually declined by approximately 10% since 2003 while emissions from China have doubled. Based on inventories of terrestrial carbon stocks, SOCCR-1 estimated that circa 2003 North American vegetation removed and stored a net 500 Mt C y-1 (±50%) from the atmosphere. A more recent synthesis incorporating additional estimates from atmospheric inversions and terrestrial biosphere modeling estimated the North American land sink for the decade of 2000-2009 at 350-470 Mt C y-1, with a slightly greater uncertainty due to the wider range of estimates from the

  8. Implementing evidence-based policy in a network setting: road safety policy in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Charlotte; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, in order to improve road safety in The Netherlands, the Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV) developed an evidence-based "Sustainable Safety" concept. Based on this concept, Dutch road safety policy, was seen as successful and as a best practice in Europe. In The Netherlands, the policy context has now changed from a sectoral policy setting towards a fragmented network in which safety is a facet of other transport-related policies. In this contribution, it is argued that the implementation strategy underlying Sustainable Safety should be aligned with the changed context. In order to explore the adjustments needed, two perspectives of policy implementation are discussed: (1) national evidence-based policies with sectoral implementation; and (2) decentralized negotiation on transport policy in which road safety is but one aspect. We argue that the latter approach matches the characteristics of the newly evolved policy context best, and conclude with recommendations for reformulating the implementation strategy.

  9. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...... than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities...

  10. Optimal post-warranty maintenance policy with repair time threshold for minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Minjae; Mun Jung, Ki; Park, Dong Ho

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a renewable minimal repair–replacement warranty policy and propose an optimal maintenance model after the warranty is expired. Such model adopts the repair time threshold during the warranty period and follows with a certain type of system maintenance policy during the post-warranty period. As for the criteria for optimality, we utilize the expected cost rate per unit time during the life cycle of the system, which has been frequently used in many existing maintenance models. Based on the cost structure defined for each failure of the system, we formulate the expected cost rate during the life cycle of the system, assuming that a renewable minimal repair–replacement warranty policy with the repair time threshold is provided to the user during the warranty period. Once the warranty is expired, the maintenance of the system is the user's sole responsibility. The life cycle of the system is defined on the perspective of the user and the expected cost rate per unit time is derived in this context. We obtain the optimal maintenance policy during the maintenance period following the expiration of the warranty period by minimizing such a cost rate. Numerical examples using actual failure data are presented to exemplify the applicability of the methodologies proposed in this paper.

  11. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  12. Use of evidence in policy making in South Africa: An exploratory study of attitudes of senior government officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Paine Cronin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a 2011 study commissioned by the Presidency’s Programme to Support Pro-Poor Policy Development (PSPPD which promotes evidence-based policy making (EBPM in South Africa. EBPM refers to norms, initiatives and methods aimed at improving evidence-based policy in countries from which South Africa traditionally borrows public service reforms, particularly the UK and Canada. The study provides a descriptive snapshot of attitudes to evidence-use in policy making. All 54 senior government officials interviewed felt that evidence-use is too limited to ensure relevant, effective policy responses. This includes policies on which complex results depend and those with long-term and high-resource implications. Although all respondents regarded EBPM as self-evidently desirable, there were different views on practical application. Examples provided suggest that, where evidence was used, it was very often related to a borrowed international policy without a prior evidencedrivenanalysis of successes and failures or its relevance and feasibility in terms of local issuesand context. Policy makers generally know they should be making optimal use of availableevidence, but highlighted systemic barriers beyond the influence of individual managersto resolve. The study suggests that improved use of evidence throughout the policy cycle,particularly in analysing problems and needs, is a requirement for learning through evidencebased policy development. It suggests that political and administrative leadership will need to agree on norms, ways of dealing with the barriers to effective use of evidence and on the role of each throughout the policy cycle in ensuring appropriate evidence is available and used.

  13. Public policy and regulatory strategies in the global climate change context: opportunities and limitations of programmatic CDM; Politicas publicas e estrategias regulatorias no contexto das mudancas climaticas globais: oportunidades e limitacoes do MDL programatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiro, Viviane; Simoes, Andre Felipe; Januzzi, Gilberto M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    Carbon Market and its implications to reduce green house effect has been broadly discussed in the context of global climate change. This paper intends to analyze the new regulation of global climate change since Programmatic CDM was created, describing the proceeds to its implementation and discussing limitations and opportunities analyzes of this mechanism as a tool to obtain alternative energy source. It is discussed the challenges and opportunities about CDM programs in the international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based, as well as its contribution to attain benefits to global climate system and quality of social life. (author)

  14. The contexts of penitentiary pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szczepaniak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a sketch of the interpretation of penitentiary pedagogy. There arediscussed, among others, etymology and the definition of penitentiary pedagogy, its subject- matter, goals, axiological, teleological, theoretical and methodological foundations and its place and role among other scientific disciplines. Along with the development of multiple methodological options and changes in social life, the reflection concerning the identity and place of penitentiary pedagogy demands a new articulation. The author submits and gives grounds for a proposition for the penitentiary pedagogy to reap gain in a wider scope from the achievements of social pedagogy, which in the context of citizens’ life deals with designing, carrying out and evaluating educational efforts and the regulation of social relations in the context of social policy, according to an open citizen society (inclusive idea.

  15. The Global Context of Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine O'Rourke - Lang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Global Education Review examines the global context of disability and how in different geographic locations, socioeconomic factors, domestic policy, and disability perspectives impact access to special education services, and the types of resources and interventions available to individuals with diverse learning needs. Practices in countries including India, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kenya were studied and implications for meeting the special education needs for children and adults with disabilities and their families are discussed

  16. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Eligar

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers an evolutionary perspective of space policy. It is argued that (1) space policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the past fifty years of the space-age; and that (2) space policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. To this end, the paper analyzes space policy at several levels of analysis. This includes: (1) historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes; (2) the symbiotic relationships between policy and space technology; and (3) future space policy trends and developments likely to occur in the 21st century. A "Space Politics and Policy Framework" is developed in this paper to represent the evolution of space policy. Space policy involves both the process of policy formation and policy change over time (e.g., emergence of commercialization) and the courses of action taken to achieve political (and technological) determined outcomes. The evolution of space policy over time takes place through policy change. On this basis, public policy processes over the course of the space-age have involved the mobilization of governmental resources, actors, and institutions. Concomitantly, nongovernmental actors, such as private corporations and commercial enterprises, increasingly play a role in space. As a result, market factors in addition to political forces influence space policy.

  17. The economic implications of carbon cycle uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of uncertainty in the carbon cycle for the cost of stabilizing carbon dioxide concentrations. Using a state of the art integrated assessment model, we find that uncertainty in our understanding of the carbon cycle has significant implications for the costs of a climate stabilization policy, with cost differences denominated in trillions of dollars. Uncertainty in the carbon cycle is equivalent to a change in concentration target of up to 100 ppmv. The impact of carbon cycle uncertainties are smaller than those for climate sensitivity, and broadly comparable to the effect of uncertainty in technology availability

  18. Your Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during your menstrual cycle What happens during your menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle includes not just your period, but the ... tool is based on a sample 28-day menstrual cycle, but every woman is different in how ...

  19. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, Etienne

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium mining (applied processes, formation of Yellow Cake), conversion into uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) for enrichment purposes, enrichment (physical methods and plants), nuclear fuel fabrication (description of a fuel assembly), physical, chemical and radiological evolution of the nuclear fuel in the reactor, spent fuel warehousing, spent fuel processing (dissolution, methods of liquid/liquid extraction, output products), effluents and by-products, recycling of valuable materials (URE, MOX, RNR and others), waste containment for the different waste types regarding their radioactivity level and lifetime (vitrification, shell compacting, cementation, and other processes). The author also presents the French policy and choices regarding spent fuel processing and waste management

  20. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present......By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...

  1. Improving health through policies that promote active travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Antó, Josep M

    2011-01-01

    Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding ...

  2. The role of financial intermediaries in monetary policy transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Colciago, A.; Pfajfar, D.

    The recent financial crisis has stimulated theoretical and empirical research on the propagation mechanisms underlying business cycles, in particular on the role of financial frictions. Many issues concerning the interactions between banking and monetary policy forced policy makers to redefine

  3. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Provincial Policies Impacting Shelter Service Delivery to Women Exposed to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Camille; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Berman, Helene; Ward-Griffin, Cathy; Wathen, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Shelters for abused women function within a broad context that includes intersecting social structures, policies, and resources, which may constrain and limit the options available to abused women and tacitly reinforce the cycle of abuse. This feminist, qualitative study combined in-depth interviews and focus groups conducted with 37 staff and four executive directors from four shelters in Ontario, Canada, along with a critical discourse analysis of salient policy texts. Together, the interviews and critical discourse analysis formed an integrated analysis of the dialectic between policy as written and enacted. The study findings illuminate the complexity of the system and its impact on women, shelters, and the community and highlight how specific types of social policies and various social system subsystems and structures, and system configuration, shape the day to day reality of shelter service delivery and impact outcomes for abused women and their children. Collectively, these findings offer direction regarding where these policies could be improved and provide a basis for shelters, policy makers, advocates, and the community to strengthen current services and policies, potentially enhancing outcomes for women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Public Policies of Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves; Pehlivanian, Sophie; Teissier, Pierre; Chauvin-Michel, Marion; Forget, Marie; Raymond, Roland; Hyun Jin Yu, Julie; Popiolek, Nathalie; Guthleben, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This dossier about the Public Policies of Solar Energy brings together the presentations given in June 2013 at a colloquium organised by the Savoie university of Chambery (France): Introduction (Yves Bouvier, Sophie Pehlivanian); Passive solar energy in the shade of the French energy policy, 1945-1986 (Pierre Teissier); Solar architectures and energy policies in France: from oil crisis to solar crisis (Marion Chauvin-Michel); Sun in media, between promotion and contestation (Sophie Pehlivanian); Public policies of solar energy and territorial jurisdictions: the example of village photovoltaic power plants (Marie Forget); Energy social system and ordinary creative movement (Roland Raymond); The Historical Evolution of South Korea's Solar PV Policies since the 1970's (Julie Hyun Jin Yu, Nathalie Popiolek); Research on solar energy from yesterday to the present day: an historical project (Denis Guthleben); Photovoltaic power: public policies and economical consequences. The French choices in the international context - 1973-2013 (Alain Ricaud)

  5. Spatial and social variations in cycling patterns in a mature cycling country: exploring differences and trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, L.; Bertolini, L.; te Brömmelstroet, M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the Netherlands’ position as a premier cycling country (mainly due to its high cycling mode share), there is scarce insight into the variations of bicycle use between different spatial and social contexts as well as changes and trends over time. This gap severely limits the understanding of

  6. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  7. Rethinking Plea Bargaining Policy: The Case of Ethiopia | Negash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the desirability of plea bargaining in Ethiopia focusing on its policy justifications as encapsulated under the 2011 FRDE Criminal Justice Policy. Emphasizing upon the specific contexts of Ethiopia, the article analyzes policy documents, laws and comparative literature. The policy relies on the traditional ...

  8. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  9. Context-free Coalgebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Winter (Joost); M.M. Bonsangue (Marcello); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this article, we provide a coalgebraic account of parts of the mathematical theory underlying context-free languages. We characterize context-free languages, and power series and streams generalizing or corresponding to the context-free languages, by means of systems of behavioural

  10. Assessment in the global context: From ozone to ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, B

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the assessment in the global context: From ozone to ecosystems. Process to evaluate the status of knowledge on complex problems relevant to societies. A key element of the contemporary science-policy interface....

  11. Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study using bike-along interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10-12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 35 children and one of their parents residing in (semi-) urban areas. Bike-along interviews were conducted to and from a randomly chosen destination (e.g. library) within a 15 minutes' cycle trip in the participant's neighborhood. Participants wore a GoPro camera to objectively assess environmental elements, which were subsequently discussed with participants. Content analysis and arising themes were derived using a grounded theory approach. The discussed environmental factors were categorized under traffic, urban design, cycling facilities, road design, facilities at destination, aesthetics, topography, weather, social control, stranger danger and familiar environment. Across these categories many environmental factors were (in)directly linked to road safety. This was illustrated by detailed discussions of the children's visibility, familiarity with specific traffic situations, and degree of separation, width and legibility of cycle facilities. Road safety is of major concern in this 10-12 yr old study population. Bike-along interviews were able to identify new, detailed and context-specific physical environmental factors which could inform policy makers to promote children's cycling for transport. However, future studies should investigate whether hypothetical changes to such micro environmental features influence perceptions of safety and if this in turn could lead to changes in children's cycling for transport.

  12. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  13. Evaluation and Policy Analysis: A Communicative Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Wallat

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for the next generation of students of human development is to help shape the paradigms by which we analyze and evaluate public policies for children and families. Advocates of building research and policy connections point to health care and stress experiences across home, school, and community as critical policy issues that expand the scope of contexts and outcomes studied. At a minimum, development researchers and practitioners will need to be well versed in available methods of inquiry; they will need to be "methodologically multilingual" when conducting evaluation and policy analysis, producing reports, and reporting their interpretations to consumer and policy audiences. This article suggests how traditional approaches to policy inquiry can be reconsidered in light of these research inquiry and communicative skills needed by all policy researchers. A fifteen year review of both policy and discourse processes research is presented to suggest ways to conduct policy studies within a communicative framework.

  14. Por uma política de acesso aos direitos das mulheres: sujeitos feministas em disputa no contexto brasileiro For a policy of access to women's rights: feminist subjects in dispute on the brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Galvão Adrião

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pretendemos discutir sobre o tema dos "sujeitos feministas no campo político", levando em consideração as transformações discursivas pelas quais o campo do movimento feminista vem passando nas ultimas décadas. Esses discursos mostravam-se consoantes com os contextos de embates políticos atuais, indicando: a novas ações no mundo político, b disputas pelo reconhecimento de novas identidades dentro do feminismo, e c a evidência da problemática do(s sujeito(s do feminismo como uma questão central para o movimento feminista brasileiro na atualidade. Nosso objetivo com este artigo é discutir essas mudanças no interior do feminismo brasileiro a partir da análise comparativa de dois momentos distintos: o 3º e o 10º 'Encontro Feminista Latino-Americano e do Caribe', ambos ocorridos no Brasil, respectivamente, em 1985 e em 2005.We intend to discuss the theme "feminist subjects on the political field", considering the discursive changes for which the field of the feminist movement has been going in the last decades. These discourses showed consonance with the contexts of the late political struggles, indicating: a new actions in the political environment, b disputes on recognizing new identities within the feminism, and c the evidence of the problematic of feminist subjects as a central theme for the Brazilian feminist movement nowadays. Our goal with this article is to discuss these changes within Brazilian feminism through the comparative analysis of two distinct moments: the third and the tenth 'Latin-American and Caribbean Feminist Meeting' both happened in Brazil, in 1985 and 2005, respectively.

  15. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  16. Asset Allocation Over the Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We study the welfare effect of tax-optimizing portfolio decisions in a life cycle model with unspanned labor income and realization-based capital gain taxation. For realistic parameterizations of our model, certainty equivalent welfare gains from fully tax-optimized portfolio decisions are less...... with strong bequest motives face substantial welfare costs when not tax-optimizing their portfolio decisions towards the end of the life cycle....... than 2% of present financial wealth and lifetime income compared to a heuristic portfolio policy ignoring the taxation of profits (capital gains, interest and dividend payments). Compared to a heuristic portfolio policy that only ignores the realization-based feature of capital gain taxation...

  17. New prospects in EU environmental policies. The Integrated Product Policy (IPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnimeo, G.; Iraldo, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Integrated Product Policy - IPP - is becoming one of the top priorities for the European Commission within the framework of the product-oriented environmental policies. Rather than a new policy, this is an innovative approach aimed at co-originated existing and forthcoming environmental policies, in order to manage in an integrated way and minimise the impacts connected with the whole product life-cycle. The underlying life-cycle guideline requires the management of each phase by considering what happens in all the other phases. What clearly emerges from a research carried out by Iefe Bocconi is, on the one hand, the effectiveness of co-operation and networking between all the actors involved in the product environmental management within the different phases of its life cycle (policy makers, producers, retailers, consumers, NGOs, etc.) and, on the other, the opportunity of developing an integrated management of both environmental policy instruments and corporate management tools [it

  18. Spatial placement of state cycling routes

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović, Klemen

    2009-01-01

    The national strategy and the traffic policy stimulate the development of unmotorized traffic, cycling infrastructure and the use of bicycles wherever possible. Regarding state interests, traffic engineer expert opinion and community involvment, the first draft of state cycling routes network was presented. Due to the document's merely informative nature, detailed spatial palacement studies are necessary. The main object of this Graduation Thesis is to define a detailed course,...

  19. Educational Values and Sexual Difference: Reality and educational policies in the Spanish context Educación en Valores y Diferencia Sexual:Realidad y Políticas Educativas en el Contexto Español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Carrillo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the policies promoted during the conservatiSpanish government of the partido popular and the changes implemented by the 2002 Act of Educational quality and their impact on gender issues, in particular women’s human rights. This article will contend that the Act did not guarantee equality of opportunity for women. The 2000 Act’s objective was to search for solutions to contemporary technological changes and market criteria by implementing an educational reform oriented to “review, adjust and improve the life of schools”. To do so, the conservative government proposed that “quality” was the mechanism to “reach bigger social and economical progress”. This article concludes that the new socialist government, elected in March of 2004, must introduce an alternative model for the current transition, implementing both bold and transforming measures. Este artículo analiza para el contexto español las políticas promovidas en los últimos años por el gobierno conservador del partido popular y los cambios que conllevaron la entrada en vigor, en el 2002, de la Ley de Calidad de la Enseñanza. Los mismos no parecen garantizar la igualdad de oportunidades para las mujeres, pues nos encontramos ante una Ley cuya finalidad es buscar respuestas a los cambios tecnológicos y los criterios de mercado, llegando a afirmarse que las reformas educativas son necesarias para la “revisión, ajuste y mejora”, siendo la “calidad” el mecanismo para “el logro de cotas más elevadas de progreso social y económico”. A pesar de que la exposición de motivos de la Ley alude al bienestar individual y social –sin explicitar abiertamente el significado que les otorga-, los planteamientos neoliberales de las economías capitalistas se insertan en el discurso y se habla, como se ha indicado, de la necesidad de ajustes que en estas perspectivas no garantizan el avance en la lucha contra la exclusión y la

  20. Origins of the supercontinent cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Damian Nance

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The supercontinent cycle, by which Earth history is seen as having been punctuated by the episodic assembly and breakup of supercontinents, has influenced the rock record more than any other geologic phenomena, and its recognition is arguably the most important advance in Earth Science since plate tectonics. It documents fundamental aspects of the planet's interior dynamics and has charted the course of Earth's tectonic, climatic and biogeochemical evolution for billions of years. But while the widespread realization of the importance of supercontinents in Earth history is a relatively recent development, the supercontinent cycle was first proposed thirty years ago and episodicity in tectonic processes was recognized long before plate tectonics provided a potential explanation for its occurrence. With interest in the supercontinent cycle gaining momentum and the literature expanding rapidly, it is instructive to recall the historical context from which the concept developed. Here we examine the supercontinent cycle from this perspective by tracing its development from the early recognition of long-term episodicity in tectonic processes, through the identification of tectonic cycles following the advent of plate tectonics, to the first realization that these phenomena were the manifestation of episodic supercontinent assembly and breakup.