WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy considerations related

  1. Considerations the Media Influence of the Alcohol Drinking and Its Relation to the Public Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Bozelli Ciarlo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to alcohol consumption are frequent, especially among young people. Alcohol beverage advertisements influence its consumption and is one of the liable to modification factors. In this work, it was carried out a bibliographical review of works that investigated, from several points of view, the relationship between media and consumption. We have used Scielo database and Google Academic for scientific works, searching for the keywords media, alcohol consumption and advertising, as well as articles and books of reference in the area. The reading of the texts has allowed us to reflect on the influence of media in alcohol consumption, and we can also verify the high exposition of youth to alcohol advertisements, becoming relevant a discussion on the subject, particularly regarding protection policies, as well as self-regulamentation advertising rules in public health policies.

  2. Econometric modeling of health care costs and expenditures: a survey of analytical issues and related policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullahy, John

    2009-07-01

    Econometric modeling of healthcare costs and expenditures has become an important component of decision-making across a wide array of real-world settings. The objective of this article is to provide a brief summary of important conceptual and analytical issues involved in econometric healthcare cost modeling. To this end, the article explores: outcome measures typically analyzed in such work; the decision maker's perspective in econometric cost modeling exercises; specific analytical issues in econometric model specification; statistical goodness-of-fit testing; empirical implications of "upper tail" (or "high cost") phenomena; and issues relating to the reporting of findings. Some of the concepts explored here are illustrated in light of samples drawn from the 2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Analysts of healthcare cost data have at their disposal an increasingly sophisticated tool kit for analyzing such data that can in principle and in fact yield increasingly interesting insights into data structures. Yet for such analyses to usefully inform policy decisions, the manner in which such studies are designed, undertaken, and reported must accommodate considerations relevant to the decision-making community. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how such bridges might be constructed.

  3. Environmental considerations in Vietnam's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy conservation is at the centre of an environmental debate in Vietnam, whose rapidly growing economy in recent years has resulted in rising energy consumption and environmental degradation. This article reviewed the actual state of Vietnam's energy system, with consideration of the country's energy policies and their impact on the environment. Vietnam's energy resources consist of a vast network of rivers that hold potential for hydroelectric power; reserves that are proven to have oil, natural gas and coal; and, other renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy. The energy sector plays a major role in the economic and social aspects of the country. Since its economic reform, coal and crude oil exports have brought in foreign money to the national revenue. Vietnam exploits four commercial types of energy, namely coal, oil, natural gas and hydroelectricity. These traditional energy sources play a major role in providing energy for the rural and mountainous regions in the country. The increase in energy demand in Vietnam is currently greater than that of its gross national product. The energy intensity in Vietnam is 1.5 times greater than that of Thailand, and twice the average world consumption. Energy demands are increasing at a regular rate due to a low rate of energy efficiency and to growth in industrialization and modernization. In addition, the government provides subsidies to the already low price of energy. It was concluded that although Vietnam has a low rate of energy consumption compared to other regions of the world, there exists a serious imbalance between energy use and economic and social growth. This imbalance could have a negative impact on fossil resources and the environment, especially if the high demand for energy is maintained. Presently, all negative impacts on the environment are related to the energy sector. An environmental assessment and strategic proposals to manage this problem locally and globally, have constituted the

  4. Consideration on the health risk reduction related to attainment of the new particulate matter standards in Poland: A top-down policy risk assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Joanna; Pastuszka, Józef S; Gulis, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Policies can influence health of a population in various ways. Numerous epidemiological studies supported by toxicological investigations demonstrate a positive association between ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter and increased adverse cardio-respiratory events, including morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper was to present the concept of the top-down health policy risk assessment approach model developed to estimate the expected health risk reduction associated with policy aiming at attaining the new particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10) standards in Poland. The top-down approach guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy to health outcomes. In this case study we tried to estimate the predicted health effects of the policy change over the past 20 years. Since Polish annual standard for PM10 changed from 50 μg/m³ in 1990 to 40 μg/m³ in 2010, we calculated the relative risk associated with decreasing PM10 in diameter to 10 μg/m3 in the annual level of PM10 for 6 adverse health effects. The relative risk slightly decreased for almost all adverse health effects, which means that the relative decrease in the incidence of health effects from the baseline incidence should range from about 0.5-0.6% for heart disease admissions to > 1% for respiratory admissions. The obtained results indicate that implementation of the new ambient air standards could influence improvement of the health status of Polish population. A top-down policy health risk assessment model can be one of the main tools in this process, providing harmonized guidance how to seek evidence-based information, which could serve policy-makers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative: Legal Authorities and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-10

    Separation of Powers in National Security Matters....................................................................... 10 Congressional Constraints on Executive Action ........................................................................... 15 Policy Considerations and Congressional Options........................................................................ 17 Conclusion..................................................................................................................................... 18 Author Contact

  6. CONSIDERATION REGARDING BUDGETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Curea-Pitorac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the dynamics of the government expenditures, revenues and budgetary balance and to determine the type of budgetary policy adopted in Romania, in the period 1999-2015. The research starts with a theoretical review of the budgetary policy which includes the actions of the governmental authorities, regarding revenue collection and budget expenditures, channels and means of attracting resources. This policy is considered to be a tool in influencing the economy to attenuate the cyclical fluctuation in economy, by accepting the budgetary deficit as a viable solution for the revival and simulation of economic growth. The real value of budget balance represents the actual balance recorded during a certain period and the cyclic balance indicates the difference between the actual balance and the structural balance. This research is focused on the study of budgetary policy implemented in Romania by making a quantitative analysis of the following macroeconomic indicators: governmental expenditures and revenues, budgetary deficit and real GDP. Moreover, a correlation between the dynamics of the structural budgetary deficit and the sign of the output gap has been done, and the results have indicated that, in the analyzed period, a restrictive budgetary policy was adopted in 2000-2004 and in 2011-2014, and an expansionist budgetary policy was implemented from 2005 to 2010. The results of this research highlight the main particularities of the budgetary balance in Romania and the actions taken through this channel in different phase of the business cycle.

  7. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitorac Ruxandra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to study the Romania’s monetary policy, in the period 1996-2013. The research starts with a theoretical review of the monetary policy, whose main purpose is influencing the broad money supply and the lending requirements and the institution in charge of achieving this objective is the Central Bank, highlighting its impact upon the economic activity, through the Keynesian analysis model IS-LM and a correlation between the monetary policy measures and the phases of the economic cycle whose results indicate that during the recession periods it is recommended to reduce interest rates in order to stimulate investments, by raising the money supply, and during the expansion period it is recommended to increase the interest rate in order to cut back the money supply. Starting from this premises, the research takes into account the study of the monetary policy measures adopted by the governmental authority of Romania, making a quantitative analysis of the main macroeconomic indicators: the real interest rate, the lending interest rate, the deposit interest rate and the broad money supply and through a multifactorial regression, highlighting the impact of the interest rates upon the monetary aggregate M2. Moreover, a comparison between the monetary policy measures adopted in Romania and the monetary policies recommended by specialized literature has been done, and the results have indicated that during recession periods the attention of the governmental authorities is focused upon adopting the right measures, but during the expansion periods this doesn’t happen. The results of this research highlight the economic situation in Romania and the way in which the governmental authority intervened, through the monetary policy measures, in order to mitigate the negative effects of the cyclical fluctuations.

  8. 16 CFR 1012.1 - General policy considerations; scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Policy, sets forth requirements for advance public notice, public attendance, and recordkeeping for... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General policy considerations; scope. 1012.1 Section 1012.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL MEETINGS POLICY-MEETINGS...

  9. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  10. Political considerations of nuclear waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    In order to create a program for the establishment of nuclear waste repositories several conditions must prevail. Perhaps foremost is the need to alter the public perception of risk. In short, there will need to be recognition that cigarette smoking and automobile driving, acts of volition, are potentially more dangerous to one's health than radiation leaks from nuclear power plants or waste repositories. Second, the process of repository site selection will have to include wide public participation in the process in order to obtain legitimacy. Without it Congress and the state legislatures are certain to override any proposal no matter how widely accepted by scientists and engineers. Finally, states and localities selected as sites for repositories will need to be compensated adequately in exchange for accepting the onus of serving as host. Political scientists have not been notably successful forecasters of policy outcomes. However, the evidence of American history does not provide encouragement that maximization of control at the state and local level and oversight by Congress of administrative actions, as meritorious as they might appear in terms of democracy, are harbingers of success for unpleasant policy decisions. States rights and Congressional intervention to block executive action were used to maintain second-class citizenship status for Black Americans until the judicial process was resorted to as a device to alter policy. Most likely, a major policy breakthrough will occur only after a mishap or tragedy, the final product involving either a waste disposal program in the context of continued use of nuclear power or one premised on its abandonment

  11. Technical considerations in materials management policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, H.; Goldberg, M.

    1996-01-01

    Under the Materials-in-Inventory (MIN) initiative, US DOE intends to develop policies to ensure that materials are managed and use efficiently, cost-effectively, and safely throughout DOE. The MIN initiative covers depleted uranium, scrap metals, chemicals, explosives, spent nuclear fuel, lead, alkali metals, etc.; by far the largest component is depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). A technically defensible approach has been developed and is being used to select a long-term management strategy for DOE's DUF6 inventory. The same approach can be adapted to management of other materials in inventory that have the potential to be reutilized

  12. Moving past the rhetoric: Policy considerations that can make Sino-African relations to improve Africa's climate change resilience and the attainment of the sustainable development goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumisani Chirambo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a threat to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs in sub-Saharan Africa as its impacts can lead to increased incidences of poverty and inequality which can subsequently lead to a 12% decline in the Human Development Index (HDI for sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging countries such as China have the potential to support Africa to achieve the SDGs by pioneering South–South Climate Finance (SSCF modalities. In order to increase knowledge on climate informed development and the role of China in global climate governance, the paper examined various research articles, case studies, policy briefs and project reports. Sino-African aid, investments and trade were noted as essential in mitigating Africa's climate change vulnerabilities which induce poverty traps and inequality. Some African countries were noted to have a comparative advantage in environmental standards over China but lacked the initiative to use this comparative advantage to enhance the Forum on China–Africa Cooperation (FOCAC and assist China to have a sustainable growth trajectory. The paper concludes that SSCF modalities can enhance climate risk management in Africa if they focus on improving financial inclusion and improving climate finance flows towards climate change adaptation activities in Africa. Additionally, to increase the effectiveness and impact of Chinese climate finance support to Africa, African policymakers should not allow political and market forces to decide how climate related support from China should be allocated as decisions based on political and market forces could potentially promote an inequitable distribution of funds and ignore the most vulnerable countries and regions.

  13. Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Facility Siting and Policy Considerations: International Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-21

    Carbon fiber is increasingly used in a wide variety of applications due largely to its superior material properties such as high strength-to-weight ratio. The current global carbon fiber manufacturing industry is predominately located in China, Europe, Japan, and the United States. The carbon fiber market is expected to expand significantly through 2024 and to require additional manufacturing capacity to meet demand. Carbon fiber manufacturing facilities can offer significant economic development and employment opportunities as exemplified by the $1 billion investment and 500 jobs expected at a new Toray plant in Moore, South Carolina. Though the market is expected to expand, it is unclear where new manufacturing facilities will locate to meet demand. This uncertainty stems from the lack of research evaluating how different nations with significant carbon fiber manufacturing capacity compare as it relates to certain manufacturing facility siting factors such as costs of labor and energy as well as policy directed at supporting carbon fiber development, domestic deployment, and exports. This report fills these gaps by evaluating the top carbon fiber manufacturing countries, including China, European Union countries, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. The report documents how the United States compares to these countries based on a range of manufacturing siting considerations and existing policies related to carbon fiber. It concludes with a discussion of various policy options the United States could adopt to both (1) increase the competitiveness of the United States as it relates to attracting new carbon fiber manufacturing and (2) foster broader end-use markets for deployment.

  14. Private and Social Considerations in the Design and Appraisal of Development Projects and Related Agricultural Policies: The Case of Wheat in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Snodgrass, M M

    1990-01-01

    National planning for economic development has become an institutionalized process in most lesser developed nations of the world. A national plan is comprised of a set of development projects which individually and collectively are designed to contribute to achieving certain economic and social goals for the nation. Ideally, governments should have .a complementary set of price and trade policies that would enhance the success rate of development projects. It is now common practice to design ...

  15. Some considerations on using monetary policy to promote financial stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petria, N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current period of crisis on credit markets has highlighted the crucial role of the behaviour of banks in the transmission mechanism of monetary policy. This paper summarises our considerations on how monetary policy, as the main instrument, acts in order to promote financial stability and to stabilize the banking system. Central banks have a variety of tools for implementing monetary policy, but the tool that has received the most attention in literature is the interest rate. We observe that the financial crisis that erupted in the summer of 2007 has refocused attention on other channels of monetary policy, notably the transmission of policy through the supply of credit and overall conditions in the capital markets. Monetary policy has important macroeconomic effects only to the extent that it moves financial market prices that really matter—like long-term interest rates, stock market values, and exchange rates.

  16. Environmental policy considerations and renewable energy in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, M.A.R.; Obaidullah, M.

    2000-01-01

    Energy is a critical commodity. It functions as a factor of production, as a process feedstock and as a consumer goods. It determines the shape of the life of individuals and that of the total economy. The evidence all over the world has shown a positive association between per capita income and per capita consumption. In fact over the world has consumption is now regarded as one of the important indices of economic development. Economic development is seen to have been accompanied by substitution of one form of energy by another As an economy develops, its demand for energy tends to increase and its consumption pattern in terms of energy forms and energy sources tends changes. But the stock of known viable sources of energy particularly commercial fuels are exploitation of energy sources involves a large investment and long gestation period. These and other related considerations emphases the need for taking a long-run view on demand and supply aspects of energy with particular focus on renewable energy. This further requires necessary policy considerations, which should be favorable for long term and sustained development of renewable energy. (Author)

  17. Focusing the Sun: State Considerations for Designing Community Solar Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shah, Monisha R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This report summarizes outcomes from the National Community Solar Partnership State Best Practices working group by identifying key differences in state policies that enable community solar and illustrating how various policy design approaches may impact the market. For the latter question, it is too early to quantify a relationship between policy design and market impacts, because most state programs have not been fully implemented. So, the authors conducted interviews with 19 subject matter experts, including project developers, regulators, and utilities to better understand how various policy design approaches may impact community solar markets. These perspectives, along with those gleaned from the working group and relevant literature were synthesized to identify key considerations for policymakers designing community solar programs. Though state community solar policies vary in numerous ways, the report focuses on the following critical elements: program cap, project size cap, subscriber location requirements, subscriber eligibility requirements, low- and moderate-income stipulations, and subscriber compensation.

  18. Carbon Taxes. A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Hillary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  19. Carbon Taxes: A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, J.; Bird, L.; Smith, H.

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  20. Policy considerations for improving influenza vaccination rates among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Elizabeth K; Guenzel, Nicholas; Brown, Peggy A; Keeler, Heidi J; Cramer, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Influenza exposure during pregnancy can cause severe health problems for both the mother and her offspring, including an increased risk of mortality. Influenza vaccination during all trimesters of pregnancy is safe and effective, and recommended by professional organizations such as the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Despite these recommendations, the U.S. vaccination rates remain low in this high-risk population. A policy analysis based on the five-part method identified by Teitelbaum and Wilensky () addresses factors to consider in identifying the best voluntary policy options to improve the vaccination rates. The authors provide discussion of the background, landscape, and stakeholder interests and the pros and cons of two voluntary policy options to increase vaccination. The policy options include: (a) financial incentives for providers and (b) an education emphasis for providers and staff. The authors conclude that based on considerations of cost, provider preference, and practicality of implementation, a continuing educational intervention is the preferred policy venue to increase vaccination rates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. CONSIDERATIONS ON FISCAL POLICY AS A TOOL OF ECONOMIC RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoichin Elena Mădălina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components of social and economic life is the public finances, with direct implications on the formation and distribution of gross domestic product. State, in order to establish their own funds to set up the concept according to which, any natural or legal person carrying out an income or owns a dime in the category of those taxable in the State due to tax or duty. Starting from these considerations, the paper analyses, on the one side, the influencing factors and effects of increasing fiscal pressure, and, on the other side, the role of fiscal policy in the economic relaunch.

  2. Considerations When Including Students with Disabilities in Test Security Policies. NCEO Policy Directions. Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Sound test security policies and procedures are needed to ensure test security and confidentiality, and to help prevent cheating. In this era when cheating on tests draws regular media attention, there is a need for thoughtful consideration of the ways in which possible test security measures may affect accessibility for some students with…

  3. Considerations in change management related to technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, John S; Hilty, Donald M; Worley, Linda L; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the complexity of social processes for implementing technological change. Once a new technology is available, information about its availability and benefits must be made available to the community of users, with opportunities to try the innovations and find them worthwhile, despite organizational resistances. The authors reviewed the literature from psychiatry, psychology, sociology, business, and technology to distill common denominators for success and failure related to implementing technology. Beneficial technological innovations that are simple to use and obviously save everyone time and effort are easy to inaugurate. However, innovations that primarily serve management rather than subordinates or front-line utilizers may fail, despite considerable institutional effort. This article reviews and outlines several of the more prominent theoretical models governing successful institutional change. Successful implementation of difficult technological changes requires visionary leadership that has carefully considered the benefits, consulted with influence leaders at all organizational levels to spot unintended consequences and sources of resistance, and developed a detailed plan and continuous quality assurance process to foster implementation over time.

  4. Health policy considerations for our sexual minority patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A

    2006-03-01

    Homosexuality and transsexuality are still widely viewed by lay individuals as morally negative and deserving of legal proscription. Peer-reviewed data confirm that experiences of legal discrimination are associated with stress-related health problems, reduced utilization of health care, and financial and legal challenges for individuals and families, especially those with children. In the last 3 years, the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, and American Psychoanalytic Association have each reviewed the research on sexual orientation and identity, and each has confirmed that sexual orientation and gender identity do not correlate with mental illness or immorality. They have each endorsed laws that confer equality to sexual minorities, including nondiscrimination in employment, medical insurance coverage, adoption, and access to civil marriage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), by virtue of its history of advocacy for women's health, is in a position to promote policy and make similar recommendations, recognizing that sexual minority women's health and their family issues are an integral component of taking care of all women. The College should review the policies of America's premier mental health associations and consider including sexual orientation and gender identity in its own nondiscrimination policy, and ACOG should issue a policy statement in support of laws to provide safety from violence and discrimination, equal employment opportunities, equal health insurance coverage, and equal access to civil marriage.

  5. Experimental labor markets and policy considerations: Incomplete contracts and macroeconomic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Casoria Fortuna; Riedl Arno

    2012-01-01

    This survey focuses on experimental labor markets investigating two aspects that deem us important for a better understanding of labor market relations and the consequences for labor market policies. The first part of the survey is dedicated to papers that assess the prevalence of reciprocal considerations in incomplete labor contracts. The second part summarizes the relatively small but growing experimental literature exploring labor issues in a macroeconomics and public finance setting and ...

  6. [Nutrition or industry. Experiences with nutritional considerations in the agricultural policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botten, G

    1991-06-30

    The need to export health considerations to various sector policies is regarded as important in health promotion. Health is generally a highly appreciated benefit; thus many sectors seek to use health as an argument for their policy. This article describes the relation between nutrition and agricultural policy in Norway. In areas where nutrition and agriculture had mutual interests, health considerations were easily exported. However, when interests diverged the issue became more complicated. Much effort was focused upon achieving correct use of nutritional arguments. Before negotiating and weighing respective viewpoints it is essential to clarify each sector's standpoint and interest. Conflicts and negotiations are linked to strategies which seek explicitly to integrate health premisses into sectors outside the health services itself.

  7. Considerations related to Cernavoda NPP lifetime management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojan, Mihail

    2007-01-01

    Cernavoda NPP, the first CANDU in Europe, is one of the original CANDU 6 plants and the first CANDU 6 producing over 706 MWe. While the first series of CANDU 6 plants (which entered service in the early 1980 s) have now reached the 2/3 of their 30 years design life, the Cernavoda NPP was put into service on the 2nd December 1996. After 10 years of operation the Plant Life Management (PLiM) Program for Cernavoda should be an increasingly important program to Utility ('CNE - Prod') in order to protect the investment and the continued success of plant operation. The goal of the paper is to present some considerations related to Cernavoda NPP lifetime management. The Plant Life Management Program, known as PLiM Program is concerned with the analysis of technical limits of the safe operation - from the point of view of nuclear safety - in NPP units, aiming at attaining the planned 30 years life duration and its extension to 40 or even 50 years of safe and economical operation. For the CANDU reactors the so-called PLiM and PLEX Programs are just applied. These are applied research programs that approach with priority the current practices for assessing the capability of safe operation within the limits of nuclear safety (fitness-for-service assessment). These programs also approach inspection, monitoring are prevention of degrading due to the ageing of critical systems, structures and components (CSSCs). As each nuclear plant is somewhat different in its components and systems, materials composition, procurement, construction, and operational history, directed research and development programs into materials behavior, monitoring techniques, and methods to mitigate ageing are required to support the lifetime management. Over the past 6 years, INR Pitesti (Institute for Nuclear Research - Romania) has been working on R and D Programs to support a comprehensive and integrated Cernavoda NPP Life Management Program (PLiM) that will see the Cernavoda NPP successfully and

  8. Travelling Policies and Contextual Considerations: On Threshold Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Adam; Kondakci, Yasar; Emil, Serap

    2018-01-01

    Educational policy borrowing has become rather common in our globalised world. However, the literature lacks contextual criteria that may be employed by researchers and policy makers to assess the correspondence of a particular policy to the local context of a borrowing system. Based on a secondary analysis of documents and research reports, this…

  9. Considerations relating to different types of packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Cohendy, G.

    1976-01-01

    The transport of radioactive materials has never given rise to a serious accident in France. This is due to the high quality of the provisions contained in the Regulations and to the conscientious manner in which the latter are applied. However, it would now seem appropriate to re-examine certain of these provisions in the light of a number of minor incidents which have occurred, or merely because problems have arisen which did not exist at the time of the last revision. This applies particularly to Type B packaging, intended for irradiated fuel shipments whose considerable bulk calls for a mock-up study. The transport of Type B packaging by sea may pose the problem of its resistance to fire on normal merchant ships, and similarly its behaviour under the effect of crushing should be examined in the context of air transport. Industrial-type packaging likewise presents problems, although these are basically of a psychological nature. This is particularly the case with consignments of uraniferous concentrates, uranium hexafluoride and plutonium-contaminated wastes. The accumulation (which sometimes reaches substantial numbers) of Type A packaging on a single vehicle may involve consequences which also call for study. (author)

  10. Drinking and its burden in a global perspective: policy considerations and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin; Graham, Kathryn; Rehm, Jürgen; Jernigan, David; Monteiro, Maristela

    2003-10-01

    To identify the policy implications of the magnitude and characteristics of alcohol consumption and problems, viewed globally, and to summarize conclusions on the effectiveness of the strategies available to policymakers concerned with reducing rates of alcohol problems. This summative article draws on the findings of the articles preceding it and of reviews of the literature. Overall volume of consumption is the major factor in the prevalence of harms from drinking. Since consumption and associated problems tend to increase with economic development, policymakers in developing economies should be especially aware of the need to develop policies to minimize overall increases in alcohol consumption. Unrecorded consumption is also an important consideration for policy in many parts of the world, and poses difficulties for alcohol control policies. Drinking pattern is also an important contributing factor toward alcohol-related harm. Although some drinking patterns have been shown to produce beneficial health effects, because the net effect of alcohol on coronary disease is negative in most parts of the world, policies that promote abstinence or lower drinking overall may be the safest options. Moreover, sporadic intoxication is common in many parts of the world, and policies are unlikely to change this drinking pattern at least in the short to medium term. At the same time, because injuries comprise a large proportion of the burden of alcohol, it is appropriate to enhance these policies with targeted harm reduction strategies such as drinking and driving countermeasures and interventions focused on reducing alcohol-related violence in specific high-risk settings. Alcohol consumption is a major factor for the global burden of disease and should be considered a public health priority globally, regionally, and nationally for the vast majority of countries in the world. The need for alcohol policy is even stronger when it is taken into consideration that the burden of

  11. EARTH RESOURCE PROBLEMS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlitová Erika

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the problems of geology and earth resources management in relation to environmental problems of the technosphere. It deals also with some aspects of environmental monitoring of areas where surveying or mining operations are planned or in progress.

  12. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... soldiers Island-hopped through the Philippines enjoying ultimate victory in the Pacific theater, while during the Vietnam War, the United States experienced policy failures and conflicts in the nation's will...

  13. Policies to Enable Bioenergy Deployment: Key Considerations and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolinksi, Sharon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Bioenergy is renewable energy generated from biological source materials, and includes electricity, transportation fuels and heating. Source materials are varied types of biomass, including food crops such as corn and sugarcane, non-edible lignocellulosic materials such as agricultural and forestry waste and dedicated crops, and municipal and livestock wastes. Key aspects of policies for bioenergy deployment are presented in this brief as part of the Clean Energy Solutions Center's Clean Energy Policy Brief Series.

  14. Risk considerations related to lung modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.; Cross, F.T.

    1989-01-01

    Improved lung models provide a more accurate assessment of dose from inhalation exposures and, therefore, more accurate dose-response relationships for risk evaluation and exposure limitation. Epidemiological data for externally irradiated persons indicate that the numbers of excess respiratory tract carcinomas differ in the upper airways, bronchi, and distal lung. Neither their histogenesis and anatomical location nor their progenitor cells are known with sufficient accuracy for accurate assessment of the microdosimetry. The nuclei of sensitive cells generally can be assumed to be distributed at random in the epithelium, beneath the mucus and tips of the beating cilia and cells. In stratified epithelia, basal cells may be considered the only cells at risk. Upper-airway tumors have been observed in both therapeutically irradiated patients and in Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors. The current International Commission on Radiological Protection Lung-Model Task Group proposes that the upper airways and lung have a similar relative risk coefficient for cancer induction. The partition of the risk weighting factor, therefore, will be proportional to the spontaneous death rate from tumors, and 80% of the weighting factor for the respiratory tract should be attributed to the lung. For Weibel lung-model branching generations 0 to 16 and 17 to 23, the Task Group proposes an 80/20 partition of the risk, i.e., 64% and 16%, respectively, of the total risk. Regarding risk in animals, recent data in rats indicate a significantly lower effectiveness for lung-cancer induction at low doses from insoluble long-lived alpha-emitters than from Rn daughters. These findings are due, in part, to the fact that different regions of the lung are irradiated. Tumors in the lymph nodes are rare in people and animals exposed to radiation.44 references

  15. Mitigating pharmaceutical waste exposures: policy and program considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amster, Eric D

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical disposal and the environmental fate of medication metabolites directly impacts the public's health in two significant ways: accidental medication ingestion of pharmaceuticals that were not disposed of properly results in inadvertent toxicity; and environmental health consequences of pharmaceuticals that were inappropriately disposed and which contaminate municipal water supply. In reviewing the effectiveness of medication disposal policy globally, it is crucial to not only determine which policies are effective but also to assess why they are effective. By assessing the root causes for a specific policy's effectiveness it can be determined if those successes could be translated to another country with a different health care system, unique culture and divergent policy ecosystem. Any intervention regarding pharmaceutical disposal would require a multifaceted approach beyond raising awareness and coordinating pharmaceutical disposal on a national level. While consumer participation is important, effective primary prevention would also include research on drug development that is designed to biodegrade in the environment as opposed to medications that persist and accumulate in the natural environment even when properly disposed. Countries that lack a nationalized disposal policy should leverage the resources and infrastructure already in place in the national health care system to implement a unified policy to address medication disposal in the short-term. In tandem, efforts should be made to recruit the biotechnology sector in high-tech and academia to develop new technologies in medication design and water filtration to decrease exposures in the long-term.

  16. Policy Considerations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freshwater Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Mäkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging concern over greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wetlands has prompted calls to address the climate impact of dams in climate policy frameworks. Existing studies indicate that reservoirs can be significant sources of emissions, particularly in tropical areas. However, knowledge on the role of dams in overall national emission levels and abatement targets is limited, which is often cited as a key reason for political inaction and delays in formulating appropriate policies. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the current role of reservoir emissions in existing climate policy frameworks. The distance between a global impact on climate and a need for local mitigation measures creates a challenge for designing appropriate mechanisms to combat reservoir emissions. This paper presents a range of possible policy interventions at different scales that could help address the climate impact of reservoirs. Reservoir emissions need to be treated like other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A rational treatment of the issue requires applying commonly accepted climate change policy principles as well as promoting participatory water management plans through integrated water resource management frameworks. An independent global body such as the UN system may be called upon to assess scientific information and develop GHG emissions policy at appropriate levels.

  17. Align, share responsibility and collaborate: potential considerations to aid in e-health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaban, Nouran; Day, Karen; Orr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Policies that support strategic development and implementation are related to health ICT implementation successes. This research aimed to explore the question, 'Why have we not seen more successful ICT implementation in healthcare, and what does policy have to do with success?' Healthcare systems are faced with rising costs, increased prevalence of chronic diseases and diminishing resources. E-health initiatives have gained acceptance in addressing these crucial health sector issues. National governments and healthcare organisations are finding it necessary to have health Information and Communications Technology (ICT) systems in place. However, poorly developed health information policies, lack of a clear business plan and ineffective leadership contribute to failure of ICT implementation in healthcare. This study uses a Grounded Theory approach, in which a series of data gathering activities will be completed. The first author attended the Health Information Management & Systems Society (HIMSS) Policy Summit in the USA in 2011. Five Summit participants were approached individually and informally discussed the 'meaningful use' policy and how it influences ICT implementation in healthcare. Field notes were made and analysed for themes relating to the research question. There were three overlapping concepts that all of the participants indicated as primary considerations for policymakers. The alignment aspect stresses the need to align e-health initiatives with overall health policy, ensuring that e-health is incorporated with other healthcare investments. The shared responsibility theme involves the need for e-health initiatives to be recognised as a priority along all levels of government, i.e. local, state, federal, and national. This stresses the importance of health ICT development and implementation in a joint government direction. The last theme is collaboration with stakeholders, including clear division of tasks and clarity about technical and non

  18. Brazilian Biodiesel Policy: Social and environmental considerations of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Catherine Aliana Gucciardi; Vianna, Joao Nildo de Souza

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze the Brazilian Biodiesel Policy (PNPB) and to identify the social and environmental aspects of sustainability that are present or absent within it. Biofuels, namely alcohol and biodiesel, have been increasing in popularity on a global scale due to their potential as alternative and renewable energy sources. Brazil, a vast country blessed with abundant natural resources and agricultural land, has emerged as a global leader in the production of biofuels. This article includes a brief analysis of the concept of sustainable development, which served as a basis to evaluate the Policy documents. Although PNPB's implementation, which began in 2004, is still within its initial stage, it was possible to identify and elaborate on the environmental and social aspects of the Policy, namely: the social inclusion of family farmers; regional development; food security; influencing the carbon and energy balance of biodiesel; promoting sustainable agricultural practices and a diversity of feedstock. (author)

  19. Considerations Regarding the Mix of Anticrisis Fiscal Policies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan TALPOŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The last centuries, it has been noticed that the economic activity does not unfold linearly, that the expansion periods are followed by a contraction of the economic activity, that the peak moments cannot be maintained endlessly and that, after recession, a relaunch of the economic activity may occur. The political and economical cycles, emphasized by the last decades, made people talk more about the countercyclical policies and about the behaviour of the politicians seen in strong connection with the behaviour of the voting population. To reduce the effects of the current crisis, the state uses fiscal incentives, this representing a combination of public expenses and a reduction of the taxes for the companies and the households which aims at the revival of the economic life, the increase of employment and the recovery of the business environment. The countercyclical policies are known and applied all over the world, each responsible government choosing those instruments of budget and fiscal policy which best match the concrete possibilities of economy and correspond with its political doctrines. Thus seen the mix of fiscal policies is firstly a political choice, but with a strong impact on the economy of a country.

  20. Considerations for sound policy on investment in the forestry sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the amount of real capital produced in terms of standing trees during some periods in the forestry sector of Osun and Oyo states with a view to considering sound policy on investment. Information were gathered through the use of primary and secondary data. The information obtained were analyzed ...

  1. South African HIV self-testing policy and guidance considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Venter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gap in HIV testing remains significant and new modalities such as HIV self-testing (HIVST have been recommended to reach key and under-tested populations. In December 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO released the Guidelines on HIV Self-Testing and Partner Notification: A Supplement to the Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Testing Services (HTS and urged member countries to develop HIVST policy and regulatory frameworks. In South Africa, HIVST was included as a supplementary strategy in the National HIV Testing Services Policy in 2016, and recently, guidelines for HIVST were included in the South African National Strategic Plan for HIV, sexually transmitted infections and tuberculosis 2017–2022. This document serves as an additional guidance for the National HIV Testing Services Policy 2016, with specific focus on HIVST. It is intended for policy advocates, clinical and non-clinical HTS providers, health facility managers and healthcare providers in private and public health facilities, non-governmental, community-based and faith-based organisations involved in HTS and outreach, device manufacturers, workplace programmes and institutes of higher education.

  2. Policy Considerations for Commercializing Natural Gas and Biomass CCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, L.; Clavin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Captured CO2 from power generation has been discussed as an opportunity to improve the environmental sustainability of fossil fuel-based electricity generation and likely necessary technological solution necessary for meeting long-term climate change mitigation goals. In our presentation, we review the findings of a study of natural gas CCUS technology research and development and discuss their applications to biomass CCUS technology potential. Based on interviews conducted with key stakeholders in CCUS technology development and operations, this presentation will discuss these technical and economic challenges and potential policy opportunities to support commercial scale CCUS deployment. In current domestic and electricity and oil markets, CCUS faces economic challenges for commercial deployment. In particular, the economic viability of CCUS has been impacted by the sustained low oil prices that have limited the potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to serve as a near-term utilization opportunity for the captured CO2. In addition, large scale commercial adoption of CCUS is constrained by regulatory inconsistencies and uncertainties across the United States, high initial capital costs, achieving familiarity with new technology applications to existing markets, developing a successful performance track record to acquire financing agreements, and competing against well-established incumbent technologies. CCUS also has additional technical hurdles for measurement, verification, and reporting within states that have existing policy and regulatory frameworks for climate change mitigation. In addition to fossil-fuel based CCUS, we will discuss emerging opportunities to utilize CCUS fueled by gasified biomass resulting in carbon negative power generation with expanded economic opportunities associated with the enhanced carbon sequestration. Successful technology development of CCUS technology requires a portfolio of research leading to technical advances, advances in

  3. Consideration on the dialogue for national consensus of the nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Reiko; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the national consensus on nuclear energy policy between the public and the government. Firstly, the public objections on energy issues were analyzed by reviewing recent national policy documents, public opinion polls and comments on the nuclear energy policy. From the analysed results, it was confirmed that the government asks the public for acceptance and cooperation of the national policy; meanwhile, the public pursue to satisfy their appetite and make their own choice in their daily life without awareness of energy itself. As a consequence, the difference of standpoints between the two parts was assumed to interfere with effective communication especially regarding nuclear energy issues. Based on these considerations, essential conditions relevant to the national consensus for better mutual understanding are presented. It is also newly proposed that energy communicator should be independently established to assist the desirable dialogue between them. Finally, fundamental concept, roles and requirements for the communicator are pointed out from the viewpoint of implementation of the practical dialogue. (author)

  4. Chinese Perceptions of Russian Foreign Policy During the Putin Administration: U.S.-Russia Relations and “Strategic Triangle” Considerations Chinas Sichtweise der russischen Außenplitik während der Regierungszeit von Putin: Die Beziehung zwischen den USA und Russland sowie Überlegungen eines "strategischen Dreiecks"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Yu-shek Cheng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Chinese perception of Russian foreign policy during the Putin administration by analysing Beijing’s assessment of Russia’s foreign policy objectives and its policy towards the U.S., as reflected in the official media and the authoritative publications of China’s major security and foreign policy think tanks. Promoting multipolarity and checks and balances against U.S. unilateralism has been a very significant consideration on the part of the Chinese leadership. Using the concept of the “strategic triangle”, the article demonstrates how changes in U.S.-Russian relations have probably become the most important variable in this push for multipolarity. In the past decade and a half, Sino-Russian relations have improved when Russia has become disappointed with the support it received from the U.S. There have also been periods of time when Russia has anticipated closer relations with the U.S. and thus neglected China’s vital interests. The Chinese leadership, however, has exercised restraint at such times. There has been greater optimism in Beijing concerning Sino-Russian relations in recent years because of the expanding economic ties, Russia’s increasing oil wealth and Putin’s authoritarian orientation. In diesem Artikel wird die chinesische Sichtweise der russischen Außenpolitik während der Regierungszeit Putins untersucht.

  5. [Social and population policy. Considerations on efficiency and equity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez De Leon Cruces, J

    1991-01-01

    It is generally accepted that modern governments have a series of obligations and responsibilities to their citizens, and that the modern state should institutionalize its responses to social demands of its citizens in its social policy. Social policy should assure the production of public goods, defined as goods available to all society and distributed equally to all members, whose consumption does not deprive any other individual of similar consumption. Private goods by contrast are those whose benefits are consumed by an individual without providing any benefit to others. Many goods fall between the 2 categories and share characteristics of each. The state should finance and subsidize goods that generate social benefits and should establish rules of operation for the private sector. 2 goals of government participation are that it be efficient and just. Efficiency means that it is clearly oriented to production of public goods, or to the public component of goods that are a mixture of public and private, and that it does not interfere with the "social efficiency" that results from the free development of private institutions. Justice implies equity and equality of opportunities for citizens to promote their personal goals. The specific cases of education and health care demonstrate that efficiency and redistribution may conflict. Although primary and secondary education are recognized as a social good that produces greater social benefits than university education, investment in higher education is frequently greater than that in primary and secondary education, with severe distributive biases. Following the focus of the classic theory of welfare, health expenditures should be concentrated on preventive interventions, increasing the availability of potable water and sanitary facilities, providing basic health services to the least favored groups, and similar actions. But institutionalized medicine in Mexico strongly favors curative services, typically devoting 2

  6. Technical considerations and policy requirements for plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Dinehart, S.M.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    The goals for plutonium management have changed dramatically over the past few years. Today, the challenge is focused on isolating plutonium from the environment and preparing it for permanent disposition. In parallel, the requirements for managing plutonium are rapidly changing. For example, there is a significant increase in public awareness on how facilities operate, increased attention to environmental safety and health (ES and H) concerns, greater interest in minimizing waste, more emphasis on protecting material from theft, providing materials for international inspection, and a resurgence of interest in using plutonium as an energy source. Of highest concern, in the immediate future, is protecting plutonium from theft or diversion, while the national policy on disposition is debated. These expanded requirements are causing a broadening of responsibilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) to include at least seven organizations. An unavoidable consequence is the divergence in approach and short-term goals for managing similar materials within each organization. The technology base does exist, properly, safely, and cost effectively to extract plutonium from excess weapons, residues, waste, and contaminated equipment and facilities, and to properly stabilize it. Extracting the plutonium enables it to be easily inventoried, packaged, and managed to minimize the risk of theft and diversion. Discarding excess plutonium does not sufficiently reduce the risk of diversion, and as a result, long-term containment of plutonium from the environment may not be able to be proven to the satisfaction of the public

  7. BRAZILIAN HIGHER EDUCATION - considerations for policy evaluation in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maffini Griboski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the front of the Brazilian higher education practices of evaluation, highlighting the importance of its use in academic management and institutional guarantee for the permanent monitoring of the quality of supply. With this objective discusses the trajectory of the evaluation policy of higher education with an emphasis on construction of the current National Assessment of Higher Education (Sinaes. From this perspective, conducts exploratory research with a descriptive analysis of the constituent elements of Sinaes, instruments and indicators, and evaluation results of the cycle in 2004, 2007 and 2010 in order to characterize and compare the evolution of courses in health and design improvements in its development. Finally, the comparison of these results, especially the nursing courses, the remarkable expansion in the period, shows its importance as an inducer of changing personal and professional attitudes of teachers and others involved in the educational process. It also enables the IES, proposing changes to the curriculum to meet the prospect of improving the training of students, contributing to the establishment of the evaluation culture in higher education to society to ensure reliable results on the quality and credibility of the courses offered.

  8. Technical considerations and policy requirements for plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Dinehart, S.M.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    The goals for plutonium management have changed dramatically over the past few years. Today, the challenge is focused on isolating plutonium from the environment and preparing it for permanent disposition. In parallel, the requirements for managing plutonium are rapidly changing. For example, there is a significant increase in public awareness on how facilities operate, increased attention to environmental safety and health (ES and H) concerns, greater interest in minimizing waste, more emphasis on protecting material from theft, providing materials for international inspection, and a resurgence of interest in using plutonium as an energy source. Of highest concern, in the immediate future, is protecting plutonium from theft or diversion, while the national policy on disposition is debated. These expanded requirements are causing a broadening of responsibilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) to include at least seven organizations. An unavoidable consequence is the divergence in approach and short-term goals for managing similar materials within each organization. The technology base does exist, properly, safely, and cost effectively to extract plutonium from excess weapons, residues, waste, and contaminated equipment and facilities, and to properly stabilize it. Extracting the plutonium enables it to be easily inventoried, packaged, and managed to minimize the risk of theft and diversion. Discarding excess plutonium does not sufficient reduce the risk of diversion, and as a result, long-term containment of plutonium from the environment may not be able to be proven to the satisfaction of the public

  9. Oak policy and management in California: Spanish origins and future considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bartolome; Lynn. Huntsinger

    2015-01-01

    The development of goals and policies for Californian oak woodlands is reviewed; then some important considerations for future policy development are highlighted. California and Spain share long and illuminating histories of human interaction with oak woodlands. The Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program, initiated about 1985, was a focal point for Californian...

  10. 78 FR 63203 - Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Holloway, Assistant General Counsel, or Margaret Forman, Attorney, 999 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20463... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION [Notice 2013-14] Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the Commission AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Policy statement...

  11. 76 FR 45798 - Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... CONTACT: Lorenzo Holloway, Assistant General Counsel, or Allison T. Steinle, Attorney, 999 E Street, NW... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION [Notice 2011-11] Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the Commission AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Policy Statement...

  12. Safety, Security, and Policy Considerations for Plant Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolt, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing with engineered nucleases (GEEN) is increasingly used as a tool for gene discovery and trait development in crops through generation of targeted changes in endogenous genes. The development of the CRISPR-Cas9 system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats with associated Cas9 protein), in particular, has enabled widespread use of genome editing. Research to date has not comprehensively addressed genome-editing specificity and off-target mismatches that may result in unintended changes within plant genomes or the potential for gene drive initiation. Governance and regulatory considerations for bioengineered crops derived from using GEEN will require greater clarity as to target specificity, the potential for mismatched edits, unanticipated downstream effects of off-target mutations, and assurance that genome reagents do not occur in finished products. Since governance and regulatory decision making involves robust standards of evidence extending from the laboratory to the postcommercial marketplace, developers of genome-edited crops must anticipate significant engagement and investment to address questions of regulators and civil society. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Insect pollination: commodity values, trade and policy considerations using coffee as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon George Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Science has shown the importance of animal pollinators to human food security, economy, and biodiversity conservation. Science continues to identify various factors causing pollinator declines and their implications. However, translation of the understanding of pollinators’ roles into current policy and regulation is weak and requires attention, both in developed and developing nations. The national and international trade of commodities generated via insect pollination is large. Trade in those crops could be a means of influencing regulations to promote the local existence of pollinating species, apart from their contributions to biodiversity conservation. This paper, using the example of international coffee production, reviews the value of pollinating species, and relates them to simple economics of commodity production. Recommendations are made that could influence policy and decision-making to promote coffee production, trade, and pollinators’ existence. Assumptions and considerations are raised and addressed. Although the role of insect pollinators in promoting fruit set and quality is accepted, implementing pollination conservation in forest habitats may require assured higher prices for coffee, and direct subsidies for forest conservation to prevent conversion to other crop lands. Exporting and importing governments and trade organizations could establish policy that requires insect pollination in the coffee certification process. The European Parliament and the North American Free Trade Agreement could be instrumental in creating policy and regulation that promotes insect pollination services in coffee production. The reciprocity between the services of insect pollinators in certified coffee production and their services in forest biodiversity production should be implicit in future policy negotiations to enhance both systems.

  14. Dynamic Spectrum Access: regulations, standards and green radio policy considerations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mfupe, L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available of ICT-related emissions globally. The overarching goal is to reach consensus within the global ICT sector on a common methodological framework for the measurement of energy consumption and carbon emissions arising from the production, and operation... of the standards that are of interest in the context of this paper include: (Note all IEEE standards are defined in [39]): ETSI reconfigurable radio systems (RRS) [37]: ETSI considers the feasibility of possible operations of the long- term evolution (LTE...

  15. The Influence of Climate Change Considerations on Energy Policy. The Case of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.; Golub, A.; Strukova, E.

    2003-10-01

    To those working on climate change it is obvious that energy policy should be influenced by climate change considerations. The question that this paper seeks to answer is, to what extent do they influence policy and what contribution can a careful analysis of the costs and benefits of climate change options have on the formulation of that policy. We seek to understand this by looking in some detail at energy policy formulation in Russia. To do so it is necessary to look at the whole set of issues that determine energy policy. These include energy security, macroeconomic and uncertainty factors, local environmental issues and social issues. The analysis has been carried out for a specific case - that of the RF, where energy policy is currently under formulation to 2010. Two options have been looked at: a 'High Coal' option, where there would be a substantial change in fuel mix away from gas to coal; and a 'High Gas' option where the current fuel mix is retained and the increase in demand is met from all sources in proportion to current use. The analysis shows that, at international prices for fuels, the 'High Coal' option is attractive. However, when we include the potential decline of price for natural gas in the European market, the relative preference for this option drops dramatically but it still remains the preferred option. When, account is also taken of the carbon benefits of the High Gas option, using plausible values for carbon, the attraction of the High Coal option is further reduced but not altered. When finally account is taken of the health associated with the lower use of coal in the High Gas option, the preference can be reversed but it requires a critical value for the health benefits. This critical value - at around USD 3,000 for a life year lost - is plausible for the RF, if anything the actual value is probably higher. What the analysis shows is the need for a careful evaluation of the different factors determining energy policy. Among these is

  16. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia's National Food Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009-2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP's consultation period (2011-2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation - in the NFP's Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia's food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia's socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia's political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to better support this

  17. Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

  18. Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2008-09-01

    The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

  19. Policy and technical considerations for intermediate-level and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section has addressed issues, topics, and considerations related to low-level and intermediate-level wastes that are basic to developing and establishing environmental radiation protection criteria for radioactive wastes. Applicability of criteria, criteria considerations for sites, control of radiological impact to the population, and long-term considerations are discussed

  20. An approach to developing the market for space shuttle payloads: Business/public policy issues and international marketing considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, W. A. W.

    1974-01-01

    The business and public policies were assessed that were determined to be important for NASA to consider in the design of a program for stimulating use of the space transportation system (STS) among potential users in the U.S. private sector and in foreign countries, in preparation for operations of the space shuttle in the early 1980's. Salient factors related to international cooperation in space are identified for special consideration in the development of user potential of the STS.

  1. Policy and technical considerations for high-level radioactive wastes: a statement of issues and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    There are a number of issues that EPA must consider in translating broad policy considerations into environmental protection criteria for high-level and TRU-contaminated waste. This paper reviews these issues and suggests some questions for discussion at this workshop

  2. On Effective Graphic Communication of Health Inequality: Considerations for Health Policy Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yukiko; Abel, Hannah; Skedgel, Chris; Warner, Grace

    2017-12-01

    Policy Points: Effective graphs can be a powerful tool in communicating health inequality. The choice of graphs is often based on preferences and familiarity rather than science. According to the literature on graph perception, effective graphs allow human brains to decode visual cues easily. Dot charts are easier to decode than bar charts, and thus they are more effective. Dot charts are a flexible and versatile way to display information about health inequality. Consistent with the health risk communication literature, the captions accompanying health inequality graphs should provide a numerical, explicitly calculated description of health inequality, expressed in absolute and relative terms, from carefully thought-out perspectives. Graphs are an essential tool for communicating health inequality, a key health policy concern. The choice of graphs is often driven by personal preferences and familiarity. Our article is aimed at health policy researchers developing health inequality graphs for policy and scientific audiences and seeks to (1) raise awareness of the effective use of graphs in communicating health inequality; (2) advocate for a particular type of graph (ie, dot charts) to depict health inequality; and (3) suggest key considerations for the captions accompanying health inequality graphs. Using composite review methods, we selected the prevailing recommendations for improving graphs in scientific reporting. To find the origins of these recommendations, we reviewed the literature on graph perception and then applied what we learned to the context of health inequality. In addition, drawing from the numeracy literature in health risk communication, we examined numeric and verbal formats to explain health inequality graphs. Many disciplines offer commonsense recommendations for visually presenting quantitative data. The literature on graph perception, which defines effective graphs as those allowing the easy decoding of visual cues in human brains, shows

  3. Climate change policy and international trade. Policy considerations in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Christopher L.; Peters, Glen P.

    2009-01-01

    Significant recent attention, in both research and policy realms, has been given to the intersection of international trade and global climate change. Trade presents challenges to climate policy through carbon leakage and competitiveness concerns, but also potential solutions through the use of cooperative trade agreements, technology transfer, or carbon tariffs against recalcitrant nations. This study examines how trade may affect climate policy in the US and specifically examines the use of carbon tariffs as suggested by recent bills before the US Congress. We argue that even if such actions are legal at the World Trade Organization, they are probably not necessary to protect industrial competitiveness in the traditional sense, could cover only a small proportion of total embodied emissions in trade, and may in fact be counterproductive at a moment when global cooperation is desperately needed. While political agreement may necessitate at least the threat of carbon tariffs, cooperative agreements such as global sectoral agreements, technology sharing, etc. could be more productive in the short term. (author)

  4. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    and their results are introduced as well. To provide an overview of current trends, related scientific projects and other analyses on climate change mitigation and transport are given in the report. The references used in this report can also serve as a source of data and inspiration for the reader. This report......This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark’s dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008...... challenges for the transport sectors, which has not yet been systematically analysed from any Governmental body. In this report we list projects which have done so. The first chapter describes policies and initiatives of international relevance within climate mitigation. The following chapters explain...

  5. Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    and also must provide workers with housing, transportation, and other benefits, including workers ’ compensation insurance. No health insurance coverage...bargaining representatives of the employer’s employees had been notified of the filing of the application for H-2A workers . An employer interested in...employer would have had to offer wages at least equal to the prevailing wage rate and would have had to provide “H” workers with health insurance

  6. Conflicts between energy policy as an aspect of overall economic policy and other relevant considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, J. W.

    1977-10-15

    Some of the difficulties which confront New Zealand in devising an appropriate energy policy are evaluated. Certain measures, involving a variety of instruments, intended to further a general aim or aims, embodied in more or less precisely defined objectives, are discussed. Social, economic, political, and technical desiderata and constraints will all be involved in varying degree, and definitive conclusions are unlikely. A further problem is that ends and means may be interdependent. The only certain thing about the future is that it cannot be forecast with any accuracy. This is as true of energy matters as of other things, despite the confidence with which some energy forecasts are made. Confronted with such uncertainty, it is sensible to leave open as many options as possible for as long as possible. More arguably, the unavoidable uncertainty about the future weighs against currently avoidable sacrifices in the interests of generations to come. It is simply not known whether the twenty-first century will judge them to have been worthwhile or not.

  7. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  8. Multicultural Policies and Interethnic Relations: Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Čičak-Chand

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian policy of multiculturalism recognised the positive and permanent influence of immigration on Canadian society and accepted “nation”-formation based on a model of cultural pluralism. Thus it assumed a radical “modification” of Canadian cultural definitions, instead of a formal adoption of certain “major” national cultural traditions. Canadian society, at the same time, experienced a growing divergence between the official policy of inclusion, and the increasing social exclusion of new immigrants – primarily “visible” minority groups – from economic spheres and from public life in general. In fact, the existing deep tensions in the society between two value systems – on the one hand, the reality of wide-spread racism, and on the other hand, the commitment to an ideology of liberal democracy, as well as poor results in integration policies, as indicated by marked unemployment, low incomes and poverty, especially in immigrant communities – have led to more and more frequent references to a prevailing “democratic racism” in Canada. With regard to the mentioned context, this paper first of all aims to indicate certain specificities in the development of ethnic relations and of multicultural policy, which are engrained and at the same time limited by their particular historical origin. Next, the paper intends to say something about the power of influence of the government’s multicultural policy, and the role of political correctness, as a concrete form of social action, in interethnic relations and in the opinions of the majority society in regard to ethnic minorities, and especially in regard to “visible” groups.

  9. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    China Relations: Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 8 Center; the U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Action Plan; and the U.S.-China Energy...January 25, 2010. 28 Liu Shengjun, “How to Better Use Forex Reserves,” China Daily, January 13, 2010. 29 Paul R. La Monica, “China Still Likes Us…For...or commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration technology, improve energy efficiency , or renewable energy sources. H.R. 2454 Waxman

  10. Chapter 4. Economic Considerations: Cost-Effective and Efficient Climate Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Auffhammer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter we discuss the economics of climate change. We begin with a discussion of economic considerations that are important to take into account when designing and evaluating climate policy, including cost effectiveness and efficiency. We then discuss specific policies at the state, national, and international level in light of these economic considerations.  We have several recommendations for the path forward for climate policy. First, the goal of climate policy should be to reduce the damages caused by greenhouse gases. In addition to mitigation policy to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, one can also reduce the damages causes by greenhouse gases by adaptation measures that reduce our vulnerability to climate change impacts.  Second, policy-makers should use incentive- (or market- based instruments as opposed to command and control policies (including quantity-based mandates whenever possible. Whenever unpriced emissions are the sole market failure, incentive-based instruments such as a carbon tax or cap and trade program are more likely to achieve the social optimum and maximize social net benefits [1, 2]. Lin and Prince [3] calculate that the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California is $1.37 per gallon.  Our third recommendation is to address the risk of emissions leakage, which arises when only one jurisdiction (e.g., California imposes climate policy, but not the entire world. One way to reduce emissions leakage is to use the strategic distribution of emissions allowances to local producers. This method, known as “output-based allocation” or benchmarking, effectively subsidizes local producers and at least partially offsets the increase in their costs caused by an emissions cap [4]. Importantly, only local production is eligible for an allocation of valuable allowances, providing a counterweight to the incentive for emission leakage. Our fourth recommendation is that if they are used instead

  11. Short-term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism-related policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Tourism policy development is an increasingly complex activity involving multiple public sector agencies, industry and community stakeholders and non-government organisations at different scales. This discussion paper examines the implications for tourism of governments adopting short- term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism related policies and identifies policy considerations to maximize the growth potential of tourism. The key issue is to understand how governments c...

  12. Environmental considerations related to mining of nonfuel minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Throughout most of human history, environmental stewardship during mining has not been a priority partly because of the lack of applicable laws and regulations and partly because of ignorance about the effects that mining can have on the environment. In the United States, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, in conjunction with related laws, codified a more modern approach to mining, including the responsibility for environmental stewardship, and provided a framework for incorporating environmental protection into mine planning. Today, similar frameworks are in place in the other developed countries of the world, and international mining companies generally follow similar procedures wherever they work in the world. The regulatory guidance has fostered an international effort among all stakeholders to identify best practices for environmental stewardship.The modern approach to mining using best practices involves the following: (a) establishment of a pre-mining baseline from which to monitor environmental effects during mining and help establish geologically reasonable closure goals; (b) identification of environmental risks related to mining through standardized approaches; and (c) formulation of an environmental closure plan before the start of mining. A key aspect of identifying the environmental risks and mitigating those risks is understanding how the risks vary from one deposit type to another—a concept that forms the basis for geoenvironmental mineral-deposit models.Accompanying the quest for best practices is the goal of making mining sustainable into the future. Sustainable mine development is generally considered to be development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept extends beyond the availability of nonrenewable mineral commodities and includes the environmental and social effects of mine development.Global population growth, meanwhile, has

  13. Short-term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism-related policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    Tourism policy development is an increasingly complex activity involving multiple public sector agencies, industry and community stakeholders and non-government organisations at different scales. This discussion paper examines the implications for tourism of governments adopting short- term versus...... long-term approaches to the development of tourism related policies and identifies policy considerations to maximize the growth potential of tourism. The key issue is to understand how governments can strengthen their support for tourism growth and development by taking an integrated cross......-sector policy approach. The discussion paper commences by examining the unique character of tourism policyscape and recognises that it involves a wide variety of inter-linked policy sectors that often operate and develop policies in separate policy processes. Little attention is placed on cross-sector policy...

  14. The Role of Water Policy in Mexico : Sustainability, Equity, and Economic Growth Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Asad; Ariel Dinar

    2006-01-01

    With water in Mexico becoming very scarce spatially and over time, it is now a factor that limits economic activity and social well-being in several regions. The identification of priorities and trade-offs in relation to water allocation requires careful and timely attention to address an ever-growing range of complications arising from the impact of various interlinked considerations, suc...

  15. Technical considerations relative to removal of sodium from LMFBR components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J S; Asquith, J G

    1975-07-01

    Reviewed in this paper are technical considerations which are of importance in choosing between an alcohol process and a moist nitrogen process for the removal of sodium from LMFBR components. Results observed in laboratory tests and in the cleaning of large scale components (e.g. a 28 MWt Modular Steam Generator Test Unit) are presented and discussed. (author)

  16. Barriers to knowledge production, knowledge translation, and urban health policy change: ideological, economic, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.

  17. Economic considerations and health in all policies initiatives: evidence from interviews with key informants in Sweden, Quebec and South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andrew D; Molnar, Agnes; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia J; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2015-02-18

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a form of intersectoral action that aims to include the promotion of health in government initiatives across sectors. To date, there has been little study of economic considerations within the implementation of HiAP. As part of an ongoing program of research on the implementation of HiAP around the world, we examined how economic considerations influence the implementation of HiAP. By economic considerations we mean the cost and financial gain (or loss) of implementing a HiAP process or structure within government, or the cost and financial gain (or loss) of the policies that emerge from such a HiAP process or structure. We examined three jurisdictions: Sweden, Quebec and South Australia. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 to 14 key informants in each jurisdiction. Two investigators separately coded transcripts to identify relevant statements. Initial readings of transcripts led to the development of a coding framework for statements related to economic considerations. First, economic evaluations of HiAP are viewed as important for prompting HiAP and many forms of economic evaluation were considered. However, economic evaluations were often absent, informal, or incomplete. Second, funding for HiAP initiatives is important, but is less important than a high-level commitment to intersectoral collaboration. Furthermore, having multiple sources of funding of HiAP can be beneficial, if it increases participation across government, but can also be disadvantageous, if it exposes underlying tensions. Third, HiAP can also highlight the challenge of achieving both economic and social objectives. Our results are useful for elaborating propositions for use in realist multiple explanatory case studies. First, we propose that economic considerations are currently used primarily as a method by health sectors to promote and legitimize HiAP to non-health sectors with the goal of securing resources for HiAP. Second

  18. Key policy considerations for facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ockwell, David G.; Watson, Jim; MacKerron, Gordon; Pal, Prosanto; Yamin, Farhana

    2008-01-01

    Based on Phase I of a UK-India collaborative study, this paper analyses two case studies of low carbon technologies-hybrid vehicles and coal-fired power generation via integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The analysis highlights the following six key considerations for the development of policy aimed at facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries: (1) technology transfer needs to be seen as part of a broader process of sustained, low carbon technological capacity development in recipient countries; (2) the fact that low carbon technologies are at different stages of development means that low carbon technology transfer involves both vertical transfer (the transfer of technologies from the R and D stage through to commercialisation) and horizontal transfer (the transfer from one geographical location to another). Barriers to transfer and appropriate policy responses often vary according to the stage of technology development as well as the specific source and recipient country contexts; (3) less integrated technology transfer arrangements, involving, for example, acquisition of different items of plant from a range of host country equipment manufacturers, are more likely to involve knowledge exchange and diffusion through recipient country economies; (4) recipient firms that, as part of the transfer process, strategically aim to obtain technological know-how and knowledge necessary for innovation during the transfer process are more likely to be able to develop their capacity as a result; (5) whilst access to Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) may sometimes be a necessary part of facilitating technology transfer, it is not likely to be sufficient in itself. Other factors such as absorptive capacity and risks associated with new technologies must also be addressed; (6) there is a central role for both national and international policy interventions in achieving low carbon technology transfer. The lack of available empirical analysis

  19. Policies and interventions on employment relations and health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Michael; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Vergara, Montserrat; Eijkemans, Gerry; Santana, Vilma; Chung, Haejoo; Castedo, Antía; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The association between certain increasingly pervasive employment conditions and serious health inequalities presents a significant policy challenge. A critical starting point is the recognition that these problems have not arisen in a policy vacuum. Rather, policy frameworks implemented by governments over the past 35 years, in conjunction with corporate globalization (itself facilitated by neoliberal policies), have undermined preexisting social protection policies and encouraged the growth of health-damaging forms of work organization. After a brief description of the context in which recent developments should be viewed, this article describes how policies can be reconfigured to address health-damaging employment conditions. A number of key policy objectives and entry points are identified, with a summary of policies for each entry point, relating to particular employment conditions relevant to rich and poor countries. Rather than trying to elaborate these policy interventions in detail, the authors point to several critical issues in relation to these interventions, linking these to illustrative examples.

  20. A FEW CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SPHERE OF FINANCIAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bota Anton Florin

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses his financial affairs sphere, looking at this issue under a double aspect: analysis of the financial relations sphere and analyzing the financial activity sphere. Analysis of the financial relations sphere is made on the basis of fou

  1. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia’s National Food Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009–2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP’s consultation period (2011–2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives – efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation – in the NFP’s Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia’s food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia’s socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia’s political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to

  2. Integrating environmental sustainability considerations into food and nutrition policies: insights from Australia’s National Food Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Megan Ridgway

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental sustainability (ES of food systems is a critical challenge for policy-makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009 – 2015, a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP’s consultation period (2011 – 2013 and a framing analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint and system transformation – in the NFP’s Issues, Green and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia’s food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and approximately 65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP the influence of Australia’s sociopolitical context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy-making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia’s political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation

  3. A FEW CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SPHERE OF FINANCIAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bota Anton Florin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses his financial affairs sphere, looking at this issue under a double aspect: analysis of the financial relations sphere and analyzing the financial activity sphere. Analysis of the financial relations sphere is made on the basis of fou

  4. Using the Environmental Kuznets Curve to evaluate energy policy: Some practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen P.A.; McDonough, Ian K.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is a widely applied empirical model that is used to assess the effect of country's increased income on its emissions (such as CO 2 ). Typical estimation is of a reduced form model relating per capita emissions to per capita GDP (and sometimes to energy consumption) with an eye toward determining whether a country's per capita emissions increase or decrease with per capita GDP. In this article, we consider a number of practical issues in estimating and using the EKC for energy policy analysis. Proper estimation procedures should be used if the empirical work is to provide valid estimates of the EKC's shape. In addition, policymakers should proceed with caution when crafting policy on the basis of reduced form estimates of the EKC because the reduced form model provides limited insight into the policy implications of the relationship between income, energy consumption and emissions. - Highlights: • Many practical issues need to be considered when estimating the EKC. • Concerns expressed by some about use of polynomial functions are misplaced. • Confidence bands on EKC turning points should be provided. • Differences in short and long-run elasticities are not indicative of EKC shape. • Reduced-form estimates should be interpreted cautiously by policymakers.

  5. Marker-assisted selection: Policy considerations and options for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargie, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Policy options for research, development and diffusion of the products of marker-assisted selection (MAS) depend on the development objectives and priorities of the agricultural sector, its various subsectors and cross-cutting activities dealing with science and technology (S and T), including biotechnology and the management of genetic resources. The policy agenda in each of these areas has shifted from the traditional focus of 'raising productivity' to a broader agenda of improving rural livelihoods in both economic and non-economic terms in support of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Securing financial commitments from national governments and donors to invest in MAS and related molecular approaches requires more active engagement by national agricultural research and extension systems (NARES) in the processes of revising poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs), and in developing policies and strategies for agricultural development, S and T and genetic resources. Agriculture and agricultural S and T are undergoing rapid change but few developing countries have either agricultural S and T or biotechnology policies. They need to develop these to build coherence across the agricultural sector including delineating the roles of public and private sector entities, and as a means to strengthen accountability with respect to priority setting, monitoring and evaluating the outcomes and impacts of both research and practical applications of MAS. Options are provided for developing and implementing MAS programmes and projects, for setting priorities and evaluating outcomes and impacts. Given the uncertain nature of technical change and the long time frames that often characterize translation of the research and extension services provided by NARES into sustainable improvements in productivity and livelihoods through genetic enhancement, it is concluded that greater emphasis needs to be placed on research to analyse systematically the critical paths involved in

  6. Norms and the development of new knowledge as determinants of climate policy. Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schymura, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of long-term effects of climate change in cost-benefit analysis has a long tradition in environmental economics. Since the publication of the ''Stern Review'' in 2006, the debate about the impacts of climate change on the economy and how to compare cost and benefits with each other was revived. The assessment of climate change mitigation policies mainly depends on three not mutually exclusive decisions: First, the discount rate chosen, since costs are incurred today and long-term benefits occur in the future. Second, the uncertainties related to the problem of climate change. This debate was spurred by the literature surrounding Martin Weitzman's ''dismal theorem'', stating that the unknown unknowns could be too large for cost-benefit analysis of long-term climate policy measures. And third, the treatment of technological change in economic models of climate policy. This dissertation contributes to all three mentioned aspects and consists of two interrelated parts. First, I discuss norms, economic welfare criteria, and catastrophic risks in the context of climate change. This first part is closely bound to a discussion of the Stern Review. The second part of the dissertation deals with technological change in its various dimensions and addresses several questions: How is technological change taken into consideration in large-scale environment-economy models? How do certain inputs substitute each other? And how does technology affect energy intensity, a key parameter for meeting targets set by climate policy? Alongside these questions, I also discuss how the production of knowledge takes place in an environmental and resource economics framework and how knowledge production patterns have changed during previous decades. While the first part is of theoretical nature, the second part is mainly empirical. Summing up, I suggest approaches towards long-term evaluation of climate policies and how some methodological drawbacks of the ''Stern Review'' could

  7. Dilemmas in health promotion in Brazil: the National Policy under consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Traverso-Yépez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a recurrent theme in day-to-day life, health promotion is a complex and multifaceted concept. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the dilemmas and problematic aspects of institutional ideas about health promotion. It also emphasizes the difficulty of thinking about health promotion, without also considering how to eradicate the deep social iniquities of the Brazilian context. The article develops this line of thinking in depth by analysing the National Health Promotion Policy instituted in 2006, and demonstrates the relevance of deconstructing politically correct discourses and developing processes of reflection in our health-related practices.

  8. Employment-related administrative roentgenograms: characteristics of policy formulation and current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gift, D.A.; Harris, G.I.; Gard, J.W.; Alexander, G.P.; Potchen, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    A significant proportion of diagnostic medical procedures are used in response to public or private policy rather than in response to an individual patient-physician interaction. We have studied the system whereby such policies are developed and implemented in the case of employment-related chest and lumbar spine roentgenograms, which were found to account for about 11% of the total use of diagnostic radiographs in the state of Michigan. We observed that factors influencing formulation of policy are diverse and largely nonmedical, organizational policies developed in similar environments are often very dissimilar and are highly subject to external influence, and perceptions of policy success and examination utility are typically subjective and uncertain. It is concluded that considerable opportunity exists to enhance the efficacy of such radiographic examinations through leverage provided by their policy-driven nature

  9. Policy Analysis, International Relations, and European Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Tatham, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the rationale of the special issue in terms of its objectives and guiding principles. It maps different evolutions and challenges within three analytical streams (1) regarding the field of policy analysis, (2) concerning the interaction between domestic and international...... affairs, and (3) with regards to the transformation of European Union governance in troubled times. These three research avenues highlight how not only European governance itself has evolved in a changing world, but also how the analysis of interests, institutions, and policy-making has morphed...

  10. THE RISE OF FAR RIGHT IN EUROPE: CHALLENGES AND CONSIDERATIONS RELEVANT TO THE EDUCATIONAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaggelia KALERANTE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The political situation formed across Europe on a political level with the rise of far right and the adoption of attitudes and behaviours representative of the broader acceptance of far right ideologies on a social level is the focal point of this paper. This issue should also be a consideration in terms of education so that an educational model reinforcing democracy and humanism is formed. Concentration is placed on the Greek educational policy aiming at suggesting interventions in the curriculum and the educational school reality, too. This is a period when an increasing number of individuals educate themselves for long years. Therefore, formal education encompassing Primary and Secondary education as well as lifelong education should be emphasized. As regards schools, democracy and humanism should be aligned to the school environment and the formulated juvenile culture. As regards lifelong education, the topics and content offered through seminars should be enriched with theoretical principles which are reinforcing to the association of learners with the democratic operation of society.

  11. Social Equity Considerations in the Implementation of Caribbean Climate Change Adaptation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Ahmad

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As the Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean prepare to take climate change adaptation measures, there is a distinct possibility that the most vulnerable groups, especially the poor, women, indigenous, elderly, and children in rural and coastal communities are at risk of being marginalized. It is necessary to take into consideration the adaptation needs of these groups that are likely to be disproportionately affected due to inherent structural and social disparities. In this paper we focus on the need to ensure inclusion and social equity in adaptation planning as climate change issues disproportionately impact health, settlement, and livelihoods of these vulnerable groups. We also focus on climate change potential impacts on tourism, agriculture and fisheries sectors, which are the major economic drivers of these island states. Based on Caribbean region wide observations, we recommend priority areas including increasing community participation, local initiatives and filling critical socio-economic and livelihood data gaps, which policy makers need to focus on and incorporate in their climate change adaptation plans in order to ensure effective and equitable climate change adaptation

  12. CONSIDERATIONS APPLICABLE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS OF WAGES AND RELATED RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    NASTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA; AVRAM MARIOARA

    2014-01-01

    General research area of this article is the issue of employee benefits nationwide and can be placed in the sphere of accounting research at the intersection of the finance research and field research on human resource management. The current conditions of global economic crisis, rewarding staff works on two levels, influencing both the behavior of employees and the efficiency of the economic entity. Wages and related rights are regulated under International Accounting Sta...

  13. CONSIDERATIONS APPLICABLE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS OF WAGES AND RELATED RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the issue of employee benefits nationwide and can be placed in the sphere of accounting research at the intersection of the finance research and field research on human resource management. The current conditions of global economic crisis, rewarding staff works on two levels, influencing both the behavior of employees and the efficiency of the economic entity. Wages and related rights are regulated under International Accounting Standards and International Financial Reporting Standards by IAS 19 "Employee Benefits" and IFRS 2 "Share-based Payment". Concerns over the years, on remuneration, was the International Accounting Standards Board, as in 1998 was developed International Accounting Standard 19 "Employee Benefits" and in 2004 was drafted to International Financial Reporting Standard 2 "Share-based Payment". This article is part of a broader research and through it we tried to address a topical issue that employee benefits and consequences of the degree of economic and financial development of economic entities and living standards of the population.

  14. Considerations of net present value in policy making regarding diagnostic and therapeutic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califf, Robert M; Rasiel, Emma B; Schulman, Kevin A

    2008-11-01

    The pharmaceutical and medical device industries function in a business environment in which shareholders expect companies to optimize profit within legal and ethical standards. A fundamental tool used to optimize decision making is the net present value calculation, which estimates the current value of cash flows relating to an investment. We examined 3 prototypical research investment decisions that have been the source of public scrutiny to illustrate how policy decisions can be better understood when their impact on societally desirable investments by industry are viewed from the standpoint of their impact on net present value. In the case of direct, comparative clinical trials, a simple net present value calculation provides insight into why companies eschew such investments. In the case of pediatric clinical trials, the Pediatric Extension Rule changed the net present value calculation from unattractive to potentially very attractive by allowing patent extensions; thus, the dramatic increase in pediatric clinical trials can be explained by the financial return on investment. In the case of products for small markets, the fixed costs of development make this option financially unattractive. Policy decisions can be better understood when their impact on societally desirable investments by the pharmaceutical and medical device industries are viewed from the standpoint of their impact on net present value.

  15. The Relative Effectiveness of Monetary and Fiscal Policies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Relative Effectiveness of Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Economic ... the St. Louis model of the Federal Reserve Bank of USA by Anderson and Jordan 1978. ... the extent of the quantitative impact and relative significance of the variables ...

  16. Researching Education Policy in a Globalized World: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows how globalization has given rise to a number of new theoretical and methodological issues for doing education policy analysis linked to globalization's impact within critical social science. Critical policy analysis has always required critical "reflexivity" and awareness of the "positionality" of the policy analyst. However, as…

  17. Financial considerations of policy options to enhance biomass utilization for reducing wildfire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Debra Larson; Eini C. Lowell

    2009-01-01

    The Harvest Cost-Revenue Estimator, a financial model, was used to examine the cost sensitivity of forest biomass harvesting scenarios to targeted policies designed to stimulate wildfire hazardous fuel reduction projects. The policies selected represent actual policies enacted by federal and state governments to provide incentive to biomass utilization and are aimed at...

  18. Policy, systems, and environmental change in the Mississippi Delta: considerations for evaluation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C; Honeycutt, Sally; Davis, Melvin; Dauria, Emily; Berg, Carla; Dove, Cassandra; Gamble, Abigail; Hawkins, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    Community-level policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies may offer an economical and sustainable approach to chronic disease prevention. The rapidly growing number of untested but promising PSE strategies currently underway offers an exciting opportunity to establish practice-based evidence for this approach. This article presents lessons learned from an evaluation of a community-based PSE initiative targeting stroke and cardiovascular disease prevention in the Mississippi Delta. Its purpose is to describe one approach to evaluating this type of PSE initiative, to stimulate discussion about best practices for evaluating PSE strategies, and to inform future evaluation and research efforts to expand practice-based evidence. The evaluation used a descriptive mixed-methods design and focused on the second year of a multisectoral, multiyear initiative. Cross-sectional data were collected in the summer and fall of 2010 using four data collection instruments: a grantee interview guide (n = 32), a health council member survey (n = 256), an organizational survey (n = 60), and a grantee progress report (n = 26). Fifty-eight PSE changes were assessed across five sectors: health, faith, education, worksite, and community/city government. PSE strategies aligned with increased access to physical activity opportunities, healthy food and beverage options, quality health care, and reduced exposure to tobacco. Results showed that grantees were successful in completing a series of steps toward PSE change and that sector-specific initiatives resulted in a range of PSE changes that were completed or in progress. Considerations for designing evaluations of community-based PSE initiatives are discussed. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. 75 FR 42088 - Policy Statement Establishing a Pilot Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the Commission AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION.... However, if within 60 business days of the filing of a request for consideration, the Commission has not.... Accordingly, any legal issues that qualify for consideration under the Advisory Opinion process are not...

  20. How to reduce household carbon emissions: A review of experience and policy design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Global warming and environment problems caused by the excessive emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), along with rapid economic development has attracted the attention of many countries and regions of the world. Reducing GHG emissions is essential to mitigate the threat of global warming. Household carbon (dioxide) emissions have been recognized as one of the most important contributors to climate change, with a significant impact on both the local and global environment, and various policy instruments have been implemented by governments to bring about the reduction. This paper reviews these carbon abatement policy measures from demand-side and supply-side perspectives based on 144 countries across the world. The advantages and disadvantages of the policies are analyzed and it is found that income level largely affects the choice of policy, with high-income countries being mostly associated with demand-side policy instruments. Low-income countries adopt less demand-side policy measures and mainly depend on supply-side polices such as targets and regulations. Geographic location is also an important factor influencing the choice of policy instruments due to the different climates between different regions, although targets, regulations and carbon taxes are dominant GHG reduction policy measures worldwide. In America, tendering and net metering are popular, while in Europe feed-in-tariff (FIT) policies are implemented for more than 70% of the time. In Asia, policy measures, whether supply-side or demand-side, are comparatively weakly implemented and influenced by location, urbanization and economic growth. This paper suggests that, although the economic level is different, low-income countries and particularly developing countries can promote carbon abatement as well as the financial market by gradually changing from supply-side policy instruments to demand-side policies. This critical review provides a systematic understanding of various carbon emission policies in

  1. China's Industrial Policy in Relation to Electronics Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongxiu Zhao; Xiaoling Huang; Dongya Ye; Paul Gentle

    2007-01-01

    China has become the biggest exporter of electronic products in the world. Government policy intervention has contributed significantly to the rapid expansion of the electronics industry. The present paper examines the evolutionary development of industrial policies related to the electronics industry in China and the impacts of such policies on the shaping of the industry. In particular, the relationship between foreign funded enterprises and domestic firms are examined in detail. The future trend of the industry is also discussed in the paper, and the policy focus of the Chinese Government is predicted.

  2. Economic Motives for Adopting LGBT-Related Workplace Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad; Mallory, Christy; Hunter, Nan

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a large increase in the number of corporations adopting LGBT-related workplace policies.  This study evaluates the economic impact of non-discrimination and benefits policies by analyzing the extent to which economic reasons motivate corporations to adopt such policies.  This study reviews statements issued when adopting such policies by the top 50 Fortune 500 companies and the top 50 federal government contractors.  Overall, we find that almost all of top 50 Fortune ...

  3. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hübner, Claudia; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Danielsdottir, Sigrun; Brähler, Elmar; Puhl, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513), public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  4. The policy relevance of absolute and relative poverty headcounts: What's in a number?

    OpenAIRE

    Notten, Geranda; de Neubourg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Financial poverty indicators still play an important role in policymaking and evaluation. Countries such as the USA and the EU member states use one or several ‘official’ poverty indicators on which success of poverty reduction policy is regularly monitored. Whereas the US poverty indicator is based on an absolute concept of poverty, the EU Laeken indicator is based on a relative concept. But the consequences of such a decision are considerable. As absolute and relative poverty indicators ref...

  5. The Vietnamese lending rate, policy-related rate, and monetary policy post-1997 Asian financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetries in the Vietnamese lending central bank’s policy-related rate spread were documented. Empirical results revealed that the spread adjusts to the threshold faster when the central bank’s policy-related rates decrease relative to the lending rates than when the central bank’s policy-related rates move in the opposite direction. Additionally, the empirical findings indicate that Vietnamese commercial banks exhibit competitive rate setting behavior which may be attributable to graft maximization by bank’s management. The results also show bidirectional Granger causality between the Vietnamese lending rate and the central bank’s policy-related rate, indicating that the lending rate and the central bank’s policy-related rate affect each other’s movements. These results suggest that monetary authority can use its countercyclical monetary policy instruments to achieve its macroeconomics objectives. However, the estimation results of the GARCH (2, 3-in-Mean model suggest that they should intervene more frequently and by small policy measures to minimize the conditional variance of the spread to minimize the magnitude of the cycle of the lending rate.

  6. Individualism, instrumental reason and policy texts: some considerations from the perspective of contemporary political philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Rita; Martins, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    This article dialogues with Matthew Weinstein's paper named "NGSS, disposability, and the ambivalence of Science in/under neoliberalism", in which he explores the argument that at the same time the NGSS framework is largely identified with neoliberal discourse, it presents points of ambivalence and resistance within. In this dialogue, we focused on two topics that we believe are important for the discussion of the ambivalences highlighted in the author's argument, namely: the the social production of indifference as a consequence of the neoliberal ideology and the production of a version of science streamlined for the neoliberal technoscientific job market within the `neoliberal ecosystem'. Based on the thesis of the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor on ethics and on the concept of hybridism, we linked Weinsteins' analysis to issues related to individualism and instrumental reason, pointing out that it is possible that the ambivalences highlighted by Weinstein are, in fact, a component of neoliberal discourse. Nevertheless we agree that this kind of text presents loopholes that allows practices oriented for social change and for the improvement of democracies in progress. We conclude that for those who dedicate themselves to reflect upon educational strategies to cope with the hegemonic model remains the challenge of finding spaces and times in the curriculum in order to explore the gaps in policy texts and, more important, to promote the experience of democratic practices throughout the school communities.

  7. Considerations on the EU definition of a nanomaterial: science to support policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Eric A J; de Jong, Wim H; Geertsma, Robert E; Groenewold, Monique; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Koers-Jacquemijns, Marjorie; van de Meent, Dik; Popma, Jan R; Rietveld, Anton G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Cassee, Flemming R; Oomen, Agnes G

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of applications and products containing or using nanomaterials have become available. This has raised concerns that some of these materials may introduce new risks for humans or the environment. A clear definition to discriminate nanomaterials from other materials is prerequisite to include provisions for nanomaterials in legislation. In October 2011 the European Commission published the 'Recommendation on the definition of a nanomaterial', primarily intended to provide unambiguous criteria to identify materials for which special regulatory provisions might apply, but also to promote consistency on the interpretation of the term 'nanomaterial'. In this paper, the current status of various regulatory frameworks of the European Union with regard to nanomaterials is described, and major issues relevant for regulation of nanomaterials are discussed. This will contribute to better understanding the implications of the choices policy makers have to make in further regulation of nanomaterials. Potential issues that need to be addressed and areas of research in which science can contribute are indicated. These issues include awareness on situations in which nano-related risks may occur for materials that fall outside the definition, guidance and further development of measurement techniques, and dealing with changes during the life cycle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Policies for Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions : A review of concepts, current policy landscape and future policy considerations for the transition to a Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Milios, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    This report presents basic concepts around resources, resource efficiency and the Circular Economy. The limitations and the opportunities within the Circular Economy are identified and clearly presented. The current policy landscape in the EU as well as in Sweden is thoroughly analysed and a set of policy areas with a significant untapped potential for resource efficiency is identified. The policy areas which have been underutilised so far include policies for re-use, repair and remanufacturi...

  9. Payout phase in DC pension funds – policy option - Theoretical considerations and Albanian available options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkeleda Shehi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the third pillar of pensions in Albania and what are the different alternatives related to the payout. Referring to the actual development of this market in Albania, experience of the actors involved, I find it indispensable and necessary to provide some theoretical background and considerations, and then build up a simple model of projection of a pension scheme cost and a model for payout alternatives for the Albanian pension funds. A great deal of importance is shown towards posing the assumptions. Also, the paper gives an explanation about the differences among different payout options and suggests the best option for the existing pension funds in Albania. The best option represents my conclusion and recommendation for the actual third pillar of pensions and the others that might join latter. To sum up, the first conclusion of the paper is that the annuity option is the best alternative for the payout phase of the pensions. It has the advantage of providing the highest protection against the risk of longevity. The second conclusion is that based on other countries experiences, the annuity market have to be developed hand in hand with the pension system development. Therefore Albania should rely on and follow this experience.

  10. Public relations policy: The Electronuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Luiz

    2000-01-01

    This presentation discusses the following topics: Historical and Cultural Aspects of Electrical Sector in Brazil; Nuclear Power and Public Acceptance in Brazil; The chances decision of Angra 3; Community Activities of the ELETRONUCLEAR Regional Programs and Emergency Planning Department whose function is to promote activities with or for the communities of Angra dos Reis region; Public Relations Actions

  11. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

  12. Optimal pricing policies for services with consideration of facility maintenance costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ruey Huei; Lin, Yi-Fang

    2012-06-01

    For survival and success, pricing is an essential issue for service firms. This article deals with the pricing strategies for services with substantial facility maintenance costs. For this purpose, a mathematical framework that incorporates service demand and facility deterioration is proposed to address the problem. The facility and customers constitute a service system driven by Poisson arrivals and exponential service times. A service demand with increasing price elasticity and a facility lifetime with strictly increasing failure rate are also adopted in modelling. By examining the bidirectional relationship between customer demand and facility deterioration in the profit model, the pricing policies of the service are investigated. Then analytical conditions of customer demand and facility lifetime are derived to achieve a unique optimal pricing policy. The comparative statics properties of the optimal policy are also explored. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effects of parameter variations on the optimal pricing policy.

  13. Burning in moral, drowning in rationality?:Ethical considerations in forming environmental policy

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Christer

    2005-01-01

      We have experienced an increasing use of both economic and political instruments in attempts to induce households to contribute to sustainable development. However, there is a lack of understanding of how these tools interplay with the motives held by households and the daily constraints they face. The purpose of this paper is to give some anecdotal evidence on how moral motives may affect different policies in force, and to give some insights on how to proceed in designing policy instru...

  14. (1) Economical and political considerations for policy design (2) The US Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varming, S.; Eriksen, P.B.; Grohnheit, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    The subject is the possible use of tradable CO2 permits in European energy policy. Many different issues are involved in this subject, which is reflected in the multitude of approaches that are used in this study.......The subject is the possible use of tradable CO2 permits in European energy policy. Many different issues are involved in this subject, which is reflected in the multitude of approaches that are used in this study....

  15. How the Timing of Climate Change Policy Affects Infrastructure Turnover in the Electricity Sector: Engineering, Economic and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Catherine Finlay

    The electricity sector is responsible for producing 35% of US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates suggest that ideally, the electricity sector would be responsible for approximately 85% of emissions abatement associated with climate polices such as America's Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES). This is equivalent to ˜50% cumulative emissions reductions below projected cumulative business-as-usual (BAU) emissions. Achieving these levels of emissions reductions will require dramatic changes in the US electricity generating infrastructure: almost all of the fossil-generation fleet will need to be replaced with low-carbon sources and society is likely to have to maintain a high build rate of new capacity for decades. Unfortunately, the inertia in the electricity sector means that there may be physical constraints to the rate at which new electricity generating capacity can be built. Because the build rate of new electricity generating capacity may be limited, the timing of regulation is critical---the longer the U.S. waits to start reducing GHG emissions, the faster the turnover in the electricity sector must occur in order to meet the same target. There is a real, and thus far unexplored, possibility that the U.S. could delay climate change policy implementation for long enough that it becomes infeasible to attain the necessary rate of turnover in the electricity sector. This dissertation investigates the relationship between climate policy timing and infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector. The goal of the dissertation is to answer the question: How long can we wait before constraints on infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector make achieving our climate goals impossible? Using the Infrastructure Flow Assessment Model, which was developed in this work, this dissertation shows that delaying climate change policy increases average retirements rates by 200-400%, increases average construction rates by 25-85% and increases maximum construction

  16. Belief in Food Addiction and Obesity-Related Policy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables), while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Online Community. Participants 200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Measurements Participants (n = 193) responded to three questions about belief in food addiction and a measure evaluating support for 13 obesity-related policy initiatives. Individuals also completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale (mYFAS), self-reported height and weight, and provided demographic information (age, gender, race, political party affiliation). Results Belief in food addiction was significantly associated with greater support for obesity-related initiatives, even when accounting for the significant associations of age, gender, and political party. Belief in food addiction and political party both had moderate effect sizes for predicting support for obesity-related policy. There was an interaction between age and belief in food addiction, with significant associations with policy support for both younger and older individuals, though the effect was larger for younger participants. Conclusion The current study provides evidence that belief in food addiction is associated with increased obesity-related policy support, comparable to the influence of one’s political party. Growing evidence for the role of an addictive process in obesity may have important implications for public support of obesity-related policy initiatives. PMID:26808427

  17. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  18. Maintenance policy selection for ships: finding the most important criteria and considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Adriaan; Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of technical capital assets is gaining increasing attention, as maintenance is an important contributor to reach the intended life-time of these expensive assets. This paper focusses on maintenance policy selection (MPS) for ships using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. It builds on

  19. A content analysis of posthumous sperm procurement protocols with considerations for developing an institutional policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahm, Sarah M; Karkazis, Katrina; Magnus, David

    2013-09-01

    To identify and analyze existing posthumous sperm procurement (PSP) protocols in order to outline central themes for institutions to consider when developing future policies. Qualitative content analysis. Large academic institutions across the United States. We performed a literature search and contacted 40 institutions to obtain nine full PSP protocols. We then performed a content analysis on these policies to identify major themes and factors to consider when developing a PSP protocol. Presence of a PSP policy. We identified six components of a thorough PSP protocol: Standard of Evidence, Terms of Eligibility, Sperm Designee, Restrictions on Use in Reproduction, Logistics, and Contraindications. We also identified two different approaches to policy structure. In the Limited Role approach, institutions have stricter consent requirements and limit their involvement to the time of procurement. In the Family-Centered approach, substituted judgment is permitted but a mandatory wait period is enforced before sperm use in reproduction. Institutions seeking to implement a PSP protocol will benefit from considering the six major building blocks of a thorough protocol and where they would like to fall on the spectrum from a Limited Role to a Family-Centered approach. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: national obligations and policy considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G.; Krone, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged to ex......-contaminated wild game meat. Opposition from hunting organizations would be expected....

  1. Researching International Processes of Education Policy Formation: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article elaborates one approach to conceptualizing and investigating international processes of education policy formation (IPEPF), which are dynamic, multi-level and processual in nature. This contribution is important because, although research is increasingly conducted on phenomena with such characteristics, extended discussions of how…

  2. Obesity as a Socially Defined Disease: Philosophical Considerations and Implications for Policy and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2016-03-01

    Obesity has generated significant worries amongst health policy makers and has obtained increased attention in health care. Obesity is unanimously defined as a disease in the health care and health policy literature. However, there are pragmatic and not principled reasons for this. This warrants an analysis of obesity according to standard conceptions of disease in the literature of philosophy of medicine. According to theories and definitions of disease referring to (abnormal functioning of) internal processes, obesity is not a disease. Obesity undoubtedly can result in disease, making it a risk factor for disease, but not a disease per se. According to several social conceptions of disease, however, obesity clearly is a disease. Obesity can conflict with aesthetic, moral, or other social norms. Making obesity a "social disease" may very well be a wise health policy, assuring and improving population health, especially if we address the social determinants of obesity, such as the food supply and marketing system. However, applying biomedical solutions to social problems may also have severe side effects. It can result in medicalization and enhance stigmatization and discrimination of persons based on appearance or behavior. Approaching social problems with biomedical means may also serve commercial and professionals' interests more than the health and welfare of individuals; it may make quick fix medical solutions halt more sustainable structural solutions. This urges health insurers, health care professionals, and health policy makers to be cautious. Especially if we want to help and respect persons that we classify and treat as obese.

  3. Homophobic Expression in K-12 Public Schools: Legal and Policy Considerations Involving Speech that Denigrates Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne E.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines an education policy matter that involves homophobic speech in public schools. Using legal research methods, two federal circuit court opinions that have examined the tension surrounding anti-LGBTQ student expression are analyzed. This legal analysis provides non-lawyers some insight into the current realities of student…

  4. Policies to Support Wind Power Deployment: Key Considerations and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, Frank A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, Trudy [Wind Advisors Team, Golden, CO (United States); Baranowski, Ruth [High Desert Technical Communications LLC, Crestone, CO (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Policies have played an important role in scaling up wind deployment and increasing its economic viability while also supporting country-specific economic, social, and environmental development goals. Although wind power has become cost-competitive in several contexts, challenges to wind power deployment remain. Within the context of country-specific goals and challenges, policymakers are seeking

  5. An Analysis of the Extent of Social Inclusion and Equity Consideration in Malawi's National HIV and AIDS Policy Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinyama, Mathews Junior; MacLachlan, Malcolm; McVeigh, Joanne; Huss, Tessy; Gawamadzi, Sylvester

    2017-07-29

    Equity and social inclusion for vulnerable groups in policy development processes and resulting documents remain a challenge globally. Most often, the marginalization of vulnerable groups is overlooked in both the planning and practice of health service delivery. Such marginalization may occur because authorities deem the targeting of those who already have better access to healthcare a cheaper and easier way to achieve short-term health gains. The Government of Malawi wishes to achieve an equitable and inclusive HIV and AIDS Policy. The aim of this study is to assess the extent to which the Malawi Policy review process addressed regional and international health priorities of equity and social inclusion for vulnerable groups in the policy content and policy revision process. This research design comprised two phases. First, the content of the Malawi HIV and AIDS Policy was assessed using EquiFrame regarding its coverage of 21 Core Concepts of human rights and inclusion of 12 Vulnerable Groups. Second, the engagement of vulnerable groups in the policy process was assessed using the EquIPP matrix. For the latter, 10 interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of representatives of public sector, civil society organizations and development partners who participated in the policy revision process. Data was also collected from documented information of the policy processes. Our analyses indicated that the Malawi HIV and AIDS Policy had a relatively high coverage of Core Concepts of human rights and Vulnerable Groups; although with some notable omissions. The analyses also found that reasonable steps were taken to engage and promote participation of vulnerable groups in the planning, development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes of the HIV and AIDS Policy, although again, with some notable exceptions. This is the first study to use both EquiFrame and EquIPP as complimentary tools to assess the content and process of policy. While the findings

  6. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  7. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed.

  8. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  9. Managing complexity practical considerations in the development and application of ABMs to contemporary policy challenges

    CERN Document Server

    O’Brien, Sean; Khouja, Moutaz

    2013-01-01

    This book emerged out of a project initiated and funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) that sought to build on efforts to transform agent-based models into platforms for predicting and evaluating policy responses to real world challenges around the world.  It began with the observation that social science theories of human behavior are often used to estimate the consequences of alternative policy responses to important issues and challenges.  However, alternative theories that remain subject to contradictory claims are ill suited to inform policy. The vision behind the DARPA project was to mine the social sciences literature for alternative theories of human behavior, and then formalize, instantiate, and integrate them within the context of an agent-based modeling system.  The research team developed an experimental platform to evaluate the conditions under which alternative theories and groups of theories applied.  The end result was a proof of concept—developed from the groun...

  10. Impacts of Policies on Poverty. Relative Poverty Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Bellù, Lorenzo Giovanni; Liberati, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This module illustrates how to define “relative” poverty lines, i.e. poverty lines based on approaches that consider the welfare position of each individual or household in relation to the welfare position of other individuals or households belonging to the same community. In particular, the module, after emphasizing the importance of the relative poverty concept in policy work, discusses two methods to define relative poverty lines: a) the “income levels” method; and b) the “income positions...

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ON EUROPEAN POLICY OF RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, INNOVATION. CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Elena Lazăr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the European policy in the field of research, development, innovation reflects the maturity process of the European construction, through the very understanding of the particular role of knowledge in economy. An important aspect is the connection with the acknowledgment of the professional’s diplomas, which is based on the principle of automatism, on the mutual trust of the Member States in the qualifications obtained within the territory of any of them, on the tradition regarding the existence of a democratic and elitist education system. The improvement of the quality of education and the avoidance of sideslips are required. For the existence of a functional Euro-market in the field of research, development,innovation the differences between the European Union Member States have to be reduced, before attempting to catch up with the United States of America, Japan or China. Because knowledge is the inexhaustible resource of mankind in general, of the European Union, in particular, we should talk about a Union of Research, as we talk about the Monetary Union, for example. The strategy of economic growth in Romania was based on encouraging the consumers to spend money, but they didn’t consider a coherent policy based on innovations.

  12. Promoting Election-Related Policy Practice among Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna

    2016-01-01

    Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…

  13. National health financing policy in Eritrea: a survey of preliminary considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 58th World Health Assembly and 56th WHO Regional Committee for Africa adopted resolutions urging Member States to ensure that health financing systems included a method for prepayment to foster financial risk sharing among the population and avoid catastrophic health-care expenditure. The Regional Committee asked countries to strengthen or develop comprehensive health financing policies. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted among senior staff of selected Eritrean ministries and agencies to elicit views on some of the elements likely to be part of a national health financing policy. Methods This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent to 19 senior staff (Directors in the Ministry of Health, Labour Department, Civil Service Administration, Eritrean Confederation of Workers, National Insurance Corporation of Eritrea and Ministry of Local Government. The respondents were selected by the Ministry of Health as key informants. Results The key findings were as follows: the response rate was 84.2% (16/19; 37.5% (6/16 and 18.8% said that the vision of Eritrean National Health Financing Policy (NHFP should include the phrases ‘equitable and accessible quality health services’ and ‘improve efficiency or reduce waste’ respectively; over 68% indicated that NHFP should include securing adequate funding, ensuring efficiency, ensuring equitable financial access, protection from financial catastrophe, and ensuring provider payment mechanisms create positive incentives to service providers; over 80% mentioned community participation, efficiency, transparency, country ownership, equity in access, and evidence-based decision making as core values of NHFP; over 62.5% confirmed that NHFP components should consist of stewardship (oversight, revenue collection, revenue pooling and risk management, resource allocation and purchasing of health services, health economics research, and development of

  14. National health financing policy in Eritrea: a survey of preliminary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Zere, Eyob; Akazili, James

    2012-08-28

    The 58th World Health Assembly and 56th WHO Regional Committee for Africa adopted resolutions urging Member States to ensure that health financing systems included a method for prepayment to foster financial risk sharing among the population and avoid catastrophic health-care expenditure. The Regional Committee asked countries to strengthen or develop comprehensive health financing policies. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted among senior staff of selected Eritrean ministries and agencies to elicit views on some of the elements likely to be part of a national health financing policy. This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent to 19 senior staff (Directors) in the Ministry of Health, Labour Department, Civil Service Administration, Eritrean Confederation of Workers, National Insurance Corporation of Eritrea and Ministry of Local Government. The respondents were selected by the Ministry of Health as key informants. The key findings were as follows: the response rate was 84.2% (16/19); 37.5% (6/16) and 18.8% said that the vision of Eritrean National Health Financing Policy (NHFP) should include the phrases 'equitable and accessible quality health services' and 'improve efficiency or reduce waste' respectively; over 68% indicated that NHFP should include securing adequate funding, ensuring efficiency, ensuring equitable financial access, protection from financial catastrophe, and ensuring provider payment mechanisms create positive incentives to service providers; over 80% mentioned community participation, efficiency, transparency, country ownership, equity in access, and evidence-based decision making as core values of NHFP; over 62.5% confirmed that NHFP components should consist of stewardship (oversight), revenue collection, revenue pooling and risk management, resource allocation and purchasing of health services, health economics research, and development of human resources for health; over 68.8% indicated cost

  15. Recent trends in reproductive tourism and international surrogacy: ethical considerations and challenges for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonandan, Raywat

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive tourism, or "cross-border reproductive care", is the phenomenon of people crossing international borders to access reproductive technologies. One of the fastest-growing categories of cross-border reproductive care is international surrogacy, the act of infertile clients traveling internationally to engage the paid services of foreign surrogates to carry their babies to term. It is a multibillion-dollar global industry presenting unique legal, ethical, and risk-management challenges. Clients tend to be price-sensitive, middle-income individuals seeking services from surrogates who in the global market are thought to be of quite low socioeconomic status. Risks are experienced by all parties involved in the transaction, including the client's countries of origin and destination. The risks to the surrogate evolve from the potential to exploit her economic vulnerability in order to encourage both consent and unfair pricing. Opportunities for policy development are explored.

  16. A review of cyberbullying legislation in Qatar: Considerations for policy makers and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, Mairéad; Samara, Muthanna; El Asam, Aiman; Morsi, Hisham; Khattab, Azhar

    Cyberbullying is a worldwide problem affecting mental health, education, safety and general well-being for individuals across the globe. Despite the widespread availability of the Internet, research into prevalence rates of cyberbullying in Qatar is lacking and legislating for the crime has been slow to develop. Recently there have been some positive initiatives in the country such as a Cybercrime Prevention Law, the development of a National ICT Strategy, and a website detailing safe practice guidelines for Internet usage. However, the implementation and usage of these initiatives are still limited and there is a lack of awareness of cyberbullying in Qatar. As a result, the risk factors and consequences among school-aged children are unknown. The current paper presents an evaluation of the legislative and public policy solutions to cyberbullying available in Qatar, and outlines the critical challenges that could potentially face educators in shaping best practice guidelines for the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent trends in reproductive tourism and international surrogacy: ethical considerations and challenges for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonandan, Raywat

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive tourism, or “cross-border reproductive care”, is the phenomenon of people crossing international borders to access reproductive technologies. One of the fastest-growing categories of cross-border reproductive care is international surrogacy, the act of infertile clients traveling internationally to engage the paid services of foreign surrogates to carry their babies to term. It is a multibillion-dollar global industry presenting unique legal, ethical, and risk-management challenges. Clients tend to be price-sensitive, middle-income individuals seeking services from surrogates who in the global market are thought to be of quite low socioeconomic status. Risks are experienced by all parties involved in the transaction, including the client’s countries of origin and destination. The risks to the surrogate evolve from the potential to exploit her economic vulnerability in order to encourage both consent and unfair pricing. Opportunities for policy development are explored. PMID:26316832

  18. Radioactive lightning rods: radiologic evaluation and regulatory policy related to its use in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Forteza, Yamil; Quevedo Garcia, Jose R.; Diaz Guerra, Pedro I.; Cruz Dumenico, Gonzalez; Fuente Puch, Andres de la

    2001-01-01

    The radioactive lightning rod employment for the protection of facilities against atmospheric discharges reached its maximum splendor in the eighties. It was in fact at the end of this decade when the technical considerations related to the justification of this practice finally conclude that the production of such teams was abolished. For the regulatory authorities, however, it continues having validity the question related to the control of lightning rod still in use as well as the question related to the establishment of a coherent with the international practice national policy. The paper shows the results of the last 10 years of control of the radioactive lightning rod use in Cuba and the radiological evaluation carried out on the base of this experience. Lastly, it exposes the regulatory policy referred to the employment of the radioactive lightning rod in the country. (author)

  19. A bi-objective model for optimizing replacement time of age and block policies with consideration of spare parts’ availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsyouf, Imad

    2018-05-01

    Reliability and availability of critical systems play an important role in achieving the stated objectives of engineering assets. Preventive replacement time affects the reliability of the components, thus the number of system failures encountered and its downtime expenses. On the other hand, spare parts inventory level is a very critical factor that affects the availability of the system. Usually, the decision maker has many conflicting objectives that should be considered simultaneously for the selection of the optimal maintenance policy. The purpose of this research was to develop a bi-objective model that will be used to determine the preventive replacement time for three maintenance policies (age, block good as new, block bad as old) with consideration of spare parts’ availability. It was suggested to use a weighted comprehensive criterion method with two objectives, i.e. cost and availability. The model was tested with a typical numerical example. The results of the model demonstrated its effectiveness in enabling the decision maker to select the optimal maintenance policy under different scenarios and taking into account preferences with respect to contradicting objectives such as cost and availability.

  20. Ethical considerations of research policy for personal genome analysis: the approach of the Genome Science Project in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minari, Jusaku; Shirai, Tetsuya; Kato, Kazuto

    2014-12-01

    As evidenced by high-throughput sequencers, genomic technologies have recently undergone radical advances. These technologies enable comprehensive sequencing of personal genomes considerably more efficiently and less expensively than heretofore. These developments present a challenge to the conventional framework of biomedical ethics; under these changing circumstances, each research project has to develop a pragmatic research policy. Based on the experience with a new large-scale project-the Genome Science Project-this article presents a novel approach to conducting a specific policy for personal genome research in the Japanese context. In creating an original informed-consent form template for the project, we present a two-tiered process: making the draft of the template following an analysis of national and international policies; refining the draft template in conjunction with genome project researchers for practical application. Through practical use of the template, we have gained valuable experience in addressing challenges in the ethical review process, such as the importance of sharing details of the latest developments in genomics with members of research ethics committees. We discuss certain limitations of the conventional concept of informed consent and its governance system and suggest the potential of an alternative process using information technology.

  1. Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asheim, B.T.; Boschma, R.A.; Cooke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases, Regional Studies. This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related

  2. Policy evaluation in terms of relative industrial performance and competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigson, P.; Dotzauer, E. [Malardalen Univ., Vasteras (Sweden); Yan, J. [Malardalen Univ., Vasteras (Sweden); KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a tool that can improve energy and climate policymaking processes through a stronger inclusion of industry expertise while safeguarding industrial competitiveness. The authors suggested that in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the processes, policymakers should recognize the role that industry plays as emission abatement investors. The tool is designed to promote policy design and management processes, facilitating transparency of methodology and subjectivity, consensus of results, rapid simulations of policy processes, and high inter-usability by key decision makers. The authors analyzed how climate and energy policy framework design and management processes can be improved through evaluation processes that focus on carbon dioxide emissions, energy efficiency, and utilization of renewable energy resources. The tool was used in a Swedish case study where industries are known to be relatively energy efficient with low emissions. The study showed that a more diversified and individual policy approach could be favorable, but this would result in increased administrative work for the government and public entities that administer the policy regime. Although this is a negative effect, the authors argued that the challenge of combating climate change will incur additional costs and labor in one way or the other. The authors emphasized that early-action can mitigate the costs. 40 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  3. Recent trends in reproductive tourism and international surrogacy: ethical considerations and challenges for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonandan R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Raywat Deonandan Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: Reproductive tourism, or “cross-border reproductive care”, is the phenomenon of people crossing international borders to access reproductive technologies. One of the fastest-growing categories of cross-border reproductive care is international surrogacy, the act of infertile clients traveling internationally to engage the paid services of foreign surrogates to carry their babies to term. It is a multibillion-dollar global industry presenting unique legal, ethical, and risk-management challenges. Clients tend to be price-sensitive, middle-income individuals seeking services from surrogates who in the global market are thought to be of quite low socioeconomic status. Risks are experienced by all parties involved in the transaction, including the client’s countries of origin and destination. The risks to the surrogate evolve from the potential to exploit her economic vulnerability in order to encourage both consent and unfair pricing. Opportunities for policy development are explored. Keywords: surrogacy, assisted reproduction, medical tourism, IVF, ART, gestation

  4. Medical and policy considerations for nuclear and radiation accidents, incidents and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS. The United States has the medical capacity to respond to a limited nuclear or radiation accident or incident but an effective medical response to a catastrophic nuclear event is impossible. Dealing effectively with nuclear and radiation accidents or incidents requires diverse strategies, including policy decisions, public education, and medical preparedness. I review medical consequences of exposures to ionizing radiations, likely concomitant injuries and potential medical intervention. These data should help haematologists and other healthcare professionals understand the principles of medical consequences of nuclear terrorism. However, the best strategy is prevention.

  5. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  6. Retaining the older workforce: social policy considerations for the universally designed workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Jaimie Ciulla; Hall, Allison Cohen; Fesko, Sheila Lynch; Migliore, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    Even in the midst of massive layoffs that come with an economic downturn, employers must remain aware of the pending impact of their aging workforce. Losing older employees to retirement drains knowledge and expertise. In response, employers are looking at new ways to retain older workers at the same time that older workers are reevaluating the traditional approach to retirement. This article presents findings from case study research consisting of interviews with key employees at 18 companies in 13 states. Five of those companies subsequently participated in in-person site visits. Interviews were held with a wide range of informants, including company leadership, supervisors, and older workers. Findings include a description of the cultural context within which the development of formal and informal older worker retention strategies occurred, as well as the retention strategies themselves. The discussion section explores the universal nature of these retention initiatives and how consideration of universality benefits not only older workers but a range of diverse groups as well.

  7. Experiences, considerations and emotions relating to cardiogenetic evaluation in relatives of young sudden cardiac death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Christian; Onderwater, Astrid T.; van Langen, Irene M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Relatives of young sudden cardiac death (SCD) victims are at increased risk of carrying a potentially fatal inherited cardiac disease. Hence, it is recommended to perform an autopsy on the victim and to refer his or her relatives to a cardiogenetics clinic for a full evaluation to identify those at

  8. Health information technology implementation - impacts and policy considerations: a comparison between Israel and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catan, Gabriel; Espanha, Rita; Mendes, Rita Veloso; Toren, Orly; Chinitz, David

    2015-01-01

    and disadvantages. Government involvement in earlier stages could provide benefit in terms of interoperability of systems between different healthcare organizations. However, innovation could be slowed down due to government bureaucracy or lack of leadership. The work provides information in order to understand and improve ICT services. Additionally, it provides input regarding impact of ICT on the physician/patient relationship and national policies in the area.

  9. Charter Revocations: Legal Considerations Concerning Procedure. Education Policy Briefs. Volume 3, Number 1, Fall 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne E.; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Charter schools are given greater autonomy than traditional public schools, and in return they are held more accountable to the public. As such, if a charter school fails to meet its educational objectives, the charter may be revoked or not renewed. Revocation is the withdrawal of a school's charter during its term, while renewal relates to the…

  10. Energy policy after 2020 : Economic arguments to pursue energy policy for non-climate related reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocsis, V.; Koutstaal, P.; Tieben, B.; van Hout, M.; Hof, B.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the contribution of sustainable energy policy and energy saving policy to the public goals of energy policy in the Netherlands. Not surprisingly current discussion about sustainable energy policy focus on the contribution of energy policy to the goals of climate policy,

  11. [The legal question of the obtention of human stem cells for biomedical research. Legislation policy considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The future Law on Biomedical Research, whose draft bill has been approved by the Council of Ministers and that will soon begin its parliamentary process of approval, will regulate, among other matters, the research with embryos. Likewise, it will make a pronouncement on the so-called therapeutic cloning. This report makes a detailed analysis of different matters that must be borne in mind by the legislator in order to face the process of evaluation and approval of said Law in relation with the aforementioned matters. It makes a special analysis of the legal texts of an international nature to which Spain is unavoidably subjected to, in such a way that the legislative text that will finally be approved is not contrary to the dispositions that are within such.

  12. Recent evolution of China's virtual water trade: analysis of selected crops and considerations for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Liu, J.; Pinter, L.

    2013-09-01

    China has dramatically increased its virtual water import unconsciously for recent years. Many studies have focused on the quantity of traded virtual water but very few go into analysing geographic distribution and the properties of China's virtual water trade network. This paper provides a calculation and analysis of the crop-related virtual water trade network of China based on 27 major primary crops between 1986 and 2009. The results show that China is a net importer of virtual water from water-abundant areas of North and South America, and a net virtual water exporter to water-stressed areas of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Virtual water import is far larger than virtual water export and in both import and export a small number of trade partners control the supply chain. Grain crops are the major contributors to virtual water trade, and among grain crops soybeans, mostly imported from the US, Brazil and Argentina are the most significant. As crop yield and crop water productivity in North and South America are generally higher than those in Asia and Africa, the effect of China's crop-related virtual water trade positively contributes to optimizing crop water use efficiency at the global scale. In order to mitigate water scarcity and secure the food supply, virtual water should be actively incorporated into national water management strategies. From the national perspective, China should reduce the export and increase the import of water-intensive crops. But the sources of virtual water import need to be further diversified to reduce supply chain risks and increase resilience.

  13. Recent evolution of China's virtual water trade: analysis of selected crops and considerations for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Liu, J.; Pinter, L.

    2014-04-01

    China has dramatically increased its virtual water import over recent years. Many studies have focused on the quantity of traded virtual water, but very few go into analysing geographic distribution and the properties of China's virtual water trade network. This paper provides a calculation and analysis of the crop-related virtual water trade network of China based on 27 major primary crops between 1986 and 2009. The results show that China is a net importer of virtual water from water-abundant areas of North America and South America, and a net virtual water exporter to water-stressed areas of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Virtual water import is far larger than virtual water export, and in both import and export a small number of trade partners control the supply chain. Grain crops are the major contributors to virtual water trade, and among grain crops, soybeans, mostly imported from the US, Brazil and Argentina, are the most significant. In order to mitigate water scarcity and secure the food supply, virtual water should actively be incorporated into national water management strategies. And the sources of virtual water import need to be further diversified to reduce supply chain risks and increase resilience.

  14. Presidential Elections and HIV-Related National Policies and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrave, David R; Bonacci, Robert A; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2017-03-01

    The November 2016 general election and subsequent voting of the Electoral College resulted in the selection of Donald Trump as President of the United States. The incoming Administration ran a campaign that indicated a desire for substantial change in health policy, including the repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). President Trump has said very little directly about HIV programs and policies, but some campaign positions (such as the repeal of the ACA) would clearly and substantially impact the lives of persons living with HIV. In this editorial, we highlight important HIV-related goals to which we must recommit ourselves, and we underscore several key points about evidence-based advocacy that are important to revisit at any time (but most especially when there is a change in Administration).

  15. Retirement-from-sport considerations following pediatric sports-related concussion: case illustrations and institutional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; McDonald, Patrick J; Cordingley, Dean; Mansouri, Behzad; Essig, Marco; Ritchie, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    The decision to advise an athlete to retire from sports following sports-related concussion (SRC) remains a persistent challenge for physicians. In the absence of strong empirical evidence to support recommendations, clinical decision making must be individualized and should involve a multidisciplinary team of experts in concussion and traumatic brain injury. Although previous authors have advocated for a more conservative approach to these issues in child and adolescent athletes, there are few reports outlining considerations for this process among this unique population. Here, the authors use multiple case illustrations to discuss 3 subgroups of clinical considerations for sports retirement among pediatric SRC patients including the following: those with structural brain abnormalities identified on neuroimaging, those presenting with focal neurological deficits and abnormalities on physical examination, and those in whom the cumulative or prolonged effects of concussion are suspected or demonstrated. The authors' evolving multidisciplinary institutional approach to return-to-play and retirement decision making in pediatric SRC is also presented.

  16. Trade Liberalization and Optimal Environmental Policies in Vertical Related Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Shu Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a symmetric two-country model with vertically related markets. In the downstream market, there is one firm in each country selling a homogeneous good, whose production generates pollution, to its home and the foreign markets a la Brander (1981. In the intermediate good market, there is also one upstream firm in each country, supplying the intermediate good only to its own country’s downstream market. The upstream firms can choose either price or quantity to maximize their profits. With this setting, the paper examines the optimal environmental policy and how it is affected by the tariff on the final good. It is found that, under free trade, the optimal final-good output with imperfect intermediate-good market will have the same output level as that with perfect intermediate-good market after imposing the optimal emission tax. The optimal environmental tax is smaller and the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the market structure in the intermediate good market is imperfect than perfect competition. On the other hand, the optimal environmental tax is necessarily higher if the upstream firm chooses price than quantity. Moreover, the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the upstream firms choose quantity than price to maximize their profits.

  17. International migration and related policies in europe 1950 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penninx Rinus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a its particular development in time; b the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in these three basic migration-related factors. Migration outcomes are not haphazard nor are these the result of unhindered economic push and pull factors in a free market. Immigration policies of receiving countries do greatly influence the volume and patterns of migration, the place of settlement and the characteristics of migrants. Regulations on conditions of residence and integration do furthermore influence significantly the position of immigrants in their new destination, among others by setting conditions for their stay (residence rights and access to the labour market. The second part of this chapter outlines the migration and integration regimes that have been developed by states of different parts of Europe and by the European Union. In conclusion, immigration has become a relevant phenomenon in all EU countries. However, as a consequence of different timing of immigration, different socio-economic contexts and varying governmental migration and integration policies, European countries are confronted with different forms migration (immigration, emigration, transit migration and with different types of migrants. European states have also developed different governmental policies of migration and integration. Historically, a common denominator in the framing of European policies is that countries do not see themselves as immigration countries; they are immigration countries against their will. In recent times, such framing is reinforced by populist and nationalist movements that see immigrants not only as economic competitors, but also as a threat to the national "culture and world views". The more Europe needs immigrants for economic and

  18. Policy and programmatic considerations for introducing a longer-acting injectable contraceptive: perspectives of stakeholders from Kenya and Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kevin; Arcara, Jennet; Rademacher, Kate H; Mackenzie, Caroline; Ngabo, Fidele; Munyambanza, Emmanuel; Wesson, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth E

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: More than 40 million women use injectable contraceptives to prevent pregnancy, and most current or previous injectable users report being satisfied with the method. However, while women may find injectables acceptable, they may not always find them accessible due to stock-outs and difficulties with returning to the clinic for reinjections. FHI 360 is spearheading efforts to develop a longer-acting injectable (LAI) contraceptive that could provide at least 6 months of protection against pregnancy. This article addresses systems-level considerations for the introduction of a new LAI. Methods: We conducted qualitative case studies in Kenya and Rwanda—two countries that have high levels of injectable use but with different service delivery contexts. Between June and September 2012, we conducted in-depth interviews with 27 service providers and 19 policy makers and program implementers focusing on 4 themes: systems-level barriers and facilitators to delivering LAI services; process for introducing an LAI; LAI distribution approaches; and potential LAI characteristics. We also obtained electronic feedback from 28 international family planning opinion leaders. Results: Respondents indicated strong interest in an LAI and thought it would appeal to existing injectable users as well as new family planning clients, both for spacing and for limiting births. Providers appreciated the potential for a lighter workload due to fewer follow-up visits, but they were concerned that fewer visits would also decrease their ability to help women manage side effects. The providers also appreciated the 1-month grace period for follow-up LAI injections; some seemed unaware of the latest international guidance that had increased the grace period from 2 weeks to 4 weeks for the currently available 3-month injectable. The majority of policy makers and program implementers were supportive of letting community health workers provide the method, but many nurses and midwives

  19. Ethical considerations when conducting joint interviews with close relatives or family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    2018-01-01

    simultaneously in the healthcare setting. AIM: To collect and share knowledge related to ethical considerations conducting joint interviews. DESIGN AND METHODS: A literature review inspired by the integrative review method was performed. Data were retrieved through a structured search in PubMed, CINAHL......; Conduction joint interviews and Reporting on joint interviews Findings: Participants should be offered the best terms for a constructive, on-going relationship after the joint interview has ended. This obligates the researcher to ensure a safe environment during the joint interview and create a delicate...

  20. Understanding men's health and illness: a gender-relations approach to policy, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, T; Connell, R W; Walker, L; Wood, J F; Butland, D L

    2000-05-01

    Men's health has emerged as an important public concern that may require new kinds of healthcare interventions and increased resources. Considerable uncertainty and confusion surround prevailing understandings of men's health, particularly those generated by media debate and public policy, and health research has often operated on oversimplified assumptions about men and masculinity. A more useful way of understanding men's health is to adopt a gender-relations approach. This means examining health concerns in the context of men's and women's interactions with each other, and their positions in the larger, multidimensional structure of gender relations. Such an approach raises the issue of differences among men, which is a key issue in recent research on masculinity and an important health issue. The gender-relations approach offers new ways of addressing practical issues of healthcare for men in college environments.

  1. Navigating the science-policy spectrum: Opportunities to work on policies related to your research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licker, R.; Ekwurzel, B.; Goldman, G. T.; DeLonge, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many scientists conduct research with direct policy relevance, whether it be producing sea-level projections that are taken-up by local decision-makers, or developing new agricultural technologies. All scientists are affected by policies made by their respective local, regional, and federal governments. For example, budgets affect the grant resources available to conduct research and policies on visas influence the accessibility of new positions for foreign scientists. As a result, many scientists would like to engage with the policy domain, and either bring their science to bear on new policies that are in the works (science-for-policy) or inform policies on the scientific research enterprise (policy-for-science). Some scientists prefer to engage and be neutral to the policy outcome, serving primarily as an information resource. Many may choose to also advocate for a particular outcome based on their expertise and experience. Research shows that policy decisions benefit greatly from the input of scientific experts. We explore the spectrum between informing policies in a "non-prescriptive" manner to working on policies in an advocacy space. We highlight tips for successful engagement along this spectrum. Finally, we review current science-for-policy and policy-for-science issues of relevance to the geophysical sciences.

  2. Nonuniqueness of the two-temperature Saha equation and related considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, D.; Capitelli, M.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper contains considerations relative to the long debated thermodynamic derivation of two-temperature Saha equations. The main focus of our discourse is on the dependence of the multitemperature equilibrium conditions on the constraints imposed on the thermodynamic system. We also examine the following key issues related to that dependence: correspondence between constraints and equilibrium-equation forms that have appeared in the literature; presumed dominance of the free-electron translational temperature in the two-temperature expression of the equilibrium constant of the ionization reaction A A + +e - ; disagreement between the derivation methods based on, respectively, the extended second law of classical thermodynamics and axiomatic thermodynamics; and plausibility of the existence of entropic constraints

  3. Public opinion on food-related obesity prevention policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Belinda; Martin, Jane; Niven, Philippa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2012-08-01

    The study was designed to determine public acceptability of various forms of regulation to support a healthy eating environment. Telephone interviews were undertaken in June-July 2010 with a random sample of adults in Australia who were the main grocery buyer for their household. Data were analysed for 1,511 adults. A clear majority of participants (80% or more) were in favour of traffic light and kilojoule menu labelling, reformulation to reduce the fat, salt and sugar content of processed foods, and regulation of broadcast and non-broadcast avenues used to market unhealthy food and drinks to children. Relatively less support (two-thirds or more), particularly among lower socioeconomic status participants, was shown for taxation policies and controls on food company sponsorship of sports and education programs. Despite the survey's focus on food marketing avenues and methods directed at children, for the most part non-parents were just as likely as parents to support restrictions. Overall, these findings indicate that there is strong public support for the introduction of policy initiatives aimed at creating a healthier food environment.

  4. Public Participation in the Energy-Related Public Policy Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic Vrhovcak, M.; Rodik, D.; Zmijarevic, Z.; Jaksic, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of possibilities for public participation in proposing legal acts and other energy related documents in the Republic of Croatia and gives author assessment of the Croatian public participation level in the processes carried out. The ways how public has participated in the making of a few officially accepted documents have been analysed and potential benefits of inclusion of a wider circle of interested public have been stated. A comparison of the degree of public involvement in the decision making processes in Croatia and the European Union has been made, with specific emphasis on the adoption of the Third package of energy laws. Several national and EU funded projects aiming at enhancing the Croatian public participation in public decision making processes have been presented and their results given. Finally, possibilities for the improvement of the public participation in the Croatian energy policy making processes are proposed. (author)

  5. Structural integration and performance of inter-sectoral public health-related policy networks: An analysis across policy phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D T J M; Raab, J; Grêaux, K M; Stronks, K; Harting, J

    2017-12-01

    Inter-sectoral policy networks may be effective in addressing environmental determinants of health with interventions. However, contradictory results are reported on relations between structural network characteristics (i.e., composition and integration) and network performance, such as addressing environmental determinants of health. This study examines these relations in different phases of the policy process. A multiple-case study was performed on four public health-related policy networks. Using a snowball method among network actors, overall and sub-networks per policy phase were identified and the policy sector of each actor was assigned. To operationalise the outcome variable, interventions were classified by the proportion of environmental determinants they addressed. In the overall networks, no relation was found between structural network characteristics and network performance. In most effective cases, the policy development sub-networks were characterised by integration with less interrelations between actors (low cohesion), more equally distributed distances between the actors (low closeness centralisation), and horizontal integration in inter-sectoral cliques. The most effective case had non-public health central actors with less connections in all sub-networks. The results suggest that, to address environmental determinants of health, sub-networks should be inter-sectorally composed in the policy development rather than in the intervention development and implementation phases, and that policy development actors should have the opportunity to connect with other actors, without strong direction from a central actor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Policy and programmatic considerations for introducing a longer-acting injectable contraceptive: perspectives of stakeholders from Kenya and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kevin; Arcara, Jennet; Rademacher, Kate H; Mackenzie, Caroline; Ngabo, Fidele; Munyambanza, Emmanuel; Wesson, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth E

    2014-10-15

    More than 40 million women use injectable contraceptives to prevent pregnancy, and most current or previous injectable users report being satisfied with the method. However, while women may find injectables acceptable, they may not always find them accessible due to stock-outs and difficulties with returning to the clinic for reinjections. FHI 360 is spearheading efforts to develop a longer-acting injectable (LAI) contraceptive that could provide at least 6 months of protection against pregnancy. This article addresses systems-level considerations for the introduction of a new LAI. We conducted qualitative case studies in Kenya and Rwanda-two countries that have high levels of injectable use but with different service delivery contexts. Between June and September 2012, we conducted in-depth interviews with 27 service providers and 19 policy makers and program implementers focusing on 4 themes: systems-level barriers and facilitators to delivering LAI services; process for introducing an LAI; LAI distribution approaches; and potential LAI characteristics. We also obtained electronic feedback from 28 international family planning opinion leaders. Respondents indicated strong interest in an LAI and thought it would appeal to existing injectable users as well as new family planning clients, both for spacing and for limiting births. Providers appreciated the potential for a lighter workload due to fewer follow-up visits, but they were concerned that fewer visits would also decrease their ability to help women manage side effects. The providers also appreciated the 1-month grace period for follow-up LAI injections; some seemed unaware of the latest international guidance that had increased the grace period from 2 weeks to 4 weeks for the currently available 3-month injectable. The majority of policy makers and program implementers were supportive of letting community health workers provide the method, but many nurses and midwives in Kenya had reservations about the

  7. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  8. Finance considerations relating to power station construction from the viewpoint of a European banker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The energy industry in the European Community is outlined in brief in the first section. It includes a description of the structure and organization of the various companies operating power stations, featuring such keywords as centralized-decentralized and shareholding. The general considerations of the banking sector are then dealt with. From the banker's point of view, the risk factor of a loan depends on whether the load is to be used for the financing of a brand new power station based either on fossil fuels, nuclear power or alternative sources of energy or whether the load is to be used for modernization purposes. In this respect the credit rating of the borrower, including shareholders, profitability, capital investment volume in relation to company size, project risk and methods of furnishing security shall be discussed. Having dealt with these basic questions, the specific factors relating to financing for modernization purposes are examined. A distinction must be made between voluntary and mandatory modernization measures. The assessment of modernization required by law is generally based on whether the mandatory standards an be fulfilled by investing the least possible expenditure. On the other hand, the banker assesses voluntary modernization mainly in light of the resulting effects on the financial standing of the borrower. If satisfactory results are achieved from the examination of these points, the question of security must be considered when evaluating the residual exposure. All considerations culminate in the selection of the appropriate form of financing. In addition to the traditional bank loan and project financing, government support and special forms of financing are also discussed

  9. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including...

  10. Relative Binding Free Energy Calculations in Drug Discovery: Recent Advances and Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournia, Zoe; Allen, Bryce; Sherman, Woody

    2017-12-26

    Accurate in silico prediction of protein-ligand binding affinities has been a primary objective of structure-based drug design for decades due to the putative value it would bring to the drug discovery process. However, computational methods have historically failed to deliver value in real-world drug discovery applications due to a variety of scientific, technical, and practical challenges. Recently, a family of approaches commonly referred to as relative binding free energy (RBFE) calculations, which rely on physics-based molecular simulations and statistical mechanics, have shown promise in reliably generating accurate predictions in the context of drug discovery projects. This advance arises from accumulating developments in the underlying scientific methods (decades of research on force fields and sampling algorithms) coupled with vast increases in computational resources (graphics processing units and cloud infrastructures). Mounting evidence from retrospective validation studies, blind challenge predictions, and prospective applications suggests that RBFE simulations can now predict the affinity differences for congeneric ligands with sufficient accuracy and throughput to deliver considerable value in hit-to-lead and lead optimization efforts. Here, we present an overview of current RBFE implementations, highlighting recent advances and remaining challenges, along with examples that emphasize practical considerations for obtaining reliable RBFE results. We focus specifically on relative binding free energies because the calculations are less computationally intensive than absolute binding free energy (ABFE) calculations and map directly onto the hit-to-lead and lead optimization processes, where the prediction of relative binding energies between a reference molecule and new ideas (virtual molecules) can be used to prioritize molecules for synthesis. We describe the critical aspects of running RBFE calculations, from both theoretical and applied perspectives

  11. Consideration about marketing policy transition of IBM : From a viewpoint of interorganizational relation maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    澤井, 雅明

    2009-01-01

    本論文は昨今のコンピューター産業における組織間関係維持に有効に作用するマーケティング施策としてソリューション・ビジネスに着目し, その検討の一環としてIBMについての史実研究を行った。その目的はコンピューターの元祖的存在であるIBMがその創業時から現在までの変遷の中でソリューション・ビジネスに到達したことについてマーケティングの観点から明らかにすることである。生産財取引における分析視座を用いながら, マーケティング施策の変遷とその意義について考察するとともに今後の課題について述べる。...

  12. Structural integration and performance of inter-sectoral public health-related policy networks: An analysis across policy phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, D. T. J. M.; Raab, J.; Grêaux, K. M.; Stronks, K.; Harting, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Inter-sectoral policy networks may be effective in addressing environmental determinants of health with interventions. However, contradictory results are reported on relations between structural network characteristics (i.e., composition and integration) and network performance, such as

  13. Structural integration and performance of inter-sectoral public health-related policy networks : An analysis across policy phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Dorothee; Raab, J.; Grêaux, Kimberley M.; Stronks, Karien; Harting, Janneke

    2017-01-01

    Background: Inter-sectoral policy networks may be effective in addressing environmental determinants of health with interventions. However, contradictory results are reported on relations between structure and network characteristics (i.e., composition and integration) and network performance, such

  14. Some statistical considerations related to the estimation of cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; Pierce, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical theory and methodology provide the logical structure for scientific inference about the cancer risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. Although much is known about radiation carcinogenesis, the risk associated with low-level exposures is difficult to assess because it is too small to measure directly. Estimation must therefore depend upon mathematical models which relate observed risks at high exposure levels to risks at lower exposure levels. Extrapolated risk estimates obtained using such models are heavily dependent upon assumptions about the shape of the dose-response relationship, the temporal distribution of risk following exposure, and variation of risk according to variables such as age at exposure, sex, and underlying population cancer rates. Expanded statistical models, which make explicit certain assumed relationships between different data sets, can be used to strengthen inferences by incorporating relevant information from diverse sources. They also allow the uncertainties inherent in information from related data sets to be expressed in estimates which partially depend upon that information. To the extent that informed opinion is based upon a valid assessment of scientific data, the larger context of decision theory, which includes statistical theory, provides a logical framework for the incorporation into public policy decisions of the informational content of expert opinion

  15. The Relative Importance of the Channels of Monetary Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    importance channels of monetary policy which are working in Zambia. It answers the ... several ways through which monetary policy affect the balance sheets of economic agents and hence ... economies, especially those with flexible exchange rate regimes. ..... transmission channels work endogenously or exogenously.

  16. Work-related trauma, PTSD, and workers compensation legislation: Implications for practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Edward A; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-09-01

    The current review examines work-related traumatic events, with particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a potential mental health outcome. Despite considerable empirical knowledge about trauma and PTSD, a gap exists with respect to laws undergirding Workers Compensation (WC) insurance coverage for work-related mental health injuries. In this article, state and federal WC statutes are examined with an eye toward coverage of PTSD following work-related trauma. Examples of differences between states, as well as state-specific idiosyncratic facets of WC laws, are discussed. Federal WC programs are also examined. Two policy issues are highlighted: (a) lack of parity between WC coverage for work-related physical versus mental health injuries and (b) lack of reliance on psychological science in scripting legislation and determining WC benefits. The cost of untreated PTSD following work-related trauma is examined, focusing on costs to the individual, the employer, and society at large. The authors provide 3 recommendations designed to address discrepancies related to compensable psychological injuries following work-related trauma exposure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Policy learning and policy change: Theorizing their relations from different perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Moyson (Stéphane); P.W.A. Scholten (Peter); Weible, C.M. (Christopher M.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAll politics and policy issues involve the accumulation of data about problems and solutions in context of social interactions. Drawing on these data, policy actors acquire, translate, and disseminate new information and knowledge toward achieving political endeavors and for revising or

  18. Economic Motives for Adopting LGBT-Related Workplace Policies (Updated)

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Over ninety percent of the 100 top companies in the U.S.—the top 50 federal contractors and the top 50 Fortune 500 companies—have policies prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation, and 78% of the companies have policies prohibiting discrimination based on gender identity. In comparison to a 2011 study, based on 2010 data, there has been a 50% increase in the number of top federal contractors with gender identity non-discrimination policies and a 26% increase in the number of top...

  19. 75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “Consideration of the Effects of Climate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ..., ``Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.'' AGENCY: Council On Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability, Draft Guidance, ``Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change... visionary and versatile law that can be used effectively to address new environmental challenges facing our...

  20. Cognitive Load and Listening Effort: Concepts and Age-Related Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Ulrike; Besser, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Listening effort has been recognized as an important dimension of everyday listening, especially with regard to the comprehension of spoken language. At constant levels of comprehension performance, the level of effort exerted and perceived during listening can differ considerably across listeners and situations. In this article, listening effort is used as an umbrella term for two different types of effort that can arise during listening. One of these types is processing effort, which is used to denote the utilization of "extra" mental processing resources in listening conditions that are adverse for an individual. A conceptual description is introduced how processing effort could be defined in terms of situational influences, the listener's auditory and cognitive resources, and the listener's personal state. Also, the proposed relationship between processing effort and subjectively perceived listening effort is discussed. Notably, previous research has shown that the availability of mental resources, as well as the ability to use them efficiently, changes over the course of adult aging. These common age-related changes in cognitive abilities and their neurocognitive organization are discussed in the context of the presented concept, especially regarding situations in which listening effort may be increased for older people.

  1. Basic considerations for the preparation of performance testing materials as related to performance evaluation acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, D.E.; Morton, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of performance testing (PT) materials for environmental and radiobioassay applications involves the use of natural matrix materials containing the analyte of interest, the addition (spiking) of the analyte to a desired matrix (followed by blending for certain matrices) or a combination of the two. The distribution of the sample analyte concentration in a batch of PT samples will reflect the degree of heterogeneity of the analyte in the PT material and/or the reproducibility of the sample preparation process. Commercial and government implemented radioanalytical performance evaluation programs have a variety of acceptable performance criteria. The performance criteria should take into consideration many parameters related to the preparation of the PT materials including the within and between sample analyte heterogeneity, the accuracy of the quantification of an analyte in the PT material and to what 'known' value will a laboratory's result be compared. How sample preparation parameters affect the successful participation in performance evaluation (PE) programs having an acceptance criteria established as a percent difference from a 'known' value or in PE programs using other acceptance criteria, such as the guidance provided in ANSI N42.22 and N13.30 is discussed. (author)

  2. The reciprocal relationship between the state and union formation across Western Europe: policy dimensions and theoretical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Brienna Perelli-Harris; Nora E. Sánchez Gassen

    2010-01-01

    Although cohabitation and childbearing within cohabitation has increased dramatically in Europe over the past decades, the variation across Europe remains remarkable. Most studies on changing union formation have not explicitly addressed how state policies may be facilitating cohabitation or, alternatively, stalling the increase of cohabitation by privileging marriage. Indeed, the relationship between policies and union formation is complicated, as states may have passed legislation in respon...

  3. Clean Energy-Related Economic Development Policy across the States: Establishing a 2016 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    States implement clean energy-related economic development policy to spur innovation, manufacturing, and to address other priorities. This report focuses on those policies most directly related to expanding new and existing manufacturing. The extent to which states invest in this policymaking depends on political drivers and jurisdictional economic development priorities. To date, no one source has collected all of the clean energy-related economic development policies available across the 50 states. Thus, it is unclear how many policies exist within each state and how these policies, when implemented, can drive economic development. Establishing the baseline of existing policy is a critical first step in determining the potential holistic impact of these policies on driving economic growth in a state. The goal of this report is to document the clean energy-related economic development policy landscape across the 50 states with a focus on policy that seeks to expand new or existing manufacturing within a state. States interested in promoting clean energy manufacturing in their jurisdictions may be interested in reviewing this landscape to determine how they compare to peers and to adjust their policies as necessary. This report documents over 900 existing clean energy-related economic development laws, financial incentives (technology-agnostic and clean energy focused), and other policies such as agency-directed programs and initiatives across the states.

  4. A multi-period optimization model for planning of China's power sector with consideration of carbon dioxide mitigation—The importance of continuous and stable carbon mitigation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongjie; Liu, Pei; Ma, Linwei; LI, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge China's power sector faces is to mitigate its carbon emissions whilst satisfying the ever-increasing power demand. Optimal planning of the power sector with consideration of carbon mitigation for a long-term future remains a complex task, involving many technical alternatives and an infinite number of possible plants installations, retrofitting, and decommissioning over the planning horizon. Previously the authors built a multi-period optimization model for the planning of China's power sector during 2010–2050. Based on that model, this paper executed calculations on the optimal pathways of China's power sector with two typical decision-making modes, which are based on “full-information” and “limited-information” hypothesis, and analyzed the impacts on the optimal planning results by two typical types of carbon tax policies including a “continuous and stable” one and a “loose first and tight later” one. The results showed that making carbon tax policy for long-term future, and improving the continuity and stability in policy execution can effectively help reduce the accumulated total carbon emissions, and also the cost for carbon mitigation of the power sector. The conclusion of this study is of great significance for the policy makers to make carbon mitigation policies in China and other countries as well. - Highlights: • A multi-stage optimization model for planning the power sector is applied as basis. • Difference of ideal and actual decision making processes are proposed and analyzed. • A “continuous and stable” policy and a “loose first and tight later” one are designed. • 4 policy scenarios are studied applying the optimal planning model and compared. • The importance of “continuous and stable” policy for long term is well demonstrated

  5. The relation between executing of thesis policies and medical student's theses quality in type medical faculties of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi A.A

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students' thesis is equal to six units, which is mandatory for graduation. The purpose of preparing thesis is to familiarize students with research process, methodology, and scientific report writing skill. Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine the relation between executing of thesis policies and medical students' theses quality in type I medical faculties of Iran Methods: To perform this study first, we randomly chose 36 (Total sample=396 medical students' theses in each 11 medical faculties, which completed in 1998-99 academic year. The original theses were evaluated by using a questionnaire. Second, for evaluation of operationalization of thesis policies we use four criteria including, the presence of performance regulations, the proposals approving process, final approving course and presence of a defence session to evaluate thesis in the same medical faculty. Results: In medical faculties that thesis policies were completed, the score of theses was high. In contrast medical faculties with weak policies had low students’ theses scores. Conclusion: Thesis policies are considered as one of the ways to improve the quality of thesis. it is advise at the same time as we should be plan to provide the effective factors for improvement quality of thesis consider strongly the regulations related thesis should be considerate. Keywords: MEDICAL STUDENTS, THESES, REGULATION, and SCORES

  6. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [de

  7. Nurses' perceptions of the challenges related to the Omanization policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Riyami, M; Fischer, I; Lopez, V

    2015-12-01

    Human resource development has become a major concern in Oman since the inception of the 'Omanization' policy in 1988. The main goal of this policy was to replace the expatriate nursing workforce with similarly qualified local nurses to develop a sustainable workforce and achieve self-reliance. The aim of this study is to explore the nurses' perceptions of Omanization policy. A qualitative research design was used and 16 Omani registered nurses and 26 student nurses were interviewed in depth. Transcribed data were analysed using content analysis. Two main themes emerged from the data: 'Challenges of sustaining the local nursing workforce' and 'Challenges of educational preparation for local nurses'. The participants agreed that Omanization benefited national development, social stability and ensuring local workforce. The challenges faced were cultural and work life balance, preparation of nurses and pace of replacement. The participants were concerned that the pace of replacement could leave behind a marked experience gap. A slow-phased approach to Omanization of the nursing workforce was recommended by the participants. Results obtained from this study reflect the perceptions and voices of student nurses and registered nurses only from the Institute of Nursing and Oman Ministry of Health. A policy of this magnitude requires gradual establishment. The upgrading of the nursing education to degree level, continuous professional development, mentoring and role modeling of expert nurses should be established to prepare local nurses for the localization of the nursing workforce. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Public Policy and Gender Inequality in Brazilian Society: Considerations From the Realms of Labor, Politics and Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Xavier do Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present text focuses on issues of gender inequality and public policy in Brazil today. My major goals are as follows: 1 to provide an analysis of gender inequality in Brazilian society through an examination of the three key arenas of labor, political representation and science and 2 to examine both the advances and the challenges that persist in confronting inequality through public policies on gender. To these ends, I employ secondary data, obtained from three different official sources (IBGE, TSE and CNPq. Lastly, I argue that while the policies that have been implemented can be linked to significant progress in the three above-mentioned arenas, we are still quite far from a real reversal of the current situation of deep inequality, persisting, above all, in the field of political representation.

  9. Australian television news coverage of alcohol, health and related policies, 2005 to 2010: implications for alcohol policy advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea S; Chapman, Simon

    2012-12-01

    To describe television news coverage between 2005 and 2010 of alcohol, health and relevant alcohol-control policies, with a view to informing policy advocacy. A content analysis of all alcohol stories archived by the Australian Health News Research Collaboration. We recorded what triggered a news item, the main topics covered, whether risks to health were communicated, whether alcohol-control policies were featured and which news-actors appeared. We identified 612 stories, where 69.2% were triggered by a particular newsworthy incident or the release of new findings. The most frequently reported alcohol stories were focused on associated harms (30.2%) and 'binge drinking' (19.0%). A majority (75.3%) reported a variety of positive and negative health effects, yet mainly focused on short-term consequences. Combined, 63% mentioned an alcohol-control policy, yet no one particular policy was featured in more than 10% of all stories. The most commonly featured news-actors included public-health professionals (50.0%), members of affected communities (28.4%) and government representatives (24.3%) Problems related to alcohol were well-established foci of news attention and reportage and covered a broad spectrum of issues related to public health goals, yet less coverage centred on long-term health consequences or effective policy solutions. Future policy advocacy could focus on moving the debate away from simple problem definition to better communication of long-term health risks, existing policies, and evidence of their effectiveness and arguments for their adoption. Future research might consider audience understanding of the information. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Summarizing knowledge about ethical considerations when conducting Joint Interviews with close relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    interviewing poses some specific ethical challenges although similarities to other qualitative research methods exist. The main difference occurs on behalf of the relationship. The potential creation of conflicts between participants should be given much consideration because of the possible negative impact...... the researcher not to jeopardize it doing joint interviews. Ethical considerations conducting joint interviews remain largely undescribed in the literature. Our purpose was to illuminate the literature regarding specific ethical challenges conducting joint interviews with interrelated people in order to avoid...... it has on interviewees’ ongoing health status. This obligates the researcher to balance delicately between the needs of the interviewees, before, under and after the joint interview....

  11. A Policy Analysis of Student Attendance Standards Related to State Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…

  12. The Relation Between Policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility and Philosophical Moral Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Claus S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? To address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based ...

  13. Strategic Considerations of the Sino-Cuban Relationship as the United States Renews Relations with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    writings of Sun Tzu to classic games such as ‘go’ emphasize the value of setting the stage, as much as the battle itself. The idea is to position oneself at...112 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................116...foreign policy goals in the region by increasing trade and fostering a stable environment in the region. 116 BIBLIOGRAPHY Austin, Christina

  14. Policy considerations of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from a public interest perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, S.

    1977-01-01

    A critical, environmentalist view is taken of the problem of low-level radioactive waste disposal. Policy questions and needs for additional data are listed. The lack of a requirement for environmental impact statements prior to site licensing is pointed out. Some of New Mexico's experiences are briefly recounted. The need for definitions for radioactive wastes is pointed out

  15. Eat now, exercise later: The relation between consideration of immediate and future consequences and healthy behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van J.; Antonides, G.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    In light of the current obesity epidemic, individual choices for food and exercise should be understood better. Consideration of the immediate and future consequences of these choices (i.e., time orientation) can be an important predictor of eating and exercising behavior. The objective was to show

  16. Researching Social Capital in Education: Some Conceptual Considerations Relating to the Contribution of Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses conceptual considerations for social capital research in education from a social network perspective. Specifically, the article raises three key conceptual issues that call for further elaboration of concepts of social capital: redefining potential resources as accessible but un-utilized sources of social capital;…

  17. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Barbara C; Gografe, Sylvia; Pritt, Stacy; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; McWhirter, Camille A; Barman, Susan M; Comuzzie, Anthony; Greene, Molly; McNulty, Justin A; Michele, Daniel Eugene; Moaddab, Naz; Nelson, Randall J; Norris, Karen; Uray, Karen D; Banks, Ron; Westlund, Karin N; Yates, Bill J; Silverman, Jerald; Hansen, Kenneth D; Redman, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Every institution that is involved in research with animals is expected to have in place policies and procedures for the management of allegations of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act and the U.S. Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. We present here a model set of recommendations for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials to ensure appropriate consideration of allegations of noncompliance with federal Animal Welfare Act regulations that carry a significant risk or specific threat to animal welfare. This guidance has 3 overarching aims: 1 ) protecting the welfare of research animals; 2 ) according fair treatment and due process to an individual accused of noncompliance; and 3 ) ensuring compliance with federal regulations. Through this guidance, the present work seeks to advance the cause of scientific integrity, animal welfare, and the public trust while recognizing and supporting the critical importance of animal research for the betterment of the health of both humans and animals.-Hansen, B. C., Gografe, S., Pritt, S., Jen, K.-L. C., McWhirter, C. A., Barman, S. M., Comuzzie, A., Greene, M., McNulty, J. A., Michele, D. E., Moaddab, N., Nelson, R. J., Norris, K., Uray, K. D., Banks, R., Westlund, K. N., Yates, B. J., Silverman, J., Hansen, K. D., Redman, B. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials. © FASEB.

  18. U.S. Drug Policy: Shaping Relations With Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    90  Figure 12.  Management levels within Colombian wheel network. ...................................91  x THIS PAGE... environmental and community damage in Latin America, citing coca eradication programs that have an adverse effect on community ecosystems. The effects of U.S...favor of drug policy change but endorse arbitrary or minuscule legislation that would not pose a great political risk to their careers. MacCoun and

  19. Terrorism-Related Loss of Citizenship - A Policy Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Renunciation of Citizenship .” Densho Digital Repository, accessed September 10, 2016, http://ddr.densho.org/browse/topics/87/. 24 World War II...www.inth.ugent.be/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Impact-UDHR.pdf. 119 Densho Digital Repository. “Renunciation of Citizenship .” Accessed September 10, 2016...LOSS OF CITIZENSHIP — A POLICY REVIEW by James H. Martin September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Carolyn Halladay Second Reader: Christopher

  20. Issues and considerations on the development of an institutional controls policy for uranium mines within Northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurdson, B.E.; Bilokury, M.R.; Snider, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Institutional control of a mine site is required to ensure long-term public safety and environmental protection once responsibility for a decommissioned uranium mine site reverts back to the Crown. During the exploration, development, operation and decommissioning phases of a uranium mine's life cycle, public safety and environmental protection are ensured through the Federal and Provincial Environmental Assessment Review process, regulatory permitting and compliance monitoring by the province. However, at present, there is no clear provincial policy with respect to a proponent's application for release from a reclaimed and decommissioned site, and the resulting provincial responsibility for the long-term management and maintenance of the site once a release has been granted. Another policy issue has been identified with respect to the long-term institutional control of previously abandoned uranium mine sites. A number of issues are being considered by the Government of Saskatchewan in developing a policy which addresses the needs of the people of Saskatchewan and which is consistent with the intent of the commitments made by Canada through its ratification of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. (author)

  1. Important considerations related to the construction of observation wells in radiation facilities sites: A review research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S. A.; Salem, W. M.; Atta, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Observation wells in radiation facility sites are considered the main sources of the required subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic data. They are the most important means to detect the radioactive and/or chemical contaminants within the ground water. Also, they are used to observe the groundwater level fluctuations and perform the different aquifer tests to understand the hydraulic properties of aquifers and the behavior of contaminants transportation. This research reviews the necessary considerations and available techniques for constructing the observation wells properly. The review process depends on the international guidelines presented in the literature and the field experience. The proper well completion is essential for the well efficiency and longevity. Three main important topics are considered and discussed briefly in this review. They are the preliminary considerations, the drilling program and the well protection procedures. The preliminary considerations included are the collection of the available geologic and hydrogeologic data and information, selection of drilling method and the legal requirements. The drilling program comprises the site preparation, drilling processes, sampling, well logging, well design, casing components and materials, gravel pack and well development. The well protection procedures include well grout, concrete slab and others requirements. Observation wells should be constructed to a high standard and should be properly maintained and protected to ensure ongoing and reliable data collection

  2. Socioeconomic impact indicators relating to water and hydrological policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lorca, A.

    2009-01-01

    The work approaches one of the principal problematic ones in order the development of the arid, semiarid and sub humid dry regions, since it is the case of the land management and in I make concrete of that of hydrological management. For it, one presents an offer of design and construction of indicators, from the conceptual perspective of the sustainability, to evaluate the values corresponding to the socioeconomic productivity of the water, in order to motivate the public action in case of the territorial policies in general and sectorial especially. (Author) 4 refs.

  3. Contested ‘relational policy spaces’ in two European border regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörry, Sabine; Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border cooperation to promote economic development and political integration has been among the EU’s key themes since the 1990s, and contemporary policy networks are considered useful organisational solutions. Focusing on transport policies in the border regions of Basel and Luxembourg, we...... analyse measures of persistency of national preferences among policy actors, mapping their perceived ‘policy spaces of action’ and conceptualising these policy spaces as relational. We discuss two empirical findings: The networks’ various actors on either side of the border appear to perceive the actual...... ‘policy spaces’ very differently. Therefore, and due to the networks’ terminability, these policy spaces are highly contested and frequently negotiated between the actors. Based on a combination of in-depth interviews, sketch maps, and social network analysis, we show that large spatiocultural differences...

  4. Securing a Stop to the Summer Setback: Policy Considerations in the Future Expansion of the Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura C; Hooker, Neal H; Gunther, Carolyn

    2017-09-01

    The Summer Electronic Benefits Transfer for Children (SEBTC) has been proposed as a solution to address the problem of child food security during the summer. Initial SEBTC findings from a demonstration project show promise and the federal government has approved substantial funding for its continuation. This report reviews empirical assessments of SEBTC and Electronic Benefits Transfer research, and presents policy considerations in the program's future expansion. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transportation considerations related to waste forms and canisters for Defense TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Andrews, W.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rosenthal, L.J.; Odle, C.J.

    1981-09-01

    This report identifies and discusses the considerations imposed by transportation on waste forms and canisters for contact-handled, solid transuranic wastes from the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The report reviews (1) the existing raw waste forms and potential immobilized waste forms, (2) the existing and potential future DOE waste canisters and shipping containers, (3) regulations and regulatory trends for transporting commercial transuranic wastes on the ISA, (4) truck and rail carrier requirements and preferences for transporting the wastes, and (5) current and proposed Type B external packagings for transporting wastes

  6. Survey on Issues related to National Nuclear Promotion Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Lee, Youngcheol; Jeong, I. K.; Kim, Hyunjun; Kim, Youngsoo; Yun, Sungwon; Moon, Keehwan; Chung, Whansam

    2013-06-01

    Ο Major issues surrounding nuclear are including suspicions about nuclear safety, spent-fuel management, acquiring the advanced R and D capabilities and making the nuclear a creative industry Ο Solid measures for securing safety should be formulated and implemented for reducing public anxiety of nuclear use Ο The long-term R and D performance system from a scientific perspective should be established for expanding Research and Development for safer use of nuclear Ο The spent-fuel management policy should be determined through publicizing process Ο Establishing small and medium enterprises-oriented supply system of reactors and SMRs and Encouraging the radiation fusion technology industrialization for promoting creative industry utilizing nuclear

  7. Social policies related to parenthood and capabilities of Slovenian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrčela, Aleksandra Kanjuo; Sadar, Nevenka Černigoj

    2011-01-01

    We apply Sen's capability approach to evaluate the capabilities of Slovenian parents to reconcile paid work and family in the context of the transition to a market economy. We examine how different levels of capabilities together affect the work–life balance (WLB) of employed parents. We combine both quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches. The results of our quantitative and qualitative research show that increased precariousness of employment and intensification of work create gaps between the legal and normative possibilities for successful reconciliation strategies and actual use of such arrangements in Slovenia. The existing social policies and the acceptance of gender equality in the sphere of paid work enhance capabilities for reconciliation of paid work and parenthood, whereas the intensification of working lives, the dominance of paid work over other parts of life, and the acceptance of gender inequalities in parental and household responsibilities limit parents’ capabilities to achieve WLB.

  8. Culture, mobility and human rights: considerations on social occupational therapy in the context of immigrants municipal policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Takao Sato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the need to revise education and professional action, in the context of social occupational therapy, facing the growing phenomenon of international migration, especially in the current construction of the municipal policy for immigrant populations in São Paulo, SP. The discussion is methodologically structured into three complementary lines of analysis results from documentary research accompanied by field study, visits, participations in meetings, inter-institutional forums, public hearings, thematic debates, in addition to literature review. In the first analysis axis, we discuss the current legislation in Brazil, the construction of migration policy at the municipal level and civil society articulations about human mobility, understood as a fundamental right. In the second, we discuss people care services, families and groups in migratory situation in São Paulo, SP. Finally, on the third axis, we discuss the cultural developments in social occupational therapy for professional action and training in the field of human mobility. As a result it was observed that the current panorama poses new professional challenges, forcing the occupational therapist to review its technical-political position face to the new realities of the contemporary world.

  9. Public policy for the control of tobacco-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, M F; Rigotti, N A

    1992-03-01

    Public policies concerning tobacco shape the environment of the smoker and nonsmoker alike. These policies use diverse means to achieve the common goal of reducing tobacco use and its attendant health consequences. Educational interventions such as warning labels, school curricula, and public service announcements serve to inform the public about the hazards of tobacco smoke. These are countered by the pervasive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry, despite a ban on tobacco advertising on radio and television. Further restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion have been proposed and await action. Cigarette excise taxes and smoker-nonsmoker insurance premium differentials discourage smoking by making it more costly to purchase cigarettes. Conversely, health insurance reimbursement for smoking cessation programs could reduce the cost of giving up the habit and might encourage cessation. Restricting or banning smoking in public places and workplaces decreases a smoker's opportunities to smoke, further inhibiting this behavior. Reducing the availability of cigarettes to children and adolescents may help to prevent them from starting to smoke. The environment of the smoker is conditioned by this pastiche of influences. Physicians who become involved in tobacco-control issues have the opportunity to alter the environmental influences on their patients. This is likely to be synergistic with physicians' efforts inside the office to encourage individual smokers to quit. As a first step toward advocacy outside the office, physicians can help to create a smoke-free health-care facility in their own institution. Beyond that, advocacy groups or the voluntary health organizations (e.g., American Lung Association) provide avenues for physicians to take a stand on community issues relevant to tobacco control. Physicians who take these steps to alter the environment of smokers beyond the office are likely to magnify the effect of their work with individual

  10. Support for food policy initiatives is associated with knowledge of obesity-related cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Watson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate community support for government-led policy initiatives to positively influence the food environment, and to identify whether there is a relationship between support for food policy initiatives and awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle risk factors and cancer. Methods: An online survey of knowledge of cancer risk factors and attitudes to policy initiatives that influence the food environment was completed by 2474 adults from New South Wales, Australia. The proportion of participants in support of seven food policy initiatives was quantified in relation to awareness of the link between obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity with cancer and other health conditions. Results: Overall, policies that involved taxing unhealthy foods received the least support (41.5%. Support was highest for introducing a colour-coded food labelling system (85.9%, restricting claims being made about the health benefits of foods which are, overall, unhealthy (82.6%, displaying health warning labels on unhealthy foods (78.7% and banning unhealthy food advertising that targets children (72.6%. Participants who were aware that obesity-related lifestyle factors are related to cancer were significantly more likely to support food policy initiatives than those who were unaware. Only 17.5% of participants were aware that obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity are linked to cancer. Conclusions: There is strong support for all policies related to food labelling and a policy banning unhealthy food advertising to children. Support for food policy initiatives that positively influence the food environment was higher among those who were aware of the link between cancer and obesity-related lifestyle factors than among those who were unaware of this link. Increasing awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle factors and cancer

  11. School District Wellness Policy Quality and Weight-Related Outcomes among High School Students in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between…

  12. Implementing multiple intervention strategies in Dutch public health-related policy networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harting, Janneke; Peters, Dorothee; Grêaux, Kimberly; van Assema, Patricia; Verweij, Stefan; Stronks, Karien; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-01-01

    Improving public health requires multiple intervention strategies. Implementing such an intervention mix is supposed to require a multisectoral policy network. As evidence to support this assumption is scarce, we examined under which conditions public health-related policy networks were able to

  13. EU External Relations Law and the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    -historical context of political Union, this thesis first argues why coherence is an issue at all in EU external relations, and why law is integral to attaining the ever-enigmatic single voice of the European Union. Subsequently, the text examines the role of EU external relations law in attaining a coherent...

  14. Relating R and D and investment policies to CCS market diffusion through two-factor learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohwasser, Richard; Madlener, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to play a major role in the stabilization of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. To develop the capture technology from its current demonstration phase towards commercial maturity, significant funding is directed to CCS, such as the EU’s €4.5 bn NER300 fund. However, we know little about how this funding relates to market diffusion of CCS. This paper addresses that question. We initially review past learning effects from both capacity installations and R and D efforts for a similar technology using the concept of two-factor learning. We apply the obtained learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching rates to CCS in the electricity market model HECTOR, which simulates 19 European countries hourly until 2040, to understand the impact of learning and associated policies on CCS market diffusion. We evaluate the effectiveness of policies addressing learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching by relating the policy budget to the realized CCS capacity and find that, at lower policy cost, both methods are about equally effective. At higher spending levels, policies promoting learning-by-doing are more effective. Overall, policy effectiveness increases in low CO 2 price scenarios, but the CO 2 price still remains the key prerequisite for the economic competitiveness, even with major policy support. - Highlights: ► Identified two-factor learning rates for CCS through empirical data from flue gas desulphurization. ► Evaluated effectiveness of CCS stimulation policies addressing learning-by-doing and learning-by-researching. ► Both policy types are about equally effective with small policy budgets. ► Policies addressing learning-by-doing, e.g., subsidies to CCS projects, are more effective with large policy budgets. ► Analysis deployed HECTOR power market model that simulates 19 European countries on hourly granularity until 2040.

  15. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... bounty of material good, but also of intellectual and cultural capital, an .... of market, increased investment and development of other sectors of the .... battered public image that has had an impinging effect on external relations.

  16. Journal of Religion and Human Relations: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Religion and Human Relations (JORAHR) is an academic journal with focus on religious and ... Peer Review Process ... that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

  17. Regional Comparison of Enteral Nutrition-Related Admission Policies in Skilled Nursing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgermaster, Marissa; Slattery, Eoin; Islam, Nafeesa; Ippolito, Paul R; Seres, David S

    2016-06-01

    Nursing home admission policies are one driver of increased and earlier gastrostomy placement, a procedure that is not always medically or ethically indicated among patients needing short-term nutrition support. This important clinical decision should be based upon patient prognosis, goals, and needs. We compared nursing home enteral nutrition-related admission policies in New York City and other regions of the United States. We also explored motivations for these policies. We conducted a telephone survey with skilled nursing facility administrators in New York City and a random sample of facilities throughout the United States about enteral nutrition-related admission policies. Survey data were matched with publically available data about facility characteristics from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The relationship between facility location and admission policies was described with regression models. Reasons for these policies were thematically analyzed. New York City nursing homes were significantly less likely to admit patients with nasogastric feeding tubes than were nursing homes nationwide, after we controlled for facility characteristics (odds ratio = 0.111; 95% CI, 0.032-0.344). Reasons for refusing nasogastric tubes fell into 5 categories: safety, capacity, policy, perception of appropriate level of care, and patient quality of life. Our findings indicate that enteral nutrition-related admission policies vary greatly between nursing homes in New York City and nationwide. Many administrators cited safety and policy as factors guiding their institutional policies and practices, despite a lack of evidence. This gap in research, practice, and policy has implications for quality and cost of care, length of hospital stay, and patient morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  18. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Case Decisions: Health-Related Service Considerations for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Wodrich, David L.; Lazar, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic illness that can impact learning and often requires medical management in the school setting. School psychologists must therefore be knowledgeable of special service eligibility criteria associated with T1DM, the health-related services often required of such students, and what health-related services…

  19. Energy - economy - policy: considerations on the world energy market. Energie - Oekonomie - Politik: wirtschaftstheoretische und wirtschaftspolitische Betrachtungen zum Weltenergiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, H B

    1991-07-11

    Worldwide, there is no technical scarcity of energy resources, there is a scarcity of those which might be recovered cost-effectively. The approach of the traditional resource theory is orientated to the optimum distribution of the finite energy resources between the generations. The present distribution problem is, however, the excessive demand for cost-advantageous energy resources of the Third World by the industrialized countries. The industrialized countries themselves own abundant energy resources (e.g. 'non-conventional' oils) which, however, cannot be cost-effectively recovered unless a substantially higher energy price level assures economic viability. This analysis raises fundamental questions concerning an optimized balance of interests in the field of utilization of resources between the North (rich countries) and the South (poor countries, need for energy; increasing overpopulation). Alternative solutions aiming at better conservation of cost-effectively recoverable resources to the advantage of the Third World countries are discussed as well as viable instruments to be used within the framework of an international energy policy. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  20. The Russian Landing Rate, Central Bank’s Policy Related Rate and Intermediation Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates asymmetries in the Russian intermediation premium as measured by the spread between the commercial lending rate and the Central Bank’s policy related rate. Empirical results have shown that the Russian intermediation premium adjusts to the threshold faster when the Central Bank’s policy related rates increase relative to lending rates as opposed to when the Central Bank’s policy related rates move in the opposite direction. The findings of this paper suggest that during the period when the Russian Federation faced formidable challenges from a sharp decline in oil prices and reduced access to international capital markets due to Western sanctions, the Central Bank of Russia was not effective in utilizing countercyclical monetary policy to achieve macroeconomic objectives and commercial banks exhibited predatory pricing behavior.

  1. 29 CFR 1604.10 - Employment policies relating to pregnancy and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.10 Employment policies relating to pregnancy..., or insurance program which is in effect on October 31, 1978, which does not treat women affected by...

  2. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  3. Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2007-01-01

    .... It also suggests related policy issues of potential interest to Congress. For military planners, the control of information is critical to military success, and communications networks and computers are of vital operational importance...

  4. A hybrid credibility-based fuzzy multiple objective optimisation to differential pricing and inventory policies with arbitrage consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemy Yaghin, R.; Fatemi Ghomi, S. M. T.; Torabi, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    In most markets, price differentiation mechanisms enable manufacturers to offer different prices for their products or services in different customer segments; however, the perfect price discrimination is usually impossible for manufacturers. The importance of accounting for uncertainty in such environments spurs an interest to develop appropriate decision-making tools to deal with uncertain and ill-defined parameters in joint pricing and lot-sizing problems. This paper proposes a hybrid bi-objective credibility-based fuzzy optimisation model including both quantitative and qualitative objectives to cope with these issues. Taking marketing and lot-sizing decisions into account simultaneously, the model aims to maximise the total profit of manufacturer and to improve service aspects of retailing simultaneously to set different prices with arbitrage consideration. After applying appropriate strategies to defuzzify the original model, the resulting non-linear multi-objective crisp model is then solved by a fuzzy goal programming method. An efficient stochastic search procedure using particle swarm optimisation is also proposed to solve the non-linear crisp model.

  5. Sports-related concussions - media, science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-08-01

    Although growing awareness about the potential long-term deleterious effects of sport-related concussion has led to increased attention to the risks of collision sports, calls to ban these sports, such as American football, might be premature. Collision sports have a relatively high incidence of concussions, but participation in these sports also confers a host of benefits. In addition, the associated risks of participation, including concussion, have not been definitively shown to outweigh the benefits they provide, and the risk-benefit ratio might vary among individuals. The risks of concussion and repetitive concussions associated with collision sports are unknown in the general population and not well characterized even in elite athlete populations. In this article, we discuss current knowledge on sports-related concussion, its neurological consequences, and implications for regulation of the practice of collision sports.

  6. Field theories on conformally related space-times: Some global considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelas, P.; Dowker, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    The nature of the vacua appearing in the relation between the vacuum expectation value of stress tensors in conformally flat spaces is clarified. The simple but essential point is that the relevant spaces should have conformally related global Cauchy surfaces. Some commonly occurring conformally flat space-times are divided into two families according to whether they are conformally equivalent to Minkowski space or to the Rindler wedge. Expressions, some new, are obtained for the vacuum expectation value of the stress tensor for a number of illustrative cases. It is noted that thermalization relates the Green's functions of these two families

  7. TAX AVOIDANCE, RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS, CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND THE CORPORATE CASH DIVIDEND POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Dewi Kartika; Utama, Sidharta; Rossieta, Hilda

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between tax avoidance, related party transactions and the corporate dividend policy. Furthermore, this study will also investigate the moderating effects of the implementation of Corporate Governance (CG) on the relationship between tax avoidance, Related Party Transactions (RPT) and corporate dividend policies. Our sample covers companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2011-2014. The results provide moderate support for the prop...

  8. FORMATION OF THE ENTITY'S ACCOUNTING POLICIES WITH REGARD TO RELATED PARTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article solved the problem concerning the development and practical application of accounting policies with regards to related parties. One element of the company’s accounting policies is to establish the principles of classification of related parties and their list considering materiality relations. In addition, the company must determine its related entities for the purposes of transfer pricing. Based the criteria definition and classification of related parties, proposed that the significance of the impact of one party to another based on the content of operations, their volume, the results and how such operations significantly affect the financial, investment and commercial activities. Only an analysis of all the factors together contribute to reliable estimates list of related parties. The critical analysis are made of methods for determining transfer prices for transactions, designed piece order of accounting policies, which reflected information about related parties.

  9. Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

  10. A Typology of Agency in New Generation Learning Environments: Emerging Relational, Ecological and New Material Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charteris, Jennifer; Smardon, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    The impetus to move to a new generation learning environments places a spotlight on the relational dynamics of classroom spaces. A key feature is the notion of learner agency. A complex notion, learner agency involves both compliance with and resistance to classroom norms and therefore is far more sophisticated than acting in acquiescence to…

  11. Reductions in abortion-related mortality following policy reform: evidence from Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Janie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Unsafe abortion is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal mortality; however, abortion law and policy liberalization could lead to drops in unsafe abortion and related deaths. This review provides an analysis of changes in abortion mortality in three countries where significant policy reform and related service delivery occurred. Drawing on peer-reviewed literature, population data and grey literature on programs and policies, this paper demonstrates the policy and program changes that led to declines in abortion-related mortality in Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh. In all three countries, abortion policy liberalization was followed by implementation of safe abortion services and other reproductive health interventions. South Africa and Bangladesh trained mid-level providers to offer safe abortion and menstrual regulation services, respectively, Romania improved contraceptive policies and services, and Bangladesh made advances in emergency obstetric care and family planning. The findings point to the importance of multi-faceted and complementary reproductive health reforms in successful implementation of abortion policy reform.

  12. Historical-Philosophical Components of Policy and Mo-Rality Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro V. Usov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim. To analyze comprehensively the policy as a way of human being, as well as the important today’s criteria of legitimacy of the government and the nature of political morality through a consistent reconstruction of the relations between morality and politics in the contemporary and classic historical and philosophical discourses. Methodology. The methods of historical reconstruction, hermeneutic, social and transcendental ones, which allowed to involve actively into understanding the important problems of modern life, conceptual apparatus of political and moral philosophy and to explore the relationships between politics and morality through the idea of social agreement, justice and freedom are used for coherent and consistent understanding of the measurements and definitions of relations policy and morality. Scientific novelty. The used in the article methodological principles made it possible to create actual for today (especially for controversial burdened by totalitarian past and uncertain future of a controversial, local realities version of political ethics. It is proved that the development of moral and ethical principles, their consistent adherence by not only politicians, but by all the citizens are able to hinder the pragmatic interests of statesmen, who, under cover of the idea of the common good, protect primarily not the public but narrow corporate interests. A true freedom and justice based on the relationship of rights and duties, respect for them, which is more significant than conventional or compulsory recognition of them. Not only classic but also modern philosophical arguments for the combination of morality, ethics and politics were reconstructed. The thoughts of E. Tuhendhat about the nature of morality as a special regulatory system, and the basic principles of justification of moral standards in a modern philosophy were analyzed. It is shown that the landscape of contemporary crisis of social being, moral

  13. HISTORICAL-PHILOSOPHICAL COMPONENTS OF POLICY AND MO-RALITY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro V. Usov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim. To analyze comprehensively the policy as a way of human being, as well as the important today’s criteria of legitimacy of the government and the nature of political morality through a consistent reconstruction of the relations between morality and politics in the contemporary and classic historical and philosophical discourses. Methodology. The methods of historical reconstruction, hermeneutic, social and transcendental ones, which allowed to involve actively into understanding the important problems of modern life, conceptual apparatus of political and moral philosophy and to explore the relationships between politics and morality through the idea of social agreement, justice and freedom are used for coherent and consistent understanding of the measurements and definitions of relations policy and morality. Scientific novelty. The used in the article methodological principles made it possible to create actual for today (especially for controversial burdened by totalitarian past and uncertain future of a controversial, local realities version of political ethics. It is proved that the development of moral and ethical principles, their consistent adherence by not only politicians, but by all the citizens are able to hinder the pragmatic interests of statesmen, who, under cover of the idea of the common good, protect primarily not the public but narrow corporate interests. A true freedom and justice based on the relationship of rights and duties, respect for them, which is more significant than conventional or compulsory recognition of them. Not only classic but also modern philosophical arguments for the combination of morality, ethics and politics were reconstructed. The thoughts of E. Tuhendhat about the nature of morality as a special regulatory system, and the basic principles of justification of moral standards in a modern philosophy were analyzed. It is shown that the landscape of contemporary crisis of social being, moral

  14. Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders' perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R; Gogognon, Patrick; Ridde, Valéry

    2014-02-20

    Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive ethical terrain of a participatory public

  15. Cost-benefit considerations in the development of policies and procedures for controlling indoor exposure to radon and its decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puskin, J.S.; Guimond, R.J.; Napolitano, S.; Nelson, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of ALARA to the problem of controlling residential radon levels is limited. Cost-benefit considerations can nevertheless be useful in guiding policy in this area. From a societal perspective, the cost-benefit balance for mitigating radon in homes to the EPA action level of 4 pCi/L, or lower, is generally better than for most programs aimed at reducing environmental risks. Reduction of radon levels in new homes tends to be less costly; moreover, reduced radon levels in new construction may be achievable with a net cost savings to the homeowner due to concomitant decreases in energy expenses. Since programs to reduced radon exposure rely on voluntary actions by homeowners, the societal cost-benefit balance cannot dictate the extent of radon mitigation efforts. However, both economic incentives and governmental guidance can influence these efforts. Cost-benefit analysis can be an important tool in formulating such guidance

  16. Some Considerations Concerning the Relations between Romania and the Vatican during the Period between the Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Viorel Ioan Varlan

    2013-01-01

    After the Great Reunion of 1918, Romania began tosign treaties with sovereign statesasserting their identity in this way. One particular episode was the signing of the agreement with theVatican agreement recognized under the name of theConcordat. The major interests of the Holy Seewere numerous political and spiritual point of view, given the previous privileges. In this study, wetried to highlight some aspects concerning relations between Romania and the Vatican of the periodunder analysis

  17. PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR RELATED TO HEATING SYSTEMS IN GERMANY WITH SPECIAL CONSIDERATION OF CONSUMERS' ECOLOGICAL ATTITUDES

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Thomas; Zapilko, Marina; Menrad, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The decision for buying a heating system is a long-term one, as many different aspects have an influence on this choice which were analyzed in a Germany-wide, written survey. The respondents (only owners of a private house) had to answer questions about their attitude towards e.g. economic, convenience or ecological aspects related to heating systems and the respective combustibles. Using a multinomial logistic regression model the choice of the heating system is mainly explained by ecologica...

  18. Considerations related to the decontamination of houses in Goiania: Limitations and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    da Silva, C.J.; Delgado, J.U.; Luiz, M.T.; Cunha, P.G.; Barros, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    We are considering some aspects related to the decontamination activities of about 50 houses affected by 137 Cs in Goiania. We describe the way these contaminations occurred, the instruments used, and the procedures. We also discuss the dose limits established for decontamination and the consequences resulting from this action. We call attention to the importance of not only the technical aspects in such activities but also the psycho-social implications resulting from them

  19. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease12

    OpenAIRE

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of “nutritional frailty,” which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutr...

  20. Considerations and calculations on the breakup of jets and drops of melt related to premixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, M.; Berg, E. von; Buck, M. [Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE), Univ. of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Various descriptions of jet and drop breakup are applied in premixing codes, presently. The main task is to check these descriptions over a wide range of conditions in order to assure extrapolation capabilities for the codes. Jet breakup under non-boiling conditions is relatively well described by IKEJET, based on Conte/Miles (CM) instability description and a relatively detailed stripping model, in contrast to using Kelvin/Helmholtz (KH) theory. Remaining open questions are elaborated. Especially, thick jet behavior with dominance of stripping even at small relative velocities must be distinguished from thin jets with coarse breakup. The application of IKEJET to cases with jet breakup under strong film boiling yielded significantly too little fragmentation. As a possible explanation line, multiphase effects on the wave growth and stripping are considered, due to entrainment of melt and water. Parametric checking calculations are performed with a strongly simplified approach for PREMIX and FARO experiments in order to reveal main effects and the possible physical explanation features as a basis for extended modelling. The results indicate that jet breakup may be essentially sufficient to explain the experimental behavior. Rather coalescence than further drop breakup may be expected. This is also indicated by calculations with IKE drop breakup models. (author)

  1. The Classification of Hysteria and Related Disorders: Historical and Phenomenological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the history of the conceptualization of dissociative, conversion, and somatoform syndromes in relation to one another, chronicles efforts to classify these and other phenomenologically-related psychopathology in the American diagnostic system for mental disorders, and traces the subsequent divergence in opinions of dissenting sectors on classification of these disorders. This article then considers the extensive phenomenological overlap across these disorders in empirical research, and from this foundation presents a new model for the conceptualization of these disorders. The classification of disorders formerly known as hysteria and phenomenologically-related syndromes has long been contentious and unsettled. Examination of the long history of the conceptual difficulties, which remain inherent in existing classification schemes for these disorders, can help to address the continuing controversy. This review clarifies the need for a major conceptual revision of the current classification of these disorders. A new phenomenologically-based classification scheme for these disorders is proposed that is more compatible with the agnostic and atheoretical approach to diagnosis of mental disorders used by the current classification system. PMID:26561836

  2. DSM-V diagnostic criteria for bereavement-related disorders in children and adolescents: developmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S; Cohen, Judith A; Lieberman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Two bereavement-related disorders are proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V): Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement, to be located in the main body of the text as an official diagnostic entity; and Bereavement-Related Disorder, including a Traumatic Death Specifier, to be located in the Appendix as an invitation for further research. These diagnoses currently do not include developmentally informed criteria, despite the importance of developmental processes in the ways children and adolescents grieve. In this article, we draw upon a selective review of the empirical literature and expert clinical knowledge to recommend developmentally informed modifications and specifiers of the proposed criteria for both bereavement disorders and strategies to improve future research. This article is derived from an invited report submitted to the DSM-V Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Trauma, and Dissociative Disorders Sub-Work Group, and suggested modifications have received preliminary approval to be incorporated into the DSM-V at the time of this writing. Adoption of these proposals will have far-reaching consequences, given that DSM-V criteria will influence both critical treatment choices for bereaved youth and the next generation of research studies.

  3. The Classification of Hysteria and Related Disorders: Historical and Phenomenological Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S. North

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history of the conceptualization of dissociative, conversion, and somatoform syndromes in relation to one another, chronicles efforts to classify these and other phenomenologically-related psychopathology in the American diagnostic system for mental disorders, and traces the subsequent divergence in opinions of dissenting sectors on classification of these disorders. This article then considers the extensive phenomenological overlap across these disorders in empirical research, and from this foundation presents a new model for the conceptualization of these disorders. The classification of disorders formerly known as hysteria and phenomenologically-related syndromes has long been contentious and unsettled. Examination of the long history of the conceptual difficulties, which remain inherent in existing classification schemes for these disorders, can help to address the continuing controversy. This review clarifies the need for a major conceptual revision of the current classification of these disorders. A new phenomenologically-based classification scheme for these disorders is proposed that is more compatible with the agnostic and atheoretical approach to diagnosis of mental disorders used by the current classification system.

  4. Obama’s European policy and the transatlantic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tovar Ruiz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Transatlantic relationship has been one of the most important pillars for stability and security in the international system in the 20th Century. During the first Obama Administration, a new, different debate was opened concerning its relevance. From the divergences over the Iraq War and the scarce expenditures on defense of the European allies, the importance of transatlantic relations has been called into question due to changes in the global balance of power and the rise of emergent powers, the loss of strategic interest by new generations of American leaders and, finally, the economic crisis and the new debate on the decline of Europe. In spite of all that, a more careful analysis of the Obama Administration´s discourse and foreignpolicy leads the author to conclude that this Alliance will maintain its pre-eminence over the mid-term future.

  5. Considerations related to the deuterium-depleted water isotopic analysis for an industrial production pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Mihai; Steflea, Dumitru; Irimescu, Rodica

    2000-01-01

    In the last few years, there is a major interest related to the use of Deuterium Depleted Water (DDW) for biological and medical purposes. Therefore, a production installation for DDW was developed and now, it is working in our Institute. The deuterium isotopic concentration for the final product is in the 10 - 40 ppm D / (D + H) range depending on customers' requirements. In order to control and manage the production process and also to validate the final product, a special procedure for deuterium content measurement for DDW by Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry was developed. The main instrumentation is a MAT 250 IRMS with a hydrogen preparation line based on the zinc reduction process. The first concern regarding the analysis procedure for these water samples with very low deuterium concentration has been related to the preparation of an internal standard with a D / (D + H) isotopic value in the measurement range. For this raison, a distinct procedure was developed and applied, so that starting to the well-known VSMOW standard and so, a sequence of 12 samples with decreasing deuterium content was obtained. These samples were measured and 3 / 2 ratio mass signals versus 2 mass signal were plotted and statistically analyzed. Obviously, for each measurement, a H 3+ correction factor was calculated and applied, as a results of an entire statistically elimination procedure and by extrapolation of the linear curve plotted, a value for the primary DDW was determined. Other important problem related to deuterium content determination was to minimize the H 3+ factor correction. As the deuterium content is very low the contribution of this factor to the 3 mass signal becomes very important. Therefore, special operations were developed, considering the behaviour of linear dependence between 3 / 2 mass signal versus 2 mass signal in the lower part. Finally, special attention was given to estimate the lower isotopic concentration analysis limit. (authors)

  6. How to reduce emissions related to consumption: which public policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike; Gautier, Celia

    2014-05-01

    This report proposes an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions related to consumption in the world. It examines which are currently the world emission flows which come with trade exchanges (intermediate and final goods) between countries. The first part tries to highlight hidden emissions present in our imports and exports. It presents the different methods of greenhouse gas accounting, discusses the emission flows at the planet level, and the challenge of the limitation of 'carbon leaks', and discusses what makes a country a net emission importer or exporter. The second part discusses how France can reduce its consumption-based emissions, how to reach a factor 4 of reduction on these emissions, how to act against leaks and inflows of emissions through measures at the world level (international agreement, reduction of emissions by sea and air transport, reduction of industry emissions) or at the national level (relocation of polluting industries in France or Europe, promotion of short circuits, eco-design, changes in consumption modes, measures on groups of products which import emissions)

  7. Psychometric considerations in the measurement of event-related brain potentials: Guidelines for measurement and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayson, Peter E; Miller, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Failing to consider psychometric issues related to reliability and validity, differential deficits, and statistical power potentially undermines the conclusions of a study. In research using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), numerous contextual factors (population sampled, task, data recording, analysis pipeline, etc.) can impact the reliability of ERP scores. The present review considers the contextual factors that influence ERP score reliability and the downstream effects that reliability has on statistical analyses. Given the context-dependent nature of ERPs, it is recommended that ERP score reliability be formally assessed on a study-by-study basis. Recommended guidelines for ERP studies include 1) reporting the threshold of acceptable reliability and reliability estimates for observed scores, 2) specifying the approach used to estimate reliability, and 3) justifying how trial-count minima were chosen. A reliability threshold for internal consistency of at least 0.70 is recommended, and a threshold of 0.80 is preferred. The review also advocates the use of generalizability theory for estimating score dependability (the generalizability theory analog to reliability) as an improvement on classical test theory reliability estimates, suggesting that the latter is less well suited to ERP research. To facilitate the calculation and reporting of dependability estimates, an open-source Matlab program, the ERP Reliability Analysis Toolbox, is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Movement-related cortical potentials in paraplegic patients: abnormal patterns and considerations for BCI-rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren eXu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. This study explores the patterns of abnormalities of movement related cortical potentials (MRCP during motor imagery tasks of feet and right hand in patients with paraplegia (including the subgroups with/without central neuropathic pain and complete/incomplete injury patients and the level of distinctiveness of abnormalities in these groups using pattern classification. The most notable observed abnormalities were the amplified execution negativity and its slower rebound in the patient group. The potential underlying mechanisms behind these changes and other minor dissimilarities in patients’ subgroups, as well as the relevance to BCI applications, are discussed. The findings are of interest from a neurological perspective as well as for BCI-assisted neuro-rehabilitation and therapy.

  9. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of "nutritional frailty," which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutrient needs may be high. This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging and in improving the prognosis in cases of age-related diseases. It serves to identify key knowledge gaps and implementation challenges to support adequate nutrition for healthy aging, including applicability of metrics used in body-composition and diet adequacy for older adults and mechanisms to reduce nutritional frailty and to promote diet resilience. This review also discusses management recommendations for several leading chronic conditions common in aging populations, including cognitive decline and dementia, sarcopenia, and compromised immunity to infectious disease. The role of health systems in incorporating nutrition care routinely for those aged ≥60 y and living independently and current actions to address nutritional status before hospitalization and the development of disease are discussed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of “nutritional frailty,” which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutrient needs may be high. This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging and in improving the prognosis in cases of age-related diseases. It serves to identify key knowledge gaps and implementation challenges to support adequate nutrition for healthy aging, including applicability of metrics used in body-composition and diet adequacy for older adults and mechanisms to reduce nutritional frailty and to promote diet resilience. This review also discusses management recommendations for several leading chronic conditions common in aging populations, including cognitive decline and dementia, sarcopenia, and compromised immunity to infectious disease. The role of health systems in incorporating nutrition care routinely for those aged ≥60 y and living independently and current actions to address nutritional status before hospitalization and the development of disease are discussed. PMID:28096124

  11. Evaluation Considerations for Secondary Uses of Clinical Data: Principles for an Evidence-based Approach to Policy and Implementation of Secondary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P J; Rigby, M; Ammenwerth, E; McNair, J Brender; Georgiou, A; Hyppönen, H; de Keizer, N; Magrabi, F; Nykänen, P; Gude, W T; Hackl, W

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: To set the scientific context and then suggest principles for an evidence-based approach to secondary uses of clinical data, covering both evaluation of the secondary uses of data and evaluation of health systems and services based upon secondary uses of data. Method: Working Group review of selected literature and policy approaches. Results: We present important considerations in the evaluation of secondary uses of clinical data from the angles of governance and trust, theory, semantics, and policy. We make the case for a multi-level and multi-factorial approach to the evaluation of secondary uses of clinical data and describe a methodological framework for best practice. We emphasise the importance of evaluating the governance of secondary uses of health data in maintaining trust, which is essential for such uses. We also offer examples of the re-use of routine health data to demonstrate how it can support evaluation of clinical performance and optimize health IT system design. Conclusions: Great expectations are resting upon "Big Data" and innovative analytics. However, to build and maintain public trust, improve data reliability, and assure the validity of analytic inferences, there must be independent and transparent evaluation. A mature and evidence-based approach needs not merely data science, but must be guided by the broader concerns of applied health informatics. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  12. Safeguards considerations related to the decontamination and decommissioning of former nuclear weapons facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the post-Cold War environment and the changes in the U. S. Department of Energy defense mission, many former nuclear operations are being permanently shut down. These operations include facilities where nuclear materials production, processing, and weapons manufacturing have occurred in support of the nation's defense industry. Since defense-related operations have ceased, many of the classification and sensitive information concerns do not exist. However, nuclear materials found at these sites are of interest to the DOE from environmental, safety and health, and materials management perspectives. Since these facilities played a role in defense activities, the nuclear materials found at these facilities are considered special nuclear materials, primarily highly enriched uranium and/or plutonium. Consequently, these materials pose significant diversion, theft, and sabotage threats, and significant nuclear security issues exist that must be addressed. This paper focuses on the nuclear materials protection issues associated with facility decommissioning and decontamination, primarily safeguards

  13. The relative generosity of the EU-15 member states’ child policies

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme De Henau; Sile O’Dorchai; Danièle Meulders; Hélène Périvier-Timbeau

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to analyse the influence of labour market conditions and social policies on the fertility decisions of young people in order to contribute to the design of better policies at European and national levels to facilitate combination of parenthood and work. Chapter I presents a broader picture on women’s current labour force participation according to motherhood status in the 15 countries of the former EU. The chapter also discusses related European Union po...

  14. A welcoming approach to winning support [public relations policy at the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, C.G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The public relations policy of British Nuclear Fuels with respect to the Sellafield reprocessing centre is described. Key factors in reassuring the public on the safety of the plant have been the opening of an exhibition centre and a widely advertised open invitation to visit Sellafield together with a commitment to an open information policy and the promotion of understanding through the use of less technical language. An improvement in public confidence in Sellafield is reported. (U.K.)

  15. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2014-12-03

    Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals' lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the "lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity". However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  16. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Webster

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  17. Methodological considerations related to nurse researchers using their own experience of a phenomenon within phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Colleen M; Wallis, Marianne; Oprescu, Florin I; Gray, Marion

    2017-03-01

    This paper summarizes phenomenology and discusses how nurses can use their own experiences as data and maintain rigour within the method. It explores how data from researchers experiencing the phenomenon of interest could be used to explicate assumptions and pre-understandings and may also be used as data. While the ethnographic concept of insider research has gained popularity, the notion of researcher as participant in phenomenology is relatively new. The lived experience of a phenomenon is unique to each person and utilization of the nurse researcher's experiences of the phenomenon should be considered for inclusion as data. Discussion paper. Articles from 2001 - 2015 in the CINAHL and PubMed databases were identified using keywords such as 'insider research', 'phenomenology', 'bracketing' and 'qualitative research'. In addition, reference lists from articles used were examined to identify additional literature. Phenomenology is a valuable research method. Usability, credibility, trustworthiness and auditability of data collected must be considered to ensure rigour and maintain orientation to the phenomenon under investigation. Nurse researchers may be interviewed as participants if these four principles are considered and methods used are made explicit. Utilizing appropriate research methods are as important as getting clinical practice correct to advance knowledge and benefit those under our care. We recommend using the researchers' experience as a data source to gain a complete picture of the phenomenon under investigation. Using the approach proposed here, nurses can ensure they are incorporating all data sources available while maintaining research rigour. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Applicable safety-related design and operations considerations from the oil and chemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvihill, R.J.; Deshotels, R.L.; Master, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Fluor Daniel has conducted several hazards and risk analyses on petroleum and chemical facilities. These analyses included qualitative hazards and operability (HAZOP) studies, preliminary hazards analyses, and qualitative fault-tree analysis as well as quantitative event-tree/fault-tree risk analysis. Several design-related problem areas were uncovered as a result of these analyses as well as deficiencies in operations and maintenance. Design deficiency areas include potential common-mode failures associated with redundant functions sharing a common distributed digital control (DDC) logic circuit board and failures in pressure relief systems. Many of the design weaknesses and potential operator errors discussed have a direct counterpart in nuclear fuel processing plants and nuclear power reactors. Counterparts that are discussed are common cause/common mode failures in control systems and failures in pressure relief systems. Overpressurization of piping and vessels resulting in rupture is discussed. Mitigating design features and operations procedures that have been implemented in the chemical process industry are described and their applicability to the nuclear industry is discussed

  19. Recommendations regarding problems of research policy relating to the establishment and operation of atomic power stations in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This report, which was submitted by the Danish Planning Council for Research to the Parliamentary Committee on Scientific Research, is based on reports from the DANISH Atomic Energy Commission. and on a sub-committee appointed by the Planning Council, as well as on the comments of the Danish Research Council on these reports. The Planning Council submit that: (1) the question of the introduction and scope of Danish utilization of atomic energy should be considered as a link in setting up a total plan for energy policy elucidating the possibilities in the energy field from both aspects of supply and demand, (2) that there is a continuous interaction between energy policy and research policy in the subject field, (3) that the total resources for energy research and development should be considerably increased, (4) that investigations into the economy of atomic power should be intensified, and (5) that investigations of possibilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste in Denmark should be speeded up. Further, the Planning Council points out the need for research in areas such as (a) wind and solar energy, (b) the environmental impact of utilizing atomic power in relation to that of utilizing other forms of power, (c) economic and social effects of different forms of energy supply, as well as the problems of siting, decision taking and public information and participation and finally, (d) the utilization of the energy raw materials found in Greenland.

  20. Recommendations regarding problems of research policy relating to the establishment and operation of atomic power stations in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report, which was submitted by the Danish Planning Council for Research to the Parliamentary Committee on Scientific Research, is based on reports from the DANISH Atomic Energy Commission. and on a sub-committee appointed by the Planning Council, as well as on the comments of the Danish Research Council on these reports. The Planning Council submit that: 1) the question of the introduction and scope of Danish utilization of atomic energy should be considered as a link in setting up a total plan for energy policy elucidating the possibilities in the energy field from both aspects of supply and demand, 2) that there is a continuous interaction between energy policy and research policy in the subject field 3) that the total resources for energy research and development should be considerably increased, 4) that investigations into the economy of atomic power should be intensified, and 5) that investigations of possibilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste in Denmark should be speeded up. Further, the Planning Council points out the need for research in areas such as a) wind and solar energy, b) the environmental impact of utilizing atomic power in relation to that of utilizing other forms of power, c) economic and social effects of different forms of energy supply, as well as the problems of siting, decision taking and public information and participation and finally, d) the utilization of the energy raw materials found in Greenland. (B.P.)

  1. Steam generator thermal hydraulic design & functional architecture features and related operational and reliability issues requiring consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarner, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    Proper thermal hydraulic design and functional architecture are critical to successful steam generator operation and long term reliability. The evolution of steam generators has been a gradual learning process that has benefited from continuous industry operational experience (OPEX). Inadequate thermal hydraulic design can lead to numerous degradation mechanisms such as excessive deposition, corrosion, flow and level instabilities, fluid-elastic instabilities and tube wear. The functional architecture determines the health of the tube bundle and the other internals during manufacturing, handling and operation. It also determines thermal performance as well as establishing global thermal-hydraulic characteristics such as water level shrink and swell response. This paper discusses the range of operational and reliability issues and relates them to the thermal hydraulic attributes and functional architecture of steam generators (many SG reliability issues are further discussed in other presentations at this conference). In pursuing such issues, the paper focuses on the four major features of the equipment, identifying in each case the goals and requirements such features must meet. Typical approaches and the means by which such requirements are addressed in current equipment are discussed. The four features are: 1. Tubing Material and Tube Bundle Heat Transfer Performance; a. Two materials are in current use – Alloy 690 TT and Alloy 800. Both are good materials with excellent performance records which serve their owners very well (the reliability attributes of Alloy 800 and 690 are discussed in other papers at this conference). Caution is advised in the supply of any material: – material quality is only assured by what is specified to material suppliers in procurement specifications – i.e. - all the knowledge and research in the world assures nothing if its findings are not reflected in procurement requirements. b. Heat transfer performance in addition to being

  2. Policies, Procedures, and Practices Regarding Sport-Related Concussion in Community College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddack, Michael; DeWolf, Ryan; Covassin, Tracey; Kontos, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    College sport organizations and associations endorse concussion-management protocols and policies. To date, little information is available on concussion policies and practices at community college institutions. To assess and describe current practices and policies regarding the assessment, management, and return-to-play criteria for sport-related concussion (SRC) among member institutions of the California Community College Athletic Association (CCCAA). Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. A total of 55 head athletic trainers (ATs) at CCCAA institutions. Data about policies, procedures, and practices regarding SRC were collected over a 3-week period in March 2012 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Fisher exact test, and the Spearman test. Almost half (47%) of ATs stated they had a policy for SRC assessment, management, and return to play at their institution. They reported being in compliance with baseline testing guidelines (25%), management guidelines (34.5%), and return-to-play guidelines (30%). Nearly 31% of ATs described having an SRC policy in place for academic accommodations. Conference attendance was positively correlated with institutional use of academic accommodations after SRC (r = 0.44, P = .01). The number of meetings ATs attended and their use of baseline testing were also positively correlated (r = 0.38, P = .01). At the time of this study, nearly half of CCCAA institutions had concussion policies and 31% had academic-accommodation policies. However, only 18% of ATs at CCCAA institutions were in compliance with all of their concussion policies. Our findings demonstrate improvements in the management of SRCs by ATs at California community colleges compared with previous research but a need for better compliance with SRC policies.

  3. Scaling considerations related to interactions of hydrologic, pedologic and geomorphic processes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrologic, pedologic, and geomorphic processes are strongly interrelated and affected by scale. These interactions exert important controls on runoff generation, preferential flow, contaminant transport, surface erosion, and mass wasting. Measurement of hydraulic conductivity (K) and infiltration capacity at small scales generally underestimates these values for application at larger field, hillslope, or catchment scales. Both vertical and slope-parallel saturated flow and related contaminant transport are often influenced by interconnected networks of preferential flow paths, which are not captured in K measurements derived from soil cores. Using such K values in models may underestimate water and contaminant fluxes and runoff peaks. As shown in small-scale runoff plot studies, infiltration rates are typically lower than integrated infiltration across a hillslope or in headwater catchments. The resultant greater infiltration-excess overland flow in small plots compared to larger landscapes is attributed to the lack of preferential flow continuity; plot border effects; greater homogeneity of rainfall inputs, topography and soil physical properties; and magnified effects of hydrophobicity in small plots. At the hillslope scale, isolated areas with high infiltration capacity can greatly reduce surface runoff and surface erosion at the hillslope scale. These hydropedologic and hydrogeomorphic processes are also relevant to both occurrence and timing of landslides. The focus of many landslide studies has typically been either on small-scale vadose zone process and how these affect soil mechanical properties or on larger scale, more descriptive geomorphic studies. One of the issues in translating laboratory-based investigations on geotechnical behavior of soils to field scales where landslides occur is the characterization of large-scale hydrological processes and flow paths that occur in heterogeneous and anisotropic porous media. These processes are not only affected

  4. Public policy and the people’s perception. Analyzing the relation between the shift in government policies and individual perceptions of the role of the government in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepan, M.; Reeskens, T.

    2012-01-01

    A perennial issue in political science is the relation between public policy and public opinion. While the research on this relation has mainly focused on advanced liberal democracies, this paper will analyze it in a quite different setting. Public policies in the People’s Republic of China have

  5. Relations between policy for medical teaching and basic need satisfaction in teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engbers, R.; Fluit, C.R.M.G.; Bolhuis, S.; Sluiter, R.; Stuyt, P.M.J.; Laan, R.F.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Policy initiatives that aim to elevate the position of medical teaching to that of medical research could influence the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs related to motivation for medical teaching. To explore relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs towards

  6. Believing that certain foods are addictive is associated with support for obesity-related public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa; Musicus, Aviva; Soo, Jackie; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Gollust, Sarah E; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that certain foods may be addictive. Although evidence that nicotine is addictive generated support for anti-tobacco policies, little research has examined whether beliefs about the addictiveness of food are associated with support for policies to address overconsumption of nutritionally poor foods. U.S. adults (n=999) recruited from an online marketplace in February 2015 completed a survey. Using logistic regression, we examined the relationship between beliefs about the addictiveness of certain foods and support for twelve obesity-related policies while controlling for demographics, health status, political affiliation and ideology, beliefs about obesity, and attitudes towards food companies. We examined whether the association between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies was consistent across other products and behaviors viewed as addictive (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, drugs, compulsive behaviors). In multivariable models, there was a significant association (OR; 95% CI) between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies for compulsive behaviors (1.48; 1.26-1.74), certain foods (1.32; 1.14-1.53), drugs (1.23; 1.05-1.45), and alcohol (1.21; 1.08-1.36) but not for tobacco (1.11; 0.90-1.37). For foods, the association between beliefs about addictiveness and obesity-related policy support was the strongest between such beliefs and support for labels warning that certain foods may be addictive, industry reductions in salt and sugar, energy drink bans, and sugary drink portion size limits. Overall, believing that products/behaviors are addictive was associated with support for policies intended to curb their use. If certain foods are found to be addictive, framing them as such may increase obesity-related policy support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that

  8. Shifting policy priorities in EU-China energy relations: Implications for Chinese energy investments in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gippner, Olivia; Torney, Diarmuid

    2017-01-01

    Shifting energy policy priorities both in China and the EU (European Union) have transformed their bilateral relationship. In order to assess the impact of domestic policy priorities on bilateral energy cooperation and climate policy, this comparative study traces the evolution of EU and Chinese approaches to energy policy – and their relative emphasis on factors and frames such as availability, efficiency, affordability and environmental stewardship. Drawing on government documents and a data set of interviews with Chinese policy-makers, experts and academics in 2015–2016, the article argues that while the EU started with a strong emphasis on environmental stewardship and moved towards a focus on affordability and availability, China started with a strong emphasis on availability and has moved towards a greater emphasis on environmental stewardship. This shift in frames on the Chinese side and subsequent changes in subsidy structures and targets can partially explain the increase in investments in renewable energy technologies. The article concludes that the Chinese and EU perspectives have become more aligned over the past ten years, coinciding with an increasing trend towards renewable energy in Chinese energy investments in the EU, for example in Italy and the UK. - Highlights: • Compares dominant frames of energy policy in China and the European Union in the period 2005–2015. • Shows that there has been a convergence of policy frames between China and the EU. • Convergence on environmental stewardship is necessary but not sufficient for FDI in clean energy.

  9. Social diffusion of energy-related practices and representations: Patterns and policies in Portugal and Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiaux, Françoise; Schmidt, Luísa; Horta, Ana; Correia, Augusta

    2016-01-01

    The social-class dimension of energy consumption has been rather neglected relative to other theoretical approaches to energy use, despite its potential deployment in energy policies. This paper aims at investigating energy policy-related inequalities across social classes with respect to three dimensions highlighted by environmental-justice theories: income distribution, procedures producing unequal distributional outcomes, and cultural and political recognition of vulnerable and marginalised social groups. These inequalities can be exacerbated or reduced by social diffusion processes, both vertical and horizontal. These processes include policy instruments intending to lower energy consumption in the residential sector. To empirically ground the analysis, two countries with contrasting patterns of income inequalities, Portugal and Belgium, are compared on the basis of qualitative data collected in 2009–2011. We discuss the relevance of integrating the social diffusion dimension in energy policies and propose several policy instruments to do so. One of our main contribution is to argue that both vertical and horizontal diffusion across social classes, if adequately translated into policy instruments, can boost the uptake of residential energy retrofits and other energy saving practices.

  10. Interim Policy Determination Related to NSR/PSD Significance Level for ODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R

    2015-08-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities.

  12. Consequences of activation policy targeting young adults with health-related problems in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultqvist, Sara; Nørup, Iben

    2017-01-01

    The Scandinavian countries have a long history of active labor market policy and over the years, activation has been used as a method to combat unemployment amongst those with no problems besides unemployment. However, activation policy is now permeating social policies providing economic...... protection for young adults who cannot work for health reasons . A strong emphasis on paid work as the main source to social participation has legitimized work-promoting activation that targets socially vulnerable groups such as young adults with comprehensive health problems. In this paper we discuss...... the consequences of this activation policy in Denmark and Sweden, and argue that the strong emphasis on work has counterproductive consequences when directed towards individuals whose problems are medical rather than related to their position on the labour market....

  13. Counterfactual comparison modulates fairness consideration in the mini-ultimatum game: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiafeng; Lin, Huiyan; Xiang, Jing; Wu, Hao; Li, Xu; Liang, Hongyu; Zheng, Xue

    2015-04-01

    Existing literature on the mini-ultimatum game indicates that counterfactual comparison between chosen and unchosen alternatives is of great importance for individual's fairness consideration. However, it is still unclear how counterfactual comparison influences the electrophysiological responses to unfair chosen offers. In conjunction with event-related potentials' (ERPs) technique, the current study aimed to explore the issue by employing a modified version of the mini-ultimatum game where a fixed set of two alternatives (unfair offer vs. fair alternative, unfair vs. hyperfair alternative, unfair offer vs. hyperunfair alternative) was presented before the chosen offer. The behavioral results showed that participants were more likely to accept unfair chosen offers when the unchosen alternative was hyperunfair than when the unchosen alternative was fair or hyperfair. The ERPs results showed that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by unfair chosen offers was insensitive to the type of unchosen alternative when correcting for possible overlap with other components. In contrast, unfair chosen offers elicited larger P300 amplitudes when the unchosen alternative was hyperunfair than when the unchosen alternative was fair or hyperfair. These findings suggest that counterfactual comparison may take effect at later stages of fairness consideration as reflected by the P300. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The impact of relative energy prices on industrial energy consumption in China: a consideration of inflation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingyun; Ding, Zhihua; Yin, Fang; Wu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Significant effort has been exerted on the study of economic variables such as absolute energy prices to understand energy consumption and economic growth. However, this approach ignores general inflation effects, whereby the prices of baskets of goods may rise or fall at different rates from those of energy prices. Thus, it may be the relative energy price, not the absolute energy price, that has most important effects on energy consumption. To test this hypothesis, we introduce a new explanatory variable, the domestic relative energy price, which we define as "the ratio of domestic energy prices to the general price level of an economy," and we test the explanatory power of this new variable. Thus, this paper explores the relationship between relative energy prices and energy consumption in China from the perspective of inflation costs over the period from 1988 to 2012. The direct, regulatory and time-varying effects are captured using methods such as ridge regression and the state-space model. The direct impacts of relative energy prices on total energy consumption and intensity are -0.337 and -0.250, respectively; the effects of comprehensive regulation on energy consumption through the economic structure and the energy structure are -0.144 and -0.148, respectively; and the depressing and upward effects of rising and falling energy prices on energy consumption are 0.3520 and 0.3564, respectively. When economic growth and the energy price level were stable, inflation persisted; thus, rising energy prices benefitted both the economy and the environment. Our analysis is important for policy makers to establish effective energy-pricing policies that ensure both energy conservation and the stability of the pricing system.

  15. Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan

    2017-04-01

    Twenty-eight states in the U.S have legalized medical marijuana, yet its impacts on severe health consequences such as hospitalizations remain unknown. Meanwhile, the prevalence of opioid pain reliever (OPR) use and outcomes has increased dramatically. Recent studies suggested unintended impacts of legalizing medical marijuana on OPR, but the evidence is still limited. This study examined the associations between state medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR. State-level annual administrative records of hospital discharges during 1997-2014 were obtained from the State Inpatient Databases (SID). The outcome variables were rates of hospitalizations involving marijuana dependence or abuse, opioid dependence or abuse, and OPR overdose in 1000 discharges. Linear time-series regressions were used to assess the associations of implementing medical marijuana policies to hospitalizations, controlling for other marijuana- and OPR-related policies, socioeconomic factors, and state and year fixed effects. Hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR increased sharply by 300% on average in all states. Medical marijuana legalization was associated with 23% (p=0.008) and 13% (p=0.025) reductions in hospitalizations related to opioid dependence or abuse and OPR overdose, respectively; lagged effects were observed after policy implementation. The operation of medical marijuana dispensaries had no independent impacts on OPR-related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana polices had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana policies were significantly associated with reduced OPR-related hospitalizations but had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Given the epidemic of problematic use of OPR, future investigation is needed to explore the causal pathways of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Twenty-eight states in the U.S. have legalized medical marijuana, yet its impacts on severe health consequences such as hospitalizations remain unknown. Meanwhile, the prevalence of opioid pain reliever (OPR) use and outcomes has increased dramatically. Recent studies suggested unintended impacts of legalizing medical marijuana on OPR, but the evidence is still limited. This study examined the associations between state medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR. Methods State-level annual administrative records of hospital discharges during 1997–2014 were obtained from the State Inpatient Databases (SID). The outcome variables were rates of hospitalizations involving marijuana dependence or abuse, opioid dependence or abuse, and OPR overdose in 1,000 discharges. Linear time-series regressions were used to assess the associations of implementing medical marijuana policies to hospitalizations, controlling for other marijuana- and OPR-related policies, socioeconomic factors, and state and year fixed effects. Results Hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR increased sharply by 300% on average in all states. Medical marijuana legalization was associated with 23% (p=.008) and 13% (p=.025) reductions in hospitalizations related to opioid dependence or abuse and OPR overdose, respectively; lagged effects were observed after policy implementation. The operation of medical marijuana dispensaries had no independent impacts on OPR- related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana polices had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Conclusion Medical marijuana policies were significantly associated with reduced OPR-related hospitalizations but had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Given the epidemic of problematic use of OPR, future investigation is needed to explore the causal pathways of these findings. PMID:28259087

  17. Ozone and PM related health co-benefits of climate change policies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Barker, Terry; Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of extending a previous analysis of reductions in ozone exposures resulting from greenhouse gas reduction policies in Mexico, to the case of estimating reductions in premature death and risks of non-fatal diseases following reductions in both ozone and particulate matter exposures. The results show that a policy of greenhouse gas reduction in the Mexican economy by 77% relative to a baseline growth scenario results in reduced mortality loss of almost 3000 lives per year. The benefit in terms of non-fatal disease is 417,000 cases reduced per year, at a savings of $0.6B per year in cost of illness. These reductions in human health risk, stemming from co-benefits of climate change policies, are significant in light of targets of risk reduction typically used in environmental regulatory decisions, and would be considered important drivers of policy choice if climate policy were harmonised with other areas of risk-based environmental policy.

  18. Implementing multiple intervention strategies in Dutch public health-related policy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Janneke; Peters, Dorothee; Grêaux, Kimberly; van Assema, Patricia; Verweij, Stefan; Stronks, Karien; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-10-13

    Improving public health requires multiple intervention strategies. Implementing such an intervention mix is supposed to require a multisectoral policy network. As evidence to support this assumption is scarce, we examined under which conditions public health-related policy networks were able to implement an intervention mix. Data were collected (2009-14) from 29 Dutch public health policy networks. Surveys were used to identify the number of policy sectors, participation of actors, level of trust, networking by the project leader, and intervention strategies implemented. Conditions sufficient for an intervention mix (≥3 of 4 non-educational strategies present) were determined in a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. A multisectoral policy network (≥7 of 14 sectors present) was neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition. In multisectoral networks, additionally required was either the active participation of network actors (≥50% actively involved) or active networking by the project leader (≥monthly contacts with network actors). In policy networks that included few sectors, a high level of trust (positive perceptions of each other's intentions) was needed-in the absence though of any of the other conditions. If the network actors were also actively involved, an extra requirement was active networking by the project leader. We conclude that the multisectoral composition of policy networks can contribute to the implementation of a variety of intervention strategies, but not without additional efforts. However, policy networks that include only few sectors are also able to implement an intervention mix. Here, trust seems to be the most important condition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation: the case of Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vad Mathiesen, B.; Kappel, J.

    2013-03-15

    This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark's dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008 and 2009 with a change - not only in the wording and in the political visions - but also in the actual prioritisation of investments and policies to a very large extent. In March 2012 another milestone was set by the Government, to have Denmark based on 100% renewable energy in 2050. This entails large challenges for the transport sectors, which has not yet been systematically analysed from any Governmental body. In this report we list projects which have done so. The first chapter describes policies and initiatives of international relevance within climate mitigation. The following chapters explain in further debt these policies and their effects as well as a number of additional policies and initiatives related to climate mitigation and transport. The private sector and local government has proven important in connection with an efficient transport sector. Hence selected local and regional projects and their results are introduced as well. To provide an overview of current trends, related scientific projects and other analyses on climate change mitigation and transport are given in the report. The references used in this report can also serve as a source of data and inspiration for the reader. This report is prepared as one of many inputs to the analyses conducted in The Swedish Government's Commission on fossil-free road transport. The task of this Commission is to: ''review alternative developments of fuels and vehicles for fossil-free road transport, to consider measures and policy options that would enable the Swedish road transport system to become climate neutral by 2050, and to propose intermediate emission reduction targets for years such as

  1. Policy in the Public Eye : Agenda-setting and framing dynamics of traditional and social media in relation to immigration and integration policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rianne)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe policy field of immigration and migrant integration is publicly and politically controversial. Consequently, issues related to immigration and migrant integration are regularly in the public eye of the media. This doctoral thesis analyzes how policy agendas in the domain of

  2. Towards the harmonization of water-related policies for managing drought risks across the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampragou, E.; Apostolaki, S.; Manoli, E.; Froebrich, J.; Assimacopoulos, D.

    2011-01-01

    Drought is recognized as a major issue in the EU, particularly in the Mediterranean region, posing risks to the environment as well as to local and regional economies. The EU policy on water management is continuously evolving, particularly in relation to water scarcity and drought. Starting with

  3. Balancing Relations and Results in Regional Networks of Public-Policy Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaster, E.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Muntslag, Dennis R.

    2017-01-01

    Regional networks have become popular routes for central governments to translate national ambitions into regional policies and actions; but these networks face challenges, having to balance between the dual objectives of obtaining short-term goals and establishing enduring network relations. This

  4. Policy-level interventions and work-related psychosocial risk management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Cox, T.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a substantial degree of diversity across strategies to prevent and manage work- related psychosocial risks and their associated health effects. Whereas it is common to distinguish between organizational and individual interventions, the important level of policy- level interventions has

  5. 77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...; cost principles and administrative requirements (including Single Audit Act). The original comment...-idx?c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title02/2cfrv1_02.tpl . The Cost Principles for Hospitals are in the...

  6. 77 FR 11778 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... available on OMB's Web site at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars_default/ . The Cost Principles for... E (Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and...

  7. 78 FR 7282 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... further review, the Cost Principles for Hospitals at 45 CFR Part 74, Appendix E. The proposal consolidates... instructed the OMB Director to ``review and where appropriate revise guidance concerning cost principles...

  8. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  9. REFLECTING OF VALUE POLICY OF INTERETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE US MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Frolova; O. Y. Posukhova; A. V. Serikov

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the specifics of the US value policy in the sphere of interethnic and interracial relations. On the bases of the analysis of publications in the US media authors identify key trends and ideological constructs in building and settlement of interethnic relations. It is noted that the emerging trend is the promotion of the idea of erasing the boundaries between ethnic identities. The authors show that American society is in the process of value and ideological social and c...

  10. Reaction of the residents to nuclear related policies: in a risk perception perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    In general, most of the nuclear related policies are discussed at governmental level. Siting nuclear related facilities policies is the state as this. The government, as the single decision-maker, tends to decide all procedures from policy drafting, decision making to implementation. That is to say, the government has been opting for DAD(Decide-Announce-Defend) measure. This resulted in many forms of discord because the government overlooked the importance of sufficient communication with resident or the public. However, the precondition for promoting nuclear related policies is public acceptance. Meanwhile, the public including resident fully understand the necessity of nuclear facilities but do not agree with the idea of having them in their residential area. Therefore, the research focuses on identifying the affecting factors toward reaction of the resident derived from previous studies. It also aims to lay the foundation for devising effective communication strategies between the government and the public. The result of case study, it was found that these factors-trust, participation and compensative-have interacted to affect resident's reaction. Ultimately, the government must recognize the residents as decision-maker so as to gain the PA(Public Acceptance). It also necessary to create better decision making processes by substantial participation, reasonable compensation and trust are essential first steps toward improving the situation

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of National Labor Relations Act Remedies: Analysis and Comparison with Other Workplace Penalty Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Morris M. Kleiner; David Weil

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the implied penalty policies underlying the remedies created by the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) in terms of the policies' impact on employer and union behaviors. We present a simple model of deterrence as a means of evaluating workplace penalty policies in terms of their influence on employer behavior, particularly through deterrence effects. We also compare the remedies for violations embodied in the NLRA with penalty policies under other workplac...

  12. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  14. Explaining the non-implementation of health-improving policies related to solid fuels use in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinga, Margaret Njirambo; Clancy, Joy S.; Annegarn, Harold J.

    2014-01-01

    In 1998, the South African government developed an energy policy that focused on a pro-poor agenda. Its objectives included addressing the health impacts of solid fuel use in households. Fourteen years later, and with household electrification at over 80%, millions still use solid fuels and yet ambitious policy objectives to address this situation are not being met. Using three theoretical frameworks; institutional capacity, policy inheritance and the symbolic use of policy, this paper analyses the reasons why household energy policy objectives related to solid fuels and health, as stated in the 1998 South African energy policy, have not been implemented. The results of the analysis show that the symbolic use of policy, including meanings of objects used for meeting policy objectives is the most critical explanation. The paper illustrates that political and historical contexts are critical to understanding policy outcomes in developing and transition countries which often experience tensions between implementing what may seem as objective policies, and that matches their political and historical experiences and aspirations. We recommend that policy analysts in the energy sector complement currently common methods to include political contexts of policy development and implementation in order to better understand why policy makers chose to implement certain policies over others. - Highlights: • Policy non-implementation in developing countries focuses on lack of resources. • We add policy inheritance and policy symbolism to assess non-implementation. • South Africa's racial politics affect how policies are perceived and implemented. • Politically, firewood and electricity symbolise repression and emancipation. • Electricity and firewood's symbolic meanings affect policy makers' focus on these

  15. The Relation Between Policies Concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Philosophical Moral Theories - An Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Claus Strue

    2010-01-01

    philosophical moral theories and the ethical content of business activities have mainly concentrated on the ethical decision-making of managers. Some of the most prominent investigations in that regard propose that managers mainly act in accordance with utilitarian moral theory (Fritzsche, D. J. and H. Becker......: 1984, Academy of Management Journal27(1), 166–175; Premeaux, S. and W. Mony: 1993, Journal of Business Ethics12, 349–357; Premeaux, S.: 2004, Journal of Business Ethics52, 269–278). I conclude that CSR policies are not based on utilitarian thinking, but instead, on some kind of common-sense morality......This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind...

  16. Impacts of licensed premises trading hour policies on alcohol-related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An; Prodan, Ante; Livingston, Michael; Knowles, Dylan; O'Donnell, Eloise; Room, Robin; Indig, Devon; Page, Andrew; McDonnell, Geoff; Wiggers, John

    2018-07-01

    Evaluations of alcohol policy changes demonstrate that restriction of trading hours of both 'on'- and 'off'-licence venues can be an effective means of reducing rates of alcohol-related harm. Despite this, the effects of different trading hour policy options over time, accounting for different contexts and demographic characteristics, and the common co-occurrence of other harm reduction strategies in trading hour policy initiatives, are difficult to estimate. The aim of this study was to use dynamic simulation modelling to compare estimated impacts over time of a range of trading hour policy options on various indicators of acute alcohol-related harm. An agent-based model of alcohol consumption in New South Wales, Australia was developed using existing research evidence, analysis of available data and a structured approach to incorporating expert opinion. Five policy scenarios were simulated, including restrictions to trading hours of on-licence venues and extensions to trading hours of bottle shops. The impact of the scenarios on four measures of alcohol-related harm were considered: total acute harms, alcohol-related violence, emergency department (ED) presentations and hospitalizations. Simulation of a 3 a.m. (rather than 5 a.m.) closing time resulted in an estimated 12.3 ± 2.4% reduction in total acute alcohol-related harms, a 7.9 ± 0.8% reduction in violence, an 11.9 ± 2.1% reduction in ED presentations and a 9.5 ± 1.8% reduction in hospitalizations. Further reductions were achieved simulating a 1 a.m. closing time, including a 17.5 ± 1.1% reduction in alcohol-related violence. Simulated extensions to bottle shop trading hours resulted in increases in rates of all four measures of harm, although most of the effects came from increasing operating hours from 10 p.m. to 11 p.m. An agent-based simulation model suggests that restricting trading hours of licensed venues reduces rates of alcohol-related harm and extending trading hours of bottle

  17. The government policy related to sugar-sweetened beverages in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Thahir Haning

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several options to enforce reduction in the use of sugary drinks such as strengthening regulations, taxation on the products and food labeling.  Aims & Objectives: 1 Identify the policy in Indonesia that regulates the quantity and the use of sugar in a beverage product; 2 Describe the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB and its impact on human health. Material & Methods: Literature search on sugar use and tax policies on SSB was conducted and 6 relevant documents were found. A total of 91 SSB products were selected systematically by randomly selecting 5 beverages per day for 20 days. Beverages chosen were certified Halal by Majelis Ulama Indonesia, having product labeling, and certified by BPOM. Results: Indonesia has no policy related to restriction of sugar use. The contribution of sugar to energy of SSB products is quite high (75.68%. SSB intake may increase the risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Conclusion: The absence of tax policy and rules for regulating the use of sugar in a product can cause an increase in sugar consumption per day. It could potentially lead to non-communicable diseases and could have enormous consequences in health financing. The government needs to create policies for preventing the widespread impact of sugar consumption. Advocacy efforts to encourage the establishment of SSB taxation should be done.

  18. Comprehensive taxonomy and worldwide trends in pharmaceutical policies in relation to country income status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniadakis, N; Kourlaba, G; Shen, J; Holtorf, A

    2017-05-25

    Rapidly evolving socioeconomic and technological trends make it challenging to improve access, effectiveness and efficiency in the use of pharmaceuticals. This paper identifies and systematically classifies the prevailing pharmaceutical policies worldwide in relation to a country's income status. A literature search was undertaken to identify and taxonomize prevailing policies worldwide. Countries that apply those policies and those that do not were then grouped by income status. Pharmaceutical policies are linked to a country's socioeconomics. Developed countries have universal coverage and control pharmaceuticals with external and internal price referencing systems, and indirect price-cost controls; they carry out health technology assessments and demand utilization controls. Price-volume and risk-sharing agreements are also evolving. Developing countries are underperforming in terms of coverage and they rely mostly on restrictive state controls to regulate prices and expenditure. There are significant disparities worldwide in the access to pharmaceuticals, their use, and the reimbursement of costs. The challenge in high-income countries is to maintain access to care whilst dealing with trends in technology and aging. Essential drugs should be available to all; however, many low- and middle-income countries still provide most of their population with only poor access to medicines. As economies grow, there should be greater investment in pharmaceutical care, looking to the policies of high-income countries to increase efficiency. Pharmaceutical companies could also develop special access schemes with low prices to facilitate coverage in low-income countries.

  19. Policy interventions related to medicines: Survey of measures taken in European countries during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmeier, K.

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  1. What is required for the validation of in vitro assays for predicting contaminant relative bioavailability? Considerations and criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Albert L.; Basta, Nicholas T.; Smith, Euan

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have shown the potential of in vitro assays to predict contaminant in vivo relative bioavailability in order to refine human health exposure assessment. Although the term ‘validated’ has been used to describe the goodness of fit between in vivo and in vitro observations, its misuse has arisen from semantic considerations in addition to the lack of defined criteria for establishing performance validation. While several internal validation methods may be utilised, performance validation should preferably focus on assessing the agreement of model predictions with a set of data which are independent of those used to construct the model. In order to achieve robust validated predictive models, a number of parameters (e.g. size of data set, source of independent soils, contaminant concentration range, animal model, relative bioavailability endpoint) need to be considered in addition to defined criteria for establishing performance validation which are currently lacking. -- Defined criteria for establishing in vivo–in vitro performance validation are required in order to ensure robust, defensible predictive models for human health exposure assessment

  2. Relations between policy for medical teaching and basic need satisfaction in teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Sluiter, Roderick; Stuyt, Paul M J; Laan, Roland F J M

    2015-10-01

    Policy initiatives that aim to elevate the position of medical teaching to that of medical research could influence the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs related to motivation for medical teaching. To explore relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs towards medical teaching and two policy initiatives for medical teaching: (Junior) Principal Lecturer positions [(J)PL positions] and Subsidized Innovation and Research Projects in Medical Education (SIRPMEs). An online questionnaire was used to collect data about medical teaching in the setting of a university hospital. We adapted the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction scale (Van den Broeck et al. in J Occup Organ Psychol, 83(4):981-1002, 2010), in order to measure feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in teaching. We examined the relations between (J)PL positions and SIRPMEs and the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs. A total of 767 medical teachers participated. The initiatives appear to be related to different beneficial outcomes in terms of feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in medical teaching. Either a (J)PL position is obtained by teachers who feel competent and related towards medical teaching, or obtaining a (J)PL position makes teachers feel more competent and related towards teaching, or these relations could be interacting. Also, either a SIRPME is obtained by teachers who feel competent and autonomous towards medical teaching, or obtaining a SIRPME makes teachers feel more competent and autonomous towards teaching, or these relations could be interacting. Additional research needs to scrutinize the causal or interacting relations further and to determine optimal conditions for these policy initiatives more specifically. Implications for future research are discussed.

  3. IPI tax relief policy and its impact on automotive and related sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Abrantes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The policy of IPI tax relief in the automotive industry came from the need of answers to the Global Financial Crisis of 2008, which affected Brazil. This way, Brazilian Government set the reduction of the percentages of rates applied to automotive products and related sectors, according to several factors such as engine power, fuel type and production site, in order to restore the sector demand and stimulate the economy. In this context, this work aims to evaluate the implications of IPI tax relief policy, since 2009, on the turnover of joint-stock companies of the automotive and related sectors. The methodology was a multiple regression analysis model with Dynamic Panel data, in order to explain the variations of companies' turnover in the sector, regarding IPI tax relief. The data used were of 84 companies of this sector, for the period from 1998 to 2015, based on the software Economática. The results showed a decrease of IPI tax collection in the periods of relief, both in general and specific scope. In addition, we verified that the adoption of the policy had a negative influence on the turnover of the evaluated companies. Thus, we concluded that the tax policy under analysis did not contribute to an increase of automotive sector companies' turnover.

  4. Accepting managed aquifer recharge of urban storm water reuse: The role of policy-related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Walton, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    A between-groups experimental design examined public acceptance for managed aquifer recharge of storm water for indirect potable and nonpotable reuse; acceptance was based on five policy-related variables (fairness, effectiveness, trust, importance of safety assurances, and importance of communication activities). Results showed that public acceptance (N = 408) for managed aquifer recharge of storm water was higher for nonpotable applications, as was the importance of safety assurances. Analyses of variance also showed that perceptions of fairness and effectiveness were higher for a nonpotable scheme, but not trust. A three-step hierarchical regression (Step 1: age, gender, education, and income; Step 2: type of use; Step 3: fairness, effectiveness, trust, safety assurance, and communication activities) demonstrated that type of storm water use and the policy-related factors accounted for 73% of the variance in acceptance of storm water (R2 = 0.74, adjusted R2 = 0.74, F (10, 397) = 113.919, p important predictors were perceptions of trust in water authorities, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of fairness. Interestingly, while safety assurance was important in attitudinal acceptance of managed aquifer recharge based on type of use, safety assurance was not found to be significant predictor of acceptance. This research suggests that policy-makers should look to address matters of greater public importance and drive such as fairness, trust, and effectiveness of storm water programs and advocate these at the forefront of their policies, rather than solely on education campaigns.

  5. Policy issues related to substitution of the US dollar in oil pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essayyad, Musa; Algahtani, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    This policy paper attempts to evaluate the viability of switching from the US dollar to the euro in international oil pricing. If materialised, the switch would not impact only OPEC nations but would also have ramifications for other oil exporting as well as importing nations. It would also have considerable effect on US economy and international financial system. This paper recommends that in deciding which currency to use in oil pricing, OPEC member countries should not allow their positive or negative political rapport with the US Government to distort their rational choice. Switching to euro or any other currency will not eliminate loss of revenue, as the newly adopted currency will not be immune either from the exchange rate gyrations. In fact, there is no guarantee that the euro, yen, sterling pound, or any other major currency will be immune from fluctuations. As a way out, this paper recommends three alternatives. (Author)

  6. [Considerations on the development of nutrition-related guidelines by the World Health Organization and their implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Gerardo; Meneses, Daniela; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Neufeld, Lynnette; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Sinisterra, Odalis Teresa

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) follows a complex and rigorous process to develop global guidelines. With regard to nutrition-related guidelines, the joint participation of national authorities from Member States and their partners, including those of the social economy, is key to strengthening the process of evidence-informed guideline development and the subsequent implementation as part of national public health strategies. WHO puts forward a series of tools that can assist national authorities on health and social development in the elaboration of evidence-informed policies, considering their pertinence, relevance and implementability. This adoption and adaptation process must consider equity in order to avoid widening existing inequities. WHO global nutrition guidelines contribute to the effective implementation of nutrition interventions in Member States. Two experiences of implementation, one in Panama and one in Peru, exemplify this process. The paper ends by suggesting a deeper understanding and utilization of implementation research during programmes to identify what factors ensure effective interventions, appropriate scale up strategies and greater health equity.

  7. Public Opinion on Nutrition-Related Policies to Combat Child Obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Paul A.; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S.; Shih, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurant...

  8. Evolution of Interethnic Relations and National Policy in USSR in 1920s − 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Матвеевич Козьменко

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the main stages of the international relations evolution from the first days of the USSR existence to its collapse in 1991. The authors pay attention to the serious mistakes in the national policy of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government that led to the aggravation of the national situation in the USSR and finally to the national and state crisis in the Soviet Union.

  9. The relative efficiency of market-based environmental policy instruments with imperfect compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Sandra; Proost, Stef

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent incomplete compliance of environmental regulation mitigates the distortions caused by pre-existing labour taxes. We study the relative cost efficiency of three market-based instruments: emission taxes, tradable permits and output taxes. In a first-best setting and given that monitoring and enforcement is costless, we find that the same utility levels can be reached with and without incomplete compliance. However, allowing for violations makes the policy i...

  10. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities. PMID:26347578

  11. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY ON RELATIVE PRICE VARIABILITY OF FOOD CROPS AND INFLATION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoluwa Akin Babalola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prices of food crops in Nigeria tend to exhibit similar trend with inflation. The study therefore established quantitatively relationships among agricultural policy, relative price variability (RPV of food crops and inflation in Nigeria. Data for the study includes annual producer prices (nominal and output of food crops and annual inflation rate obtained from the publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Nigerian Bureau of Statistics, Food and Agricultural Organisation and Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research covering the period of 1970-2009. Analytical tools used were RPV index and Error Correction Method (ECM. The results showed that the variables are stationary at their levels. As inflation increases, RPV of food crops also increases both in short run (0.0002 and the long run (0.0310. Civilian Post-Structural Adjustment Period Policies (CPSAP caused a significant reduction in inflation and consequently reduced the   RPV of food crops in the long run. There is a need for policies that will buffer the food crop sub-sector from the effects of inflation. Policies that reduce the rate of inflation and minimise RPV among food crops are needed. Effective management of inefficiencies and misallocation of resources in the sub-sector should be explored.

  12. Relations between educational research, policy, planning and implementation: The Thai experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketudat, Sippanondha; Fry, Gerald

    1981-06-01

    The relations between educational research, policy, planning and implementation in Thailand are the topic of this paper. The major focus is on the research/policy linkage. A complex educational administrative structure and a pluralistic informal power structure characterize the Thai research context. A tetrahedral model of linkages provides the conceptual framework for the analysis. Details are then provided with respect to the actual operationalization of the model in terms of the Thai approach in practice. Major elements in the Thai approach include the use of expert policy committees, joint committees involving both administrators and researchers, problem-oriented seminars, and commissioned research. Actual examples of research efforts described are an educational reform study, local level school mapping, a school cluster experiment, a budget exercise to improve the equity of primary school resource allocations, and a policy evaluation of sub-district secondary schools. Finally, lessons to be learned from the Thai experience are summarized. Thailand has experienced some success in building analytical educational research capacity and ensuring its utilization. Key elements in this success have been an emphasis on strengthening human capacities; judging political will in a timely, flexible manner; creatively utilizing bureaucratic forms such as committees; and remaining both politically detached and sensitive.

  13. 75 FR 65366 - Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...] Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public Facilities AGENCY: Federal... the final Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public Facilities, which... facilities threatened by landslides or slope failures; as well as the eligibility of permanent repairs to...

  14. Can policy ameliorate socioeconomic inequities in obesity and obesity-related behaviours? A systematic review of the impact of universal policies on adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, D L; Teychenne, M; Minaker, L M; Taber, D R; Raine, K D; Nykiforuk, C I J; Ball, K

    2016-12-01

    This systematic review examined the impact of universal policies on socioeconomic inequities in obesity, dietary and physical activity behaviours among adults and children. PRISMA-Equity guidelines were followed. Database searches spanned from 2004 to August 2015. Eligible studies assessed the impact of universal policies on anthropometric, dietary or physical activity-related outcomes in adults or children according to socioeconomic position. Thirty-six studies were included. Policies were classified as agentic, agento-structural or structural, and their impact on inequities was rated as positive, neutral, negative or mixed according to the dominant associations observed. Most policies had neutral impacts on obesity-related inequities regardless of whether they were agentic (60% neutral), agento-structural (68% neutral) or structural (67% neutral). The proportion of positive impacts was similar across policy types (10% agentic, 18% agento-structural and 11% structural), with some differences for negative impacts (30% agentic, 14% agento-structural and 22% structural). The majority of associations remained neutral when stratified by participant population, implementation level and socioeconomic position measures and by anthropometric and behavioural outcomes. Fiscal measures had consistently neutral or positive impacts on inequities. Findings suggest an important role for policy in addressing obesity in an equitable manner and strengthen the case for implementing a broad complement of policies spanning the agency-structure continuum. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Awareness, Facilitators, and Barriers to Policy Implementation Related to Obesity Prevention for Primary School Children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Camelina; Moy, Foong Ming; Lim, Jennifer N W; Dahlui, Maznah

    2018-03-01

    To assess the awareness, facilitators, and barriers to policy implementation related to obesity prevention for primary school children. A cross-sectional study administered using an online questionnaire. Conducted in 447 primary schools in a state in Malaysia. One school administrator from each school served as a participant. The questionnaires consisted of 32 items on awareness, policy implementation, and facilitators and barriers to policy implementation. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the awareness, facilitators, and barriers of policies implementation. Association between schools' characteristics and policy implementation was assessed using logistic regression. The majority (90%) of school administrators were aware of the policies. However, only 50% to 70% of schools had implemented the policies fully. Reported barriers were lack of equipment, insufficient training, and limited time to complete implementation. Facilitators of policy implementation were commitment from the schools, staff members, students, and canteen operators. Policy implementation was comparable in all school types and locality; except the policy on "Food and Drinks sold at the school canteens" was implemented by more rural schools compared to urban schools (odds ratio: 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.69). Majority of the school administrators were aware of the existing policies; however, the implementation was only satisfactory. The identified barriers to policy implementation were modifiable and thus, the stakeholders should consider restrategizing plans in overcoming them.

  16. TAX AVOIDANCE, RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS, CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND THE CORPORATE CASH DIVIDEND POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Kartika Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship between tax avoidance, related party transactions and the corporate dividend policy. Furthermore, this study will also investigate the moderating effects of the implementation of Corporate Governance (CG on the relationship between tax avoidance, Related Party Transactions (RPT and corporate dividend policies. Our sample covers companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2011-2014. The results provide moderate support for the proposed hypotheses. First, the greater tax avoidance that a company makes will increase the size of the firm's RPT. Second, the higher that the company's RPT is, this will lower the company's cash dividend payout rate. Third, the greater the tax avoidance is, the lower the company's cash dividend payout rate will be, which is done through a related party transaction.Fourth, the impact of the implementation of strong CG will weaken the positive relationship between corporate tax avoidance and the company’s RPT size, strengthen the negative relationship between the RPT’s size and the cash dividend payout policy of the firm, and strengthen the negative relationship between the company’s tax avoidance and the company's cash dividend payout policy which is mediated by the company’s RPT. This study makes three contributions. First, this study shows an indirect relationship between tax avoidance and cash dividend payments, mediated by RPT. Second, this study tries to examine the effect of CG’s moderation on the relationship between tax avoidance and RPT, as well as the effect of CG’s moderation on the relationship between tax avoidance and cash dividend payments, mediated by RPT. Third, this study developed RPT measurements by looking at the RPT’s components more specifically (looking at components of transactions outside of the main business of the company - the "others" component.

  17. Understanding Standards and Assessment Policy in Science Education: Relating and Exploring Variations in Policy Implementation by Districts and Teachers in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin John Boyett

    Current literature shows that many science teachers view policies of standards-based and test-based accountability as conflicting with research-based instruction in science education. With societal goals of improving scientific literacy and using science to spur economic growth, improving science education policy becomes especially important. To understand perceived influences of science education policy, this study looked at three questions: 1) How do teachers perceive state science standards and assessment and their influence on curriculum and instruction? 2) How do these policy perspectives vary by district and teacher level demographic and contextual differences? 3) How do district leaders' interpretations of and efforts within these policy realms relate to teachers' perceptions of the policies? To answer these questions, this study used a stratified sample of 53 districts across Wisconsin, with 343 middle school science teachers responding to an online survey; science instructional leaders from each district were also interviewed. Survey results were analyzed using multiple regression modeling, with models generally predicting 8-14% of variance in teacher perceptions. Open-ended survey and interview responses were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results suggested that many teachers saw state testing as limiting use of hands-on pedagogy, while standards were seen more positively. Teachers generally held similar views of the degree of influence of standards and testing regardless of their experience, background in science, credentials, or grade level taught. District SES, size and past WKCE scores had some limited correlations to teachers' views of policy, but teachers' perceptions of district policies and leadership consistently had the largest correlation to their views. District leadership views of these state policies correlated with teachers' views. Implications and future research directions are provided. Keywords: science education, policy

  18. Methodological and Design Considerations in Evaluating the Impact of Prevention Programs on Violence and Related Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Simon, Thomas R; Smith, Deborah Gorman

    2016-10-01

    Drawing on research that has identified specific predictors and trajectories of risk for violence and related negative outcomes, a multitude of small- and large-scale preventive interventions for specific risk behaviors have been developed, implemented, and evaluated. One of the principal challenges of these approaches is that a number of separate problem-specific programs targeting different risk areas have emerged. However, as many negative health behaviors such as substance abuse and violence share a multitude of risk factors, many programs target identical risk factors. There are opportunities to understand whether evidence-based programs can be leveraged for potential effects across a spectrum of outcomes and over time. Some recent work has documented longitudinal effects of evidence-based interventions on generalized outcomes. This work has potential for advancing our understanding of the effectiveness of promising and evidence-based prevention strategies. However, conducting longitudinal follow-up of established interventions presents a number of methodological and design challenges. To answer some of these questions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of multidisciplinary experts to discuss opportunities to take advantage of evaluations of early prevention programs and evaluating multiple long-term outcomes. This special section of the journal Prevention Science includes a series of papers that begin to address the relevant considerations for conducting longitudinal follow-up evaluation research. This collection of papers is intended to inform our understanding of the challenges and strategies for conducting longitudinal follow-up evaluation research that could be used to drive future research endeavors.

  19. Assessing the Effectiveness of Competition Law Enforcement Policy in Relation to Cartels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Mändmaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high fines for cartel infringements it is claimed that the current competition law enforcement lacks deterrent effect for the avoidance of cartel infringements and is procedurally fragile. This article analyses the current competition law enforcement policy in relation to cartels. More specifically, the article assesses the effectiveness of the policy in deterring the formation of cartels and pursuing the goals of competition law by analysing the theory of deterrence, case law, procedural norms, imposed fines and academic literature. The main conclusions are that wrong targets are aimed at under the deterrence principle, the proceedings are of a criminal law nature and require a separation of powers, and that the current level of fines does not pose a threat on the economy and continually fail to deter price-fixing.

  20. European economic policies, stock-flow relations and the great double crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Valli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2007-2015 crisis has been the most devastating economic depression in the last seven decades. It has struck in different ways and with different amplitude the US and most European countries. In most countries it has been a double crisis (financial and real, but in Eurozone's financially vulnerable countries it has also badly worsened public finance indicators. There was therefore in those countries, a complex perverse feedback between public finance weakness, the harsh application of austerity policy and a further increase in the depth and duration of real and financial crisis. The paper focus on the importance of stock-flow relations in worsening and prolonging economic depressions triggered by structural bubbles or other chronic imbalances. It also gives a critical assessment of some aspects of EU economic policies, outlining some elements for a possible alternative economic strategy.

  1. Threat Assessment and Targeted Violence at Institutions of Higher Education: Implications for Policy and Practice Including Unique Considerations for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Laura; Bates, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the research on targeted violence, including campus violence, and the implications for policy and practice at institutions of higher education. Unique challenges of threat assessment in the community college setting are explored, and an overview of an effective threat assessment policy and team at William…

  2. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    field. More importantly, these ethical issues cannot be managed without a careful consideration for the complexity of contexts in which nutrition-related interventions are expected to be implemented. These interventions engage a variety of actors with diverse perspectives and interests. We discuss these challenges and also comment on the importance of considering ethical impacts in the monitoring and evaluation of such interventions. Conclusion General ethical frameworks or recommendations–although useful–cannot be expected to provide policy makers, implementators and other public health personnel with sufficient practical ethical guidance as they cannot consider and anticipate the particularities of all specific nutrition-related public health interventions and the complexity of the contexts in which they are implemented. Further research is needed in order to develop more targeted ethical frameworks. PMID:29073186

  3. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Thierry; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo; Godard, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    cannot be managed without a careful consideration for the complexity of contexts in which nutrition-related interventions are expected to be implemented. These interventions engage a variety of actors with diverse perspectives and interests. We discuss these challenges and also comment on the importance of considering ethical impacts in the monitoring and evaluation of such interventions. General ethical frameworks or recommendations-although useful-cannot be expected to provide policy makers, implementators and other public health personnel with sufficient practical ethical guidance as they cannot consider and anticipate the particularities of all specific nutrition-related public health interventions and the complexity of the contexts in which they are implemented. Further research is needed in order to develop more targeted ethical frameworks.

  4. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Hurlimann

    ethical issues cannot be managed without a careful consideration for the complexity of contexts in which nutrition-related interventions are expected to be implemented. These interventions engage a variety of actors with diverse perspectives and interests. We discuss these challenges and also comment on the importance of considering ethical impacts in the monitoring and evaluation of such interventions.General ethical frameworks or recommendations-although useful-cannot be expected to provide policy makers, implementators and other public health personnel with sufficient practical ethical guidance as they cannot consider and anticipate the particularities of all specific nutrition-related public health interventions and the complexity of the contexts in which they are implemented. Further research is needed in order to develop more targeted ethical frameworks.

  5. Analysing countries' contribution to climate change: scientific and policy-related choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel den; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Hoehne, Niklas; Trudinger, Cathy; Lowe, Jason; Matthews, Ben; Romstad, Bard; Pires de Campos, Christiano; Andronova, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of different policy-related and scientific choices on the calculated regional contributions to global climate change (the 'Brazilian Proposal'). Policy-related choices include the time period of emissions, the mix of greenhouse gases and different indicators of climate change impacts. The scientific choices include historical emissions and model representations of the climate system. We generated and compared results of several simple climate models. We find that the relative contributions of different nations to global climate change-from emissions of greenhouse gases alone-are quite robust, despite the varying model complexity and differences in calculated absolute changes. For the default calculations, the average calculated contributions to the global mean surface temperature increase in 2000 are about 40% from OECD, 14% from Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union, 24% from Asia and 22% from Africa and Latin America. Policy-related choices, such as time period of emissions, climate change indicator and gas mix generally have larger influence on the results than scientific choices. More specifically, choosing a later attribution start date (1990 instead of 1890) for historical emissions, decreases the contributions of regions that started emitting early, such as the OECD countries by 6 percentage points, whereas it increases the contribution of late emitters such as Asia by 8 percentage points. However, only including the fossil CO 2 emissions instead of the emissions of all Kyoto gases (fossil and land use change), increases the OECD contributions by 21 percentage points and decreases the contribution of Asia by 14 percentage points

  6. If We Build It, They Will Come: Exploring Policy and Practice Implications of Public Support for Couple and Relationship Education for Lower Income and Relationally Distressed Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Angela B; Hawkins, Alan J; Acker, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, public funding for Couple and Relationship Education programs has expanded. As program administrators have been able to extend their reach to low-income individuals and couples using this support, it has become apparent that greater numbers of relationally distressed couples are attending classes than previously anticipated. Because psychoeducational programs for couples have traditionally served less distressed couples, this dynamic highlights the need to examine the policy and practice implications of more distressed couples accessing these services. This paper reviews some of the most immediate issues, including screening for domestic violence and couple needs, pedagogical considerations, and the potential integration of therapy and education services. We also make suggestions for future research that can inform policy and practice efforts. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  7. Regulatory good practices relating to inspection and enforcement. A compilation of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a special Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme under which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in a complex manner which ensured the best possible international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for a relatively general wording of the main principles and is sometimes a cause of problems in their application to the detailed design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation when applied to specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often even these do not answer all questions and only the practice used in applying certain rules fully reflects the outcome of the detailed consideration given to solving individual cases. In order to present further information on the application and interpretation in the NUSS Codes and Safety Guides, the preparation of a series of Safety Practice publications has been initiated. It is hoped that many Member States will be able to benefit from the experience presented in these documents. It is hoped that this publication will be useful for regulators and will also provide information for operating organizations. The document is a compilation of the reports of all of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussions held to consider regulatory inspection and enforcement of good practices. Therefore names of participated countries or the situation of regulatory practices reflect those at time when discussions took place. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and the examples of good regulatory practices which were recommended by the senior regulators attending the Peer Group

  8. Regulatory good practices relating to inspection and enforcement. A compilation of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a special Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme under which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in a complex manner which ensured the best possible international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for a relatively general wording of the main principles and is sometimes a cause of problems in their application to the detailed design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation when applied to specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often even these do not answer all questions and only the practice used in applying certain rules fully reflects the outcome of the detailed consideration given to solving individual cases. In order to present further information on the application and interpretation in the NUSS Codes and Safety Guides, the preparation of a series of Safety Practice publications has been initiated. It is hoped that many Member States will be able to benefit from the experience presented in these documents. It is hoped that this publication will be useful for regulators and will also provide information for operating organizations. The document is a compilation of the reports of all of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussions held to consider regulatory inspection and enforcement of good practices. Therefore names of participated countries or the situation of regulatory practices reflect those at time when discussions took place. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and the examples of good regulatory practices which were recommended by the senior regulators attending the Peer Group

  9. Monitoring HIV-Related Laws and Policies: Lessons for AIDS and Global Health in Agenda 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mary Ann; Gruskin, Sofia; Buse, Kent; Erkkola, Taavi; Bendaud, Victoria; Alfvén, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    The National Commitments and Policy Instrument (NCPI) has been used to monitor AIDS-related laws and policies for over 10 years. What can be learnt from this process? Analyses draw on NCPI questionnaires, NCPI responses, the UNAIDS Law Database, survey data and responses to a 2014 survey on the NCPI. The NCPI provides the first and only systematic data on country self-reported national HIV laws and policies. High NCPI reporting rates and survey responses suggest the majority of countries consider the process relevant. Combined civil society and government engagement and reporting is integral to the NCPI. NCPI experience demonstrates its importance in describing the political and legal environment for the HIV response, for programmatic reviews and to stimulate dialogue among stakeholders, but there is a need for updating and in some instances to complement results with more objective quantitative data. We identify five areas that need to be updated in the next iteration of the NCPI and argue that the NCPI approach is relevant to participatory monitoring of targets in the health and other goals of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  10. Policy issues related to educating the future Israeli medical workforce: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Crome, Peter; Curry, Raymond H; Gershon, Elliot S; Glick, Shimon M; Katz, David R; Paltiel, Ora; Shapiro, Jo

    2015-01-01

    A 2014 external review of medical schools in Israel identified several issues of importance to the nation's health. This paper focuses on three inter-related policy-relevant topics: planning the physician and healthcare workforce to meet the needs of Israel's population in the 21(st) century; enhancing the coordination and efficiency of medical education across the continuum of education and training; and the financing of medical education. All three involve both education and health care delivery. The physician workforce is aging and will need to be replenished. Several physician specialties have been in short supply, and some are being addressed through incentive programs. Israel's needs for primary care clinicians are increasing due to growth and aging of the population and to the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions at all ages. Attention to the structure and content of both undergraduate and graduate medical education and to aligning incentives will be required to address current and projected workforce shortage areas. Effective workforce planning depends upon data that can inform the development of appropriate policies and on recognition of the time lag between developing such policies and seeing the results of their implementation. The preclinical and clinical phases of Israeli undergraduate medical education (medical school), the mandatory rotating internship (stáge), and graduate medical education (residency) are conducted as separate "silos" and not well coordinated. The content of basic science education should be relevant to clinical medicine and research. It should stimulate inquiry, scholarship, and lifelong learning. Clinical exposures should begin early and be as hands-on as possible. Medical students and residents should acquire specific competencies. With an increasing shift of medical care from hospitals to ambulatory settings, development of ambulatory teachers and learning environments is increasingly important. Objectives such as these

  11. School Tobacco Control Policies Related to Students' Smoking and Attitudes toward Smoking: National Survey Results, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2005-01-01

    The belief that schools can play a powerful role in preventing tobacco use among adolescents has led to the implementation of various tobacco-related polices and practices. This study examines the association between school policies regarding monitoring student behavior, severity of action taken for infraction of policies, and tobacco use by…

  12. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: UKAEA/BNFL policy in relation to EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    The policy of the UKAEA and BNFL, for the design and construction of a fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant, and how it relates to UK Government policy for the development of the fast reactor system in collaboration with other European countries, is described. ((U.K.)

  13. Technical, economic and policy considerations on marker-assisted selection in crops: lessons from the experience at an international agricultural research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William, H.M.; Warburton, M.; Morris, M.; Hoisington, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular markers and related technologies have been used extensively in genetic characterization and identification of loci controlling traits of economic importance in many crop species. However, the application of such tools for crop improvement has not been extensive, at least in the public sector. Although there are clear advantages in using molecular markers as tools for indirect selection of traits of importance, available examples indicate that their use is restricted to traits with monogenic inheritance or when the inheritance is conditioned by a few genes with large effects. Another important limitation of large-scale marker applications is the cost involved in marker assays, which may be beyond the capacities of many public plant breeding enterprises. For an effective marker-assisted selection (MAS) activity to facilitate ongoing crop improvement programmes, especially in the context of the developing countries, laboratories with adequate capacity and adequately trained scientific personnel as well as operational resources are required. Although recent technological advances such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and associated assay protocols are likely to reduce assay costs significantly, for many of these operations, assay platforms with significant capital investments including computational capacity are required. Coupled with these limitations, private sector domination of biotechnology research with proprietary rights to important products and processes with immediate benefits to developing countries may further constrain the benefits these technologies may offer to resource-poor farmers. Policy-makers in different national programmes and international development and research agencies have a responsibility to sustain and augment the capacity of national public agricultural research organizations to ensure that biotechnology tools and processes are infused appropriately into national research efforts. They must also ensure that any

  14. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  15. Policy Challenges Related to Biofuel Development in Tanzania Politische Herausforderungen in Bezug auf Biokraftstoffe in Tansania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sosovele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels have recently emerged as a major issue in energy policy, agricultural development and natural resource management. The growing demand for biofuels is being driven by high oil prices, energy security concerns and global climate change. In Tanzania there is growing interest on the part of foreign private investors in establishing biofuel projects, although globally there are concerns related to biofuel investments. Tanzania has approved a number of such projects, but the biofuel subsector faces several policy challenges that could clearly hamper its development. These include the lack of a holistic and comprehensive energy policy that addresses the broad spectrum of energy options and issues, and weak or absent institutional and legal frameworks. This article highlights some key policy issues critical to the development of biofuels and argues that if these challenges are not addressed at the national policy level, biofuel development may not result in the expected benefits to Tanzania and the majority of its local communities. Biokraftstoffe sind in jüngster Zeit in den Bereichen Energiepolitik, Landwirtschaftsentwicklung und nationales Ressourcenmanagement zu einem wichtigen Thema geworden. Die wachsende Nachfrage nach Biokraftstoffen wird durch die hohen Ölpreise, Befürchtungen in Bezug auf Energiesicherheit und den globalen Klimawandel vorangetrieben. In Tansania ist wachsendes Interesse ausländischer Privatinvestoren an Biokraftstoffprojekten zu beobachten, obwohl es weltweit Bedenken gegenüber solchen Investitionen gibt. Die tansanische Regierung hat einer ganzen Reihe entsprechender Projekte zugestimmt, doch mit dem Biokraftstoffsektor sind politische Herausforderungen verbunden, die diese Entwicklung behindern könnten. Dazu gehören das Fehlen einer ganzheitlichen und umfassenden Energiepolitik, die das ganze Spektrum energiepolitischer Fragestellungen und Optionen einschließt, wie auch schwache oder fehlende institutionelle

  16. Alternative policy study. Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios. GEO 2000 alternative policy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Bakkes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associated with nuclear power generation. The analysis includes the effects on biodiversity and population health. It considers the question of what can be achieved by moderate measures, and whether this will be enough. Similar Geo-2000 region-specific studies on alternative policies have been compiled other world regions. This report outliners the general methodology for these reports

  17. How to Address Citizens' Practices and Policies on Sustainability? A Consultative Tool for Brokering Policy-Related Knowledge between the Worlds of Policymaking and Everyday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espluga, Josep; Konrad, Wilfried; Mays, Claire; Oltra, Christian; Poumadére, Marc; Prades, Ana

    2016-01-01

    An innovative investigative approach (STAVE), combining elements of research, engagement and brokerage, was used to uncover policy assumptions and daily experiences related to energy use practices. Exploratory work within three policymaker institutions and eight reconvened focus groups were carried out in three different European countries…

  18. Car ownership, car use and status. A consideration of policy aimed at efficient cars on the basis of happiness theories and the welfare economy; Autobezit, autogebruik en status. Een beschouwing van beleid gericht op zuiniger auto`s vanuit gelukstheorieen en de welvaartseconomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wee, G.P. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, E.T. [Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-11-01

    After a certain ceiling has been reached (i.e. around $ 10,000), an increase in average income in any one country will not lead to increased personal happiness. Such additional earnings are, in all probability, expended rather on satisfying relative needs. Cars with a low fuel efficiency (big cars, and cars with powerful engines) possibly satisfy more relative needs than absolute needs. This is why a general trend towards more economical vehicles does not or hardly leads to a reduction in contentment: relative needs satisfaction, coupled with the status aspect, does not need to suffer from this. lt is the satisfying of relative needs and the emergence of status effects in consumption that is responsible for inefficient market functioning because of the occurrence of consumption externalities. There is therefore a welfare economic argument for adhering to a regulatory policy in which the consumption of relatively low status goods is encouraged while the consumption of relatively high status goods is discouraged. In view of the sharp price increases required to make the national car volume substantially more economical and in order to survive the considerable resistance that will be put up to such price rises, it might be preferable to introduce policies like `fee-bates` or negotiable rights rather than to wield price policies directed at effecting a trend in the direction of more economical car usage. 24 refs.

  19. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents

  20. The effectiveness of tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Randy W; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S; Brewer, Robert D; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Toomey, Traci L; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2010-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Policies and Practices of Family Friendliness. Time and Employment Relations in Knowledge Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Håpnes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements for parents, both mothers and fathers, to make the combination of work and family possible.To recruit competent women and men, knowledge work organisations have to accommodate to working hours that are compatible with the responsibility for a family. In the knowledge economy in Norway we therefore find women and men with higher education trying to act out the ideals of gen- der equality at work and at home. In this paper we explore how family-friendly policies in knowledge work organisations result in family-friendly practices.We do this by analysing two R&D departments belonging to large Norwegian companies in the international market. Both had policies of gender equality and family friendly working time arrangements and career opportunities for women with reduced hours.We show how different employment relations and forms of organisation influenced the work and time practices of the research scientists. Using the concept of social contracts in em- ployment and a relational concept of time, we found that it was more difficult to realise the reduced hours in the organisation that took responsibility for the career and welfare of their employees in a long-term perspective because of the mutual trust and obligations in this relationship.The women in the organisation with more transactional relations where their employment was dependent upon the market and their short-term economic performance, were able to use their accounting system to reduce their hours.The young fathers in the same organisation who were not yet established as experts, could not use the accounting system to limit their hours like the senior women.They needed to work long hours on scientific publications to qualify as researchers to secure their employment. In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements

  2. An Examination of the Perceived Importance and Skills Related to Policies and Policy Making Among State Public Health Injury Prevention Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liller, Karen D; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Castrucci, Brian; Wingate, Martha Slay; Hilson, Renata; Mendez, Dara; Cilenti, Dorothy; Raskind, Ilana

    The purpose of this research is to use the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey to assess in greater detail state injury prevention staff perceptions of policy development and related skills and their awareness and perception of "Health in All Policies" (HiAP). The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey gauged public health practitioners' perspectives on workplace environment, job satisfaction, national trends, and training needs, and gathered demographics on the workforce. This study utilizes data from the state health agency frame only, focusing solely on those permanently employed, central office staff in injury prevention. Respondents were sampled from 5 paired Health and Human Services regions. Approximately 25 000 invitations were sent to central office employees. The response rate was 46% (n = 10 246). The analysis in this article includes only injury prevention employees with programmatic roles, excluding clerical and custodial staff, providing us with a total of 97 respondents. When weighted, this resulted in a weighted population size of 365 injury prevention workers. The main outcome measures include demographics, responses to understanding of and skill levels related to policy development, and perceptions of HiAP public health trend. State injury prevention workers reported lower policy-making skill but had an overall appreciation of the importance of policies. In general, state injury prevention workers heard of HiAP, thought there should be more emphasis on it, but did not think that HiAP would have an impact on their day-to-day work. Efforts are needed for all state injury prevention workers to become better skilled in policy development, implementation, and evaluation in order to become stronger injury prevention advocates and role models.

  3. The Intersection of Afterschool and Competency-Based Learning: Emerging Trends, Policy Considerations, and Questions for the Future. AYPF White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Jennifer Brown; Tomasello, Jenna; Brand, Betsy; Knowles, George

    2016-01-01

    Afterschool and competency-based learning are increasingly emerging as student-centered, supportive learning models to prepare students for college and career. This white paper explores the intersection and relationship between these two fields, recommends ideal policy environments for implementing successful programs, provides real-world…

  4. Using assistive technology outcomes research to inform policy related to the employment of individuals with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Steven; Edyburn, Dave L; Rust, Kathy L; Schwanke, Todd D; Smith, Roger O

    2008-01-01

    We know that work is recognized as a central component of life for individuals with and without disabilities. It yields many physical and psychological benefits to the individual while simultaneously contributing numerous benefits to society. Lawmakers have enacted a plethora of laws designed to prevent discrimination, provide incentives for employers to hire individuals with disabilities, and facilitate job training/career preparation. Assistive technology figures prominently in disability employment law as a critical strategy for gaining access and supporting employment and upward mobility in the workplace. However, little systematic effort has been devoted to examining assistive technology use and outcomes as they relate to the employment of individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to articulate a series of issues that permeate assistive technology outcome measurement in employment settings and subsequently affect the use of research knowledge for federal and state policy makers. For each issue, the authors pose three questions for critical analysis: Does the law compel the provision of assistive technology? Does outcome data play any part in the operation of the law? When it does, what kind of data would be useful to collect and where could it be found? Finally, the authors provide a brief glimpse of the current and future research efforts concerning the RSA-911 database. The recent database summaries exemplify the importance of such a national data collection system for informing federal policy, particularly concerning the contributions of assistive technology device use and services on improving the employment of individuals with disabilities.

  5. Ethical and clinical practice considerations for genetic counselors related to direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Christopher H; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2006-11-15

    Several companies utilize direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising for genetic tests and some, but not all, bypass clinician involvement by offering DTC purchase of the tests. This article examines how DTC marketing strategies may affect genetic counselors, using available cardiovascular disease susceptibility tests as an illustration. The interpretation of these tests is complex and includes consideration of clinical validity and utility, and the further complications of gene-environment interactions and pleiotropy. Although it is unclear to what extent genetic counselors will encounter clients who have been exposed to DTC marketing strategies, these strategies may influence genetic counseling interactions if they produce directed interest in specific tests and unrealistic expectations for the tests' capacity to predict disease. Often, a client's concern about risk for cardiovascular diseases is best addressed by established clinical tests and a family history assessment. Ethical dilemmas may arise for genetic counselors who consider whether to accept clients who request test interpretation or to order DTC-advertised tests that require a clinician's authorization. Genetic counselors' obligations to care for clients extend to interpreting DTC tests, although this obligation may be fulfilled by referral or consultation with specialists. Genetic counselors do not have an obligation to order DTC-advertised tests that have minimal clinical validity and utility at a client's request. This can be a justified restriction on autonomy based on consideration of risks to the client, the costs, and the implications for society. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Social science and the public agenda: reflections on the relation of knowledge to policy in the United States and abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilensky, H L

    1997-10-01

    It is tempting to oversell the practical value of applied research. A hard look at the effects of U.S. social science on public policy in areas such as active labor market policies (training, job creation, placement, etc.), crime prevention, fiscal policy, poverty reduction, and health care reform suggests an inverse relationship between social science consensus and policy and budgetary decisions. Fragmented and decentralized political economies (e.g., the United States) foster policy segmentation and isolated, short-run single-issue research--often politicized and misleading. More corporatist democracies (such as Sweden, Norway, Austria, and Germany) evidence a tighter relation between knowledge and power in which a wider range of issues is connected, longer-range effects are sometimes considered, and research is more often actually used for planning and implementation. Even in less hospitable societies, however, social science does make its way in the long run. Favorable conditions and examples are discussed.

  7. Is There a Relation between School Smoking Policies and Youth Cigarette Smoking Knowledge and Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

    2006-01-01

    To comply with workplace legislation, New Zealand schools are required to have policies regarding tobacco smoking. Many schools also have policies to prevent tobacco use by students, including education programmes, cessation support and punishment for students found smoking. This paper investigated the associations between school policies and the…

  8. Non-commercial surrogacy among close relatives in Vietnam: policy and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Yuri

    2018-04-19

    Altruistic surrogacy among close relatives has been legal in Vietnam since the beginning of 2015. Following the revision of the Marriage and Family Law, there have been dozens of cases of surrogacy, and instances of successful pregnancy and childbirth have also been reported. Although surrogacy was completely prohibited in 2003, numerous local brokers offered commercial surrogacy services. Today, surrogacy is permitted under very limited conditions, and commercial surrogacy is prohibited. However, brokers continue to offer illegal commercial surrogacy services, and some even present its incidence may be increasing. In terms of women's roles, Vietnamese society places the highest value on motherhood, and childless couples are stigmatized. Thus, the demand for surrogates is high in Vietnam, rendering it difficult for family members to meet the needs of all those seeking these services. This article considers the consequences and implications of the new surrogacy policy in Vietnam based on field research.

  9. Accommodation: The role of the external muscles of the eye: A consideration of refractive errors in relation to extraocular malfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, B K

    2014-11-01

    Speculation as to optical malfunction has led to dissatisfaction with the theory that the lens is the sole agent in accommodation and to the suggestion that other parts of the eye are also conjointly involved. Around half-a-century ago, Robert Brooks Simpkins suggested that the mechanical features of the human eye were precisely such as to allow for a lengthening of the globe when the eye accommodated. Simpkins was not an optical man but his theory is both imaginative and comprehensive and deserves consideration. It is submitted here that accommodation is in fact a twofold process, and that although involving the lens, is achieved primarily by means of a give - and - take interplay between adducting and abducting external muscles, whereby an elongation of the eyeball is brought about by a stretching of the delicate elastic fibres immediately behind the cornea. The three muscles responsible for convergence (superior, internal and inferior recti) all pull from in front backwards, while of the three abductors (external rectus and the two obliques) the obliques pull from behind forwards, allowing for an easy elongation as the eye turns inwards and a return to its original length as the abducting muscles regain their former tension, returning the eye to distance vision. In refractive errors, the altered length of the eyeball disturbs the harmonious give - and - take relationship between adductors and abductors. Such stresses are likely to be perpetuated and the error exacerbated. Speculation is not directed towards a search for a possible cause of the muscular imbalance, since none is suspected. Muscles not used rapidly lose tone, as evidenced after removal of a limb from plaster. Early attention to the need for restorative exercise is essential and results usually impressive. If flexibility of the external muscles of the eyes is essential for continuing good sight, presbyopia can be avoided and with it the supposed necessity of glasses in middle life. Early attention

  10. Promoting healthy diets and tackling obesity and diet-related chronic diseases: what are the agricultural policy levers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2007-06-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are now a serious global public health problem. Public health groups are calling for the agricultural sector to play a greater role in tackling the threat. To identify potential points of policy intervention in the agricultural sector that could be leveraged to promote healthy diets and tackle obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. A review of the literature on the dietary implications of agriculture, a conceptual analysis of the issues, and the identification of relevant examples. There are two main potential points of intervention in the agricultural sector that could be leveraged to promote healthy diets: agricultural policies and agricultural production practices. Agricultural policies and practices affect diet through their influence on food availability, price, and nutrient quality, which in turn affects food choices available to consumers. Agricultural policies amenable to intervention include input, production, and trade policies; agricultural production practices amenable to intervention include crop breeding, crop fertilization practices, livestock-feeding practices, and crop systems diversity. It is well-known that agricultural policies and production practices influence what farmers choose to grow. Agricultural policies and production practices could also play a role in influencing what consumers choose to eat. To identify how agricultural policies and practices can usefully contribute toward promoting healthy diets and tackling obesity and diet-related chronic diseases, health policymakers need to examine whether current agricultural policies and production practices are contributing to-or detracting from-efforts to attain dietary goals; where and how could agricultural intervention help achieve dietary goals; and whether there are trade-offs between these interventions and other important concerns, such as undernutrition and the livelihoods of agricultural producers. Given the potential of agriculture to contribute to

  11. Predicting H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs: the role of individual difference in consideration of future consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Kim, Jarim

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the influence of individual difference in consideration of future consequences on H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs (i.e., perceived susceptibility to and severity of the H1N1 flu, perceived efficacy and safety of the H1N1 vaccine, and perceived self-efficacy in obtaining the H1N1 vaccine). A survey of 411 college students showed that consideration of future consequences had no direct effect on vaccine uptake, but higher consideration of future consequences was associated with greater perceived severity of the flu, higher perceived effectiveness of the vaccine, and greater perceived self-efficacy. Additional analysis suggested that consideration of future consequences had a significant indirect effect on vaccine uptake through perceived vaccine efficacy. Results of the study also revealed gender and racial differences in some of the H1N1-related health beliefs. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  12. Policies and practices of parental involvement and parent-teacher relations in Irish primary education: a critical discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Brigid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a critical discourse analysis of policies of parental involvement in Irish education from the past decade. It explores three questions: Do discourses of parental involvement and teacher professionalism construct parent-teacher relations in Irish primary education?; What implications do these constructions have for policies and practices of parent-teacher relationships, particularly parent-teacher partnerships, in Irish primary education?; How can these constructions be ch...

  13. Alternative Views of Moral Priorities in Population Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Arthur J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes three major sources of agreement and disagreement about population policy, i.e., the crisis environmentalists, the family planners, and the developmental distributivists. Discusses moral considerations relating to population policy. Lists types of policies suggested in the World Plan of Action at Bucharest (Population Council, 1974). (CS)

  14. The impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours and days on specific alcohol-related harms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; Voaklander, Donald

    2018-02-01

    Evidence supports the expectation that changes in time of alcohol sales associate with changes in alcohol-related harm in both directions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive systematic reviews had examined the effect of policies restricting time of alcohol trading on specific alcohol-related harms. To compile existing evidence related to the impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours/days of on specific harm outcomes such as: assault/violence, motor vehicle crashes/fatalities, injury, visits to the emergency department/hospital, murder/homicides and crime. Systematic review of literature studying the impact of policies regulation alcohol trading times in alcohol-related harm, published between January 2000 and October 2016 in English language. Results support the premise that policies regulating times of alcohol trading and consumption can contribute to reduce injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations/emergency department visits, homicides and crime. Although the impact of alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is also positive, these associations seem to be more complex and require further study. Evidence suggests a potential direct effect of policies that regulate alcohol trading times in the prevention of injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations, homicides and crime. The impact of these alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is less compelling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Public opinion on motor vehicle-related injury prevention policies: a systematic review of a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debinski, Beata; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Legislation is an effective strategy for reducing road-related fatalities and injuries. Public opinion can be an impetus for passing new laws and can affect the success of their implementation, but little is known about the current state of public opinion toward existing and proposed road-related policies in the United States. This review describes the scope and results of research on public support for state- and local-level evidence-based motor vehicle- and bicycle-related policies. We identify gaps in our understanding of public support for these policies. Published U.S. literature and all reports from the NHTSA from the past decade (2003-2012) were searched for data on opinions about existing or proposed policies related to motor vehicle or bicycle injury prevention. Twenty-six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In all, studies reported public opinion about 7 injury prevention topic areas: all-terrain vehicles (n = 1), automated enforcement with red light and speed cameras (n = 5), distracted driving (n = 4), drinking and driving (n = 5), graduated driver licensing (n = 7), helmets (n = 7), and seat belts (n = 4). Twenty-three studies focused only on one topic, and 3 sought public opinion about multiple topic areas. The studies revealed generally high levels of support for injury prevention policies in all topic areas. Fifteen studies collected information from national samples, and only 7 studies reported data from the state (n = 5) or local (n = 2) level. There is a relatively small evidence base on public opinion related to motor vehicle- and bicycle-related evidence-based policies; even less is less known for state- or county-specific policies. The findings of this review suggest that the public's opinion toward injury prevention legislation is generally favorable. This information can be used to communicate with the media and policy makers to reinforce the need for effective policy solutions to continuing motor vehicle injury problems. More research

  16. Relating climate change policy to poverty policy: assessing the global exposure of the poor to floods and droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsemius, Hessel; Jongman, Brenden; Veldkamp, Ted; Hallegatte, Stéphane; Bangalore, Mook; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Prior to the COP21 conference in Paris this year, the World Bank published a report called "Shockwaves - Managing the Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty". The report flagged that ending poverty and stabilizing climate change should be jointly tackled and that without a good joint policy, a further 100 million people could become trapped in poverty by 2050. As part of the "Shockwaves" report, we investigated whether low-income households are disproportionately overrepresented in hazard-prone areas compared to households with higher income. Furthermore, the hazardous conditions under which poor households are exposed to now may become worse due to climate change with resulting increases in intensity and frequency of floods and droughts. We also show how the amount of affected people to these natural hazards change in the future if nothing is done. We use recent advances in the global spatial modeling of flood and drought hazard and a large sample of household surveys containing asset and income data to explore the relationships.

  17. Considerable MHC diversity suggests that the functional extinction of baiji is not related to population genetic collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixia Xu

    Full Text Available To further extend our understanding of the mechanism causing the current nearly extinct status of the baiji (Lipotes vexillifer, one of the most critically endangered species in the world, genetic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II DRB locus was investigated in the baiji. Nine highly divergent DRB alleles were identified in 17 samples, with an average of 28.4 (13.2% nucleotide difference and 16.7 (23.5% amino acid difference between alleles. The unexpectedly high levels of DRB allelic diversity in the baiji may partly be attributable to its evolutionary adaptations to the freshwater environment which is regarded to have a higher parasite diversity compared to the marine environment. In addition, balancing selection was found to be the main mechanisms in generating sequence diversity at baiji DRB gene. Considerable sequence variation at the adaptive MHC genes despite of significant loss of neutral genetic variation in baiji genome might suggest that intense selection has overpowered random genetic drift as the main evolutionary forces, which further suggested that the critically endangered or nearly extinct status of the baiji is not an outcome of genetic collapse.

  18. On Task: Considerations and Future Directions for Studies of Corticospinal Excitability in Exercise Neuroscience and Related Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Jayne M

    2018-04-27

    Over the last few decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as a conventional laboratory technique in human neurophysiological research. Exercise neuroscientists have used TMS to study central nervous system contributions to fatigue, training, and performance in health, injury, and disease. In such studies, corticospinal excitability is often assessed at rest or during simple isometric tasks with the implication that the results may be extrapolated to more functional and complex movement outside of the laboratory. However, the neural mechanisms that influence corticospinal excitability are both state- and task-dependent. Furthermore, there are many sites of modulation along the pathway from the motor cortex to the muscle; a fact that is somewhat obscured by the all-encompassing and poorly-defined term "corticospinal excitability." Therefore, the tasks we use to assess corticospinal excitability and the conclusions that we draw from such a global measure of the motor pathway must be taken into consideration. The overall objective of this review is to highlight the task-dependent nature of corticospinal excitability and the tools used to assess modulation at cortical and spinal sites of modulation. By weighing the advantages and constraints of conventional approaches to studying corticospinal excitability, and considering some new and novel approaches, we will continue to advance our understanding of the neural control of movement during exercise.

  19. Considerations Related To Human Intrusion In The Context Of Disposal Of Radioactive Waste-The IAEA HIDRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Roger; Kumano, Yumiko; Bailey, Lucy; Markley, Chris; Andersson, Eva; Beuth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The principal approaches for management of radioactive waste are commonly termed ''delay and decay'', ''concentrate and contain'' and ''dilute and disperse''. Containing the waste and isolating it from the human environment, by burying it, is considered to increase safety and is generally accepted as the preferred approach for managing radioactive waste. However, this approach results in concentrated sources of radioactive waste contained in one location, which can pose hazards should the facility be disrupted by human action in the future. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) agree that some form of inadvertent human intrusion (HI) needs to be considered to address the potential consequences in the case of loss of institutional control and loss of memory of the disposal facility. Requirements are reflected in national regulations governing radioactive waste disposal. However, in practice, these requirements are often different from country to country, which is then reflected in the actual implementation of HI as part of a safety case. The IAEA project on HI in the context of Disposal of RadioActive waste (HIDRA) has been started to identify potential areas for improved consistency in consideration of HI. The expected outcome is to provide recommendations on how to address human actions in the safety case in the future, and how the safety case may be used to demonstrate robustness and optimize siting, design and waste acceptance criteria within the context of a safety case

  20. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    that, in fact, that women are not impacted equally by energy policy preferences as men and that women in developing countries benefit from increased access to modern household energy. Thus, gender-differentiated energy usage illustrates why treating population as a homogenous group fails to capture how energy policy preferences and energy policy performance can affect different subgroups of population in terms of individual choices and how those differences can affect an overall economic growth and development. Fundamental theoretical implications emerge from this dissertation's empirical findings. First, improving gender equality through technological advancements in household electricity facilitates the progress of demographic transition in terms of reducing fertility rates. Time altering effects of increased access and use of household electricity modify intra-household relations by diminishing differing roles between men and women. When women gain greater autonomy facilitated by increasing time via access to modern household electricity for more economically and educationally productive activities, fertility rates and child births tend to decrease by altering choice in family size with increased investments in children. The effect that the reduction in fertility generated by increased gender equality has upon demographic transition is that it alters the change in age structure in a developing country by decreasing youth dependency ratios generating the demographic dividend. Gender equality-generated fertility reductions may also facilitate the return to human capital by lessening the burden of non-SNA work and activities including reducing child care, increasing female labor force participation rates.

  1. Energy and environmental policies relating to hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions mitigation and energy conservation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, W.T.

    2006-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions are becoming significant energy and environmental issues relating to energy consumption in Taiwan. The nation, although not a party to the Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol, has diligently strived to mitigate the emissions and phase out use of the responsible materials. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are now mostly used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems, are the main GHGs associated with strong global warming potential. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the industrial/commercial uses of HFCs in Taiwan. Because of their high impacts on climate change, the description is then centered on estimating the potential emissions of HFCs according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method and the governmental organizations responses to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The regulatory systems relating to HFCs mitigation and energy conservation and energy policies and promotion measures for providing technological assistances and financial incentives in the energy management, resource recovery and HFCs reduction/recycling technologies are also addressed in the paper

  2. Considerations Related To Human Intrusion In The Context Of Disposal Of Radioactive Waste-The IAEA HIDRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger; Kumano, Yumiko; Bailey, Lucy; Markley, Chris; Andersson, Eva; Beuth, Thomas

    2014-01-09

    The principal approaches for management of radioactive waste are commonly termed ‘delay and decay’, ‘concentrate and contain’ and ‘dilute and disperse’. Containing the waste and isolating it from the human environment, by burying it, is considered to increase safety and is generally accepted as the preferred approach for managing radioactive waste. However, this approach results in concentrated sources of radioactive waste contained in one location, which can pose hazards should the facility be disrupted by human action in the future. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) agree that some form of inadvertent human intrusion (HI) needs to be considered to address the potential consequences in the case of loss of institutional control and loss of memory of the disposal facility. Requirements are reflected in national regulations governing radioactive waste disposal. However, in practice, these requirements are often different from country to country, which is then reflected in the actual implementation of HI as part of a safety case. The IAEA project on HI in the context of Disposal of RadioActive waste (HIDRA) has been started to identify potential areas for improved consistency in consideration of HI. The expected outcome is to provide recommendations on how to address human actions in the safety case in the future, and how the safety case may be used to demonstrate robustness and optimize siting, design and waste acceptance criteria within the context of a safety case.

  3. Empirical analysis of gross vehicle weight and free flow speed and consideration on its relation with differential speed limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifizul, Ahmad Abdullah; Yamanaka, Hideo; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2011-05-01

    Most highly motorized countries in the world have implemented different speed limits for light weight and heavy weight vehicles. The heavy vehicle speed limit is usually chosen to be lower than that of passenger cars due to the difficulty for the drivers to safely maneuver the heavy vehicle at high speed and greater impact during a crash. However, in many cases, the speed limit for heavy vehicle is set by only considering the vehicle size or category, mostly due to simplicity in enforcement. In this study, traffic and vehicular data for all vehicle types were collected using a weigh-in-motion system installed at Federal Route 54 in Malaysia. The first finding from the data showed that the weight variation for each vehicle category is considerable. Therefore, the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) and category of heavy vehicle on free flow speed and their interaction were analyzed using statistical techniques. Empirical analysis results showed that statistically for each type of heavy vehicle, there was a significant relationship between free flow speed of a heavy vehicle and GVW. Specifically, the results suggest that the mean and variance of free flow speed decrease with an increase GVW by the amount unrelated to size and shape for all GVW range. Then, based on the 85th percentile principle, the study proposed a new concept for setting the speed limit for heavy vehicle by incorporating GVW where a different speed limit is imposed to the heavy vehicle, not only based on vehicle classification, but also according to its GVW. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent Developments of Photovoltaics Integrated with Battery Storage Systems and Related Feed-In Tariff Policies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel A. Bayod-Rújula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the recent developments of photovoltaics integrated with battery storage systems (PV-BESs and related to feed-in tariff policies. The integrated photovoltaic battery systems are separately discussed in the regulatory context of Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, Australia, and Greece; the attention of this paper is focused on those integrated systems subject to incentivisation policies such as feed-in tariff. Most of the contributions reported in this paper consider already existing incentive schemes; the remaining part of the contributions proposes interesting and novel feed-in tariff schemes. All the contributions provide an important resource for carrying out further research on a new era of incentive policies in order to promote storage technologies and integrated photovoltaic battery systems in smart grids and smart cities. Recent incentive policies adopted in Germany, Italy, Spain, and Australia are also discussed.

  5. Life expectancy impacts due to heating energy utilization in China: Distribution, relations, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2018-01-01

    The relation between life expectancy and energy utilization is of particular concern. Different viewpoints concerned the health impacts of heating policy in China. However, it is still obscure that what kind of heating energy or what pattern of heating methods is the most related with the difference of life expectancies in China. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the spatial relations between life expectancy at birth (LEB) and different heating energy utilization in China by using spatial autocorrelation models including global spatial autocorrelation, local spatial autocorrelation and hot spot analysis. The results showed that: (1) Most of heating energy exhibit a distinct north-south difference, such as central heating supply, stalks and domestic coal. Whereas spatial distribution of domestic natural gas and electricity exhibited west-east differences. (2) Consumption of central heating, stalks and domestic coal show obvious spatial dependence. Whereas firewood, natural gas and electricity did not show significant spatial autocorrelation. It exhibited an extinct south-north difference of heat supply, stalks and domestic coal which were identified to show significant positive spatial autocorrelation. (3) Central heating, residential boilers and natural gas did not show any significant correlations with LEB. While, the utilization of domestic coal and biomass showed significant negative correlations with LEB, and household electricity shows positive correlations. The utilization of domestic coal in China showed a negative effect on LEB, rather than central heating. To improve the solid fuel stoves and control consumption of domestic coal consumption and other low quality solid fuel is imperative to improve the public health level in China in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. District Decision-Makers' Considerations of Equity and Equality Related to Students' Opportunities to Learn Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Keazer, Lindsay; Traynor, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: In this article we explore equity issues related to school district decision-making about students' opportunities to learn algebra. We chose algebra because of the important role it plays in the U.S. as a gatekeeper to future academic success. Current research has not yet explored issues of equity in district-level…

  7. The evaluation of the diet/disease relation in the EPIC study: considerations for the calibration and the disease models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Pietro; Day, Nicholas E; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International multicentre studies on diet and cancer are relatively new in epidemiological research. They offer a series of challenging methodological issues for the evaluation of the association between dietary exposure and disease outcomes, which can both be quite heterogeneous acro...

  8. Should Policy Specify a Formal Role for Schools Related to Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Although mental health in schools is discussed at many levels, fundamental differences in varying perspectives, attitudes, and vested interests result in divergent agendas for policy, practice, research, and training. This may confuse stakeholders and provide a source of conflict between policy and practice. This brief highlights a starter list of…

  9. Power Relations in the Enactment of English Language Education Policy for Chinese Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minglin

    2017-01-01

    The scale of English language education in China is astounding, but recent research has shown that the latest national English education policy for Chinese schools has not been implemented successfully due to various reasons. One reason given for the lack of success is the impracticability of the top-down policy itself excluding teachers'…

  10. Using Future Research Methods in Analysing Policies Relating to Open Distance Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoe, Mpine Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Many African countries have developed policies to reform their education system in order to widen participation in higher education. To achieve this, open, online and distance education based models have been advocated as the most viable delivery tools in expanding access to higher education. However, the policy analysis of Kenya, Rwanda and…

  11. 76 FR 39385 - Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data, Information, and Related Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Payment Policy Change for... (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Policy Change. SUMMARY: NOAA's National Data Centers... accepted forms of payment are Visa, MasterCard, American Express, Discover, wire transfers and Automated...

  12. Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance. ... theoretic considerations in their practice in order to achieve market-driven competition ... Key words: Game theory, social capital, good governance, health policy, health systems.

  13. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory's parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low.

  14. Geoethical issues in long-term assessment of geohazards and related mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Long-term assessment of large-impact and relatively (or very) infrequent geohazards like earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions is nowadays a common practice for geoscientists and many groups have been and are involved in producing global and regional hazard maps in response of an increasing demand of the society. Though the societal needs are the basic motivations for such studies, often this aspect is not pondered enough and a lack of communication between geoscientists and the society might be a serious limit to the effective exploitation of the hazard assessment products and to the development of adequate mitigation policies. This paper is an analysis of the role of geoscientists in the process of the production of long-term assessments of dangerous natural phenomena (such as mapping of seismic, tsunami and volcanic hazards), with special emphasis given to the role of communicators and disseminators (with respect to the general public, to authorities, to restricted specialized audiences…), but also of providers of active support to the planners who should be given key elements for making decision. Geoethics imposes geoscientists to take clear and full responsibilities on the products resulting from their assessments, but also to be aware that these products are valuable insofar they are scientifically sound, known, understandable, and utilizable by a wide universe of users.

  15. Policy impact of the Indonesian Central Bank certificate related on loan interest rate to the demand growth of property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirjodirdjo, B.; Asjari, H. Y.

    2018-04-01

    The Indonesian economic indicators shown a positive progress in the last three years, Foreign exchange reserves position of the end of March 2017 stood at US 121.8 billion higher than the position of the end of 2015 amounted to US 105.9 billion of the end of 2015. This reserve would ensure the resilience and maintaining sustainable Indonesian economic growth in the future. Although Indonesia’s foreign exchange is better, the structure of expenditure in the country is still less than ideal due the proportion of spending of consumer goods is far greater than the capital goods and tend to be unproductive spending. This needs to be regulated so that in the long term does not cause balance of payments deficit. Therefore, Indonesian Central Bank took a policy to raise interest rates for retail banks from 6% to 7.25% per annum gradually up to present. Policies relating to the interest rates on loans are intended to reduce the proportion of debt financing of consumer goods, however, these policies have implications to various economic sectors and one of those is property sector. A lot of research has been conducted related the impact of loan interest to the property sector but most of it is still in partial related to the ability the people to buy. However, this research has tried to see the implication of the macro Economic Policy of Indonesian Central Bank to the property sector as a systemic problem. This paper is going to present the study on the effects of these policies on the property sector, especially residence house. To obtain a comprehensive analysis and capture the relationship between interest rate policies and their impacts to the property sector, in this study the model developed and simulated using system dynamic methodology as an approach. Various scenarios are applied to the model to get an accurate information about how and when the effectiveness of the policy related to the property sector can be enforced. The result of this study can be delivered to

  16. Spatial heterogeneity of the relation between resting-state connectivity and blood flow: an important consideration for pharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; van Osch, Matthias J; de Rooij, Mark; Beckmann, Christian F; van Buchem, Mark A; Dahan, Albert; van Gerven, Johannes M; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2014-03-01

    Resting state fMRI (RSfMRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) provide the field of pharmacological Neuroimaging tool for investigating states of brain activity in terms of functional connectivity or cerebral blood flow (CBF). Functional connectivity reflects the degree of synchrony or correlation of spontaneous fluctuations--mostly in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal--across brain networks; but CBF reflects mean delivery of arterial blood to the brain tissue over time. The BOLD and CBF signals are linked to common neurovascular and hemodynamic mechanisms that necessitate increased oxygen transportation to the site of neuronal activation; however, the scale and the sources of variation in static CBF and spatiotemporal BOLD correlations are likely different. We tested this hypothesis by examining the relation between CBF and resting-state-network consistency (RSNC)--representing average intranetwork connectivity, determined from dual regression analysis with eight standard networks of interest (NOIs)--in a crossover placebo-controlled study of morphine and alcohol. Overall, we observed spatially heterogeneous relations between RSNC and CBF, and between the experimental factors (drug-by-time, time, drug and physiological rates) and each of these metrics. The drug-by-time effects on CBF were significant in all networks, but significant RSNC changes were limited to the sensorimotor, the executive/salience and the working memory networks. The post-hoc voxel-wise statistics revealed similar dissociations, perhaps suggesting differential sensitivity of RSNC and CBF to neuronal and vascular endpoints of drug actions. The spatial heterogeneity of RSNC/CBF relations encourages further investigation into the role of neuroreceptor distribution and cerebrovascular anatomy in predicting spontaneous fluctuations under drugs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Use of Bioregenerative Technologies for Advanced Life Support: Some Considerations for BIO-Plex and Related Testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Strayer, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    A review of bioregenerative life support concepts is provided as a guide for developing ground-based testbeds for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program. Key among these concepts are the use of controlled environment plant culture for the production of food, oxygen, and clean water, and the use of bacterial bioreactors for degrading wastes and recycling nutrients. Candidate crops and specific bioreactor approaches are discussed based on experiences from the. Kennedy Space Center Advanced Life Support Breadboard Project, and a review of related literature is provided.

  18. Ethical Considerations Related to Return of Results from Genomic Medicine Projects: The eMERGE Network (Phase III) Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Robyn; Kochan, David; Winkler, Erin; Pacyna, Joel E.; Olson, Janet; Thibodeau, Stephen; Connolly, John J.; Harr, Margaret; Behr, Meckenzie A.; Prows, Cynthia A.; Cobb, Beth; Myers, Melanie F.; Leslie, Nancy D.; Namjou-Khales, Bahram; Milo Rasouly, Hila; Wynn, Julia; Fedotov, Alexander; Chung, Wendy K.; Gharavi, Ali; Williams, Janet L.; Pais, Lynn; Holm, Ingrid; Aufox, Sharon; Smith, Maureen E.; Scrol, Aaron; Leppig, Kathleen; Jarvik, Gail P.; Wiesner, Georgia L.; Li, Rongling; Stroud, Mary; Smoller, Jordan W.; Sharp, Richard R.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the Institutional Review Board (IRB) process at 9 academic institutions in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network, for proposed electronic health record-based genomic medicine studies, to identify common questions and concerns. Sequencing of 109 disease related genes and genotyping of 14 actionable variants is being performed in ~28,100 participants from the 9 sites. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in actionable genes are being returned to study participants. We examined each site’s research protocols, informed-consent materials, and interactions with IRB staff. Research staff at each site completed questionnaires regarding their IRB interactions. The time to prepare protocols for IRB submission, number of revisions and time to approval ranged from 10–261 days, 0–11, and 11–90 days, respectively. IRB recommendations related to the readability of informed consent materials, specifying the full range of potential risks, providing options for receiving limited results or withdrawal, sharing of information with family members, and establishing the mechanisms to answer participant questions. IRBs reviewing studies that involve the return of results from genomic sequencing have a diverse array of concerns, and anticipating these concerns can help investigators to more effectively engage IRBs. PMID:29301385

  19. Petroleum situation at the end of 2004. The US energy policy. Chinese situation and energy policy. Energies: which energy relations between the European Union and its bordering countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, J.; Bellet, R.; Lorec, Ph.; Bertin, M.; Avergne, R.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of Energies et Matieres Premieres newsletter comprises 4 articles dealing with: the petroleum situation at the end of the year 2004 (strong rise of oil prices since the beginning of the year, strained balance between supply and demand at the end of the year, lack of market flexibility in front of an increasing demand, persistence of high prices in relation with low US stocks, high petroleum prices expected for 2005); the US energy situation and policy (growing up disequilibrium between the energy supply and demand, the security of supplies in the center of the US energy policy, R and D actions in the energy domain, towards a mastery of energy demand); the Chinese energy situation and policy (increasing hydrocarbons demand and second world petroleum consumer, increase of gas imports expected for the coming years, strong coal dependence, China is looking for energy self-sufficiency and a better power generation); the foreign energy policy of the European Union with its neighboring countries (50% of energy imports in 2004 and 70% expected for 2030, need for huge trans-European and foreign energy networks, 3 priority area of cooperation (Russia, Euro-Mediterranean area, South-East Europe) and 3 area of common interest (Baltic sea countries, Caspian sea basin, Ukraine), conclusions of the 19. world energy congress (Sydney, Australia, 5-9 september 2004)). A brief summary of the evolution of the world energy indicators (consumption, production, energy bill, prices, sectoral consumption) between January 2002 and October 2004 is presented in the form of graphics at the end of the document. (J.S.)

  20. Examining Public Policy from a Gendered Intra-Household Perspective: Changes in Family-Related Policies in the UK, Australia and Germany since the Mid-Nineties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome De Henau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public policy can affect many different gender inequalities. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the effects of policy on gender inequalities within households. This paper analyses a range of family-related policy changes over the last fifteen years in Australia, Germany and the UK to compare their potential effects on intra-household gender inequalities. These include changes in parental leave policies, working time regulation, childcare support and financial support to families. Many of these changes are found to have contradictory effects on within household inequalities, mainly because those that improve women’s incomes in their current gender roles may also undermine incentives to challenge traditional gender roles. All three countries have implemented substantial reforms over the period considered. However, with labour market activation policies tending to favour an inherently unequal one-and-a-half earner household, the effects on inequalities within households did not meet increasingly egalitarian gender role attitudes. Las políticas públicas pueden afectar a muy diversas desigualdades de género. Sin embargo, se ha prestado escasa atención a los efectos de la política sobre las desigualdades de género dentro de los hogares. En este trabajo se analiza una serie de cambios relativos a políticas familiares que se han dado en los últimos quince años en Australia, Alemania y el Reino Unido, para comparar sus efectos potenciales sobre las desigualdades de género dentro del hogar. Éstos incluyen cambios en las políticas de licencias parentales, la regulación de la jornada laboral, el apoyo al cuidado infantil y el apoyo financiero a las familias. Muchos de estos cambios han tenido efectos contradictorios en las desigualdades dentro de los hogares, sobre todo debido a que los que mejoran los ingresos de las mujeres en sus roles actuales de género también pueden socavar los incentivos para desafiar los roles

  1. Social class and policy preferences: implications for economic inequality and interclass relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Heather E

    2017-12-01

    Record-setting levels of income and wealth inequality are deepening social class divisions. The adoption of strong progressive redistributive policies is crucial to reducing class inequities, yet many barriers to doing so exist. This review examines class-based policy preferences, focusing on the effects of economic self-interest, system justification, and classist, racist, and sexist stereotypes on policy support. The impact of broader economic conditions is also considered. Collectively, this body of research makes clear that building stronger cross-class support for redistributive policies and programs will prove difficult without addressing both class-based power differences and beliefs that justify inequality. Reducing stereotypes and developing a shared sense of societal responsibility that cuts across class lines can help advance these goals. Social psychological research is vital to informing these efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations between pedagogues attitudes, praxis and policy in relation to physical activity of children in kindergarten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2011-01-01

    between policies and pedagogue ’ s attitudes towards promoting children ’ s physical activity and the number of days that pedagogues initiated games that made the children physically active. The study suggests that the social and organizational environment in the kindergarten is an important determinant...... for the level of physical activity among children. This means that the individual norms and attitudes of pedagogues along with the collective intentions and values expressed in written and adopted organizational policies (a Physical Activity Policy - PAP) are important aspects to be worked upon if kindergarten......This paper reports on associations between physical activity, pedagogue ’ s attitudes towards promoting physical activity and the physical activity policies (PAP) in kindergarten. The paper deals with data on physical activity of 3 – 6 year olds in kindergarten which originates from a cross...

  3. Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to sport participation or competitive sport policies in transgender people. Therefore, this review aimed to address this gap in the literature. Eight research articles and 31 sport policies were reviewed. In relation to sport-related physical activity, this review found the lack of inclusive and comfortable environments to be the primary barrier to participation for transgender people. This review also found transgender people had a mostly negative experience in competitive sports because of the restrictions the sport's policy placed on them. The majority of transgender competitive sport policies that were reviewed were not evidence based. Currently, there is no direct or consistent research suggesting transgender female individuals (or male individuals) have an athletic advantage at any stage of their transition (e.g. cross-sex hormones, gender-confirming surgery) and, therefore, competitive sport policies that place restrictions on transgender people need to be considered and potentially revised.

  4. Clinical Aspects, Imaging Features, and Considerations on Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis Risk in a Pediatric Patient with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a rare hereditary condition caused by changes in collagen metabolism. It is classified into four types according to clinical, genetic, and radiological criteria. Clinically, bone fragility, short stature, blue sclerae, and locomotion difficulties may be observed in this disease. OI is often associated to severe dental problems, such as dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI and malocclusions. Radiographically, affected teeth may have crowns with bulbous appearance, accentuated constriction in the cementoenamel junction, narrowed roots, large root canals due to defective dentin formation, and taurodontism (enlarged pulp chambers. There is no definitive cure, but bisphosphonate therapy is reported to improve bone quality; however, there is a potential risk of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. In this study we report a case of OI in a male pediatric patient with no family history of OI who was receiving ongoing treatment with intravenous perfusion of bisphosphonate and who required dental surgery. In addition, we discussed the clinical and imaging findings and briefly reviewed the literature.

  5. Culturally and linguistically diverse population health social marketing campaigns in Australia: a consideration of evidence and related evaluation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milat, Andrew J; Carroll, Tom E; Taylor, Jennifer J

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a review of population health social marketing campaigns targeting culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) communities in Australia in order to identify characteristics of effective CLD campaigns. Literature on CLD population health social marketing was identified from electronic searches of databases in August 2004. At the same time, the grey literature was examined by searching the Internet and talking to Australian experts in the fields of CLD social marketing and CLD research. Eight studies met the search criteria, four from the published literature. Two studies that employed prepost evaluation designs provided tentative support for the potential efficacy of CLD social marketing strategies. The remaining studies did not allow for causal attribution as they used post-campaign only or process evaluations. Studies did, however, show that CLD communities access campaign-related information from both mainstream and ethnic media channels. In addition, Vietnamese respondents were more likely to access campaign messages through ethnic radio and Chinese respondents through ethnic press. There is insufficient evidence to clearly identify the characteristics of effective CLD campaigns. Campaign evaluation designs used to evaluate social marketing strategies targeting CLD communities in Australia are generally weak, but there is tentative evidence supporting the potential efficacy of these strategies in some Australian settings.

  6. Uptake of chemicals and metabolism kinetics related to toxic effects and consideration of phytoremediation as a remediation option

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl

    Denne ph.d.-afhandling præsenterer resultaterne af en detailleret undersøgelse af ”Optag af kemiske stoffer og nedbrydningskinetik i relation til toksiske effekter samt overvejelser vedrørende phytoremediering som en oprensningsteknologi” og indeholder fire artikler, som beskriver og diskuterer det...... fysisk-kemiske egenskaber. Anvendelsen af planter til behandling af forurenet jord, sediment og van d kaldes phytoremediering. For at implementere phytoremediering som en teknologi til oprensning af kemiske stoffer kræves (1) det kemiske stof må ikke være stærk toksisk overfor planten (2) stoffet må ikke......-transpirationstest. Phytoremediering af phenol, 4-chlorphenol og cyanid med piletræer kan anses for en effektiv remedieringsmulighed på grund af dens høje fjernelseseffektivitet og ubetydelige akkumulering inde i palntevævet. Phytoremediering af 2,4-dichlorphenol synes ikke mulig på grund af den lave fjernelseseffektivitet....

  7. The government policy related to sugar-sweetened beverages In Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Arundhana, Andi Imam

    2016-01-01

    - There are several options that can be done to enforce lowering level of sugary drinks such as strengthening the regulation, taxation of the product and food labeling. Aims & Objectives: identify the policy in Indonesia that regulates the quantity and the use of sugar in a beverage product; 2) describe sugar content in a sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) product and its impact on human health. Material & Methods: Literature search of sugar use and the tax policies of SSB products has been c...

  8. The government policy related to sugar-sweetened beverages in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Thahir Haning; Andi Imam Arundhana; Asry Dwi Muqni

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are several options to enforce reduction in the use of sugary drinks such as strengthening regulations, taxation on the products and food labeling.  Aims & Objectives: 1) Identify the policy in Indonesia that regulates the quantity and the use of sugar in a beverage product; 2) Describe the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and its impact on human health. Material & Methods: Literature search on sugar use and tax policies on SSB was conducted and 6 rel...

  9. One or two nation projects? Discourse on inequalities and equality-related policies in South Africa and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Leubolt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis contribution focuses on the social production and reproduction of social inequalities in Brazil and South Africa. It aims at interlinking different theoretical perspectives and applying them to a comparative analysis of inequality-related policies. Resorting to strategic-relational institutionalism, the historical heritage of discourse formation and the institutionalization of inequality regimes in the two countries to inform the analysis of the more recent conjuncture will be analysed. While South Africa is an example of formal racist discrimination, the Brazilian inequality regime worked on more informal patterns. The different historical heritage influences current foci of equality-related policies, which tend to be dominantly anti-racist in South Africa, while focusing on poverty reduction in Brazil during the recent years. The latter experience tended more towards a discourse of a ‘common interest’ and was better able to institutionalize policies to reduce income inequalities. South Africa is still discursively divided into ‘two nations’. Social uplifting for Africans linked to the governing parties was only partially accompanied by improved living conditions for the poor majority of Africans. Both countries are significantly structured by the respective historical heritage concerning both the creation and the reduction of inequalities. The Brazilian ‘one nation’ discourse was more successful in promoting equality-related policies than its ‘two nations’ counterpart in South Africa. Despite important improvements, both countries are now in critical junctures and societal contradictions are beginning to create new crisis tendencies.

  10. Demographic Differences in District-Level Policies Related to School Mental Health and Social Services--United States, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Brener, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental health conditions among youth are a major concern. Schools can play an important role in supporting students affected by these conditions. This study examined district-level school health policies related to mental health and social services to determine if they varied by district demographic characteristics. Methods: The School…

  11. A Legal Analysis of Federal Disability Law as Related to Emerging Technology: Guidelines for Postsecondary Leadership, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Roderick Dwayne

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation identified and described the legal requirements imposed by federal disability mandates and case law related to emerging technology. Additionally, the researcher created a legal framework (guidelines) for higher education institutions to consider during policy development and implementation of emerging technology by providing an…

  12. 41 CFR 301-70.600 - What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement/investigative employees? 301-70.600 Section 301-70.600 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY...

  13. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 10 - Commission Policy Relating to the Acceptance of Settlements in Administrative and Civil Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Acceptance of Settlements in Administrative and Civil Proceedings A Appendix A to Part 10... Appendix A to Part 10—Commission Policy Relating to the Acceptance of Settlements in Administrative and... of law to be made in the settlement order entered by the Commission or a court. In accepting a...

  14. OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS RELATING TO PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE TEACHING, INTERCULTURALITY AND LITERACY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloris Porto Torquato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes two documents Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais – Língua Portuguesa (BRASIL, 1998 and Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais – Temas Transversais – Pluralidade Cultural (BRASIL, 1998b, conceiving these documents as constituents of language policies (RICENTO, 2006; SHOHAMY, 2006 and literacy policies, and it focuses the intercultural dialogues/conflicts that these documents promote when guiding that the teaching of the language should have as main object the text and indicating which genres should be privileged. Thereby, the text deals with language policies, more specifically focusing in literacy policies (bringing to bear the concept of literacy formulated by the New Literacy Studies (STREET, 1984, 1993, 2003; BARTON; HAMILTON, 1998; SIGNORINI, 2001 and interculturality (JANZEN, 2005. The analysis of the documents is undertaken to the light of the bakhtinian conception of language and it mobilizes the following concepts of the Circle of Bakhtin: dialogism, utterance and genres of speech. Furthermore, this text is based methodologically on the orientations of the authors of this Circle for the study of the language (BAKHTIN/ VOLOSHINOV, 1986; BAKHTIN, 2003. The analysis indicates that the official documents, when promoting literacy policies, also promote intercultural conflicts, because they privilege the dominant literacies, silencing other literacy practices. We understood that this silencing and invalidating local literacy practices has implications for the constitutions of the students’ identities and local language policies.

  15. Memory of antiquity and new compatible museum functions Some considerations on the industrial heritage related to electricity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Romeo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial heritage is represented by a set of strongly stratified architectural complexes characterized by different technical, formal, and distributive solutions that were gradually added and superimposed to one another, when required by the evolution of technology and by the changes in production processes. Actually, it is this stratification (additions, changes of use, momentary abandonment and subsequent reuse, accompanied by architectural and technological adjustments that gives an industrial complex a particular value.Indeed, the continuous evolution is the essence of this particular architectural form. From the birth of the first factories to present day, the industrial buildings have been able to quickly change their architectural form and their material and formal consistency according for the work and production needs. For this reason, we have now the opportunity to read a "history of architecture" consisting of a sequence of materials and technologies that have been subsequently replaced or superimposed to one another, in a list of examples related to the testing of reinforced concrete, of iron, cast iron, steel; or to the use of large glass surfaces or shed roofs; or to the use of natural and artificial energy sources. Many European experiences of conservation and reuse of industrial buildings have already considered this approach: the choice of the new functions is dictated by the flexibility of the building towards the necessary technical and energy adjustments. This is to achieve a proper balance between respect for the historical memory of the building and the need to adapt to the standards of energy, social and cultural sustainability.

  16. Treatment Techniques and Site Considerations Regarding Dysphagia-Related Quality of Life in Cancer of the Oropharynx and Nasopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teguh, David N.; Levendag, Peter C.; Noever, Inge; Rooij, Peter van; Voet, Peter; Est, Henrie van der; Sipkema, Dick; Sewnaik, Aniel; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert Jan; Bije, Daniel de la; Schmitz, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the relationship for oropharyngeal (OP) cancer and nasopharyngeal (NP) cancer between the dose received by the swallowing structures and the dysphagia related quality of life (QoL). Methods and Materials: Between 2000 and 2005, 85 OP and 47 NP cancer patients were treated by radiation therapy. After 46 Gy, OP cancer is boosted by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), brachytherapy (BT), or frameless stereotactic radiation/cyberknife (CBK). After 46 Gy, the NP cancer was boosted with parallel-opposed fields or IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy; subsequently, a second boost was given by either BT (11 Gy) or stereotactic radiation (SRT)/CBK (11.2 Gy). Sixty OP and 21 NP cancer patients responded to functional and QoL questionnaires (i.e., the Performance Status Scales, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer H and N35, and M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory). The swallowing muscles were delineated and the mean dose calculated using the original three-dimensional computed tomography-based treatment plans. Univariate analyses were performed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Most dysphagia problems were observed in the base of tongue tumors. For OP cancer, boosting with IMRT resulted in more dysphagia as opposed to BT or SRT/CBK. For NPC patients, in contrast to the first booster dose (46-70 Gy), no additional increase of dysphagia by the second boost was observed. Conclusions: The lowest mean doses of radiation to the swallowing muscles were achieved when using BT as opposed to SRT/CBK or IMRT. For the 81 patients alive with no evidence of disease for at least 1 year, a dose-effect relationship was observed between the dose in the superior constrictor muscle and the 'normalcy of diet' (Performance Status Scales) or 'swallowing scale' (H and N35) scores (p < 0.01)

  17. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. Materials and methods: All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory’s parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Conclusions: Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low. PMID:25351353

  18. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Karl A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL; however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Methods Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment. Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Results Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Conclusions These results explain the sclerotic and osteopetrotic changes of periodontal tissue following BP application and substantiate clinical findings of BP-related impaired remodeling specific to periodontal tissue. RANKL suppression substantiated the clinical finding of impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ-affected bone structures. Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to

  19. A review of water quality policies in relation to public good benefits and community engagement in rural Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Karen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines current recreational water use in the rural landscape in Ireland and reviews current EU policies and national regulations aimed at protecting water quality and the wider environment under agri-environmental schemes. Specifically, we review policy instruments that protect water for recreational use, their impacts and the challenges they pose for rural development against current requirements to increase public awareness and participation. In Ireland, there is limited experience in public participation in water quality protection and restoration and we highlight how this can be addressed by focussing on the specific contribution of water quality in rural areas in relation to the provision of recreational ecosystem services. These services provide the infrastructure for much of Ireland’s rural tourism sector. In this context, emerging participatory approaches to policy implementation are also assessed as national and local government prioritise community engagement for the second cycle under the EU Water Framework Directive.

  20. SU-E-J-16: A Review of the Magnitude of Patient Imaging Shifts in Relation to Departmental Policy Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, M; Sansourekidou, P [Health Quest, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate how changes in imaging policy affect the magnitude of shifts applied to patients. Methods: In June 2012, the department's imaging policy was altered to require that any shifts derived from imaging throughout the course of treatment shall be considered systematic only after they were validated with two data points that are consistent in the same direction. Multiple additions and clarifications to the imaging policy were implemented throughout the course of the data collection, but they were mostly of administrative nature. Entered shifts were documented in MOSAIQ (Elekta AB) through the localization offset. The MOSAIQ database was queried to identify a possible trend. A total of 25,670 entries were analyzed, including four linear accelerators with a combination of MV planar, kV planar and kV three dimensional imaging. The monthly average of the magnitude of the vector was used. Plan relative offsets were excluded. During the evaluated period of time, one of the satellite facilities acquired and implemented Vision RT (AlignRT Inc). Results: After the new policy was implemented the shifts variance and standard deviation decreased. The decrease is linear with time elapsed. Vision RT implementation at one satellite facility reduced the number of overall shifts, specifically for breast patients. Conclusion: Changes in imaging policy have a significant effect on the magnitude of shifts applied to patients. Using two statistical points before applying a shift as persistent decreased the overall magnitude of the shifts applied to patients.

  1. Informing public health policy through deliberative public engagement: perceived impact on participants and citizen-government relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molster, Caron; Potts, Ayla; McNamara, Beverley; Youngs, Leanne; Maxwell, Susannah; Dawkins, Hugh; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative public engagement has been proposed for policy development, where issues are complex and there are diverse public perspectives and low awareness of competing issues. Scholars suggest a range of potential outcomes for citizens and government agencies from involvement in such processes. Few studies have examined outcomes from the perspective of citizen participants in deliberative processes. To examine participant perceptions of their involvement in and outcomes of a deliberative engagement exercise. A case study using semistructured interviews was conducted with participants following a deliberative forum on biobanking. From their involvement in the deliberative exercise, participants described transformations in their knowledge and beliefs about the policy issues. They reported being more informed to the extent of having confidence to educate others and effectively contribute to public policy development. They had developed greater trust in government policymakers who they believed would take reasonable account of their recommendations. We conclude that the participants were satisfied with the outcomes of the deliberative public engagement process and viewed it as an effective means of citizen involvement in public policy development. Particularly for citizens who participate in deliberative processes, such processes may promote active citizenship, empower citizens to undertake representative and educative roles, and improve relations between citizens and government agencies. Actions taken by policymakers subsequent to the deliberative exercise, whereby the majority of citizen recommendations were incorporated in the policy developed, may have contributed to participants holding sustained levels of trust in the commissioning government agency.

  2. The Effects of National Policy on Refugee Welfare and Related Security Issues: A Comparative Case Study of Lebanon, Egypt and Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Jessica E

    2008-01-01

    .... This thesis examines the relationship between the tendency of state policies regarding Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria to create isolation or integration, and the relative extent...

  3. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, Falk; Hyckel, Peter; Ries, Jutta; Stockmann, Phillip; Nkenke, Emeka; Schlegel, Karl A; Neukam, Friedrich W; Amann, Kerstin

    2010-10-13

    Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL); however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP)-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody)-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL) in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment). Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each) to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Msx-1 (p Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to maxillofacial tissue.

  4. Inter-organizational relations for regional development: an expansion policy promoted by the federal network of professional education, science & technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleidson Nogueira Dias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper examines the importance of inter-organizational network management as a government policy tool to promote regional development. This pattern requires Federal Government intervention so as to compensate for the imbalance that this causes and to guarantee that economic growth resulting from government actions leads to development in all regions of the country, thereby avoiding the traditional mechanisms of wealth concentration. For this, a methodology of content analysis was used based on a relevant public policy aimed at promoting development within Brazil and by analyzing the data collected in relation to the current theory related to strategy, local development and inter-organizational networks in general.  The analysis results show that, when the policy studied in this work, applied in the federal network of professional education, science & technology, was implemented the networks had a positive influence on the outcome of the policy objectives and represented an extremely powerful support tool, being one of the most important factors to boost development.

  5. Supporting the Academic Majority: Policies and Practices Related to Part-Time Faculty's Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The academic workforce in higher education has shifted in the last several decades from consisting of mostly full-time, tenure-track faculty to one comprised predominantly of contingent, non-tenure-track faculty. This substantial shift toward part-time academic labor has not corresponded with institutions implementing more supportive policies and…

  6. 75 FR 3122 - Policy Statement Concerning Cooperation by Individuals in Its Investigations and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... individuals. DATES: Effective Date: January 19, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joan McKown, Chief.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Securities and Exchange Commission is issuing a policy statement announcing the... (``Investigation''); the importance of the underlying matter in which the individual cooperated; the societal...

  7. "Revenue Management" Effects Related to Financial Flows Generated by Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses possible macroeconomic implications for low-income countries of increased revenue inflows that may follow from implementing certain global greenhouse gas mitigation policies. Such revenue sources include revenue from emissions offset mechanisms, direct investments, and financial transfers that form parts of possible future mitigation treaties. In the short run such rev...

  8. Policy and Barriers Related to Implementing Adult E-Learning in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsiu-Ying; Lee, Gwo-Guang; Liu, Shih-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    The work quality of public servants direct affects a country's administrative performance, and the Taiwan government has recently invested a considerable amount of funds in constructing e-government learning platforms and developing digital courses to provide all public servants with sufficient on-the-job training and enhance the quality of human…

  9. Consumer-supplier-government triangular relations. Rethinking the UK policy path for carbon emissions reduction from the UK residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parag, Yael; Darby, Sarah [Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, OUCE, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The UK residential (household) sector is responsible for approximately 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions and is often seen as the most promising in terms of early reductions. As most direct household emissions come from only two fuel sources, this paper critically examines how existing emissions reduction policies for the sector shape - and are shaped by - relations between the three main groups of actor in this policy domain: central government, gas and electricity suppliers, and energy users. Focusing on relations between three dyads (government-suppliers, suppliers-consumers and consumers-government) enables us to examine aspects of demand reduction that have often been overlooked to date. By 'relations' we refer to services, power relationships and flows of capital and information, as well as less easily defined elements such as loyalty, trust and accountability. The paper argues that the chosen government policy path to deliver demand reduction, which heavily emphasises the suppliers' role, suffers from principal-agent problems, fails to align consumers and supplier interests toward emissions reduction, and does not yet portray a lower-carbon future in positive terms. It suggests that more attention should be paid to government-consumer relations, recognising that energy consumers are also citizens. (author)

  10. Consumer-supplier-government triangular relations: Rethinking the UK policy path for carbon emissions reduction from the UK residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parag, Yael [Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, OUCE, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yael.parag@ouce.ox.ac.uk; Darby, Sarah [Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, OUCE, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The UK residential (household) sector is responsible for approximately 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions and is often seen as the most promising in terms of early reductions. As most direct household emissions come from only two fuel sources, this paper critically examines how existing emissions reduction policies for the sector shape - and are shaped by - relations between the three main groups of actor in this policy domain: central government, gas and electricity suppliers, and energy users. Focusing on relations between three dyads (government-suppliers, suppliers-consumers and consumers-government) enables us to examine aspects of demand reduction that have often been overlooked to date. By 'relations' we refer to services, power relationships and flows of capital and information, as well as less easily defined elements such as loyalty, trust and accountability. The paper argues that the chosen government policy path to deliver demand reduction, which heavily emphasises the suppliers' role, suffers from principal-agent problems, fails to align consumers and supplier interests toward emissions reduction, and does not yet portray a lower-carbon future in positive terms. It suggests that more attention should be paid to government-consumer relations, recognising that energy consumers are also citizens.

  11. Consumer-supplier-government triangular relations: Rethinking the UK policy path for carbon emissions reduction from the UK residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parag, Yael; Darby, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The UK residential (household) sector is responsible for approximately 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions and is often seen as the most promising in terms of early reductions. As most direct household emissions come from only two fuel sources, this paper critically examines how existing emissions reduction policies for the sector shape - and are shaped by - relations between the three main groups of actor in this policy domain: central government, gas and electricity suppliers, and energy users. Focusing on relations between three dyads (government-suppliers, suppliers-consumers and consumers-government) enables us to examine aspects of demand reduction that have often been overlooked to date. By 'relations' we refer to services, power relationships and flows of capital and information, as well as less easily defined elements such as loyalty, trust and accountability. The paper argues that the chosen government policy path to deliver demand reduction, which heavily emphasises the suppliers' role, suffers from principal-agent problems, fails to align consumers and supplier interests toward emissions reduction, and does not yet portray a lower-carbon future in positive terms. It suggests that more attention should be paid to government-consumer relations, recognising that energy consumers are also citizens.

  12. Determination of Eligibility in Related Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Donors: Ethical and Clinical Considerations. Recommendations from a Working Group of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitan, Menachem; van Walraven, Suzanna M; Worel, Nina; Ball, Lynne M; Styczynski, Jan; Torrabadella, Marta; Witt, Volker; Shaw, Bronwen E; Seber, Adriana; Yabe, Hiromasa; Greinix, Hildegard T; Peters, Christina; Gluckman, Eliane; Rocha, Vanderson; Halter, Joerg; Pulsipher, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Related donors for hematopoietic cell (HC) transplantation are a growing population in recent years because of expanding indications for allogeneic transplantation. The safety and welfare of the donor are major concerns for the transplantation community, especially for related sibling donors of young recipients who are children and, thus, not able to fully consent. Because donation of HC does not improve the donor's own physical health and carries a risk of side effects, careful assessment of medical risks specific to the individual donor, as well as consideration of ethical and legal aspects associated with donation from a child, must be considered. In addition, donor centers must balance the needs of both the donor and the recipient, understanding the inherent conflict parents may have as they can be overly focused on the very sick child receiving a transplant, rather than on the relatively less significant health or emotional problems that a sibling donor may have, which could impact risk with donation. Likewise, consideration must be made regarding the nature of the relationship of the sibling donor to the recipient and also aspects of performing research on pediatric HC donors. In this article, as members of the Donor Issues Committee of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, we review key ethical concerns associated with pediatric donation and then give recommendations for screening potential child donors with underlying health conditions. These recommendations are aimed at protecting the physical and emotional well-being of childhood donors and arise out of the Third International Conference on Health and Safety of Donors sponsored by the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoppers, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

  14. The Impact of the Introduction of Web Information Systems (WIS) on Information Policies: An Analysis of the Canadian Federal Government Policies Related to WIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Christine; Bergeron, Pierette

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of an analysis of the Canadian federal government information policies that govern its Web information systems (WIS) that was conducted to better understand how the government has adapted its information policies to the WIS. Discusses results that indicate new policies have been crafted to take into account the WIS context.…

  15. Awareness and Attitude of Physicians in Academia towards Human Stem Cell Research (HSCR) and Related Policies in Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin K Joshi; Latika Nath; Vibha Joshi; Anil Purohit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In India, several science agencies are promoting Stem Cell Research (SCR). There is paucity of studies which document the perception of doctors about SCR, especially physicians in academia. This study was carried out to assess perception of physicians in academia towards Human Stem Cell Research (HSCR) and related policies in India. Methods: We interviewed 200 doctors from three different government medical colleges of Rajasthan. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to disce...

  16. Managing Relative Decline: An Analysis of Foreign Policy Alternatives for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Eugenics Society nearly 80 years ago describing a psychological phenomenon that still permeates current macroeconomic and foreign policy discourse...share of 26.23 percent and the 2013 share of 22.83 percent represents only a 3.4 percent decline but in constant 2010 currency this amounts to more...becoming more and more diffuse. The macroeconomic and geopolitical conditions that exist today are ill-suited to an “in your face” deep engagement

  17. Law, Policy and Nonproliferation Project Events and Workshops: Key Themes, Results and Related Materials 2008 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    biological precursors are obtained legally from legitimate corporations, these suppliers should incorporate some sort of chemical or genetic “barcode...traditionally come under the rubric of limited engagement, especially as such policy evolved during the Cold War between the US and USSR. With the end...information that may enable access to dual-use technology. A “bar-coding” procedure, by which a genetic sequence or chemical signature is used to

  18. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions: control targets and long term policy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.

    1993-01-01

    A number of countries have unilaterally committed themselves to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. Other countries have resisted such commitments; they prefer to engage in further climate research to determine the extent of any emissions reduction that may be necessary before committing themselves to significant costs to implement controls. This paper examines the costs of alternative policies including immediate action to limit emissions and climate research followed by controls if necessary. (Author)

  19. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    a policy of neutrality on the claims by the parties, which also include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, and Taiwan. Throughout 2009...territorial disputes. Roughly one and a half times the size of the Mediterranean Sea, it is ringed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia , Indonesia, Brunei...government to monitor data processed by these companies and/or more susceptible to government pressure on issues such as censorship .36 Many of the

  20. International Public Relations in the EU: Development Cooperation Public Opinion and Public Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Negrescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the growing importance of the cooperation for development in the European Union and the appearance of a common growing public opinion agreement supporting this kind of initiatives, it is necessary to understand if we can talk today about a true common European consensus. Still covered on intergovernmental level and considered to be a part of the national foreign policies, EU development aid is still far from reaching the maximum of its efficiency. In this paper we try to introduce a new evaluation method of the cooperation for development policies and interpretation of the degree of communitarisation of the national policies that will enable us to appreciate the stages that have to be completed by the member countries but also by the EU to realize a completely uniform European assistance strategy and of the activities, so necessary for raising the efficiency of the funds allocated by the EU, but also in the perspective of achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

  1. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, F P; Graff, H; Mitchell, C; Lock, K

    2014-09-01

    The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives-for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions-can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  2. Relational Resilience in Māori, Pacific, and European Sole Parent Families: From Theory and Research to Social Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldegrave, Charles; King, Peter; Maniapoto, Maria; Tamasese, Taimalieutu Kiwi; Parsons, Tafaoimalo Loudeen; Sullivan, Ginny

    2016-12-01

    This study reports findings and policy recommendations from a research project that applied a relational resilience framework to a study of 60 sole parent families in New Zealand, with approximately equal numbers of Māori, Pacific, and European (White) participants. The sole parent families involved were already known to be resilient and the study focused on identifying the relationships and strategies underlying the achievement and maintenance of their resilience. The study was carried out to provide an evidence base for the development and implementation of policies and interventions to both support sole parent families who have achieved resilience and assist those who struggle to do so. The three populations shared many similarities in their pathways to becoming sole parents and the challenges they faced as sole parents. The coping strategies underlying their demonstrated resilience were also broadly similar, but the ways in which they were carried out did vary in a manner that particularly reflected cultural practices in terms of their reliance upon extended family-based support or support from outside the family. The commonalities support the appropriateness of the common conceptual framework used, whereas the differences underline the importance of developing nuanced policy responses that take into account cultural differences between the various populations to which policy initiatives are directed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  3. Effectiveness of policies maintaining or restricting days of alcohol sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  5. Epistemological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Bonvin, Jean-Michel

    This short paper seeks to present the main concepts within the capability approach for the further discussion in the WorkAble project. The concepts will be described in short and brought into their mutual interdependent relations. Due to some differences between the conceptual understanding of a ...... of a capability between Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen (Robeyns, 2005), the authors furthermore give their suggestion for an accessible model, which brings together the strength from each conceptual dissimilarity....

  6. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments’ ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  7. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Labonte, Ronald; Stuckler, David; Kay, Adrian; Snowdon, Wendy

    2013-10-16

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments' ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life, Mental Health and Psychotherapeutic Considerations for Women Diagnosed with a Disorder of Sexual Development: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Brooks

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQL and mental health outcomes for women diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a disorder of sex development. Though recommendations for therapists exist, no research has empirically investigated women's experiences in therapy or their recommendations for therapy. Thus the purpose of the study was to investigate HRQL, mental health concerns of women with CAH, and patients' recommendations for therapists. A qualitative methodology, consensual qualitative research, was used to answer these questions. Eight women with CAH participated in the study. Results from their interviews revealed six domains: physical functioning, psychological functioning, interpersonal processes and relationships, healthcare experiences of women with CAH, recommendations for health care professionals, and systemic considerations. Domains were further broken down into categories with results yielding implications for both medical and mental health professionals and shedding light on issues related to normalcy, concerns both related and unrelated to CAH, sex, and gender, and highlighting effective supports and therapeutic interventions.

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life, Mental Health and Psychotherapeutic Considerations for Women Diagnosed with a Disorder of Sexual Development: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Jill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQL and mental health outcomes for women diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a disorder of sex development. Though recommendations for therapists exist, no research has empirically investigated women's experiences in therapy or their recommendations for therapy. Thus the purpose of the study was to investigate HRQL, mental health concerns of women with CAH, and patients' recommendations for therapists. A qualitative methodology, consensual qualitative research, was used to answer these questions. Eight women with CAH participated in the study. Results from their interviews revealed six domains: physical functioning, psychological functioning, interpersonal processes and relationships, healthcare experiences of women with CAH, recommendations for health care professionals, and systemic considerations. Domains were further broken down into categories with results yielding implications for both medical and mental health professionals and shedding light on issues related to normalcy, concerns both related and unrelated to CAH, sex, and gender, and highlighting effective supports and therapeutic interventions.

  10. Minerals Policy Statement 2: controlling and mitigating the environmental effects of minerals extraction in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    Minerals Policy Statement 2 (MPS2) sets out the policies and considerations that the UK Government expects Mineral Planning Authorities to follow when preparing development plans and in considering application for minerals development. This supercedes Minerals Policy Guidance 11 (MPG 11). Annex 1: Dust to MPS2 sets out the policy considerations in relation to dust from mineral workings and associated operations, and how they should be dealt with in local development plans and in considering individual applications. Annex 2: Noise to MPS2 addresses policy in relation to noise from mineral workings. These have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database. 58 refs., 2 apps.

  11. United States Chemical Policy: Response Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-07

    nTcn aapplicable. entew induiy r~ epr dates (g.10~Saeet o ehia Jun 87.- 30 Jun 88). rot gDocuments. DOE See authorities Block 4. Title and $ubtitle...introduction of mustard gas and gas shells to the battlefield. Between World War I and the 1980’s, infrequent use of chemical warfare occurred. In 1935 and...The period just prior to World War II included at least two known cases of chemical warfare use. In 1935 -36, Italy used mustard gas against Abyssinia

  12. Compensation for Combat Deaths: Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    through the courts for deaths resulting from other parties’ negligence or criminal behavior; a key difference between the tort system and many other...funding facilities that function outside of the tort system— for example, workers’ compensation programs for workplace fatalities and the Victims...receive $100,000 if the 10-percent risk of a loss of $100,000 actually came to pass. Tort law generally uses an ex post approach to compensation and

  13. Joint implementation: methodology and policy considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illum, Klaus; Meyer, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    The focus of the present paper is on joint implementation (JI) projects between countries in Western and Eastern Europe and especially on the problems of constructing credible references (baselines). A number of the present EU countries are anticipated to have severe problems in meeting their greenhouse gas reduction commitments and they have already announced that they shall take advantage of JI in this connection. As stated in the Kyoto Protocol, JI emission reductions must be real and measurable. However, in most cases the reductions obtained by a JI project do not occur at the project site but elsewhere in the energy system. Therefore, when a number of JI projects are implemented concurrently and other changes in the energy system take place over time, there is no way to measure the reductions obtained by individual projects. Because the emission reduction obtained is a property of the entire energy system, it cannot be estimated a priori on the basis of a project baseline alone. A baseline must refer to the national energy system of which the project is a part. It is argued in this paper that baselines should be derived from national energy systems databases and models, which serve to ensure that JI projects effectively contribute to the fulfillment of the Kyoto Protocol objectives. In addition, they should provide governments with comprehensive energy information systems needed to address long-term climate mitigation and energy demand and supply issues in a rational, least-cost manner. Compared to other climate mitigation costs and the costs of failure to meet the Kyoto commitments the costs involved in the preparation of the databases needed and the implementation of systems analysis and documentation programs will be small. If these costs are carried by national governments, the investors in JI projects will benefit from lower transaction costs

  14. Unaccompanied Children: Discourse Considerations and Policy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    ABSTRACT UU NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii...Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act UAC unaccompanied alien child UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees USCIS...their home countries for the United States, the perils of the journey, the U.S. government’s response to the increase and political challenges for

  15. The Design of Holistic Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    looks into a series of issues related to the design of holistic innovation policy. With this purpose in mind, this chapter summarizes previous chapters’ identification of the problems, bottlenecks and deficiencies that can afflict innovation systems. Taken together, they provide the theoretical...... foundations for the design of holistic innovation policy, which includes not only framing the problems in the innovation system, but also considerations about policy instruments for the tasks at hand, as well as the problems generated by policy itself (unintended consequences of inefficient of incomplete...

  16. Overview of systematic reviews on the health-related effects of government tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-08-05

    Government interventions are critical to addressing the global tobacco epidemic, a major public health problem that continues to deepen. We systematically synthesize research evidence on the effectiveness of government tobacco control policies promoted by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), supporting the implementation of this international treaty on the tenth anniversary of it entering into force. An overview of systematic reviews was prepared through systematic searches of five electronic databases, published up to March 2014. Additional reviews were retrieved from monthly updates until August 2014, consultations with tobacco control experts and a targeted search for reviews on mass media interventions. Reviews were assessed according to predefined inclusion criteria, and ratings of methodological quality were either extracted from source databases or independently scored. Of 612 reviews retrieved, 45 reviews met the inclusion criteria and 14 more were identified from monthly updates, expert consultations and a targeted search, resulting in 59 included reviews summarizing over 1150 primary studies. The 38 strong and moderate quality reviews published since 2000 were prioritized in the qualitative synthesis. Protecting people from tobacco smoke was the most strongly supported government intervention, with smoke-free policies associated with decreased smoking behaviour, secondhand smoke exposure and adverse health outcomes. Raising taxes on tobacco products also consistently demonstrated reductions in smoking behaviour. Tobacco product packaging interventions and anti-tobacco mass media campaigns may decrease smoking behaviour, with the latter likely an important part of larger multicomponent programs. Financial interventions for smoking cessation are most effective when targeted at smokers to reduce the cost of cessation products, but incentivizing quitting may be effective as well. Although the findings for bans on tobacco advertising were

  17. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Chapman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a situation-specific hazards, and (b the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of WHS to prevent horse-related injury by discussing effective evidence-based guidelines and regulatory monitoring for equestrian sectors. It suggests that the WHS framework has significant potential not only to reduce the occurrence and likelihood of horse-related human accident and injury, but to enable systematic accident analysis and investigation of horse-related adverse events.

  18. Communications satellite business ventures - Measuring the impact of technology programmes and related policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An economic evaluation and planning procedure which assesses the effects of various policies on fixed satellite business ventures is described. The procedure is based on a stochastic financial simulation model, the Domsat II, which evaluates spacecraft reliability, market performance, and cost uncertainties. The application of the Domsat II model to the assessment of NASA's ion thrusters for on-orbit propulsion and GaAs solar cell technology is discussed. The effects of insurance rates and the self-insurance option on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures are investigated. The selection of a transportation system for placing the satellites into GEO is analyzed.

  19. Analysis of Renewable Energy Policies Related to Repowering the Wind Energy Sector: the Spanish Case

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Roberto; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos; Rodriguez, Rubén; Calvo Narvaez, Felix

    2013-01-01

    In countries that started early with wind energy, the old wind turbines were located in places where the wind is often very good. Since the best places in which the wind is concerned are occupied by old wind turbines (with lower capacity than the more recent ones) the trend is to start replacing old turbines with new ones. With repowering, the first generation of wind turbines can be replaced by modern multi-megawatt wind turbines. The aim of this article is to analyze energy policies in ...

  20. EFSA Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 87 Revision 1 (FGE.87Rev1): Consideration of bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.47

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 17 bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by the JECFA at the 63rd meeting in 2004. This revision of FGE.87 is made due to consideration of two additional...

  1. Awareness and Attitude of Physicians in Academia towards Human Stem Cell Research (HSCR and Related Policies in Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin K Joshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India, several science agencies are promoting Stem Cell Research (SCR. There is paucity of studies which document the perception of doctors about SCR, especially physicians in academia. This study was carried out to assess perception of physicians in academia towards Human Stem Cell Research (HSCR and related policies in India. Methods: We interviewed 200 doctors from three different government medical colleges of Rajasthan. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to discern their awareness, attitudes towards utilization of SCR and their knowledge of related international and ethical policy issues. Results: Though mostly 177 (96.2% physicians acknowledged the public health benefits of promoting stem cell research in India, but 166 (66.2% were not aware of the stem cell research policy of the Government of India and 111 (60.3% were not aware of the ICMR guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research in India. There was a strong desire among academic physicians 152 (82.6% to incorporate a course on SCR to the students in the near future. Discussion: Physicians in academia have views that SCR should be encouraged to treat clinical diseases and this technology should be brought into India in a big way. They seem to believe that one of the ways to promote the benefits of SCR would be to raise awareness by publishing success stories in widely read Indian Medical Journals, giving updated information regarding its uses in clinical practices and its inclusion as a part of the curricula for health professionals.

  2. Assessing changes in HIV-related legal and policy environments: Lessons learned from a multi-country evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura; Nicholson, Alexandra; Henry, Ian; Saha, Amitrajit; Sellers, Tilly; Gruskin, Sofia

    2018-01-01

    There is growing recognition in the health community that the legal environment-including laws, policies, and related procedures-impacts vulnerability to HIV and access to HIV-related services both positively and negatively. Assessing changes in the legal environment and how these affect HIV-related outcomes, however, is challenging, and understanding of appropriate methodologies nascent. We conducted an evaluation of a UNDP project designed to strengthen legal environments to support the human rights of key populations, in particular LGBT populations, women and girls, affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed data on activities designed to improve legal environments through a systematic document review and 53 qualitative interviews. The project made substantial strides towards legal change in many places, and examples provide broader lessons for work in this area. Two core pillars appear fundamental: a government-led participatory assessment of the legal environment, and building the capacity of those impacted by and engaged in this work. Systematic attention to human rights is vital: it can help open new spaces for dialogue among diverse stakeholders, foster new collaborations, and ensure local ownership, nuanced understanding of the political landscape, attention to marginalized populations, and accountability for (in)action. Entry points for effecting legal change go beyond "HIV laws" to also include other laws, national policies and strategies. Conducting legal environment assessments, multi-stakeholder dialogues, action planning and related activities, alongside capacity building, can contribute to changes in knowledge and attitudes directly relevant to reforming laws that are found to be harmful. Shorter-term goals along the causal pathway to legal change (e.g. changes in policy) can constitute interim markers of success, and recognition of these can maintain momentum. Increasing understanding of progress towards changes in the legal environment

  3. Assessing changes in HIV-related legal and policy environments: Lessons learned from a multi-country evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition in the health community that the legal environment-including laws, policies, and related procedures-impacts vulnerability to HIV and access to HIV-related services both positively and negatively. Assessing changes in the legal environment and how these affect HIV-related outcomes, however, is challenging, and understanding of appropriate methodologies nascent.We conducted an evaluation of a UNDP project designed to strengthen legal environments to support the human rights of key populations, in particular LGBT populations, women and girls, affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed data on activities designed to improve legal environments through a systematic document review and 53 qualitative interviews.The project made substantial strides towards legal change in many places, and examples provide broader lessons for work in this area. Two core pillars appear fundamental: a government-led participatory assessment of the legal environment, and building the capacity of those impacted by and engaged in this work. Systematic attention to human rights is vital: it can help open new spaces for dialogue among diverse stakeholders, foster new collaborations, and ensure local ownership, nuanced understanding of the political landscape, attention to marginalized populations, and accountability for (inaction. Entry points for effecting legal change go beyond "HIV laws" to also include other laws, national policies and strategies.Conducting legal environment assessments, multi-stakeholder dialogues, action planning and related activities, alongside capacity building, can contribute to changes in knowledge and attitudes directly relevant to reforming laws that are found to be harmful. Shorter-term goals along the causal pathway to legal change (e.g. changes in policy can constitute interim markers of success, and recognition of these can maintain momentum. Increasing understanding of progress towards changes in the legal

  4. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline

  5. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  6. Production of a liberal petroleum order. A normative american policy in the international relations between 1980 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, Noel

    2002-12-01

    From the analysis of the juridical and political possibilities conditions of a trans-national market of the exploitation permits, the author shows the great degradation of the institutional environment of petroleum contracts from 1960 to 1970. Then he studies the american strategy of the market reconstruction initiated by the Reagan administration: standards, modalities of diffusion, the transposition in the juridical system. The second part is devoted to the elaboration of a model aiming to detail the market construction and extension policy in a key domain of the international relations. The tradition of the liberal economic policy allows to understand the market promotion in the internal and the international order. (A.L.B.)

  7. Siting provisions of the U.S. Nuclear Waste Policy Act versus related experience in other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, H.W.; Owens, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is based on a report prepared by International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) under contract to the Department of Energy. The report, whose title is the same as that of this paper, was submitted to DOE a little over one year ago. In that report, the relevant provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 setting forth the procedures for obtaining the local acceptance of sites for nuclear waste facilities were compared with the corresponding procedures of fifteen foreign countries also trying to locate sites for nuclear waste facilities. In this paper, the major points on which the Nuclear Waste Policy Act is or is not in keeping with lessons learned in other countries are discussed as well as some general and specific observations related to siting acceptance problems and how the Act addresses them

  8. Views on peak oil and its relation to climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Al Marchohi, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Definitions of fossil fuel reserves and resources and assessed stock data are reviewed and clarified. Semantics explain a large stake of conflict between advocate and critical voices on peak oil. From a holistic sources-sinks perspective, limited carrying capacity of atmospheric sinks, not absolute scarcity in oil resources, will impose tight constraints on oil use. Eventually observed peaks in oil production in nearby years will result from politically imposed limits on carbon emissions, and not be caused by physical lack of oil resources. Peak-oil belief induces passive climate policy attitudes when suggesting carbon dioxide emissions will peak naturally linked to dwindling oil supplies. Active policies for reducing emissions and use of fossil fuels will also encompass higher energy end-use prices. Revenues obtained from higher levies on oil use can support financing energy efficiency and renewable energy options. But when oil producers charge the higher prices they can pump new oil for many decades, postponing peak oil to occur while extending carbon lock-in.

  9. Paradigms of global climate change and sustainable development: Issues and related policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Combating climate change is intimately linked with peace and resource equity. Therefore, critical link establishment between climate change and sustainable development is extremely relevant in global scenario. Following the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, the international sustainable development agenda was taken up by the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD; the climate change agenda was carried forward by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. International and local climate change mitigation policies need to be assessed based on sustainability criteria. The increasing concern over climate change drives towards the search of solutions enabling to combat climate change into broader context of sustainable development. The core element of sustainable development is the integration of economic, social and environmental concerns in policy-making. Therefore, article also analyzes post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes and their impact on sustainable development. Wide range of post- Kyoto climate change mitigation architectures has different impact on different groups of countries. Nevertheless, there are several reasons for optimism that sustainable consumption patterns might develop. One is the diversity of current consumption patterns and the growing minority concerned with ethical consumption. Another is the growing understanding of innovation processes, developed to address technological change, but applicable to social innovation. A third reason is the growing reflexivity of communities and institutions.

  10. System failure, innovation policy and patents: Fuel cells and related hydrogen technology in Norway 1990-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoe, Helge; Nygaard, Stian

    2006-01-01

    The empirical focus of this article is technological innovation activities in the emerging field of fuel cells and related hydrogen technology in Norway from 1990 to 2002. In this period, four comparatively large-scale research and development projects and a number of smaller projects aimed at development of fuel cells technology were undertaken, resulting in many inventions that were subsequently patented. Although this creativity may be considered an indication of success, only one of the projects became successful in an innovation perspective. All the large projects were initiated and funded for divergent political and economic reasons. An important reason in the late 1980s was the prospect of using Norway's abundant supply of natural gas in fuel cells for electric power generation. The large R and D projects that attempted to develop fuel cells based on natural gas as energy source failed. In contrast, the successful project was undertaken by military R and D, i.e. in a different system of innovation than the projects that failed. Analysis of these cases points to the importance of a systemic approach to innovations-and to policy making. One challenge for policy makers is to decide how they should promote this development which is crucial for the vision of a future 'Hydrogen Economy', i.e. what kind of policy incentives should be introduced to spur efficiency in technological development and diffusion. Theoretically, many options are available; however, understanding the innovation dynamics in this sector is fundamental for making choices. In this article, focus will be set on policy aspects using an innovation systemic approach to analyze development of fuel cells and related hydrogen technology in Norway

  11. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Attempts to reduce horse-related injuries and fatalities to humans have mostly focused on personal protective equipment like helmets. In organizational contexts, such technical interventions are considered secondary to reducing the frequency and severity of accidents. In this article, we describe the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) framework that has been associated with reduced risks in industries and organisations. We consider how such a framework could be used to reduce horse-related risks in workplaces, as well as non-work equestrian competition and leisure environments. In this article, we propose that the simplicity and concepts of the WHS framework can provide risk mitigation benefits to both work and non-work equine identities. Abstract It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of

  12. China's power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed

  13. Comparative Studies on Vehicle Related Policies for Air Pollution Reduction in Ten Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hirota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in major cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. This paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration systems, inspection and maintenance (I/M systems and fuel quality monitoring systems for vehicles in use. Monitoring problems in developing countries share similar characteristics such as a weakness in government initiatives and inadequate operation of government agencies, which results from a lack of human resources and availability of adequate facilities. Finally, this paper proposes a method to assure air quality improvements under the different shares of emission regulations in these Asian countries and introduces an example of an evaluation method based on a policy survey to improve air quality.

  14. Benefits on public health from transport-related greenhouse gas mitigation policies in Southeastern European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Kontoroupis, P; Nikolaki, S; Gotti, A; Chapizanis, D; Karakitsios, S

    2017-02-01

    Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario. Two types of measures are investigated: operation of underground rail in the city centre and changes in fleet composition. Potential co-benefits from reduced greenhouse gas emissions on public health by the year 2020 are computed utilizing state-of-the-art concentration response functions for PM x , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 . Results show significant environmental health and monetary co-benefits when the city metro is coupled with appropriate changes in the traffic composition. Monetary savings due to avoided mortality or leukaemia incidence corresponding to the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5, NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure will be 56.6, 45, 37.7 and 1.0 million Euros respectively. Promotion of 'green' transportation in the city (i.e. the wide use of electric vehicles), will provide monetary savings from the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure up to 60.4, 49.1, 41.2 and 1.08 million Euros. Overall, it was shown that the respective GHG emission reduction policies resulted in clear co-benefits in terms of air quality improvement, public health protection and monetary loss mitigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poluyi EO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1% of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%, Yoruba (50.2% or Igbo (40.3% ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%. A majority (90.1% of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8% were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4% and esophageal (68.9% cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%, bladder cancer (47.2%, peripheral vascular disease (35.8% and sudden death (31.1%. Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC. A little over half of the respondents (53.8% were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%, in public places (79.2%, and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%. For

  17. Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

  18. Effects of Specific Alcohol Control Policy Measures on Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia from 1998 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaltourina, Daria; Korotayev, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the possible effects of alcohol control policy measures on alcohol-related mortality in Russia between 1998 and 2013. Trends in mortality, alcohol production and sales were analyzed in conjunction with alcohol control legislative measures. Correlation analysis of health and alcohol market indicators was performed. Ethyl alcohol production was the strongest correlate of alcohol-related mortality, which is probably due to the fact that ethyl alcohol is used for both recorded and unrecorded alcohol production. Measures producing greatest mortality reduction effect included provisions which reduced ethyl alcohol production (introduction of minimum authorized capital for ethyl alcohol and liquor producers in 2006 and the requirement for distillery dreg processing), as well as measures to tax and denaturize ethanol-containing liquids in 2006. Liquor tax decrease in real terms was associated with rising mortality in 1998-1999, while excise tax increase was associated with mortality reduction in 2004 and since 2012. Conventional alcohol control measures may also have played a moderately positive role. Countries with high alcohol-related mortality should aim for a reduction in spirits consumption as a major health policy. Alcohol market centralization and reduction of the number of producers can have immediate strong effects on mortality. These measures should be combined with an increase in alcohol taxes and prices, as well as other established alcohol policy measures. In 2015 in Russia, this is not being implemented. In Russia, legislation enforcement including excise tax collection remains the major challenge. Another challenge will be the integration into the Eurasian Economic Union. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Freedom of Movement and Work-Related Migration in the EU: A Study of Problem Construction in Finnish Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Karwowska, Joanna Wiktoria

    2013-01-01

    This study is a policy analysis of Finnish regulations related to the free movement of workers. The matter is assessed in the case of a country which takes advantage of the EU’s freedom of movement in various ways. Finland is struggling with the problem of a rapidly ageing society, so the need for a foreign workforce has been declared even to the point of it becoming part of the Government’s Programme. The thesis subject is a popular area of research in the world. Nevertheless, previous s...

  20. Impact of policy and built environment changes on obesity-related outcomes: a systematic review of naturally occurring experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, S L; Auchincloss, A H; Michael, Y L

    2015-05-01

    Policies and changes to the built environment are promising targets for obesity prevention efforts and can be evaluated as 'natural'- or 'quasi'-experiments. This systematic review examined the use of natural- or quasi-experiments to evaluate the efficacy of policy and built environment changes on obesity-related outcomes (body mass index, diet or physical activity). PubMed (Medline) was searched for studies published 2005-2013; 1,175 abstracts and 115 papers were reviewed. Of the 37 studies included, 18 studies evaluated impacts on nutrition/diet, 17 on physical activity and 3 on body mass index. Nutrition-related studies found greater effects because of bans/restrictions on unhealthy foods, mandates offering healthier foods, and altering purchase/payment rules on foods purchased using low-income food vouchers compared with other interventions (menu labelling, new supermarkets). Physical activity-related studies generally found stronger impacts when the intervention involved improvements to active transportation infrastructure, longer follow-up time or measured process outcomes (e.g., cycling rather than total physical activity), compared with other studies. Only three studies directly assessed body mass index or weight, and only one (installing light-rail system) observed a significant effect. Studies varied widely in the strength of their design and studies with weaker designs were more likely to report associations in the positive direction. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. Livestock-related greenhouse gas emissions: impacts and options for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Tara

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that livestock account for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global consumption of livestock products is growing rapidly. This paper reviews the life cycle analysis (LCA) approach to quantifying these emissions and argues that, given the dynamic complexity of our food system, it offers a limited understanding of livestock's GHG impacts. It is argued that LCA's conclusions need rather to be considered within a broader conceptual framework that incorporates three key additional perspectives. The first is an understanding of the indirect second order effects of livestock production on land use change and associated CO 2 emissions. The second compares the opportunity cost of using land and resources to rear animals with their use for other food or non-food purposes. The third perspective is need-the paper considers how far people need livestock products at all. These perspectives are used as lenses through which to explore both the impacts of livestock production and the mitigation approaches that are being proposed. The discussion is then broadened to consider whether it is possible to substantially reduce livestock emissions through technological measures alone, or whether reductions in livestock consumption will additionally be required. The paper argues for policy strategies that explicitly combine GHG mitigation with measures to improve food security and concludes with suggestions for further research.

  2. State and local policies related to sexual orientation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Hexem, Sarah; LaPollo, Archana; Cuffe, Kendra M; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2017-02-01

    Poorer health suffered by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations may be associated with public policies. We collected the laws that in 2013 prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation from 50 United States (US) states, the District of Columbia (Washington, DC or DC), and the 30 most populous US metropolitan areas. To facilitate future research, we coded certain aspects of these laws to create a dataset. We generated descriptive statistics by jurisdiction type and tested for regional differences in state law using Chi-square tests. Sixteen (31.4 per cent) states prohibited discrimination by all employers based on sexual orientation, 25 states (49.0 per cent) in public employment, 18 states (35.3 per cent) in government contracting, and 21 states (41.2 per cent) in private employment. Twenty-one states prohibited discrimination (41.2 per cent) in housing practices (selling and renting), and 17 (33.3 per cent) in public accommodations. Local (county/city) laws prohibiting discrimination were less common. State laws differed significantly by US census region - West, Midwest, Northeast, and South. Future analyses of these data could examine the impact of these laws on various outcomes, including health among LGB populations.

  3. Nuclear export policy of the Reagan Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J F; Donnelly, W H [Library of Congress, Washington, DC (USA)

    1983-06-01

    The Reagan Administration maintains the Carter Administration's objective of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons as being fundamental to US nuclear export policy. However, it sees the USA as having another important role to play in influencing the use of nuclear power and the trading of related goods and technologies in other countries. While the Administration believes its policies will prove beneficial to the USA, there is concern that trade considerations are being given priority over preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  4. The resource-based relative value scale and physician reimbursement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Miriam J

    2014-11-01

    Most physicians are unfamiliar with the details of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) and how changes in the RBRVS influence Medicare and private reimbursement rates. Physicians in a wide variety of settings may benefit from understanding the RBRVS, including physicians who are employees, because many organizations use relative value units as productivity measures. Despite the complexity of the RBRVS, its logic and ideal are simple: In theory, the resource usage (comprising physician work, practice expense, and liability insurance premium costs) for one service is relative to the resource usage of all others. Ensuring relativity when new services are introduced or existing services are changed is, therefore, critical. Since the inception of the RBRVS, the American Medical Association's Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) has made recommendations to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services on changes to relative value units. The RUC's core focus is to develop estimates of physician work, but work estimates also partly determine practice expense payments. Critics have attributed various health-care system problems, including declining and growing gaps between primary care and specialist incomes, to the RUC's role in the RBRVS update process. There are persistent concerns regarding the quality of data used in the process and the potential for services to be overvalued. The Affordable Care Act addresses some of these concerns by increasing payments to primary care physicians, requiring reevaluation of the data underlying work relative value units, and reviewing misvalued codes.

  5. 'Penetrated system' or 'normal' state? An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The 'maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a 'normal' state

  6. Penetrated system' or normal' state An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a normal' state.

  7. Can biofuels be a solution to climate change? The implications of land use change-related emissions for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Madhu; Crago, Christine L.; Black, Mairi

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels have gained increasing attention as an alternative to fossil fuels for several reasons, one of which is their potential to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. Recent studies have questioned the validity of claims about the potential of biofuels to reduce GHG emissions relative to the liquid fossil fuels they are replacing when emissions owing to direct (DLUC) and indirect land use changes (ILUC) that accompany biofuels are included in the life cycle GHG intensity of biofuels. Studies estimate that the GHG emissions released from ILUC could more than offset the direct GHG savings by producing biofuels and replacing liquid fossil fuels and create a ‘carbon debt’ with a long payback period. The estimates of this payback period, however, vary widely across biofuels from different feedstocks and even for a single biofuel across different modelling assumptions. In the case of corn ethanol, this payback period is found to range from 15 to 200 years. We discuss the challenges in estimating the ILUC effect of a biofuel and differences across biofuels, and its sensitivity to the assumptions and policy scenarios considered by different economic models. We also discuss the implications of ILUC for designing policies that promote biofuels and seek to reduce GHG emissions. In a first-best setting, a global carbon tax is needed to set both DLUC and ILUC emissions to their optimal levels. However, it is unclear whether unilateral GHG mitigation policies, even if they penalize the ILUC-related emissions, would increase social welfare and lead to optimal emission levels. In the absence of a global carbon tax, incentivizing sustainable land use practices through certification standards, government regulations and market-based pressures may be a viable option for reducing ILUC. PMID:22482030

  8. Public acceptance and preferences related to renewable energy and grid expansion policy: Empirical insights for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, Valentin; Hall, Margeret; Weinhardt, Christof; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    The rapid expansion of renewable energy sources (RES) in many European countries brings about transmission grid expansion requirements. While the transition towards RES-based energy systems is largely perceived positively in general, locally both RES and grid expansion are often confronted with a lack of public acceptance. Using Germany as a case study, we analyse public acceptance of energy infrastructure and its main drivers on local vs. national levels. For this purpose, we conducted a nationally representative survey. Our results show that, on a national level, the acceptance of RES is very high and there is also a high acceptance of grid expansion if it helps to increase the share of RES in the system. In terms of local acceptance problems that may arise for most considered technologies, concerns about landscape modification turn out to be the main driving factor. Moreover, the distance between places of residence and places of energy infrastructure construction is crucial. While acceptance or rejection of technologies will never be entirely tangible or explicable, we find the explicability of rejections to be lowest for new technologies. Finally, age and education turn out to be the most relevant socio-demographic variables determining the participants' acceptance. - Highlights: • A survey to understand drivers of energy technology acceptance was conducted. • Participants were asked to rank energy policy objectives. • Strong differences between acceptance on a national vs. a local level were found. • Landscape modification is the most important factor driving the local acceptance. • Age and education turned out to be the most relevant socio-demographic factors.

  9. Health-related claims on food labels in Australia: understanding environmental health officers' roles and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon-Paoloni, Deanne; Yeatman, Heather R; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health and related claims on food labels can support consumer education initiatives that encourage purchase of healthier foods. A new food Standard on Nutrition, Health and Related Claims became law in January 2013. Implementation will need careful monitoring and enforcement to ensure that claims are truthful and have meaning. The current study explored factors that may impact on environmental health officers' food labelling policy enforcement practices. The study used a mixed-methods approach, using two previously validated quantitative questionnaire instruments that provided measures of the level of control that the officers exercised over their work, as well as qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Local government; Australia. Thirty-seven officers in three Australian states participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, as well as completing the quantitative questionnaires. Senior and junior officers, including field officers, participated in the study. The officers reported a high level of autonomy and control of their work, but also a heavy workload, dominated by concerns for public health and food safety, with limited time for monitoring food labels. Compliance of labels with proposed health claims regulations was not considered a priority. Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy was used to enhance understanding of officers' work practices. Competing priorities affect environmental health officers' monitoring and enforcement of regulations. Understanding officers' work practices and their perceptions of enforcement is important to increase effectiveness of policy implementation and hence its capacity to augment education initiatives to optimize health benefits.

  10. New overhead lines are required for the land - and Europe. The new regulation of the TEN-E regulations and their consequences for the Germann planning law and licensing law for high-voltage power lines under special consideration of the regulations of the public relations; Neue Leitungen braucht das Land - und Europa. Die Neuregelung der TEN-E-Leitlinien und deren Konsequenzen fuer das deutsche Planungs- und Genehmigungsrecht fuer Hoechstspannungsleitungen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Vorschriften ueber die Oeffentlichkeitsbeteiligung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schadtle, Kai [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Rechtswissenschaft

    2013-05-15

    The German energy policy turnaround requires an optimization of the energy infrastructure. The energy policy objectives of the European Union with respect to competitiveness, security of supply and sustainability require a rapid expansion and transformation of the European energy infrastructure. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the revision of the TEN-E guidelines and their consequences for the German planning law and licensing law for high-voltage power lines with special consideration of the rules of the public relations. The national legal framework for the development of the German transmission system and the design of the new TEN-E guidelines for the trans-European network development are presented.

  11. How many scientific papers are mentioned in policy-related documents? An empirical investigation using Web of Science and Altmetric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunschild, Robin; Bornmann, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    In this short communication, we provide an overview of a relatively newly provided source of altmetrics data which could possibly be used for societal impact measurements in scientometrics. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy-related documents. Using data from Altmetric, we study how many papers indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) are mentioned in policy-related documents. We find that less than 0.5% of the papers published in different subject categories are mentioned at least once in policy-related documents. Based on our results, we recommend that the analysis of (WoS) publications with at least one policy-related mention is repeated regularly (annually) in order to check the usefulness of the data. Mentions in policy-related documents should not be used for impact measurement until new policy-related sites are tracked.

  12. Overwork-related disorders in Japan: recent trends and development of a national policy to promote preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Toru; Takamoto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shun; Kayashima, Kotaro; Takeshima, Tadashi; Takahashi, Masaya

    2017-06-08

    Overwork-related disorders, such as cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork, are a major occupational and public health issue worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. This report discusses the recent trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan from the perspective of workers' compensated occupational diseases, as well as the development of a national policy for preventive measures against overwork-related disorders in Japan. Recently, the number of claimed and compensated cases of occupational mental disorders has increased substantially, particularly among young workers, as compared to those of occupational CCVD. In response to these situations and action from society, the Japanese Government passed the "Act on Promotion of Preventive Measures against Karoshi and Other Overwork-Related Health Disorders" in June 2014 to develop a national initiative towards the prevention of overwork-related disorders. Changes in the trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan under a legal foundation and an initiative by the central government should be closely monitored so that other countries can benefit from the experiences.

  13. EU-Mashreq Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2018-01-01

    -related foreign policy considerations: the ENP Action Plans (APs) ‘will draw on a common set of principles but will be differentiated, reflecting the existing state of relations with each country, its needs and capacities, as well as common interests’ (Commission of the European Communities 2004). In the Mashreq...

  14. Behavioural testing based breeding policy reduces the prevalence of fear and aggression related behaviour in Rottweilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der Joanne A.M.; Graat, Lisette; Beerda, Bonne

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural testing allows to exclude dogs that are fearful and aggressive from the breeding population, but relatively little is known about the effectiveness of such strategies in practice. From 2001 till 2009 parent purebred Dutch Rottweilers had to pass the Socially Acceptable Behaviour

  15. Status of Credentialing Structures Related to Secondary Transition: A State-Level Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Monica L.; Novak, Jeanne A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.

    2018-01-01

    To understand the current status of transition-related credentialing systems in driving personnel preparation, it is necessary to identify which state education and rehabilitation services agencies are currently providing certification and licensure in the area of secondary transition. The purpose of this study was to examine the current state of…

  16. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    ... that the separately ruled Taiwan is a part of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Taiwan President Ma Ying-jeou, elected on March 22, 2008, in a surprisingly broad electoral victory, has moved quickly to repair Taiwan's relations with the PRC...

  17. 17 CFR 202.12 - Policy statement concerning cooperation by individuals in its investigations and related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... matter in which the individual cooperated; the societal interest in ensuring that the cooperating... or related action; (iii) Whether the Investigation was initiated based on information or other... provided non-privileged information, which information was not requested by the staff or otherwise might...

  18. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  19. New EU Policies Towards Animal Welfare: The Relative Importance of Pig Castration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallas, Z.; Gil, J.M.; Panella-Riera, N.; Blanch, M.; Tacken, G.M.L.; Chevillon, P.; Roest, de K.; Oliver, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare is becoming one of the most contentious issues in animal husbandry and meat production industries. We assess the relative importance of animal welfare, with respect to pig castration and the avoidance of boar taint, alongside different attributes of pork meat, amongst consumers in six

  20. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    ... that the separately ruled Taiwan is a part of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Taiwan President Ma Ying-jeou, elected on March 22, 2008, in a surprisingly broad electoral victory, has moved quickly to repair Taiwan's relations with the PRC...

  1. Assessment of health impacts and policy options in relation to transport noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staatsen BAM; Nijland HA; van Kempem EMM; de Hollander AEM; Franssen AEM; van Kamp I; MGO

    2004-01-01

    This paper has been drafted within the framework of a joint international project (Austria, France, Malta, Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands). The aim of this project is to describe the state of the art on transport related health impacts, highlight (if possible) costs and benefits, identify

  2. Post-cold war international relations and foreign policies in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that international relations in Africa have changed especially in content since the abatement of the Cold War. These changes have been accelerated by the pressures unleashed by the international environment, including the reality of Africa's marginalisation and the forces of globalisation. These, along ...

  3. Cross-National Perspectiveson Intergenerational Family Relations: The Influence of Public Policy Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFocusing mostly on Europe,this overview reveals how the research on cross-national differences in intergenerational family relations has movedfrombasic descriptions to a focus on understanding how support exchanges are shaped by macro-level processes.A key issue concerns generational

  4. Road traffic related mortality in Vietnam: Evidence for policy from a national sample mortality surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Anh D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies till date. This paper presents characteristics, user type pattern, seasonal distribution, and causes of 1,061 deaths attributable to road crashes ascertained from a national sample mortality surveillance system in Vietnam over a two-year period (2008 and 2009. Methods A sample mortality surveillance system was designed for Vietnam, comprising 192 communes in 16 provinces, accounting for approximately 3% of the Vietnamese population. Deaths were identified from commune level data sources, and followed up by verbal autopsy (VA based ascertainment of cause of death. Age-standardised mortality rates from RTIs were computed. VA questionnaires were analysed in depth to derive descriptive characteristics of RTI deaths in the sample. Results The age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were 33.5 and 8.5 per 100,000 for males and females respectively. Majority of deaths were males (79%. Seventy three percent of all deaths were aged from 15 to 49 years and 58% were motorcycle users. As high as 80% of deaths occurred on the day of injury, 42% occurred prior to arrival at hospital, and a further 29% occurred on-site. Direct causes of death were identified for 446 deaths (42% with head injuries being the most common cause attributable to road traffic injuries overall (79% and to motorcycle crashes in particular (78%. Conclusion The VA method can provide a useful data source to analyse RTI mortality. The observed considerable mortality from head injuries among motorcycle users highlights the need to evaluate current practice and effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use in Vietnam. The high number of

  5. Relative importance of social factors, conspecific density, and forest structure on space use by the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker: A new consideration for habitat restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, James E. [Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; Moorman, Christopher E. [Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; Peterson, M. Nils [Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; Kilgo, John C. [Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, South Carolina, USA

    2018-03-14

    Understanding how the interplay between social behaviors and habitat structure influences space use is important for conservation of birds in restored habitat. We integrated fine-grained LiDAR-derived habitat data, spatial distribution of cavity trees, and spatially explicit behavioral observations in a multi-scale model to determine the relative importance of conspecific density, intraspecific interactions, and the distribution of cavities on space use by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) on 2 sites in South Carolina, USA. We evaluated candidate models using information theoretic methods. Top scale-specific models included effects of conspecific density and number of cavity tree starts within 200 m of Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging locations, and effects of the number of intraspecific interactions within 400 m of Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging locations. The top multi-scale model for 22 of 34 Red-cockaded Woodpecker groups included covariates for the number of groups within 200 m of foraging locations and LiDARderived habitat with moderate densities of large pines (Pinus spp.) and minimal hardwood overstory. These results indicate distribution of neighboring groups was the most important predictor of space use once a minimal set of structural habitat thresholds was reached, and that placing recruitment clusters as little as 400 m from foraging partitions of neighboring groups may promote establishment of new breeding groups in unoccupied habitat. The presence of neighboring groups likely provides cues to foraging Red-cockaded Woodpeckers that facilitate prospecting prior to juvenile dispersal and, to a lesser extent, indicates high-quality forage resources. Careful consideration of local distribution of neighboring groups in potential habitat may improve managers’ ability to increase Red-cockaded Woodpecker density on restored landscapes and mitigate isolation of Red-cockaded Woodpecker groups, a problem that negatively affects fitness across the

  6. Information and Communications Technologies Health Projects in Panama: A Systematic Review and their Relation with Public Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gema Anabel Castillo; Berbey, Aranzazu; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a review about Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) health projects in Panama. The main contribution is to provide a vision of the situation in Panama, allowing an understanding of the dynamics of health policies and how they have affected the implementation of ICT's Projects to improve the health of Panamanians. We analyze the projects found with ICT's in health of Panama, which allow us to see a perspective of projects information is obtained from 2000 to 2016, however it is important to highlight that there may be other projects that we do not know because we did not find enough information or evidence of the same. That is why this review has interviews with key personnel, who have guided us with the search for information. 56% of technology projects are concentrated in the capital city and only 16% in the province of Chiriquí. 64% of these projects are focused on the development of information systems, mainly focused on electronic patient registration. And 60% refers to projects related to primary health care. The MINSA and CSS both with a 20% participation in ICT project, in addition we can notice the dispersion of projects for hospitals, where each one is developing programs per their needs or priorities. The national information about ICT projects of Health, it has been notorious the state of dispersion and segmented of public health information. We consider that it is a natural consequence of Policy in Panamanian Health System. This situation limits the information retrieval and knowledge of ICT in Health of Panama. To stakeholders, this information is directed so that health policies are designed towards a more effective and integral management, administering the ICT's as tools for the well-being of most the Panamanian population, including indigenous group.

  7. Attutude-action consistency and social policy related to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.; Greene, M.

    1980-06-01

    This study reports the results of a further analysis of questionnaire data--parts of which have been previously reported by Lindell, Earle, Hebert and Perry (1978)--that are related to the issue of consistency of attitudes and behavior toward nuclear power and nuclear waste management. Three factors are considered that might be expected to have a significant bearing on attitude-action consistency: social support, attitude object importance and past activism. Analysis of the data indicated that pronuclear respondents were more likely to show consistency of attitudes and actions (66%) than were antinuclear respondents (51%) although the difference in proportions is not statistically significant. Further analyses showed a strong positive relation between attitude-action consistency and perceived social support, measured by the degree to which the respondent believed that close friends and work associated agreed with his attitude. This relationship held up even when controls for attitude object importance and past activism were introduced. Attitude object importance--the salience of the issue of energy shortage--had a statistically significant effect only when perceived social support was low. Past activism had no significant relation to attitude-action consistency. These data suggest that the level of active support for or opposition to nuclear technology will be affected by the distribution of favorable and unfavorable attitudes among residents of an area. Situations in which pro- and antinuclear attitudes are concentrated among members of interacting groups, rather than distributed randomly, are more likely to produce high levels of polarization

  8. Pricing Policy and the College Choice Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Randall G.

    1979-01-01

    A marketing management paradigm for academe is discussed along with aspects of the pricing policy process. The two most important factors affecting the college choice process are shown to be college quality and price-related considerations. Implications for marketing are discussed. (Author/LBH)

  9. Political Dialogue As The Basis Of Foreign Policy: A Case Study Of Modern Russian-German Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zaytseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available His article deals with political dialogue as the basis of the progressive development of interstate cooperation and one of the few ways to diminish interstate tensions without use of military force. With the growing list of new threats and challenges it is very important to work out an effective mechanism of interstate cooperation and to use it in foreign policy. Political dialogue helps to form the basis for cooperation between states to ensure the security, political and socio-economic stability of countries. Moreover, the political dialogue in its various forms is no longer a seldom-used private practice. It is the "all-encompassing reality" now the study of which is necessary for understanding of the social, economic, and humanitarian phenomena in the international relations. The author analyzes principles, functions, rules of constructive interstate dialogue, reflects the conditions of the development of a true political dialogue and reveals the situation of its "stylization" The provisions presented in this article are presented from the viewpoint of practical use in the development of a constructive foreign policy. At the same time the author points to their philosophical basis, identifies regularities and characteristics from the standpoint of philosophical knowledge. As a practical demonstration of carrying on the political dialogue the article presents a brief description of Russian-German political relations at the present stage. Bilateral relations between these two countries, based on the rich history, consilience of main positions in resolving of international problems, largely reflect the basic terms and principles of a competent political dialogue.

  10. Refugee Policy Implications of U.S. Immigration Medical Screenings: A New Era of Inadmissibility on Health-Related Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mi-Kyung; Varghese, Reshma E; Jindal, Charulata; Efird, Jimmy T

    2017-09-24

    Refugees frequently face extended delays in their efforts to enter the United States (U.S.) and those who are successful, in many cases, encounter overwhelming obstacles, inadequate resources, and a complex system of legal barriers. Travel restrictions based on equivocal health concerns and a drop in refugee admittance ceilings have complicated the situation. The authors retrieved and analyzed peer-reviewed journal articles, government agency press releases, media postings, epidemiologic factsheets, and relevant lay publications to critically assess U.S. policy regarding refugee resettlement based on health-related grounds. While refugees arguably exhibit an increased incidence of measles and tuberculosis compared with the U.S. population, the legitimacy of the medical examination will be undermined if other diseases that are endemic to refugee populations, yet currently deemed admissible, are used to restrict refugees from entering the U.S. This paper addressees the historic refugee policy of the U.S. and its consequent effect on the health of this vulnerable population. The needs of refugees should be carefully considered in the context of increased disease burden and the associated health care challenges of the country as a whole.

  11. The relative impact of climate change mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity - An integrated assessment modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J. A.; Clarke, L. E.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Chaturvedi, V.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Kim, S.; Calvin, K. V.; Moss, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the relative effects of climate emission mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally, by estimating both water availability and demand within a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). We first develop a global gridded monthly hydrologic model that reproduces historical streamflow observations and simulates the future availability of freshwater under both a changing climate and an evolving landscape, and incorporate this model into GCAM. We then develop and incorporate technologically oriented representations of water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. To perform the water scarcity analysis at the grid scale, the global water demands for the six demand sectors are spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. The water scarcity index (WSI) compares total water demand to the total amount of renewable water available, and defines extreme water scarcity in any region as demand greater than 40% of total water availability. Using a reference scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 by 2095 and a global population of 14 billion, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demands for water exceed the total

  12. Optimal replacement policy for safety-related multi-component multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ming; Chen Tao; Yang Xianhui

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates replacement scheduling for non-repairable safety-related systems (SRS) with multiple components and states. The aim is to determine the cost-minimizing time for replacing SRS while meeting the required safety. Traditionally, such scheduling decisions are made without considering the interaction between the SRS and the production system under protection, the interaction being essential to formulate the expected cost to be minimized. In this paper, the SRS is represented by a non-homogeneous continuous time Markov model, and its state distribution is evaluated with the aid of the universal generating function. Moreover, a structure function of SRS with recursive property is developed to evaluate the state distribution efficiently. These methods form the basis to derive an explicit expression of the expected system cost per unit time, and to determine the optimal time to replace the SRS. The proposed methodology is demonstrated through an illustrative example.

  13. Science Policies as principal-agent games; Institutionalization and path dependency in the relation between government and science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Barend

    1998-01-01

    National science policies seem to converge in policing the double-edged problem of how to get policy and industry interested in the conduct of science and how to get science interested in the problems of policy and industry. However, similarity in the labels of institutes and instruments for science

  14. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J Dean

    Full Text Available Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172. Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15. Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  15. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Angela J; Fielding, Kelly S; Newton, Fiona J

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  16. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  17. Food Service Guideline Policies on State Government-Controlled Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaganjor, Hatidza; Bishop Kendrick, Katherine; Warnock, Amy Lowry; Onufrak, Stephen; Whitsel, Laurie P; Ralston Aoki, Julie; Kimmons, Joel

    2016-09-13

    Food service guideline (FSG) policies can impact millions of daily meals sold or provided to government employees, patrons, and institutionalized persons. This study describes a classification tool to assess FSG policy attributes and uses it to rate FSG policies. Quantitative content analysis. State government facilities in the United States. Participants were from 50 states and District of Columbia in the United States. Frequency of FSG policies and percentage alignment to tool. State-level policies were identified using legal research databases to assess bills, statutes, regulations, and executive orders proposed or adopted by December 31, 2014. Full-text reviews were conducted to determine inclusion. Included policies were analyzed to assess attributes related to nutrition, behavioral supports, and implementation guidance. A total of 31 policies met the inclusion criteria; 15 were adopted. Overall alignment ranged from 0% to 86%, and only 10 policies aligned with a majority of the FSG policy attributes. Western states had the most FSG policies proposed or adopted (11 policies). The greatest number of FSG policies were proposed or adopted (8 policies) in 2011, followed by the years 2013 and 2014. The FSG policies proposed or adopted through 2014 that intended to improve the food and beverage environment on state government property vary considerably in their content. This analysis offers baseline data on the FSG landscape and information for future FSG policy assessments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Food Service Guideline Policies on State Government Controlled Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaganjor, Hatidza; Bishop Kendrick, Katherine; Warnock, Amy Lowry; Onufrak, Stephen; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Ralston Aoki, Julie; Kimmons, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Food service guidelines (FSG) policies can impact millions of daily meals sold or provided to government employees, patrons, and institutionalized persons. This study describes a classification tool to assess FSG policy attributes and uses it to rate FSG policies. Design Quantitative content analysis. Setting State government facilities in the U.S. Subjects 50 states and District of Columbia. Measures Frequency of FSG policies and percent alignment to tool. Analysis State-level policies were identified using legal research databases to assess bills, statutes, regulations, and executive orders proposed or adopted by December 31, 2014. Full-text reviews were conducted to determine inclusion. Included policies were analyzed to assess attributes related to nutrition, behavioral supports, and implementation guidance. Results A total of 31 policies met inclusion criteria; 15 were adopted. Overall alignment ranged from 0% to 86%, and only 10 policies aligned with a majority of FSG policy attributes. Western States had the most FSG policy proposed or adopted (11 policies). The greatest number of FSG policies were proposed or adopted (8 policies) in 2011, followed by the years 2013 and 2014. Conclusion FSG policies proposed or adopted through 2014 that intended to improve the food and beverage environment on state government property vary considerably in their content. This analysis offers baseline data on the FSG landscape and information for future FSG policy assessments. PMID:27630113

  19. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How to Set up Economic Relations in the Energy Market for the Realization of Climate Preservation Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G. et al.

    2014-01-01

    The simplest, easiest and the most efficient way to integrate climate preservation policy cost into the energy price is by introduction of dedicated tax or CO2 charge as an unique measure for all fossil fuel energy buyers. The above stated implies abolishment of all existing financial resource collecting forms for particular climate policy measures and establishment of only one source from which all measures, like CO2 emission reduction, renewable energy sources, energy efficiency, technology development as well as education, would be financed. In order to implement the new model as efficiently as possible, with a minimal increase in an administration, the solution should be sought in existing models, procedures and relations. Possible solutions are, firstly, to take only a part of or the whole VAT costs from the Fund which would manage financial funds of dedicated tax or CO2 charge. By this, subsidy can be up to 25 percent with no influence on state budget. Second possibility is an introduction of special premium for the ongoing projects, i.e. where the needed subsidy is greater than 25 percent or credit financing support through business banks or contractor. he new system needs to avoid any form of privileges and should preserve the energy market as a base relation in the energy sector. The energy efficiency goals should be prescribed on the highest level for all the new projects. This is particularly important for buildings where it is necessary to legally define insulation as well as energy efficiency standards. Furthermore, for all appliances and facilities it is necessary to determine quality standards and to decommission those that do not fulfil energy efficiency minimum. In the transport sector it is of high importance to decrease average age of used cars and in parallel deploy as efficient cars as possible. A part of measures can be restrictive through withdrawing from traffic due to age and the amount of CO2 emissions, while the second part of measures