WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy change efforts

  1. Upending the social ecological model to guide health promotion efforts toward policy and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Green, Lawrence W; Earp, Jo Anne L; Lieberman, Lisa D

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to change policies and the environments in which people live, work, and play have gained increasing attention over the past several decades. Yet health promotion frameworks that illustrate the complex processes that produce health-enhancing structural changes are limited. Building on the experiences of health educators, community activists, and community-based researchers described in this supplement and elsewhere, as well as several political, social, and behavioral science theories, we propose a new framework to organize our thinking about producing policy, environmental, and other structural changes. We build on the social ecological model, a framework widely employed in public health research and practice, by turning it inside out, placing health-related and other social policies and environments at the center, and conceptualizing the ways in which individuals, their social networks, and organized groups produce a community context that fosters healthy policy and environmental development. We conclude by describing how health promotion practitioners and researchers can foster structural change by (1) conveying the health and social relevance of policy and environmental change initiatives, (2) building partnerships to support them, and (3) promoting more equitable distributions of the resources necessary for people to meet their daily needs, control their lives, and freely participate in the public sphere. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Changing policy and practice in the child welfare system through collaborative efforts to identify and respond effectively to family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Duren; Landsverk, John; Wang, Kathleen

    2008-07-01

    The Greenbook provides a roadmap for child welfare agencies to collaborate and provide effective responses to families who are experiencing co-occurring child maltreatment and domestic violence. A multisite developmental evaluation was conducted of six demonstration sites that received federal funding to implement Greenbook recommendations for child welfare agencies. Surveys of child welfare caseworkers show significant changes in several areas of agency policy and practice, including regular domestic violence training, written guidelines for reporting domestic violence, and working closely and sharing resources with local domestic violence service providers. Case file reviews show significant increases in the level of active screening for domestic violence, although this increase peaks at the midpoint of the initiative. These findings, coupled with on-site interview data, point to the importance of coordinating system change activities in child welfare agencies with a number of other collaborative activities.

  3. The fallacies of concurrent climate policy efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetzki, Marian

    2010-05-01

    Climate policy has assumed an extreme degree of urgency in the international debate in recent years. This article begins by taking a critical look at the scientific underpinnings of the efforts to stabilize the climate. It points to several serious question marks on the purported relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and expresses distrust about claims of impending catastrophes related to rising sea levels, hurricanes, and spread of infectious disease. It then reviews the concurrent climate policy efforts and concludes that they are incoherent, misguided and unduly costly, and that they have so far had no perceptible impact on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The exceedingly ambitious policy plans currently under preparation suffer from similar fallacies. For these reasons, but also because of the remaining scientific doubts and the exorbitant costs that have to be incurred, skepticism is expressed about the preparedness to implement the climate policy plans currently on the table.

  4. Using research to change public policy: reflections on 20 years of effort to eliminate corporal punishment in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, I A

    1996-10-01

    In the past 20 years, over half of the states have abolished corporal punishment in schools. Without the use of ethically questionable, experimental studies in which students were randomly assigned to paddlings, advocacy researchers were able to integrate the literature and experimental research on reward, punishment, and motivation, and conduct enough studies to provide sufficient data for policy changes. Further, every popular school discipline training program promotes well-proven positive and preventive techniques and punishments that do not inflict physical pain. Research on alternatives, naturalistic evidence from schools that eliminated corporal punishment, and survey research prove that schools do not need to use corporal punishment. The movement to eliminate parental spanking is at a stage similar to the beginning of the school corporal punishment debate in 1976. Even though some studies may show that moderate parental spanking may do no short-term harm, there is little scientific evidence that it is necessary. There are no data to indicate that schools which eliminated corporal punishment became any worse. The same demographic factors and political polarizations that have kept about half of American school children from the protections against paddling afforded students in almost all other Western democracies also impede the movement to eliminate parental spanking. Since we know that corporal punishment too often leads to excesses, and since we have a multitude of effective positive approaches, what is the worst thing that would happen if all Americans stopped hitting children in any setting? The same children who are hit for misbehavior would continue that misbehavior and other ineffective punishments would be used. Most parents and teachers would discover what behavioral scientists already know. A combination of reward, positive motivational techniques and appropriate, nonphysical punishments would prevent most misbehavior. Other factors being equal, in

  5. Policies and Programmatic Efforts Pertaining to Fatherhood: Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Bellotti, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    The articles in this section focus attention on (1) the historical shift in policies that affect the young men of this nation (2) how fatherhood policies and programmatic efforts are expanding and (3) how fatherhood practices and policies could and perhaps should be expanded and elaborated further. These efforts are linked to a growing body of…

  6. Changing premises -- changing policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    The assumption that cleanup is necessary at all leaking UST sites is being questioned. The concept of natural attenuation coupled with natural biological degradation is the basis for challenging the assumed necessity of cleanup. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that natural attenuation and degradation of petroleum occur over time. These studies suggest that the processes of attenuation and degradation occur at all petroleum release sites, to varying degrees, once the actual leak is stopped. Because attenuation and degradation occur, it is asserted that cleanup of petroleum contamination is not necessary if the risk of exposure to the remaining contamination is low. The question of ''how clean is clean?'', based on the assumption that cleanup is necessary at all sites, then changes to ''is cleanup necessary at this site?'' The starting assumption becomes ''cleanup may not be necessary if risk is low.'' Public acceptance of leaving contamination in place appears to be increasing. Common criticisms, such as real estate/property values, prevention incentives, and ground water as resource issues are addressed. Also offered is a suggested framework for future policy decisions focusing on the appropriate amount of information necessary to close a leaksite

  7. Climate change policy position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) is a firm believer in the need to take action to mitigate the risks associated with climate change, and that clear government policy is called for. The principles of sustainable development must guide this policy development effort. The initiatives required to address greenhouse gas emissions over both the short and long term must be carefully considered, and it is up to industries to ensure their production efficiency and emission intensity. Promoting improved performance of industries in Canada and developing technology that can be deployed internationally for larger global effects represents Canada's best contribution to progress on greenhouse gas emissions. The increase in energy demand along with increases in population and economic growth have contributed to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions despite improved energy efficiency in industry. Significant damage to the economy will result if Canada is to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol, forcing the country to buy large quantities of foreign credits instead of using those funds for increased research and development. CAPP indicated that an effective plan must be: balanced, equitable, responsible, competitive, focused on technology and innovation, and based on agreements on sectoral plans. Each of these principles were discussed, followed by the fundamentals of approach for upstream oil and gas. The framework for climate change policy was described as well as the elements of a sector plan. CAPP wants to work with all levels of government on an appropriate plan for Canada, that considers our unique circumstances. Canada can play a significant role on the international stage by properly implementing the policy position proposed by the CAPP without unnecessary risks to the economy. refs

  8. Selected international efforts to address climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, M.; Christ, R. [Atmosphere Unit, United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1995-12-31

    Over the past two decades, concern about human-induced climate change has become an increasingly important item on the environmental and political agenda. The signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the adoption of Agenda 21 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 provided international organizations and the nations of the world with a new focus for climate-related activities. Although there remains considerable scientific uncertainty about the extent, magnitude, and rate of climate change and the impacts of such change, actions to address climate change have been initiated both internationally and nationally. Major international activities include the World Climate Programme, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. and the United Nations Environment Program me. 16 refs.

  9. Changing closed agricultural policy communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic examples of closed policy communities facing pressure to open up. However, attempts to change them are slowly moving forward. The dialogues on Common Agricultural Policy reforms in which the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture is engaged with a range of

  10. Uncertainty and climate change policy

    OpenAIRE

    Quiggin, John

    2008-01-01

    The paper consists of a summary of the main sources of uncertainty about climate change, and a discussion of the major implications for economic analysis and the formulation of climate policy. Uncertainty typically implies that the optimal policy is more risk-averse than otherwise, and therefore enhances the case for action to mitigate climate change.

  11. Manage changes in the requirements definition through a collaborative effort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph-Malherbe, S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Updating or changing the requirements statement during the systems engineering process may impact adversely on project parameters such as sequence, dependencies, effort, and duration of tasks, usually with an increase in development time and cost...

  12. A Systemic Perspective on Innovation from Energy Efficiency Policy efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    the subject of much research in the innovation studies field, where most attention is given towards energy supply technologies and energy end-use technologies tend to be left in the dark. This thesis applies different qualitative and quantitative research methods to analyse how actors are collaborating...... on innovation activities within energy efficiency. It furthermore investigates the long and complex process of innovation activities in energy efficiency with attention to the co-evolutionary dynamics of technology development, policy and market transformation. The findings cover different aspects...... of the research topic. At the cross-sectoral level it contributes with insights into the collaborative RD&D activities in energy efficiency and how the structure of these development activities has an impact on the innovation output of the RD&D projects. It furthermore identifies the driving forces of energy...

  13. Targeting women or transforming institutions? Policy lessons from NGO anti-poverty efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeer, N

    1995-05-01

    Some research has found that the extent of gender-based discrimination in market-based institutions and unfair advantages within domestic and market institutions meant women were less successful in translating education and work into income and purchasing power. Anti-poverty programs functioned without specifically addressing the implications for women and children. Women-in-development efforts attempted to compensate for prior deficiencies by promotion of income generation schemes for women. In this article, the suggestion is made for policy makers to design projects with goals, objectives, and strategies that are clear, consistent, and well-informed about gender. Efforts should be made to avoid debates about women-only versus integrated projects. The experiences of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the South Asian context offer lessons in good policy efforts to address all forms of marginalization. The definition of women's needs must be provided by women themselves; openness and flexibility are recommended. Participatory approaches serve the aims of needs identification, involvement in democratic processes, and awareness of constraints on women's use of resources. In credit lending, constraints were overcome by compensating for the absence of material collateral, guaranteeing physical access, simplifying procedures, and subsidizing access rather than interest rates. Underlying structural conditions that reinforce inequalities by gender are in need of change. Empowerment of women would assure that marginalization would not occur.

  14. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Soimakallio, Sampo; Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2010-01-01

    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either -10% or -50% from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system.

  15. Policy stability and democratic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular illustrates a situation in which a critical policy issue permits direct comparison of decision making across regime change, that being from the Franco dictatorship to the present liberal democracy. Energy policy in Spain is revealing not only because the Spanish state plays a central role in this fundamental economic area but also because the first PEN was caught up in the politics of the transition; it was written in 1977 but not approved by the Cortes until 1979, and its revision was published in early 1982.

  16. Venue Shifts and Policy Change in EU Fisheries Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, S.B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/176587799

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades profound changes have taken place in the European Union's (EU) fisheries policy. Partly these changes have occurred within the EU's Common Fisheries Policy itself, but partly policy change has been effected by the application of environmental legislation and policy

  17. Trenchant Remedying: Directional Disturbing of Organizational Change Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Green

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organisational change theory has a historic bias towards personal resistance and individuals adopting a passive or negative perspective to change initiatives. Perpetuating this view change literature presents management approaches to assist in overcoming resistance, which have shown negligible evolution beyond the view that individual involvement and participation, together with effective communication, provide assistance. This paper challenges this assumption by providing inspiration via a contrary conceptual approach to organisational change; proposing an antithesis to traditional change management solutions and contributes to the role of communication within the process of change management. Grounded theory is the methodology used, which enables the data to provide the concepts and connections required in the construction of the theory. This requires a no preconceptions dictum to enable the generation of theory, not verification of a previous theory or hypothesis. Trenchant remedying is the grounded theory generated from data and conceptualises the concern resolving behaviours undertaken during the change receptivity process. During analysis it became evident that vigour and effort were expended and a solution sought as a remedy, hence the naming of the core category. Keywords: change receptivity, change initiation, alertness, disruption, effort

  18. Motor effort alters changes of mind in sensorimotor decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Burk

    Full Text Available After committing to an action, a decision-maker can change their mind to revise the action. Such changes of mind can even occur when the stream of information that led to the action is curtailed at movement onset. This is explained by the time delays in sensory processing and motor planning which lead to a component at the end of the sensory stream that can only be processed after initiation. Such post-initiation processing can explain the pattern of changes of mind by asserting an accumulation of additional evidence to a criterion level, termed change-of-mind bound. Here we test the hypothesis that physical effort associated with the movement required to change one's mind affects the level of the change-of-mind bound and the time for post-initiation deliberation. We varied the effort required to change from one choice target to another in a reaching movement by varying the geometry of the choice targets or by applying a force field between the targets. We show that there is a reduction in the frequency of change of mind when the separation of the choice targets would require a larger excursion of the hand from the initial to the opposite choice. The reduction is best explained by an increase in the evidence required for changes of mind and a reduced time period of integration after the initial decision. Thus the criteria to revise an initial choice is sensitive to energetic costs.

  19. Endogenous Monetary Policy Regime Change

    OpenAIRE

    Troy Davig; Eric M. Leeper

    2006-01-01

    This paper makes changes in monetary policy rules (or regimes) endogenous. Changes are triggered when certain endogenous variables cross specified thresholds. Rational expectations equilibria are examined in three models of threshold switching to illustrate that (i) expectations formation effects generated by the possibility of regime change can be quantitatively important; (ii) symmetric shocks can have asymmetric effects; (iii) endogenous switching is a natural way to formally model preempt...

  20. Charter School Discipline: Examples of Policies and School Climate Efforts from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Nora; Kim, Suzie

    2016-01-01

    Students need a safe and supportive school environment to maximize their academic and social-emotional learning potential. A school's discipline policies and practices directly impact school climate and student achievement. Together, discipline policies and positive school climate efforts can reinforce behavioral expectations and ensure student…

  1. Changing reproductive effort within a semelparous reproductive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P William; Simons, Andrew M

    2014-08-01

    • Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction for iteroparous organisms-as individuals age, the expected value of future reproduction declines, and thus reproductive effort is expected to be higher in later clutches than in earlier. In contrast, models explaining the evolution of semelparity treat semelparous reproduction as instantaneous, with no scope for intraindividual variation. However, semelparous reproduction is also extended, but over shorter time scales; whether there are similar age- or stage-specific changes in reproductive effort within a semelparous episode is unclear. In this study, we assessed whether semelparous individuals increase reproductive effort as residual reproductive value declines by comparing the reproductive phenotype of flowers at five different floral positions along a main inflorescence.• Using the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata, we conducted a longitudinal study of 409 individuals including both laboratory and field populations over three seasons. We recorded six reproductive traits-including the length of three phenological intervals as well as fruit size, seed size, and seed number-for all plants across floral positions produced throughout the reproductive episode.• We found that while the rate of flower initiation did not change, flowers at distal (late) floral positions developed more quickly and contained larger seed than flowers at basal (early) floral positions did.• Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that, like iteroparous organisms, L. inflata increases reproductive effort in response to low residual reproductive value. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  2. Audit mode change, corporate governance and audit effort

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Limei; Li, Wanfu; Zhang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the ri...

  3. Policy challenges for wildlife management in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Shaffer

    2014-01-01

    Try as it might, wildlife management cannot make wild living things adapt to climate change. Management can, however, make adaptation more or less likely. Given that policy is a rule set for action, policy will play a critical role in society’s efforts to help wildlife cope with the challenge of climate change. To be effective, policy must provide clear goals and be...

  4. On the Directionality and Maintenance of Language Policy in Revitalization Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clankie, Shawn M.

    This paper examines efforts to save rapidly declining indigenous languages around the world. The entire process of language preservation and revitalization is a massive undertaking that requires immense long-term planning and support. These problems extend well beyond the linguistic concerns of the language itself. Language policy is inherently…

  5. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  6. Economic Models as Devices of Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke

    2013-01-01

    Can the emergence of a new policy model be a catalyst for a paradigm shift in the overall interpretative framework of how economic policy is conducted within a society? This paper claims that models are understudied as devices used by actors to induce policy change. This paper explores the role...... the extent to which the performativity approach can help identify macroscopic changes in policy from seemingly microscopic changes in policy models. The concept of performativity is explored as a means of thinking about the constitution of agency directed at policy change. The paper brings this concept...

  7. Oceanic implications for climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben I.

    2006-01-01

    Under the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (1982), each participating country maintains exclusive economic and environmental rights within the oceanic region extending 200 nm from its territorial sea, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Although the ocean within each EEZ is undoubtedly an anthropogenic CO 2 sink, it has been over-looked within international climate policy. In this paper I use an area-weighted scaling argument to show that the inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink within national carbon accounts would have significant implications in tracking national greenhouse commitments to any future climate change policy initiative. The advantages and disadvantages for inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink into global climate change policy are also explored. The most compelling argument for including the EEZ CO 2 sink is that it would enhance the equity and resources among coastal nations to combat and adapt against future climate change that will inherently impact coastal nations more so than land locked nations. If included, the funds raised could be used for either monitoring or adaptive coastal infrastructure among the most vulnerable nations. On the other hand, the EEZ anthropogenic CO 2 sink cannot be directly controlled by human activities and could be used as a disincentive for some developed nations to reduce fossil-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. This may therefore dampen efforts to ultimately reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In consideration of these arguments it is therefore suggested that an 'EEZ clause' be added to Kyoto and any future international climate policy that explicitly excludes its use within national carbon accounts under these international climate frameworks

  8. Changing climate-protection policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodtli, M.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Baldur Eliasson, a Swiss member of the International Energy Agency's committee on greenhouse gas reduction. Swiss involvement in the programme is discussed and the main areas of attention are described. Scientific and political factors involved in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are discussed and various economic models for the implementation of measures examined. In particular, the co-operation between industry and politics that is necessary to achieve the goals set by the Kyoto protocol on climate change are discussed and participative development projects in China are described. The application of CO 2 -pricing and further economical steering instruments is examined and the influence of public opinion on policy is looked at

  9. Optimal pricing and promotional effort control policies for a new product growth in segmented market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation enables the marketers to understand and serve the customers more effectively thereby improving company’s competitive position. In this paper, we study the impact of price and promotion efforts on evolution of sales intensity in segmented market to obtain the optimal price and promotion effort policies. Evolution of sales rate for each segment is developed under the assumption that marketer may choose both differentiated as well as mass market promotion effort to influence the uncaptured market potential. An optimal control model is formulated and a solution method using Maximum Principle has been discussed. The model is extended to incorporate budget constraint. Model applicability is illustrated by a numerical example. P.C. Jha, P. Manik, K. Chaudhary, R. Cambini / Optimal Pricing and Promotional 2 Since the discrete time data is available, the formulated model is discretized. For solving the discrete model, differential evolution algorithm is used.

  10. How will climate change policy affect upstream oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyndman, R.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation outlined the status of climate change policies in Canada and Alberta for large industry with particular reference to the effect that the policies may have on upstream oil and gas. Global climate change and energy use was outlined along with what actions that should be taken to secure energy supplies and stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An economic model projection of global carbon dioxide emissions without the Kyoto agreement was presented. Global action on climate change will likely include greater efforts in energy efficiency to slow the growth in demand for energy. However, demand for oil and gas is still likely to increase in the next few decades due to a growing population worldwide. The author emphasized that developing countries should not forgo economic growth to avoid higher energy use. It was argued that Canadian climate change policies are out of line with the global climate change effort because they focus on short-term reductions rather than developing technologies. The policies also divert investment to competing suppliers that do not impose GHG costs, with no global GHG benefit. The author described why Alberta climate change policy rejects the Kyoto target. Natural Resource Canada's approach to large industrial emitters was also discussed along with a proposed policy framework by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) for long term certainty. 2 tabs., 12 figs

  11. Changing Landscapes in Documentation Efforts: Civil Society Documentation of Serious Human Rights Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne McGonigle Leyh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wittingly or unwittingly, civil society actors have long been faced with the task of documenting serious human rights violations. Thirty years ago, such efforts were largely organised by grassroots movements, often with little support or funding from international actors. Sharing information and best practices was difficult. Today that situation has significantly changed. The purpose of this article is to explore the changing landscape of civil society documentation of serious human rights violations, and what that means for standardising and professionalising documentation efforts. Using the recent Hisséne Habré case as an example, this article begins by looking at how civil society documentation can successfully influence an accountability process. Next, the article touches upon barriers that continue to impede greater documentation efforts. The article examines the changing landscape of documentation, focusing on technological changes and the rise of citizen journalism and unofficial investigations, using Syria as an example, as well as on the increasing support for documentation efforts both in Syria and worldwide. The changing landscape has resulted in the proliferation of international documentation initiatives aimed at providing local civil society actors guidelines and practical assistance on how to recognise, collect, manage, store and use information about serious human rights violations, as well as on how to minimise the risks associated with the documentation of human rights violations. The recent initiatives undertaken by international civil society, including those by the Public International Law & Policy Group, play an important role in helping to standardise and professionalise documentation work and promote the foundational principles of documentation, namely the ‘do no harm’ principle, and the principles of informed consent and confidentiality. Recognising the drawback that greater professionalisation may bring, it

  12. Global change research: Science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change

  13. Global change research: Science and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  14. Economic transition policies in Chinese resource-based cities: An overview of government efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huijuan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Resource-based cities in China have made momentous contributions to the development of the national economy for decades. However, with the depletion of natural resources, their sustainable development is challenging and transition is important. The Chinese government has made great efforts to help resource-based cities. The purpose of this study is to investigate transition policies and their implementation. Firstly, we reviewed previous studies and summarized the essential elements of some successful resource-based cities, which are useful experiences for Chinese resource-based cities. Secondly, we studied the development of resource-based cities over the past 10 years with a focus on economic development, industrial structure, government revenue and environmental conditions. We found that resource-based cities were less developed compared to other cities. The main reasons are the after-effects of a planned economy, an unreasonable tax system, planning mistakes and misguided resources exploitation policies. Thirdly, we analyzed several aspects of the policy responses after the introduction of transition policies, including designating 69 resource-exhausted cities, supporting cities with funds and projects, formulating transition plans and evaluating transition performance. However, there are some deficiencies in the process of policy implementation. Finally, some recommendations were provided to improve transition performance and sustainable development for resource-based cities. - Highlights: ► Analyze the development of Chinese resource-based cities from four aspects. ► Analyze the causes of less development in resource-based cities. ► Investigate policies and their responses to transformation. ► Provide recommendations to improve transformation performance and sustainable development

  15. From Tobacco to Obesity Prevention Policies: A Framework for Implementing Community-Driven Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lauren; Dumke, Kelly; Oliva, Ariana; Caesar, Emily; Phillips, Zoë; Lehman, Nathan; Aragon, Linda; Simon, Paul; Kuo, Tony

    2018-04-01

    Efforts to reverse the obesity epidemic require policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies. Despite the availability of evidence-based and other promising PSE interventions, limited evidence exists on the "how-to" of transitioning them into practice. For the past 13 years, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health has been building capacity among community residents and other stakeholders to create effective community coalitions and to implement well-designed policy strategy campaigns using an evidence-based approach to policy change, the policy adoption model (PAM). Implementing a phase-based approach to policy change, the PAM was initially used to support the passage of over 140 tobacco control and prevention policies in Los Angeles County. Following these successes, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health applied the PAM to obesity prevention, operationalizing the policy process by training community residents and other stakeholders on the use of the model. The PAM has shown to be helpful in promoting PSE change in tobacco control and obesity prevention, suggesting a local-level model potentially applicable to other fields of public health seeking sustainable, community-driven policy change.

  16. Climate Change: Integrating Science, Economics, and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakicenovic, N.; Nordhaus, W.D.; Richels, R.; Toth, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    This volume reports on the proceedings of the third international workshop on "Climate Change: Integrating Science, Economics, and Policy" held at IIASA in March 1996. Currently, it is widely recognized in both the analytical and policy communities that the complex issues surrounding the prospect of climate change and response measures and policies cannot be adequately assessed from the perspective of any single discipline in either the natural or social sciences, and that these issues cannot...

  17. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Editor(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Publisher(s):. IDRC. January 1, 1999. ISBN: Out of print.

  18. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Directeur(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Maison(s) d'édition: IDRC. 1 janvier 1999. ISBN :.

  19. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  20. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism, and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposal, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU’s legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space allows for greater policy change.......This paper studies how institutional constraints affect legislative activism, and how legislative activism affects policy change, analyzing the case of the European Union’s legislative process. Our argument revolves around the key role of the Commission in advancing policy change, and emphasizes...... that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from 1984--‐2012, we find that the number of legislative proposals significantly affects the extent...

  1. Multilateral negotiations over climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Pinto, L.M.; Harrison, G.W. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Nucleo de Investigacao em Microeconomia Aplicada, Departmento de Economia

    2000-07-01

    Negotiations in the real world have many features that tend to be ignored in policy modelling. They are often multilateral, involving many negotiating parties with preferences over outcomes that can differ substantially. They are also often multi-dimensional, in the sense that several policies are negotiated over simultaneously. Trade negotiations are a prime example, as are negotiations over environmental policies to abate CO{sub 2}. The authors demonstrate how one can formally model this type of negotiation process. They use a policy-oriented computable general equilibrium model to generate preference functions which are then used in a formal multilateral bargaining game. The case study is on climate change policy, but the main contribution is to demonstrate how one can integrate formal economic models of the impacts of policies with formal bargaining models of the negotiations over those policies. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Climate Change Mitigation Policies and Global Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Zekarias; Golub, Alla A.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading environmental policy concerns of the 21st Century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, content and, most importantly, about the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One major contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. This paper provides quantitative evidence on t...

  3. Changing policies, changing patterns of care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Szebehely, Marta

    2012-01-01

    countries tax-funded home care is used across social groups but targeting of resources at the most needy in Sweden creates other inequalities: Older people with shorter education are left with no one to resort to but the family, whilst those with higher education purchase help from market providers......Despite pursuing the policy of ageing in place, the two Nordic countries of Denmark and Sweden have taken diverse roads in regard to the provision of formal, public tax-financed home care for older people. Whilst Sweden has cut down home care and targeted services for the most needy, Denmark has...

  4. Explaining drug policy: Towards an historical sociology of policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Toby

    2011-11-01

    The goal of seeking to understand the development over time of drug policies is a specific version of the more general intellectual project of finding ways of explaining social change. The latter has been a preoccupation of some of the greatest thinkers within the social sciences of the last 200 years, from Foucault all the way back to the three nineteenth-century pioneers, Marx, Durkheim and Weber. I describe this body of work as 'historical sociology'. In this paper, I outline how a particular approach to historical sociology can be fruitfully drawn upon to understand the development of drug policy, using by way of illustration the example of the analysis of a recent transformation in British drug policy: the rise of the criminal justice agenda. I conclude by arguing that by looking at developments in drug policy in this way, some new insights are opened up. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A global change policy for Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Alaska Science and Engineering Advisory Committee attempted to formulate a suitable state policy for global climate change. The main elements and rationale for this policy are described, along with lessons learned from the Montreal protocol on global ozone and the policy itself. A discussion of issues relating to public presentation and reaction to a climate change policy indicates that elements necessary for a strategy presenting a case for global change needs to be credible, simple, and unambiguous, with risks clearly defined. Society and business must see themselves as stakeholders in the issue, and policies must be formulated accordingly. The Montreal protocol provides an example of success in advanced planning on a major global issue. The six main components of the Alaskan policy relate to fossil fuel production and marketing, the economic mix of energy production for in-state use, the efficiency and effectiveness of energy end-use services, the impact of climatic change on Alaska as a geographic unit, Alaska as a high-latitude site for climate change monitoring and analysis, and Alaskan participation with other countries in research and policy development. 7 refs

  6. Air pollution may alter efforts to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, Noureddine

    2016-02-01

    Renewable energy, considered in the past as a mitigation option to climate change by reducing carbon emission, is now becoming a source of energy security and competing fossil fuels in many areas of the world. According to recent reports (e.g., IEA, IRENA, REN21), renewable energy has reached in 2014 a historical record of power generation capacity. With 1712 GW installed capacity in 2014, renewable energy represents 27.7% of the world's power generating capacity. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy, conversion of solar light to electricity through solar panels, has increased to reach 177 GW mostly due to the political engagement for the deployment of renewable through targeted programs and the decrease of PV panels prize in the market (roughly 80% decrease since 2008 according to IRENA's report). Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), reaching a total capacity of 4.4 GW in 2014 (REN21 Report), is also demonstrating a clear growth and progresses have been made with regards to the efficiency, the storage capacity and the cost. In order to reduce the energy consumption and carbon emissions, water solar heaters are being installed in the rooftop of households and a total capacity of 406 GW thermal was recorded in 2014 (REN21 Report).

  7. Legal and Ethical Concerns about Sexual Orientation Change Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tia; Stein, Edward

    2014-09-01

    The United States has recently made significant and positive civil rights gains for LGB people, including expanded recognition of marriages between people of the same sex. Among the central tropes that have emerged in the struggle for the rights of LGB people are that they are "born that way," that sexual orientations cannot change, and that one's sexual orientation is not affected by choice. Writer Andrew Sullivan put it this way: "[H]omosexuality is an essentially involuntary condition that can neither be denied nor permanently repressed.… [S]o long as homosexual adults as citizens insist on the involuntary nature of their condition, it becomes politically impossible to deny or ignore the fact of homosexuality.… [The strategy for obtaining LGB rights is to] seek full public equality for those who, through no fault of their own, happen to be homosexual." This idea of linking LGB rights to empirical claims about sexual orientations has become so central that casting doubt on these claims is, in many circles, tantamount to opposing LGB rights. Nonetheless, claims about innateness, immutability, and lack of choice about sexual orientation should not be the primary basis for LGB rights. © 2014 by The Hastings Center.

  8. National Energy Policy and Climate Change Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.; Mallant, R.K.A.M.; Van der Wart, R.; Muradin-Szweykowska, M.

    1992-06-01

    Climate change prevention has become one of the major concerns of environmental policy in the Netherlands. The Dutch government has set definite targets for CO 2 emissions in the coming decade. These targets and the measures necessary to reach them are described in the paper. In addition, the technical feasibility of realizing the Toronto objective of a 20% reduction in CO 2 emissions by the year 2005 in the Netherlands is discussed. It appears that energy conservation options are most crucial for the short-term, but that eventually new supply technologies are needed to obtain drastic reductions in the long term. The increased need for research and development efforts has led to two innovative research programmes on sustainable energy development in the Netherlands. The ENGINE (ENergy Generation In the Natural Environment) programme is implemented by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) and addresses the specific problems associated with the three major components of supply: cleanliness in the case of fossil fuels, safety in the case of nuclear energy, and costs in the case of renewable sources. The complementary SYRENE (SYstem integration of Renewable ENergy and End use) is implemented by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and Environment (NOVEM) and addresses the system aspects of sustainable energy development. The objectives and approaches of these two programmes are briefly presented. 1 fig., 1 tab., 4 refs

  9. Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, Larry; Blodgett, John

    2008-01-01

    The 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change requires that signatories, including the United States, establish policies for constraining future emission levels of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2). The George H. W...

  10. Examination of a Process Model of Adolescent Smoking Self-Change Efforts in Relation to Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Laura; Myers, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Little information describes how adolescents change their smoking behavior. This study investigated the role of gender in the relationship of motivation and cognitive variables with adolescent smoking self-change efforts. Self-report and semi-structured interview data from a prospective study of smoking self-change efforts were examined among 98…

  11. Smoking Policy Change Within Permanent Supportive Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Berit; Stewart, Holly C; Walters, Jon; Vijayaraghavan, Maya

    2018-04-01

    Smoke-free policies effectively reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smokers, and reduce consumption, encourage quit attempts, and minimize relapse to smoking among smokers. Such policies are uncommon in permanent supportive housing (PSH) for formerly homeless individuals. In this study, we collaborated with a PSH provider in San Diego, California to assess a smoke-free policy that restricted indoor smoking. Between August and November 2015, residents completed a pre-policy questionnaire on attitudes toward smoke-free policies and exposure to secondhand smoke, and then 7-9 months after policy implementation residents were re-surveyed. At follow-up, there was a 59.7% reduction in indoor smoking. The proportion of residents who identified as current smokers reduced by 13% (95% CI: -38, 10.2). The proportion of residents who reported never smelling SHS indoors (apartment 24.2%, 95% CI: 4.2, 44.1; shared areas 17.2%, 95% CI: 1.7, 32.7); in outdoor areas next to the living unit (porches or patio 56.7%, 95% CI: 40.7, 72.8); and in other outdoor areas (parking lot 28.6%, 95% CI: 8.3, 48.9) was lower post-policy compared with pre-policy. Overall, resident support increased by 18.7%; however, the greatest increase in support occurred among current smokers (from 14.8 to 37.5%). Fewer current smokers reported that the policy would enable cessation at post-policy compared to pre-policy. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of implementing smoke-free policies in PSH for formerly homeless adults. However, policy alone appears insufficient to trigger change in smoking behavior, highlighting the need for additional cessation resources to facilitate quitting.

  12. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of how institutional constraints affect legislative activism and how legislative activism in turn affects policy change through an analysis of the European Union's legislative process. The argument revolves around the key role of the European Commission in advancing...... policy change, and emphasises that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from the period 1984–2012, the article shows...... that the number of legislative proposals significantly affects the extent of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposals, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU's legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity...

  13. Bioenergy, Land Use Change and Climate Change Mitigation. Report for Policy Advisors and Policy Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goran [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Bird, Nell [Joanneum Research (Austria); Cowle, Annette [National Centre for Rural Greenhouse Gas Research (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The report addresses a much debated issue - bioenergy and associated land use change, and how the climate change mitigation from use of bioenergy can be influenced by greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change. The purpose of the report was to produce an unbiased, authoritative statement on this topic aimed especially at policy advisors and policy makers.

  14. Canada's climate change policy in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.

    2000-10-01

    Climate change has a wide range of implications for the health, well-being, and economic prospects for Canadians, and for the ecological systems that sustain life on this planet. The overwhelming scientific opinion, world leaders and even a growing number of corporate leaders now agree that the Earth is undergoing a significant and unusual warming period as a result of the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. There is also wide agreement that much of this build-up is anthropogenic, and that a global effort is required to slow this trend. Because climate change is a global problem, it requires global solutions by way of reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the Kyoto Agreement of 1997 constitutes a major breakthrough, even though it takes only a small step towards towards altering the human impact on global climate. Although some 80 states, plus the European Union signed the Kyoto Protocol, it remains unclear when it will come into force because the majority of states have failed to ratify it, pending the resolution of a variety of technical and operational details. Canada is the second highest emitter of greenhouse gases (16 tonnes per capita, compared to world average of 3.6 tonnes per capita). This, combined with Canada's foreign policy goals of playing a leading role in taking action and preserving its reputation as an honest broker, makes the challenge of meeting Canada's Kyoto commitments especially pressing. The purpose of this paper is to explain Canada's climate change policy in the context of these international and domestic pressures. The paper identifies the main climate change-related policy challenges, international responses to date and the constraints and opportunities open to Canada in the light of its economy, its federalist political structure, and place in the world as a middle power, as well as its geographic situation, natural resources and environmental endowment. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto

  15. Regulatory change and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2015-01-01

    Report submitted by a Working Group established by the Committee on the Global Financial System and the Markets Committee. The Group was chaired by Ulrich Bindseil (European Central Bank) and William R Nelson (Federal Reserve Board). Financial regulation is evolving, as policymakers seek to strengthen the financial system in order to make it more robust and resilient. Changes in the regulatory environment are likely to have an impact on financial system structure and on the behaviour of finan...

  16. Tourism policy, climate change and sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Metodijeski, Dejan; Temelkov, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    The subject of this paper is tourism policy, climate change and sustainable development. We consider climate change to be one of the biggest problems of modern living, and the tourism is one of the many sectors affected mainly through the changing faces of tourist destinations. After the climate change we observe reduced numbers of tourists in those tourist destinations. Tourism is the antithesis of bad weather and can be developed only in areas that are not affected by such conditions. For t...

  17. Climate change and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Kolshus, Hans H.; Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2000-08-01

    The climate issue is a great political and scientific challenge for several reasons: (1) There are many uncertain aspects of the climate problem, such as future emission of climate gases, the response of the climate system upon these gases, and the effects of climate changes. (2) It is probable, however, that anthropogenic emission of climate gases, deforestation etc. will cause noticeable climate changes in the future. This might be observed as increased frequency of extreme weather situations. This appears to be a greater threat than a gradual increase of temperature and precipitation. (3) Since the climate system is large and react only relatively slowly on changes in for instance the emission of climate gases, the climate problem can only be solved by means of long-term measures. (4) The climate changes may be irreversible. A rational short-term strategy is to ensure maximum flexibility, which can be done by ''slowing down'' (curtailing emissions) and by avoiding irreversible actions as much as possible. The long-term challenge is to develop an economically responsible alternative to the present fossil-based energy system that permits carbon-efficient technologies to compete on price with coal and unconventional oil and gas. Norway is in a special position by being a large exporter of fossil fuel and at the same time wanting to appear responsible in environmental matters. This combination may incur considerable expenses upon Norway and it is therefore important that environmental commitments like the Kyoto agreement can be honoured to the lowest possible cost. The costs can be minimized by: (1) minimizing the measure costs in Norway, (2) working to make the international quota price as low as possible, and (3) reducing the loss of petroleum income as much as possible. This report describes the earth's climate history, the forces behind climatic changes and what the prospects for the future look like. It also reviews what is being done to curtail the emission of

  18. Moving communities toward policy change: APPEAL's 4-prong policy change model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K; Lew, Rod

    2013-09-01

    Policy change is recognized for underlying much of the success of tobacco control. However, there is little evidence and attention on how Asian American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) communities may engage in policy change. Challenges for AA and NHPI communities include the racial/ethnic and geographic diversity, and tobacco data accurately representing the communities. Over the past decade, the Asian Pacific Partners for Empowerment, Advocacy and Leadership (APPEAL) has worked to develop and implement policy change for AA and NHPI communities. This article describes APPEAL's 4-prong policy change model, in the context of its overall strategic framework for policy change with communities that accounts for varying levels of readiness and leadership capacity, and targets four different levels of policy change (community, mainstream institution, legislative, and corporate). The health promotion implication of this framework for tobacco control policy engagement is for improving understanding of effective pathways to policy change, promoting innovative methods for policy analysis, and translating them into effective implementation and sustainability of policy initiatives. The APPEAL strategic framework can transcend into other communities and health topics that ultimately may contribute to the elimination of health disparities.

  19. Moving Communities Toward Policy Change: APPEAL’s 4-Prong Policy Change Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K.; Lew, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Policy change is recognized for underlying much of the success of tobacco control. However, there is little evidence and attention on how Asian American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) communities may engage in policy change. Challenges for AA and NHPI communities include the racial/ethnic and geographic diversity, and tobacco data accurately representing the communities. Over the past decade, the Asian Pacific Partners for Empowerment, Advocacy and Leadership (APPEAL) has worked to develop and implement policy change for AA and NHPI communities. This article describes APPEAL’s 4-prong policy change model, in the context of its overall strategic framework for policy change with communities that accounts for varying levels of readiness and leadership capacity, and targets four different levels of policy change (community, mainstream institution, legislative, and corporate). The health promotion implication of this framework for tobacco control policy engagement is for improving understanding of effective pathways to policy change, promoting innovative methods for policy analysis, and translating them into effective implementation and sustainability of policy initiatives. The APPEAL strategic framework can transcend into other communities and health topics that ultimately may contribute to the elimination of health disparities. PMID:23707962

  20. A history of international climate change policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of international climate change policy over the last 30 years, divided into five periods. It examines the pre-1990 period, the period leading up to the adoption of the Climate Change Convention, the period of the Kyoto Protocol until US withdrawal,

  1. The pathways of high school science teachers and policy efforts to alter the pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Tim

    2012-03-01

    There is currently much interest in improving the quality of science education in K-12 schools and encouraging more students, particularly minorities and women, to pursue careers in STEM fields. Two interrelated issues are at the forefront: the quality of science teachers and the supply of science teachers. Education research in general finds that the single most important school-based factor affecting student achievement is teacher quality. While there is little evidence that teacher credentials matter for student achievement in the lower grades, there is at least some evidence that content knowledge is an important determinant of teacher quality in middle and secondary schools. However, little is known about the pre-service preparation of high school science teachers and how the training of science teachers affects their performance in the classroom. While there are many efforts underway to increase the supply of science teachers, little is known about the supply of science teachers from different pathways and the factors that lead science teachers to leave the profession. In this presentation I discuss recent work on the supply of teachers from alternative pathways, focusing on high school science teachers. I also summarize the literature on teacher quality and attrition, emphasizing the current state of knowledge on secondary school teachers. Finally, I present current policy initiatives and discuss the likelihood of their success given current research findings.

  2. Climate Change and Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason A; Vargo, Jason; Hoverter, Sara Pollock

    2017-03-01

    Climate change poses real and immediate impacts to the public health of populations around the globe. Adverse impacts are expected to continue throughout the century. Emphasizing co-benefits of climate action for health, combining adaptation and mitigation efforts, and increasing interagency coordination can effectively address both public health and climate change challenges.

  3. One State's Systems Change Efforts to Reduce Child Care Expulsion: Taking the Pyramid Model to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Megan; Strain, Phil; Davidon, Sarah; Smith, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the efforts funded by the state of Colorado to address unacceptably high rates of expulsion from child care. Based on the results of a 2006 survey, the state of Colorado launched two complementary policy initiatives in 2009 to impact expulsion rates and to improve the use of evidence-based practices related to challenging…

  4. Putting Climate Change Adaptation in the Development Mainstream. Policy Brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawala, S.; Paris, R.

    2005-03-01

    Climate change poses a serious challenge to social and economic development. Developing countries are particularly vulnerable because their economies are generally more dependent on climate-sensitive natural resources, and because they are less able to cope with the impacts of climate change. How development occurs has implications, in turn, for climate change and for the vulnerability of societies to its impacts. Climate change adaptation needs to be brought into the mainstream of economic policies, development projects, and international aid efforts. Considerable analytical work has been done on how development can be made climate-friendly in terms of helping reduce greenhouse gas emissions which cause climate change, although implementation remains a challenge. Much less attention has been paid to how development can be made more resilient to the impacts of climate change. In a narrow engineering sense, this could involve taking climate changes into account in the siting and design of bridges and other infrastructure. At a policy level, it could involve considering the implications of climate change on a variety of development activities including poverty reduction, sectoral development, and natural resource management. Bridging the gap between the climate change adaptation and development communities, however, is not easy. The two communities have different priorities, often operate on different time and space scales, and do not necessarily 'speak the same language'. Specific information is therefore needed on the significance of climate change for development activities along with operational guidance on how best to adapt to its impacts, within the context of other pressing social priorities. This Policy Brief looks at how far current development policies and programmes are taking climate change risks into account, as well as at ways to improve the 'mainstreaming' of adaptation to climate change in development planning and assistance

  5. Changing health policy in the post-Mao era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampton, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    A shift away from Mao Zedong's concept of equality in the delivery of medical care is now taking place in The People's Republic of China. This change is evident in the emphasis now placed upon high technology, basic research, and hospital care. All of these changes are occurring against the backdrop of extremely scarce medical resources. Medicine seemingly is viewed as one of many material incentives to be provided high productivity and leadership groups; the "modernization" of medicine is seen as one visible manifestation of the success of the broader modernization effort itself. As well, population policy has become more stringent, with rewards being given to one-child families and sanctions being applied against couples having three or more children. Although these policy changes offer bright prospects for Sino-American cooperation in the biomedical field, foreigners must remain sensitive to the controversial nature of these alterations in the Chinese political setting. PMID:7245806

  6. Directed Technical Change and Climate Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, V.M.; Löschel, A.; Reilly, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the cost effectiveness of climate policy if there are technology externalities. For this purpose, we develop a forward-looking CGE model that captures empirical links between CO2 emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We find the

  7. Climate Change Science,Technology & Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Climate Change Science,Technology & Policy · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Millions at Risk from Parry et al., 2001 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Climate Change · Is the global warming in the 20th century due to the increase in radiation emitted by the sun? Frohlich C, Lean J. 1998; ...

  8. The United Nations and Climate Change: Legal and Policy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Isabella D.

    2009-07-01

    The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon, has declared that climate change is "the defining challenge of our times." Climate change trends indicate increasingly severe negative impacts on the majority of countries, with disproportionate effects on poor and vulnerable populations. The scientific reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as the negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), have placed the issue on the forefront of the international agenda. This article examines how climate change is shaping legal and policy developments in five key areas of UN responsibility: international law, humanitarian affairs, human rights, development, and peace and security. It concludes with some observations about high-level efforts to coordinate the response of multilateral institutions, the changing stance of the US government, and the role of environmental protection in addressing the current global economic crisis.

  9. Climate change policy instruments in a least regrets context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Bonney, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Spatial Planning and Environment

    1995-12-31

    The Dutch CO{sub 2} target - which was set down in the National Environmental Policy Plan Plus (NMP-plus) and sent to Parliament in 1990 - is to reduce emissions by 3 to 5 % in 2000 relative to 1989/1990. The second National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP-2), issued in December 1993, confirmed this target but also concluded that policies will have to be enhanced and additional measures taken in order to achieve it. The measures developed in NMP-plus assumed that real energy prices would rise substantially during the 1990`s. However, the prices are at their lowest level since the early 1970`s and official projections now assume that real energy prices will remain more or less constant between 1990 and 2000. Under these conditions, application of existing policy instruments will have to be intensified and additional policy instruments will have to be deployed in order to attain even the 3 % emission reduction target for CO{sub 2}. In December 1993 the Government`s second National Environmental Policy Plan and second Memorandum on Energy Conservation indicated how policy efforts in the area of climate change will be enhanced. Targets were set for improving energy efficiency in different sectors in the period 1989-2000: 23 % for households, 23 % for non-residential buildings, 19 % for industry, 26 % for agriculture, 10 % for transport and 26 % for power stations. The overall efficiency improvement (including renewables) will lead to energy consumption of 2865 PJ in 2000 (550 PJ less than what it would have been without the policy measures; slightly more than what it was in 1990). Energy efficiency (including renewables) will be responsible for roughly two thirds of the CO{sub 2} reduction needed, with the remainder coming from transport, recycling, reduced coal use, afforestation and structural changes

  10. The Role of Reconciling Values in Efforts to Build Community Resilience to Global Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainie, S. C.; Ferguson, D. B.; Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental change has increasingly forced researchers and policy makers to reckon with the practical and philosophical need to integrate Indigenous knowledge with western science to support sustainable, resilient communities. Despite the recognition that integration of different ways of knowing offers a compelling approach for building long-term resilience, balancing the power dynamic that favors mainstream epistemologies over other ways of knowing remains elusive. Indigenous scholars themselves often speak of "walking in two worlds," acknowledging the distinction between Indigenous knowledge and western science and the difficulty of weaving together the two approaches. Central to the distinction between different ways of knowing are the core values that drive development and application of new knowledge. The DIKW pyramid describes the hierarchical relationships between wisdom, knowledge, information, and data. In these relationships, values drive how one turns data into information, then knowledge and wisdom. Thus, if building community resilience relies on integrating Indigenous science and Western science, a central point of focus must be on establishing which of the core values from these different knowledge systems can contribute and which may impede the goal of supporting community resilience. For example, does the absence of Western science data collection protocols (a core value of empirical science) eliminate the utility of community observations of environmental change from efforts to understand system change? Indigenous data sovereignty, an emerging framework, asserts Indigenous rights to information and promotes the role of community knowledge in creating metrics, outcomes, and ultimately actions toward resilient communities. Indigenous data sovereignty acknowledges that context and values shape data in addition to providing a lens for interpreting data. Can principles for the governance of Indigenous data, such as recognizing and supporting

  11. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Nick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia.

  12. The changing winds of atmospheric environment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Changes in atmosphere policies over several decades are analysed. ► Direct regulation is less effective and been complemented by other instruments. ► Policy approaches are more complex and integrated and the scale of the issues has evolved. ► The role of stakeholders has grown and the corporate sector has assumed increased responsibility. ► Governance arrangements have become more complex, multilevel and polycentric. -- Abstract: Atmospheric environmental policies have changed considerably over the last several decades. Clearly the relative importance of the various issues has changed over half a century, for example from smoke, sulphur dioxide and photochemical smog being the top priorities to greenhouse gases being the major priority. The traditional policy instrument to control emissions to the atmosphere has been command and control regulation. In many countries this was successful in reducing emissions from point sources, the first generation issues, and to a lesser extent, emissions from mobile and area sources, the second generation issues, although challenges remain in many jurisdictions. However once the simpler, easier, cheaper and obvious targets had been at least partially controlled this form of regulation became less effective. It has been complemented by other instruments including economic instruments, self-regulation, voluntarism and information instruments to address more complex issues including climate change, a third generation issue. Policy approaches to atmospheric environmental issues have become more complex. Policies that directly focus on atmospheric issues have been partially replaced by more integrated approaches that consider multimedia (water, land, etc.) and sustainability issues. Pressures from stakeholders for inclusion, greater transparency and better communication have grown and non-government stakeholders have become increasingly important participants in governance. The scale of the issues has evolved

  13. NGO and industry perspectives on energy and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper highlighted the clear contradiction between projected business as usual energy development in Canada and its climate change commitments. It was cautioned that these contradictions can only be resolved by actively incorporating climate change considerations into energy policies and by making efforts to promote energy efficiency and investment in renewable energy technologies. Canada's commitments to the Kyoto Protocol seem to be inconsistent with the ongoing policy of exporting greater amounts of oil and gas to the United States. In the short-term, the author advocates the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and supports the debate on how the cost of meeting greenhouse gas commitments should be distributed, and how they can be minimized

  14. Agents of Institutional Change in EU Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Natali, David

    2018-01-01

    The contribution addresses – through actor-centred historical institutionalism – why and how social investment (SI) emerged at the European Union (EU) level. SI policies built on the institutional basis of the policy co-ordination processes in employment and social inclusion, which originated...... in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The pre-existent processes represented the necessary but not sufficient condition for the EU SIP to materialise. The decisive factor was the activity of three types of entrepreneurs – intellectual, bureaucratic and political – that enabled the crystallization of the EU......, the Commission’s political priorities changed and the key entrepreneurs that had been active for the materialisation of the SIP were no longer centre stage. The continued presence of former influential entrepreneurs in the EU policy arena, although in different roles, may enable integration of EU SI into new EU...

  15. International trade and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, D.; Grubb, M.; Windram, C.

    2000-01-01

    Can the World Trade Organisation deal with climate change? Can a world of liberalised trade implement the Kyoto Protocol? As trade and environment head for a global collision, this book provides an essential guide to one of the key confrontations. It analyzes the conflicts now intensifying. How will climate change policies, including energy and carbon taxation and the removal of energy subsidies, affect overall trade structures and volumes? Will countries tackling climate change become less competitive? What of taxing international aviation and marine fuels? Will the 'flexibility mechanisms' of the Kyoto Protocol, such as emissions trading, fall under WTO disciplines? Can trade restrictions be applied to enforce the Kyoto Protocol? (Author)

  16. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2009-01-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO 2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO 2 price of $80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO 2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  17. Unconventional politics of unconventional gas: Environmental reframing and policy change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Andrew Robert

    The present Rocky Mountain West natural gas boom, enabled by historic pro-resource-development political, institutional, economic, and cultural structures, is a politically contested battle over values. Volatile political action, unconventional coalitions, and unconventional politics engulf this unconventional gas boom -- especially at the state level. In this comparative case study of natural gas policy in Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, I measure and compare these values, expressed as frames, through textual analysis of interest group public documents and state legislative bills and statutes from 1999-2008. By developing a new measure of state legislative framing, I test the relationship between interest group and institutional framing and also provide a viable measure of policy change useful to Narrative Policy Analysis theory. Results show that competing interest group and state legislative framing efforts are dynamic, measurably different, and periodically correlative. Competing interest groups rarely engage each other, except as the conflict matures when status-quo-supporters break their silence and engage the challengers' frames that have gained legislative traction. Environmental and land-use counter-framing ensues, but status-quo-supporters remain vigilant in their economic framing. Economic frames retain their institutional privilege within Wyoming and New Mexico, but natural gas policy undergoes a complete environmental reframe in the Colorado state legislature. Although the historically dominant economy frame based on "Old West" values remains largely intact, the respective state legislatures partially reframe policy (within 4 years) using environment, alternative land-uses, and democracy frames based on "New West" and long-extant but previously marginalized status-quo-challenger definitions. This reframing is not a strictly partisan issue, but rather it is influenced by political context, policy diffusion, and long-term interest group advocacy and

  18. Changing the Future of Obesity: Science, Policy and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortmaker, Steven L; Swinburn, Boyd; Levy, David; Carter, Rob; Mabry, Patricia L.; Finegood, Diane; Huang, Terry; Marsh, Tim; Moodie, Marj

    2011-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic has been on the rise for four decades, yet sustained prevention efforts have barely begun. An emerging science using quantitative models has provided key insights into the dynamics of this epidemic, and made it possible to combine different pieces of evidence and calculate the impact of behaviors, interventions and policies at multiple levels – from person to population. Forecasts indicate large effects of high levels of obesity on future population health and economic outcomes. Energy gap models have quantified the relationships of changes in energy intake and expenditure to weight change, and documented the dominant role of increasing intake on obesity prevalence. The empirical evidence base for effective interventions is limited but growing. Several cost-effective policies are identified that governments should prioritize for implementation. Systems science provides a framework for organizing the complexity of forces driving the obesity epidemic and has important implications for policy-makers. Multiple players (including governments, international organizations, the private sector, and civil society) need to contribute complementary actions in a coordinated approach. Priority actions include policies to improve the food and built environments, cross-cutting actions (such as leadership, health-in-all policies, and monitoring), and much greater funding for prevention programs. Increased investment in population obesity monitoring would improve the accuracy of forecasts and evaluations. Embedding actions within existing systems in both health and non-health sectors (trade, agriculture, transport, urban planning, development) can greatly increase impact and sustainability. We call for a sustained worldwide effort to monitor, prevent and control obesity. PMID:21872752

  19. Increasing Opportunities for Health in a Southeast Michigan Community Through Local Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R Patrick; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Lachance, Laurie

    2018-04-01

    Disparities in health outcomes are closely linked with social, economic, and environmental conditions. The burden of these disparities are most often experienced by racial and ethnic individuals of color, those with low income, and those who live in vulnerable communities. Local policy and systems change efforts provide a means to address health inequities and create sustainable change at the community level. The Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community was formed in 2010 to create sustainable opportunities for health, with a special focus on diabetes prevention and management. Policy and infrastructure change efforts were documented and tracked over time and qualitative data were collected to create deeper understanding of the change efforts. Eleven policy outcomes have created sustainable change around access to health resources and services, access to healthy foods, opportunities for physical activity, diabetes prevention and management education, and increased capacity for ongoing community change.

  20. UNDERSTANDING POLICY FAILURE IN THE EFFORT TO SITE FACILITIES FOR NUCLEAR WASTE DISPOSAL. (R823191)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF TAX AMNESTY POLICY IN EFFORTS TO OVERCOME TAX EVASION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Sholihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental problems of taxation in Indonesia is a low tax ratio and management of the tax systemhas not been well ordered, especially the handling of the tax evaders. Tax amnesty policy is presentas one of the solutions of the problems of taxation and is part of the tax reform. There are pros andcons to this policy as it pertains to the settings in the Tax Forgiveness Act is considered less sense offairness and legal certainty and are vulnerable to abuse of authority. This policy became importantalthough it is less sense of fairness if the review facilities subject to tax amnesty even though thestate would get the revenue the state in large numbers in a short period of short-term benefits, butif managed by the management and human resources professionals, socialization, and optimizedcontrol, a long-term positive impact to minimize state income tax evasion. Keywords: tax amnesty, policy, tax evation (avoidance

  2. Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    Committee on Science, Space , and Technology, Technologies and Strategies for Addressing Global Climate Change, Hearings, 17 July 1991 (Washington...Generations, Economic Analysis, and the Policy Process,” in U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Science, Space , and Technology, Technologies and...through the ecological lens, lives and such values as intergenerational equity should not be quantified as a commodity.68 What people need are

  3. How Politicians' Reelection Efforts Can Reduce Public Trust, Electoral Support, and Policy Approval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Troels

    2016-01-01

    Politicians’ desire for reelection motivates them to be responsive to voters’ policy preferences. In the traditional view, voters choose between candidates based on their delivery of favorable outcomes such as ideologically appealing policies or a prospering economy. However, research in psychology...... were described as motivated by reelection considerations than when no such motive was present. The findings advance our understanding of how citizens view political representation and have important implications for research on public opinion, legislative behavior, and democratic theory....

  4. Conservation policies and planning under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Niels; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation policies focus on securing the survival of species and habitats according to their current distribution. This basic premise may be inappropriate for halting biodiversity decline under the dynamic changes caused by climate change. This study explores a dynamic spatial...... conservation prioritization problem where climate change gradually changes the future habitat suitability of a site’ current species. This has implications for survival probability, as well as for species that potentially immigrate to the site. The problem is explored using a set of heuristics for both of two...... networks. Climate change induced shifts in the suitability of habitats for species may increase the value of such adaptive strategies, the benefit decreasing with increasing migration probabilities and species distribution dynamics....

  5. Conservation policies and planning under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Niels; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft

    2011-01-01

    conservation prioritization problem where climate change gradually changes the future habitat suitability of a site’ current species. This has implications for survival probability, as well as for species that potentially immigrate to the site. The problem is explored using a set of heuristics for both of two...... networks. Climate change induced shifts in the suitability of habitats for species may increase the value of such adaptive strategies, the benefit decreasing with increasing migration probabilities and species distribution dynamics.......Biodiversity conservation policies focus on securing the survival of species and habitats according to their current distribution. This basic premise may be inappropriate for halting biodiversity decline under the dynamic changes caused by climate change. This study explores a dynamic spatial...

  6. Perceived mental effort correlates with changes in tonic arousal during attentional tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Dan J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that perceived mental effort reflects changes in arousal during tasks of attention. Such changes in arousal may be tonic or phasic, and may be mediated by the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE system. We hypothesized that perceived mental effort during attentional tasks would correlate with tonic changes in cortical arousal, as assessed by relative electroencephalogram (EEG band power and theta/beta ratio, and not with phasic changes in cortical arousal, assessed by P300 amplitude and latency. Methods Forty-six healthy individuals completed tasks that engage the anterior and posterior attention networks (continuous performance task, go/no-go task, and cued target detection task. During completion of the three attentional tasks a continuous record of tonic and phasic arousal was taken. Cortical measures of arousal included frequency band power, theta/beta ratios over frontal and parietal cortices, and P300 amplitude and latency over parietal cortices. Peripheral measures of arousal included skin conductance responses, heart rate and heart rate variance. Participants reported their perceived mental effort during each of the three attentional tasks. Results First, changes in arousal were seen from rest to completion of the three attentional tasks and between the attentional tasks. Changes seen between the attentional tasks being related to the task design and the attentional network activated. Second, perceived mental effort increased when demands of the task increased and correlated with left parietal beta band power during the three tasks of attention. Third, increased mental effort during the go/no-go task and the cued target detection task was inversely related to theta/beta ratios. Conclusion These results indicate that perceived mental effort reflects tonic rather than phasic changes in arousal during tasks of attention. We suggest that perceived mental effort may reflect in part tonic activity of

  7. Climate change policy is an energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.; Lightfoot, H.D.

    1999-01-01

    In an important respect the climate change (global warming) problem is an energy problem. Any policy aimed at substantially reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will require large amounts of carbon free energy as substitutes for fossil fuels. No conceivable rates of improvement in energy efficiency and/or changes in lifestyles will obviate the need for vast amounts of carbon free energy if GHG emissions are to be reduced and the atmospheric concentration of carbon eventually stabilized. Where will such large amounts of carbon free energy come from? The renewable energies (solar, wind, biomass) are dilute and enormously land-using. Their potential contribution is seemingly limited in a world in which competing demands for land for food production, living space, leisure activities, ecological preserve, and natural resource production are increasing. Nuclear energy is controversial (fission) or problematic (fusion). Fuel cells require hydrogen which must be produced using some other form of energy. Tapping the earth's mantle with its vast amount of geothermal energy may be a future possibility. The present limitations of existing alternatives to fossil fuels suggest climate change policy should focus to a greater extent on what 'can' be done, rather than the present emphasis on what 'should' be done. Once refocused, the aim of climate policy should be to spur a decades long search for and development of new carbon free energy sources and technologies capable of displacing fossil fuels and of eventually meeting the world's baseload energy requirements. (author)

  8. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    and 2009 with a change – not only in the wording and in the political visions – but also in the actual prioritisation of investments and policies to a very large extent. In March 2012 another milestone was set by the Government, to have Denmark based on 100% renewable energy in 2050. This entails large...... and their results are introduced as well. To provide an overview of current trends, related scientific projects and other analyses on climate change mitigation and transport are given in the report. The references used in this report can also serve as a source of data and inspiration for the reader. This report...

  9. Climate change adaptation: policy and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Amanda H.; Brunner, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Worldwide, the threefold increase in the incidence of extreme weather events since 1960 was been accompanied by a ninefold increase in damages, reaching a peak of US$219 billion in 2005 due to the impacts of Hurricane Katrina. There is strong evidence that the increases in extremes, particularly heatwave and flood, are related to climate change. Adaptive governance presents an opportunity to factor the global problem into many simpler local problems to be addressed in parallel. We propose opening up the established frame, based on insights from field testing the principles of adaptive governance and independently corroborated by other research. First, in terms of science, we propose more intensive research centred on case studies of local communities and extreme events, each of which is unique under a comprehensive description. Differences among them must be taken into account to understand past damages or reduce vulnerability. Second, in terms of policy, we support a procedurally-rational approach, one that accommodates inevitable uncertainties, integrates scientific and local knowledge into policies to advance the community's common interest, and relies on learning from experience. Importantly, the approach is constructed to give something back of value to the participating communities - usually information and insight on their own circumstances - in return for their time, expertise, and good will. Third, in terms of decision-making, we suggest structural changes that begin with harvesting experience from the bottom-up, to make policies that have worked anywhere on the ground available for voluntary adaptation by similar communities elsewhere, and to inform higher-level officials about local resource needs. This approach produces lessons that can be re-contextualised to inform both scientific understanding and policy action in similar contexts directly, without going through generalisations. The common interest lies in reducing the

  10. New Zealand Freshwater Management: Changing Policy for a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, H. L.; Norton, N.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh water is essential to New Zealand's economic, environmental, cultural and social well-being. In line with global trends, New Zealand's freshwater resources are under pressure from increased abstraction and changes in land-use which contribute contaminants to our freshwater systems. Recent central government policy reform introduces greater national direction and guidance, to bring about a step-change in freshwater management. An existing national policy for freshwater management introduced in 2011 requires regional authorities to produce freshwater management plans containing clear freshwater objectives (measurable statements about the desired environmental state for water bodies) and associated limits to resource use (such as environmental flows and quantity allocation limits, and loads of contaminants to be discharged). These plans must integrate water quantity and quality management, consider climate change, and incorporate tangata whenua (New Zealand māori) roles and interests. In recent (2014) national policy amendments, the regional authorities are also required to implement national 'bottom-line' standards for certain attributes of the system to be managed; undertake accounting for all water takes and all sources of contaminants; and to develop and implement their plans in a collaborative way with communities. This rapid change in national policy has necessitated a new way of working for authorities tasked with implementation; many obstacles lie in their path. The scientific methods required to help set water quantity limits are well established, but water quality methods are less so. Collaborative processes have well documented benefits but also raise many challenges, particularly for the communication of complex and often uncertain scientific information. This paper provides background on the national policy changes and offers some early lessons learned by the regional authorities implementing collaborative freshwater management in New Zealand.

  11. [Health promotion policy and urban planning: joint efforts for the development of healthy cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Francisco, Lauro Luiz; Mattos, Thiago Pedrosa

    2016-06-01

    The National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) defines strategies for devising inter-sectoral public policies that ensure the development of healthy cities. Urban planning constitutes a tool to improve the quality of life and enhance health promotion. Using the studies and cooperation actions conducted by the Urban Research Laboratory (LABINUR/FEC-Unicamp) as a reference, this article describes relevant aspects of the PNPS that have an interface with urban planning policies in Brazil. An increase in interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral measures related to the new PNPS after the passing of Ordinance 2.446/14 was identified, which include: mobility and accessibility; safe development (sanitation, housing and transport); healthy eating with social inclusion and reduction of poverty (community vegetable gardens); corporal activities and physical exercise and the enhancement of urban spaces. The conclusion drawn is that social participation, inter-sectoral activities and the role of the university are important aspects for the promotion of healthy cities.

  12. United States policy for mitigating global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, P.; Kane, R.; Kildow, J.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to explain current US policy on global climate change. US Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to implement this policy are described. A secondary objective of this paper is to discuss from a US perspective the social and political efforts which must be initiated in order for ocean storage of CO 2 to be considered as a viable CO 2 mitigation option. The fact that the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) has not been successful in reducing greenhouse gas emissions is now recognized. Thus, US policy has shifted towards the development of binding medium-term emissions targets and long-term atmosphere concentration goals. The US believes these goals can be accomplished through the adoption of cost-effective joint implementation agreements and international emissions trading mechanisms. Studies are currently underway to assess specific targets and timetables for emissions reductions. Voluntary efforts on the part of US industry have proven to be extremely successful in reducing US CO 2 -emissions. The US electric utility industry has taken the lead in voluntarily lowering greenhouse gas emissions under the DOE Climate Challenge Program. Areas of research interest to DOE include the development of high efficiency advanced power generation cycles and CO 2 sequestration technology. The US currently spends $1.6 billion on understanding global climate phenomena and only $1.6 million on CO 2 mitigation research. A number of socio-political considerations must be looked at in assessing the feasibility of ocean storage of CO 2 . Developing public trust appears to be a major concern in establishing the acceptability of ocean storage. Uncertainties in the effects of CO 2 on marine life, potential safety hazards associated with pipelining, and ship transport of CO 2 are all issues which must be dealt with as soon as possible. Some hidden costs associated with ocean disposal is also discussed

  13. Useful models for simulating policies to induce technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, Nic; Jaccard, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Conventional top-down and bottom-up energy-economy models have limitations that affect their usefulness to policy-makers. Efforts to develop hybrid models, that incorporate valuable aspects of these two frameworks, may be more useful by representing technologies in the energy-economy explicitly while also representing more realistically the way in which businesses and consumers choose between those technologies. This representation allows for the realistic simulation of a wide range of technology-specific regulations and fiscal incentives alongside economy-wide fiscal incentives and disincentives. These policies can be assessed based on the costs required to reach a goal in the medium term, as well as on the degree to which they induce technological change that affects costs over long time periods

  14. Partners for a healthy city: implementing policies and environmental changes within organizations to promote health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerherm, Laura; Tibbits, Melissa; Wang, Hongmei; Schram, Sarah; Balluff, Mary

    2014-07-01

    Current research has suggested that obesity prevention efforts should promote policy and environmental changes. The Partners for a Healthy City project, implemented in Douglas County, Nebraska, focused on collaborating with local organizations to help them select and implement 1 or more policies that promoted healthy eating and physical activity. Of the 346 organizations participating in the project and completing the follow-up assessment, 92% implemented at least 1 new policy or expanded an existing policy related to healthy food and drink options and physical activity, totaling 952 individual policy changes. Common policies included providing water as the primary beverage and installing bike racks to support active commuting to and from work. These findings suggest widespread support for policy changes that promote community health.

  15. Farm functionality changes in relation to changes in Agricultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Stubkjær; Vejre, Henrik; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    from two times are included. Thus, further monitoring of the functional changes is needed to confirm the identified trends as these may change in other directions. Nevertheless, future agricultural policy development in the EU may benefit from taking both structural and functional considerations......Changes in European agriculture over the last 70 year have frequently been labelled with the keywords intensification, specialisation and concentration. A variety of empirical studies of the development in farm characteristics and landscape structures have been undertaken to describe the change...... in details. The structural changes in agriculture are well accounted for in national and European statistics, however changes in farm functions have also occurred. It has been suggested that European agriculture nowadays are undergoing changes from monofunctional focus on production to a wider...

  16. Forty Years of State Alcohol and Pregnancy Policies in the USA: Best Practices for Public Health or Efforts to Restrict Women's Reproductive Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Thomas, Sue; Treffers, Ryan; Drabble, Laurie

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains a public health problem despite >40 years of attention. Little is known about how state policies have evolved and whether policies represent public health goals or efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights. Our data set includes US state policies from 1970 through 2013 obtained through original legal research and from the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's (NIAAA)'s Alcohol Policy Information System. Policies were classified as punitive to women or supportive of them. The association between numbers of punitive policies and supportive policies in 2013 with a measure of state restrictions on reproductive rights and Alcohol Policy Effectiveness Scores (APS) was estimated using a Pearson's correlation. The number of states with alcohol and pregnancy policies has increased from 1 in 1974 to 43 in 2013. Through the 1980s, state policy environments were either punitive or supportive. In the 1990s, mixed punitive and supportive policy environments began to be the norm, with punitive policies added to supportive ones. No association was found between the number of supportive policies in 2013 and a measure of reproductive rights policies or the APS, nor was there an association between the number of punitive policies and the APS. The number of punitive policies was positively associated, however, with restrictions on reproductive rights. Punitive alcohol and pregnancy policies are associated with efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights rather than effective efforts to curb public health harms due to alcohol use in the general population. Future research should explore the effects of alcohol and pregnancy policies. The number of states with alcohol and pregnancy policies has increased since 1970 (1 in 1974 and 43 in 2013). Alcohol and pregnancy policies are becoming increasingly punitive. These punitive policies are associated with efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights rather than

  17. Multicultural Efforts and Affirmative Action in Brazil: Policies Influencing Education in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; da Silva, Maria Auxiliadora Lima Dias

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the intercultural movements toward social justice in education in the Americas, most particularly, North America, and how U.S. multicultural movements and policies influence countries like Brazil. First we analyzed the movement toward multicultural practices to understand how those are developed both in the U.S., and in Brazil.…

  18. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  19. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  20. Crisis and Policy Reformcraft: Advocacy Coalitions and Crisis-induced Change in Swedish Nuclear Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, Daniel

    2007-04-15

    This dissertation consists of three interrelated essays examining the role of crisis events in Swedish nuclear energy policymaking. The study takes stock of the idea of 'crisis exceptionalism' raised in the literature, which postulates that crisis events provide openings for major policy change. In an effort to explain crisis-induced outcomes in Swedish nuclear energy policy, each essay explores and develops theoretical assumptions derived from the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). The introduction discusses the ACF and other theoretical perspectives accentuating the role of crisis in policymaking and identifies three explanations for crisis-induced policy outcomes: minority coalition mobilization, learning, and strategic action. Essay 1 analyzes the nature and development of the Swedish nuclear energy subsystem. The results contradict the ACF assumption that corporatist systems nurture narrow subsystems and small advocacy coalitions, but corroborate the assumption that advocacy coalitions remain stable over time. While this analysis identifies temporary openings in policymaking venues and in the advocacy coalition structure, it is argued that these developments did not affect crisis policymaking. Essay 2 seeks to explain the decision to initiate a referendum on nuclear power following the 1979 Three Mile Island accident. Internal government documents and other historical records indicate that strategic considerations superseded learning as the primary explanation in this case. Essay 3 conducts an in-depth examination of Swedish policymaking in the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident in an effort to explain the government's decision not to accelerate the nuclear power phaseout. Recently disclosed government documents show that minority coalition mobilization was insufficient to explain this decision. In this case, rational learning and strategic action provided a better explanation. The main theoretical contribution derived from the three

  1. Crisis and Policy Reformcraft: Advocacy Coalitions and Crisis-induced Change in Swedish Nuclear Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    This dissertation consists of three interrelated essays examining the role of crisis events in Swedish nuclear energy policymaking. The study takes stock of the idea of 'crisis exceptionalism' raised in the literature, which postulates that crisis events provide openings for major policy change. In an effort to explain crisis-induced outcomes in Swedish nuclear energy policy, each essay explores and develops theoretical assumptions derived from the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). The introduction discusses the ACF and other theoretical perspectives accentuating the role of crisis in policymaking and identifies three explanations for crisis-induced policy outcomes: minority coalition mobilization, learning, and strategic action. Essay 1 analyzes the nature and development of the Swedish nuclear energy subsystem. The results contradict the ACF assumption that corporatist systems nurture narrow subsystems and small advocacy coalitions, but corroborate the assumption that advocacy coalitions remain stable over time. While this analysis identifies temporary openings in policymaking venues and in the advocacy coalition structure, it is argued that these developments did not affect crisis policymaking. Essay 2 seeks to explain the decision to initiate a referendum on nuclear power following the 1979 Three Mile Island accident. Internal government documents and other historical records indicate that strategic considerations superseded learning as the primary explanation in this case. Essay 3 conducts an in-depth examination of Swedish policymaking in the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident in an effort to explain the government's decision not to accelerate the nuclear power phaseout. Recently disclosed government documents show that minority coalition mobilization was insufficient to explain this decision. In this case, rational learning and strategic action provided a better explanation. The main theoretical contribution derived from the three essays is to posit

  2. Teacher Change in an Era of Neo-Liberal Policies: A Neoinstitutional Analysis of Teachers' Perceptions of Their Professional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Magnus Rye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how neo-institutional theory may be applied as an analytical framework to investigate the relationships between teachers' perceptions on their professional change on the one hand, and the numerous change efforts embedded in recent neo-liberal educational policies in Norway on the other. Based on biographical…

  3. Phase changes in the BRCA policy domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Stephen M; King, Susan B; Citrin, Toby; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2014-06-01

    The recent US Supreme Court ruling against gene patenting has been accompanied by the passage at the federal level of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, both events representing a thawing or phase change in policies that will now make preventive techniques, such as BRCA genetic testing to predict risk for familial breast and ovarian cancer, more affordable and accessible. Authors including Yun-Han Huang in this journal have noted the judicial ruling is one step--a significant one--in the process of patent system reform. This commentary links such changes with policy formation and action taken by members of diverse religious communities in the aftermath of the Human Genome Project and continuing in today's genome sequencing area. Religious engagement has acted as a catalyzing force for change in the creation and dissemination of genetic developments. Religious perspectives are needed to solve the new ethical dilemmas posed by population screening for BRCA mutations and the rise of direct-to-consumer and provider marketing of such genetic tests, which have far-reaching consequences at the individual, family, and societal levels.

  4. Economic theory and climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, I.; Ackerman, F.

    1999-01-01

    Our willingness to embrace climate change policies depends on our perception of their benefits and costs. Evaluation of these costs and benefits requires careful economic analysis. Yet the standard tools for such assessment - computable general equilibrium (CGE) models - are inadequate on several grounds. Their underlying theory suffers from well-known logical difficulties; in general, their equilibria may be neither unique, stable, nor efficient. Moreover, real-world phenomena such as increasing returns to scale, learning, and technological innovation are neglected in CGE models. These phenomena make the resulting equilibria in the models inefficient; in the real world they can lock society into sub-optimal technology choices. They introduce uncertainty and path-dependence, annihilating the concept of a single efficient allocation produced by the unfettered market. Yet conventional economics assesses the cost of policies solely on the basis of their departure from a purportedly efficient equilibrium - ignoring deeper structural changes that are often decisive in practice. New socioeconomic theories and models are emerging that allow for bounded rationality, the limiting and enabling character of institutions, technological change, and the complexities and uncertainties in economic evolution. Meanwhile, existing models should be modified to better reflect real-world phenomena and to abandon unfounded assumptions about the inherent ''inefficiencies'' of government intervention in the market. (author)

  5. The Effects of Medicaid Policy Changes on Adults Service...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Effects of Medicaid Policy Changes on Adults Service Use Patterns in Kentucky and Idaho According to findings reported in The Effects of Medicaid Policy Changes...

  6. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  7. Cardiovascular and eye activity measures as indices for momentary changes in mental effort during simulated flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rivecourt, M.; Kuperus, M.N.; Post, W.J.; Mulder, L.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines effects of momentary changes in mental effort on cardiovascular and eye activity measures. A total of 19 male pilots performed an instrument flight task. Task load was manipulated by having the pilots perform flight manoeuvres of varying complexity. Multilevel analyses

  8. Science Meets Practice in Determining Effectiveness of Sexual Orientation Change Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Kristin A.; Gock, Terry S.; Haldeman, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Guidelines for psychological practice with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients," by the American Psychological Association. Guideline 3 of the acknowledges the diversity of human sexual orientation and that "efforts to change sexual orientation have not been shown to be effective or safe" (p. 14). As noted in the…

  9. Changing fields of rationality - a policy for change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strumse, Einar; Westskog, Hege; Winther, Tanja

    2010-07-01

    Work objective: To analyze effective strategies for changing households' energy consumption based on an interdisciplinary model for understanding change. Methodology: In this paper we develop a conceptual model for understanding individuals' energy consumption. We synthesize insights from anthropology, social psychology and economics grasping perspectives from behaviour to practice and from the Bourdieu's fields to rationality thinking in economics. We use this insight to analyze strategies for change. Abstract: In this paper we analyze effective strategies for changing households' energy consumption based on an interdisciplinary model for understanding change. The model focuses on four main categories for understanding individual consumption: a. Material constraints b. Values and identity c. Norms d. Ability These are the main influencing factors of the individual's consumption level, but in interaction with the corresponding group and the societal levels for the same factors. The model can be illustrated. One combination of factors on all levels constitutes a field of rationality. We claim that an important strategy for changing energy consumption towards sustainability is changing the field of rationality of the individual. Changing of rationality fields would from our point of view initiate reflection which is an important condition for changed behavior. One example of changing of fields is information measures that relates energy consumption to the 'citizen' field rather than the 'consumer' field. Hence, according to our conceptual framework - how policy should be framed (information measures for instance ) would be an important knowledge area for design of effective policy measures. (Author)

  10. Climate change impacts on urban wildfire and flooding policy in Idaho: a comparative policy network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, E.; Pierce, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    , dominated by a few historically strong interests and is constrained (and supported) by the complex legal and management foundations of Western water rights, as well as federal and state regulatory practices for flood control and water provision. Overlap between these networks does occur as many of the stakeholders are the same, adding another dimension to the comparative approach presented here. It is the physical and natural sciences that bind these two networks, however, and create opportunities for convergence as hydrological inputs (snowmelt and rain) and summer drought simultaneously inform and impact efforts to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability and risk from both fire and flood. For example, early spring snowmelt can both increase risks of flooding and contribute to later severe fire conditions, and fires greatly increase the risk of catastrophic floods and debris flows in burned basins. Contributing to both of these potential hazards are changes in the climate in the region. This paper will present findings from a comparative study of these two policy networks and discuss the implications from how climate change is defined, understood, accepted, and integrated in both networks and the policy processes associated with these urban hazards.

  11. Children and the Industrial Revolution: Changes in Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    Presents four lessons focusing on the laws, institutions, programs, and policies affecting students as minors, the shifts in the policies toward children in industrial societies, examining the changing policies using primary and secondary sources, and forming arguments on the policies using historical evidence. Describes an additional comparative…

  12. The Changing Effectiveness of Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Leightner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, many countries are hoping that massive increases in their money supplies will revive their economies. Evaluating the effectiveness of this strategy using traditional statistical methods would require the construction of an extremely complex economic model of the world that showed how each country’s situation affected all other countries. No matter how complex that model was, it would always be subject to the criticism that it had omitted important variables. Omitting important variables from traditional statistical methods ruins all estimates and statistics. This paper uses a relatively new statistical method that solves the omitted variables problem. This technique produces a separate slope estimate for each observation which makes it possible to see how the estimated relationship has changed over time due to omitted variables. I find that the effectiveness of monetary policy has fallen between the first quarter of 2003 and the fourth quarter of 2012 by 14%, 36%, 38%, 32%, 29% and 69% for Japan, the UK, the USA, the Euro area, Brazil, and the Russian Federation respectively. I hypothesize that monetary policy is suffering from diminishing returns because it cannot address the fundamental problem with the world’s economy today; that problem is a global glut of savings that is either sitting idle or funding speculative bubbles.

  13. Changing blood transfusion policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupnyckyj, Catherine; Smolarek, Sheryl; Reeves, Colleen; McKeith, Judith; Magnan, Morris

    2014-12-01

    It is often an accepted practice that a 20-gauge-or-larger catheter is used for the safe transfusion of blood in adult patients, but it is unclear what evidence supports this practice. This article tells the story of how a small team of oncology nurses designed and implemented an evidence-based practice project to challenge that convention. A literature search and a consultation with the standards of the American Association of Blood Banks and the Infusion Nurses Society determined that a smaller-than-20-gauge catheter can be used safely to transfuse blood in adults, a discovery that led to a change in policy and practice at the authors' institution.

  14. Efforts to Address the Aging Academic Workforce: Assessing Progress through a Three-Stage Model of Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskie, Brian; Walker, Mark; Andersson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The aging of the academic workforce is becoming more relevant to policy discussions in higher education. Yet there has been no formal, large-scale analysis of institutional efforts to develop policies and programs for aging employees. We fielded a representative survey of human resource specialists at 187 colleges and universities across the…

  15. Environmental Change and Human Mobility: Trends, Law and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F. Martin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the protection of persons displaced by natural disasters and the impacts of climate change will require sustained attention. This article identifies practical solutions, many of which are currently under consideration by governments and international organizations, to improve the lives of millions of people affected by environmental crises. It begins with a brief overview of why people move, the nature of those movements, and the relationship between human mobility and adaptation to environmental change by highlighting three types of mobility – migration, displacement and planned relocation. Next, the international and regional level will be discussed, with particular focus on legislative and policy frameworks for addressing human mobility in the context of environmental change. The article identifies gaps in existing frameworks as well as recent efforts to address them, particularly through mini-multilateral initiatives aimed at identifying principles and practices that should guide governmental action. The article concludes that efforts to improve responses require a better evidence base than currently exists on issues such as the environmental determinants of migration, displacement and planned relocation; the multi-faceted ways in which environmental factors relate to the many other causes of population movements in the cases of human mobility; and the impact of such movements on the well-being of migrants, communities of origin, and communities of destination.

  16. Sexual orientation change efforts among current or former LDS church members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlin, John P; Galliher, Renee V; Bradshaw, William S; Hyde, Daniel C; Crowell, Katherine A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) by 1,612 individuals who are current or former members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). Data were obtained through a comprehensive online survey from both quantitative items and open-ended written responses. A minimum of 73% of men and 43% of women in this sample attempted sexual orientation change, usually through multiple methods and across many years (on average). Developmental factors associated with attempts at sexual orientation change included higher levels of early religious orthodoxy (for all) and less supportive families and communities (for men only). Among women, those who identified as lesbian and who reported higher Kinsey attraction scores were more likely to have sought change. Of the 9 different methods surveyed, private and religious change methods (compared with therapist-led or group-based efforts) were the most common, started earlier, exercised for longer periods, and reported to be the most damaging and least effective. When sexual orientation change was identified as a goal, reported effectiveness was lower for almost all of the methods. While some beneficial SOCE outcomes (such as acceptance of same-sex attractions and reduction in depression and anxiety) were reported, the overall results support the conclusion that sexual orientation is highly resistant to explicit attempts at change and that SOCE are overwhelmingly reported to be either ineffective or damaging by participants. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Efforts to promote lifestyle change and better health: whither symbolic interactionism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezza, P E

    1989-01-01

    Symbolic interactionism is a body of thought which attends to how the meaning of a message may be mutually defined in the process of social interaction. As interactionism and its qualitative methodologies have been increasingly recognized as useful and appropriate complements to other approaches, health education has been slow to respond. Proposed here is the application of an interactionist perspective to the study of contemporary efforts made to promote lifestyle change and better health. A specific case is made for examining the interaction which takes place when employers strive to promote employee health. Particular attention is paid to the following questions: 1. How may employer communication of corporate goals for employee lifestyle change best be studied?; 2. Are the messages transmitted by employers and those received by employees the same?; 3. What may be some unanticipated consequences of the health promotion effort and its messages?; and 4. Can the interactionist perspective be used to enlighten the planning process for health promotion programs?

  18. Linking science more closely to policy-making: Global climate change and the national reorganization of science and technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, R.D.

    1994-04-01

    This paper examines the national trends behind recent efforts to link science and technology more closely to policy-making. It describes the politics surrounding the establishment of the National Science and Technology Council and its committee on Environment and Natural Resources (of which the global change program is a part). It discusses the evolution of the ``assessments`` function within the climate change program in general, and within the Department of Energy, in particular, and how the Clinton Administration`s approach to climate change ``assessments`` function within the climate change program in general, and within the Department of Energy, in particular, and how the Clinton Administration`s approach to climate change ``assessments`` differs from that of its predecessor. The paper concludes with a critique both of the national reorganization of science and technology policy and of the assessments component of the climate change program.

  19. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Jayme J. Caspall, MS; Erin Seligsohn; Phuc V. Dao, MS; Stephen Sprigle, PhD, PT

    2014-01-01

    When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the...

  20. Strengthening advocacy efforts with empirical evidence: A case example of the conduct, uptake and utilisation of research in drug policy decision-making in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thu; Ritter, Alison; Nguyen, Nhu; Ali, Robert

    2017-11-01

    During the last decade, international aid agencies and advocates have been working with Southeast Asian governments to move away from punitive responses towards people who use drugs to more public health, humane approaches. The lack of local scientific evidence about the effectiveness of different treatment approaches has made this advocacy work more challenging. This paper reflects on a generation of treatment research evidence and how it can assist advocacy efforts. The case example is the cost-effectiveness research, comparing centre-based compulsory treatment with community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam (2012-2015). Using our long-term and on-going connections with key Vietnamese decision-makers and government agencies, our collective experiences in drug policy advocacy and our unique insight into the working of government in Vietnam, we have used strategies to maximise opportunities for research to inform policy discussions. We have made an assessment here about the extent to which study findings have contributed to policy change in Vietnam and the challenges that impede progressive policy implementation. In doing this, we hope to make a contribution to the research evidence use literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic Doctrines and Approaches to Climate Change Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Robert D.; Hackler, Darrene

    2010-01-01

    In climate change, as in all policy issues, economic philosophy has a significant influence on how people view both the problems and the solutions. For the first time, ITIF surveys four dominant schools of economic thought and analyzes how adherents approach policy options for climate change and energy policy. With climate change and major energy legislation stalled, maybe it is time to put aside fixed philosophical notions and take a practical look on ways to address climate change in an eco...

  2. Can a policy program influence policy change? The case of the Swiss EnergieSchweiz program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, Fritz; Bürki, Marietta; Luginbühl, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelation of policy implementation and policy change by addressing the question of whether and how the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” influenced policy decisions. We discuss different ways in which a policy program may influence policy change: by negative and positive learning, by coalition building and by policy community building. Respective assumptions are tested in two case studies from the “EnergieSchweiz” program, which was in place from 2000 to 2010. We find that, while the policy program was not critical for the policy change itself, it nevertheless played a role as an agenda setter, as an initiator of learning processes as well as through its policy community. - Highlights: • We investigate how energy policy implementation impacts policy change. • We analyse the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” in place from 2000 to 2010. • Policy programs alone do not deliver policy change. • But they can influence it by agenda setting and by negative learning. • Expert networks have an influence if there are shared goals

  3. Tooth-to-Tail Greening: Energy and Climate Leadership and Policy Change at the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-24

    environmental issue commu- nities, the effort appears to have been primarily motivated by recognition of the operational costs of a heavy logistics burden on...the policy process by categorizing key players as “streams” and “ entrepreneurs ” and action in conjunction with temporal issues, or “policy windows...Also important to the process, policy entrepreneurs can connect these streams during windows to bring about policy change. While possibly

  4. Climate Change: Science and Policy in the Arctic Climate Change: Science and Policy in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigras, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    It is an accepted fact that the Earth’s climate is warming. Recent research has demonstrated the direct links between the Arctic regions and the rest of the planet. We have become more aware that these regions are feeling the effects of global climate change more intensely than anywhere else on Earth -- and that they are fast becoming the new frontiers for resources and political disputes. This paper examines some of the potential climate change impacts in the Arctic and how the science of climate change can be used to develop policies that will help mitigate some of these impacts. Despite the growing body of research we do not yet completely understand the potential consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Climate models predict significant changes and impacts on the northern physical environment and renewable resources, and on the communities and societies that depend on them. Policies developed and implemented as a result of the research findings will be designed to help mitigate some of the more serious consequences. Given the importance of cost in making policy decisions, the financial implications of different scenarios will need to be considered. The Arctic Ocean Basin is a complex and diverse environment shared by five Arctic states. Cooperation among the states surrounding the Arctic Ocean is often difficult, as each country has its own political and social agenda. Northerners and indigenous peoples should be engaged and able to influence the direction of northern adaptation policies. Along with climate change, the Arctic environment and Arctic residents face many other challenges, among them safe resource development. Resource development in the Arctic has always been a controversial issue, seen by some as a solution to high unemployment and by others as an unacceptably disruptive and destructive force. Its inherent risks need to be considered: there are needs for adaptation, for management frameworks, for addressing cumulative effects, and for

  5. Barriers to Policy Change and a Suggested Path for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    China's one-child policy has been an unprecedented policy experiment in human history. Despite its significant achievements, the policy has induced equally significant potential problems. As problems of the one-child policy have been widely noticed and suggestions for adjustments are available, the leadership transition of China in 2012 and 2013…

  6. Stories of policy change: City of Hamilton's healthy food and beverage policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkey, Kayla; Elliott-Moyer, Pat; Freimanis, Miri; Raine, Kim D

    2018-01-22

    Municipal buildings and corporate events in the City of Hamilton, Ontario. In 2011, the City of Hamilton adopted a healthy food and beverage policy. The intent of the policy is to demonstrate the City's commitment to healthy eating by providing food and beverages that are healthy, safe, and free of industrially produced trans fats, and promoting a sustainable, local food system. The corporate policy applies to all City facilities, meetings and events. In this article, we explore adoption and implementation of the policy, as well as key lessons for healthy public policy change. Integrating the policy into corporate culture and practice through the provision of ongoing supports and resources helped the City of Hamilton overcome barriers and achieve implementation success. Through exploration of the City of Hamilton's healthy food and beverage policy, we identified a number of lessons for policy change and implementation. When viewed in context, these lessons may help to support policy work in other Canadian jurisdictions.

  7. Senegal's national policy to combat climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dia Toure, F.

    2007-01-01

    Senegal's participation in the Earth Summit meeting in Rio in 1992 demonstrated its national political stand towards environmental causes. An initiative was taken to educate the population on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in relation to different sectors, including the energy sector, transportation, agriculture, forestry and waste management. Later, a group of negotiators followed the works of subsidiary bodies of the Kyoto Agreement. As a non-Annex 1 developing country, Senegal is not required to reduce GHG emissions as are Annex 1 countries. Therefore, Senegal has used judicial tools to benefit from the transfer of clean technologies. The implementation of Senegal's national adaptation action plan has involved global organizations, sectorial studies, public consultations, prioritization and project formulation. The action plan addresses concerns such as water resources, variation in precipitation, drought, agriculture and its vulnerability, and negative impacts due to climate change. The technical solutions include the promotion of agroforestry technologies; crop diversification; water conservation; community wood use; and, prevention of bush fires. Since several geographical regions within Senegal are also affected by global warming, policies are being formulated to protect humid zones and help in the fight against invasive species. Senegal imports much of its energy sources. Households rely on wood and coal for energy. New measures are being adapted and new sustainable technologies are being proposed for fireplaces, better recycling, and better landfill sites. 8 figs

  8. Climate Change Policies in Australia: Gender Equality, Power and Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas K. Wanner

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the link between gender equality and climate change policies in Australia. It critically analyses the extent to which gender mainstreaming and gender dimensions have been taken into account in the national policy processes for climate change in Australia. The paper argues that climate change adaptation and mitigation policies in Australia neglect gender dimensions. This endangers the advances made in gender equality and works against socially equitable...

  9. The role of social norms on preferences towards climate change policies: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alló, Maria; Loureiro, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a review of existing assessments of preferences for climate change mitigation and adaptation policies through a worldwide meta-analysis. In this study, we analyze the impact of social values and norms on preferences towards climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. In a sample of 58 international studies, we found that mitigation actions were preferred over adaptation actions, and that preferences towards climate change policies are affected by attitudes towards time and social norms. In particular, societies with a long-term orientation display greater support towards climate change policies. These results therefore reveal the role of social factors as being crucial in order to understand the acceptability of climate change policies at a worldwide level. - highlights: • Effective policy design is required in order to curb climate change. • Using a meta-analysis, we find that mitigation actions are preferred over adaptation actions. • Economic conditions play a crucial role for supporting efforts to combat climate change. • Cultural and social dimensions are relevant for the acceptability of climate policies. • Understanding social norms and cultural variables may help with the climate change debate

  10. Climate change policies analysis of sectoral changes in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, C.; Baron, R.; Colombier, M.; Boemare, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses the following question, at the core of Europe's climate policy: Beyond the question of the European Union's ability to meet its emissions commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, are sectoral emissions trends displaying structural changes deemed necessary to reduce emissions, and to attain levels that are consistent with the UNFCCC greenhouse gas concentration stabilisation objectives? What lessons can we draw from emissions trends for the EU future climate policy? Greenhouse gas emissions have been stable for the last decade, but mostly due to events and policy developments unrelated to climate policy, and unlikely to be reproduced in other countries: Germany's reunification, substitution from coal to gas in the United Kingdom driven by power market reform. We should not expect changes of such magnitude in the near future. The issue of our future climate policy hence requires a closer look at underlying trends. Industry's direct emissions decreased thanks to constant improvements in energy efficiency and to the substitution of electricity to direct fossil fuel use. In spite of efficiency gains in the residential sector, increasing floor space and level of equipment entail growing energy consumption. Smaller-size households are now spreading to Southern European countries and should be expected in new Member states as well. Turning to the tertiary/services sector, we find that value added and floor space grew significantly over the decade - 35% and 32% respectively in the EU-15. There again, energy efficiency improvements do not compensate for growing floor spaces. Transport's growth, especially freight, has been significant in all countries. The highest rates of traffic growth per unit of gross domestic product are in Spain and Portugal, two countries where rail infrastructure is fairly limited. CO 2 emissions from transport grew by 18% in the EU between 1990 and 2000. Power generation's CO 2 emissions have decreased slightly in spite of strong

  11. Energy policy in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1997-01-01

    The outlook of world energy markets was described with a focus on the prospects for oil and gas supply and reserves. Implications of this outlook for energy policy-making were discussed. The three major projections of world primary energy demand were described. According to these projections world primary energy demand will grow steadily. Demand is expected to rise 46 per cent between now and 2010. Fossil-based fuels will account for almost 90 per cent of total primary energy demand in 2010 which is about the same share as today. A structural shift in the shares of different regions in world commercial energy demand is likely to occur, i.e. the OECD share of world energy demand will fall in favour of that of the developing regions. It was also projected that oil will remain the dominant fuel with a share of about 40 per cent in 2010. World gas demand was also projected to grow at an average annual rate of 3 per cent over the outlook period. The rising fossil fuel consumption implies rising greenhouse gas emissions. It was noted that by 2010, without active policy intervention to change the course of energy demand, the world energy-related carbon emissions could be almost 50 per cent greater than 1990 levels. It was suggested that the main role for governments should be to establish a framework to enable competitive energy markets to function efficiently while ensuring that energy security and environmental concerns are addressed. Emergency response measures should be maintained in relation to oil, and the implications of growing dependence on imports of oil and gas from remote and potentially insecure countries should be monitored. The role of government should also include regulation of the environmental consequences of energy supply and use at the local, regional and global level. Government should also regulate the natural monopoly elements of the grid-based industries. There is also a role for government in continuing to encourage research and development

  12. Fleet dynamics in a changing policy environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batsleer, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Common Fisheries Policy has received much criticism. In the first place for failing to implement effective management measures aimed at rebuilding and maintaining fish stocks at a sustainable level. In addition, it is said current fisheries policy fails to integrate the wider

  13. Wind power, policy learning and paradigm change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szarka, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study how policy learning has led to new understandings of ways to support renewable energies, based on experience in the wind power sector. Drawing on analysis of the literature and informed by field-work in the wind power sector in Denmark, France and the UK, it explores the extent to which policy learning over the medium term has brought us closer to models that integrate economic, environmental and societal desiderata into renewables policy in a manner congruent with the sustainable development aspirations espoused by the European Union and its constituent states. It contributes to policy theory development by arguing in favour of a new policy paradigm that reaches beyond measures to increase production capacity per se to embrace both the institutional dynamics of innovation processes and the fostering of societal engagement in implementation processes

  14. Key uncertainties in climate change policy: Results from ICAM-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Kandlikar, M.

    1995-12-31

    A critical aspect of climate change decision-making is uncertainties in current understanding of the socioeconomic, climatic and biogeochemical processes involved. Decision-making processes are much better informed if these uncertainties are characterized and their implications understood. Quantitative analysis of these uncertainties serve to: inform decision makers about the likely outcome of policy initiatives; and help set priorities for research so that outcome ambiguities faced by the decision-makers are reduced. A family of integrated assessment models of climate change have been developed at Carnegie Mellon. These models are distinguished from other integrated assessment efforts in that they were designed from the outset to characterize and propagate parameter, model, value, and decision-rule uncertainties. The most recent of these models is ICAM 2.0. This model includes demographics, economic activities, emissions, atmospheric chemistry, climate change, sea level rise and other impact modules and the numerous associated feedbacks. The model has over 700 objects of which over 1/3 are uncertain. These have been grouped into seven different classes of uncertain items. The impact of uncertainties in each of these items can be considered individually or in combinations with the others. In this paper we demonstrate the relative contribution of various sources of uncertainty to different outcomes in the model. The analysis shows that climatic uncertainties are most important, followed by uncertainties in damage calculations, economic uncertainties and direct aerosol forcing uncertainties. Extreme uncertainties in indirect aerosol forcing and behavioral response to climate change (adaptation) were characterized by using bounding analyses; the results suggest that these extreme uncertainties can dominate the choice of policy outcomes.

  15. Policy Change and Its Effect on Australian Community-Based Natural Resource Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…

  16. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years waste management has received increased attention not only at the national level but also internationally in order to harmonise to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard in this field. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short term but also the longer term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition to the discussion of policies and practices, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority particularly as far as high level waste and alpha bearing wastes are concerned. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high level radioactive waste. As a result of these efforts an international R and D programme is being established at the site of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the incorporation of high level waste into metal matrices. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes in detail the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities [fr

  17. Measuring Sexual Orientation: A Review and Critique of U.S. Data Collection Efforts and Implications for Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Margaret; Wells, Brooke; Ventura-DiPersia, Christina; Renson, Audrey; Grov, Christian

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Healthy People 2020 goals sought to improve health outcomes among sexual minorities; HHS acknowledged that a dearth of sexual orientation items in federal and state health surveys obscured a broad understanding of sexual minority-related health disparities. The HHS 2011 data progression plan aimed to advance sexual orientation data collection efforts at the national level. Sexual orientation is a complex, multidimensional construct often composed of sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, thus posing challenges to its quantitative and practical measurement and analysis. In this review, we (a) present existing sexual orientation constructs; (b) evaluate current HHS sexual orientation data collection efforts; (c) review post-2011 data progression plan research on sexual minority health disparities, drawing on HHS survey data; (d) highlight the importance of and (e) identify obstacles to multidimensional sexual orientation measurement and analysis; and (f) discuss methods for multidimensional sexual orientation analysis and propose a matrix for addressing discordance/branchedness within these analyses. Multidimensional sexual orientation data collection and analysis would elucidate sexual minority-related health disparities, guide related health policies, and enhance population-based estimates of sexual minority individuals to steer health care practices.

  18. Evaluation of Electromyographic Frequency Domain Changes during a Three-Minute Maximal Effort Cycling Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Wang, David H. Fukuda, Jeffrey R. Stout, Edward H. Robinson, Amelia A. Miramonti, Maren S. Fragala, Jay R. Hoffman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the time course of EMG frequency changes during a three-minute maximal effort cycling test (3MT session and to examine which parameter between mean (MNF and median (MDF frequency is more suitable for evaluation of changes in neuromuscular function throughout a 3MT. Eighteen recreationally-active men volunteered to participate in this study. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC was measured using a dynamometer to determine maximal EMG frequency of the vastus lateralis (VL of the kicking leg during isometric knee extension. A maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2peak on a cycle ergometer was performed to establish the appropriate load profile for the 3MT which was completed after a period of at least 48 hours. MNF, MDF and power output (PO values were measured at 10-second epochs throughout the duration of the 3MT. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the changes in EMG frequency, relative to maximal values from the MVC, and change in PO during the testing procedure. MNF, Root Mean Square (RMS, and PO significantly decreased during the 3MT, while MDF did not change significantly. Statistically, EMG frequency and PO decreased at first and remained constant in response to the 3MT, which may be reflective of differing patterns of muscle fiber type fatigue throughout the testing session. Due to decreased variability, changes in neuromuscular function during this protocol may be better evaluated using MNF than MDF.

  19. Land-use change and global climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitz, V.

    2004-03-01

    This PhD thesis assess the role of land-use dynamics and carbon sequestration within climate policies. First, it describes the emergence, from the Rio-1992 to the Marrakech Accords (2001), of diplomatic controversies upon carbon sinks, in the context of the progressive constitution of a scientific basis on terrestrial carbon sinks. It questions the ability of the actual form of international climate regime to generate the appropriate incentives to sequester within the forestry sector in developed countries, or to control tropical deforestation. Second, the contribution of land-use change to atmospheric CO 2 rise is quantified using a newly designed model of the global carbon cycle and regional land-use (OSCAR). We show that carbon emitted via land-use is not equivalent to fossil carbon emission in respect to atmospheric CO 2 rise. This effect, all the more than land-use emissions are increasing, requires a greater mitigation effort to stabilize atmospheric CO 2 . Finally, optimal timing of mixed climate policies involving fossil emissions mitigation and biological sequestration is assessed within an inter temporal cost-benefit framework. We show that the social value of sequestered carbon depends on anticipating future climate damages. Within optimal control models, this links the timing of sequestration to fossil effort and to the evolution of climate damages; if the latter are uncertain, but might be revealed at a later date, then it might be optimal to reserve part of the limited sequestration potential to cut off an eventual future abatement cost peak, were a climate surprise to finally imply stringent concentration ceilings. (author)

  20. Viewpoint – The Next Nexus? Environmental Ethics, Water Policies, and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Groenfeldt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water policies are based on ethical assumptions, and efforts to promote more sustainable policies need to address those underlying values. The history of water policies from 'command-and-control' to more ecological approaches reveals an ethical evolution, but adaptation to climate change will require further ethical shifts. The case of the Santa Fe river in New Mexico (USA illustrates how values that go unrecognised interfere with sustainable management. Exploring the underlying value dynamics is an essential step in the policy reform process and takes on added urgency in the face of climate change and the need to formulate adaptive water strategies. Bringing the topic of values and ethics into the water policy discourse can help clarify management goals and promote more sustainable practices.

  1. Environmental federalism and US climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental disputes involving states over the proper state and federal roles have grown in number and magnitude over the last several years, with many disputes engaging dozens of states. States with competing views are fully engaged in the ongoing debate over climate change, a textbook case for testing the contours of environmental federalism. The issue has all the necessary components: transboundary environmental impacts; competing state economic and environmental interests; state self-interest; disagreement on first principles including what is the proper role of the states; and a somewhat ill-defined federal role. With those qualities, one would expect the federal government to step in and regulate. Instead, the federal government has declined to regulate, inviting a national discourse on whether and how to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As of Spring 2004, twenty-eight states have launched or are planning initiatives, some of which will directly regulate sources of GHG emissions. As these programs take root, pressure will build for a greater federal role. This paper will advance the position that even with this building momentum, the federal government is not likely to emulate state programs that mandate CO 2 emission reductions. In the face of high national cost, uncertain environmental benefits, and a history of federal non-regulatory action, federal regulation at this time appears to be a remote possibility. State efforts to address global climate change add value to the debate, but they do not create the cocoon of consensus the federal government seeks before launching mandatory programs of this magnitude. The more likely scenario is that the federal government will continue on its present course, funding research and development, investing in energy efficient technologies, and supporting voluntary measures. Under this scenario, states and the private sector would continue to function as the 'laboratories' to develop new ideas to improve energy

  2. Economy of climatic change. From mitigation to adaptation policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, N.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change adaptation policies are the subject of this thesis. It has been showed that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) and the response strategies construction are characteristic of a pollutionist approach. This approach led to envision the question of climate change as a classic pollution and environment issue. As a result, this approach has generated a double bias to the disadvantage of adaptation compared to mitigation policies: adaptation has been confined in a secondary and marginal role in climate policies structuring, and with an inoperative conceptual and methodological framework for its implementation. The thesis proposes a deconstruction of this climate change conceptualization. Moreover, the major limits that characterize mitigation policies call into question the predominance given to them in climate policies construction. The 'pollutionist' approach deconstruction allows at first to show that adaptation policies definition and operationalization need to go beyond (i) the standard analytic framework of climate policies and, (ii) the climate change conceptualization as a classic pollution and environment management issue. The thesis then argues that adaptation has to be integrated in development promoting policies, which means that adaptation needs to be conceptualized no longer as an ad hoc management of pollution effects issue, but as a development issue. Whether in the proper context of adaptation policies, or more largely of climate policies, the thesis leaves open the questions of the viability, but also of the organization and financing modalities, of a climate regime which fits within development promoting. (author)

  3. Business and climate change: Key strategic and policy challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many companies, policymakers and other stakeholders see climate change as the most pressing environmental problem of our time. In bailout plans and policies to address the economic recession and credit crisis, climate aspects haves figured prominently as well. This article examines recent policy and economic developments and their relevance for business and climate change, considering the implications of the economic slowdown and bailouts. Dilemmas in the economy-climate-policy nexus in the c...

  4. Policy modes for climate change: the role of tripartite partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper provides an initial overview of the role of tripartite partnerships for climate change in the broader framework of policy options available to address the issue. First, we will position partnerships in relation to other policy modes for climate change, including emissions trading

  5. Effect of policy change on the prescription pattern of antimalarial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However three years into the change in policy, Artemether/Lumefantrine (AL) was the most prescribed, recording 25.2% as against 0.8% a year prior to the change in policy (2004).This was followed by Artesunate/Amodiaquine (AA) and Artesunate/Mefloquine (AM), 24.3% and 23.6% respectively. Artemisinin monotherapies ...

  6. Evaluating European Climate Change Policy: An Ecological Justice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhovic-Dorsner, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    To date, the concept of ecological justice, when applied to international climate change policy, has largely focused on the North-South dichotomy and has yet to be extended to Central and Eastern European countries. This article argues that current formulations of climate change policy cannot address potential issues of ecological injustice to…

  7. A Case Study on Organizational Culture and Its Role in the Creation of Organizational Change Efforts Within a Government Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    organizational change efforts within government agencies. The government agency studied seeking organizational change was the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ARDEC) and the organizational change effort analyzed was the Technology and Product Development Process, otherwise known as Vector, currently in development at ARDEC. The considerations presented were based upon historic information from literature by leading subject matter experts in the field of organizational change .

  8. Changes in the severity of aortic regurgitation at peak effort during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forteza Albertí, José Francisco; Noris Mora, Marta; Carrillo López, Andrés; Pericàs, Pere; Pasamar Márquez, Lucía; Calderón Montero, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez Fernández, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Chronic aortic regurgitation can be well tolerated for a long time. Some patients with normal ventricular function can even reach high levels of sporting performance. How the severity of regurgitation may change during exercise, however, is little known, although some studies suggest it diminishes. The present work examines, during exercise, the functional capacity, ventricular function, and regurgitation fraction (RF) in asymptomatic subjects with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation with preserved ejection fraction. The study subjects (n=32; 23 men, 9 women) were patients referred to our echocardiography laboratory with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation, preserved left ventricular systolic function, and sinus rhythm into NYHA functional class I. All underwent transthoracic echocardiography at rest and at peak effort during an exercise protocol involving an inclined cycloergometer. Left atrial and ventricular volume indices were recorded, along with diastolic and systolic function, cardiac index, peripheral resistance, and RF. The mean age of the subjects was 43.8±18.2years; 59% suffered moderate regurgitation, 41% severe aortic regurgitation, and 84% had a dilated left ventricle. All subjects managed exercise loads adequate for their age. Peak effort was associated with a significant reduction (mean 44.5% [range 10-95%]) in the RF (21.8±13.2 vs. 39.3%±14.7% at rest; p=0.0001). The absolute reduction in the RF at peak effort was greater among the subjects with severe aortic regurgitation (21.2% vs. 13.3% in those with moderate regurgitation; p=0.018). The RF becomes smaller during exercise in asymptomatic subjects with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation and preserved ventricular function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Next Generation of Renewable Electricity Policy: How Rapid Change is Breaking Down Conventional Policy Categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Jacobs, D. [International Energy Transition (IET), Boston, MA (United States); Rickerson, W. [Meister Consultants Group, Boston, MA (United States); Healey, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A number of policies have been used historically in order to stimulate the growth of the renewable electricity sector. This paper examines four of these policy instruments: competitive tendering, sometimes called renewable electricity auctions, feed-in tariffs, net metering and net billing, and tradable renewable energy certificates. In recent years, however, a number of changes to both market circumstances and to policy priorities have resulted in numerous policy innovations, including the emergence of policy hybrids. With no common language for these evolving policy mechanisms, policymakers have generally continued to use the same traditional policy labels, occasionally generating confusion as many of these new policies no longer look, or act, like their traditional predecessors. In reviewing these changes, this paper makes two separate but related claims: first, policy labels themselves are breaking down and evolving. As a result, policy comparisons that rely on the conventional labels may no longer be appropriate, or advisable. Second, as policymakers continue to adapt, we are in effect witnessing the emergence of the next generation of renewable electricity policies, a change that could have significant impacts on investment, as well as on market growth in both developed and developing countries.

  10. Investment risks under uncertain climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; Bradley, Richard; Yang, Ming; Bunn, Derek; Clarke, Charlie; Wilson, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes results from a model of decision-making under uncertainty using a real options methodology, developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA). The model represents investment decisions in power generation from the perspective of a private company. The investments are subject to uncertain future climate policy, which is treated as an external risk factor over which the company has no control. The aims of this paper are to (i) quantify these regulatory risks in order to improve understanding of how policy uncertainty may affect investment behaviour by private companies and (ii) illustrate the effectiveness of the real options approach as a policy analysis tool. The study analysed firms' investment options of coal- and gas-fired power plants and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. Policy uncertainty is represented as an exogenous event that creates uncertainty in the carbon price. Our findings indicate that climate policy uncertainty creates a risk premium for power generation investments. In the case of gas- and coal-fired power generation, the risk premium would lead to an increase in electricity prices of 5-10% in order to stimulate investment. In the case of CCS, the risk premium would increase the carbon price required to stimulate investment by 16-37% compared to a situation of perfect certainty. The option to retrofit CCS acts as a hedge against high future carbon prices, and could accelerate investment in coal plant. This paper concludes that to minimise investment risks in low carbon technologies, policy-makers should aim to provide some long-term regulatory certainty. (author)

  11. Sexual Orientation Change Efforts, Conservative Christianity and Resistance to Sexual Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Clucas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I situate the practice of sexual orientation conversion efforts (SOCE, sometimes known as conversion or reparative therapy, within historical, cultural, religious and political attitudes to non-heterosexuality. Using documentary analysis, I investigate the contemporary resistance of two socially conservative organizations: National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH (US and Core Issues Trust (UK, to legal and professional regulation of the sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE which they advocate. A number of themes emerged from the various documentation. The most convincing of these themes is a claim that to provide SOCE is to respect client’s autonomy rights to diminish unwanted sexual attraction, and to live in accordance with the moral principles that they value. I demonstrate that neither NARTH nor Core Issues Trust are consistent in their regard for client autonomy. I suggest that the most plausible reason for these organizations’ emphasis on autonomy and other secular tropes, such as scientific proof and progressive language, is that they provide a smokescreen for conservative Christian values. If we value a world of LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans rights and recognition, we must counter this backlash against sexual and social justice.

  12. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspall, Jayme J; Seligsohn, Erin; Dao, Phuc V; Sprigle, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the addition of several accessories had various effects on rotational inertias. The configuration with the highest rotational inertia (solid tires, mag wheels with rearward axle) exceeded the configuration with the lowest (pneumatic tires, spoke wheels with forward axle) by 28%. The greater inertia requires increased torque to accelerate the wheelchair during turning. At a representative maximum acceleration, the reactive torque spanned the range of 11.7 to 15.0 N-m across the wheelchair configurations. At higher accelerations, these torques exceeded that required to overcome caster scrub during turning. These results indicate that a wheelchair's rotational inertia can significantly influence the torque required during turning and that this influence will affect active users who turn at higher speeds. Categorizing wheelchairs using both mass and rotational inertia would better represent differences in effort during wheelchair maneuvers.

  13. Policy efforts used to develop awareness aimed at increased students' scientific literacy and career choices in mathematics, science and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Frank Albert

    The lack of an adequate supply of human resources in science and engineering has been well documented. Efforts from a number of agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, have been implemented to alleviate this national problem. However, it is unclear what concerted efforts state agencies are taking to increase the number of African American students' scientific literacy, and career choices in science and engineering. The purpose of this study was to select a talent pool of African American students who are academically able to pursue a career in a math-based major. The selection of this talent pool lead to the recommendation of an encouragement process model to be used by the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) system to encourage the selectees of this talent pool to enter math-based programs at TBR universities. An integrated literature review was conducted. This review includes perspectives on national, state, and local educational policy decisions which affect educational purposes, institutional governance and secondary-postsecondary linkages. Existing TBR system data were analyzed and tabulated. This tabulated data along with the recommended model will be offered to the TBR system for possible adoption. The results of these data support the methodological notion that there are an appreciable number of potential TBR system African American students academically able to enter math related majors who, however, may be reluctant to choose a career direction in a math-based career field. Implications of this study and suggestions for further research are discussed. On an applied level, the study might suggest to other states ways in which to deal with similar problems.

  14. Policies for system change: the transition to the bioeconomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scordato, Lisa; Bugge, Markus M.; Hansen, Teis

    policies are in fact giving sufficient importance to transformative failures (vis-à-vis market and structural failures). Also, to the extent that transformative failures are given attention in bioeconomy policies, we don’t know whether this is consistent in the policy mix or only in terms of formulating...... be characterised as a system change as it requires fundamental changes in both production and consumption systems (Coenen, Hansen, and Rekers 2015; Bugge, Hansen, and Klitkou 2016; Scordato, Bugge, and Fevolden 2017). However, even if governments in many countries have started to introduce policies addressing...

  15. SOUTH AFRICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: CHANGING POLICIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa have been affected by the policies of apartheid, and its educational and linguistic consequences, in a .... teaching strategies, and more recently of the perception that a signed language is a manual form ... of color and on the basis of the (former) official spoken languages designated by the apartheid education ...

  16. Energy policy in a changing social order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, the background of energy management and use relative to public policymaking is reviewed. Many of the more-prominent social cross currents, such as: consumerism, resistance to nuclear power, tax rebellion, etc., are identified and described. Conventional and alternate energy policy options are analyzed. 41 refs.

  17. Telecentres spur policy change in Mozambique | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... The champion of telecentres, Venâncio Massingue, a long-time IDRC partner in the area of information and communication technology (ICT) and now Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of the country's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Today, nationwide access to these ...

  18. EU Development Policy in a Changing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mold, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    On many fronts, EU development policy is at a critical juncture. In the face of major new challenges, such as the current impasse in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, and increasing concerns over security threats, the European Union is having to rethink much of its development

  19. State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscatelli, Jennifer; Lee, Chiqueena

    2011-01-01

    The National School Climate Center (NSCC) completed a 50-state policy scan on state school climate and anti-bullying policies to better understand the current state policy infrastructure supporting the development of positive school climates. This policy brief examines the current status of school climate and anti-bullying policies in each state,…

  20. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries, and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years, waste management has received increased attention at the national level and also internationally, to harmonize to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems, covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short-term but also the longer-term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority, particularly regarding high-level waste and alpha-bearing wastes. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high-level radioactive waste. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities. (author)

  1. A case study on organizational culture and its role in the creation of organizational change efforts within a government agency

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Frank; Faust, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Joint Applied Project In this Joint Applied Project, we present organizational culture implications and lessons-learned to consider during organizational change efforts within government agencies. The government agency studied seeking organizational change was the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ARDEC) and the organizational change effort analyzed was the Technology and Product Development Process, ot...

  2. Climate change mitigation policy paradigms — national objectives and alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit; Christensen, John M.

    2014-01-01

    to the achievement of large GHG emission reductions. Based on these experiences with policy implementation, the paper highlights a number of key coordination and design issues that are pertinent to the successful joint implementation of several energy and climate-change policy goals.......The aim of this paper is to assess how policy goals in relation to the promotion of green growth, energy security, pollution control and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions have been aligned in policies that have been implemented in selected countries during the last decades as a basis...... been widely applied for decades in both developing countries and industrialised countries. Many of these policies have a long history, and adjustments have taken place based on experience and cost effectiveness concerns. Various energy and climate-change policy goals have worked together...

  3. Genetic non-discrimination policy in Canada: Assessing windows of opportunity for policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Adriana V; Al Kindi, Said Y; Randall, Glen E

    2017-11-01

    As the ease of obtaining genetic information for both the diagnosis and treatment of diseases has become increasingly common, so have concerns about the misuse of such information. The obstacles Canada faces in adopting genetic non-discrimination legislation have left health leaders with a lack of clear direction. Using the Kingdon agenda-setting framework, this article will identify lost opportunities for policy change and will analyze the potential for the adoption of a genetic non-discrimination policy in Canada. Windows of opportunity for policy change have existed in the past, but these windows have closed prior to a policy being adopted. More recently, the alignment of problem, policy, and politics streams in the agenda-setting process has resulted in a new window of opportunity. The adoption of a clear and coherent policy will provide the public with protection and health leaders with greater direction around genetic information.

  4. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  5. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions. © 2015 Society for

  6. Climate Change, Public Health, and Policy: A California Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Chandrakala; Smith, Jason A

    2017-10-26

    Anthropogenic activity will bring immediate changes and disruptions to the global climate with accompanying health implications. Although policymakers and public health advocates are beginning to acknowledge the health implications of climate change, current policy approaches are lagging behind. We proposed that 4 key policy principles are critical to successful policymaking in this arena: mainstreaming, linking mitigation and adaptation policy, applying population perspectives, and coordination. We explored California's progress in addressing the public health challenges of climate change in the San Joaquin Valley as an example. We discussed issues of mental health and climate change, and used the San Joaquin Valley of California as an example to explore policy approaches to health issues and climate change. The California experience is instructive for other jurisdictions. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 26, 2017: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304047).

  7. From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. Methods All published and unpublished documented evidence dealing with the antimalarial drug policy change was reviewed. These data were supplemented by the authors' observations of the policy change process. The information has been structured to capture the timing of events, the challenges encountered, and the resolutions reached in order to achieve implementation of the new treatment policy. Results A decision was made to change national drug policy to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in the first quarter of 2002, with a formal announcement made in October 2002. During this period, efforts were undertaken to identify funding for the procurement of AL and to develop new malaria treatment guidelines, training materials, and plans for implementation of the policy. In order to avoid a delay in implementation, the policy change decision required a formal adoption within existing legislation. Starting with donated drug, a phased deployment of AL began in January 2003 with initial use in seven districts followed by scaling up to 28 districts in the second half of 2003 and then to all 72 districts countrywide in early 2004. Conclusion Drug policy changes are not without difficulties and demand a sustained international financing strategy for them to succeed. The Zambian experience demonstrates the need for a harmonized national consensus among many stakeholders and a political commitment to ensure that new policies are translated into practice quickly. To guarantee effective policies requires

  8. Defining response capacity to enhance climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, Emma L.; Neil Adger, W.

    2005-01-01

    Climate change adaptation and mitigation decisions made by governments are usually taken in different policy domains. At the individual level however, adaptation and mitigation activities are undertaken together as part of the management of risk and resources. We propose that a useful starting point to develop a national climate policy is to understand what societal response might mean in practice. First we frame the set of responses at the national policy level as a trade off between investment in the development and diffusion of new technology, and investment in encouraging and enabling society to change its behaviour and or adopt the new technology. We argue that these are the pertinent trade-offs, rather than those usually posited between climate change mitigation and adaptation. The preference for a policy response that focuses more on technological innovation rather than one that focuses on changing social behaviour will be influenced by the capacity of different societies to change their greenhouse gas emissions; by perceived vulnerability to climate impacts; and by capacity to modify social behaviour and physical environment. Starting with this complete vision of response options should enable policy makers to re-evaluate the risk environment and the set of response options available to them. From here, policy makers should consider who is responsible for making climate response decisions and when actions should be taken. Institutional arrangements dictate social and political acceptability of different policies, they structure worldviews, and they determine the provision of resources for investment in technological innovation and social change. The importance of focussing on the timing of the response is emphasised to maximise the potential for adjustments through social learning and institutional change at different policy scales. We argue that the ability to respond to climate change is both enabled and constrained by social and technological conditions

  9. Risk Management as Strategic Change in National Homeland Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    management framework under the NIPP, examines how implementation has been managed as strategic change through the lens of change management theory ...implementation has been managed as strategic change through the lens of change management theory , and offers recommendations for improvement. It is...framework been handled as strategic change in homeland security policy? How might change management theory and practice be applied to assess the

  10. Literacy Globalization and the Demand for Cultural Change Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peykani, Mehraban Hadi; Rad, Hadiyeh Tanhaie

    2016-01-01

    Rapid change has faced, information technology and communications world in the last two decades of the new type of illiteracy, failure to comply with the growth of the doctrine of technology on the one hand and lack of attention to retraining and learning. Traditional methods, educational structures, policies and governing policies and…

  11. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    an open and participatory policy and decision -making at the lower .... people who are open minded and who believe in the success of change ..... Figure 3: Policy Task Force Critical Triangle. Source: Adapted form Catacutan et al. (2001). Farmers and local organisations. R&D Facilitators. Decentralized local government.

  12. The Role of Belief, Trust and Values in Climate Change Science Education Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. W.; Hatheway, B.

    2011-12-01

    At a recent Tri-Agency PI meeting of NSF-, NASA- and NOAA-funded climate change education projects, we asked nearly 20 of our colleagues the following question, "If you had to choose just one of the following, which would it be: you would like the general public to believe that climate change is occurring, or you would like the general public to know that climate change is occurring?" We were a bit surprised when every person canvassed chose that they wanted the public to believe that climate change is occurring. When we inquired why, they all answered something along the lines that "beliefs lead to actions". However, when we looked at the funded efforts of the NASA, NOAA and NSF climate education community we came to the troubling conclusion that the vast majority were designed primarily with knowledge in mind, and that as a community we were perhaps not tackling some important non-scientific issues related to belief, trust and values. It is not surprising, nor unreasonable, that we have taken an approach to climate change education that largely focuses on increasing the knowledge base of the public. First of all, our fundamental task as science researchers is to create new knowledge, so we are typically comfortable discussing it. Secondly, knowledge may serve as a foundation for belief and ultimately lead to changes in behavior. However, this second line of reasoning clearly has limits, and we believe we are seeing these limits manifested in some of the poll numbers related to the general public's position on this topic. When the value of science is pitted against other things that people value, such as family, religion, and jobs, we are faced with the likelihood that it is not going to be as highly regarded by the general public as it is by scientists. Climate change science opponents understand the importance of value and belief, and directly capitalize on it by using two main strategies. First, they effectively minimize the value of climate science by casting

  13. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate change : expert opinion on the economics of policy options to address climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Panelists identified key strengths and limitations of alternative policy approaches that should be of assistance to the Congress in weighing the potential benefits and costs of different policies for addressing climate change. Many panelists said tha...

  15. Changes in plasma level of human leukocyte elastase during leukocytosis from physical effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, R; Tassi, C; Rossi, R; Benedetti, C; Ferranti, C; Paolocci, N; Parisse, I; De Bellis, F; Capodicasa, E

    2003-08-01

    Physical exercise is known to induce immunological changes, mainly leukocytosis and neutrophil activation. However, it is not known to what extent the leukocytosis, observed after exertion, is associated with an increase in plasma neutrophil elastase, an early marker of inflammatory response and neutrophil degranulation. In the present study changes in circulating leukocyte and neutrophil counts and human neutrophil elastase plasma levels were evaluated in volley-ball players before and after 2 h and 12 h prolonged training, during a competition season. For comparison, the same parameters were evaluated in untrained subjects before and after a jogging session. Basal white blood cell WBC, polymorpho nuclear PMN, and human polymorpho nuclear-elastase PMN-ELA values were within the normal healthy reference range and no significant differences were found between the two groups studied. Venous blood samples of nine volley-ball players showed a statistically significant increase in blood WBCs after 2 h exercise. This effect was paralleled by a statistically significant increase in PMN-ELA concentration compared to the values observed in the same individuals at rest. The exercise did not significantly change the basal correlation parameters between PMN level and PMN-ELA concentration. More pronounced WBC, PMN, and PMN-ELA increases were observed in the seven inactive subjects after 2 h jogging. There was no linear correlation between increased PMN counts and increased PMN-ELA concentrations in untrained subjects after exercise. The results show that not only the leukocyte count but also PMN-ELA plasma levels can be higher after physical effort. This has a practical significance as regards differential diagnosis demonstrating that determination of these two laboratory parameters can give abnormally high values even in the absence of an existing inflammatory process. Besides, lack of correlation between PMN count and PMN-ELA plasma levels in the untrained group suggest a

  16. Willingness-to-pay and policy-instrument choice for climate-change policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotchen, Matthew J.; Boyle, Kevin J.; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates in support of a national climate-change policy that are comparable with the costs of actual legislative efforts in the U.S. Congress. Based on a survey of 2034 American adults, we find that households are, on average, willing to pay between $79 and $89 per year in support of reducing domestic greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions 17% by 2020. Even very conservative estimates yield an average WTP at or above $60 per year. Taking advantage of randomized treatments within the survey valuation question, we find that mean WTP does not vary substantially among the policy instruments of a cap-and-trade program, a carbon tax, or a GHG regulation. But there are differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of those willing to pay across policy instruments. Greater education always increases WTP. Older individuals have a lower WTP for a carbon tax and a GHG regulation, while greater household income increases WTP for these same two policy instruments. Republicans, along with those indicating no political party affiliation, have a significantly lower WTP regardless of the policy instrument. But many of these differences are no longer evident after controlling for respondent opinions about whether global warming is actually happening. - Highlights: ► First willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates for actual national climate-change policy in the U.S. ► WTP does not vary among the instruments of a cap-and-trade program, a carbon tax, or a GHG regulation. ► There are differences in the characteristics of those willing to pay across policy instruments. ► No differences after controlling for opinions about whether global warming is actually happening

  17. Learning Outcomes as a Key Concept in Policy Documents throughout Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prøitz, Tine Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Learning outcomes can be considered to be a key concept in a changing education policy landscape, enhancing aspects such as benchmarking and competition. Issues relating to concepts of performance have a long history of debate within the field of education. Today, the concept of learning outcomes has become central in education policy development,…

  18. Education Policy Influence Efficacy: Teacher Beliefs in Their Ability to Change Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant-Crawford, Brandi

    2016-01-01

    Guided by Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) this study sought to understand how teachers view themselves as educational policy actors and to construct an instrument that measures teacher beliefs about their aptitude to advocate for changes in educational policy. This study employed a sequential explanatory design, characterized by quantitative data…

  19. Bangladesh - Policy Note on Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The country is ranked as the most vulnerable to natural disasters due to frequent cyclones, storm surges and floods, coupled with a high population density and growth, and low climate resilience. In most years between 30-50 percent of the country is affected by floods. Climate change is projected to change the intensity and frequency of natural disasters, exacerbate the extent of floodin...

  20. European climate change policy beyond 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    There is an increasing scientific consensus that human activities do trigger climate changes. Actual forecasts predict temperature increases that are likely to be beyond the adaptation potential of ecosystems. These considerations play a major role in shaping public opinion and the media landscape, culminating in the view that Europe needs to play a leading role in combating climate change.

  1. Air pollution policy in Europe: Quantifying the interaction with greenhouse gases and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Johannes; Brink, Corjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the computable general equilibrium model WorldScan to analyse interactions between EU's air pollution and climate change policies. Covering the entire world and seven EU countries, WorldScan simulates economic growth in a neo-classical recursive dynamic framework, including emissions and abatement of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 ) and air pollutants (SO 2 , NO x , NH 3 and PM 2.5 ). Abatement includes the possibility of using end-of-pipe control options that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. This paper analyses several variants of EU's air pollution policies for the year 2020. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than two thirds, thus also at least one third of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease, which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, and may even drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy. - Highlights: • This paper models bottom-up emission control in top-down CGE model. • We analyse interactions between air pollution and climate policies in Europe. • Structural changes induced by stringent air policies may make EU-ETS market obsolete

  2. From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to Sustainable Agriculture. Research on climate change and its impact on the ... Outputs. Journal articles. Factors affecting households vulnerability to climate change in Swaziland : a case of Mpolonjeni Area Development Programme (ADP). Download PDF ...

  3. Introduction: Greening the countryside? Changing frameworks of EU agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Philip; Feindt, Peter H; Vihinen, Hilkka

    2010-01-01

    In response to wide-ranging criticism of agricultural policy, especially within Western industrialized countries, new frameworks of justification are emerging and new hybrid policy fields have been established to tackle some of the ‘externalities’ of agricultural support. However, institutional frameworks are proving slower to change, partly because this would require coordinated action across different levels of governance. Nevertheless, previously marginalized environmental concerns have successfully gained entrance to agricultural policy networks, while the intersection of trade liberalization and rural diversification have undermined the dominance of the productivist mindset in government. This gives rise to a plurality of policy actors and actions which defy the conventional categories of analysis of agricultural policy, calling for changing frameworks on the polity of agriculture too.

  4. Climate change and US energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, D.G.; Bloyd, C.N.; Boyd, G.A.; Santini, D.J.; Veselka, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    We present an analysis of the ability of the US to achieve significant reductions in CO 2 emissions in the future. The emission-reduction objectives are 20% by the year 2000 and 50% by 2010, measured relative to 1985 levels. The economic sectors studied are electricity supply, industrial manufacturing; and transportation. The near-term reductions are considered to be achievable but with significant disruptions; the long-term goals are unlikely to be achieved without new breakthroughs in technology. Electricity-supply options, such as increased use of NG and more-efficient technologies, cannot alone allow us to achieve the goals, and end-use conservation will likely be the major contributor. Policy intervention in the industrial sector could achieve significant emission reductions, but concerns about international competition are important. In the transportation sector, analysis shows that fuel-economy regulation is preferable to gasoline-price increases. (author)

  5. The Monetary Policy in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Trandafir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In a context where “the economies’ evolution is driven by the crisis”, the monetary policies are facing, in the post-crisis period, challenges that bring to the forefront of debates the rethinking of objectives, strategies and even implementation tools. This paper presents in a comparative analysis, the relevance of price stability in terms of theoretical fundaments and effectiveness of the concept for the pre and post – crisis periods, in the Eurozone, the US and Japan in an attempt to identify the explicative resorts of the central bank’s monetary behavior. At this time when the central banks are obliged to unconventional measures to save the global economy from the danger of deflation, the topic is important and timely addressed. The paper uses statistical data of official documents taken from the International Monetary Fund, European Union and central bank websites.

  6. Climate Change: Science and Policy Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leggett, Jane A

    2007-01-01

    .... During the 20th Century, some areas became wetter while others experienced more drought. Most climate scientists conclude that humans have induced a large part of the climate change since the 1970s...

  7. Large uncertainty in carbon uptake potential of land-based climate-change mitigation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Pugh, Thomas A M; Bayer, Anita D; Li, Wei; Leung, Felix; Bondeau, Alberte; Doelman, Jonathan C; Humpenöder, Florian; Anthoni, Peter; Bodirsky, Benjamin L; Ciais, Philippe; Müller, Christoph; Murray-Tortarolo, Guillermo; Olin, Stefan; Popp, Alexander; Sitch, Stephen; Stehfest, Elke; Arneth, Almut

    2018-03-23

    Most climate mitigation scenarios involve negative emissions, especially those that aim to limit global temperature increase to 2°C or less. However, the carbon uptake potential in land-based climate change mitigation efforts is highly uncertain. Here, we address this uncertainty by using two land-based mitigation scenarios from two land-use models (IMAGE and MAgPIE) as input to four dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs; LPJ-GUESS, ORCHIDEE, JULES, LPJmL). Each of the four combinations of land-use models and mitigation scenarios aimed for a cumulative carbon uptake of ~130 GtC by the end of the century, achieved either via the cultivation of bioenergy crops combined with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) or avoided deforestation and afforestation (ADAFF). Results suggest large uncertainty in simulated future land demand and carbon uptake rates, depending on the assumptions related to land use and land management in the models. Total cumulative carbon uptake in the DGVMs is highly variable across mitigation scenarios, ranging between 19 and 130 GtC by year 2099. Only one out of the 16 combinations of mitigation scenarios and DGVMs achieves an equivalent or higher carbon uptake than achieved in the land-use models. The large differences in carbon uptake between the DGVMs and their discrepancy against the carbon uptake in IMAGE and MAgPIE are mainly due to different model assumptions regarding bioenergy crop yields, and due to the simulation of soil carbon response to land-use change. Differences between land-use models and DGVMs regarding forest biomass and the rate of forest regrowth also have an impact, albeit smaller, on the results. Given the low confidence in simulated carbon uptake for a given land-based mitigation scenario, and that negative emissions simulated by the DGVMs are typically lower than assumed in scenarios consistent with the 2°C target, relying on negative emissions to mitigate climate change is a highly uncertain strategy. This article is

  8. Malaria Treatment Policy Change and Implementation: The Case of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Nanyunja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  9. Malaria treatment policy change and implementation: the case of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, Miriam; Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Kato, Frederick; Kaggwa, Mugagga; Katureebe, Charles; Saweka, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  10. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  11. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy.

  12. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation. (letter)

  13. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-09-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

  14. Climate Change: Science and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    of the United States occurred in the late 13th and 16th Centuries, and that some droughts in the Sierra Nevada may have lasted more than 100 years...JB-Report.pdf.]; M. Parry, C. Rosenzweig, and M. Livermore, “Climate Change, global food supply and risk of hunger ,” Phil. Trans. Royal. Soc. B. 360

  15. Climate change and radical energy innovation: the policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Keith

    2009-01-15

    How can we sustain global economic performance while reducing and perhaps eliminating climate impacts? This dual objective ultimately requires the innovation of radically new low- or zero-emitting energy technologies. But what is involved in such innovation, and why and how should governments support it? What are the implications for innovation policy makers? The paper discusses the nature of the innovation challenge of climate change, develops a framework for analyzing modes of innovation, applies the framework to energy technologies and analyses policies for energy innovation. The overall argument is that we are 'locked in' to an unsustainable but large-scale hydrocarbon energy system. The innovation problem is to develop alternatives to this system as a whole. Yet despite widespread environmental innovation efforts and incentives, these are not yet addressing the innovation challenge on an adequate scale. The analytical framework sees technologies not as single techniques but as multi-faceted technological 'regimes'. Technological regimes comprise production systems and methods, scientific and engineering knowledge organization, infrastructures, and social patterns of technology use. We live not with individual energy technologies but with a complex hydrocarbon regime. Against this background we can identify three modes of innovation, with very different characteristics. They are; Incremental innovations - upgrades to existing technologies, producing innovation within existing technological regimes, such as increases in the capabilities and speeds of microprocessors; Disruptive innovations - new methods of performing existing technical functions, changing how things are done, but not changing the overall regime, such as the shift from film to digital imaging; Radical innovations - technological regime shifts, involving wholly new technical functions, new knowledge bases, and new organizational forms, such as the transition from steam power

  16. Norwegian gas export policy - management of external change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claes, Dag Harald.

    1997-01-01

    This report is the first study in the research project '' Norwegian gas policy - external change and national adaptation''. The project is financed through Norges forskningsraad's research program ''Petropol''. The main aim of the project is to understand the market, political and institutional changes in the European gas market as well as what implications they may have for the political and institutional design of the Norwegian gas sector. In this report an approach model is developed for studying the connection between changes in the European gas market and the Norwegian petroleum policy which will be central in several of the later works in the project. The report gives a historic account of Norwegian gas export policy as well, a field where altered frame conditions have given the authorities political and institutional challenges. The main focus in the report is however, connected to the empirical explanation of the connection between changed external environments and alterations in the Norwegian gas export policy. The question the study tries to answer is: To what extent and how the Norwegian gas export policy is affected by alterations in the European gas market and the EU policy towards this market. In the centre of the study of the gas export policy is the element of governmental control. The governmental control assumes ability to formulate national aims as well as the ability to produce laws and regulations which reflects the goals and counts on that the aims are reached in addition to that the authorities either implement the policies themselves or if this is left to other parties, have ability to survey and sanction these parties should they break the guidelines or oppose the national political aims. The report shows how these aspects are affected by changes in the environments surrounding the Norwegian gas export. 6 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

  17. Crisis and perspectives on policy change: Swedish counter-terrorism policymaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansén, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    Crisis experience are often said to be catalysts for policy change. A look back at the policy change initiatives in counter-terrorism policy post 9/11, 3/11 and 7/7, suggests a clear pattern. Crises generate policy change. However, prior to these attacks Swedish counter-terrorism policy change

  18. Changes in policies or regulations on the US national level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Abrupt changes in policy due to fundamental leadership changes in Government can be highly disruptive of innovative programmes such as reindustrialization, as demonstrated at Oak Ridge. Both new businesses and the community were adversely affected by significant changes in policy and priorities emanating from USDOE headquarters. Local programmes need to be carefully evaluated by the communities they are designed to benefit as to their economic viability in the absence of Federal funding and their ability to be self-sustaining in the long term

  19. Induced innovations and climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakeman, G.; Hinchy, M.; Fisher, B.S.; Woffenden, K.; Hanslow, K.

    2004-01-01

    With the recent progress in Bonn and Marrakech on the details required for implementing the Kyoto Protocol, entry into force in 2003 is now a possibility. This paper assesses the potential macroeconomic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol, given the recent negotiated developments. In addition, given the recent attempts in the literature to model endogenous technical change in general equilibrium models, a new methodology for incorporating the induced innovations hypothesis into a general equilibrium model is described and implemented. In line with previous work, it is found that incorporation of the hypothesis reduces abatement costs. (author)

  20. Forests and climate change adaptation policies in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bele, M.Y.; Somorin, O.A.; Sonwa, D.J.; Nkem, J.N.; Locatelli, B.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, adaptation has become a key focus of the scientific and policy-making communities and is a major area of discussion in the multilateral climate change process. As climate change is projected to hit the poorest the hardest, it is especially important for developing countries to pay

  1. Effects of Policy and Technological Change on Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig; Mary Clare. Ahearn

    2004-01-01

    Land use in the United States is dynamic, as discussed in Chapter 2, with millions of acres of Land shifting uses each year. Many of these land-use changes are the result of market forces in an economy affected by modem technology and policy choices. Changes in land use are the result of choices inade by individuals, corporations, nongovernmental organizations, and...

  2. The Governance of Climate Change Adaptation Through Urban Policy Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, E.K.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly posing risks to infrastructure and public services in cities across the global South. Building on ideas of policy experimentation at the nexus of institutional and transition theories, this paper assesses six climate change adaptation experiments across the cities of

  3. EU climate change policy: the challenge of new regulatory initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, M.; Deketelaere, K. (eds.) [Institute for Transnational Legal Research - METRO, University of Maestricht (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    The book explores the current policy measures adopted by the EU in order to realise its Kyoto Protocol commitment and to prepare for further emission reductions after 2012. Contents: Part 1: Introduction, Part II: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Within the EU Part III: Energy and Climate Change Measures, Part IV: Good Governance for Climate Change: Reflections and Perspectives.

  4. The nursing profession in Sri Lanka: time for policy changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwihare-Samaranayake, D; Ogilvie, L; Cummings, G G; Gellatly, Ian R

    2017-09-01

    We address issues and challenges in nursing in Sri Lanka with the aim of identifying where and how policy changes need to be made. Increased global interconnectivity calls for professional leadership, research, education, and policy reform in nursing as these are identified as enhancing health workforce performance and professionalization, thereby improving health systems. We draw on first-hand knowledge of health care and nursing in Sri Lanka and a recent survey of nurses at a large urban government hospital in Sri Lanka, followed by discussion and proposed action on themes identified through analysis of published and unpublished literature about the nursing profession. Policy and action are needed to: (a) establish mandatory nurse licensure in the public and private healthcare sectors; (b) implement realistic policies to further develop nursing education; (c) develop a professionalization process to support nursing autonomy and voice; and (d) promote systematic processes for educational accreditation, curriculum revision, continuing professional development, evidence-based practice, research, leadership, and information systems. There is a policy vacuum that requires careful analysis and strategic planning by formal nurse leaders. Implementing change will require political and professional power and strategic, innovative, and evolutionary policy initiatives as well as organizational infrastructure modifications best achieved through committed multidisciplinary collaboration, augmented research capacity, bolstered nursing leadership, and promotion of partnerships with policy makers. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  5. The case for integrated air quality and climate change policies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available challenges. Based on recent climate negotiations, early policy development and planning for climate change within air quality management (AQM) policies may position cities to capitalise on opportunities to reduce baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions... are based on annual average 11 mileages and are used to encourage fewer trips and reduce the amount that motor vehicles are driven (Greene et al., 2007). Disincentives to reduce traffic on congested roads have also been shown to be effective. A good...

  6. ARE PRICING POLICIES EFFECTIVE TO CHANGE CAR USE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertje SCHUITEMA

    2007-01-01

    Results revealed that under pricing policies most people did not intend to change their car use. Pricing policies were relatively more effective when prices increased significantly. Especially visiting and shopping trips were affected, while commuting trips were hardly affected. Moreover, respondents were most likely to reduce their car use for short trips, which are an important source of CO2 emissions and local air pollution.

  7. Climate change policy in a growing economy under catastrophic risks

    OpenAIRE

    Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos

    2007-01-01

    Under risk of catastrophic climate change, the occurrence hazard is added to the social discount rate. As a result, the social discount rate (i) increases and (ii) turns endogenous to the global warming policy. The second effect bears profound policy implications that are magnifed by economic growth. In particular, it implies that green- house gases (GHG) emission should gradually be brought to a halt. Due to the public bad nature of the catastrophic risk, the second effect is ignored in a co...

  8. Reforming primary healthcare: from public policy to organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Denis, Jean-Louis; Lamothe, Lise; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; D'amour, Danielle; Goudreau, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Governments everywhere are implementing reform to improve primary care. However, the existence of a high degree of professional autonomy makes large-scale change difficult to achieve. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the change dynamics and the involvement of professionals in a primary healthcare reform initiative carried out in the Canadian province of Quebec. An empirical approach was used to investigate change processes from the inception of a public policy to the execution of changes in professional practices. The data were analysed from a multi-level, combined contextualist-processual perspective. Results are based on a longitudinal multiple-case study of five family medicine groups, which was informed by over 100 interviews, questionnaires, and documentary analysis. The results illustrate the multiple processes observed with the introduction of planned large-scale change in primary care services. The analysis of change content revealed that similar post-change states concealed variations between groups in the scale of their respective changes. The analysis also demonstrated more precisely how change evolved through the introduction of "intermediate change" and how cycles of prescribed and emergent mechanisms distinctively drove change process and change content, from the emergence of the public policy to the change in primary care service delivery. This research was conducted among a limited number of early policy adopters. However, given the international interest in turning to the medical profession to improve primary care, the results offer avenues for both policy development and implementation. The findings offer practical insights for those studying and managing large-scale transformations. They provide a better understanding of how deliberate reforms coexist with professional autonomy through an intertwining of change content and processes. This research is one of few studies to examine a primary care reform from emergence to implementation

  9. Nuclear power and post-2012 energy and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, Daniel; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2008-01-01

    At present there is no binding agreement (at a global level) to address the risk of anthropogenic climate change after 2012. Disagreements abound with respect to a post-2012 climate change agreement, on issues such as economic development, policy criteria, environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, equity, dynamic flexibility, complementarity, enforceability and so on. One such disagreement is whether or not nuclear power should play a role in a post-2012 climate change agreement. This qualitative analysis explores the conditions under which nuclear power could contribute to addressing climate change in post-2012 architectures. It reveals that - given the right framework conditions - some architectures, like 'cap and trade' regimes or 'policies and measures' can improve the competitiveness of nuclear power plants, while others are unlikely to provide incentives for nuclear energy development in the short to medium term, such as adaptation and technology cooperation. Overall, the study concludes that post-2012 climate change policy should aim at providing policy flexibility without compromising technology flexibility. For example, the provision of long-term commitment periods has the potential to enable better investments in existing low-carbon technologies but stifle the policy flexibility that political decision makers are often keen to retain so that they can respond more quickly to new scientific evidence or advances in clean technology development

  10. Reported Systems Changes and Sustainability Perceptions of Three State Departments of Health Implementing Multi-Faceted Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the concepts of systems change and sustainability are not new, little is known about the factors associated with systems change sustaining multi-state, multi-level fall prevention efforts. This exploratory study focuses on three State Departments of Health (DOH that were awarded 5-year funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to simultaneously implement four separate yet related evidence-based fall prevention initiatives at the clinical, community, and policy level. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in partnerships and collaborative activities that occurred to accomplish project goals (examining changes in the context of “before funding” and “after funding was received”. Additionally, this study explored changes in State DOH perceptions about action related to sustainability indicators in the context of “during funding” and “after funding ends.” Findings from this study document the partnership and activity changes necessary to achieve defined fall prevention goals after funding is received, and that the importance of sustainability indicator documentation is seen as relevant during funding, but less so after the funding ends. Findings from this study have practice and research implications that can inform future funded efforts in terms of sector and stakeholder engagement necessary for initiating, implementing, and sustaining community- and clinical-based fall prevention interventions.

  11. Reported Systems Changes and Sustainability Perceptions of Three State Departments of Health Implementing Multi-Faceted Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Schneider, Ellen C.; Byers, Imani N.; Shubert, Tiffany E.; Wilson, Ashley D.; Towne, Samuel D.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2017-01-01

    Although the concepts of systems change and sustainability are not new, little is known about the factors associated with systems change sustaining multi-state, multi-level fall prevention efforts. This exploratory study focuses on three State Departments of Health (DOH) that were awarded 5-year funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to simultaneously implement four separate yet related evidence-based fall prevention initiatives at the clinical, community, and policy level. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in partnerships and collaborative activities that occurred to accomplish project goals (examining changes in the context of “before funding” and “after funding was received”). Additionally, this study explored changes in State DOH perceptions about action related to sustainability indicators in the context of “during funding” and “after funding ends.” Findings from this study document the partnership and activity changes necessary to achieve defined fall prevention goals after funding is received, and that the importance of sustainability indicator documentation is seen as relevant during funding, but less so after the funding ends. Findings from this study have practice and research implications that can inform future funded efforts in terms of sector and stakeholder engagement necessary for initiating, implementing, and sustaining community- and clinical-based fall prevention interventions. PMID:28642861

  12. Contaminated Sediment Management in Dam Removals and River Restoration Efforts: Critical Need for Research and Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Over 1,000 U.S. dams have been removed (1975-2015) for reasons including obsolescence, liability concerns, water quality upgrades, fisheries, or ecosystem enhancements. Contaminated sediment can significantly complicate the approval process, cost, and timeline of a dam removal, or stop it entirely. In a dam removal, reservoir sediment changes from a sink to a source of contaminants. Recently, the Sierra Club sued to stop the removal of a large dam in Ohio because of the potential impact of phosphate releases on toxic algal blooms in Lake Erie. Heavy metals, PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and petroleum hydrocarbons can be present in reservoir sediments. In a non-dam removal scenario, reservoir management tools range from "no action" to dredging, dewatering and removal, or sediment capping. But it is not clear how these reservoir management techniques apply to dam removals. Case studies show typically >80% of the reservoir sediment is eventually eroded, precluding sediment capping as a containment option. However, the released contaminants are diluted by mixing with "clean" sediment and are transported to different physio-chemical environments which may immobilize or biodegrade the contaminants. Poorly understood options include phased drawdown/reseeding the former reservoir to contain sediments, diking contaminant "hot spots," and addressing contaminant stratigraphy (where historical use created "hot layers" in the reservoir sediment). Research and policy development needs include: (1) assessment methods based on synergistic effects of multiple contaminants being present; (2) ways to translate the pre-removal contaminant concentrations to post-removal health risks downstream; (3) evaluation of management practices for contaminant "hot spots" and "hot layers;" (4) tools to forecast the presence of contaminated sediment using easily accessible information; and (5) ways to limit liability risk for organizations participating in dam removals involving contaminated sediment.

  13. Cities in Climate Change Mitigation Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paugam, Anne; Giraud, Gael; Thauvin, Eric

    2015-03-01

    The phenomenon of accelerated urbanization of emerging and developing economies is a potential source of harmful environmental impacts on people's well-being. Major negative effects can especially be expected on the climate, possibly compromising, in the long run, large-scale local economic development. This is because the urban environment is characterized by a concentration of activities with high energy consumption (between 56 and 78% of final energy used is ascribable to transportation and buildings, as well as to industries and services). These activities, in addition to generating significant local pollution, are a large source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to divergent methods of calculation as well as to the perimeter of urban activities, there is uncertainty about the exact extent to which these activities contribute to GHG. Nonetheless, a strong increase in the overall impact of cities on climate change can be expected. The international community wants to reach a coordinated commitment to keep global warming between now and the end of the 21. century under the threshold of an average 2 deg. C higher than the temperature of the pre-industrial age and thereby prevent irreversible damage from climate disturbance. This comes down to examining the potential of cities to contribute to implementing effective solutions. However, analysis of mid- to long-term impacts of urban development strategies on GHG emissions is still difficult, due to great complexity of the underlying impact mechanisms. Because of the large number of sectors and services concerned (transportation infrastructures and networks, energy-management services, and urban spatial planning), urban development strategies can simultaneously have a direct and indirect effect on several sources of GHG emissions. They are also highly dependent on each country's competence level and institutional organization. Despite this complexity, the urgency of the climate issues linked to growing

  14. The role of economic policy in climate change adaption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Kai A. [Max Planck Institute for Tax Law and Public Finance, Munich (Germany); Thum, Marcel [Technical Univ. Dresden (Germany). Faculty of Business and Economics

    2012-10-15

    This paper assesses the role of the public sector in adaptation to climate change. We first offer a definition and categorisation of climate change adaptation. We then consider the primary economic principles that can guide the assignment of adaptation tasks to either the private or the public sector, as well as those guiding assignment within the public sector itself. We find that the role of the state in adaptation policy is limited. We identify information policy, the provision of a suitable regulatory framework in some markets, the formation of human capital and policies that foster economic growth and technological and medical knowledge as the main areas in which the public sector has a role in climate change adaptation.

  15. Overview of past, ongoing and future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Erwan; Kicklighter, David; Sokolov, Andrei; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry; Reilly, John

    2016-04-01

    Northern Eurasia is both a major player in the global carbon budget (it includes roughly 70% of the Earth's boreal forest and more than two-thirds of the Earth's permafrost) and a region that has experienced dramatic climate change (increase in temperature, growing season length, floods and droughts) over the past century. Northern Eurasia has also undergone significant land-use change, both driven by human activity (including deforestation, expansion of agricultural lands and urbanization) and natural disturbances (such as wildfires and insect outbreaks). These large environmental and socioeconomic impacts have major implications for the carbon cycle in the region. Northern Eurasia is made up of a diverse set of ecosystems that range from tundra to forests, with significant areas of croplands and pastures as well as deserts, with major urban areas. As such, it represents a complex system with substantial challenges for the modeling community. In this presentation, we provide an overview of past, ongoing and possible future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia. We review the variety of existing modeling approaches to investigate specific components of Earth system dynamics in the region. While there are a limited number of studies that try to integrate various aspects of the Earth system (through scale, teleconnections or processes), we point out that there are few systematic analyses of the various feedbacks within the Earth system (between components, regions or scale). As a result, there is a lack of knowledge of the relative importance of such feedbacks, and it is unclear how policy relevant current studies are that fail to account for these feedbacks. We review the role of Earth system models, and their advantages/limitations compared to detailed single component models. We further introduce the human activity system (global trade, economic models, demographic model and so on), the need for coupled human/earth system models

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Policies around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Aagenes, Eirin Birgitte; Fergestad, Erling; Gaims, Adam; Grinde, Ragnar Mar; Heffeman, Kira Krokeide; Hollekim, Dag Petter Talleraas; Kotipalli, Sushmitha; Landmark, Birgitte Eitrem; Ogg, Willemijn; Presthaug, Erik; Rio, Tonje Karin; Rønnevik, John Sverre; Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Selseng, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    Country briefings provided by: Master Course GE_4_300 “Climate Change and Climate Policy”. Preparatory material for the climate change negotiation game "World Climate" This briefing provides an overview on major countries sumrnarizing their greenhouse gas emission profiles, economic and political situation, major societal challenges and national policies relevant to tackle global climate change. The countries are marked green in above map. In alphabetical order these are: Australia, Brazil...

  17. Changing Landscapes in Documentation Efforts : Civil Society Documentation of Serious Human Rights Violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Gonigle, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    Wittingly or unwittingly, civil society actors have long been faced with the task of documenting serious human rights violations. Thirty years ago, such efforts were largely organised by grassroots movements, often with little support or funding from international actors. Sharing information and

  18. Impact of Wisconsin Medicaid Policy Change on Dental Sealant Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Garcia, Raul I; Gonzalez, Cesar; Visotcky, Alexis; Szabo, Aniko

    2018-02-01

    In September 2006, Wisconsin Medicaid changed its policy to allow nondentists to become certified Medicaid providers and to bill for sealants in public health settings. This study examined changes in patterns of dental sealant utilization in first molars of Wisconsin Medicaid enrollees associated with a policy change. The Electronic Data Systems of Medicaid Evaluation and Decision Support for Wisconsin from 2001 to 2009. Retrospective claims data analysis of Wisconsin Dental Medicaid for children aged 6-16 years. A total of 479,847 children followed up for 1,441,300 person-years with 64,546 visits were analyzed. The rate of visits for sealants by dentists increased significantly from 3 percent per year prepolicy to 11 percent per year postpolicy, and that of nondentists increased from 18 percent per year to 20 percent after the policy change, but this was not significant. Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest visit rates for sealant application by dentists and nondentists pre- and postpolicy periods. The Wisconsin Medicaid policy change was associated with increased rates of visits for dental sealant placement by dentists. The rate of visits with sealant placements by nondentists increased at the same rate pre- and postpolicy change. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Age-related changes in listening effort for various types of masker noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Jamie L; Doherty, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive function, listening effort, and speech recognition for a group of younger and older adults with normal hearing and a group of older adults with hearing impairment in various types of background maskers. The authors hypothesize that, as the masker condition becomes more difficult listening effort will increase, but the increase will be greater for older participants than for younger participants. A dual-task paradigm was used to objectively evaluate listening effort. The primary task required participants to repeat sentences presented in three different background-masker conditions: (1) two-talker (TT), (2) six-talker, and (3) speech-shaped noise (SSN). The secondary task was a Digital Visual Pursuit Rotor Tracking test, for which participants were instructed to use a computer mouse to track a moving target around an ellipse that was displayed on a computer screen. Each of the two tasks was separately and concurrently presented at a fixed overall speech-recognition performance level of 76% correct. In addition, participants subjectively rated how easy it was to listen to the sentences in each masker condition on a scale from 0 (i.e., very difficult) to 100 (i.e., very easy). Last, participants completed a battery of cognitive tests that measured working memory (Reading Span Test), processing speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test), and selective attention (Stroop Test) ability. Results revealed that participants' working memory and processing speed abilities were significantly related to their speech-recognition performance in noise in all three background-masker conditions. Participants rated the TT condition to be the most difficult listening condition and the SSN condition to be the easiest listening condition. Both groups of older participants expended significantly more listening effort than younger participants did in the SSN and TT masker conditions. For each group of

  20. Drug policy in Vietnam: a decade of change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thu; Ali, Robert; Baldwin, Simon; Mills, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Driven by the rapid spread of HIV, Vietnam's response to drug use has undergone significant transformation in the past decade. This paper seeks to identify and analyse factors that prompted these changes and to investigate their impact on the lives of people who use drugs. This policy analysis is based on a review of Vietnamese Government documents, peer-reviewed publications and the authors' knowledge of and involvement in drug policy in Vietnam. The last decade has witnessed a progressive change in the mindset of political leaders in Vietnam around illicit drug use and HIV issues. This has led to adoption of evidence-based interventions and the evolution of drug policy that support the scale up of these interventions. However, HIV prevalence among drug users at 31.5% remains high due to limited access to effective interventions and impediments caused by the compulsory treatment centre system. The twin epidemics of HIV and illicit drug use have commanded high-level political attention in Vietnam. Significant policy changes have allowed the implementation of HIV prevention and drug dependence treatment services. Nevertheless, inconsistencies between policies and a continued commitment to compulsory treatment centres remain as major impediments to the provision of effective services to drug users. It is critical that Vietnamese government agencies recognise the social and health consequences of policy conflicts and acknowledge the relative ineffectiveness of centre-based compulsory treatment. In order to facilitate practical changes, the roles of the three ministries directly charged with HIV and illicit drug use need to be harmonised to ensure common goals. The participation of civil society in the policymaking process should also be encouraged. Finally, stronger links between local evidence, policy and practice would increase the impact on HIV prevention and drug addiction treatment programming. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Global climate change policies. An analysis of CDM policies with an adapted GTAP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shunli

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the relationships between spatial-economic interaction and global warming just discussed, this study aims to analyze the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) policies from an economic point of view. The research question of this study is formulated as follows: What will be the impacts of clirnate change policies, in particular CDM policies, on the economic performance of (groups of) countries in our global economic system, taking spatial interaction and general equilibrium effects into account? The purpose of addressing the issue of economic performance for (groups of) countries in the economic system is not just to identify winners and losers from international treaties. Rather, winning or losing may even determine the implementation and willingness of individual countries to participate in international environmental treaties, as illustrated by the recent withdrawal of the US from the Kyoto Protocol. By analyzing the economic impacts of an international environmental treaty for individual (groups of) countries, the framework that will be used to analyze this research question may be useful to determine the attractiveness of some global environmental policies, both for the world as a whole and for individual (groups of) countries. The research question will be answered by dividing it into six subquestions: (1) What is the position of CDM policies in the broad context of climate policy regimes?; (2) How should the relationship between human behavior and the physical environment be ideally modeled from an economic perspective? (3) How should the spatial dimension be incorporated in this framework of interaction between the economic and ecological system?; (4) How can climate change issues be incorporated in general equilibrium models in general, and in GTAP-E (extension of the Global Trade Analysis Project) in particular?; (5) How can CDM policies be implemented in the GTAP-E model?; and (6) What are the impacts of these climate change policies on

  2. Energy savings in drastic climate change policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoard, Stephane; Wiesenthal, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a climate change policy scenario compatible with long-term sustainable objectives set at EU level (6th Environment Action Plan). By setting ambitious targets for GHG emissions reduction by 2030, this normative scenario relies on market-based instruments and flexible mechanisms. The integrated policy that is simulated (i.e. addressing energy, transport, agriculture and environmental impacts) constitutes a key outlook for the next 5-year report of the European Environment Agency (EEA). This scenario highlights what it would take to drastically curb EU GHG emissions and how much it might cost. The findings show that such a 'deep reduction' climate policy could work as a powerful catalyst for (1) substantial energy savings, and (2) promoting sustainable energy systems in the long term. The implications of this policy lever on the energy system are many-fold indeed, e.g. a substantial limitation of total energy demand or significant shifts towards energy and environment-friendly technologies on the supply side. Clear and transparent price signals, which are associated with market-based instruments, appear to be a key factor ensuring sufficient visibility for capital investment in energy efficient and environment-friendly options. Finally it is suggested that market-based policy options, which are prone to lead to win-win situations and are of particular interest from an integrated policy-making perspective, would also significantly benefit from an enhanced energy policy framework

  3. Framing, Engagement, and Policy Change: Lessons for the ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Andrew; Rosenthal, Aaron

    2017-04-01

    Supporters of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) sometimes speculate that public attitudes toward the law will shift if proponents succeed in focusing attention on its more popular components, but the scholarly literature on framing effects provides ample reason to question their assertion. This article contends that engagement, an alternative rhetorical strategy where advocates address the same policy dimensions as their opponents, is a more promising approach. Extending the engagement literature to the elite context in which most ACA-related decisions are made, it argues that elite-level engagement necessitates the additional task of linking policy change to opponents' broader philosophical and policy goals. Current debates surrounding the application of sales taxes to electronic commerce-a policy arena that seems far removed from health care policy but overlaps with the ACA in ways that make it an appropriate source of lesson drawing-illustrate the potential of an engagement strategy. Recently, many conservative lawmakers who previously opposed policy change have instead embraced online sales taxes as a mechanism for additional tax cuts. Analogous connections may facilitate the diffusion of ACA provisions that presently receive hostile receptions in Republican-leaning states. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  4. Changing Paradigms: A Sketch for Sustainable Wellbeing and Ecosocial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Hirvilammi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in the Anthropocene era, where human action has an unforeseen impact on global ecosystems. This is visible, for instance, in climate change, in the loss of biodiversity and in the acidification of the oceans. Little attention is given to the fact that the Anthropocene is related to anthropocentric thinking that also guides our policies. Therefore, we argue that ecologically and socially sustainable policies will not be achieved by incidental policy measures alone, but a change of paradigm is needed. In our article, we lay out the tenets of a relational paradigm resting on holistic thinking and deep ecology. On the basis of this paradigm, the principles, conceptions and goals specific to any given policy can be formulated, giving them a common ground. In this article, we apply the relational paradigm to social policy in order to contribute to the quest for sustainable wellbeing in the overconsuming welfare states. Here, we formulate a multidimensional and relational conception of wellbeing, the HDLB-model (Having-Doing-Loving-Being, which is a modification of sociologist Erik Allardt’s theory. We illustrate how this model could provide the foundation of a sustainable ecosocial policy.

  5. Air Pollution Policy in Europe. Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, J. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, Den Haag (Netherlands); Brink, C. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    In this study the Computable General Equilibrium Model called WorldScan is used to analyse interactions between European air pollution policies and policies aimed at addressing climate change. WorldScan incorporates the emissions of both greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). WorldScan has been extended with equations that enable the simulation of end-of-pipe measures that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than 50%, thus also at least 50% of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, but not more than 33%, although they could drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

  6. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba E. Gámez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  7. Indonesian National Policy on Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Yun Santoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From its arousal, the issue of climate change or global warming has become a distinct global trend setter in multidisciplinary discussion, including in the law perspective. Within legal discourse, the issue of climate change developed rapidly into several aspect, not only about adaptation nor mitigation, especially since the plurality of moral conviction relevant to the climate change facts. As a global matter, each country has the responsibility to adapt and mitigate with its own character and policy. This normative research aims to explore and describe in brief the Indonesian national policy in climate change adaptation and mitigation. Gradually, the contribution of Indonesia is getting firm and solid to the climate change regime, especially after the Bali Action Plan 2007.

  8. Background document for climate change policy options in Northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an initial compilation of background material in support of the development of climate change policy options for the jurisdictions of Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut in Northern Canada. While Northern Canada contributes only a small fraction of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, scientists forecast changes in average annual temperatures to be among the highest in the world. The Northern Climate Exchange at Yukon College was created in March 2001 to address this issue and to help guide northerners in what they can do now and in the future. This paper includes an annotated bibliography of a total of 75 international, national, and territorial policy documents and major reference documents relevant to climate change issues. It is meant to be a resource for researchers, policy analysts and government officials developing policy options and implementing programs for Northern Canada. While each of the three northern territories are at a different stage in the evolution of their climate change activities, they are all striving to develop strategies and action plans and to initiate the implementation of those plans. It is recognized that many long-standing programs and initiatives, particularly in the areas of energy efficiency and alternate energy, will help northern jurisdictions address their climate change objectives. The three territories are cooperating to deliver their message to the federal government. 75 refs., 4 figs

  9. Outcome and value uncertainties in global-change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammitt, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Choices among environmental policies can be informed by analysis of the potential physical, biological, and social outcomes of alternative choices, and analysis of social preferences among these outcomes. Frequently, however, the consequences of alternative policies cannot be accurately predicted because of substantial outcome uncertainties concerning physical, chemical, biological, and social processes linking policy choices to consequences. Similarly, assessments of social preferences among alternative outcomes are limited by value uncertainties arising from limitations of moral principles, the absence of economic markets for many environmental attributes, and other factors. Outcome and value uncertainties relevant to global-change policy are described and their magnitudes are examined for two cases: stratospheric-ozone depletion and global climate change. Analysis of information available in the mid 1980s, when international ozone regulations were adopted, suggests that contemporary uncertainties surrounding CFC emissions and the atmospheric response were so large that plausible ozone depletion, absent regulation, ranged from negligible to catastrophic, a range that exceeded the plausible effect of the regulations considered. Analysis of climate change suggests that, important as outcome uncertainties are, uncertainties about values may be even more important for policy choice. 53 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. The Educational Change Team: An Effort to Develop a National Facility to Generate and Implement Information and Resources Relevant to Secondary School Crisis and Change. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesler, Mark; And Others

    The final report of a research effort, interracial and multidisciplinary in nature and designed to deal with the politics of change in professional systems, outlines a) a diagnosis of American high schools and consequent change strategies, b) its goals and objectives, c) program outcomes, and d) issues facing the Educational Change Team and others…

  11. Climate change and deforestation: the evolution of an intersecting policy domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, I.M.; Humphreys, D.; Jong, de W.

    2014-01-01

    Forests and climate change are increasingly dealt with as interconnected policy issues. Both the potential synergies and policy conflicts between forest conservation and restoration and climate change mitigation now receive sustained and high level attention from academic, policy analysis and

  12. Regulatory Changes and the Recession: How Did They Affect Ticket to Work Participants' Employment Efforts?

    OpenAIRE

    Jody Schimmel

    2013-01-01

    This brief explores changes in Ticket to Work (TTW) participants’ work activity and benefit receipt in recent years, focusing on the role of regulatory changes in 2008 and effects of the economic recession.

  13. Assessing state efforts to integrate transportation, land use and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is increasingly recognized as a threat to life on earth. Continued emission of greenhouse gases will cause further : warming and long-lasting changes in all components of the climate system, increasing the likelihood of severe, perv...

  14. Polarisation, Radicalisation and Social Policy: Evaluating the Theories of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lub, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates the validity of "theories of change" of anti-polarisation and anti-radicalisation interventions. Assumptions of four dominant social policies are confronted with the literature. In addition, epistemological issues are discussed. Notions of "what works and why", do not equate to straightforward…

  15. Climate change policy of Germany, UK and USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wurff, R.; Boersema, J.J.; Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    International climate change politics provides a clear example of how cultural differences, conflicts of interest and scientific assessments interact to shape environmental policy-making. This section will explore these interrelationships by analysing the role of the United States, the United

  16. Multimethod research into policy changes in the pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2009-01-01

    own research processes, we identified the strengths and weaknesses of multimethod research. We present our research methods and the experiences of pharmaceutical policy changes from two separate evaluation studies, one from Iceland and the other from Denmark. In addition, examples from a third study...

  17. Madagascar's future climate change intensified actions and policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Madagascar, like all other countries on the globe, is gearing up for the meeting of the 21 st Conference of Parties (COP21 ) of UN's Framework Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC), we reflect on the persistent failure of development policies in Madagascar, and suggest that there may be fundamental flaws in ...

  18. Leadership for coping with and adapting to policy change in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores what, from school principals' perspectives, constitutes leadership for coping with and adapting to policy change within deprived school contexts. Using qualitative interpretive research, we drew from the practices of five principals that were purposively selected from a broader study, which focused on ...

  19. Contrasting frames in policy debates on climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewulf, A.

    2013-01-01

    The process by which issues, decisions, or events acquire different meanings from different perspectives has been studied as framing. In policy debates about climate change adaptation, framing the adaptation issue is a challenge with potentially farreaching implications for the shape and success of

  20. Secondary Athletic Administrators' Perceptions of Title IX Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gabriel Grawe

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate North Dakota's Normal Competitive Region (NDNCR) high school athletic administrators' perceptions of 2010 Title IX policy changes respective to their athletic programs. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected to investigate the perceptions. Quantitatively, perception data were gathered from a…

  1. Business and climate change: Key strategic and policy challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is seen as the most pressing environmental problem of our time by many companies, policymakers and other stakeholders. In bail-out plans and policies to address the economic recession and credit crisis, climate aspects haves figured prominently as well. This article examines recent

  2. Telework, Climate Change and Public Policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Telework, Climate Change and Public Policy. The daily commute of millions of people to their workplace is a major source of pollution in urban areas. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) make it possible to work from remote locations, resulting in a reduction of transport-related greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Does Integrated Water Resources Management Support Institutional Change? The Case of Water Policy Reform in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Fischhendler

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many international efforts have been made to encourage integrated water resources management through recommendations from both the academic and the aid and development sectors. Recently, it has been argued that integrated water resources management can help foster better adaptation of management and policy responses to emerging water crises. Nevertheless, few empirical studies have assessed how this type of management works in practice and what an integrated water management system implies for institutional adaptation and change. Our assessment of the Israeli water sector provides one view of how they can be shaped by an integrated structure in the water sector. Our analysis of recent efforts to adapt Israel's water management system to new conditions and uncertainties reveals that the interconnectedness of the system and the consensus decision-making process, led by a dominant actor who coordinates and sets the policy agenda, tends to increase the complexity of negotiations. In addition, the physical integration of water management leads to sunk costs of large-scale physical infrastructure. Both these factors create a path dependency that empowers players who receive benefits from maintaining the existing system. This impedes institutional reform of the water management system and suggests that integrated water resources management creates policy and management continuity that may only be amenable to incremental changes. In contrast, real adaptation that requires reversibility and the ability to change management strategies in response to new information or monitoring of specific management outcomes.

  4. Sustainable Development Policies as Indicators and Pre-Conditions for Sustainability Efforts at Universities: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Brandli, Luciana Londero; Becker, Deisi; Skanavis, Constantina; Kounani, Aristea; Sardi, Chrysoula; Papaioannidou, Dimitra; Paço, Arminda; Azeiteiro, Ulisses; de Sousa, Luiza Olim; Raath, Schalk; Pretorius, Rudi Wessel; Shiel, Christine; Vargas, Valeria; Trencher, Gregory; Marans, Robert W.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: There is a widely held belief that sustainable development (SD) policies are essential for universities to successfully engage in matters related to sustainability, and are an indicator of the extent to which they are active in this field. This paper aims to examine the evidence which currently exists to support this assumption. It…

  5. City scale climate change policies: Do they matter for wellbeing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Asikainen, Arja; Tuomisto, Jouni; Jantunen, Matti; Pärjälä, Erkki; Sabel, Clive E

    2017-06-01

    Climate change mitigation policies aim to reduce climate change through reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions whereas adaption policies seek to enable humans to live in a world with increasingly variable and more extreme climatic conditions. It is increasingly realised that enacting such policies will have unintended implications for public health, but there has been less focus on their implications for wellbeing. Wellbeing can be defined as a positive mental state which is influenced by living conditions. As part of URGENCHE, an EU funded project to identify health and wellbeing outcomes of city greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, a survey designed to measure these living conditions and levels of wellbeing in Kuopio, Finland was collected in December 2013. Kuopio was the northmost among seven cities in Europe and China studied. Generalised estimating equation modelling was used to determine which living conditions were associated with subjective wellbeing (measured through the WHO-5 Scale). Local greenspace and spending time in nature were associated with higher levels of wellbeing whereas cold housing and poor quality indoor air were associated with lower levels of wellbeing. Thus adaption policies to increase greenspace might, in addition to reducing heat island effects, have the co-benefit of increasing wellbeing and improving housing insulation.

  6. City scale climate change policies: Do they matter for wellbeing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation policies aim to reduce climate change through reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions whereas adaption policies seek to enable humans to live in a world with increasingly variable and more extreme climatic conditions. It is increasingly realised that enacting such policies will have unintended implications for public health, but there has been less focus on their implications for wellbeing. Wellbeing can be defined as a positive mental state which is influenced by living conditions. As part of URGENCHE, an EU funded project to identify health and wellbeing outcomes of city greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, a survey designed to measure these living conditions and levels of wellbeing in Kuopio, Finland was collected in December 2013. Kuopio was the northmost among seven cities in Europe and China studied. Generalised estimating equation modelling was used to determine which living conditions were associated with subjective wellbeing (measured through the WHO-5 Scale. Local greenspace and spending time in nature were associated with higher levels of wellbeing whereas cold housing and poor quality indoor air were associated with lower levels of wellbeing. Thus adaption policies to increase greenspace might, in addition to reducing heat island effects, have the co-benefit of increasing wellbeing and improving housing insulation.

  7. THE POLITICS OF BANKING: GLOBALISATION AND DOMESTIC POLICY CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Sukarman, Widigdo

    2015-01-01

    The current article aims to elaborate on the history of bank policy modifications as a response towards economic and financial change, mainly due to globalisation. The centralstatus of banks in the economy causes a need for the government to protect it in many forms that differ from one country to another. Bank policy makers that are closed oresoteric and are short-lived must be opened up to be able to receive long term ideas. The process is also marked intensively with competing interests be...

  8. Co-creation of climate change mitigation policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    research project and spread over the continuum from local government initiated to citizen initiated, and from projects aimed at changing individual behaviour to projects involving bigger communities (housing association, villages, etc.), it will be argued that both from a governance perspective (CO2......-reductions), as well as from a democratic perspective, citizen initiated projects involving communities of different kinds are clearly superior to for example government initiated campaigns aimed at the behaviour of individuals. This finding has clear policy-implications meaning that local climate change...... mitigation policies should be aimed at finding ways to support citizen initiated initiatives to a greater extent than is currently the case. Keywords: climate change mitigation, co-creation, behaviour, communities, citizen driven innovation....

  9. The impact of the endogenous technical change on climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassi, O.

    2008-11-01

    This research aims at revisiting the 'autonomous vs. induced' debate on the costs of climate policies, first by broadening the framework of the technical change induction to other economical sectors, and then by attempting to go beyond the concept of technical change induction and think in terms of a structural change induction. After a review of modes of representation of the technical progress in economical prospective models for the assessment of climate policies, the author presents the IMACLIM-R model, a recursive general equilibrium model which simulates the evolution of the world economy within 12 regions and 12 sectors between 2001 and 2100. The results obtained with this model are then presented and discussed, in the case of a reference scenario which displays a significant change towards a carbon-intensive path. These results stress the risks related to a 'laissez faire' attitude. The author explores the consequences in terms of climate policies with a more or less extended taking into account of phenomena of induction of technical and structural changes

  10. Relationship of fish indices with sampling effort and land use change in a large Mediterranean river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, David; Alcaraz-Hernández, Juan Diego; Merciai, Roberto; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili

    2017-12-15

    Fish are invaluable ecological indicators in freshwater ecosystems but have been less used for ecological assessments in large Mediterranean rivers. We evaluated the effects of sampling effort (transect length) on fish metrics, such as species richness and two fish indices (the new European Fish Index EFI+ and a regional index, IBICAT2b), in the mainstem of a large Mediterranean river. For this purpose, we sampled by boat electrofishing five sites each with 10 consecutive transects corresponding to a total length of 20 times the river width (European standard required by the Water Framework Directive) and we also analysed the effect of sampling area on previous surveys. Species accumulation curves and richness extrapolation estimates in general suggested that species richness was reasonably estimated with transect lengths of 10 times the river width or less. The EFI+ index was significantly affected by sampling area, both for our samplings and previous data. Surprisingly, EFI+ values in general decreased with increasing sampling area, despite the higher observed richness, likely because the expected values of metrics were higher. By contrast, the regional fish index was not dependent on sampling area, likely because it does not use a predictive model. Both fish indices, but particularly the EFI+, decreased with less forest cover percentage, even within the smaller disturbance gradient in the river type studied (mainstem of a large Mediterranean river, where environmental pressures are more general). Although the two fish-based indices are very different in terms of their development, methodology, and metrics used, they were significantly correlated and provided a similar assessment of ecological status. Our results reinforce the importance of standardization of sampling methods for bioassessment and suggest that predictive models that use sampling area as a predictor might be more affected by differences in sampling effort than simpler biotic indices. Copyright

  11. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    .... Administrations had ruled out major U.S. military action to change Iraq's regime, believing such action would be risky and not necessarily justified by the level of Iraq's lack of compliance on WMD disarmament...

  12. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-War Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    .... Administrations had ruled out major U.S. military action to change Iraq's regime, believing such action would be risky and not necessarily justified by the level of Iraq's lack of compliance on WMD disarmament...

  13. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-War Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    .... Administrations ruled out major U.S. military action to change Iraq's regime, believing such action would be risky and not necessarily justified by the level of Iraq's lack of compliance on WMD disarmament...

  14. Overheads Reduction: Policy Change as a Political Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böcskei, Balázs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the overheads reduction initiative, leading issue of public policy in Hungary between 2013 and 2014 in the face of the punctuated equilibrium theory. The case is examined from the perspective of how the punctuated equilibrium theory and the associated concepts (as policy image, policy monopoly and stream can be applied to the overheads reduction initiative, a significant change in the public policy. After clarifying the terminology, the study presents that the increase of the expenditure of the domestic energy along with the rising number of those in arrears have already been issued as a real societal problem for years. Nevertheless, the intermittent character and the emergence of the policy image and monopoly can be justified with the priority of political aspects and the aspiration for bigger popularity. The series of provisions of the overheads reduction initiative perfectly match the governmental narrative. Between the discourse of the overheads reduction initiative generated by the government and the punctuated equilibrium provisions and the climax of popularity of Fidesz, a close interrelation can be detected. However, the widespread support of Fidesz cannot exclusively be attributed to the overheads reduction initiative.

  15. Post-material values and environmental policy change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, N. (International Inst. for Environmental and Society, Berlin, Germany); Wandesforde-Smith, G.

    Environmental policy may be particularly suited as a vehicle to articulate post-material values in advanced industrial societies, and recognition of this is likely to prove enormously helpful in future comparative and cross-national research into the origins of environmentalism and the causes of environmental policy change. The paper notes the salient characteristics of post-materialism and the overlap of these with the leading indicators of environmentalism. Possible structural causes for this overlap are noted and opposed to the prevailing socialization explanation for the adoption of post-material and environmental values. To help understand the impact of environmentalism on policy, an idealized development of the movement is sketched. This leads to the description of a set of general factors likely to be related to the way environmentalism finds political expressions in various countries. In the final section, the focus is on what we might want to know about the policy process in order to be able to gauge environmentalist influence on policy outputs. 20 references.

  16. Directed technical change and differentiation of climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Vincent M.; Loeschel, Andreas; Reilly, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the cost effectiveness of climate policy if there are technology externalities. For this purpose, we develop a forward looking model that captures empirical links between CO 2 emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We find our most cost effective climate policy to include a combination of R and D subsidies and CO 2 emission constraints, although R and D subsidies raise the shadow value of the CO 2 constraint (i.e. CO 2 price) because of a strong rebound effect from stimulating innovation. Furthermore, we find that cost effectiveness of climate policy improves if it is differentiated between technologies. Even our rudimentary distinction between CO 2 intensive technologies and non-CO 2 intensive technologies lead to this result. Such differentiated climate policy encourages growth in the non-CO 2 intensive sectors and discourages growth in CO 2 intensive sectors by harnessing positive effects of technology externalities on total factor productivity in the former and letting the latter bear relatively more of the abatement burden. This result is robust to whether emission constraints, R and D subsidies or combinations of both are used as climate policy instruments. (author)

  17. Shifting Restoration Policy to Address Landscape Change, Novel Ecosystems, and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy B. Zedler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy to guide ecological restoration needs to aim toward minimizing the causes of ecosystem degradation; where causes cannot be eliminated or minimized, policy needs to shift toward accommodating irreversible landscape alterations brought about by climate change, nitrogen deposition, altered hydrology, degraded soil, and declining biodiversity. The degree to which lost diversity and ecosystem services can be recovered depends on the extent and nature of landscape change. For wetlands that occur at the base of watersheds that have been developed for agriculture or urban centers, the inflows of excess water, sediment, and nutrients can be permanent and can severely challenge efforts to restore historical services, including biodiversity support. In such cases, the historical state of downstream wetlands will not be completely restorable. Wetland restoration policy should promote watershed planning, wherein wetland and upland restoration is prioritized to achieve multiple, specific ecosystem services. For downstream wetlands, it is realistic to aim to enhance nitrogen removal and to establish native plants that are matrix dominants, namely, those that facilitate rather than displace other natives. More ambitious objectives such as maximizing diversity would be suitable for less-altered, upstream wetlands. Policy should also call for adaptive restoration and long-term assessments. For large sites and multiple sites of a given wetland type within a region, experimental tests can determine a wetland's ability to support high levels of ecosystem services. Once projects are underway, long-term monitoring of structural and functional indicators can characterize progress toward each objective. Managers can then learn which targets are unachievable based on data, not just opinion. Where an experimental treatment shows limited progress, practitioners would shift to more promising treatments and targets, thereby adapting restoration efforts to changing

  18. Policy Changes, Employment, and Single Parenthood in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Forssén

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The labor supply of mothers is in? uenced by womens preferences and labor market conditions, as well as by family policy packages which enable families to reconcile work and family life. This article deepens the understanding about why Finnish single mothers are facing higher unemployment risks than mothers in two-parent families. The main question is how the changes in the Finnish family policy system have affected the economic and labor market status of single mothers in the last part of the 1990s. Have the changes in family policy affected their entry / re-entry into the labor market? Or can these changes in employment rate be explained by mothers personal decisions. Single parents were more vulnerable compared to partnered mothers in parental leave reforms and in the Family reform package in 1994. Changes in the labor market have had an impact on the situation of mothers with small children. One group of mothers can enjoy the full provision of leaves, bene? ts and job security, but an increased share of mothers have become dependent on only basic bene? ts. In this respect, the inequality among mothers has increased.

  19. American policy conflict in the greenhouse: Divergent trends in federal, regional, state, and local green energy and climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, John; Hughes, Kristen; Rickerson, Wilson; Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    2007-01-01

    Climate change threatens significant impacts on global ecosystems and human populations. To address this challenge, industrialized nations have ratified the Kyoto Protocol and undertaken commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, the primary agents linked to anthropogenic alteration of earth's climate. By contrast, the US government, led by the Bush Administration, has rejected mandatory targets for curbing emissions under the Protocol, and has instead pursued voluntary mitigation measures amid a larger push for clean coal and 'next generation' nuclear technologies. These actions in total have fueled global perceptions that the US is not acting in substantial ways to address climate change. Nevertheless, action within the US is indeed moving forward, with states, cities and regional partnerships filling the federal leadership vacuum. This paper reviews the diverse policies, strategies, and cooperative frameworks that have emerged at regional, state and local levels to guide climate protection, and identifies the environmental and economic benefits linked to such programs. The paper also attempts to explain the existing federal impasse on climate policy, with attention given to how sub-national efforts may ultimately obviate national governmental inaction

  20. Anatomy of an organizational change effort at the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, James R.; Dali, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    By 1979, after a long decline following the end of the Apollo program, the Lewis Research Center found its very existence endangered because it was not doing the kind of research that could attract funding at the time. New management under Andrew J. Stofan applied a program of strategic planning, participative management, and consensus decision making. A corporate-cultural change was effected which enabled Lewis to commit itself to four fundable research and development projects. Morale-building and training programs which were essential to this change are described.

  1. Vocal effort with changing talker-to-listener distance in different acoustic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Smits, Bertrand; Brunskog, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Talkers adjust their vocal effort to communicate at different distances, aiming to compensate for the sound propagation losses. The present paper studies the influence of four acoustically different rooms on the speech produced by 13 male talkers addressing a listener at four distances. Talkers...... raised their vocal intensity by between 1.3 and 2.2 dB per double distance to the listener and lowered it as a linear function of the quantity “room gain” at a rate of 3.6 dB/dB. There were also significant variations in the mean fundamental frequency, both across distance (3.8 Hz per double distance......) and among environments (4.3 Hz), and in the long-term standard deviation of the fundamental frequency among rooms (4 Hz). In the most uncomfortable rooms to speak in, talkers prolonged the voiced segments of the speech they produced, either as a side-effect of increased vocal intensity or in order...

  2. Bankruptcy Prevention: New Effort to Reflect on Legal and Social Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliestik, Tomas; Misankova, Maria; Valaskova, Katarina; Svabova, Lucia

    2017-04-10

    Every corporation has an economic and moral responsibility to its stockholders to perform well financially. However, the number of bankruptcies in Slovakia has been growing for several years without an apparent macroeconomic cause. To prevent a rapid denigration and to prevent the outflow of foreign capital, various efforts are being zealously implemented. Robust analysis using conventional bankruptcy prediction tools revealed that the existing models are adaptable to local conditions, particularly local legislation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that most of these outdated tools have sufficient capability to warn of impending financial problems several years in advance. A novel bankruptcy prediction tool that outperforms the conventional models was developed. However, it is increasingly challenging to predict bankruptcy risk as corporations have become more global and more complex and as they have developed sophisticated schemes to hide their actual situations under the guise of "optimization" for tax authorities. Nevertheless, scepticism remains because economic engineers have established bankruptcy as a strategy to limit the liability resulting from court-imposed penalties.

  3. Linking climate change and fish conservation efforts using spatially explicit decision support tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas P. Peterson; Seth J. Wenger; Bruce E. Rieman; Daniel J. Isaak

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries professionals are increasingly tasked with incorporating climate change projections into their decisions. Here we demonstrate how a structured decision framework, coupled with analytical tools and spatial data sets, can help integrate climate and biological information to evaluate management alternatives. We present examples that link downscaled climate...

  4. European Union and diaspora engagement policy within changing realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violina MARDARI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the European Union and diaspora engagement policy within changing realities. The author focuses on the main research question concerning how the new, uncontrolled migration flows may influence the approach on diaspora engagement policy within member states. This process could have positive as well as negative implications for the Community space even if the EU attempts to develop a new legal framework on migration. The interdisciplinary approach and methods as empirical analysis, comparison and observation on some good practices and new issues gave the possibility to estimate the results of how changing diaspora role perception reduces the gap between different migrants in the EU and improves the diaspora engagement dialogue on institutional and civil society level.

  5. Anticipating the uncertain: economic modeling and climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Svenn

    2012-11-01

    find that it has a substantial impact, and the size and direction of the effect depend on the specification of the risk and the time preferences. How should temperature stochasticity, deep uncertainty about climate sensitivity and the prospect of learning impact optimal climate policy? Deep uncertainty, or ambiguity, means we lack an agreed upon probability distribution to describe the uncertainty. People are averse to such subjectivity. We find that temperature stochasticity by itself does not alter optimal abatement but increases investment in manmade capital. Secondly, climate sensitivity uncertainty causes higher abatement efforts, while investment rates remain unchanged. Learning by observing temperatures and GHG stocks is too slow to make a relevant contribution to climate policy over the coming decades. Importantly, it is still optimal to increase abatement to insure against the possibility of high damages. Finally, aversion to deep uncertainty has virtually no impact on optimal decisions.(Author)

  6. The Brazilian Policy on Climate Change: Regulatory and Governance Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

    2012-01-01

    Through the Copenhagen Accord and the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) in Cancun, Brazil has confirmed its national voluntary reduction targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with reductions between 36.1 per cent and 38.9 per cent of projected emissions by 2020. These targets were defined in the National Climate Change Policy (PNMC, in Portuguese) approved by the National Congress (Law No. 12.187, dated 29 December 2009). These national targets focus on controlling deforestation, which...

  7. A climate for development. Climate change policy options for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoth-Ogendo, H.W.O.; Ojwang, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The seriousness of the potential impacts of climate change on development in Africa is now well recognized within, and increasingly outside, scientific circles. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a landmark in international environmental governance, providing a mechanism for exchange, negotiation and institution-building to re-direct development towards more efficient use of resources, especially energy. The message of 'A climate for Development' is that unless policy-makers fully understand both the international commitments made under the Convention and the essential national development priorities of their own countries, effective action on climate change is unlikely to be realized. The action needed, however, can at the same time stimulate capacity-building, planning and policy change which would strengthen the economic and ecological base of African countries. The climate change issue has hence brought us face to face with the urgency of the basic issues of sustainable development in Africa. The book discusses key issues that cut across all African countries, such as emissions and their impacts, financial resources and technology transfer for emissions abatement strategies. It then provides a sectoral analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and abatement options focusing on energy, industry, agriculture, forestry and transportation. The book concludes with guidelines for options which may be considered by African countries to ensure that climate change concerns are effectively dealt with in the context of their development priorities. 113 refs

  8. Continuity and Change in India’s Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan López Nadal

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of foreign policy to the post-cold war era and the globalisation of the economy has not been easy for India, a country which occupies a key position in Asia and arguably the world due to its size, strategic position and economic potential. In Indiacontinuity and change coexist, manifesting dramatic contradictions, with the former gradually superseding the latter. The diplomacy of New Delhi has come under harsh criticism for its resistance to adapt to a changed and changing world - something rooted in its Britishcolonial heritage and its lack of enthusiasm for questioning traditional values and attitudes. An analysis of the fundamental basis underlining these traditional conceptions is necessary, as is an historical perspective on the evolution of India’s foreign policy which embraces vastly differing factors of influence such as the external environment and internal economic and political conditions. This study begins its historical perspective on the foreign policy of independent India in 1947, dividing the period up to the present decade into three phases: the period of Nehru (1947-65, including L.B.Shastri; that of Indira Ghandi and her successors (1965-1990; and the period following the end of the cold war, under an unstable and uncertain leadership.

  9. Speaking truth to power revisited: science, policy and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserforschung; Krueck, C. [VDI-Technologiezentrum Physikalische Technologien, Duesseldorf (Germany). Abt. Zukuenftige Technologien

    2000-07-01

    The issue of climate change from the perspectives of climate change scientists and climate policy makers is discussed using results from two survey questionnaires. Emphasis is given to the German context. Included is the self assessment of the state of the art of the climate sciences and the importance assigned to different sources of information by policy makers. Conclusions indicate that policy makers rely on a number of sources other than the direct results of science, and have assigned a greater sense of urgency to the issue of climate change than have scientists. (orig.) [German] Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse zweier Fragebogenaktionen wird diskutiert, wie sich die Problematik von Klimaveraenderungen aus der Perspektive von Klimaforschern und aus der Perspektive von mit Klimapolitik befassten Entscheidungstraegern darstellt. Die Betonung liegt auf den Verhaeltnissen in Deutschland. Eingeschlossen ist eine Einschaetzung des aktuellen Standes der Klimaforschung durch die Wissenschaftler selbst sowie der Bedeutung, welche von politischen Entscheidungstraegern verschiedenen Informationsquellen beigemessen wird. Es zeigt sich, dass sich politische Entscheidungstraeger auf zahlreiche Informationsquellen verlassen, die nur indirekt die Resultate der Klimaforschung wiedergeben und, dass dieser Personenkreis das Problem der Klimaveraenderungen als draengender ansieht als die Wissenschaftler selbst. (orig.)

  10. Climate policy through changing consumption choices: Options and obstacles for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Hertwich, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    While national climate policy can address countries’ production or consumption, climate mitigation via changes in consumption has previously received relatively little attention in climate policy literature. In the absence of an effective international climate policy, the focus on consumption is

  11. Interactions Between Climate Change, World Economics, and Climate Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parapatits Zsolt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a major current issue which affects natural, economic and social processes equally. Despite the widespread acclaim of the issue we still encounter economic and political solution models that are climate-sceptic and often contradict each other. As a result, national climate policies and social opinions constantly change in an active interaction with each other. Thus, this current study, based on the latest international literature, reviews and analyses the world economic tendencies, related social and political responses along which different official (national standpoints are formed. Therefore, the interpretations of related scientific research results are often different, which can easily lead to unsuccessful problem solution.

  12. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    It is widely recognized that international environmental technological change is key to reduce the rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions of emerging nations. In 2010, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP) agreed to the creation of the Green Climate Fund (GCF). This new multilateral organization has been created with the collective contributions of COP members, and has been tasked with directing over USD 100 billion per year towards investments that can enhance the development and diffusion of clean energy technologies in both advanced and emerging nations (Helm and Pichler, 2015). The landmark agreement arrived at the COP 21 has reaffirmed the key role that the GCF plays in enabling climate mitigation as it is now necessary to align large scale climate financing efforts with the long-term goals agreed at Paris 2015. This study argues that because of the incomplete understanding of the mechanics of international technological change, the multiplicity of policy options and ultimately the presence of climate and technological change deep uncertainty, climate financing institutions such as the GCF, require new analytical methods for designing long-term robust investment plans. Motivated by these challenges, this dissertation shows that the application of new analytical methods, such as Robust Decision Making (RDM) and Exploratory Modeling (Lempert, Popper and Bankes, 2003) to the study of international technological change and climate policy provides useful insights that can be used for designing a robust architecture of international technological cooperation for climate change mitigation. For this study I developed an exploratory dynamic integrated assessment model (EDIAM) which is used as the scenario generator in a large computational experiment. The scope of the experimental design considers an ample set of climate and technological scenarios. These scenarios combine five sources of uncertainty

  13. The role of organizational culture in policy mobilities – the case of South Korean climate change adaptation policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schäfer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of policies as mobile and mutable knowledge is the key feature of the recent debate on policy mobilities. Policy mobility studies have focused on the movement and translation of policies as well as on the impact of mobile policies on policy-making processes and governed spaces. Given that policy mobilities have mainly been examined in comparable institutional contexts, the current debate has neglected the role of organizational culture in the translation of policies. Organizational culture is understood as a set of shared assumptions that guide what happens in organizations by defining appropriate practices of policy making. The case study, South Korean adaptation policy, illustrates that organizational culture has a significant impact on the translation of mobile adaptation policy. Besides the claim to consider organizational culture more prominently in the field of policy mobility studies, this paper illustrates the translation process of adaptation policy in the South Korean political system. The practices in South Korean political institutions dealing with climate change adaptation are highly characterized by the avoidance of risks. The propensity to avoid risks leads policy makers to focus on technical solutions to climate change adaptation and to neglect the participation of civil society.

  14. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sami; Anex, Robert P; Anderson, Christopher J; Herzmann, Daryl E

    2014-01-01

    Likely changes in precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  15. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khanal

    Full Text Available Likely changes in precipitation (P and potential evapotranspiration (PET resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  16. Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Guri

    2010-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress-the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo.

  17. Policy entrepreneurs and change strategies : Lessons from sixteen case studies of water transitions around the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Sander; Huitema, Dave

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of policy entrepreneurs in realizing water policy transitions. The central questions are to what extent have policy entrepreneurs played a role in realizing major change in water policies, who are these policy entrepreneurs, and what strategies have they used to bring

  18. When grammars collide: Harm reduction, drug detention and the challenges of international policy reform efforts in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edington, Claire; Bayer, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, a dramatic rise in HIV prevalence rates among drug users in Vietnam attracted the attention of international observers concerned about the prospect of a more generalised epidemic. Vietnam subsequently became the target of extensive funding and advocacy which sought to introduce needle exchange and methadone in a country where drug use was considered a 'social evil', and drug users were subjected to what international observers viewed as draconian incarceration measures. What were the goals of proponents of harm reduction when they came to Vietnam? How did they perceive the state of prevailing approaches to drug users in the context of the Vietnamese HIV epidemic? How did they understand the strategic challenges they faced and the dilemmas they had to confront? Based on in-depth interviews with international harm reduction proponents working in Vietnam, this paper explores the encounter of two grammars of harm reduction, one based on broadly accepted international approaches, the other rooted in Vietnam's own history and politics. From this encounter a set of policies and practices characterised by needle exchange and methadone maintenance emerged, as well as an extensive network of closed centres where tens of thousands of drug users are currently detained.

  19. Evaluating U.S. medical schools' efforts to educate faculty researchers on research integrity and research misconduct policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Sandra Larsen

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how well U.S. medical school institutions are doing to promote research integrity. It is an important question to ask in order to determine whether there are sufficient and adequate protections in place to protect the U.S. Public Health Service's (PHS) resources devoted to medical research. This paper focuses on 5,100 medical school researchers' knowledge of what constitutes research misconduct as well as their willingness to report it to the research integrity officer (RIO) and educate their Ph.D. trainees. We learned that 5.6% of researchers could correctly distinguish seven or more of the nine scenarios that depicted likely research misconduct, as defined by the PHS regulations, from scenarios describing other ethical issues. Instead, researchers had expansive definitions and often inappropriately identified infractions such as conflicts of interest, Institutional Review Board (IRB) violations, and other breaches in ethical standards to be research misconduct. In addition, researchers who correctly identified four instances of likely research misconduct in the test items were highly unlikely to report their observations to a RIO. Researchers also provided insight on the factors they believe influence their decision making process of whether to report research misconduct. In addition, this paper also reports on the guidance that faculty said they provided their trainees on research misconduct issues. We conclude with a discussion and recommendations on what institutional leaders might consider doing in order to enhance their research integrity efforts and protect their institution's reputation.

  20. When technical achievements aren't enough: Lessons learned from efforts to catalyze policy action on supply chain in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicko, Modibo; Souare, Batouo; Sarr, Lamine Cisse; Gueye, Babacar

    2017-04-19

    Before 2013, Senegal public health supply system was pull-based and fully public-run. Lengthy and recurrent stockouts of essential health products (incl. contraceptives) were the rule, not the exception as they used to strike more than 80% of public service delivery points (SDPs). Following a successful pilot in two districts in 2012, the Senegalese Ministry of Health and Social Action (MSAS) implemented the Informed Push Model (IPM) Project (2013-2016). In its first two years, IPM bridged key gaps and expanded the distribution of contraceptives by private third party logistics operators to all public SDPs in Senegal and nearly eliminated stockouts. However, the MSAS was slow to take ownership of the project. Understanding the roots of this reluctance, executing a range of targeted communication and advocacy efforts and preparing a strong transition plan are succeeding to push Government toward full ownership to enable the National Supply Pharmacy to distribute all health products going to SDPs, including vaccines, consistently with their Strategic Plan 2014-2018. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. China's climate-change policy 1988-2011: From zero to hero?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    This report describes the evolution of China's domestic climate-change policy over the period 1988-2011, using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) to explore the policy change. Policy development has been gradual, with the most notable change occurring in 2007, when the National Climate Change Programme elevated climate change to a national policy issue. Within the climate-change policy subsystem there emerged an advocacy coalition - the Climate Change Advocacy Coalition - urging that climate change should be taken into consideration in relevant policies. The ACF points to socioeconomic development and the Climate Change Advocacy Coalition's policy-oriented learning as explanations for the development of climate-change policy in China.(auth)

  2. Wetlands in a changing climate: Science, policy and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, William R.; Chmura, G.L.; Davies, Gillian T.; Finlayson, Max; Middleton, Beth A.; Natali, Sue M.; Perry, James; Roulet, Nigel; Sutton-Grier, Ariana

    2018-01-01

    Part 1 of this review synthesizes recent research on status and climate vulnerability of freshwater and saltwater wetlands, and their contribution to addressing climate change (carbon cycle, adaptation, resilience). Peatlands and vegetated coastal wetlands are among the most carbon rich sinks on the planet sequestering approximately as much carbon as do global forest ecosystems. Estimates of the consequences of rising temperature on current wetland carbon storage and future carbon sequestration potential are summarized. We also demonstrate the need to prevent drying of wetlands and thawing of permafrost by disturbances and rising temperatures to protect wetland carbon stores and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services. Preventing further wetland loss is found to be important in limiting future emissions to meet climate goals, but is seldom considered. In Part 2, the paper explores the policy and management realm from international to national, subnational and local levels to identify strategies and policies reflecting an integrated understanding of both wetland and climate change science. Specific recommendations are made to capture synergies between wetlands and carbon cycle management, adaptation and resiliency to further enable researchers, policy makers and practitioners to protect wetland carbon and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services.

  3. Sea Change: US Climate Policy Prospects under the Obama Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Mikael (Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Carson, Marcus (Dept. of Sociology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)). e-mail: mikael.roman@sei.se

    2009-03-15

    This report has been produced for the Swedish Government's Sustainability Commission in preparation for the Swedish EU Presidency during the second half of 2009, and consequent Swedish leadership of the EU delegation in the COP-15 negotiations in Copenhagen. The central task of the report is to provide an overview of the key factors that will condition the near-term development of United States climate policy, with a view to the eventual likelihood of the US signing and ratifying a new global agreement in the upcoming negotiations on climate change. While we take note of the importance of factors external to US politics, such as potential developments in bilateral discussions with China and other major greenhouse gas emitters, our analysis focuses primarily on factors that influence US domestic policy dynamics. To accomplish that task, the subsequent pages address three main questions. First, what are the stated goals and contours of the Obama Administration's policies regarding climate change? Second, what are the opportunities and obstacles connected with realizing this agenda - from negotiating and deciding, then effectively implementing it - and via which pathways of action are we likely to see important initiatives being moved? Finally, what are the implications for the negotiations in Copenhagen and beyond? We conclude by identifying a number of important considerations that should be taken into account in preparations for the Swedish EU Presidency and the climate negotiations in Copenhagen

  4. Social Media as a Catalyst for Policy Action and Social Change for Health and Well-Being: Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change. However, the diversity of social media platforms and available analysis techniques provides multiple ways to offer insight for policy making and decision making. For instance, social media content can provide timely information about the impact of policy interventions. Social media location information can inform where to deploy resources or disseminate public messaging. Network analysis of social media connections can reveal underserved populations who may be disconnected from public services. Machine learning can help recognize important patterns for disease surveillance or to model population sentiment. To fully realize these potential policy uses, limitations to social media data will need to be overcome, including data reliability and validity, and potential privacy risks. Traditional data collection may not fully capture the upstream factors and systemic relationships that influence health and well-being. Policy actions and social change efforts, such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s effort to advance a culture of health, which are intended to drive change in a network of upstream health drivers, will need to incorporate a broad range of behavioral information, such as health attitudes or physical activity levels. Applying innovative techniques to emerging data has the potential to extract insight from unstructured data or fuse disparate sources of data, such as linking health attitudes that

  5. Social Media as a Catalyst for Policy Action and Social Change for Health and Well-Being: Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Douglas

    2018-03-19

    This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change. However, the diversity of social media platforms and available analysis techniques provides multiple ways to offer insight for policy making and decision making. For instance, social media content can provide timely information about the impact of policy interventions. Social media location information can inform where to deploy resources or disseminate public messaging. Network analysis of social media connections can reveal underserved populations who may be disconnected from public services. Machine learning can help recognize important patterns for disease surveillance or to model population sentiment. To fully realize these potential policy uses, limitations to social media data will need to be overcome, including data reliability and validity, and potential privacy risks. Traditional data collection may not fully capture the upstream factors and systemic relationships that influence health and well-being. Policy actions and social change efforts, such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's effort to advance a culture of health, which are intended to drive change in a network of upstream health drivers, will need to incorporate a broad range of behavioral information, such as health attitudes or physical activity levels. Applying innovative techniques to emerging data has the potential to extract insight from unstructured data or fuse disparate sources of data, such as linking health attitudes that are

  6. African voices on climate change. Policy concerns and potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, S.

    1994-01-01

    This publication is the result of a process of building an understanding and facilitating a dialogue on the issues related to climate change, on the implications that climate change have to Africa, and on the relevance of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for the continent. Research work was carried out over a year and twelve African countries were directly engaged in this projects, contributing with the work and expertise of their specialists. A whole process of discussions was started aiming not only at identifying questions concerning the countries directly involved but at illustrating the diversity of Africa's economies and societies, and attempting to raise common issues of interest for the whole of the continent. The objective of this publication is to provide a starting point for the discussions to take place during the African Conference on Policy Options and Responses to Climate Change, 5-8 December 1994, in Nairobi. This conference is not only the culmination of 'Climate and Africa' but, most of all, it opens a forum for discussions on climate issues among African policy makers and for building African positions in relation to the Climate Convention. The ideas expressed here are drawn from the material produced in the Climate and Africa Project. Therefore, this publication does not necessarily represent the positions of the Stockholm Environment Institute or the African Center for Technology Studies in relation to Africa and the Climate Convention

  7. Fat-tailed risk about climate change and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Chang; Tol, Richard S.J.; Hofkes, Marjan W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of emissions control in welfare maximization under fat-tailed risk about climate change. We provide a classification of fat tails and discuss the effect of fat-tailed risk on climate policy. One of the main findings is that emissions control may prevent the “strong” tail-effect from arising, at least under some conditions such as bounded temperature increases, low risk aversion, low damage costs, and bounded utility function. More specifically, the fat-tailed risk with respect to a climate parameter does not necessarily lead to an unbounded carbon tax. In this case, the basic principle of cost-benefit analysis maintains its applicability. - Highlights: • A fat tail is classified and the tail effect on climate policy is discussed. • The optimal carbon tax is not necessarily unbounded. • The basic principle of cost-benefit analysis maintains its applicability. • This is a numerical confirmation of the recent theoretical research.

  8. Framework agreement on climate change: a scientific and policy history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, A.D.; Tirpak, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a mixture of journalism and history. It is journalistic in the sense of providing an annotated chronology of key events and publications since 1970 that ultimately led to the signing of the Framework Agreement on Climate Change (herein referred to as the Convention). It is also history in that the authors share their insight on these events and offer their perspective of how science and policy-making interacted. After the signing of the Climate Convention at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro (June, 1992), the authors began to think about the many events that led to this historic agreements. When did the process really begin? What were the seminal scientific papers? When did climate change become a policy issue? What lessons do we learn for the future? The authors soon recognized there was no clear beginning to either the science or policy story. Both aspects evolved, with science and policy decisions affecting each other. The resulting history is decidedly a US perspective. While there will no doubt be arguments over the significance of all the events cited as well as the omission of others, the authors have for the first time synthesized the major themes that led to the climate convention. The discussion is organized into three periods of time: 1970-1980 (ending with the first World Climate Conference), 1980-1987 (ending with the US presidential election), and 1988-1992 (signing of the Convention). For each period there is an overall summary and analysis followed by a chronology of selected events. 52 refs

  9. SUSTAINING CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION—POLICY, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rechkemmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a world that is becoming more and more exposed and vulnerable to the effects of global climate change, combining integrated risk assessment tools with effective strategies for both mitigation and adaptation is a key prerogative for policy-making. With the focus of both researchers and decision-makers gradually shifting from observing and assessing the bio-physical aspects of climate change to a more human and society centered understanding of the nature of the problem, the social, behavioral, economic and technological aspects have entered center stage of the public discourse. Responses to the climate change challenge have to establish an optimal interplay between mitigation, adaptation and socio-economic instruments. Yet, given the band-width and scale of the climate problematique and its projected impacts, very ambitious mitigation measures have to be undertaken without delays, a fact that is particularly true for emerging economies with their very rapid and unprecedented growth rates, both in GDP and GHG emissions terms. The challenge for the next years is to harmonize poverty eradication and attaining the Millenium Development Goals through stable economic growth with mitigating the effects of climate change. Therefore, “inclusive green growth” has become the motto of the day. But how can this goal be achieved? Obviously, quite fundamental changes have to be introduced that affect both the production and the consumption sectors and allow for real innovation in technologies and energy, in urban mobility, infrastructure and transportation grids. This paper illustrates the deep social and societal nature of climate change response strategies, especially in the area of mitigation, and shows that transitions to green and low-carbon economies will have to embed policies, incentive schemes and economic instruments in a larger societal context of social learning and behavioral change.

  10. The New Phase of the Global Policy on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Calanter

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, a phenomenon that occurs worldwide, is one of the great challenges of our times.The scientific community has repeatedly drawn policy makers attention to the imperative need to adopt ofpreventive, mitigation and adaptation measures to what constitutes a threat to the normal course of life onEarth. Adoption and entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, with its ratification by Russia, in February 2005represented a major step forward in the global struggle against climate change. In this moment, however, theconclusion in 2012 of the commitment period for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases provided by theProtocol, and the brokenness of this period, put in front of the international community the need for furtherpolicy measures to prevent and combating climate change and its effects.

  11. Policy Reform Efforts and Equal Opportunity – An Evidence-Based Link? An Analysis of Current Sector Reforms in the Austrian School System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geppert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the present paper is to answer two different questions: From the perspective of Austrian education policy, which core areas of schooling are linked to the demand for equal opportunity? Can these reform efforts sustain the current state of research, and what are the consequences for schooling? The paper draws on an analysis by Hopmann, Geppert & Bauer (2010. Fifteen official self-presentations (political programmes of Austrian political parties were analysed for statements concerning the improvement of the education system. This resulted in about seventy different statements, which were aggregated into eight core areas.We conducted a systematic analysis of four of these core areas, dealing with the topics of equal opportunity: comprehensive school, all-day schooling, school autonomy and standardisation of students’ achievements. The aim was not to judge the legitimacy or the political content of the claims made. In line with evaluative discourse, we asked whether the combination of political demands and their associated expectations met the current state of research. In many policy programmes, it is assumed that comprehensive schooling, all-day schooling, education standards, standardised general certification for university attendance, school autonomy or language surveys go hand in hand with more equality of opportunity, justice andquality in education, but an analysis of the current state of research could not confirm this. The analysis showed that, with regard to education policy demands, statements having empirically little or nothing to do with each other are often linked.

  12. Law and psychiatry: regulating psychotherapy or restricting freedom of speech? California's ban on sexual orientation change efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    California's new law banning sexual orientation change efforts by licensed therapists for patients under 18 immediately provoked court challenges. Therapists, parents, and patients argued that the statute infringed constitutional rights to freedom of speech and parental rights to select treatments for their children. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit rejected all of these claims in a unanimous decision upholding the law. However, the decision evokes concerns that other forms of psychotherapy could be subject to similar regulation. Tort remedies may provide less intrusive means for discouraging use of ineffective and potentially harmful therapies.

  13. Renewable energy technologies and climate change policies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Ramana P; Chandra Shekhar Sinha

    2001-01-01

    suggests that in the absence of stringent climate change policies, India is likely to go along the conventional fossil fuel path. The same can be true of many other developing countries. The policies in specific countries, especially developing nations with no binding carbon mitigation commitments, will be crucial for generating initial technology 'push', before the market will be ready to provide the demand 'pull' in the long run. This paper provides a review of the renewable energy experience in India in terms of positive lessons and identified barriers. It looks at various policy options for India and develops, using macro-modelling tools, scenarios of the likely penetration of RETs under different climate change mitigation policy regimes. (author)

  14. Integrated assessment of climate change: Characterizing key policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.S.; O`Hara, F.M. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    A multidisciplinary, multiagency workshop was convened by the US Department of Energy in Washington, DC, June 29-30,1994. The goal of the workshop was to define key policy issues related to global climate change and the types of information pertaining to these issues that decision makers would find most useful. The workshop was organized by the Center for Global Environmental Studies and the Environmental Sciences Division, both of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in cooperation with a steering committee composed of seven national laboratories.

  15. Schizophrenia—Time to Commit to Policy Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Care and outcomes for people with schizophrenia have improved in recent years, but further progress is needed to help more individuals achieve an independent and fulfilled life. This report sets out the current need, informs policy makers and all relevant stakeholders who influence care quality, and supports their commitment to creating a better future. The authors recommend the following policy actions, based on research evidence, stakeholder consultation, and examples of best practice worldwide. (1) Provide an evidence-based, integrated care package for people with schizophrenia that addresses their mental and physical health needs. (2) Provide support for people with schizophrenia to enter and to remain in their community, and develop mechanisms to help guide them through the complex benefit and employment systems. (3) Provide concrete support, information, and educational programs to families and carers on how to enhance care for an individual living with schizophrenia in a manner that entails minimal disruption to their lives. (4) All stakeholders, including organizations that support people living with schizophrenia, should be consulted to regularly revise, update, and improve policy on the management of schizophrenia. (5) Provide support, which is proportionate to the impact of the disease, for research and development of new treatments. (6) Establish adequately funded, ongoing, and regular awareness-raising campaigns that form an integral part of routine plans of action. Implementation of the above recommendations will require engagement by every stakeholder, but with commitment from all, change can be achieved. PMID:24778411

  16. Climate Change and Western Public Lands: a Survey of U.S. Federal Land Managers on the Status of Adaptation Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli M. Archie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and its associated consequences pose an increasing risk to public lands in the western United States. High-level mandates currently require federal agencies to begin planning for adaptation, but the extent to which these mandates have resulted in policies being implemented that affect on the ground practices is unclear. To examine the status of adaptation efforts, we conducted an original survey and semistructured interviews with land managers from the four major federal land management agencies in the U.S. states of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The survey was designed to examine current planning for adaptation on public lands and how it differs from prior planning, the major challenges facing land managers in this region, the major barriers preventing managers from planning for adaptation, and the major hurdles associated with implementing adaptation plans. Our results show that some adaptation planning is currently taking place, but that few adaptation projects have made it to the implementation phase. Overall, respondents considered lack of information at relevant scales, budget constraints, lack of specific agency direction, and lack of useful information to be the most common barriers to adaption planning. Budget constraints, lack of perceived importance to the public, and lack of public awareness or demand to take action were reported to be the biggest hurdles to implementation of adaptation projects. Agencies showed differing levels of adaptation activity, and reported different barriers to adaptation and hurdles to implementation. Reasons for the differences and implications for future research and policy are discussed.

  17. Learning by Doing vs Learning by Researching in a Model of Climate Change Policy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelnuovo, E.; Galeotti, M.; Vergalli, S.; Gambarelli, G.

    2004-01-01

    Many predictions and conclusions in the climate change literature have been made and drawn on the basis of theoretical analyses and quantitative models that assume exogenous technological change. One is naturally led to wonder whether those conclusions and policy prescriptions hold in the more realistic case of endogenously evolving technologies. In previous work we took a popular integrated assessment model and modified it so as to allow for an explicit role of the stock of knowledge which accumulates through R and D investment. In our formulation knowledge affects both the output production technology and the emission-output ratio. In this paper we make further progress in our efforts aimed to model the process of technological change. In keeping with recent theories of endogenous growth, we specify two ways in which knowledge accumulates: via a deliberate, optimally selected R and D decision or via experience, giving rise to Learning by Doing. As an illustration, we simulate the model under the two versions of endogenous technical change and look at the dynamics of a selected number of relevant variables, including growth rates of GDP and physical capital, as well as total emissions and rate of domestic abatement. Keywords: Climate Policy, Environmental Modeling, Integrated Assessment, Technical Change

  18. Encouraging dentists as agents of change in the fight against tobacco in Malaysia: An example of a dentist-psychiatrist collaborative effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Siddiq AN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentist has long been recognized as a formal health profession. Health professionals have an important role to play in the fight against tobacco. Smoking tobacco is dangerous because it related disease and also due to it being labeled as a gateway to illicit drug abuse. As individuals, the dentist can help educate the population, as community members they can support anti-smoking policies and at a societal level, they can influence national and global tobacco control efforts. The associations between tobacco use and diseases affecting the oral cavity, such as periodontal disease and cancer, are now well recognized. This has lead to proposals from some members of the profession that members of the dental team should provide smoking cessation services. Before exploring effective ways to help smokers quit, it is important to understand the nature of the addictive process and how it affects both nicotine use and cessation attempts. The potential influence of dentists as agents of change is clear from even a brief consideration of the nature and conditions of the dentist-patient relationship. The dental practice setting provides a unique opportunity to assist tobacco users in achieving tobacco abstinence. The role of psychiatrists to support the effort, therefore, becomes all the more important.

  19. Termination of the leprosy isolation policy in the US and Japan : Science, policy changes, and the garbage can model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime; Frantz, Janet E

    2005-01-01

    Background In both the US and Japan, the patient isolation policy for leprosy /Hansen's disease (HD) was preserved along with the isolation facilities, long after it had been proven to be scientifically unnecessary. This delayed policy termination caused a deprivation of civil liberties of the involuntarily confined patients, the fostering of social stigmas attached to the disease, and an inefficient use of health resources. This article seeks to elucidate the political process which hindered timely policy changes congruent with scientific advances. Methods Examination of historical materials, supplemented by personal interviews. The role that science played in the process of policy making was scrutinized with particular reference to the Garbage Can model. Results From the vantage of history, science remained instrumental in all period in the sense that it was not the primary objective for which policy change was discussed or intended, nor was it the principal driving force for policy change. When the argument arose, scientific arguments were employed to justify the patient isolation policy. However, in the early post-WWII period, issues were foregrounded and agendas were set as the inadvertent result of administrative reforms. Subsequently, scientific developments were more or less ignored due to concern about adverse policy outcomes. Finally, in the 1980s and 1990s, scientific arguments were used instrumentally to argue against isolation and for the termination of residential care. Conclusion Contrary to public expectations, health policy is not always rational and scientifically justified. In the process of policy making, the role of science can be limited and instrumental. Policy change may require the opening of policy windows, as a result of convergence of the problem, policy, and political streams, by effective exercise of leadership. Scientists and policymakers should be attentive enough to the political context of policies. PMID:15771781

  20. Termination of the leprosy isolation policy in the US and Japan : Science, policy changes, and the garbage can model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Janet E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In both the US and Japan, the patient isolation policy for leprosy /Hansen's disease (HD was preserved along with the isolation facilities, long after it had been proven to be scientifically unnecessary. This delayed policy termination caused a deprivation of civil liberties of the involuntarily confined patients, the fostering of social stigmas attached to the disease, and an inefficient use of health resources. This article seeks to elucidate the political process which hindered timely policy changes congruent with scientific advances. Methods Examination of historical materials, supplemented by personal interviews. The role that science played in the process of policy making was scrutinized with particular reference to the Garbage Can model. Results From the vantage of history, science remained instrumental in all period in the sense that it was not the primary objective for which policy change was discussed or intended, nor was it the principal driving force for policy change. When the argument arose, scientific arguments were employed to justify the patient isolation policy. However, in the early post-WWII period, issues were foregrounded and agendas were set as the inadvertent result of administrative reforms. Subsequently, scientific developments were more or less ignored due to concern about adverse policy outcomes. Finally, in the 1980s and 1990s, scientific arguments were used instrumentally to argue against isolation and for the termination of residential care. Conclusion Contrary to public expectations, health policy is not always rational and scientifically justified. In the process of policy making, the role of science can be limited and instrumental. Policy change may require the opening of policy windows, as a result of convergence of the problem, policy, and political streams, by effective exercise of leadership. Scientists and policymakers should be attentive enough to the political context of policies.

  1. Planning, climate change, and transportation : thoughts on policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Ideally, policy should be informed by social welfare analyses that carefully assess costs and benefits. In the context of : GHG policies, such analyses face particular challenges. The decades-long span of GHG policy-making will require introduction :...

  2. Children's Perceptions of Hypothetical Peers With Undesirable Characteristics: Role of the Peers' Desire to Change, Source of Effort to Change, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mark A; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Wadian, Taylor W; Jones, Tucker L; Langley, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    The present study, involving sixth- to eighth-grade students, is an extension of a prior investigation (Barnett, Livengood, Sonnentag, Barlett, & Witham, 2010) that examined children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with various undesirable characteristics. Results indicate that children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with an undesirable characteristic are influenced by the peers' desire to change, the source of effort to change, and the peers' success or failure in changing the characteristic. The children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who were successful in overcoming an undesirable characteristic than peers who were unsuccessful. Regardless of the peers' outcome, the children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who tried to change than peers who relied on the effort of adult authorities to motivate change. The children perceived successful peers as experiencing more positive affect than their unsuccessful counterparts, especially if the success was presented as a fulfillment of the peers' desire to change their undesirable characteristic. Finally, the children's ratings reflected the belief that, among peers who failed to change their undesirable characteristic, lacking the desire to change increases the relative likelihood that the characteristic will be permanent.

  3. Community psychology and transformative policy change in the neo-liberal era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Geoffrey

    2013-12-01

    I present ideas about how community psychologists, as researcher-activists, can influence public policy. I begin by describing the current neo-liberal era, noting the immense obstacles it poses to progressive policy change. Next I contrast two approaches to understanding policy formation, evidence-based policy and discursive policy analysis, and argue that transformative policy change can benefit from both approaches. I then propose three types of policy outcomes that community psychology research and activism should aim to promote: (a) shaping problem definition, (b) controlling channels for debate and participation, and (c) allocating resources. I use examples from community psychologists' involvement in policy, mostly in Canada, to illustrate how such policy change can be both achieved and constrained. I conclude by discussing implications for theory and practice related to policy change.

  4. Climate change policy and international trade. Policy considerations in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Christopher L.; Peters, Glen P.

    2009-01-01

    Significant recent attention, in both research and policy realms, has been given to the intersection of international trade and global climate change. Trade presents challenges to climate policy through carbon leakage and competitiveness concerns, but also potential solutions through the use of cooperative trade agreements, technology transfer, or carbon tariffs against recalcitrant nations. This study examines how trade may affect climate policy in the US and specifically examines the use of carbon tariffs as suggested by recent bills before the US Congress. We argue that even if such actions are legal at the World Trade Organization, they are probably not necessary to protect industrial competitiveness in the traditional sense, could cover only a small proportion of total embodied emissions in trade, and may in fact be counterproductive at a moment when global cooperation is desperately needed. While political agreement may necessitate at least the threat of carbon tariffs, cooperative agreements such as global sectoral agreements, technology sharing, etc. could be more productive in the short term. (author)

  5. Community Coalitions' Gender-Aware Policy and Systems Changes to Improve the Health of Women and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Shelly; Randolph, Suzanne M; Oravecz, Linda

    2017-10-17

    Addressing environmental barriers and community conditions through policy and systems change provides the foundation for creating sustainable public health change at the population level. In an effort to influence population-level change that is gender aware, the United States Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health funded the Coalition for a Healthier Community initiative supporting 10 grantees in the implementation of gender-based, public health systems approaches to improve women and girls' health. A national evaluation assessed the extent to which these gender-aware public health systems approaches result in programs and policies that are sustainable and cost effective in addressing health disparities in women and girls. For this paper, a review of policies reported on in grantees' quarterly progress reports was conducted, and policies were categorized based on each policy's status, level, sector affected, and whether it was gender aware. The review revealed 77 policies at varying stages of development or implementation intended to facilitate systems-level change at the coalition, school, organizational, local, or state level. Fifty-one percent of these policies were identified as being gender aware, because they were intended to reduce barriers to or increase facilitators of gender equity. Community coalitions, like the Coalition for a Healthier Community coalitions, can be valuable channels for promoting policy change, as demonstrated by the many policies developed and/or supported by the Coalition for a Healthier Community grantees in their attempt to meet the needs of women and girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Using Remotely Sensed Data for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: A Collaborative Effort Between the Climate Change Adaptation Science Investigators Workgroup (CASI), NASA Johnson Space Center, and Jacobs Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagge, Amy

    2016-01-01

    With ever changing landscapes and environmental conditions due to human induced climate change, adaptability is imperative for the long-term success of facilities and Federal agency missions. To mitigate the effects of climate change, indicators such as above-ground biomass change must be identified to establish a comprehensive monitoring effort. Researching the varying effects of climate change on ecosystems can provide a scientific framework that will help produce informative, strategic and tactical policies for environmental adaptation. As a proactive approach to climate change mitigation, NASA tasked the Climate Change Adaptation Science Investigators Workgroup (CASI) to provide climate change expertise and data to Center facility managers and planners in order to ensure sustainability based on predictive models and current research. Generation of historical datasets that will be used in an agency-wide effort to establish strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation at NASA facilities is part of the CASI strategy. Using time series of historical remotely sensed data is well-established means of measuring change over time. CASI investigators have acquired multispectral and hyperspectral optical and LiDAR remotely sensed datasets from NASA Earth Observation Satellites (including the International Space Station), airborne sensors, and astronaut photography using hand held digital cameras to create a historical dataset for the Johnson Space Center, as well as the Houston and Galveston area. The raster imagery within each dataset has been georectified, and the multispectral and hyperspectral imagery has been atmospherically corrected. Using ArcGIS for Server, the CASI-Regional Remote Sensing data has been published as an image service, and can be visualized through a basic web mapping application. Future work will include a customized web mapping application created using a JavaScript Application Programming Interface (API), and inclusion of the CASI data

  7. Climate Change Policy in European Countries and its effects on industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, S.; Van Regemorter, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the effects of different climate change policies on industrial activity and on welfare. We compare the effects of carbon taxes and grandfathered permits and the effects of exemptions for energy-intensive industries. We survey first the insights from economic theory and from model experiments for the US. Next we use a general equilibrium model to assess the effect of different climate change policies on industrial activity per sector and per member country in the EU. We pay particular attention to the effects of policies where one EU member state exempts its energy-intensive sectors from abatement efforts. The main findings are that, in the EU, the effects on industrial activity and the welfare costs of tradable permits or carbon taxes are small when no industrial sectors are exempted. When one member country exempts its energy intensive sector, this will reduce somewhat the impact on its activity level but will generate an extra welfare cost for the EU

  8. Ecosystem change and human health: implementation economics and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, S K; Kramer, R A; Vincent, J R

    2017-06-05

    Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health , EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered. Drawing on the policy evaluation tradition in public economics, first, we present three examples of recent social science research on conservation interventions that affect human health. These examples are from low- and middle-income countries in the tropics and subtropics. Second, drawing on these examples, we present three propositions related to impact evaluation and non-market valuation that can help guide future multidisciplinary research on conservation and human health. Research guided by these propositions will allow stakeholders to determine how ecosystem-mediated strategies for health promotion compare with more conventional biomedical prevention and treatment strategies for safeguarding health.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Climate change in Brazil: public policies, political agenda and media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelaide Lombardo, Magda; Costa Freitas, Ruimar (Univ. Estadual Paulista, Univ. de Sao Paulo Bela Vista, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    2010-07-15

    The climate change and sustainable development issue, especially in the context of energy production, have been on the current national policy rhetoric, reflecting the focus of the issue on the world scenario. The Brazilian Agroenergy Plan (2006-2011), considered as an strategic action of the federal government, is an attempt to organize a propose for Research, Development, Innovation and Technology Transfer, aiming to grant sustainability, competitiveness and greater equity between the agroenergy chain agents, starting with the reality analysis and future perspectives for the world energetic matrix. In this context, this research seeks to analyze the proposals of the State of Sao Paulo to the laws implementations that allows the goal accomplishment of 20% reduction on the greenhouse effect emissions until 2020 (base 2005), through action to the deforestation control, creation of an adaptation fund, establishment of a sustainable transportation system, mapping the vulnerabilities of the territory and financial mechanisms to the development of a low carbon economy. From the perspective of the national media coverage agenda, that has extensively approached the climate changes theme, this research collaborates to the analysis of sustainable projects inside the Brazilian perspective and context. This research will emphasize the relation between media, political speech and public policies

  10. Recommendations for responding to changes in reimbursement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, John; Fifer, Joe

    2010-01-01

    With profound changes in reimbursement policy on the horizon, organizations are preparing a variety of responses to ensure long-term success. Most are anticipating decreases in reimbursement rates from most payers. Whether due to nonpayment for hospital-acquired complications and infections, reductions due to high readmission rates, or a move toward value-based purchasing and bundled payment models, the impact is predicted to be substantial. Because of these sweeping changes, organizations must quickly prepare a thoughtful, effective response to ensure their financial stability. At the heart of these global changes in reimbursement, including those in the healthcare reform legislation, is a drive toward integration, the formation of integrated delivery systems in response to changing financial incentives. However, the new integrated systems must be not just an assemblage of the required components, but a true functional integration in which patients experience a seamless continuum of care that is highly coordinated, efficient, effective, and accessible. In this article, we'll address changes in reimbursement and recommended responses from three perspectives. First, we offer a three-pronged approach for managing general decreases in reimbursement. Second, we highlight strategies for managing nonpayment for readmissions, focusing on the demonstration project in the state of Michigan, MI STAAR. And finally, we review managing patient care in an environment of bundled payment, including the interventions at the center of the PROMETHEUS demonstration project.

  11. 'Manage and mitigate punitive regulatory measures, enhance the corporate image, influence public policy': industry efforts to shape understanding of tobacco-attributable deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Carrillo Botero, Natalia; Novotny, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    Deforestation due to tobacco farming began to raise concerns in the mid 1970s. Over the next 40 years, tobacco growing increased significantly and shifted markedly to low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of deforestation caused by tobacco farming reached 4 % globally by the early 2000s, although substantially higher in countries such as China (18 %), Zimbabwe (20 %), Malawi (26 %) and Bangladesh (>30 %). Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have argued that tobacco-attributable deforestation is not a serious problem, and that the industry has addressed the issue through corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. After reviewing the existing scholarly literature on tobacco and deforestation, we analysed industry sources of public information to understand how the industry framed deforestation, its key causes, and policy responses. To analyse industry strategies between the 1970s and early 2000s to shape understanding of deforestation caused by tobacco farming and curing, the Truth Tobacco Documents Library was systematically searched. The above sources were compiled and triangulated, thematically and chronologically, to derive a narrative of how the industry has framed the problem of, and solutions to, tobacco-attributable deforestation. The industry sought to undermine responses to tobacco-attributable deforestation by emphasising the economic benefits of production in LMICs, blaming alternative causes, and claiming successful forestation efforts. To support these tactics, the industry lobbied at the national and international levels, commissioned research, and colluded through front groups. There was a lack of effective action to address tobacco-attributable deforestation, and indeed an escalation of the problem, during this period. The findings suggest the need for independent data on the varied environmental impacts of the tobacco industry, awareness of how the industry seeks to work with environmental researchers and groups to

  12. Changing Policy, Changing Culture: Steps toward Early Learning Quality Improvement in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayler, Collette

    2011-01-01

    Across Australia a combined government effort is underway to reform early childhood education and care (ECEC) provision. A National Law Bill passed in 2010 heralds a new legal, regulatory and accountability framework that embraces all types ECEC provision. As a result, service providers face rapid change to address a new orientation and higher…

  13. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  14. Proposing a Definition and a Framework of Organisational Sustainability: A Review of Efforts and a Survey of Approaches to Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lozano

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisations (civil society, companies, and public-sector organisations (PSOs have been instrumental in driving sustainability. In the last five years, there has been an increasing interest in organisational sustainability, where the importance of sustainability’s dimensions depends on an organisation’s nature and purpose. A large body of literature on organisational sustainability has focused on companies, followed by education institutions, in particular higher education. Limited, yet increasing, attention has been directed to PSOs and other civil society organisations. Although there have been some attempts to define a sustainable organisation, there is still a need to define and establish the principles of how organisations can address and contribute to sustainability. The sustainability efforts in the different types of organisations were reviewed and then analysed in this paper by using hermeneutics. This was complemented with a survey on sustainability changes. The survey was sent to a database of 1574 contacts from different organisations. In addition, 106 anonymous links were sent out. From the total list of emails, 118 full responses were obtained, with 39 from civil society (37 from higher education and 2 NGOs, 66 corporations, and 13 PSOs. This research distils the key system elements of the efforts in each of the organisations in order to synthesise and propose a definition and a conceptual framework of organisational sustainability. These can help organisations understand where their efforts are and how they could better embed sustainability into their systems, thus contributing to the well-being of societies and the environment for this generation and future ones.

  15. A Discursive Institutionalist Approach to Understanding the Changes to the Irish Social Partnership Policy After 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, John; Timoney, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Read before the society, 14 January 2016 Employing the critical juncture theory (CJT), a discursive institutionalist approach, this paper examines the nature of the changes to social partnership policy at the end of the decade of the 2000s. Did these changes constitute a transformation in social partnership policy, or were they a continuation of a previously established policy pathway? The CJT consists of three elements – economic crisis, ideational change, and the nature of the policy cha...

  16. Geographic overlaps between priority areas for forest carbon-storage efforts and those for delivering peacebuilding programs: implications for policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Nunez, Augusto; Mertz, Ole; Sosa, Chrystian C.

    2017-05-01

    Of the countries considering national-level policies for incentivizing reductions in forest-based greenhouse gas emissions (REDD+), some 25 are experiencing (or are emerging from) armed-conflicts. It has been hypothesized that the outcomes of the interactions between carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts could result in either improved or worsened forest conservation and likewise increased or decreased conflict. Hence, for this study we explore potential interactions between forest carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts, with Colombia as a case study. Spatial associations between biomass carbon and three conflict-related variables suggest that such interactions may exist. Nonetheless, while priority areas for carbon-focused conservation are presumably those at highest risks of deforestation, our research indicates that forests with lower risk of deforestation are typically those affected by armed-conflict. Our findings moreover highlight three possible roles played by Colombian forested municipalities in armed groups’ military strategies: venues for battle, hideouts, and sources of natural resources to finance war.

  17. The Potential Sources of Change in Romania Regional Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous debates on a new territorial organization of Romania during 2013 and 2014. The miracle of Romania regionalization was deemed to have contradictory effects from territorial construction to dissolution. Due to the presidential elections from the end of 2014, the process of regionalization was postponed, but some questions are still very alive: It is necessary to regroup counties into regions? The low development of Romania regions is caused by the lack of administrative decentralization? In Romania, territorial reform is synonym with institutional reform? Therefore, I consider that it is important to identify the potential sources of change in Romanian regional policy. The political debates on Romanian regionalization were mainly focus on political interests, without taking into account an important serious of factors that can spur growth and socio-economic development across our regions. Through this paper I try to investigate the specialised literature in order to identify some useful policy suggestions from regional scientists, which would be proper for Romania regional development, in the current context of Europe 2020 strategy.

  18. Monetary policy change of the Central bank of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraś Ireneusz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Bank of Poland is an institution which, in conjunction with the government is responsible for the implementation of country’s economic policy reinforces its democratic character. Provisions of its operation are governed by the Constitution of The Republic of Poland and by the Act on the National Bank of Poland. To this end, the objective of the present research is to analyse the proposed amendments in the Act on the NBP. The latter concerns the amendment procedures, term of office and the rotations and numbers of Monetary Policy Council. The remaining part of the analyses is dedicated to the issue of dismissal of a MPC’s member in conjunction with the prohibition of occupying other positions, the adoption of the NBP’s financial statements and the separation of instruments of monetary policy’s instruments for stability of domestic financial system. Introduced changes in the proposed draft reduce the independence of the NBP while making it more subject to the Cabinet. Following the result of further consultations on the draft of Act on the NBP, provisions which reduce the independence of the NBP shall be partially removed.

  19. TOURISM POLICY IN ROMANIA: A NECESSARY CHANGE OF DIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenţiu TĂCHICIU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern economies services are dominant. As the role of services is increasing, the difference between goods and services is vanishing, but most of our economics and business knowledge is developed from a manufacturing perspective which is no more satisfactory in the new service economy conditions. One important aspect is that the ability of a country to participate effectively to the growing international trade in services depends more and more on its attractiveness as a visitors' destination. Although there is a well developed understanding of the role of tourism to the general economic and social development, it is less understood the effect of economic and social living conditions as visitor attractiveness factors.Reviewing recent studies, assessments and reports regarding the travel & tourism economy of Romania, authors found out that achieving the economic potential of tourism faces serious challenges due, primarily, to the discrepancy between the conditions visitors are increasingly looking for and the conditions provided by Romanian destinations. In order to accept the challenges with chances of success the tourism policy making should radically change direction. The authors identify three main priorities: focus on general development, put policy in the service of visitors first, improve communication and branding.

  20. The Second-Image Reversed and Climate Policy: How International Influences Helped Changing Brazil’s Positions on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjur Kasa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available International climate policy over the last 7–8 years has been characterized by the increasing involvement of developing countries. While COP-13 at Bali marked a stronger willingness to participate in mitigation efforts in principle, there are now numerous examples of domestic programs for mitigation by this group of countries. Brazil has gone furthest among developing countries, with a substantial voluntary commitment to reduce its emissions proclaimed in 2009. The dynamics behind the change in Brazil’s position are discussed, with a particular eye to the effects of international influences. In conjunction with important domestic changes, a set of interacting influences through a variety of pathways both changed preferences among important interest groups in Brazilian society towards favoring some kind of commitments and helped to change the structure of government forums and decision-making rules in a way that empowered reform-minded ministries. It is argued that this perspective, drawn from Peter Gourevitch’s idea of the “second image reversed”, is increasingly relevant for understanding the influence of the broad “regime complex” on climate change on politics in developing countries.

  1. Nurse Delegation in Home Care: Research Guiding Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather M; Farnham, Jennifer; Reinhard, Susan C

    2016-09-01

    The current study evaluated nurse delegation in home care, a pilot program introduced in 2007 in New Jersey to promote home care options for consumers needing assistance with medical/nursing tasks. Findings on readiness for the program, barriers and facilitating factors, experience with the program, and recommendations are summarized and presented. Methods included surveys and interviews with participants in nurse delegation, observations of planning and implementation meetings, and review meeting minutes. Major findings were no negative outcomes for consumers, improvements in quality of life and quality of care for consumers, high readiness and increasing satisfaction with experience in delegation, perception of nurse delegation in home care as a valued option, and the challenges of ensuring adequate staffing. Subsequent changes in regulation in New Jersey are underway, translating this research into policy. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(9), 7-15.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. “Push” dynamics in policy experimentation: Downscaling climate change adaptation programs in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Wellstead

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy experiments have often been touted as valuable mechanisms for ensuring sustainability transitions and climate change adaptation. However problems exist both in the definition of ‘experiments’, and in their design and realization. While valuable, most experiments examined in the literature to date have been small-scale micro-level deployments or evaluations of policy tools in which the most problematic element revolves around their “scaling-up” or diffusion. The literature on the subject has generally neglected the problems and issues related to another class of experiments in which macro or meso-level initiatives are ‘scaled-down’ to the micro-level. This paper examines a recent effort of this kind in Canada involving the creation of Regional Adaptation Collaboratives (RACs across the country whose main purpose is to push national level initiatives down to the regions and localities. As the discussion shows, this top-down process has its own dynamics distinct from those involved in ‘scaling up’ and should be examined as a separate category of policy experiments in its own right.

  3. Europeanisation and policy change in the Danish vocational education and training system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyse the interrelationship between the Copenhagen Process, EU vocational education and training policy, and Danish initial vocational education and training policies in order to shed light on the role of EU policies in policy and institutional change. The article points...... to the complexity of policy-making and the crisscrossing of policies across the globe. A major change is the acceptance of the EU as a stakeholder in vocational education and training policy-making and thereby an expansion of the policy space. However, the changes taking place at national level are incremental...... and the EU policy is translated in the national context, where it contributes to the re-accentuation of existing conflicts and fissures....

  4. State Policies Targeting Junk Food in Schools: Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Policy Change on Soda Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Murray, David M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. Methods. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000–2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Results. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.17, −0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = −0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. Conclusions. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile. PMID:21778484

  5. State policies targeting junk food in schools: racial/ethnic differences in the effect of policy change on soda consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Murray, David M; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-09-01

    We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000-2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.17, -0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = -0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile.

  6. Policy change and governance at the wildland-urban interface: the case of post-wildfire impacts in Boise, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In the summer of 2012 over 1.7 million acres (approximately 6900 sq kilometers) were burned from wildfires in the state of Idaho in the Western United States. While most of the these fires were in rural and wilderness areas, several significant fires occurred at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), threatening houses, communities and the built environment as never before. As the population of the Mountain West in the United States grows, the WUI (the area where homes are being built adjacent to traditionally wild or rural areas and the built environment encroaches on wildlands) is rapidly becoming an at risk area for human habitation. Efforts to make these areas more resilient and sustainable in the face of increasing fire risk, due to increasing drought and climate change, are resulting in efforts to change or adapt disaster response and planning policy. An increase in stakeholders, however, with diverse objectives and resources presents an opportunity to assess the current governance situation for policy change in response to wildland fires in the dynamic and complex context of the WUI. The research presented here will focus on the case of Treasure Valley region of southwest Idaho and Boise, the capitol city of Idaho. This region is illustrative of the growing urban western United States and the pressures from a growing population pushing into the WUI. This research frames fire policy and decision making at the wildland-urban interface within public policy process theory using the example of the summer of 2012 forest fires in Idaho (USA) and focuses on subsequents impact these fires are having on fire planning and policy in the Boise metropolitan region. The focus is on the diverse stakeholders (federal, state and regional agencies, tourism, agriculture and private sector interests, homeowner organizations, and fire response and recovery agencies) and their roles and responsibilities, their interactions, decision and policy processes, the use of science in

  7. Climate change: is Southeast Asia up to the challenge?: forest and climate change policy: what are the costs of inaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Forsyth

    2010-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation are some of the main contributors to anthropogenic climate change. Accordingly, policies to arrest deforestation or increase forest areas are proposed as important forms of climate change policy. This paper summarizes current proposals for addressing the contribution of forests to climate change, and the political problems of implementing these policies, especially in developing countries. The paper argues that current estimates of the likely sequestration...

  8. A Dynamic Linear Modeling Approach to Public Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loftis, Matthew; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2017-01-01

    policy. The paper offers a detailed exposition of the DLM approach and illustrates its usefulness with a time series analysis of U.S. defense policy from 1957-2010. The results point the way for a new attention to dynamics in the policy process and the paper concludes with a discussion of how...

  9. A healthy turn in urban climate change policies; European city workshop proposes health indicators as policy integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Hans; Ludlow, David; van den Hazel, Peter; Randall, Scott; Bartonova, Alena

    2012-06-28

    The EU FP6 HENVINET project reviewed the potential relevance of a focus on climate change related health effects for climate change policies at the city region level. This was undertaken by means of a workshop with both scientists, city representatives from several EU-countries, representatives of EU city networks and EU-experts. In this paper we introduce some important health related climate change issues, and discuss the current city policies of the participating cities. The workshop used a backcasting format to analyse the future relevance of a health perspective, and the main benefits and challenges this would bring to urban policy making. It was concluded that health issues have an important function as indicators of success for urban climate change policies, given the extent to which climate change policies contribute to public health and as such to quality of life. Simultaneously the health perspective may function as a policy integrator in that it can combine several related policy objectives, such as environmental policies, health policies, urban planning and economic development policies, in one framework for action. Furthermore, the participants to the workshop considered public health to be of strategic importance in organizing public support for climate change policies. One important conclusion of the workshop was the view that the connection of science and policy at the city level is inadequate, and that the integration of scientific knowledge on climate change related health effects and local policy practice is in need of more attention. In conclusion, the workshop was viewed as a constructive advance in the process of integration which hopefully will lead to ongoing cooperation. The workshop had the ambition to bring together a diversity of actor perspectives for exchange of knowledge and experiences, and joint understanding as a basis for future cooperation. Next to the complementarities in experience and knowledge, the mutual critical reflection

  10. A healthy turn in urban climate change policies; European city workshop proposes health indicators as policy integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The EU FP6 HENVINET project reviewed the potential relevance of a focus on climate change related health effects for climate change policies at the city region level. This was undertaken by means of a workshop with both scientists, city representatives from several EU-countries, representatives of EU city networks and EU-experts. In this paper we introduce some important health related climate change issues, and discuss the current city policies of the participating cities. Methods The workshop used a backcasting format to analyse the future relevance of a health perspective, and the main benefits and challenges this would bring to urban policy making. Results It was concluded that health issues have an important function as indicators of success for urban climate change policies, given the extent to which climate change policies contribute to public health and as such to quality of life. Simultaneously the health perspective may function as a policy integrator in that it can combine several related policy objectives, such as environmental policies, health policies, urban planning and economic development policies, in one framework for action. Furthermore, the participants to the workshop considered public health to be of strategic importance in organizing public support for climate change policies. One important conclusion of the workshop was the view that the connection of science and policy at the city level is inadequate, and that the integration of scientific knowledge on climate change related health effects and local policy practice is in need of more attention. In conclusion, the workshop was viewed as a constructive advance in the process of integration which hopefully will lead to ongoing cooperation. Conclusions The workshop had the ambition to bring together a diversity of actor perspectives for exchange of knowledge and experiences, and joint understanding as a basis for future cooperation. Next to the complementarities in experience and

  11. Venezuelan policies and responses on climate change and natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponi, Claudio; Rosales, Anibal

    1992-06-01

    Venezuela is an intertropical country which has the fortune not to suffer the severities of natural hazards which are usual in other countries of this region. It is a developing country, whose economy is heavily dependent on oil production and exports. Its greenhouse gas emissions are relatively low, but it is expected that the planned industrialization development will bring an associated increase in emissions. As a nation, Venezuela has a highly developed environmental consciousness. The Ministry of environment, the first in Latin America, was created in 1977, and has been the main contributor to the national policy of Disaster Prevention and Reduction. As in many developing countries actions and responses in this regard have been rather limited in scope, and even though legislation has been developed, many problems arise for its enforcement. Several local warning systems, civil defense procedures, and infrastructural protection measures are operational, however they have not been designed, revised, or planned taking into consideration the potential impacts of climate change. Presently Venezuela is an active participant state in the negotiation for a framework convention on climate change. That is a very difficult negotiation for our country. Here we have to conciliate enviromental principles with national economic interests. The elements of our position in this contex are presented in this statement.

  12. Water demand management: A policy response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, R.; Tate, D.

    1990-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on the water resources of the Great Lakes region are discussed. It is predicted that there will be a relative water scarcity in the Great Lakes basin of Ontario as climate changes occur over the next two decades. Declines in water supply will be accompanied by deterioration in the quality of fresh water as higher temperatures and higher relative quantities of discharged wastewater to water bodies reduce both assimilative and dilutive capacity. The most cost effective policy is to encourage water conservation through programs of water demand management. Water should be priced at the point at which its marginal cost is equal to its marginal product, ie. if priced any higher, less efficient substitutes would be used. Not only would water usage, and subsequent degradation of used water, be reduced, but energy and other cost savings would be achieved. The additional costs that apply to water users could be returned to the communities as additional revenue to be applied against sewage treatment upgrades and other environmental enhancements. Communities involved in water study should consider the development of water use analysis models to assist with decision making about allocation, pricing and availability of water supplies. 10 refs

  13. Politics and Policy Change in American Administrative Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Murphy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay uses Justice Scalia’s and Breyer’s dueling opinions in FCC v. Fox Television Stations, Inc. (2009, as a vehicle for exploring the contested relationship between politics and policy change in administrative law. In Fox, a five – justice majority led by Justice Scalia insisted that an agency’s abandonment of an old policy position in favor of a new one should survive review for arbitrariness so long as the agency explains why its new position is reasonable. A different five – justice majority (yes – that adds up to ten led by Justice Breyer thought that Justice Scalia’s stance left too much room for politicization of policymaking. To curb such influence, Justice Breyer insisted that an agency, to justify abandoning an old policy, must explain why it was reasonable to change from its old policy to the new one. Neither of these two approaches in Fox hits quite the right note. Justice Scalia’s view unduly minimizes the problem of politicization. Justice Breyer’s solution seems formalistic and easy to evade. A better way forward may lie in combining Justice Scalia’s simpler framework with Justice Breyer’s more suspicious attitude. Taking a cue from Justice Frankfurter in Universal Camera, the courts should respond to the potential for excessive politicization of agency policymaking not with more doctrinal metaphysics but with a suspicious “mood.” Cet article se base sur les opinions adverses des juges Scalia et Breyer dans FCC v. Fox Television Stations Inc. (2009 comme véhicule pour explorer le rapport contesté entre la politique et les changements de politiques en droit administratif. Dans Fox, une majorité de cinq juges dirigée par le juge Scalia a insisté que l’abandon d’une ancienne politique par une agence en faveur d’une nouvelle politique devrait survivre à un examen pour juger si elle est arbitraire en autant que l’agence explique pourquoi sa nouvelle politique est raisonnable. Une autre

  14. Climate Change Policy Measures in Japan: NEDO's Activities to Promote CDM/JI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Kazunori; Seki, Kazuhiko; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, which obliges developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), was adopted at the third session of the conference of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Kyoto, Japan, on I I December 1997. Japan subsequently ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 and is required thereunder to reduce GHG emissions by 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Japan, having already tackled development and promotion of energy conservation technologies after the second oil crisis, emits the lowest level of CO 2 of developed countries approximately 9.4 tons per capita in the year 2000. Consequently, Japan is able to contribute to CO 2 emissions reduction in developing economies as well as in economies in transition by application of Japan's energy conservation technologies. Because the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint implementation (JI) of the Kyoto Mechanisms are efficient tools, the Japanese government's policy towards emission reduction makes active use of CDM/JI, thereby supporting domestic efforts in realizing Japan's reduction commitment. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan is one of the key ministries to administer Governmental policy making on climate change, and is undertaking establishment of a system to facilitate the Kyoto Mechanisms. The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), under the jurisdiction of METI, supports CDM and JI project activities implemented by Japanese private sector enterprises. In this report, the authors briefly introduce climate change policy measures in Japan and NEDO's activities to promote CDM/Jl. (Author)

  15. Motivating systems-oriented research on environmental and policy changes for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskin, L J; Frutchey, R; McDermott, A Y; Esposito, L; Lee, B Y; Kumanyika, S

    2017-06-01

    Research on the types of interventions needed for population-level prevention of childhood obesity in complex societal systems can benefit from greater use of systems-science concepts and tools. We report outcomes of a funding programme promoting incorporation of systems-science approaches into studies of imminent policy or environmental changes potentially impacting childhood obesity. Seven funding cycles over 3 years yielded 172 initial submissions from 29 US states and 25 other countries were analyzed. Submissions focused primarily on aspects of school or child-care settings, parks and recreational settings, or access to healthy food; about half reflected attention to systems perspectives. Analysis of initial submissions as well as the 15 funded projects showed some success in motivating use of systems concepts and tools but suggested the need for a more focused effort to educate and prepare the childhood obesity prevention research community for this potentially crucial type of research. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Climate change policy initiatives. 1995/96 update. Volume II: selected non-iea countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA study details in a standard format the actions that twenty non-IEA countries are taking under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It provides information on the development of their national strategies to address greenhouse gas emissions, along with detailed data regarding such emissions from energy sources. The book summarises the positions of these countries in the international negotiations on the Convention, their efforts regarding emissions of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases, and their present and planned policies relevant to emissions from the energy sector. Key data on each country's energy production and use are given, along with tables showing recent trends (through 1993) in energy demand and energy-related CO 2 emissions. Most country profiles also include information on relevant national studies. (author)

  17. Current practices and future opportunities for policy on climate change and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Christopher R; Thomas, Roxanne; Porter, Read D; Hellmann, Jessica J; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Lodge, David M; Chavarria, Gabriela

    2008-06-01

    Climate change and invasive species are often treated as important, but independent, issues. Nevertheless, they have strong connections: changes in climate and societal responses to climate change may exacerbate the impacts of invasive species, whereas invasive species may affect the magnitude, rate, and impact of climate change. We argue that the design and implementation of climate-change policy in the United States should specifically consider the implications for invasive species; conversely, invasive-species policy should address consequences for climate change. The development of such policies should be based on (1) characterization of interactions between invasive species and climate change, (2) identification of areas where climate-change policies could negatively affect invasive-species management, and (3) identification of areas where policies could benefit from synergies between climate change and invasive-species management.

  18. Correction to: Smoking Policy Change Within Permanent Supportive Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Berit; Stewart, Holly C; Walters, Jon; Vijayaraghavan, Maya

    2018-04-07

    The original version of this article unfortunately contains mistakes. 1. On page 315, in the last sentence under the "Tobacco Use" subheading, the percentage should read "59.3%" rather than "55.6%". 2. On page 315, in the last sentence under the "Secondhand Smoke Exposure" subheading, the percentage "28.2%" should read "28.6%". 3. The presentation of "Post-policy" and "Pre-policy" terms in the Figs. 1 and 3 were incorrect. It should be read as: Figure 1: Pre-policy (n = 27); Post-policy (n = 16). Figure 3: Pre-policy (n = 55); Post-policy (n = 42). The corrected Figs. 1 and 3 are given below.

  19. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  20. Climate change: what is the optimal international policy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, B.S.

    1995-01-01

    In each country, the factors which will determine the future growth in emissions of greenhouse gases are: the rate of population growth; the level of economic growth; the speed of technological change and the policy settings adopted. An international model called MAGABARE to develop new carbon dioxide emission scenarios which take account of these factors, is considered. Whether or not there is sustained economic growth, the model shows that emissions from non-OECD countries will grow more rapidly than emissions from OECD economies. The implication is that any agreement to limit emissions that is confined to OECD will become more ineffective overtime and in fact will create incentives to relocate emission intensive activities to non-OECD countries. In the long term, there must be a way of involving non-OECD countries in emission control. One important aspect of this is technology transfer for energy efficiency. A global tradable quota system would provide a mechanism for the international transfer of financial resources and energy efficient technology to developing countries and therefore provide a means of encouraging participation in the scheme. 7 figs., 4 refs

  1. Climate Change and the Canadian Higher Education System: An Institutional Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joseph; Bieler, Andrew; McKenzie, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a pressing concern. Higher education can address the challenge, but systematic analyses of climate change in education policy are sparse. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by reporting on how Canadian postsecondary educational institutions have engaged with climate change through policy actions. We used descriptive…

  2. Role of motor vehicle lifetime extension in climate change policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Shigemi; Nansai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yasushi; Hubacek, Klaus; Suh, Sangwon; Minx, Jan; Kudoh, Yuki; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2011-02-15

    Vehicle replacement schemes such as the "cash for clunkers" program in the U.S. and the "scrappage scheme" in the UK have featured prominently in the economic stimulation packages initiated by many governments to cope with the global economic crisis. While these schemes were designed as economic instruments to support the vehicle production industry, governments have also claimed that these programs have environmental benefits such as reducing CO2 emissions by bringing more fuel-efficient vehicles onto the roads. However, little evidence is available to support this claim as current energy and environmental accounting models are inadequate for comprehensively capturing the economic and environmental trade-offs associated with changes in product life and product use. We therefore developed a new dynamic model to quantify the carbon emissions due to changes in product life and consumer behavior related to product use. Based on a case study of Japanese vehicle use during the 1990-2000 period, we found that extending, not shortening, the lifetime of a vehicle helps to reduce life-cycle CO2 emissions throughout the supply chain. Empirical results also revealed that even if the fuel economy of less fuel-efficient ordinary passenger vehicles were improved to levels comparable with those of the best available technology, i.e. hybrid passenger cars currently being produced in Japan, total CO2 emissions would decrease by only 0.2%. On the other hand, we also find that extending the lifetime of a vehicle contributed to a moderate increase in emissions of health-relevant air pollutants (NOx, HC, and CO) during the use phase. From the results, this study concludes that the effects of global warming and air pollution can be somewhat moderated and that these problems can be addressed through specific policy instruments directed at increasing the market for hybrid cars as well as extending lifetime of automobiles, which is contrary to the current wisdom.

  3. INFREQUENT CHANGES OF THE POLICY TARGET: ROBUST OPTIMAL MONETARY POLICY UNDER AMBIGUITY

    OpenAIRE

    SHIN-ICHI FUKUDA

    2012-01-01

    In many countries, the monetary policy instrument sometimes remains unchanged for a long period and shows infrequent responses to exogenous shocks. The purpose of this paper is to provide a new explanation on why the central bank's policy instrument remains unchanged. In the analysis, we explore how uncertainty on the private agents' expectations affects robust optimal monetary policy. We apply the Choquet expected decision theory to a new Keynesian model. A main result is that the policymake...

  4. ASSESSING INTER-EFFORT RECOVERY AND CHANGE OF DIRECTION ABILITY WITH THE 30-15 INTERMITTENT FITNESS TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachar Haydar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to propose a new and simple field assessment of inter-effort recovery and change of direction (COD ability based on performance during the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT, an intermittent, incremental shuttle-run test using three different protocols. Forty team-sport players (22 ± 2 years performed either (group A; n = 16 the original 30-15IFT and two modified versions, one without a rest period (i.e. continuous run, 30-15IFT-CONT and one without COD (30-15IFT-LINE, or (group B; n = 24 the original 30-15IFT and a modified version with more COD (28-m shuttle instead of 40-m, 30- 15IFT-28m. Heart rate (HR, blood lactate concentration ([La]b, rating of perceived exertion (RPE and maximal running speed were recorded for all tests. There was no statistical difference in either maximal HR (A: p = 0.07 and B: p = 0.94 or RPE (A: p = 0.10 and B: p = 0.97 between tests. Compared with the 30-15IFT (12.3 ± 2.5, p < 0.01 and 30-15IFT-LINE (11.3 ± 2.6, p = 0.07, ES = 0.61, [La]b was lower for 30-15IFT-CONT (9.6 ± 3.3 mmol.L-1. Compared with 30-15IFT, maximal running speed was higher for 30-15IFT-LINE (103.1 ± 1.7%, p < 0.001 and lower for 30-15IFT-CONT (93.2 ± 1.4%, p < 0.001, while it was similar for 30-15IFT-28m (99.7 ± 3.6%, p = 0.62. Maximal speeds reached after the four tests were significantly but not perfectly correlated (r = 0.74 to 95, all p < 0.001. Present results show that differences in the maximal running speed reached following different versions of the 30-15IFT can be used by coaches to isolate and evaluate inter- effort recovery (i.e. 30-15IFT vs. 30-15IFT-CONT and COD (i.e., 30-15IFT vs. 30-15IFT-LINE abilities in the field. Additionally, COD ability as evaluated here appears to be independent of shuttle-length

  5. Cumulative Impacts of Energy and Climate Change Policies on Carbon Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, A.; Milnes, R.; Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom); De Bruyn, S.; Brinke, L. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    Carbon leakage occurs when climate change policy aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions in one country leads to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions in a country that is not bound by these policies. Given that climate change is a global issue, carbon leakage impacts upon the effectiveness of climate change policies. This independent study examines the cumulative impact of climate change policies on carbon leakage. The report brings together findings and analysis from a wide range of primary literature in this area and where possible, conclusions relevant to the UK are drawn.

  6. Support for Climate Change Policy: Social Psychological and Social Structural Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Thomas; Dan, Amy; Shwom, Rachael

    2007-01-01

    We investigated preferences for climate change mitigation policies and factors contributing to higher levels of policy support. The sample was comprised of 316 Michigan and Virginia residents, all of whom completed mail surveys. Of the eight policies proposed to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, respondents overwhelmingly indicated they would…

  7. Carbon Leakage Revisited : Unilateral Climate Policy with Directed Technical Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Maria, C.; van der Werf, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    The increase in carbondioxide emissions by some countries in reaction to an emission reduction by countries with climate policy (carbon leakage) is seen as a serious threat to unilateral climate policy.Using a two-country model where only one of the countries enforces an exogenous cap on emissions,

  8. Higher Education Policy Change in the European Higher Education Area: Divergence of Quality Assurance Systems in England and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chuo-Chun; Huisman, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    In the context of globalising higher education (HE) policies, there is an increasing interest among scholars in detecting patterns of policy change, including the rate and magnitude of policy change and the direction of change (convergence or divergence) This paper adds to that literature by comparing the pattern of policy change and by providing…

  9. Climate change and energy policy in Chile: Up in smoke?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundaca T, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an ex-post assessment of the climate and energy policy developments in Chile emerging from a neoliberal economic model, during the period 1971–2007. First, correlation and regression analyses were performed to analyse historical CO 2 emissions as a product of demographic, economic and energy-wide drivers. Then I estimate indicators related to CO 2 emissions, energy use and economic activity. In the light of empirical results, I identify policy instruments and structural issues. Finally, I present a comparative analysis of Chile and other Latin American countries. Statistical tests show that variability of CO 2 emissions is explained mostly by GDP per capita (‘affluence’) than any other tested variable. Indicators show that the diversification and decarbonisation of the energy mix has been a major policy challenge. With two notable exceptions (hydro and natural gas), the CO 2 intensity of the energy supply mix suggests no effective policies, while energy security crises triggered negative carbon effects and increased prices. No clear policies to promote energy efficiency can be identified until 2005. Explicit policy instruments to promote renewable energy are only recognised after 2004. The results strongly suggest that Chile lacked of policies to effectively decarbonise its energy–economy system. - Highlight: ► The first paper that quantitatively assesses key drivers of CO 2 emissions in Chile. ► It examines energy and climate policy development during the period 1971–2007. ► GDP per capita (‘affluence’) is the main determinant of CO 2 emissions. ► Diversification and decarbonisation of energy mix has been a major policy challenge. ► Policy approach under analysed period not suited for a low-carbon economy.

  10. Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kenneth

    Carbon sequestration, the extraction and storage of carbon from the atmosphere by biomass, could potentially provide a cost-effective means to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. The claims on behalf of carbon sequestration may be inadvertently overstated, however. Several key observations emerge from this study. First, although carbon sequestration studies all report results in terms of dollars per ton, the definition of that term varies significantly, meaning that the results of various analyses can not be meaningfully compared. Second, when carbon sequestration is included in an energy-economy model of climate change policy, it appears that carbon sequestration could play a major, if not dominant role in a national carbon emission abatement program, reducing costs of emissions stabilization by as much as 80 percent, saving tens of billions of dollars per year. However, the results are very dependant upon landowners' perceived risk. Studies may also have overstated the potential for carbon sequestration because they have not considered the implementation process. This study demonstrates that three factors will reduce the cost-effectiveness of carbon sequestration. First, the implementation costs associated with measurement and governance of the government-private sector relation are higher than in the case of carbon source control. Second, legal constraints limit the range of instruments that the government can use to induce private landowners to expand their carbon sinks. The government will likely have to pay private parties to expand their sinks, or undertake direct government production. In either case, additional revenues will be required, introducing social costs associated with excess burden. Third, because of the very long time involved in developing carbon sinks (up to several decades) the government may not be able to make credible commitments against exactions of one type or another that would effectively reduce the value of private sector investments

  11. Policy Implementation beyond the Management of Change: A Case Study in Managing the Policy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, John; Evans, Jennifer

    Using the 1981 Education Act of England and Wales as a case study, this paper develops a conceptual framework of education legislation as a significant reference point in the process of negotiation and bargaining that initiates legislation and continues throughout the period of policy implementation. A model of the policy process and the…

  12. Land-use change and global climate policies; Usage des terres et politiques climatiques globales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitz, V

    2004-03-15

    This PhD thesis assess the role of land-use dynamics and carbon sequestration within climate policies. First, it describes the emergence, from the Rio-1992 to the Marrakech Accords (2001), of diplomatic controversies upon carbon sinks, in the context of the progressive constitution of a scientific basis on terrestrial carbon sinks. It questions the ability of the actual form of international climate regime to generate the appropriate incentives to sequester within the forestry sector in developed countries, or to control tropical deforestation. Second, the contribution of land-use change to atmospheric CO{sub 2} rise is quantified using a newly designed model of the global carbon cycle and regional land-use (OSCAR). We show that carbon emitted via land-use is not equivalent to fossil carbon emission in respect to atmospheric CO{sub 2} rise. This effect, all the more than land-use emissions are increasing, requires a greater mitigation effort to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Finally, optimal timing of mixed climate policies involving fossil emissions mitigation and biological sequestration is assessed within an inter temporal cost-benefit framework. We show that the social value of sequestered carbon depends on anticipating future climate damages. Within optimal control models, this links the timing of sequestration to fossil effort and to the evolution of climate damages; if the latter are uncertain, but might be revealed at a later date, then it might be optimal to reserve part of the limited sequestration potential to cut off an eventual future abatement cost peak, were a climate surprise to finally imply stringent concentration ceilings. (author)

  13. Data policy and availability supporting global change research development, and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, B.C.; Jack, R.F.; Cotter, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    An explosion of information has created a crisis for today's information age. We must determine how to use the best available information resources, tools, and technology. To do this, we need to have leadership at the interagency level to promote a coherent information policy. It is also important to find ways to educate the users of information regarding the tools available to them. This paper reports that advances in technology have resulted in efforts to shift from disciplinary and mission-oriented systems to decision support systems and personalized information systems. One such effort is being made by the Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change (IWGDMGC). Five federal agencies - the Department of Commerce (DOC), Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Library of Medicine (NLM), and Department of Defense (DoD) - have an ongoing cooperative information management group, Commerce, Energy, NASA, NLM, and Defense Information (CENDI), that is meeting the challenge of coordinating and integrating its information management systems. Although it is beginning to be technically feasible to have a system with text, bibliographic, and numeric data on-line for the user to manipulate at the user's own workstation, promoting its full development will require national recognition that the resource investment in such a system is worthwhile. It also requires close cooperation between the producers and users of the information - that is, the research and policy community and the information community. National resources need to be mobilized in a coordinated manner to move us into the next generation of information support systems

  14. The John Stanley Coulter memorial lecture. Anatomy of change: the need for effective disability policy change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The 2009 Coulter Lecture highlights the need for effective disability policy change agents to advocate for health care policy and research that focuses on optimizing the health and function of individuals with disabilities and chronic conditions-not only on their full restoration/cure. The lecture describes the "grotesque" historical treatment of persons with disabilities under the old policy framework, the treatment of people with disabilities under the new/emerging disability policy framework, and the critical role played by coalitions in bringing about progressive, sustainable change on behalf of individuals with disabilities. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reducing Cancer Burden in the Population: An Overview of Epidemiologic Evidence to Support Policies, Systems, and Environmental Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    "Reducing Cancer Burden in the Population: Epidemiologic Evidence to Support Policies, Systems, and Environmental Changes" is a compilation of 11 reviews addressing aspects of primary prevention of cancer (early life factors, vitamin D, and periodontal disease and the oral microbiome); primary and secondary prevention (in the transgender population); surveillance following secondary prevention (personalizing follow-up of patients diagnosed with an adenoma based on colorectal cancer risk); tertiary prevention (physical activity as an adjuvant to cancer treatment, measurement of patient-reported physical functioning in cancer treatment trials, and implementation of palliative care recommendations); and all 3 (changing epidemiology of oral cancers). Authors discuss policies, systems, and environment (PSE) changes that may be supported by epidemiologic evidence, for example, how existing public health and clinical policies and guidelines targeting noncancer outcomes may indirectly reduce cancer burden and how some cancer control policies could be refined to enhance effectiveness. Authors also discuss where systems and environment changes are necessary to ensure routine implementation of up-to-date, evidence-based policies and guidelines. Two other articles discuss infrastructure to support identification of existing and emerging cancer problems that could be reduced or avoided, including by PSE changes. These frameworks may guide impactful cancer research relevant to cancer centers' catchment areas, as well as cancer control efforts in countries where noncommunicable diseases including cancer are on the rise. The weight of the evidence of these reviews supports opportunities for PSE changes and infrastructure that could reduce the cancer burden in populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Opportunity to change Lebanon’s asylum policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Trad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon’s attitude towards the ‘Syrian exception’ can be used as the starting point for its policy to come into line with international refugee and human rights norms, standards and protection.

  17. Climate Change and Agriculture In South Asia: Looking for An Optimal Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Laborde, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study how alternative trade policies will help mitigate the effects of climate change in agriculture in South Asia. We use a modified version of MIRAGE CGE for long term projections and allowing modeling of climate change effects (impact on yield) at a subregional level (163 geographical units at the world level) to simulate the effects of 13 SRES scenarios in 8 different trade policy landscapes. Based on these results, we discuss the ranking of trade policy options based o...

  18. Perspective of nuclear power policy change and trend of nuclear industry activities from energy policy of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko; Matsuo, Yuji; Nagatomi, Yu

    2009-01-01

    European countries of nuclear power phase-out have changed to commit to the future of nuclear energy due to the intended low-carbon power, the energy security concerns and the need of replacement reactors as current reactors approach the end of operating lives, as Italian government has passed legislation to build new nuclear power plants. This article described the perspective of nuclear power policy changes in UK, Italy an Sweden and the business trend and the SWOT analysis of related electric utilities (EDF, Enel and Vattenfall) and nuclear industries (Areva NP, Sheffield Forgemasters, ENSA and Studsvik). Policy implications obtained from this analysis were commented for Japanese nuclear industry activities. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Technological responses to rising energy prices: a study of technological capability and technical change efforts in energy-intensive manufacturing industries in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantramonklasri, N.

    1985-01-01

    A thesis describes the problems of policy and management relating to energy efficiency and conservation in the manufacturing industry in Thailand. The unique aspect for this analysis of a developing economy is the combination of the areas of policy-related analysis of energy demand with technical change and the development of technological capabilities. Using industrial data from the 1970's and early 1980's, it concludes that energy policy should be as concerned about energy demand as about supply.

  20. International Law and the climate change adaptation policy in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Araya Ahumada

    2016-01-01

    This article describes in what ways international environmental law, the international regime of climate change and the European Union have influenced current climate change adaptation governance in the United Kingdom, especially in relation with the sustainable development policy.

  1. Advice on cultural policy matters: changing times for the Council for Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveldt, Philomeen; Minnaert, Toine

    The central question is the changing role of advisory councils in Dutch cultural policy and the subsequent change in discourse on culture and the arts within cultural policy. Our working hypothesis is that the role of the Council for Culture (Raad voor Cultuur), the formal advisory council, is

  2. Dominant and Emerging Approaches in the Study of Higher Education Policy Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Taina; Ursin, Jani

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyse recent literature on higher education policy change. Based on the review, three different approaches are distinguished: structural, actor and agency. In the structural approach the dynamic of policy change originates in well-established structures. The actor approach focuses on either individual or…

  3. An exploration of potential directions for climate change policy in Northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.

    2001-01-01

    The challenges facing decision and policy makers for climate change actions in the Canadian North were described. While Northern Canada contributes only a small fraction of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the impacts are already being felt there, and scientists forecast changes in average annual temperatures to be among the highest in the world. Canada is well positioned to take a lead role in addressing climate change in northern regions. This paper examined the policy choices in the North and outlined the policy directions worthy of further consideration and development. The objective of the paper is to provide a catalyst for on-going discussion and deliberation on climate change actions and policy options in Northern Canada. The paper also addressed the global context that influences national framework and local initiatives. Some tentative policy choices were proposed and described within the general context of the global challenge that climate change presents for the design of coherent regional public policy. It was suggested that integration and mitigation measures should not be approached in isolation from other environmental and socio-economic changes, such as pollution abatement and economic and social development. It was emphasized that building on the sound foundation of current policy frameworks in these areas is essential to the integration of climate change initiatives within established and complementary processes. It was concluded that the evolution of policy options for climate change in the North will be driven by a political willingness to take deliberate actions. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Adaptive governance, uncertainty, and risk: policy framing and responses to climate change, drought, and flood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlbert, M.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to

  5. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  6. Changes in alcohol policies and public opinions in Finland 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Esa; Lindeman, Mikaela; Karlsson, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    There is a constant and ongoing interplay between public opinions and public policies, alcohol policies being no exception. This article describes the development of public opinions regarding alcohol policy in Finland during a 10-year period between 2003 and 2013. Fluctuations in the alcohol policy opinion climate are put in context by looking at concurrent changes in alcohol policies and in total alcohol consumption. The study is based on data from opinion surveys on alcohol policies commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Welfare and the Finnish Social and Health Association. The opinion polls include questions about the general acceptance of prevailing alcohol policies, appropriate sales channels of different alcoholic beverage categories and opinions about the legal age limits and prices of alcoholic beverages. In the study, changes in alcohol policy during 2003-2013 are surveyed, and their relationship with changes in alcohol policy opinion is examined. There seem to be a strong positive correlation during the study period between the level of alcohol consumption and the share of those wanting a more restrictive alcohol policy in Finland. It seems that an increased level of awareness of alcohol-related issues among the general public created a more restrictive opinion climate on alcohol policy issues after the big alcohol excise duty decrease in 2004. The reverse seems to happen but in a lesser degree when alcohol excise duties has been increased after the year 2007. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Policy documents as sources for measuring societal impact: how often is climate change research mentioned in policy-related documents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Marx, Werner

    In the current UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), societal impact measurements are inherent parts of the national evaluation systems. In this study, we deal with a relatively new form of societal impact measurements. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy documents. We regard this data source as an interesting possibility to specifically measure the (societal) impact of research. Using a comprehensive dataset with publications on climate change as an example, we study the usefulness of the new data source for impact measurement. Only 1.2 % ( n  = 2341) out of 191,276 publications on climate change in the dataset have at least one policy mention. We further reveal that papers published in Nature and Science as well as from the areas "Earth and related environmental sciences" and "Social and economic geography" are especially relevant in the policy context. Given the low coverage of the climate change literature in policy documents, this study can be only a first attempt to study this new source of altmetrics data. Further empirical studies are necessary, because mentions in policy documents are of special interest in the use of altmetrics data for measuring target-oriented the broader impact of research.

  8. Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Georgina; Bowen, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1) the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2) the context within which the policy was developed; 3) the relevant processes; and 4) the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should also be revised to consider climate change and its impact on human

  9. Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Morrow

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Objective: The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. Design: The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1 the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2 the context within which the policy was developed; 3 the relevant processes; and 4 the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. Results: The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. Conclusions: The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should

  10. Climate change in China and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Y.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the first assessment report (FAR of Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC in 1990, the international scientific community has made substantial progresses in climate change sciences. Changes in components of climate system, including the atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere, indicate that global warming is unequivocal. Instrumental records demonstrate that the global mean temperature has a significant increasing trend during the 20th century and in the latest 50 years the warming become faster. In the meantime, the global sea level has a strong increasing trend, as well as the snow coverage of Northern Hemisphere showed an obvious downward trend. Moreover, the global warming plays a key role in significantly affecting the climate system and social-economy on both global and regional scales, such as sea level rise, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, desertification, deforestation, increase of weather extremes (typhoon, hurricane and rainstorm and so on. The state of the art understanding of IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4 was most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in the concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Climate change issues, as a grave challenge to the sustainable development of the human society, have received ever greater attention from the international community. Deeply cognizant of the complexity and extensive influence of these issues and fully aware of the arduousness and urgency of the task of addressing climate change, the Chinese government is determined to address climate change in the process of pursuing sustainable development. The facts of climate change in China and its impacts, and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change are introduced in this paper.

  11. Immediate challenge of combating climate change: Effective implementation of energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morvaj, Zoran; Bukarica, Vesna

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the most readily available, rapid and cost-effective way to achieve desired greenhouse gases reductions. Therefore, it is the focus of energy and climate change policies world wide. The results of these policies are still missing in the desired extent, even in the EU, which has the most advanced energy efficiency policy. The main reason behind this policy failure is a complete lack of focus on implementing capacities that would ensure full policy uptake. Embracing full-scale energy management systems in public and business sectors and mobilisation of and cooperation between all stakeholders are the way towards higher efficiency.

  12. Effort-reward imbalance at work and 5-year changes in blood pressure: the mediating effect of changes in body mass index among 1400 white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Xavier; Brisson, Chantal; Milot, Alain; Masse, Benoit; Vézina, Michel

    2016-11-01

    A number of prospective studies have documented the effect of adverse psychosocial work factors (work stress) on high blood pressure (BP). Weight gain could be an important pathway by which work stress exerts its effect on BP. No previous prospective study has examined this mediating effect. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating effect of body mass index (BMI) in the association between psychosocial work factors from Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) and ambulatory BP (ABP). A prospective study was conducted among 1436 white-collar workers. Data were collected three times during a 5-year period. ERI was measured using validated scales, at each time. BMI was measured by a trained assistant. ABP was measured every 15 min during a working day. ERI exposure onset over 3 years was indirectly associated with ABP changes (0.49 mmHg; 95 % CI 0.05, 1.22), through BMI changes, in women with baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 . An effect of similar magnitude and of borderline significance was observed for ERI chronic exposure. No mediating effect was observed among men, and using ERI exposure over 5 years. The mediating effect of BMI was of small magnitude and observed in certain subgroups and time frame only. Subgroup-specific mediating pathways might be involved to explain the effect of work stress on cardiovascular diseases risk.

  13. On the importance of controlling for effort in analysis of count survey data: Modeling population change from Christmas Bird Count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Helbig, Andreas J.; Flade, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Count survey data are commonly used for estimating temporal and spatial patterns of population change. Since count surveys are not censuses, counts can be influenced by 'nuisance factors' related to the probability of detecting animals but unrelated to the actual population size. The effects of systematic changes in these factors can be confounded with patterns of population change. Thus, valid analysis of count survey data requires the identification of nuisance factors and flexible models for their effects. We illustrate using data from the Christmas Bird Count (CBC), a midwinter survey of bird populations in North America. CBC survey effort has substantially increased in recent years, suggesting that unadjusted counts may overstate population growth (or understate declines). We describe a flexible family of models for the effect of effort, that includes models in which increasing effort leads to diminishing returns in terms of the number of birds counted.

  14. Comparative effects of carbon dioxide enrichment and pH change on phytoplankton communities in SRS Carolina bay restoration efforts. Progress report, April 1994--March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.B.

    1995-02-01

    Impacts of land-use activities on wetland ecosystems are important issues for environmental planners, conservation groups, and government agencies. This project at DOE's Savannah River Site focused its year one efforts on population changes produced by effects of changes in pH and CO2 resulting from simulated aquatic ecosystem successional processes. Results are being compared with phytoplankton changes induce by added nutrients

  15. Earning and caring: demographic change and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaujot, Roderic

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishSeeking to define families as groups of people who share earning and caringactivities, we contrast theoretical orientations that see advantages to a division of labour orcomplementary roles, in comparison to orientations that see less risk and greater companionship in acollaborative model based on sharing paid and unpaid work, or co-providing and co-parenting. It isimportant to look both inside and outside of families, or at the changing gendered links betweenearning and caring, to understand change both in families and in the work world. It is proposed thatequal opportunity by gender has advanced further in the public sphere associated with education andwork, than in the private family sphere associated with everyday life. Time-use data [from Canada]indicate that, on average, men carry their weight in terms of total productive time (paid plus unpaidwork, but that women make much more of the accommodations between family and work. Fertility islikely to be lowest in societies that offer women equal opportunity in the public sphere but wherefamilies remain traditional in terms of the division of work. Policies are discussed that would reducethe dependency between spouses, and encourage a greater common ground between men and women in earningand caring.FrenchEn cherchant à définir la famille comme étant un groupe de personnes partageant les activités relatives au fait de gagner de l'argent et de prendre soin des autres, nous nous distinguons des théories préconisant la division du travail ou les rôles complémentaires comparativement au modèle collaboratif qui a l'avantage de présenter moins de risque et plus de compagnonnage et qui est fondé sur le partage du travail rémunéré et non rémunéré, le travail à l'extérieur de la maison et le parentage. Il est important de voir ce qui se passe à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur de la famille ou de considérer les liens changeant d'après le sexe entre le rôle de pourvoyeur et

  16. Creating supportive nutrition environments for population health impact and health equity: an overview of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network's efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Heidi M; Kim, Sonia A

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major threat to individual health and society overall. Policies that support healthier food and beverage choices have been endorsed by many decision makers. These policies may reach a large proportion of the population or in some circumstances aim to reduce nutrition disparities to ensure health equity. The Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) evaluates policy as a tool to improve food and beverage environments where Americans live, work, play, and learn. The network aspires to address research and evaluation gaps related to relevant policies, create standardized research tools, and help build the evidence base of effective policy solutions for childhood obesity prevention with a focus on reach, equity, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  18. National policy response to climate change in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The South African government has taken several steps in response to climate change and its associated threats to human health. The National Climate Change Response Plan White Paper defines government's vision for effective climate change response...

  19. Resistance and change: a multiple streams approach to understanding health policy making in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusi-Ampofo, Owuraku; Church, John; Conteh, Charles; Heinmiller, B Timothy

    2015-02-01

    Although much has been written on health policy making in developed countries, the same cannot be said of less developed countries, especially in Africa. Drawing largely on available historical and government records, newspaper publications, parliamentary Hansards, and published books and articles, this article uses John W. Kingdon's multiple streams framework to explain how the problem, politics, and policy streams converged for Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to be passed into law in 2003. The article contends that a change in government in the 2000 general election opened a "policy window" for eventual policy change from "cash-and-carry" to the NHIS. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  20. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  1. Book Review: Declining inequality in Latin America: Policy Changes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 57 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Ideas for Changing Educational Systems, Educational Policy and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat; Lingard, Bob; Wrigley, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues the need for new ideas to assist in the creation of a new social imaginary post-neo-liberalism to frame rethought educational systems, policy and schooling. This is an attempt to reclaim progressive, democratic and social justice purposes for schooling well beyond dominant human capital renditions. While acknowledging the…

  3. Integrated Climate Change Modelling and Policy Linkages for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will consolidate the collective experience of CCW recipients from Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean to develop and test a framework designed to overcome the mismatch between supply-driven climate research and demand-driven planning and policy. The project team will identify leading ...

  4. New policy challenges on a changing economic landscape | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-27

    Jan 27, 2011 ... Profile of IDRC's Social and Economic Policy (SEP) program area The current era of economic globalization has brought high expectations — but also ... only engaged policymakers and political candidates, but also informed a broader public dialogue through public seminars, broadcast media coverage, ...

  5. Global policy change and women's access to safe abortion: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research on the magnitude of unsafe abortion, women's experiences, and the availability and quality of services.39 Previously scattered efforts in abortion research in Africa were brought together for dissemination and discussion at a regional meeting in March 2006, “Linking. Research t0 Action to Reduce Unsafe Abortion.

  6. States Change Policies with Eye to Winning Federal Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    As governors and state legislators gear up for a new year of budget action and policymaking, the federal Race to the Top competition is helping drive a flurry of measures nationwide aimed, at least in part, at making states stronger candidates for a slice of the $4 billion in education grants. Those efforts emerge as a priority in the 2010…

  7. The health co-benefits of climate change policies: doctors have a responsibility to future generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian

    2009-06-01

    Mitigating climate change presents unrivalled opportunities for improving public health. The policies that need to be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will also bring about substantial reductions in heart disease, cancer, obesity, diabetes, road deaths and injuries, and air pollution. The health benefits arise because climate change policies necessarily impact on two of the most important determinants of health: human nutrition and human movement. Although the health co-benefits of climate change policies are increasingly recognised by health professionals they are not widely appreciated by those responsible for policy. Because the existence of important health co-benefits will dramatically reduce the cost to society of taking strong action to mitigate climate change, failure to appreciate their importance could have serious environmental consequences. Health professionals have an urgent responsibility to ensure that the health benefits of environmental policies are understood by the public and by policymakers.

  8. Managing scientific complexity in public policy: the case of U.S. climate change legislation in the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J. A.; Runci, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    The recent passage of the American Climate and Energy Security Act by the U.S. House of Representatives in June of this year was a landmark in U.S. efforts to move climate change legislation through Congress. Although an historic achievement, the bill (and surrounding debate) highlights many concerns about the processes by which lawmakers and the public inform themselves about scientifically relevant problems and, subsequently, by which policy responses are crafted in a context of complexity, uncertainty, and competition for resources and attention. In light of the ever-increasing specialization of expertise in the sciences and other technical fields, and the inherent complexity of scientifically relevant problems such as climate change, society faces significant hurdles in its efforts to integrate knowledge and develop sufficient understanding of these problems to which it must respond with legislation or other effective collective or individual action. The emergence of a new class of experts who act as science-policy brokers may not be sufficient to cross these hurdles. Herein, we explore how society and the scientific community in particular can work toward closing the ever-growing gap between technical knowledge and society’s ability to comprehend and use it. Both authors are currently legislative fellows working on energy and climate change issues in the U.S. Senate.

  9. Post-Snowden Internet Policy: Between Public Outrage, Resistance and Policy Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pohle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This editors’ introduction provides a short summary of the Snowden revelations and the paradoxical political and public responses to them. It further provides an overview of the current academic debate triggered by the Snowden case and the documents leaked by him and introduces the articles featured in this issue on post-Snowden Internet policy.

  10. Dynamics in national agri-environmental policy implementation under changing EU policy priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, P.; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    decision structures in the Netherlands, Denmark, Greece, Austria and Romania. Second, we examine the extent to which various factors have influenced the development of national policies over time. The study identifies development based on the theory of ‘process of institutional change’, i.e. we...

  11. Toward an Ideal Democracy: The Impact of Standardization Policies on the American Indian/Alaska Native Community and Language Revitalization Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erik; Allen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the impact of standardization policies of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 on the American Indian/Alaska Native community and the ability of educational policy to promote sovereignty, liberty and equity within indigenous communities. Examining current research and data generated from the National Indian Education…

  12. Changing Policy and Practice in the Child Welfare System through Collaborative Efforts to Identify and Respond Effectively to Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Duren; Landsverk, John; Wang, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The "Greenbook" provides a roadmap for child welfare agencies to collaborate and provide effective responses to families who are experiencing co-occurring child maltreatment and domestic violence. A multisite developmental evaluation was conducted of six demonstration sites that received federal funding to implement "Greenbook" recommendations for…

  13. Promoting policy and environmental change using photovoice in the Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leila; Schwartz, Pamela; Cheadle, Allen; Borton, J Elaine; Wright, Merrick; Chase, Charlie; Lindley, Corina

    2010-05-01

    Creative ways must be found to engage both community residents and political leaders around policy and environmental solutions to public health issues. Photovoice is a community-based, participatory approach to documentary photography that provides people with training on photography, ethics, critical discussion, and policy advocacy. Photovoice projects have been implemented across the nation as part of Kaiser Permanente's Community Health Initiative-a community-based obesity prevention effort. This article focuses on the first Photovoice project implemented in three communities in Colorado. Photovoice themes related to healthy eating and active living include a lack of access to healthy food choices in stores and schools, unsafe street crossings and sidewalks, and the need to redevelop certain areas to encourage safe recreation. The involvement of policy leaders in the project combined with several dissemination activities has contributed to healthier food offerings in schools and neighborhoods and city planning efforts that emphasize walkability and access to healthy food, and park revitalization.

  14. The effects of EU agricultural policy changes on farmers' risk attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Phoebe Koundouri; Marita Laukkanen; Sami Myyrä; Céline Nauges

    2009-01-01

    This analysis utilises a model of production under risk estimated on Finnish farm-level data to measure farmers' risk attitudes in a changing policy environment. We find evidence of heterogeneous risk preferences among farmers, as well as notable changes over time in farmers' degree of risk aversion. This result is due to the increase in the non-random part of farm income generated by the policy change after Finland's European Union accession. The analysis confirms the assertion that agricult...

  15. The Role of Health Co-Benefits in the Development of Australian Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Workman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing domestic carbon dioxide and other associated emissions can lead to short-term, localized health benefits. Quantifying and incorporating these health co-benefits into the development of national climate change mitigation policies may facilitate the adoption of stronger policies. There is, however, a dearth of research exploring the role of health co-benefits on the development of such policies. To address this knowledge gap, research was conducted in Australia involving the analysis of several data sources, including interviews carried out with Australian federal government employees directly involved in the development of mitigation policies. The resulting case study determined that, in Australia, health co-benefits play a minimal role in the development of climate change mitigation policies. Several factors influence the extent to which health co-benefits inform the development of mitigation policies. Understanding these factors may help to increase the political utility of future health co-benefits studies.

  16. The Role of Health Co-Benefits in the Development of Australian Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Annabelle; Blashki, Grant; Karoly, David; Wiseman, John

    2016-01-01

    Reducing domestic carbon dioxide and other associated emissions can lead to short-term, localized health benefits. Quantifying and incorporating these health co-benefits into the development of national climate change mitigation policies may facilitate the adoption of stronger policies. There is, however, a dearth of research exploring the role of health co-benefits on the development of such policies. To address this knowledge gap, research was conducted in Australia involving the analysis of several data sources, including interviews carried out with Australian federal government employees directly involved in the development of mitigation policies. The resulting case study determined that, in Australia, health co-benefits play a minimal role in the development of climate change mitigation policies. Several factors influence the extent to which health co-benefits inform the development of mitigation policies. Understanding these factors may help to increase the political utility of future health co-benefits studies. PMID:27657098

  17. Governance as a Catalyst for Policy Change: Creating a Contingent Faculty Friendly Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna; Sam, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers and leaders have been calling for changes in the Academy for nontenure-track faculty. This study focuses on the role of governance in creating that policy change, and the practices facilitating their role in changing the institution through governance. Findings include: governance facilitating day-to-day changes, establishing…

  18. The 'Arc of Prosperity' Revisited: Homelessness Policy Change in North Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Anderson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares continuity and change in homelessness policy in Ireland, Scotland and Norway with a particular focus on the period of post-crisis austerity measures (2008–2016. The analytical approach draws on institutional theory and the notion of path dependency, which has rarely been applied to comparative homelessness research. The paper compares welfare and housing systems in the three countries prior to presenting a detailed analysis of the conceptualisation and measurement of homelessness; the institutions which address homelessness; and the evidence of change in the post-2008 period. The analysis demonstrates that challenges remain in comparing the nature of homelessness and policy responses across nation states, even where they have a number of similar characteristics, and despite some EU influence towards homelessness policy convergence. Similarly, national-level homelessness policy change could not be interpreted as entirely a result of the external shock of the 2008 general financial crisis, as existing national policy goals and programmes were also influential. Overall, embedded national frameworks and institutions were resilient, but sufficiently flexible to deliver longer term policy shifts in response to the changing nature of the homelessness problem and national policy goals. Institutionalism and path dependency were found to be useful in developing the comparative analysis of homelessness policy change and could be fruitfully applied in future longitudinal, empirical research across a wider range of countries.

  19. Policy and identity change in youth social work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    _ Summary: This article analyses – by drawing on ideology critical and psychoanalytical concepts from Slavoj Zizek and Glynos et al. – how political, social and fantasmatic logics interplay and form social workers’ professional identities within two youth social work institutions that operate...... within different social policy paradigms: a socialinterventionist paradigm in 2002 and a neoliberal paradigm in 2010. _ Findings: The article shows how the current neoliberalisation of public policy permeates social work practices through fantasmatic narratives that create professional identities to heal...... a mobilising-motivating identity is created to meet the young people’s alleged excess. In both narratives, however, the young people risk bearing the blame for the failure of the social professional project. _ Applications: Fantasies in both institutions conceal how social workers’ professional identities...

  20. Changing the Department of Defense’s Policy on Homosexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-19

    Homosexuality No federal law currently prohibits work place discrimination based on sexual orientation. Furthermore, the U.S. Equal Employment...accepting of homosexuals and recognize their rights to equality . A recent CNN/USA Today Gallop poll asked 1,029 Americans about their views on...is the policy of the Government of the United States to provide equal opportunity in Federal employment for all persons, to prohibit discrimination

  1. Gestational diabetes mellitus: advocating for policy change in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhab, Anand; Prasad, Vishwa Mohan; Kapur, Anil

    2011-11-01

    A multimedia awareness and advocacy campaign for mainstreaming gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the public health domain is described. The multimedia campaign has created awareness about the relevance of GDM to women's health and the health of future generations through direct contact, reaching out to over half a million people in 7 districts of 4 states in northern India. Using mass media, over 3.7 million people have received information on GDM. Through multistakeholder forums, more than 1000 key stakeholders have been encouraged to mainstream GDM into the existing health delivery system. The Indian Ministry of Health has introduced free screening for GDM among the 5 services offered to pregnant women below the poverty line in the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) program. In addition, several state governments, such as in Bihar, Delhi, Jharkhand, and Punjab, have pledged similar initiatives addressing GDM; the Government of Tamil Nadu is already implementing such a policy. Policy development is a complex process that requires action on many fronts. By showcasing evidence, raising awareness, creating public opinion through dialogue and discussion, media can help build a positive environment and momentum for effective policy creation as well as service utilization. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Mainstreaming Climate Change: Recent and Ongoing Efforts to Understand, Improve, and Expand Consideration of Climate Change in Federal Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, I. M.; McGuire, M.; Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is a Federal agency tasked with developing and managing water supply and hydropower projects in the Western U.S. Climate and hydrologic variability and change significantly impact management actions and outcomes across Reclamation's programs and initiatives, including water resource planning and operations, infrastructure design and maintenance, hydropower generation, and ecosystem restoration, among others. Planning, design, and implementation of these programs therefore requires consideration of future climate and hydrologic conditions will impact program objectives. Over the past decade, Reclamation and other Federal agencies have adopted new guidelines, directives, and mandates that require consideration of climate change in water resources planning and decision making. Meanwhile, the scientific community has developed a large number of climate projections, along with an array of models, methods, and tools to facilitate consideration of climate projections in planning and decision making. However, water resources engineers, planners, and decision makers continue to face challenges regarding how best to use the available data and tools to support major decisions, including decisions regarding infrastructure investments and long-term operating criteria. This presentation will discuss recent and ongoing research towards understanding, improving, and expanding consideration of climate projections and related uncertainties in Federal water resources planning and decision making. These research efforts address a variety of challenges, including: How to choose between available climate projection datasets and related methods, models, and tools—many of which are considered experimental or research tools? How to select an appropriate decision framework when design or operating alternatives may differ between climate scenarios? How to effectively communicate results of a climate impacts analysis to decision makers? And, how to improve

  3. Changing Higher Education Policies for Japanese National Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes current debate on changes in Japan's higher education system which involve "corporatizing" all national universities and introducing performance-based contractual funding. Suggests that these changes may be part of a complex game of struggle for control. (EV)

  4. Financial incentives and psychiatric services in Australia: an empirical analysis of three policy changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doessel, D P; Scheurer, Roman W; Chant, David C; Whiteford, Harvey

    2007-01-01

    Australia has a national, compulsory and universal health insurance scheme, called Medicare. In 1996 the Government changed the Medicare Benefit Schedule Book in such a way as to create different financial incentives for consumers or producers of out-of-hospital private psychiatric services, once an individual consumer had received 50 such services in a 12-month period. The Australian Government introduced a new Item (319) to cover some special cases that were affected by the policy change. At the same time, the Commonwealth introduced a 'fee-freeze' for all medical services. The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, it is necessary to describe the three policy interventions (the constraints on utilization, the operation of the new Item and the general 'fee-freeze'.) The new Item policy was essentially a mechanism to 'dampen' the effect of the 'constraint' policy, and these two policy changes will be consequently analysed as a single intervention. The second objective is to evaluate the policy intervention in terms of the (stated) Australian purpose of reducing utilization of psychiatric services, and thus reducing financial outlays. Thus, it is important to separate out the different effects of the three policies that were introduced at much the same time in November 1996 and January 1997. The econometric results indicate that the composite policy change (constraining services and the new 319 Item) had a statistically significant effect. The analysis of the Medicare Benefit (in constant prices) indicates that the 'fee-freeze' policy also had a statistically significant effect. This enables separate determination of the several policy changes. In fact, the empirical results indicate that the Commonwealth Government underestimated the 'savings' that would arise from the 'constraint' policy.

  5. National policy response to climate change in South Africa | Garland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African government has taken several steps in response to climate change and its associated threats to human health. The National Climate Change Response Plan White Paper defines government's vision for effective climate change response and transitioning to a climate-resilient, low-carbon economy.

  6. General and Partial Equilibrium Modeling of Sectoral Policies to Address Climate Change in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizer, William; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Newell, Richard; Sanchirico, James; Toman, Michael

    2003-03-31

    This document provides technical documentation for work using detailed sectoral models to calibrate a general equilibrium analysis of market and non-market sectoral policies to address climate change. Results of this work can be found in the companion paper, "Modeling Costs of Economy-wide versus Sectoral Climate Policies Using Combined Aggregate-Sectoral Model".

  7. Playing by the Rules? The Professional Values of Head Teachers Tested by the Changing Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    School leaders face potential conflicts between the demands of national and local education policy and the values and ethics that brought them into teaching and subsequently into school leadership. This article asks whether head teachers' values are changed by the policy context, and looks at incidents in head teachers' professional lives that…

  8. Flood risk, uncertainty and changing river protection policy in the Netherlands: the case of 'calamity polders'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Warner, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Extreme river discharges, floods and debates about climate change triggered a shift in flood protection policy in the Netherlands from infrastructural to spatial measures. The new policy directive of `Room for the River¿, details of which were introduced in 2000, should prepare the country for

  9. Changing U.S. Policy on Latin American Arms Sales: An Invitation to Struggle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armstrong, Jon

    1999-01-01

    ... and Involve repeated tradeoffs and multi-front approaches It's also true that regardless of the energies and resources mustered and expended, an actual policy change may hinge on the unbending personality, influence, and commitment of a single key player Therefore, U S policy rarely moves in a logical and measured fashion from Point A to Point B.

  10. People's response to policy change in agricultural development organization : the Benin case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tossou, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This book is about change. It deals with the way in which social actors, be they individuals or groups, involved in the agricultural development of Benin reconstruct for themselves the new policy context in order to develop relevant strategies translating policy measures into practical

  11. Patterns of Changing Knowledge Orders: Insights from German and British Labour Market Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Max-Christopher; Pannowitsch, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Following an interpretative approach this paper investigates the role of knowledge orders, understood as settings which attribute relevance to specific expertise. The changing patterns of incorporation of expertise in policy formulation as well as public justification are analysed for German and British labour market policy. From a comparative…

  12. How to Assess Vulnerabilities of Water Policies to Global Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Haasnoot, M.; Weijs, S.

    2017-12-01

    Water managers are confronted with uncertainties arising from hydrological, societal, economical and political drivers. To manage these uncertainties two paradigms have been identified: top-down and bottom-up approaches. Top-down or prediction-based approaches use socio-economic scenarios together with a discrete set of GCM projections (often downscaled) to assess the expected impact of drivers and policies on water resource system through various hydrological and social systems models. Adaptation strategies to alleviate these impacts are then identified and tested against the scenarios. To address GCM and downscaling uncertainties, these approaches put more focus on climate predictions, rather than the decision problem itself. Triggered by the wish to have a more scenario-neutral approach and address downscaling uncertainties, recent analyses have been shifted towards vulnerability-based (bottom-up or decision-centric) approaches. They begin at the local scale by addressing socio-economic responses to climate, often involving stakeholder's input; identify vulnerabilities under a larger sample of plausible futures and evaluate sensitivity and robustness of possible adaptation options. Several bottom-up approaches have emerged so far and are increasingly recommended. Fundamentally they share several core ideas, however, subtle differences exist in vulnerability assessment, visualization tools for exploring vulnerabilities and computational methods used for identifying robust water policies. Through this study, we try to identify how these approaches are progressing, how the climate and non-climate uncertainties are being confronted and how to integrate existing and new tools. We find that choice of a method may depend on the number of vulnerability drivers identified and type of threshold levels (environmental conditions or policy objectives) defined. Certain approaches are suited well for assessing adaptive capacities, tipping points and sequencing of decisions

  13. Modelling climate change policies : an application of ENERGY2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, G.; Bhargava, A.; Backus, G.

    2005-01-01

    Researches and policy-makers are increasingly analyzing the economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol at national, regional and global levels. The analyses are generally based on numerical models integrating energy, environment and the economy. Most models range from partial equilibrium types to complex multi-sector general equilibrium models, and typically represent the energy sector at an aggregate level, which limits their ability to reflect details of different sectors. In Canada, a model called ENERGY2020 has been widely used by the federal and provincial governments to analyze the sectoral and provincial impacts of implementing the Kyoto Protocol. ENERGY2020 uses stocks and flows simulation that captures the physical aspects of the processes utilizing energy, as well as the qualitative choice theory which captures human behavioural aspects. The model also has a database containing 20 years of time-series on all economic, environmental and energy variables, enabling the model to derive most parameters endogenously through econometric estimations. It has the capacity to analyze consumer and business responses over a wide range of policy initiatives such as energy environment taxes, regulatory standards for buildings, equipment and motor vehicles, grants, rebates and subsidy initiatives, consumer awareness initiatives, technology improvements, moratoriums and mandated cut-backs. It is also capable of producing long-term energy market forecasts as well as analyzing the impacts of policies in the markets. It was concluded that the model's application will serve as a useful analytical tool for a range of issues, and may be useful to developing countries and economies in transition. 6 refs., 5 figs

  14. Challenges of Climate Change: Resilience Efforts in Rural Communities of Kaliwlingi Village based on Pengembangan Kawasan Pesisir Tangguh (PKPT) Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mustovia Azahro; Angga Dwisapta Ardi

    2017-01-01

    Kaliwlingi Village in Brebes City has experienced climate change impacts such as tidal flood and land abrasion. The climate change causes the dynamics of the coast and sea levels dramatically and fosters the coastal communities to have adaptation strategies. This paper aims to identify how the community of Kaliwlingi Village adapts to the climate change that affects to a social economic condition of the inhabitants. The study used qualitative method by interpreting data taken from Pengembanga...

  15. Economy, policy and climatic change: skeptics are right?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.

    2008-01-01

    A degree of scepticism about the present apocalyptic forecast on damaging climate change might be in order and one does not have to be a climate change denier. On a cooler view of climate change, a more constructive approach would be to recognize the huge uncertainties that exist and to seek flexible means of dealing with problems that may arise. A direct and centralized government action seems not very convincing. On contrary, well functioning markets will produce efficient and flexible solutions. [it

  16. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. State policy change: Revenue decoupling in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Kytson L.

    The study seeks to answer the question, why are states adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market, by investigating the relationship between policy adoption and attributes of the electricity market, the structure of the state utility commissions, and the political climate of the state. The study examines the period 1978-2008. Two econometric models, the marginal risk set model and the conditional risk set model, are estimated to predict the influence of covariates on the probability of the state adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market. The models are both variants of the Cox proportional hazard model and use different underlying assumptions about the nature of adoption of revenue decoupling and when the states are considered to be at risk of adoption. Results suggest that market attributes, such as the source of electricity generation in the state, state energy intensity, and the distribution of non-public and public utilities, significantly influence the adoption of the policy. Also, the method of selecting commissioners and the party affiliation of elected officials in the state are important factors. The study concludes by suggestions to improve the implementation and evaluation of revenue decoupling in the electricity markets.

  18. Impact of monetary policy changes on the Chinese monetary and stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Luo, Yong; Xiong, Jie; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    The impact of monetary policy changes on the monetary market and stock market in China is investigated in this study. The changes of two major monetary policies, the interest rate and required reserve ratio, are analyzed in a study period covering seven years on the interbank monetary market and Shanghai stock market. We find that the monetary market is related to the macro economy trend and we also find that the monetary change surprises both of lowering and raising bring significant impacts to the two markets and the two markets respond to the changes differently. The results suggest that the impact of fluctuations is much larger for raising policy changes than lowering changes in the monetary market on policy announcing and effective dates. This is consistent with the “sign effect”, i.e. bad news brings a greater impact than good news. By studying the event window of each policy change, we also find that the “sign effect” still exists before and after each change in the monetary market. A relatively larger fluctuation is observed before the event date, which indicates that the monetary market might have a certain ability to predict a potential monetary change, while it is kept secret by the central bank before official announcement. In the stock market, we investigate how the returns and spreads of the Shanghai stock market index respond to the monetary changes. Evidences suggest the stock market is influenced but in a different way than the monetary market. The climbing of returns after the event dates for the lowering policy agrees with the theory that lowering changes can provide a monetary supply to boost the market and drive the stock returns higher but with a delay of 2 to 3 trading days on average. While in the bear market, the lowering policy brings larger volatility to the market on average than the raising ones. These empirical findings are useful for policymakers to understand how monetary policy changes impact the monetary and stock markets

  19. Crunching Numbers, Changing Practices: A Close Look at Student Data Turns the Tide in Efforts to Close the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Gary; Lee, Ginny

    2008-01-01

    When the former principal of Viewmont Elementary School arrived there three years earlier, he found a still-new facility, a friendly teaching staff, and a solid, if noninclusive, core of parents eager to be involved. However, a deeper look revealed a school struggling with change, including recent demographic changes. A closer look at the data…

  20. French Security Policy After the Cold War: Continuity, Change, and Implications for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Philip

    1992-01-01

    ... has not changed. Section 2 reviews the main elements of French security policy since the early 196Os and examines the geopolitical, diplomatic, and fiscal pressures that many believe will force France to modify...

  1. Time for Transformation: Public Policy Must Change to Achieve Health Equity for LGBT Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Espinoza, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The marriage equality movement and the Affordable Care Act have enormous potential to reduce health disparities in LGBT elders, but more data and additional policy changes are sorely needed. PMID:25960600

  2. Working in mental health: practice and policy in a changing environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Peter; Sandford, Tom; Johnston, Claire, MSc RGN

    2012-01-01

    ... are all changing the landscape. Written by a team of experienced authors, and drawing on their expertise in policy, clinical leadership as well as user perspectives, this textbook explains how mental health services and their staff...

  3. Childhood Obesity Prevention in Childcare Settings: the Potential of Policy and Environmental Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Laura; Breck, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Current obesity rates in young children are a serious public health concern; developing and implementing obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings is a promising avenue to address this issue. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on environmental and policy change interventions for this setting. Improving access to and quality of outdoor play spaces and implementing the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) are two promising environmental change strategies in this setting. Laws at the local, state, and federal level have also been implemented; New York City and Delaware are two jurisdictions that have passed policies and provided preliminary evidence of the potential of policy interventions to change child outcomes. A combination of programmatic, environmental, and policy change strategies will likely be most effective in maximizing the potential of childcare settings to promote healthy weight in children.

  4. Do Effort and Reward at Work Predict Changes in Cognitive Function? First Longitudinal Results from the Representative German Socio-Economic Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Riedel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that work characteristics, such as mental demands, job control, and occupational complexity, are prospectively related to cognitive function. However, current evidence on links between psychosocial working conditions and cognitive change over time is inconsistent. In this study, we applied the effort–reward imbalance model that allows to build on previous research on mental demands and to introduce reward-based learning as a principle with beneficial effect on cognitive function. We aimed to investigate whether high effort, high reward, and low over-commitment in 2006 were associated with positive changes in cognitive function in terms of perceptual speed and word fluency (2006–2012, and whether the co-manifestation of high effort and high reward would yield the strongest association. To this end, we used data on 1031 employees who participated in a large and representative study. Multivariate linear regression analyses supported our main hypotheses (separate and combined effects of effort and reward, particularly on changes in perceptual speed, whereas the effects of over-commitment did not reach the level of statistical significance. Our findings extend available knowledge by examining the course of cognitive function over time. If corroborated by further evidence, organization-based measures in the workplace can enrich efforts towards preventing cognitive decline in ageing workforces.

  5. Agents of Change: Studies on the Policy Environment for Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC evidence and innovation supports India's adaptation to climate change. IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration. View moreIDRC evidence and innovation supports India's adaptation to climate ...

  6. Agents of Change: Studies on the Policy Environment for Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agents of Change presents the results of an international conference held in Africa. It provides practical solutions and suggestions for real change. It discusses national strategies for small enterprises, examines legal, regulatory, and tax reform, and makes proposals on how to improve competitiveness and access to credit.

  7. Adapting fishing policies to address climate change in West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    diverse risks posed to fisheries by climate change. These include sea level rise, storms of higher frequency and intensity that threaten port and fishing infrastructure, a change in the composition of species in the fisheries stocks, and acidification of waters that can hamper shell formation on crustaceans. The stakeholders.

  8. Bioethical Insights into Values and Policy: Climate Change and Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This book, a valuable addition to the slowly increasing bioethical literature on climate change, provides an excellent overview of the ethical dimensions pertinent to climate change. Bioethics, in the main, focuses on individual autonomy and the use of emerging technologies in medical practice and research. Even though ...

  9. Preparing the Way for New Policy Regarding Adaptation of US Electricity Infrastructure to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Melissa R [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The following pages represent the status of policy regarding adaptation of the electric grid to climate change and proposed directions for new policy development. While strides are being made to understand the current climate and to predict hazards it may present to human systems, both the science and the policy remain at present in an analytical state. The policy proposed in this document involves first continued computational modeling of outcomes which will produce a portfolio of options to be considered in light of specific region-related risks. It is proposed that the modeling continue not only until reasonable policy at various levels of jurisdiction can be derived from its outcome but also on a continuing basis so that as improvements in the understanding of the state and trajectory of climate science along with advancements in technology arise, they can be incorporated into an appropriate and evolving policy.

  10. Research on Climate Change Policies and Rural Development in Latin America: Scope and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Locatelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on climate change policies can contribute to policy development by building an understanding of the barriers faced in policy processes, and by providing knowledge needed throughout policy cycles. This paper explores the thematic coverage of research on climate change policies related to rural areas, rural development, and natural resource management in Latin America. A three-tier framework is proposed to analyse the selected literature. The results show that research studies have focussed on the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from forests, and adaptations to climate change in agriculture. There is little policy research on other vulnerable sectors (e.g., water and health and emitting sectors (e.g., energy and industry in the context of rural development. Our analysis highlights the various research gaps that deserve increased scientific attention, including: cross-sector approaches, multi-level governance, and the stages of policy adoption, implementation and evaluation. In addition, the selected literature has a limited contribution to theoretical discussions in policy sciences.

  11. The Moral Challenge of Dangerous Climate Change: Values, Poverty, and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabtree, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: The Moral Challenge of Dangerous Climate Change: Values, Poverty, and Policy by Darrel Moellendorf. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp. 263 (paperback), ISBN 978-1-107-67850-7......Book review of: The Moral Challenge of Dangerous Climate Change: Values, Poverty, and Policy by Darrel Moellendorf. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp. 263 (paperback), ISBN 978-1-107-67850-7...

  12. Change Best: Task 2.3. Analysis of policy mix and development of Energy Efficiency Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, P.; Vethman, P.

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the Change Best project is to promote the development of an energy efficiency service (EES) market and to give good practice examples of changes in energy service business, strategies, and supportive policies and measures in the course of the implementation of Directive 2006/32/EC on Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services. This report addresses task 2.3: Analysis of policy mix and development of Energy Efficiency Services.

  13. A New Zealand Scientific Perspective on 20+ Years of Efforts to Introduce Policies Setting Limits on Emissions: What's the Way Forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Setting limits on pollution is an inherently political process negotiated between stakeholders within society. Science has a critical, but not dominant role in setting environmental limits. Over the past 20 years, nations have had the opportunity to build on a period of major international successes, limiting ozone-depleting chemicals and sulphur emissions causing acid rain. The science and politics of solutions attempted during this time has become vastly more complicated, and the outcome has been disappointing: global greenhouse gas emissions remain at business-as-usual trajectories. It seems logical and timely to examine the landscape before forging onward. In a brief review of lessons learned from the perspective of earth-system science within New Zealand, I highlight key examples and opportunities for creating more promising way forward. Among the lessons are that small-scale limit setting can host important innovation, while collapses can occur when systems that are too-big-to-fail but lack critical pre-requisites. In this sense, implementation of cap-and-trade for water quality may represent the former, while the collapse of C prices highlight the latter. Of critical importance is the simple observation that perceived uncertainties must be brought within bounds that make decisions possible. The way in which system are framed scientifically can be of overarching significance. Cap and trade for nutrients in New Zealand catchments has enabled small-scale illustrations of how the system frame can be vital in successful policy. For example, the N budget of Lake Taupo is simplified by focusing on inputs to the land, while 100-year forcing equivalence still raises questions about managing climate change. Relationships between emissions and activity must be distilled based on sound science, in a manner simple and certain enough for people and businesses to meaningfully consider in decisions that are made every day. With trust becoming a major limiting factor in the

  14. Estimated Effects of the October 1979 Change in Monetary Policy on the 1980 Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ray C* Fair

    1980-01-01

    On October 6. 1979, the Federal Reserve announced what most people interpreted as a change in monetary policy. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effects of this change on the 1980-81 economy. The effects of the change are estimated from simulations with my model of the U.S. economy (1976, 1980b).

  15. The emergence of climate change adaptation as a new field of public policy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massey, E.E.; Huitema, D.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, climate change adaptation has become an integral item on the climate policy agendas of several European countries. As such, researchers have begun to question what concrete changes in polices are occurring at national levels and what dynamics can explain these changes. While

  16. ''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

    2003-05-09

    Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank

  17. Opioid Misuse Trends in Treatment Seeking Populations: Revised Prescription Opioid Policy and Temporally Corresponding Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lauren A; Lewis, Ben; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2017-12-06

    Over the last two decades, U.S. rates of prescription opioid (PO) misuse have risen drastically. In response, federal and state governments have begun to implement new PO policies. Recent legislative changes warrant up-to-date assessments of today's misuse rates. To explore potential changes in opioid misuse trends among substance-using treatment seekers, in temporal relation to legislative response. Substance-use data were collected from two cross-sectional Florida-based inpatient cohorts during periods preceding (pre-policy; n = 647) and following (post-policy; n = 396) statewide PO policy initiatives. Participants provided information concerning their most frequently used drugs before treatment. PO and illicit opioid (IO) use prevalence, frequency and route of administration were examined for pre-policy vs. post-policy cohort differences. Relative to the pre-policy cohort, a greater percentage of the post-policy cohort reported recent misuse, daily use, and intravenous administration of POs. IO use was also more frequently reported post-policy. Non-opioid drug use prevalence did not significantly differ between cohorts. Among the opioid-using subsample, equivalent percentages of the pre- and post-policy cohorts reported the use of POs without IOs, IOs without POs, and POs/IOs concurrently. Conclusions/Importance: Florida's PO policy amendments were temporally accompanied by a higher prevalence of PO misuse and IO use among treatment-seekers assessed in this study. Whether our data reflect increased awareness of and treatment seeking for opioid use disorders or insufficient efficacy of new policies to reduce opioid misuse remains in question. Regardless, findings suggest the need for enhanced emphasis on mitigating hazardous PO-use behaviors (e.g., IV use).

  18. Environmental policy instruments and technological change in the energy sector: findings from comparative empirical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjaerseth, J.B.; Christiansen, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which and in what ways environmental policy instruments may affect patterns of environmental friendly technological change in the energy sector. Our argument is based on the assumption, however, that technological change is also affected by the political context in which the instruments are applied and by the nature of the problem itself. Comparative empirical research involving different European countries, sectors and policy fields were examined, including climate change, air pollution and wind power. The relationship between environmental policy instruments and technological change is extremely complex, not least due to the impact of other factors that may be more decisive than environmental ones. Against this backdrop, it was concluded that: 1) a portfolio of policy instruments works to the extent that different types of policy instruments affect the different drivers and stages behind technological change needed to solve specific problems. The need for a portfolio of policy instruments depends on the technological challenge being faced; 2) voluntary approaches facilitated constructive corporate strategies, but mandatory approaches tended to be more effective in stimulating short term major technological change; 3) voluntary approaches work well in the short term when the problem to be solved is characterized by lack of information and coordination. (author)

  19. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by the Fraunhofer

  20. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by

  1. The difficulty with responding to policy changes for HIV and infant feeding in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Paoli Marina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When and how to wean breastfed infants exposed to HIV infection has provoked extensive debate, particularly in low-income countries where safe alternatives to breastfeeding are rarely available. Although there is global consensus on optimal infant-feeding practices in the form of guidelines, practices are sub-optimal in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Policy-makers and health workers face many challenges in adapting and implementing these guidelines. Methods This paper is based on in-depth interviews with five policy-makers and 11 providers of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV, participant observations during clinic sessions and site visits. Results The difficulties with adapting the global infant-feeding guidelines in Malawi have affected the provision of services. There was a lack of consensus on HIV and infant-feeding at all levels and general confusion about the 2006 guidelines, particularly those recommending continued breastfeeding after six months if replacement feeding is not acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe. Health workers found it particularly difficult to advise women to continue breastfeeding after six months. They worried that they would lose the trust of the PMTCT clients and the population at large, and they feared that continued breastfeeding was unsafe. Optimal support for HIV-infected women was noted in programmes where health workers were multi-skilled; coordinated their efforts and had functional, multidisciplinary task forces and engaged communities. The recent 2009 recommendations are the first to support antiretroviral (ARV use by mothers or children during breastfeeding. Besides promoting maternal health and providing protection against HIV infection in children, the new Rapid Advice has the potential to resolve the difficulties and confusion experienced by health workers in Malawi. Conclusions The process of integrating new evidence into

  2. A change in the Navy's drug testing policy: how will it affect costs and the probability of detecting drug users?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, John R.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis analyzes changes in the Navy's drug testing policy as they relate to costs and the probability of detecting a gaming or non-gaming drug user. Additionally, this thesis considers actual command level testing policies showing how a policy change would affect the commands' probability of detecting a drug user. The Navy's zero tolerance policy for drug use has significantly reduced drug use within the Navy. This zero tolerance policy is primarily enforced with the drug testing prog...

  3. Adapting to climate change : the public policy response - public infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This paper assesses the threats and needs that multidimensional climate change imposes for : public infrastructure, reviews the existing adaptive capacity that could be applied to respond : to these threats and needs, and presents options for enhanci...

  4. Comparative study on Climate Change Policies in the EU and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, M.; Han, D.

    2012-04-01

    Both the EU and China are among the largest CO2 emitters in the world; their climate actions and policies have profound impacts on global climate change and may influence the activities in other countries. Evidence of climate change has been observed across Europe and China. Despite the many differences between the two regions, the European Commission and Chinese government support climate change actions. The EU has three priority areas in climate change: 1) understanding, monitoring and predicting climate change and its impact; 2) providing tools to analyse the effectiveness, cost and benefits of different policy options for mitigating climate change and adapting to its impacts; 3) improving, demonstrating and deploying existing climate friendly technologies and developing the technologies of the future. China is very vulnerable to climate change, because of its vast population, fast economic development, and fragile ecological environment. The priority policies in China are: 1) Carbon Trading Policy; 2) Financing Loan Policy (Special Funds for Renewable Energy Development); 3) Energy Efficiency Labelling Policy; 4) Subsidy Policy. In addition, China has formulated the "Energy Conservation Law", "Renewable Energy Law", "Cleaner Production Promotion Law" and "Circular Economy Promotion Law". Under the present EU Framework Programme FP7 there is a large number of funded research activities linked to climate change research. Current climate change research projects concentrate on the carbon cycle, water quality and availability, climate change predictors, predicting future climate and understanding past climates. Climate change-related scientific and technological projects in China are mostly carried out through national scientific and technological research programs. Areas under investigation include projections and impact of global climate change, the future trends of living environment change in China, countermeasures and supporting technologies of global

  5. Changing health policy in the post-Mao era.

    OpenAIRE

    Lampton, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    A shift away from Mao Zedong's concept of equality in the delivery of medical care is now taking place in The People's Republic of China. This change is evident in the emphasis now placed upon high technology, basic research, and hospital care. All of these changes are occurring against the backdrop of extremely scarce medical resources. Medicine seemingly is viewed as one of many material incentives to be provided high productivity and leadership groups; the "modernization" of medicine is se...

  6. Impacts of Changing Marijuana Policies on Alcohol Use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Lee, Christine M; Kilmer, Jason R; Fleming, Charles B; Rhew, Isaac C; Kosterman, Rick; Larimer, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana policies are rapidly evolving. In the United States, recreational use of marijuana is now legal in 4 states and medical marijuana is legal in 23 states. Research evaluating such policies has focused primarily on how policies affect issues of price, access to, use, and consequences of marijuana. Due to potential spillover effects, researchers also need to examine how marijuana policies may impact use and consequences of alcohol. The current paper is a critical review of articles evaluating alcohol outcomes associated with marijuana decriminalization, medical marijuana legalization, and nonmedical or recreational marijuana legalization. We identified articles and reports through (1) online searches of EBSCO host database including Academic Search Premier, Econlit, Legal Collection, Medline, PsycARTICLES, and PsycINFO, as well as PubMed and Google Scholar databases; (2) review of additional articles cited in papers identified through electronic searches; and (3) targeted searches of state and local government records regarding marijuana law implementation. We reviewed studies with respect to their data sources and sample characteristics, methodology, and the margin of alcohol and marijuana use, timing of policy change, and the aspects of laws examined. The extant literature provides some evidence for both substitution (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to less alcohol use as marijuana becomes a substitute) and complementary (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to increases in both marijuana and alcohol use) relationships in the context of liberalization of marijuana policies in the United States. Impact of more liberal marijuana policies on alcohol use is complex, and likely depends on specific aspects of policy implementation, including how long the policy has been in place. Furthermore, evaluation of marijuana policy effects on alcohol use may be sensitive to the age group studied and the margin of alcohol use examined. Design of

  7. Impacts of Changing Marijuana Policies on Alcohol Use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Lee, Christine M.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Fleming, Charles B.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Kosterman, Rick; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marijuana policies are rapidly evolving. In the United States, recreational use of marijuana is now legal in four states and medical marijuana is legal in 23 states. Research evaluating such policies has focused primarily on how policies affect issues of price, access to, use, and consequences of marijuana. Due to potential spillover effects, researchers also need to examine how marijuana policies may impact use and consequences of alcohol. Methods The current paper is a critical review of articles evaluating alcohol outcomes associated with marijuana decriminalization, medical marijuana legalization, and non-medical or recreational marijuana legalization. We identified articles and reports through (1) online searches of EBSCO host database including Academic search premier, Econlit, Legal collection, Medline, Psych articles, and PsycINFO, as well as PubMed and Google Scholar databases; (2) review of additional articles cited in papers identified through electronic searches; and (3) targeted searches of state and local government records regarding marijuana law implementation. We reviewed studies with respect to their data sources and sample characteristics, methodology, and the margin of alcohol and marijuana use, timing of policy change, and the aspects of laws examined. Results The extant literature provides some evidence for both substitution (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to less alcohol use as marijuana becomes a substitute) and complementary (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to increases in both marijuana and alcohol use) relationships in the context of liberalization of marijuana policies in the United States. Conclusions Impact of more liberal marijuana policies on alcohol use is complex, and likely depends on specific aspects of policy implementation, including how long the policy has been in place. Further, evaluation of marijuana policy effects on alcohol use may be sensitive to the age group studied and the

  8. Making it work : a Saskatchewan perspective on climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    The government of Saskatchewan supports many of the objectives and principles of the Kyoto Protocol and has undertaken several significant actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report outlines Saskatchewan's expectations for an effective and fair approach to climate change. The Canadian Prime Minister plans to ask Parliament to approve ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the end of 2002. However, until the Saskatchewan government sees the federal climate change plan, it will not support the Kyoto emissions reduction target and the Kyoto time frame because the impact on the province is not known. Saskatchewan is very vulnerable to the effects of climate change because of its large agriculture and forest sectors, and is looking for a fair, equitable federal climate change plan that will include significant federal funding assistance. The province is committed to taking action on climate change but is not willing to have its citizens and industries pay a disproportionate price compared to other Canadians. The measures taken thus far by Saskatchewan include: the development of public education initiatives, development of new technology to dispose of carbon dioxide, development of strategies to help adapt to climate change, the development of biological sinks for carbon dioxide in agricultural soils and forests, and the implementation of energy conservation and renewable energy projects. This paper outlines 19 features that Saskatchewan feels should be included in the national plan to address climate change. Among the suggestions is the national plan should respect provincial jurisdictions, and it should also recognize the fact that eventually Canada will need to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to levels well below those required by Kyoto. The plan should also enable Canadians to achieve both environmental and economic benefits

  9. Do differences in attitudes explain differences in national climate change policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernstroem, E.; Tietenberg, T.

    2008-01-01

    In meeting the threat posed by climate change nations have responded quite differently. Using an extensive data set this study explores factors that affect individuals' attitudes towards climate change and how those attitudes ultimately affect national climate change policy. The results show that attitudes do indeed matter in implementing policy and that attitudes are shaped not only by how individuals react to the specific attributes of climate change, but also by information, by the openness of society and by attitudes toward the trustworthiness of government. (author)

  10. A public school district's vending machine policy and changes over a 4-year period: implementation of a national wellness policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Markey, T L; Wang, L; Schlotterbeck, S; Jackson, E A; Gurm, R; Leidal, A; Eagle, K

    2012-04-01

    The school environment has been the focus of many health initiatives over the years as a means to address the childhood obesity crisis. The availability of low-nutrient, high-calorie foods and beverages to students via vending machines further exacerbates the issue of childhood obesity. However, a healthy overhaul of vending machines may also affect revenue on which schools have come to depend. This article describes the experience of one school district in changing the school environment, and the resulting impact on food and beverage vending machines. Observational study in Ann Arbor public schools. The contents and locations of vending machines were identified in 2003 and surveyed repeatedly in 2007. Overall revenues were also documented during this time period. Changes were observed in the contents of both food and beverage vending machines. Revenue in the form of commissions to the contracted companies and the school district decreased. Local and national wellness policy changes may have financial ramifications for school districts. In order to facilitate and sustain school environment change, all stakeholders, including teachers, administrators, students and healthcare providers, should collaborate and communicate on policy implementation, recognizing that change can have negative financial consequences as well as positive, healthier outcomes. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Challenges of Climate Change: Resilience Efforts in Rural Communities of Kaliwlingi Village based on Pengembangan Kawasan Pesisir Tangguh (PKPT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustovia Azahro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaliwlingi Village in Brebes City has experienced climate change impacts such as tidal flood and land abrasion. The climate change causes the dynamics of the coast and sea levels dramatically and fosters the coastal communities to have adaptation strategies. This paper aims to identify how the community of Kaliwlingi Village adapts to the climate change that affects to a social economic condition of the inhabitants. The study used qualitative method by interpreting data taken from PengembanganKawasanPesisirTangguh (PKPT program, interviews, and observations.The study highlights that PKPT program has a significant impact, especially regarding disaster mitigation. PKPT program is successful in collecting the common rules of the community to become social capital accommodated in the local institution. Furthermore, the PKPT Program is also fostering the local economy.

  12. ENHANCE OUTPUT OF NATIONAL POLICIES THROUGH RECRUITMEN, SELECTION, AND COMPETENCE TO CHANGE OF NATIONAL CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiranto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of recruitment, selection, competence and national policies to the changing conditions in Indonesia. 530 respondents from 25 provinces or 50 regencies/ cities across Indonesia participated in questionnaire pools in the study. Data were processed using path analysis technique. Results reveal that the recruitment process by political parties, the selection process by the Election Commission, and the competence of the leader, have positive correlations to the policies and the outcomes. The study highlights that without any improvements in the recruitment, selection, competency of leaders, and policies, no changes could be made by the leaders. It implies that a redefinition and actualization of recruitment, selection, competence, and policies should be made to ensure the changes to take place.

  13. ENHANCE OUTPUT OF NATIONAL POLICIES THROUGH RECRUITMEN, SELECTION, AND COMPETENCE TO CHANGE OF NATIONAL CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiranto .

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of recruitment, selection, competence and national policies to the changing conditions in Indonesia. 530 respondents from 25 provinces or 50 regencies/ cities across Indonesia participated in questionnaire pools in the study. Data were processed using path analysis technique. Results reveal that the recruitment process by political parties, the selection process by the Election Commission, and the competence of the  leader, have  positive correlations to the policies and the outcomes. The study highlights that without any improvements in the recruitment, selection, competency of leaders, and policies, no changes could be made by the leaders. It implies that a redefinition and actualization of recruitment, selection, competence, and policies should be made to ensure the changes to take place.

  14. Optimal climate change: economics and climate science policy histories (from heuristic to normative).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randalls, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Historical accounts of climate change science and policy have reflected rather infrequently upon the debates, discussions, and policy advice proffered by economists in the 1980s. While there are many forms of economic analysis, this article focuses upon cost-benefit analysis, especially as adopted in the work of William Nordhaus. The article addresses the way in which climate change economics subtly altered debates about climate policy from the late 1970s through the 1990s. These debates are often technical and complex, but the argument in this article is that the development of a philosophy of climate change as an issue for cost-benefit analysis has had consequences for how climate policy is made today.

  15. The EU and Climate Change Policy: Law, Politics and Prominence at Different Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad David Damro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU is a prominent player in the politics of climate change, operating as an authoritative regional actor that influences policy-making at the national and international levels. The EU’s climate change policies are thus subjected to multiple pressures that arise from the domestic politics of its twenty-seven individual member states and the international politics of non-EU states with which it negotiates. Facing these multiple pressures, how and why could such a non-traditional actor develop into a prominent player at different levels of climate change policy-making? This article argues that the EU’s rise to prominence can be understood by tracking a number of historical-legal institutional developments at the domestic and international levels. The article also provides a preliminary investigation of the EU emissions trading scheme, a new institutional mechanism that illustrates the policy pressures arising from different levels.

  16. Climate change and public health policy: translating the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-12-19

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  17. Examining the reaction of monetary policy to exchange rate changes: A nonlinear ARDL approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Lavaneesvari; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies showed the exchange rate changes can have significant impacts on macroeconomic performance. Over fluctuation of exchange rate may lead to economic instability. Hence, monetary policy rule tends to react to exchange rate changes. Especially, in emerging economies where the policy-maker tends to limit the exchange rate movement through interventions. In this study, we seek to investigate how the monetary policy rule reacts to exchange rate changes. The nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model is applied to capture the asymmetric effect of exchange rate changes on monetary policy reaction function (interest rate). We focus the study in ASEAN5 countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Singapore). The results indicated the existence of asymmetric effect of exchange rates changes on the monetary reaction function for all ASEAN5 countries in the long-run. Where, in majority of the cases the monetary policy is reacting to the appreciation and depreciation of exchange rate by raising the policy rate. This affirms the intervention of policymakers with the `fear of floating' behavior.

  18. Climate change and diarrhoeal disease: Perspectives for development policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes

    2010-01-01

    This paper points to the key role of health in development programmes and illustrates through diarrhoeal diseases as a case example, how climate change can impose increasing risks, which particularly will hit young children and the poor. The increased incidence can both be expected to emerge from...... higher temperatures and from more extreme events in particularly flooding. The number of people affected is by WHO projected to be approximately 700,000 dead and 22 mill disability adjusted life years in 2030 without climate change, so it is very important to initiate climate change adaptation measures...... that can help to reduce these risks. An attempt to start such a process i.e. has been done by the Danish Overseas Development Assistance Programme, Danida, which has conducted a climate screening of programme activities in Bangladesh. The paper presents a number of conclusions from this climate screening...

  19. Evaluating the Health Impact of Large-Scale Public Policy Changes: Classical and Novel Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Meghani, Ankita; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2017-03-20

    Large-scale public policy changes are often recommended to improve public health. Despite varying widely-from tobacco taxes to poverty-relief programs-such policies present a common dilemma to public health researchers: how to evaluate their health effects when randomized controlled trials are not possible. Here, we review the state of knowledge and experience of public health researchers who rigorously evaluate the health consequences of large-scale public policy changes. We organize our discussion by detailing approaches to address three common challenges of conducting policy evaluations: distinguishing a policy effect from time trends in health outcomes or preexisting differences between policy-affected and -unaffected communities (using difference-in-differences approaches); constructing a comparison population when a policy affects a population for whom a well-matched comparator is not immediately available (using propensity score or synthetic control approaches); and addressing unobserved confounders by utilizing quasi-random variations in policy exposure (using regression discontinuity, instrumental variables, or near-far matching approaches).

  20. Changing the policy for intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendera, Chikondi A; de Jager, Christiaan; Longwe, Herbert; Phiri, Kamija; Hongoro, Charles; Mutero, Clifford M

    2017-02-20

    The growing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment for uncomplicated malaria led to a recommendation by the World Health Organization for the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy. Inevitably, concerns were also raised surrounding the use of SP for intermittent prevention treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) amidst the lack of alternative drugs. Malawi was the first country to adopt intermittent prevention treatment with SP in 1993, and updated in 2013. This case study examines the policy updating process and the contribution of research and key stakeholders to this process. The findings support the development of a malaria research-to-policy framework in Malawi. Documents and evidence published from 1993 to 2012 were systematically reviewed in addition to key informant interviews. The online search identified 170 potential publications, of which eight from Malawi met the inclusion criteria. Two published studies from Malawi were instrumental in the WHO policy recommendation which in turn led to the updating of national policies. The updated policy indicates that more than two SP doses, as informed by research, overcome the challenges of the first policy of two SP doses only because of ineffectiveness by P. falciparum resistance and the global lack of replacement drugs to SP for IPTp. International WHO recommendations facilitated a smooth policy change driven by motivated local leadership with technical and financial support from development partners. Policy development and implementation should include key stakeholders and use local malaria research in a research-to-policy framework.

  1. Why Multilingual Matters : Alternative Change Agents in Language Education Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küeppers, Almut; Yagmur, K.

    Languages are powerful tools for change and have ceased to be only national symbols. In this focus paper, the overall question to be tackled is why and how the multilingual paradigm challenges nation-states and its institutions with a special focus on the domain of state education. While the former

  2. Federal climate change programs : funding history and policy issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, the federal government has allocated several billion dollars annually for projects to expand the understanding of climate change or to reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Most of that spending is done by t...

  3. Integrated Climate Change Modelling and Policy Linkages for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate change is influencing the frequency and intensity of extreme weather, exposing both people and economies to lost lives, productivity, and property. This project will help planners and policymakers respond more effectively by implementing climate-smart adaptive strategies. These strategies will serve to strengthen ...

  4. From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project has two components, one related to research, and the other to knowledge dissemination. First, researchers will refine an existing tool - the Household Vulnerability Index (HVI) developed in partnership with World Vision International - to incorporate the effects of climate change scenarios on crop yields. Secondly ...

  5. From Nash to Lindahl in Climate Change Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.; Swart, J.

    2015-01-01

    To reach an international agreement on the cost of abatement of climate change, one needs to specify a fair burden sharing rule. This paper evaluates different burden sharing rules in terms of their redistributive impact and by the extent to which they realize the aim of optimal abatement. It is

  6. Mainstreaming climate change into Kenya's new environmental policy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... Climate change poses one of the greatest challenges to human development in Kenya. Extreme weather events in the form of droughts and floods are undermining the country's development planning as well as the socio-economic well-being of its citizens. Kenya is experiencing perennial crop failures, ...

  7. Climate change policy positive or negative economic impact? Why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, R.T.L.; Mangalagiu, D.

    2010-01-01

    ECF initiates and performs high-class research on climate change in close interaction with stakeholders. We provide a pluralistic communication platform in the emerging global field of researchers, governments, local authorities, businesses, and social movements. This field lies beyond the

  8. Using research to change policy and practice: A Canadian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... Canadian CSOs also maximize their use of research to influence change in part through strategic alliances and partnerships. Women in Cities International, for example, partners with the Women and Habitat Network in Argentina to collect data and engage directly with local officials. The study concludes ...

  9. A Policy Change Strategy for Head Lice Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Kathleen; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to formulate an effective change strategy for head lice management in a group of five separate school districts within one county. Despite a desire to use evidence to support their practice, school nurses often encounter educational system barriers that prevent independent management of health conditions. The use of…

  10. Mainstreaming climate change into Kenya's new environmental policy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 mai 2016 ... Climate change poses one of the greatest challenges to human development in Kenya. Extreme weather events in the form of droughts and floods are undermining the country's development planning as well as the socio-economic well-being of its citizens. Kenya is experiencing perennial crop failures, ...

  11. Climate change and energy policies in Shanghai: A multilevel governance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francesch-Huidobro, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multilevel governance is a useful framework to understand how resources, tasks and power are distributed for decision making. • Shifts in national climate and energy policy mandate local governments to develop climate change and energy policies. • Local governments have greater autonomy for incorporating climate and energy issues into development goals. • Climate mitigation and energy policy is dominated by hierarchical governance. - Abstract: Despite growing interest in China’s response to climate change and energy security, studies undertaken at the subnational level are rare. In the context of the multilevel governance paradigm, this article examines the governance of climate change and energy policy in Shanghai, a rapidly growing Chinese megacity highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Although the energy and carbon intensity of Shanghai’s economy have fallen significantly since China launched its economic reforms, overall carbon emissions in the municipality continue to rise. Through examining the Shanghai case, this article argues that Chinese subnational climate mitigation policy is dominated by hierarchical governance arrangements. Nevertheless, shifts in national climate and energy policy since 2007 have mandated provincial-level governments, including Shanghai, to develop their own climate and energy policies while offering greater local autonomy for incorporating climate and energy issues into development goals: is this attributable to a decentred form of multilevel governance? The article concludes that Shanghai’s climate mitigation and energy policy is dominated by hierarchical governance whereby policies are ‘downloaded’ from the central government. Perspectives for other cities and insights for policymakers are discussed.

  12. Smoking policy change at a homeless shelter: attitudes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2015-01-01

    Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43 years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12 months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8 parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptation to Climate Change in European Water Law and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Keessen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change exacerbates the challenges that water management nowadays has to deal with. This highlights the need for a legal framework that promotes adaptation by addressing the ecological value of water and the risks of flooding and drought. This paper analyzes to what extent the European legal framework meets this need. This is evaluated by analyzing to what extent the Water Framework Directive, the Floods Directive and the Water Scarcity and Drought Strategy build resilience. Resilience is an important concept in the adaptation to climate change discourse. It refers to the capacity of a social-ecological system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity and feedbacks. This paper uses five criteria to measure this: (1 the flexibility of rules and (2 the adaptiveness of such rules (3 openness, public participation and access to the courts (4 multilevel governance at the bioregional scale and (5 effectiveness. The European legal framework partly meets these criteria. It offers a river basin approach and both the setting of goals and objectives and their achievement is a multilevel, cyclical process, which includes public participation. However, the achievement of the goals is not easily enforceable and coordination within international river basins is legally weak. This detracts from the expected effectiveness of the EU legal framework in promoting adaptation by protecting the aquatic ecosystem and reducing flood and drought risks.

  14. Norwegian gas export policy - management of external change; Norsk gasseksportpolitikk - haandtering av ytre endring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claes, Dag Harald

    1997-12-31

    This report is the first study in the research project `` Norwegian gas policy - external change and national adaptation``. The project is financed through Norges forskningsraad`s research program ``Petropol``. The main aim of the project is to understand the market, political and institutional changes in the European gas market as well as what implications they may have for the political and institutional design of the Norwegian gas sector. In this report an approach model is developed for studying the connection between changes in the European gas market and the Norwegian petroleum policy which will be central in several of the later works in the project. The report gives a historic account of Norwegian gas export policy as well, a field where altered frame conditions have given the authorities political and institutional challenges. The main focus in the report is however, connected to the empirical explanation of the connection between changed external environments and alterations in the Norwegian gas export policy. The question the study tries to answer is: To what extent and how the Norwegian gas export policy is affected by alterations in the European gas market and the EU policy towards this market. In the centre of the study of the gas export policy is the element of governmental control. The governmental control assumes ability to formulate national aims as well as the ability to produce laws and regulations which reflects the goals and counts on that the aims are reached in addition to that the authorities either implement the policies themselves or if this is left to other parties, have ability to survey and sanction these parties should they break the guidelines or oppose the national political aims. The report shows how these aspects are affected by changes in the environments surrounding the Norwegian gas export. 6 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

  15. Could cannabis liberalisation lead to wider changes in drug policies and outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brendan; Wiessing, Lucas; Des Jarlais, Don; Griffiths, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Cannabis policies are changing in some countries. This may have consequences that extend beyond cannabis-specific outcomes, such as an impact on the consumption patterns of other substances. Changes in cannabis policies may also influence policy responses to other drugs, as countries re-assess the balance between law enforcement and public health objectives. If this happens, it could have important health and social consequences, especially in those countries where a 'war on drugs' policy perspective has inhibited investment in evidence based responses in areas such as treatment and harm reduction. The burden of disease associated with opioid use for example is large and this is an area in which treatment and harm reduction have been shown to deliver benefits. Thus if the changes in cannabis policies result in a greater willingness to invest in effective interventions for other drugs, the potential net health gains could be considerable. On the other hand, if cannabis policy changes are associated with an increase in health risk behaviours, such as driving under the influence or increased use of harmful substances such as tobacco, then significant increased health costs could result. To date most attention has been focused on recent cannabis sales liberalisation in the Americas, but experiences from elsewhere are also informative. In Europe, for example, moves towards decriminalisation of drug possession are resulting in lower rates of incarceration and arguably have reduced barriers to treatment uptake. Robust monitoring and assessment of the impact of these different policy changes is crucial to evaluating and understanding their results. It is important that such monitoring is international in scope, is not limited to issues around the use of cannabis only, and considers the interactions that may exist between cannabis policies and the approaches taken to other substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Studying Climate Change Policies: Insights from the Case Study of Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Sian Ng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The world decided in December 2015 to take actions to reduce global warming. To contribute toward this goal, this research examines possible policy levers for inclusion in the climate change ratification plan. A case study of the measures taken by the Republic of Singapore, a low-lying 719.2 km2 island without natural resources in Asia, is conducted. Being vulnerable to climate change impact and yet having to balance her people’s needs and economic progress with limited resources, the measures taken by this small country could offer policy insights for small states and states without access to alternative energy sources. This research analyzes the online policy documents posted by eleven organizations to answer the main research question of identifying policy levers as theoretical constructs to form a framework that can be used to study climate change policies. A qualitative data analysis software, QSR NVivo 10, is used to classify the proposed nodes developed by the researchers using a system perspective integrating the insights from the key international climate change frameworks with the theoretical concepts from the model of pro-environmental behavior. The findings can offer insights toward developing a new contextual influence framework, which can help strengthen policy development and outcome measurement.

  17. Adaptive Governance, Uncertainty, and Risk: Policy Framing and Responses to Climate Change, Drought, and Flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Margot; Gupta, Joyeeta

    2016-02-01

    As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to climate change, droughts, and floods and what governance structures facilitate adaptation? This research interrogates and analyzes through content analysis, supplemented by semi-structured qualitative interviews, the policy response to climate change, drought, and flood in relation to agricultural producers in four case studies in river basins in Chile, Argentina, and Canada. First, an epistemological explanation of risk and uncertainty underscores a brief literature review of adaptive governance, followed by policy framing in relation to risk and uncertainty, and an analytical model is developed. Pertinent findings of the four cases are recounted, followed by a comparative analysis. In conclusion, recommendations are made to improve policies and expand adaptive governance to better account for uncertainty and risk. This article is innovative in that it proposes an expanded model of adaptive governance in relation to "risk" that can help bridge the barrier of uncertainty in science and policy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Climate change and climate policy; Klimaendringer og klimapolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Kolshus, Hans H.; Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2000-08-01

    The climate issue is a great political and scientific challenge for several reasons: (1) There are many uncertain aspects of the climate problem, such as future emission of climate gases, the response of the climate system upon these gases, and the effects of climate changes. (2) It is probable, however, that anthropogenic emission of climate gases, deforestation etc. will cause noticeable climate changes in the future. This might be observed as increased frequency of extreme weather situations. This appears to be a greater threat than a gradual increase of temperature and precipitation. (3) Since the climate system is large and react only relatively slowly on changes in for instance the emission of climate gases, the climate problem can only be solved by means of long-term measures. (4) The climate changes may be irreversible. A rational short-term strategy is to ensure maximum flexibility, which can be done by ''slowing down'' (curtailing emissions) and by avoiding irreversible actions as much as possible. The long-term challenge is to develop an economically responsible alternative to the present fossil-based energy system that permits carbon-efficient technologies to compete on price with coal and unconventional oil and gas. Norway is in a special position by being a large exporter of fossil fuel and at the same time wanting to appear responsible in environmental matters. This combination may incur considerable expenses upon Norway and it is therefore important that environmental commitments like the Kyoto agreement can be honoured to the lowest possible cost. The costs can be minimized by: (1) minimizing the measure costs in Norway, (2) working to make the international quota price as low as possible, and (3) reducing the loss of petroleum income as much as possible. This report describes the earth's climate history, the forces behind climatic changes and what the prospects for the future look like. It also reviews what is being done

  19. The ''Rock'': The Role of the Press in Bringing about Change in Aircraft Accident Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Randy

    2000-01-01

    From 1926 to 1938, the Aeronautics Branch, forerunner of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), had been charged with aircraft accident investigation. While the Branch had been investigating accidents since its inception, it had, early in its tenure, put into place a policy making its findings secret. Media and political pressure began to mount in late 1928 over its policy of nondisclosure and the debate brought pressure to bear on the young Aeronautics Branch to reverse its policy and make its findings public. The focusing event for the Branch's policy reversal was the death of Knute Rockne, the famous Notre Dame football coach, in a Transcontinental and Western Airways (TWA) airliner on March 31, 193 1. This paper will examine the role of print media in bringing about a significant, and lasting, change in aircraft accident public-disclosure policy.

  20. Youth transitioning out of foster care: an evaluation of a Supplemental Security Income policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura; Rukh-Kamaa, Aneer

    2013-01-01

    Youths with disabilities face numerous challenges when they transition to adulthood. Those who are aging out of foster care face the additional challenge of losing their foster care benefits, although some will be eligible for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments after foster care ceases. However, the time needed to process SSI applications exposes those youths to a potential gap in the receipt of benefits as they move between foster care and SSI. We evaluate the effects of a 2010 Social Security Administration policy change that allows such youths to apply for SSI payments 60 days earlier than the previous policy allowed. The change provides additional time for processing claims before the applicant ages out of the foster care system. We examine administrative records on SSI applications from before and after the policy change to determine if the change has decreased the gap between benefits for the target population.

  1. Chronic disease and climate change: understanding co-benefits and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Anthony G; Rissel, Chris E

    2010-01-01

    Chronic disease and climate change are major public policy challenges facing governments around the world. An improved understanding of the relationship between chronic disease and climate change should enable improved policy formulation to support both human health and the health of the planet. Chronic disease and climate change are both unintended consequences of our way of life, and are attributable in part to the ready availability of inexpensive fossil fuel energy. There are co-benefits for health from actions to address climate change. For example, substituting physical activity and a vegetable-rich diet for motor vehicle transport and a meat-rich diet is both good for health and good for the planet. We should encourage ways of living that use less carbon as these can be healthy ways of living, for both individuals and society. Quantitative modelling of co-benefits should inform policy responses.

  2. The politics of drug control in Nigeria: Exclusion, repression and obstacles to policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klantschnig, Gernot

    2016-04-01

    International agencies have viewed West Africa as a major player in the global trade in cocaine and heroin and in efforts to control that trade, as there have been reports of escalating arrests of drug smugglers, large-scale drug seizures and 'narco-states' in the subregion. It is claimed that a substantial share of the drugs available in Western markets transit through West Africa today and are increasingly used there as well. Notwithstanding this growing alarm, there is little serious scholarship addressing the issue of drugs and drug policy in West Africa. The article assesses and challenges some of the existing depictions of drugs and drug policy in West Africa through an empirical case study of drug control in Nigeria - one of West Africa's most notorious 'drug hubs' and recently hailed as a policy model by international experts. Based on previously inaccessible government documents, interviews with key officials in Nigeria, as well as ethnographic work at Nigeria's key drug agency, the article provides a unique insight into the politics of drug policy-making and implementation in West Africa. After describing the dominant official narratives of Nigeria's drug control, the article shows how the key political dynamics underlying drug policy remain obscured by these narratives. Nigerian drug policy has been characterised by a highly exclusive policy-making process, repression as the sole means of implementation and a strong bond with international drug agencies. This policy emerged in the 1980s and 1990s and has remained the unchallenged norm until today. The political processes underlying Nigerian drug policy also explain why policy reform has been and will be difficult to accomplish. These domestic political processes have largely been ignored in the existing depictions of drugs in West Africa, as they have mainly focused on externally driven drug threats and foreign policy responses. Most importantly, they have ignored the role played by the state. Rather

  3. The Networked University: The Structure, Culture, and Policy of Universities in a Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The universities in Europe are finding themselves in a turbulent environment. They are exposed to global and European developments. This article links changes in the structure, culture, and policy of universities to these developments and changes in the broader-than-national environment. The central question is, in short: what is globalisation…

  4. Do Voters Learn? Evidence that Voters Respond Accurately to Changes in Political Parties’ Policy Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Henrik Bech; Slothuus, Rune; Stubager, Rune

    2017-01-01

    A premise of the mass–elite linkage at the heart of representative democracy is that voters notice changes in political parties’ policy positions and update their party perceptions accordingly. However, recent studies question the ability of voters accurately to perceive changes in parties’ posit...... are better able to make meaningful political choices than previous work suggests....

  5. Health risks of climate change: An assessment of uncertainties and its implications for adaption policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306644398; de Jong, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326795960; van Bree, L.; Turkenburg, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416355; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489

    2012-01-01

    Background: Projections of health risks of climate change are surrounded with uncertainties in knowledge. Understanding of these uncertainties will help the selection of appropriate adaptation policies. Methods: We made an inventory of conceivable health impacts of climate change, explored the type

  6. Migration Related to Climate Change: Impact, Challenges and Proposed Policy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Migration of human population possesses a great threat to human development and nation building. A significant cause for migration is due to change in climatic conditions and vulnerabilities associated with it. Our case study focuses on the consequent reason and impact of such migration in the coastal areas of West Bengal, India. The changes in rainfall pattern and the variation of temperature have been considered as parameters which have resulted in migration. It is worthy to note that the agricultural pattern has subsequently changed over the last two decades due to change in rainfall and temperature. India being an agriculture oriented economy, the changes in the meteorological variables have not only altered the rate of agricultural pattern but also the rate of migration. A proposed framework depicting relationship between changes in meteorological variables and the migration pattern, and an estimate of how the migration pattern is expected to change over the next century by utilizing the downscaled values of future rainfall and temperature has been analyzed. Moreover, various public policy frameworks has also been proposed through the study for addressing the challenges of migration related to climate change. The proposed public policy framework has been streamlined along the lines of various international treaties and conventions in order to integrate the policy initiatives through universalization of law and policy research.

  7. Global climate change : Canadian policy and the role of terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Hauer, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Canadian climate change policy. It is argued that voluntary action will contribute little to climate change mitigation and that forest management strategies can, at most, contribute some 7.5 percent of Canada’s required Kyoto CO2-emissions reduction target. To do

  8. Efficacy Trade-Offs in Individuals' Support for Climate Change Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentrater, Lynn D.; Saelensminde, Ingrid; Ekström, Frida; Böhm, Gisela; Bostrom, Ann; Hanss, Daniel; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data, the authors developed an architecture of climate change beliefs in Norway and their correlation with support for policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A strong majority of respondents believe that anthropogenic climate change is occurring and identify carbon dioxide emissions as a cause. Regression analysis shows…

  9. International Law and the climate change adaptation policy in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Araya Ahumada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes in what ways international environmental law, the international regime of climate change and the European Union have influenced current climate change adaptation governance in the United Kingdom, especially in relation with the sustainable development policy.

  10. Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific and Endogenous Knowledge (West Africa). Climate change affects the fishing sector in various ways, by modifying the composition of animal and plant populations, ocean currents, and the frequency and intensity of tropical storms. Over-fishing and ...

  11. Chronic Homelessness, Head Start, and Changing Federal Policies: Teaching and Learning at Hawthorne House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.

    2015-01-01

    Federal policy changes for Head Start (HS) elevate the importance of measured academic performance over other traditional program aims, particularly those associated with the social-emotional development of children. Concerned about the possible effects of these changes on children, based on observations and interviews, detailed portraits of…

  12. Community perspectives on the impact of policy change on linking social capital in a rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lyn; Walker, Rae

    2007-06-01

    Understanding what undermines or builds social capital is important when estimating the impact that changes in social capital have on people's lives. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how the consequences of neo-liberal policy initiatives have impacted on linking social capital in one small and vibrant rural community in Australia. Policy changes affecting all levels of government and various commercial agencies have undermined people's capability for a range of actions which bring personal and community-wide social and economic returns. Rationalisation and regionalisation of services and commercial agencies, including local government amalgamation, and increased workloads have undermined people's capabilities for community engagement. Policy outcomes are at odds with the stated policy agenda of building community capacity.

  13. Cutting the 'Gordian knot' in climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    Ongoing conflict over the fair allocation of greenhouse gas emissions among nations is a significant impediment to progress in international climate change negotiations. This article considers the strengths and weaknesses of a crucial argument within the allocation debate asserting the atmospheric capacity to absorb greenhouse gases should be distributed on an equal per capita basis. While noting the argument's many appealing qualities, the paper argues that the per capita perspective also encompasses important practical and ethical limitations. Besides potentially encouraging population growth and discriminating against those with greater (but still legitimate) energy needs, early evidence suggests that the equal per capita idea may hinder progress in climate change talks by invoking a more absolutist and uncompromising rhetoric of rights. Alternative ideas of fairness, such as the distinction between subsistence and luxury emissions, or the Common Heritage of Mankind idea, offer a more flexible mix of egalitarian and other allocation principles that should be considered carefully, even by those sympathetic to the equal per capita perspective

  14. Who's getting the job done? An interview with Alden Meyer on the slow pace of climate change policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    New Solutions interviewed Alden Meyer, the director of strategy & policy for the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). His work focuses primarily on climate change policy at the state, federal and international levels. He discusses the current state of climate change policy, progress and innovation on the state and international fronts, and the tangible impacts we can make as citizens to hasten political action.

  15. Global Biodiversity Indicators Reflect the Modeled Impacts of Protected Area Policy Change

    OpenAIRE

    Costelloe, B.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.; Nicholson, E.; Mcrae, L.; Collen, B.; Craigie, I. D.; Rondinini, C.

    2016-01-01

    Global biodiversity indicators can be used to measure the status and trends of biodiversity relating to Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) targets. Whether such indicators can support decision makers by distinguishing among policy options remains poorly evaluated. We tested the ability of two CBD indicators, the Living Planet Index and the Red List Index, to reflect projected changes in mammalian populations in sub-Saharan Africa in response to potential policies related to CBD targets ...

  16. Population Policies, Demographic Structural Changes, and the Chinese Household Saving Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Suqin; Yang, Dennis T.; Zhang, Junsen

    2012-01-01

    Using combined data from population censuses and Urban Household Surveys, we study the effects of demographic structural changes on the rise in household saving in China. Variations in fines across provinces on unauthorized births under the one-child policy and in cohort-specific fertility influenced by the implementation of population control policies are exploited to facilitate identification. We find evidence that older households with a reduced number of adult children save more because o...

  17. The qualitative characteristics of financial information, and managers’ accounting decisions:evidence from IFRS policy changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nobes, Christopher; Stadler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This is the first empirical study that uses publicly available data to provide direct evidence about the role of the qualitative characteristics (QCs) of financial information in managements’ accounting decisions. Based on 40,895 hand-collected IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) policy choices on 16 topics made by 514 large firms of 10 jurisdictions in the period 2005–2011, we identify 204 reasons for policy changes. The majority of these refer to QCs from the conceptual frame...

  18. Is climate change-centrism an optimal policy making strategy to set national electricity mixes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Reyna, Janet L.; García-Torres, Samy; Kahhat, Ramzy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The impact of climate-centric policies on other environmental impacts is uncertain. • Analysis of changing electricity grids of Peru and Spain in the period 1989–2013. • Life Cycle Assessment was the selected sustainability method to conduct the study. • Policies targeting GHG reductions also reduce air pollution and toxicity. • Resource usage, especially water, does not show the same trends as GHG emissions. - Abstract: In order to combat the threat of climate change, countries have begun to implement policies which restrict GHG emissions in the electricity sector. However, the development of national electricity mixes should also be sensitive to resource availability, geo-political forces, human health impacts, and social equity concerns. Policy focused on GHG goals could potentially lead to adverse consequences in other areas. To explore the impact of “climate-centric” policy making on long-term electricity mix changes, we develop two cases for Peru and Spain analyzing their changing electricity grids in the period 1989–2013. We perform a Life Cycle Assessment of annual electricity production to catalogue the improvements in GHG emissions relative to other environmental impacts. We conclude that policies targeting GHG reductions might have the co-benefit of also reducing air pollution and toxicity at the expense of other important environmental performance indicators such as water depletion. Moreover, as of 2013, both countries generate approximately equal GHG emissions per kWh, and relatively low emission rates of other pollutants compared to nations of similar development levels. Although climate-centric policy can lead to some positive environmental outcomes in certain areas, energy policy-making should be holistic and include other aspects of sustainability and vulnerability.

  19. Change Detection and Sustainable Policies of Mangrove Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul

    and the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the observed changes for communities living around mangrove areas. In this connection, the effects of mangrove exploitation on biodiversity and ecosystem services, including forestry and fishery products, are explored. Finally, the total economic value...... still provide a wide range of ecosystem services, such as fishery products (fish, crabs, and shrimps) and forestry products (firewood, charcoal, and Nypa palm leaves for crafting), to the communities in the area. The TEV (Total Economic Value) of mangroves was in the range of 4,370 thousand USD (k...... beneficial value than the DUV (Direct Use Value; the benefit value of fishery and forestry products) and OV (Option Value; benefit value of medicines) of mangroves and the financial returns from converting mangroves into commercial aquaculture seem reasonable. However, when the IUV of mangroves is included...

  20. Some characteristics of wet and dry regimes in the contiguous United States: Implications for climate change detection efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    The climatology of wet and dry regimes in five different regions of the contiguous US is examined using station records of daily precipitation for the period 1931-86. The regions were selected to be representative of different climatological synoptic regimes, and hence are associated with different large-scale atmospheric forcing patterns. The results show that the precipitation-producing processes operating during the wettest and driest years are substantially different, with wet years generally displaying large increases in the heavier precipitation categories compared to the dry years. These differences may be related to changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns associated with the development of persistent oceanic anomalies associated with variations in air-sea exchange processes over the Pacific Ocean and, depending on the particular region of the country, in the Atlantic Ocean as well. It is shown that sequences of wet and dry years are rather common throughout the country. The 1930s and 50s saw prolonged periods of severe, and in some instances, extreme drought conditions in many parts of the country. There does not appear to be any secular trend in the frequency of either wet or dry regimes through the analysis period. Wet conditions prevailed in much of the country in the early 1980s; a return to drier conditions in the past couple of years, therefore, appears to be just a normal swing to an opposite regime