WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy based routing

  1. Dynamic UAV-based traffic monitoring under uncertainty as a stochastic arc-inventory routing policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Y.J. Chow

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapid advances in unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, and increasing need to monitor at a city level, one of the current research gaps is how to systematically deploy drones over multiple periods. We propose a real-time data-driven approach: we formulate the first deterministic arc-inventory routing problem and derive its stochastic dynamic policy. The policy is expected to be of greatest value in scenarios where uncertainty is highest and costliest, such as city monitoring during major events. The Bellman equation for an approximation of the proposed inventory routing policy is formulated as a selective vehicle routing problem. We propose an approximate dynamic programming algorithm based on Least Squares Monte Carlo simulation to find that policy. The algorithm has been modified so that the least squares dependent variable is defined to be the “expected stock out cost upon the next replenishment”. The new algorithm is tested on 30 simulated instances of real time trajectories over 5 time periods of the selective vehicle routing problem to evaluate the proposed policy and algorithm. Computational results on the selected instances show that the algorithm on average outperforms the myopic policy by 23–28%, depending on the parametric design. Further tests are conducted on classic benchmark arc routing problem instances. The 11-link instance gdb19 (Golden et al., 1983 is expanded into a sequential 15-period stochastic dynamic example and used to demonstrate why a naïve static multi-period deployment plan would not be effective in real networks.

  2. Multilevel QoS-policy-based routing management architecture appropriate for heterogeneous network environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaki, Magda; Sartzetakis, Stelios

    1998-09-01

    As telecom providers introduce new and more sophisticated services the necessity of a global, unified view of the network infrastructure becomes demanding. Today, heterogenous backbone networks are interconnected in order to provide global connectivity. Due to technological impairments the cost of network operation, the maintenance complexity and the overuse of resources are extremely high under the goal of supporting the diverting customer requirements. We propose a scheme for ATM QoS support in such heterogenous, multi-domain, multi-technology network environment. The objective is to optimize users' and networks' profits by giving them the opportunity to satisfy their requirements. Our approach introduces a manager able to take routing decisions supporting quality of service guarantees for the customers, while making efficient use of network resources.

  3. Design and evaluation of overloaded service systems with skill based routing, under FCFS policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Boon, M.A.A.; Weiss, G.

    2013-01-01

    We study an overloaded service system with servers of types S={s1,…,sJ}, serving customers of types C={c1,…,cI} under FCFS. Customers arrive in Poisson streams, join the queue and then abandon or get served. Service is skill based, which is described by a compatibility graph G, where (i,j)¿G if

  4. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  5. Dynamic call center routing policies using call waiting and agent idle times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, W.; Koole, G.M.; L'Ecuyer, P.

    2014-01-01

    We study call routing policies for call centers with multiple call types and multiple agent groups. We introduce new weight-based routing policies where each pair (call type, agent group) is given a matching priority defined as an affine combination of the longest waiting time for that call type and

  6. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  7. Policy Gradient SMDP for Resource Allocation and Routing in Integrated Services Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vien, Ngo Anh; Viet, Nguyen Hoang; Lee, Seunggwan; Chung, Taechoong

    In this paper, we solve the call admission control (CAC) and routing problem in an integrated network that handles several classes of calls of different values and with different resource requirements. The problem of maximizing the average reward (or cost) of admitted calls per unit time is naturally formulated as a semi-Markov Decision Process (SMDP) problem, but is too complex to allow for an exact solution. Thus in this paper, a policy gradient algorithm, together with a decomposition approach, is proposed to find the dynamic (state-dependent) optimal CAC and routing policy among a parameterized policy space. To implement that gradient algorithm, we approximate the gradient of the average reward. Then, we present a simulation-based algorithm to estimate the approximate gradient of the average reward (called GSMDP algorithm), using only a single sample path of the underlying Markov chain for the SMDP of CAC and routing problem. The algorithm enhances performance in terms of convergence speed, rejection probability, robustness to the changing arrival statistics and an overall received average revenue. The experimental simulations will compare our method's performance with other existing methods and show the robustness of our method.

  8. CBHRP: A Cluster Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, M. G.; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Rahim, M. Sajjadur; Ullah, Sk. Enayet

    2012-01-01

    A new two layer hierarchical routing protocol called Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol (CBHRP) is proposed in this paper. It is an extension of LEACH routing protocol. We introduce cluster head-set idea for cluster-based routing where several clusters are formed with the deployed sensors to collect information from target field. On rotation basis, a head-set member receives data from the neighbor nodes and transmits the aggregated results to the distance base station. This protocol ...

  9. Forks in the Road. Alternative Routes for International Climate Policies and their Implications for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slingerland, S.; Meyer, L.; Van Vuuren, D.; Den Elzen, M.

    2011-11-01

    Several scenarios are possible for future international climate policies, each with a different role in the climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These scenarios assume policies that are comparable to the current policies, as well as more fragmented and more integrated international climate policies. The various alternative routes have been assessed with respect to their potential consequences. These assessments showed that none of the proposed routes could fully replace the current negotiation process under the UNFCCC, but rather that they could contribute to generating societal support for future climate policies. In addition, the report presents an analysis of how the Netherlands could use this development of alternative routes for international climate policy. Possible responses by the Netherlands to each of these scenarios would depend on the degree to which climate change as a policy topic is considered a priority in the Netherlands.

  10. Pseudo-Cycle-Based Multicast Routing in Wormhole-Routed Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG JianPing (宋建平); HOU ZiFeng (侯紫峰); XU Ming (许铭)

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of fault-tolerant multicast routing in wormholerouted multicomputers. A new pseudo-cycle-based routing method is presented for constructing deadlock-free multicast routing algorithms. With at most two virtual channels this technique can be applied to any connected networks with arbitrary topologies. Simulation results show that this technique results in negligible performance degradation even in the presence of a large number of faulty nodes.

  11. Region based route planning - Multi-abstraction route planning based on intermediate level vision processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rajkumar S.; Lam, Raymond; White, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Intermediate and high level processing operations are performed on vision data for the organization of images into more meaningful, higher-level topological representations by means of a region-based route planner (RBRP). The RBRP operates in terrain scenarios where some or most of the terrain is occluded, proceeding without a priori maps on the basis of two-dimensional representations and gradient-and-roughness information. Route planning is accomplished by three successive abstractions and yields a detailed point-by-point path by searching only within the boundaries of relatively small regions.

  12. Route Choice Model Based on Game Theory for Commuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licai Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic behaviours of commuters may cause traffic congestion during peak hours. Advanced Traffic Information System can provide dynamic information to travellers. Due to the lack of timeliness and comprehensiveness, the provided information cannot satisfy the travellers’ needs. Since the assumptions of traditional route choice model based on Expected Utility Theory conflict with the actual situation, a route choice model based on Game Theory is proposed to provide reliable route choice to commuters in actual situation in this paper. The proposed model treats the alternative routes as game players and utilizes the precision of predicted information and familiarity of traffic condition to build a game. The optimal route can be generated considering Nash Equilibrium by solving the route choice game. Simulations and experimental analysis show that the proposed model can describe the commuters’ routine route choice decisionexactly and the provided route is reliable.

  13. An improved AODV routing protocol based on tower structure

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    Li Yong Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed a new routing protocol(IAODV based on tower structure in the Ad Hoc network for the problem which Location Routing Protocol need hardware and Complex algorithm. By the simulation, The complexity of the new routing protocol is reduced without reducing the performance of the network.

  14. Tour Route Multiobjective Optimization Design Based on the Tourist Satisfaction

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    Yan Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question prompted is how to design the tour route to make the tourists get the maximum satisfactions considering the tourists’ demand. The influence factors of the tour route choices of tourists were analyzed and tourists’ behavior characteristics and psychological preferences were regarded as the important influence factors based on the tourist behavioral theories. A questionnaire of tourists’ tour route information and satisfaction degree was carried out. Some information about the scene spot and tourists demand and tour behaviors characteristic such as visit frequency, number of attractions visited was obtained and analyzed. Based on the convey datum, tour routes multiobjective optimization functions were prompted for the tour route design regarding the maximum satisfaction and the minimum tour distance as the optimal objective. The available routes are listed and categorized. Based on the particle swarm optimization model, the priorities of the tour route are calculated and finally the suggestion depth tour route and quick route tour routes are given considering the different tour demands of tourists. The results can offer constructive suggestions on how to design tour routes on the part of tourism enterprises and how to choose a proper tour route on the part of tourists.

  15. Policy Route Map for Academic Libraries' Digital Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouris, Alexandros; Kapidakis, Sarantos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a policy decision tree for digital information management in academic libraries. The decision tree is a policy guide, which offers alternative access and reproduction policy solutions according to the prevailing circumstances (for example acquisition method, copyright ownership). It refers to the digital information life cycle,…

  16. Great Ellipse Route Planning Based on Space Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Wenchao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of navigation error caused by unified earth model in great circle route planning using sphere model and modern navigation equipment using ellipsoid mode, a method of great ellipse route planning based on space vector is studied. By using space vector algebra method, the vertex of great ellipse is solved directly, and description of great ellipse based on major-axis vector and minor-axis vector is presented. Then calculation formulas of great ellipse azimuth and distance are deduced using two basic vectors. Finally, algorithms of great ellipse route planning are studied, especially equal distance route planning algorithm based on Newton-Raphson(N-R method. Comparative examples show that the difference of route planning between great circle and great ellipse is significant, using algorithms of great ellipse route planning can eliminate the navigation error caused by the great circle route planning, and effectively improve the accuracy of navigation calculation.

  17. A human-machine cooperation route planning method based on improved A* algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengsheng; Cai, Chao

    2011-12-01

    To avoid the limitation of common route planning method to blindly pursue higher Machine Intelligence and autoimmunization, this paper presents a human-machine cooperation route planning method. The proposed method includes a new A* path searing strategy based on dynamic heuristic searching and a human cooperated decision strategy to prune searching area. It can overcome the shortage of A* algorithm to fall into a local long term searching. Experiments showed that this method can quickly plan a feasible route to meet the macro-policy thinking.

  18. Tour Route Multiobjective Optimization Design Based on the Tourist Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Han; Hongzhi Guan; Jiaying Duan

    2014-01-01

    The question prompted is how to design the tour route to make the tourists get the maximum satisfactions considering the tourists’ demand. The influence factors of the tour route choices of tourists were analyzed and tourists’ behavior characteristics and psychological preferences were regarded as the important influence factors based on the tourist behavioral theories. A questionnaire of tourists’ tour route information and satisfaction degree was carried out. Some information about the scen...

  19. Big Data and Dementia: Charting the Route Ahead for Research, Ethics, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ienca, Marcello; Vayena, Effy; Blasimme, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Emerging trends in pervasive computing and medical informatics are creating the possibility for large-scale collection, sharing, aggregation and analysis of unprecedented volumes of data, a phenomenon commonly known as big data. In this contribution, we review the existing scientific literature on big data approaches to dementia, as well as commercially available mobile-based applications in this domain. Our analysis suggests that big data approaches to dementia research and care hold promise for improving current preventive and predictive models, casting light on the etiology of the disease, enabling earlier diagnosis, optimizing resource allocation, and delivering more tailored treatments to patients with specific disease trajectories. Such promissory outlook, however, has not materialized yet, and raises a number of technical, scientific, ethical, and regulatory challenges. This paper provides an assessment of these challenges and charts the route ahead for research, ethics, and policy.

  20. Big Data and Dementia: Charting the Route Ahead for Research, Ethics, and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Ienca

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging trends in pervasive computing and medical informatics are creating the possibility for large-scale collection, sharing, aggregation and analysis of unprecedented volumes of data, a phenomenon commonly known as big data. In this contribution, we review the existing scientific literature on big data approaches to dementia, as well as commercially available mobile-based applications in this domain. Our analysis suggests that big data approaches to dementia research and care hold promise for improving current preventive and predictive models, casting light on the etiology of the disease, enabling earlier diagnosis, optimizing resource allocation, and delivering more tailored treatments to patients with specific disease trajectories. Such promissory outlook, however, has not materialized yet, and raises a number of technical, scientific, ethical, and regulatory challenges. This paper provides an assessment of these challenges and charts the route ahead for research, ethics, and policy.

  1. A Variable Service Broker Routing Policy for data center selection in cloud analyst

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    Ahmad M. Manasrah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing depends on sharing distributed computing resources to handle different services such as servers, storage and applications. The applications and infrastructures are provided as pay per use services through data center to the end user. The data centers are located at different geographic locations. However, these data centers can get overloaded with the increase number of client applications being serviced at the same time and location; this will degrade the overall QoS of the distributed services. Since different user applications may require different configuration and requirements, measuring the user applications performance of various resources is challenging. The service provider cannot make decisions for the right level of resources. Therefore, we propose a Variable Service Broker Routing Policy – VSBRP, which is a heuristic-based technique that aims to achieve minimum response time through considering the communication channel bandwidth, latency and the size of the job. The proposed service broker policy will also reduce the overloading of the data centers by redirecting the user requests to the next data center that yields better response and processing time. The simulation shows promising results in terms of response and processing time compared to other known broker policies from the literature.

  2. A Low-Jitter Wireless Transmission Based on Buffer Management in Coding-Aware Routing

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    Cunbo Lu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is significant to reduce packet jitter for real-time applications in a wireless network. Existing coding-aware routing algorithms use the opportunistic network coding (ONC scheme in a packet coding algorithm. The ONC scheme never delays packets to wait for the arrival of a future coding opportunity. The loss of some potential coding opportunities may degrade the contribution of network coding to jitter performance. In addition, most of the existing coding-aware routing algorithms assume that all flows participating in the network have equal rate. This is unrealistic, since multi-rate environments often appear. To overcome the above problem and expand coding-aware routing to multi-rate scenarios, from the view of data transmission, we present a low-jitter wireless transmission algorithm based on buffer management (BLJCAR, which decides packets in coding node according to the queue-length based threshold policy instead of the regular ONC policy as used in existing coding-aware routing algorithms. BLJCAR is a unified framework to merge the single rate case and multiple rate case. Simulations results show that the BLJCAR algorithm embedded in coding-aware routing outperforms the traditional ONC policy in terms of jitter, packet delivery delay, packet loss ratio and network throughput in network congestion in any traffic rates.

  3. Deadlock Avoidance Policy in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks with Free Choice Resource Routing

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    Prasanna Ballal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient control schemes are required for effective cooperation of robot teams in a mobile wireless sensor network. If the robots (resources are also in charge of executing multiple simultaneous missions, then risks of deadlocks due to the presence of shared resources among different missions increase and have to be tackled. Discrete event control with deadlock avoidance has been used in the past for robot team coordination for the case of multi reentrant flowline models with shared resources. In this paper we present an analysis of deadlock avoidance for a generalized case of multi reentrant flow line systems (MRF called the Free Choice Multi Reentrant Flow Line systems (FMRF. In FMRF, some tasks have multiple resource choices; hence routing decisions have to be made and current results in deadlock avoidance for MRF do not hold. This analysis is based on the so-called Circular Waits (CW of the resources in the system. For FMRF, the well known notions of Critical Siphons and Critical Subsystems must be generalized and we redefine these objects for such systems. Our second contribution provides a matrix formulation that efficiently computes the objects required for deadlock avoidance in FMRF systems. A MAXWIP dispatching policy is formulated for deadlock avoidance in FMRF systems. According to this policy, deadlock in FMRF is avoided by limiting the work in progress (WIP in the critical subsystems of each CW. Implemented results of the proposed scheme in a WSN test-bed is presented in the paper.

  4. Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme For Wireless Sensor Network

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    Roy Sohini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has emerged as an important supplement to the modern wireless communication systems due to its wide range of applications. The recent researches are facing the various challenges of the sensor network more gracefully. However, energy efficiency has still remained a matter of concern for the researches. Meeting the countless security needs, timely data delivery and taking a quick action, efficient route selection and multi-path routing etc. can only be achieved at the cost of energy. Hierarchical routing is more useful in this regard. The proposed algorithm Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme (EACBRS aims at conserving energy with the help of hierarchical routing by calculating the optimum number of cluster heads for the network, selecting energy-efficient route to the sink and by offering congestion control. Simulation results prove that EACBRS performs better than existing hierarchical routing algorithms like Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DEEC algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and Energy Efficient Heterogeneous Clustered scheme for Wireless Sensor Network (EEHC.

  5. Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, Md. Golam; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Rahim, Muhammad Sajjadur; Ullah, Shaikh Enayet

    2012-01-01

    The efficient use of energy source in a sensor node is most desirable criteria for prolong the life time of wireless sensor network. In this paper, we propose a two layer hierarchical routing protocol called Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol (CBHRP). We introduce a new concept called head-set, consists of one active cluster head and some other associate cluster heads within a cluster. The head-set members are responsible for control and management of the network. Results show that t...

  6. Indoor 3D Route Modeling Based On Estate Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Wen, Y.; Jiang, J.; Huang, W.

    2014-04-01

    Indoor three-dimensional route model is essential for space intelligence navigation and emergency evacuation. This paper is motivated by the need of constructing indoor route model automatically and as far as possible. By comparing existing building data sources, this paper firstly explained the reason why the estate spatial management data is chosen as the data source. Then, an applicable method of construction three-dimensional route model in a building is introduced by establishing the mapping relationship between geographic entities and their topological expression. This data model is a weighted graph consist of "node" and "path" to express the spatial relationship and topological structure of a building components. The whole process of modelling internal space of a building is addressed by two key steps: (1) each single floor route model is constructed, including path extraction of corridor using Delaunay triangulation algorithm with constrained edge, fusion of room nodes into the path; (2) the single floor route model is connected with stairs and elevators and the multi-floor route model is eventually generated. In order to validate the method in this paper, a shopping mall called "Longjiang New City Plaza" in Nanjing is chosen as a case of study. And the whole building space is constructed according to the modelling method above. By integrating of existing path finding algorithm, the usability of this modelling method is verified, which shows the indoor three-dimensional route modelling method based on estate spatial data in this paper can support indoor route planning and evacuation route design very well.

  7. Effective ANT based Routing Algorithm for Data Replication in MANETs

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    N.J. Nithya Nandhini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network, the nodes often move and keep on change its topology. Data packets can be forwarded from one node to another on demand. To increase the data accessibility data are replicated at nodes and made as sharable to other nodes. Assuming that all mobile host cooperative to share their memory and allow forwarding the data packets. But in reality, all nodes do not share the resources for the benefits of others. These nodes may act selfishly to share memory and to forward the data packets. This paper focuses on selfishness of mobile nodes in replica allocation and routing protocol based on Ant colony algorithm to improve the efficiency. The Ant colony algorithm is used to reduce the overhead in the mobile network, so that it is more efficient to access the data than with other routing protocols. This result shows the efficiency of ant based routing algorithm in the replication allocation.

  8. Route Assessment for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based on Cloud Model

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    Xixia Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated route assessment approach based on cloud model is proposed in this paper, where various sources of uncertainties are well kept and modeled by cloud theory. Firstly, a systemic criteria framework incorporating models for scoring subcriteria is developed. Then, the cloud model is introduced to represent linguistic variables, and survivability probability histogram of each route is converted into normal clouds by cloud transformation, enabling both randomness and fuzziness in the assessment environment to be managed simultaneously. Finally, a new way to measure the similarity between two normal clouds satisfying reflexivity, symmetry, transitivity, and overlapping is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed route assessment approach outperforms fuzzy logic based assessment approach with regard to feasibility, reliability, and consistency with human thinking.

  9. Intelligent Aggregation Based on Content Routing Scheme for Cloud Computing

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    Jiachen Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has emerged as today’s most exciting computing paradigm for providing services using a shared framework, which opens a new door for solving the problems of the explosive growth of digital resource demands and their corresponding convenience. With the exponential growth of the number of data types and data size in so-called big data work, the backbone network is under great pressure due to its transmission capacity, which is lower than the growth of the data size and would seriously hinder the development of the network without an effective approach to solve this problem. In this paper, an Intelligent Aggregation based on a Content Routing (IACR scheme for cloud computing, which could reduce the amount of data in the network effectively and play a basic supporting role in the development of cloud computing, is first put forward. All in all, the main innovations in this paper are: (1 A framework for intelligent aggregation based on content routing is proposed, which can support aggregation based content routing; (2 The proposed IACR scheme could effectively route the high aggregation ratio data to the data center through the same routing path so as to effectively reduce the amount of data that the network transmits. The theoretical analyses experiments and results show that, compared with the previous original routing scheme, the IACR scheme can balance the load of the whole network, reduce the amount of data transmitted in the network by 41.8%, and reduce the transmission time by 31.6% in the same network with a more balanced network load.

  10. The Prohibitive Link between Position-based Routing and Planarity

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    David Cairns

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Position-based routing is touted as an ideal routing strategy for resource-constrained wireless networks. One persistent barrier to adoption is due to its recovery phase, where messages are forwarded according to leftor right-hand rule (LHR. This is often referred to as face-routing. In this paper we investigate the limits of LHR with respect to planarity.We show that the gap between non-planarity and successful delivery is a single link within a single configuration. Our work begins with an analysis to enumerate all node configurations that cause intersections in the unit-disc graph. We find that left-hand rule is able to recover from all but a single case, the ‘umbrella’ configuration so named for its appearance. We use this information to propose the Prohibitive Link Detection Protocol (PLDP that can guarantee delivery over non-planar graphs using standard face-routing techniques. As the name implies, the protocol detects and circumvents the ‘bad’ links that hamper LHR. The goal of this work is to maintain routing guarantees while disturbing the network graph as little as possible. In doing so, a new starting point emerges from which to build rich distributed protocols in the spirit of CLDP and GDSTR.

  11. Route Selection with Unspecified Sites Using Knowledge Based Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Nobuaki; Nakamura, Tomohiro

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting a route to a given destination that traverses several non-specific sites (e.g. a bank, a gas station) as requested by a driver. The proposed solution uses a genetic algorithm that includes viral infection. The method is to generate two populations of viruses as domain specific knowledge in addition to a population of routes. A part of an arterial road is regarded as a main virus, and a road that includes a site is regarded as a site virus. An infection occurs between two points common to a candidate route and the virus, and involves the substitution of the intersections carried by the virus for those on the existing candidate route. Crossover and infection determine the easiest-to-drive and quasi-shortest route through the objective landmarks. Experiments using actual road maps show that this infection-based mechanism is an effective way of solving the problem. Our strategy is general, and can be effectively used in other optimization problems.

  12. Route constraints model based on polychromatic sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xianjun; Cai, Chao; Wang, Houjun; Li, Dongwu

    2018-03-01

    With the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology, the fields of its application are constantly expanding. The mission planning of UAV is especially important, and the planning result directly influences whether the UAV can accomplish the task. In order to make the results of mission planning for unmanned aerial vehicle more realistic, it is necessary to consider not only the physical properties of the aircraft, but also the constraints among the various equipment on the UAV. However, constraints among the equipment of UAV are complex, and the equipment has strong diversity and variability, which makes these constraints difficult to be described. In order to solve the above problem, this paper, referring to the polychromatic sets theory used in the advanced manufacturing field to describe complex systems, presents a mission constraint model of UAV based on polychromatic sets.

  13. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  14. Route-Based Signal Preemption Control of Emergency Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Mu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the signal preemption control of emergency vehicles (EV. A signal preemption control method based on route is proposed to reduce time delay of EV at intersections. According to the time at which EV is detected and the current phase of each intersection on the travelling route of EV, the calculation methods of the earliest start time and the latest start time of green light at each intersection are given. Consequently, the effective time range of green light at each intersection is determined in theory. A multiobjective programming model, whose objectives are the minimal residence time of EV at all intersections and the maximal passing numbers of general society vehicles, is presented. Finally, a simulation calculation is carried out. Calculation results indicate that, by adopting the signal preemption method based on route, the delay of EV is reduced and the number of society vehicles passing through the whole system is increased. The signal preemption control method of EV based on route can reduce the time delay of EV and improve the evacuation efficiency of the system.

  15. GIS-Based Population Model Applied to Nevada Transportation Routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a model based on geographic information system (GIS) processing of US Census Block data has made high-resolution population analysis for transportation risk analysis technically and economically feasible. Population density bordering each kilometer of a route may be tabulated with specific route sections falling into each of three categories (Rural, Suburban or Urban) identified for separate risk analysis. In addition to the improvement in resolution of Urban areas along a route, the model provides a statistically-based correction to population densities in Rural and Suburban areas where Census Block dimensions may greatly exceed the 800-meter scale of interest. A semi-automated application of the GIS model to a subset of routes in Nevada (related to the Yucca Mountain project) are presented, and the results compared to previous models including a model based on published Census and other data. These comparisons demonstrate that meaningful improvement in accuracy and specificity of transportation risk analyses is dependent on correspondingly accurate and geographically-specific population density data

  16. Cluster chain based energy efficient routing protocol for moblie WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Ziyu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the ubiquitous smart devices acting as mobile sensor nodes in the wireless sensor networks(WSNs to sense and transmit physical information,routing protocols should be designed to accommodate the mobility issues,in addition to conventional considerations on energy efficiency.However,due to frequent topology change,traditional routing schemes cannot perform well.Moreover,existence of mobile nodes poses new challenges on energy dissipation and packet loss.In this paper,a novel routing scheme called cluster chain based routing protocol(CCBRP is proposed,which employs a combination of cluster and chain structure to accomplish data collection and transmission and thereafter selects qualified cluster heads as chain leaders to transmit data to the sink.Furthermore,node mobility is handled based on periodical membership update of mobile nodes.Simulation results demonstrate that CCBRP has a good performance in terms of network lifetime and packet delivery,also strikes a better balance between successful packet reception and energy consumption.

  17. ARBR: Adaptive reinforcement-based routing for DTN

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2010-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel routing protocol in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), aiming to solve the online distributed routing problem. By manipulating a collaborative reinforcement learning technique, a group of nodes can cooperate with each other and make a forwarding decision for the stored messages based on a cost function at each contact with another node. The proposed protocol is characterized by not only considering the contact time statistics under a novel contact model, but also looks into the feedback on user behavior and network conditions, such as congestion and buffer occupancy sampled during each previous contact with any other node. Therefore, the proposed protocol can achieve high efficiency via an adaptive and intelligent routing mechanism according to network conditions. Extensive simulation is conducted to verify the proposed protocol, where a comparison is made with a number of existing encounter-based routing protocols in term of the number of transmissions of each message, message delivery delay, and delivery ratio. The results of the simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  18. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast, second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast, and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast. In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast.

  19. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Muhammad; Sher, Arshad; Abdul, Wadood; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

    2017-03-19

    In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast), second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast), and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast). In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC) is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast.

  20. Cosmic radiation exposure on Canadian-based commercial airline routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; Tume, P.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M.; Green, A.R

    1998-07-01

    As a result of the recent recommendations of the ICRP-60 and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of commercial aircrew, a two-phase investigation was carried out over a one-year period to determine the total dose equivalent on representative Canadian-based flight routes. In the first phase of the study, dedicated scientific flights on a Northern round-trip route between Ottawa and Resolute Bay provided the opportunity to characterize the complex mixed-radiation field, and to intercompare various instrumentation using both a conventional suite of powered detectors and passive dosimetry. In the second phase, volunteer aircrew carried (passive) neutron bubble detectors during their routine flight duties. From these measurements, the total dose equivalent was derived for a given route with a knowledge of the neutron fraction as determined from the scientific flights and computer code (CART-LF) calculations. This study has yielded an extensive database of over 3100 measurements providing the total dose equivalent for 385 different routes. By folding in flight frequency information and the accumulated flight hours, the annual occupational exposures of 26 flight crew have been determined. This study has indicated that most Canadian-based domestic and international aircrew will exceed the proposed annual ICRP-60 public limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} but will be well below the occupational limit of 20 mSv y{sup -1}. (author)

  1. Routing policies for a partially observable two-server queueing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Kovács, P.; Núñez-Queija, R.; Berg, H. van den

    2015-01-01

    We consider a queueing system controlled by decisions based on partial state information. The motivation for this work stems from road traffic, in which drivers may, or may not, be subscribed to a smartphone application for dynamic route planning. Our model consists of two queues with independent

  2. Routing policies for a partially observable two-server queueing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ellens; P. Kovacs; J.L. van den Berg (Hans); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo); A. Busic; M. Gribaudo; P. Reinecke

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe consider a queueing system controlled by decisions based on partial state information. The motivation for this work stems from road traffic, in which drivers may, or may not, be subscribed to a smartphone application for dynamic route planning. Our model consists of two queues

  3. Routing-based synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maftei, Elena; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate on-chip all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The “digital” biochips are manipulating liquids as discrete droplets on a two-dimensional array of electrodes. Basic microfluidic...... electrodes are considered occupied during the operation execution, although the droplet uses only one electrode at a time. Moreover, the operations can actually be performed by routing the droplets on any sequence of electrodes on the microfluidic array. Hence, in this paper, we eliminate the concept...... on the surface of the microfluidic array. We have extended the GRASP-based algorithm to consider contamination avoidance during routing-based synthesis. Several real-life examples and synthetic benchmarks are used to evaluate the proposed approaches....

  4. On Intelligent Design and Planning Method of Process Route Based on Gun Breech Machining Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongzhi, Zhao; Jian, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The paper states an approach of intelligent design and planning of process route based on gun breech machining process, against several problems, such as complex machining process of gun breech, tedious route design and long period of its traditional unmanageable process route. Based on gun breech machining process, intelligent design and planning system of process route are developed by virtue of DEST and VC++. The system includes two functional modules--process route intelligent design and its planning. The process route intelligent design module, through the analysis of gun breech machining process, summarizes breech process knowledge so as to complete the design of knowledge base and inference engine. And then gun breech process route intelligently output. On the basis of intelligent route design module, the final process route is made, edited and managed in the process route planning module.

  5. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  6. Cosmic Radiation Exposure on Canadian-Based Commercial Airline Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; Tume, P.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M.; Green, A.R.; Cousins, T.; Hoffarth, B.E.; Jones, T.A.; Brisson, J.R

    1999-07-01

    As a result of the recent recommendations of ICRP 60 and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of commercial aircrew, a two-part investigation was carried out over a one-year period to determine the total dose equivalent on representative Canadian-based flight routes. As part of the study, a dedicated scientific measurement flight (using both a conventional suite of powered detectors and passive dosimetry) was used to characterise the complex mixed radiation field and to intercompare the various instrumentation. In the other part of the study, volunteer aircrew carried (passive) neutron bubble detectors during their routine flight duties. From these measurements, the total dose equivalent was derived for a given route with a knowledge of the neutron fraction as determined from the scientific flight and computer code (CARI-LF) calculations. This investigation has yielded an extensive database of over 3100 measurements providing the total dose equivalent for 385 different routes. By folding in flight frequency information and the accumulated flight hours, the annual occupational exposures of 26 flight crew have also been determined. This study has indicated that most Canadian-based domestic and international aircrew will exceed the proposed annual ICRP 60 public limit of 1 mSv.y{sup -1}, but will be below the occupational limit of 20 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  7. Research on Innovating, Applying Multiple Paths Routing Technique Based on Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithm for Routing Messages in Service - Oriented Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MANET (short for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network consists of a set of mobile network nodes, network configuration changes very fast. In content based routing, data is transferred from source node to request nodes is not based on destination addresses. Therefore, it is very flexible and reliable, because source node does not need to know destination nodes. If We can find multiple paths that satisfies bandwidth requirement, split the original message into multiple smaller messages to transmit concurrently on these paths. On destination nodes, combine separated messages into the original message. Hence it can utilize better network resources, causes data transfer rate to be higher, load balancing, failover. Service Oriented Routing is inherited from the model of content based routing (CBR, combined with several advanced techniques such as Multicast, multiple path routing, Genetic algorithm to increase the data rate, and data encryption to ensure information security. Fuzzy logic is a logical field study evaluating the accuracy of the results based on the approximation of the components involved, make decisions based on many factors relative accuracy based on experimental or mathematical proof. This article presents some techniques to support multiple path routing from one network node to a set of nodes with guaranteed quality of service. By using these techniques can decrease the network load, congestion, use network resources efficiently.

  8. Aircraft Route Recovery Based on An Improved GRASP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircrafts maintenance, temporary airport closures are common factors that disrupt normal flight schedule. The aircraft route recovery aims to recover original schedules by some strategies, including flights swaps, and cancellations, which is a NP-hard problem. This paper proposes an improved heuristic procedure based on Greedy Random Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP to solve this problem. The effectiveness and high global optimization capability of the heuristic is illustrated through experiments based on large-scale problems. Compared to the original one, it is shown that the improved procedure can find feasible flight recovered schedules with lower cost in a short time.

  9. Reliable Freestanding Position-Based Routing in Highway Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A.; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model. PMID:23202159

  10. Evidence-based policy: implications for nursing and policy involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewison, Alistair

    2008-11-01

    Evidence-based policy making is espoused as a central feature of government in the United Kingdom. However, an expectation that this will improve the quality of policy produced and provide a path to increased involvement of nurses in the policy process is misplaced. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the emphasis on evidence-based policy is problematic and cannot be regarded as a "new model" of policy making. Also, it could deflect attention from more practical approaches to policy involvement on the part of nurses. Policy development activities, acquisition of skills in policy analysis, and other forms of involvement are needed if nurses are to move along the continuum from policy literacy, through policy acumen, to policy competence. This involves taking a critical stance on the notion of evidence-based policy.

  11. Policy implications of Iran's Nuclear Deal in technical terms for the plutonium route, uranium route, covert options, inspections, monitoring and verifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M., E-mail: andrericardopinheiro@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval; Guimarães, Leonam dos Santos, E-mail: leonam@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The present Paper addresses the policy implications of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known as 'Ian Nuclear Deal', implemented on 16{sup th} January of 2016 between the Iran and the P5+1 countries (the U.S., U.K. France, Germany, Russia, and China), along with the EU in technical terms to analyze the Plutonium Route, Uranium Route and the Covert options and Inspections, Monitoring and Verifications. A historical review is presented to understand how the Iranian Nuclear Program is formed. Following is shown the current nuclear facilities in Iran and its capacity to process nuclear materials. It is analyzed the impact of JCPOA in Uranium and Plutonium routes. Covert Options always will be an option, so the most sensitive impact is related to the new monitoring and verification policies that must ensure real control of illegal procedures. The main conclusion is that the deal postpones the Iran's nuclear program for more than a decade (15 years), delaying Iran's nuclear bomb time from a few months to at least one year, although there is a current latent capacity to develop a nuclear bomb in Uranium route. It also gives IAEA inspectors capability to monitor nuclear activities and prevent to possible development to a nuclear bomb. To arrive in this conclusion an extensive technical analyze of impact of JCPOA in Iran's nuclear capabilities was made to discover how effective is the deal to prevent Iran to build, or acquire a nuclear weapon. (author)

  12. Policy implications of Iran's Nuclear Deal in technical terms for the plutonium route, uranium route, covert options, inspections, monitoring and verifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M.

    2017-01-01

    The present Paper addresses the policy implications of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known as 'Ian Nuclear Deal', implemented on 16 th January of 2016 between the Iran and the P5+1 countries (the U.S., U.K. France, Germany, Russia, and China), along with the EU in technical terms to analyze the Plutonium Route, Uranium Route and the Covert options and Inspections, Monitoring and Verifications. A historical review is presented to understand how the Iranian Nuclear Program is formed. Following is shown the current nuclear facilities in Iran and its capacity to process nuclear materials. It is analyzed the impact of JCPOA in Uranium and Plutonium routes. Covert Options always will be an option, so the most sensitive impact is related to the new monitoring and verification policies that must ensure real control of illegal procedures. The main conclusion is that the deal postpones the Iran's nuclear program for more than a decade (15 years), delaying Iran's nuclear bomb time from a few months to at least one year, although there is a current latent capacity to develop a nuclear bomb in Uranium route. It also gives IAEA inspectors capability to monitor nuclear activities and prevent to possible development to a nuclear bomb. To arrive in this conclusion an extensive technical analyze of impact of JCPOA in Iran's nuclear capabilities was made to discover how effective is the deal to prevent Iran to build, or acquire a nuclear weapon. (author)

  13. Solving Inventory Routing Problems Using Location Based Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Hanczar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory routing problems (IRPs occur where vendor managed inventory replenishment strategies are implemented in supply chains. These problems are characterized by the presence of both transportation and inventory considerations, either as parameters or constraints. The research presented in this paper aims at extending IRP formulation developed on the basis of location based heuristics proposed by Bramel and Simchi-Levi and continued by Hanczar. In the first phase of proposed algorithms, mixed integer programming is used to determine the partitioning of customers as well as dates and quantities of deliveries. Then, using 2-opt algorithm for solving the traveling sales-person problem the optimal routes for each partition are determined. In the main part of research the classical formulation is extended by additional constraints (visit spacing, vehicle filling rate, driver (vehicle consistency, and heterogeneous fleet of vehicles as well as the additional criteria are discussed. Then the impact of using each of proposed extensions for solution possibilities is evaluated. The results of computational tests are presented and discussed. Obtained results allow to conclude that the location based heuristics should be considered when solving real life instances of IRP. (original abstract

  14. Algorithm Research of Individualized Travelling Route Recommendation Based on Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although commercial recommendation system has made certain achievement in travelling route development, the recommendation system is facing a series of challenges because of people’s increasing interest in travelling. It is obvious that the core content of the recommendation system is recommendation algorithm. The advantages of recommendation algorithm can bring great effect to the recommendation system. Based on this, this paper applies traditional collaborative filtering algorithm for analysis. Besides, illustrating the deficiencies of the algorithm, such as the rating unicity and rating matrix sparsity, this paper proposes an improved algorithm combing the multi-similarity algorithm based on user and the element similarity algorithm based on user, so as to compensate for the deficiencies that traditional algorithm has within a controllable range. Experimental results have shown that the improved algorithm has obvious advantages in comparison with the traditional one. The improved algorithm has obvious effect on remedying the rating matrix sparsity and rating unicity.

  15. A Method for Driving Route Predictions Based on Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a driving route prediction method that is based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM. This method can accurately predict a vehicle’s entire route as early in a trip’s lifetime as possible without inputting origins and destinations beforehand. Firstly, we propose the route recommendation system architecture, where route predictions play important role in the system. Secondly, we define a road network model, normalize each of driving routes in the rectangular coordinate system, and build the HMM to make preparation for route predictions using a method of training set extension based on K-means++ and the add-one (Laplace smoothing technique. Thirdly, we present the route prediction algorithm. Finally, the experimental results of the effectiveness of the route predictions that is based on HMM are shown.

  16. EpSoc: Social-Based Epidemic-Based Routing Protocol in Opportunistic Mobile Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikul Lenando

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In opportunistic networks, the nature of intermittent and disruptive connections degrades the efficiency of routing. Epidemic routing protocol is used as a benchmark for most of routing protocols in opportunistic mobile social networks (OMSNs due to its high message delivery and latency. However, Epidemic incurs high cost in terms of overhead and hop count. In this paper, we propose a hybrid routing protocol called EpSoc which utilizes the Epidemic routing forwarding strategy and exploits an important social feature, that is, degree centrality. Two techniques are used in EpSoc. Messages’ TTL is adjusted based on the degree centrality of nodes, and the message blocking mechanism is used to control replication. Simulation results show that EpSoc increases the delivery ratio and decreases the overhead ratio, the average latency, and the hop counts as compared to Epidemic and Bubble Rap.

  17. Evidence-based policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    2013-01-01

    -makers and the research community (e.g. Boden & Epstein 2006; House of Commons 2006; Cartwright et al 2009; Rod 2010; Vohnsen 2011). This article intends to draw out some general pitfalls in the curious meeting of science and politics by focusing on a particular attempt to make evidence-based legislation in Denmark (for...

  18. A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal N. Al-Karaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption.

  19. Optimization Route of Food Logistics Distribution Based on Genetic and Graph Cluster Scheme Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study takes the concept of food logistics distribution as the breakthrough point, by means of the aim of optimization of food logistics distribution routes and analysis of the optimization model of food logistics route, as well as the interpretation of the genetic algorithm, it discusses the optimization of food logistics distribution route based on genetic and cluster scheme algorithm.

  20. DIRECTIONAL OPPORTUNISTIC MECHANISM IN CLUSTER MESSAGE CRITICALITY LEVEL BASED ZIGBEE ROUTING

    OpenAIRE

    B.Rajeshkanna *1, Dr.M.Anitha 2

    2018-01-01

    The cluster message criticality level based zigbee routing(CMCLZOR) has been proposed for routing the cluster messages in wireless smart energy home area networks. It employs zigbee opportunistic shortcut tree routing(ZOSTR) and AODV individually for routing normal messages and highly critical messages respectively. ZOSTR allows the receiving nodes to compete for forwarding a packet with the priority of left-over hops rather than stating single next hop node like unicast protocols. Since it h...

  1. Iconic memory-based omnidirectional route panorama navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yasushi; Imai, Kousuke; Tsuji, Kentaro; Yachida, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    A route navigation method for a mobile robot with an omnidirectional image sensor is described. The route is memorized from a series of consecutive omnidirectional images of the horizon when the robot moves to its goal. While the robot is navigating to the goal point, input is matched against the memorized spatio-temporal route pattern by using dual active contour models and the exact robot position and orientation is estimated from the converged shape of the active contour models.

  2. Link reliability based hybrid routing for tactical mobile ad hoc network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xiaochuan; Wei Gang; Wu Keping; Wang Gang; Jia Shilou

    2008-01-01

    Tactical mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network,without the aid of pre-established network infrastructure. The routing protocol has a crucial impact on the networkperformance in battlefields. Link reliability based hybrid routing (LRHR) is proposed, which is a novel hybrid routing protocol, for tactical MANET. Contrary to the traditional single path routing strategy, multiple paths are established between a pair of source-destination nodes. In the hybrid routing strategy, the rate of topological change provides a natural mechanism for switching dynamically between table-driven and on-demand routing. The simulation results indicate that the performances of the protocol in packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and average end-to-end delay are better than the conventional routing protocol.

  3. A two-hop based adaptive routing protocol for real-time wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachamalla, Sandhya; Kancherla, Anitha Sheela

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important and challenging issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is to optimally manage the limited energy of nodes without degrading the routing efficiency. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient adaptive routing mechanism for WSNs, which saves energy of nodes by removing the much delayed packets without degrading the real-time performance of the used routing protocol. It uses the adaptive transmission power algorithm which is based on the attenuation of the wireless link to improve the energy efficiency. The proposed routing mechanism can be associated with any geographic routing protocol and its performance is evaluated by integrating with the well known two-hop based real-time routing protocol, PATH and the resulting protocol is energy-efficient adaptive routing protocol (EE-ARP). The EE-ARP performs well in terms of energy consumption, deadline miss ratio, packet drop and end-to-end delay.

  4. Environment based innovation: policy questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rui Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources and physical cultural resources, referred to in this paper as “Environmental Resources”, can be important assets for regional competitiveness and innovation. In recent years, these types of assets have been increasingly taken into consideration in the design and implementation of regional development strategies, as a consequence of their potential role as a source of differentiation and of new competitive advantages. However, in contrast to environmental policies, which usually focus on the protection of the environment, innovation policies and their instruments are largely shaped by, and geared towards, knowledge-based innovation.In this paper, we discuss the role played by environmental resources in the context of regional innovation policies. We begin by discussing the relationship between environmental resources and regional development, and by emphasizing some contrasting views with regard to the function of environmental resources in regional development. Then, we address the relationship between regional competitive advantages and innovation strategies. The specific issues and problems that arise whenever the aim is to attain competitive advantages through the valorisation of environmental resources constitute the core of section III. In that section, we highlight the specific characteristics of environmental resources and we discuss the applicability of the “natural resource curse” argument to the dynamics based on the valorisation of environmental resources. The reasons that justify public interventionas well as the difficulties concerning the adequate level of intervention (local / regional / national are also examined. The paper ends with some conclusions and policy implications.

  5. Research on routing algorithm based on the VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the characteristics of high speed mobility of nodes, frequent changes of dynamic topology and frequent interrupts of the communication links in the VANET, this paper analyzed the defect of the current mobile ad-hoc network routing protocol, and carried on the simulation analysis on the adaptability of AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols in VANET applications in the VANET. Through the above research, this paper obtained the conclusion that the AODV routing protocol is more suitable for vehicular ad hoc network environment

  6. Fabrication routes for Thorium and Uranium233 based AHWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danny, K.M.; Saraswat, Anupam; Chakraborty, S.; Somayajulu, P.S.; Kumar, Arun

    2011-01-01

    India's economic growth is on a fast growth track. The growth in population and economy is creating huge demand for energy which has to be met with environmentally benign technologies. Nuclear Energy is best suited to meet this demand without causing undue environmental impact. Considering the large thorium reserves in India, the future nuclear power program will be based on Thorium- Uranium 233 fuel cycle. The major characteristic of thorium as the fuel of future comes from its superior fuel utilization. 233 U produced in a reactor is always contaminated with 232 U. This 232 U undergoes a decay to produce 228 Th and it is followed by decay chain including 212 Bi and 208 Tl. Both 212 Bi and 208 Tl are hard gamma emitters ranging from 0.6 MeV-1.6 MeV and 2.6 MeV respectively, which necessitates its handling in hot cell. The average concentration of 232 U is expected to exceed 1000 ppm after a burn-up of 24,000 MWD/t. Work related to developing the fuel fabrication technology including automation and remotization needed for 233 U based fuels is in progress. Various process for fuel fabrication have been developed i.e. Coated Agglomerate Pelletisation (CAP), impregnation technique (Pellet/Gel), Sol Gel Micro-sphere Pelletisation (SGMP) apart from Powder to Pellet (POP) route. This paper describes each process with respect to its advantages, disadvantages and its amenability to automation and remotisation. (author)

  7. Ciclovía initiatives: engaging communities, partners, and policy makers along the route to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieff, Susan G; Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kim, Mi-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space, including bicycle lanes, temporary parks, and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. This article describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in 2 US urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and Web sites, media sources, and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on 3 grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy makers in other contexts? Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach, and merchant support were relatively similar among the 2 initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents, and city agencies is critical for a positive experience in developing and implementing ciclovia-type initiatives

  8. Area Based Models of New Highway Route Growth

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson; Wei Chen

    2007-01-01

    Empirical data and statistical models are used to answer the question of where new highway routes are most likely to be located. High-quality land-use, population distribution and highway network GIS data for the Twin CitiesMetropolitan Area from 1958 to 1990 are developed for this study. The highway system is classified into three levels, Interstate highways, divided highways, and secondary highways. Binary logit models estimate the new route growth probability of divided highways and second...

  9. Performance Improvements and Congestion Reduction for Routing-based Synthesis for Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windh, Skyler; Phung, Calvin; Grissom, Daniel T.

    2017-01-01

    Routing-based synthesis for digital microfluidic biochips yields faster assay execution times compared to module-based synthesis. We show that routing-based synthesis can lead to deadlocks and livelocks in specific cases, and that dynamically detecting them and adjusting the probabilities...

  10. Route Selection Problem Based on Hopfield Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kojic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport network is a key factor of economic, social and every other form of development in the region and the state itself. One of the main conditions for transport network development is the construction of new routes. Often, the construction of regional roads is dominant, since the design and construction in urban areas is quite limited. The process of analysis and planning the new roads is a complex process that depends on many factors (the physical characteristics of the terrain, the economic situation, political decisions, environmental impact, etc. and can take several months. These factors directly or indirectly affect the final solution, and in combination with project limitations and requirements, sometimes can be mutually opposed. In this paper, we present one software solution that aims to find Pareto optimal path for preliminary design of the new roadway. The proposed algorithm is based on many different factors (physical and social with the ability of their increase. This solution is implemented using Hopfield's neural network, as a kind of artificial intelligence, which has shown very good results for solving complex optimization problems.

  11. Computer-based route-definition system for peripheral bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael W; Gibbs, Jason D; Higgins, William E

    2012-04-01

    Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners produce high-resolution images of the chest. Given a patient's MDCT scan, a physician can use an image-guided intervention system to first plan and later perform bronchoscopy to diagnostic sites situated deep in the lung periphery. An accurate definition of complete routes through the airway tree leading to the diagnostic sites, however, is vital for avoiding navigation errors during image-guided bronchoscopy. We present a system for the robust definition of complete airway routes suitable for image-guided bronchoscopy. The system incorporates both automatic and semiautomatic MDCT analysis methods for this purpose. Using an intuitive graphical user interface, the user invokes automatic analysis on a patient's MDCT scan to produce a series of preliminary routes. Next, the user visually inspects each route and quickly corrects the observed route defects using the built-in semiautomatic methods. Application of the system to a human study for the planning and guidance of peripheral bronchoscopy demonstrates the efficacy of the system.

  12. Location-Based Self-Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks in Home Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SeungHo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless sensor networks in home automation (WSNHA is attractive due to their characteristics of self-organization, high sensing fidelity, low cost, and potential for rapid deployment. Although the AODVjr routing algorithm in IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee and other routing algorithms have been designed for wireless sensor networks, not all are suitable for WSNHA. In this paper, we propose a location-based self-adaptive routing algorithm for WSNHA called WSNHA-LBAR. It confines route discovery flooding to a cylindrical request zone, which reduces the routing overhead and decreases broadcast storm problems in the MAC layer. It also automatically adjusts the size of the request zone using a self-adaptive algorithm based on Bayes' theorem. This makes WSNHA-LBAR more adaptable to the changes of the network state and easier to implement. Simulation results show improved network reliability as well as reduced routing overhead.

  13. DRO: domain-based route optimization scheme for nested mobile networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Ming-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The network mobility (NEMO basic support protocol is designed to support NEMO management, and to ensure communication continuity between nodes in mobile networks. However, in nested mobile networks, NEMO suffers from the pinball routing problem, which results in long packet transmission delays. To solve the problem, we propose a domain-based route optimization (DRO scheme that incorporates a domain-based network architecture and ad hoc routing protocols for route optimization. DRO also improves the intra-domain handoff performance, reduces the convergence time during route optimization, and avoids the out-of-sequence packet problem. A detailed performance analysis and simulations were conducted to evaluate the scheme. The results demonstrate that DRO outperforms existing mechanisms in terms of packet transmission delay (i.e., better route-optimization, intra-domain handoff latency, convergence time, and packet tunneling overhead.

  14. Selective Route Based on SNR with Cross-Layer Scheme in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istikmal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed network and throughput formulation models and proposed new method of the routing protocol algorithm with a cross-layer scheme based on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. This method is an enhancement of routing protocol ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV. This proposed scheme uses selective route based on the SNR threshold in the reverse route mechanism. We developed AODV SNR-selective route (AODV SNR-SR for a mechanism better than AODV SNR, that is, the routing protocol that used average or sum of path SNR, and also better than AODV which is hop-count-based. We also used selective reverse route based on SNR mechanism, replacing the earlier method to avoid routing overhead. The simulation results show that AODV SNR-SR outperforms AODV SNR and AODV in terms of throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead. This proposed method is expected to support Device-to-Device (D2D communications that are concerned with the quality of the channel awareness in the development of the future Fifth Generation (5G.

  15. Necessity and complexity of order picking routing optimisation based on pallet loading features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bódis Tamás

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Order picking is the most labour-intensive and costly activity of warehouses. The main challenges of its improvement are the synchronisation of warehouse layout, storage assignment policy, routing, zoning, and batching. Furthermore, the competitiveness of the warehouse depends on how it adapts to the unique customer demands and product parameters and the changes. The operators usually have to manage the picking sequence based on best practices taking into consideration the product stacking factors and minimising the lead time. It is usually necessary to support the operators by making e ective decisions. Researchers of the pallet loading problem, bin packing problem, and order picking optimisation provide a wide horizon of solutions but their results are rarely synchronised.

  16. Policy in France regarding the back-end of the fuel cycle reprocessing/recycling route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, A.; Lenail, B.

    1991-01-01

    The decision taken in early 1970s to base the French power policy on the use of pressurized water reactors also included the strategy for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle based on reprocessing, waste conditioning for the final disposal in the most suitable form in terms of safety and plutonium recycling to fast breeder reactors. Twenty years have elapsed, and substantial development and investment have been made. New evidences have emerged especially regarding breeder development, and the initial choice has been proved to be sound. EDF and COGEMA, the French utility and fuel cycle companies, respectively, are working together in order to take the best advantage of past efforts. The good behavior of MOX fuel in EDF reactors and the excellent start of the UP3 reprocessing plant of La Hague, which was completed and commissioned in August, 1990, made EDF and COGEMA extremely confident for future decision. The French choice made in favor of fuel reprocessing the history of fuel reprocessing in France, the policy concerning the back end of nuclear fuel cycle of EDF, and the present consideration and circumstances on this matter are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Trust-Based Route Selection in Dynamic Source Routin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Connell, Paul O

    2006-01-01

    in the mobile wireless network. However, blindly trusting all other nodes to respect the routing protocol exposes the local node to a wide variety of vulnerabilities. Traditional security mechanisms rely on either the authenticated identity of the requesting principal or some form of credentials that authorise...

  18. Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks based on Ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... improved Ant System and their application in WSN routing process. The simulation results show ... and Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are inappropriate for ... Dorigo in 1992 in his PhD thesis, the first algorithm was aiming ...

  19. Deflection routing scheme for GMPLS-based OBS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eid, Arafat; Mahmood, Waqar; Alomar, Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Integrating the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) framework into an Optical Burst Switching (OBS) Control Plane is a promising solution to alleviating most of OBS performance and design issues. However, implementing the already proposed OBS deflection routing schemes is not appli...

  20. Secure Trust Based Key Management Routing Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugminder Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security is always a major concern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Several trust based routing protocols are designed that play an important role in enhancing the performance of a wireless network. However they still have some disadvantages like limited energy resources, susceptibility to physical capture, and little protection against various attacks due to insecure wireless communication channels. This paper presents a secure trust based key management (STKF routing framework that establishes a secure trustworthy route depending upon the present and past node to node interactions. This route is then updated by isolating the malicious or compromised nodes from the route, if any, and a dedicated link is created between every pair of nodes in the selected route with the help of “q” composite random key predistribution scheme (RKPS to ensure data delivery from source to destination. The performance of trust aware secure routing framework (TSRF is compared with the proposed routing scheme. The results indicate that STKF provides an effective mechanism for finding out a secure route with better trustworthiness than TSRF which avoids the data dropping, thereby increasing the data delivery ratio. Also the distance required to reach the destination in the proposed protocol is less hence effectively utilizing the resources.

  1. An Ultra-Low-Latency Geo-Routing Scheme for Team-Based Unmanned Vehicular Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Results and lessons learned from the implementation of a novel ultra low-latency geo-routing scheme are presented in this paper. The geo-routing scheme is intended for team-based mobile systems whereby a cluster of unmanned autonomous vehicles

  2. Routing-based Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maftei, Elena; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate on-chip all the basic functsions for biochemical analysis. The "digital" microfluidic biochips are manipulating liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets on a two-dimensional array...... of electrodes. Basic microfluidic operations, such as mixing and dilution, are performed on the array, by routing the corresponding droplets on a series of electrodes. So far, researchers have assumed that these operations are executed on rectangular virtual devices, formed by grouping several adjacent...

  3. Energy Efficiency Performance Improvements for Ant-Based Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Murtala Zungeru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem for event gathering in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is the restricted communication range for each node. Due to the restricted communication range and high network density, event forwarding in WSNs is very challenging and requires multihop data forwarding. Currently, the energy-efficient ant based routing (EEABR algorithm, based on the ant colony optimization (ACO metaheuristic, is one of the state-of-the-art energy-aware routing protocols. In this paper, we propose three improvements to the EEABR algorithm to further improve its energy efficiency. The improvements to the original EEABR are based on the following: (1 a new scheme to intelligently initialize the routing tables giving priority to neighboring nodes that simultaneously could be the destination, (2 intelligent update of routing tables in case of a node or link failure, and (3 reducing the flooding ability of ants for congestion control. The energy efficiency improvements are significant particularly for dynamic routing environments. Experimental results using the RMASE simulation environment show that the proposed method increases the energy efficiency by up to 9% and 64% in converge-cast and target-tracking scenarios, respectively, over the original EEABR without incurring a significant increase in complexity. The method is also compared and found to also outperform other swarm-based routing protocols such as sensor-driven and cost-aware ant routing (SC and Beesensor.

  4. ANALYSIS OF FREE ROUTE AIRSPACE AND PERFORMANCE BASED NAVIGATION IMPLEMENTATION IN THE EUROPEAN AIR NAVIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Pavlova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available European Air Traffic Management system requires continuous improvements as air traffic is increasingday by day. For this purpose it was developed by international organizations Free Route Airspace and PerformanceBased Navigation concepts that allow to offer a required level of safety, capacity, environmental performance alongwith cost-effectiveness. The aim of the article is to provide detailed analysis of Free Route Airspace and PerformanceBased Navigation implementation status within European region including Ukrainian air navigation system.

  5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DSR ROUTING PROTOCOL UNDER ENERGY BASED SELFISH ATTACK IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.P.Sundararajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the cooperation of all participating nodes to provide the fundamental operations such as routing and data forwarding. However, due to the open structure and scarcely available battery-based energy, node misbehaviors may exist.[1]. One such routing misbehavior is that some selfish nodes will participate in the route discovery and maintenance processes but refuse to forward data packets. This paper pointed out Energy based selfish nodes (EBSN where these selfish nodes tend to use the network but do not cooperate, saving battery life for their own communications [2],[3]. We present a simulation study of the effects of Energy based selfish nodes (EBSN on DSR routing protocol and its impact over network performance in terms of throughput and delay of a mobile ad hoc network where a defined percentage of nodes were misbehaving.

  6. Model-Checking Driven Design of QoS-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable routing protocols with Quality of Service (QoS support determine the mission-critical application efficiency in WSNs. This paper proposes a model-checking design driven framework for designing the QoS-based routing protocols of WSNs, which involves the light-weight design process, the timed automata model, and the alternative QoS verification properties. The accurate feedback of continually model checking in the iterative design process effectively stimulates the parameter tuning of the protocols. We demonstrate the straightforward and modular characteristics of the proposed framework in designing a prototype QoS-based routing protocol. The prototype study shows that the model-checking design framework may complement other design methods and ensure the QoS implementation of the QoS-based routing protocol design for WSNs.

  7. Collaborative en-route and slot allocation algorithm based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shangwen; Guo, Baohua; Xiao, Xuefei; Gao, Haichao

    2018-01-01

    To allocate the en-routes and slots to the flights with collaborative decision making, a collaborative en-route and slot allocation algorithm based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was proposed. Evaluation indexes include flight delay costs, delay time and the number of turning points. Analytic hierarchy process is applied to determining index weights. Remark set for current two flights not yet obtained the en-route and slot in flight schedule is established. Then, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is performed, and the en-route and slot for the current two flights are determined. Continue selecting the flight not yet obtained an en-route and a slot in flight schedule. Perform fuzzy comprehensive evaluation until all flights have obtained the en-routes and slots. MatlabR2007b was applied to numerical test based on the simulated data of a civil en-route. Test results show that, compared with the traditional strategy of first come first service, the algorithm gains better effect. The effectiveness of the algorithm was verified.

  8. Routing in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: A Leader-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Unai; Amozarrain, Ugaitz; Gómez-Calzado, Carlos; Lafuente, Alberto

    2017-07-07

    This paper presents a leader-based approach to routing in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSN). Using local information from neighbour nodes, a leader election mechanism maintains a spanning tree in order to provide the necessary adaptations for efficient routing upon the connectivity changes resulting from the mobility of sensors or sink nodes. We present two protocols following the leader election approach, which have been implemented using Castalia and OMNeT++. The protocols have been evaluated, besides other reference MWSN routing protocols, to analyse the impact of network size and node velocity on performance, which has demonstrated the validity of our approach.

  9. P-bRS: A Physarum-Based Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is an extremely challenging issue due to the features of WSNs. Inspired by the large and single-celled amoeboid organism, slime mold Physarum polycephalum, we establish a novel selecting next hop model (SNH. Based on this model, we present a novel Physarum-based routing scheme (P-bRS for WSNs to balance routing efficiency and energy equilibrium. In P-bRS, a sensor node can choose the proper next hop by using SNH which comprehensively considers the distance, energy residue, and location of the next hop. The simulation results show how P-bRS can achieve the effective trade-off between routing efficiency and energy equilibrium compared to two famous algorithms.

  10. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network.

  11. Prospect theory based estimation of drivers' risk attitudes in route choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lizhen; Zhong, Shiquan; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Ning

    2014-12-01

    This paper applied prospect theory (PT) to describe drivers' route choice behavior under Variable Message Sign (VMS), which presented visual traffic information to assist them to make route choice decisions. A quite rich empirical data from questionnaire and field spot was used to estimate parameters of PT. In order to make the parameters more realistic with drivers' attitudes, they were classified into different types by significant factors influencing their behaviors. Based on the travel time distribution of alternative routes and route choice results from questionnaire, the parameterized value function of each category was figured out, which represented drivers' risk attitudes and choice characteristics. The empirical verification showed that the estimates were acceptable and effective. The result showed drivers' risk attitudes and route choice characteristics could be captured by PT under real-time information shown on VMS. For practical application, once drivers' route choice characteristics and parameters were identified, their route choice behavior under different road conditions could be predicted accurately, which was the basis of traffic guidance measures formulation and implementation for targeted traffic management. Moreover, the heterogeneous risk attitudes among drivers should be considered when releasing traffic information and regulating traffic flow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design of Logistics Route Planning for Printing Enterprises Based on Baidu Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Zhong-Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As traditional printing industry is facing fierce competition in the market and logistics becomes a new sources of growth, the traditional printing enterprises want to build and improve their logistics system. So in this paper, the author has designed the logistics planning system based on the Baidu map development kit. It has the function of route planning and location tracking. This system meet the printing enterprise logistics route planning and tracking demand.

  13. The roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Van Poeck, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Education Research has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from...... the past two decades, for three reasons. First, to provide readers with a series of snapshots into the genealogy of ESE policy research in this field. Second, to encourage renewed attention to previously published work. And third, to offer commentary on the evolution of research trends, approaches...

  14. Microneedle-based drug delivery systems for transdermal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Rossetti, Fabia Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Transdermal delivery offers an attractive, noninvasive administration route but it is limited by the skin's barrier to penetration. Minimally invasive techniques, such as the use of microneedles (MNs), bypass the stratum corneum (SC) barrier to permit the drug's direct access to the viable epidermis. These novel micro devices have been developed to puncture the skin for the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules, including peptides, DNA and other molecules, that would otherwise have difficulty passing the outermost layer of the skin, the SC. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, MNs have been fabricated with a range of sizes, shapes and materials. MNs have been shown to be robust enough to penetrate the skin and dramatically increase the skin permeability of several drugs. Moreover, MNs have reduced needle insertion pain and tissue trauma and provided controlled delivery across the skin. This review focuses on the current state of the art in the transdermal delivery of drugs using various types of MNs and developments in the field of microscale devices, as well as examples of their uses and clinical safety.

  15. The Roots and Routes of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Lysgaard, Jonas A.

    2016-01-01

    "Environmental Education Research" has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from the past two decades, for three reasons.…

  16. Role of Distance-Based Routing in Traffic Dynamics on Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2013-06-01

    Despite of intensive investigations on transportation dynamics taking place on complex networks with fixed structures, a deep understanding of networks consisting of mobile nodes is challenging yet, especially the lacking of insight into the effects of routing strategies on transmission efficiency. We introduce a distance-based routing strategy for networks of mobile agents toward enhancing the network throughput and the transmission efficiency. We study the transportation capacity and delivering time of data packets associated with mobility and communication ability. Interestingly, we find that the transportation capacity is optimized at moderate moving speed, which is quite different from random routing strategy. In addition, both continuous and discontinuous transitions from free flow to congestions are observed. Degree distributions are explored in order to explain the enhancement of network throughput and other observations. Our work is valuable toward understanding complex transportation dynamics and designing effective routing protocols.

  17. An Opportunistic Routing for Data Forwarding Based on Vehicle Mobility Association in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have emerged as a new powerful technology for data transmission between vehicles. Efficient data transmission accompanied with low data delay plays an important role in selecting the ideal data forwarding path in VANETs. This paper proposes a new opportunity routing protocol for data forwarding based on vehicle mobility association (OVMA. With assistance from the vehicle mobility association, data can be forwarded without passing through many extra intermediate nodes. Besides, each vehicle carries the only replica information to record its associated vehicle information, so the routing decision can adapt to the vehicle densities. Simulation results show that the OVMA protocol can extend the network lifetime, improve the performance of data delivery ratio, and reduce the data delay and routing overhead when compared to the other well-known routing protocols.

  18. A LOOP-BASED APPROACH IN CLUSTERING AND ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yanping; Wang Xin; Xue Xiangyang; C.K. Toh

    2006-01-01

    Although clustering is a convenient framework to enable traffic control and service support in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), it is seldom adopted in practice due to the additional traffic overhead it leads to for the resource limited ad hoc network. In order to address this problem, we proposed a loop-based approach to combine clustering and routing. By employing loop topologies, topology information is disseminated with a loop instead of a single node, which provides better robustness, and the nature of a loop that there are two paths between each pair of nodes within a loop suggests smart route recovery strategy. Our approach is composed of setup procedure, regular procedure and recovery procedure to achieve clustering, routing and emergent route recovering.

  19. A Comprehensive Survey on Hierarchical-Based Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Review, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs. Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

  20. Particle Swarm Optimization and harmony search based clustering and routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Anand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN has the disadvantage of limited and non-rechargeable energy resource in WSN creates a challenge and led to development of various clustering and routing algorithms. The paper proposes an approach for improving network lifetime by using Particle swarm optimization based clustering and Harmony Search based routing in WSN. So in this paper, global optimal cluster head are selected and Gateway nodes are introduced to decrease the energy consumption of the CH while sending aggregated data to the Base station (BS. Next, the harmony search algorithm based Local Search strategy finds best routing path for gateway nodes to the Base Station. Finally, the proposed algorithm is presented.

  1. A Simulation-Based Dynamic Stochastic Route Choice Model for Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a dynamic stochastic route choice model for evacuation to simulate the propagation process of traffic flow and estimate the stochastic route choice under evacuation situations. The model contains a lane-group-based cell transmission model (CTM which sets different traffic capacities for links with different turning movements to flow out in an evacuation situation, an actual impedance model which is to obtain the impedance of each route in time units at each time interval and a stochastic route choice model according to the probit-based stochastic user equilibrium. In this model, vehicles loading at each origin at each time interval are assumed to choose an evacuation route under determinate road network, signal design, and OD demand. As a case study, the proposed model is validated on the network nearby Nanjing Olympic Center after the opening ceremony of the 10th National Games of the People's Republic of China. The traffic volumes and clearing time at five exit points of the evacuation zone are calculated by the model to compare with survey data. The results show that this model can appropriately simulate the dynamic route choice and evolution process of the traffic flow on the network in an evacuation situation.

  2. Integer Optimization Model for a Logistic System based on Location-Routing Considering Distance and Chosen Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyasari, Joni; Mawengkang, Herman; Efendi, Syahril

    2018-02-01

    In a distribution network it is important to decide the locations of facilities that impacts not only the profitability of an organization but the ability to serve customers.Generally the location-routing problem is to minimize the overall cost by simultaneously selecting a subset of candidate facilities and constructing a set of delivery routes that satisfy some restrictions. In this paper we impose restriction on the route that should be passed for delivery. We use integer programming model to describe the problem. A feasible neighbourhood search is proposed to solve the result model.

  3. Remotely Sensed Based Lake/Reservoir Routing in Congo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoufi, R.; Beighley, E.; Lee, H.

    2017-12-01

    Lake and reservoir dynamics can influence local to regional water cycles but are often not well represented in hydrologic models. One challenge that limits their inclusion in models is the need for detailed storage-discharge behavior that can be further complicated in reservoirs where specific operation rules are employed. Here, the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model is combined with a remotely sensed based Reservoir Routing (RR) method and applied to the Congo River Basin. Given that topographic data are often continuous over the entire terrestrial surface (i.e., does not differentiate between land and open water), the HRR-RR model integrates topographic derived river networks and catchment boundaries (e.g., HydroSHEDs) with water boundary extents (e.g., Global Lakes and Wetlands Database) to develop the computational framework. The catchments bordering lakes and reservoirs are partitioned into water and land portions, where representative flowpath characteristics are determined and vertical water balance and lateral routings is performed separately on each partition based on applicable process models (e.g., open water evaporation vs. evapotranspiration). To enable reservoir routing, remotely sensed water surface elevations and extents are combined to determine the storage change time series. Based on the available time series, representative storage change patterns are determined. Lake/reservoir routing is performed by combining inflows from the HRR-RR model and the representative storage change patterns to determine outflows. In this study, a suite of storage change patterns derived from remotely sensed measurements are determined representative patterns for wet, dry and average conditions. The HRR-RR model dynamically selects and uses the optimal storage change pattern for the routing process based on these hydrologic conditions. The HRR-RR model results are presented to highlight the importance of lake attenuation/routing in the Congo Basin.

  4. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking

  5. ABORt: Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for High Data Rate Multichannel WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamadoun Tall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ease of deployment and the auto-configuration capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs make them very attractive in different domains like environmental, home automation or heath care applications. The use of multichannel communications in WSNs helps to improve the overall performance of the network. However, in heavy traffic scenarios, routing protocols should be adapted to allow load balancing and to avoid losing data packets due to congestion and queue overflow. In this paper, we present an Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing (ABORt protocol designed for high data rate multichannel WSNs. It is a low overhead protocol that does not rely on synchronization for control traffic exchange during the operational phase of the network. ABORt is an opportunistic protocol that relies on link layer acknowledgements to disseminate routing metrics, which helps to reduce overhead. The performance of ABORt is evaluated using the Cooja simulator and the obtained results show that ABORt has a high packet delivery ratio with reduced packet end-to-end delay compared to two single channel routing protocols and two multichannel routing protocols that use number of hops and expected transmission count as routing metrics.

  6. U-Access: a web-based system for routing pedestrians of differing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Adam D.; Miller, Harvey J.

    2006-09-01

    For most people, traveling through urban and built environments is straightforward. However, for people with physical disabilities, even a short trip can be difficult and perhaps impossible. This paper provides the design and implementation of a web-based system for the routing and prescriptive analysis of pedestrians with different physical abilities within built environments. U-Access, as a routing tool, provides pedestrians with the shortest feasible route with respect to one of three differing ability levels, namely, peripatetic (unaided mobility), aided mobility (mobility with the help of a cane, walker or crutches) and wheelchair users. U-Access is also an analytical tool that can help identify obstacles in built environments that create routing discrepancies among pedestrians with different physical abilities. This paper discusses the system design, including database, algorithm and interface specifications, and technologies for efficiently delivering results through the World Wide Web (WWW). This paper also provides an illustrative example of a routing problem and an analytical evaluation of the existing infrastructure which identifies the obstacles that pose the greatest discrepancies between physical ability levels. U-Access was evaluated by wheelchair users and route experts from the Center for Disability Services at The University of Utah, USA.

  7. Adaptive Reliable Routing Based on Cluster Hierarchy for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a multimedia information acquisition and processing method, wireless multimedia sensor network(WMSN has great application potential in military and civilian areas. Compared with traditional wireless sensor network, the routing design of WMSN should obtain more attention on the quality of transmission. This paper proposes an adaptive reliable routing based on clustering hierarchy named ARCH, which includes energy prediction and power allocation mechanism. To obtain a better performance, the cluster structure is formed based on cellular topology. The introduced prediction mechanism makes the sensor nodes predict the remaining energy of other nodes, which dramatically reduces the overall information needed for energy balancing. ARCH can dynamically balance the energy consumption of nodes based on the predicted results provided by power allocation. The simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed ARCH routing.

  8. A Subpath-based Logit Model to Capture the Correlation of Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Lai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A subpath-based methodology is proposed to capture the travellers’ route choice behaviours and their perceptual correlation of routes, because the original link-based style may not be suitable in application: (1 travellers do not process road network information and construct the chosen route by a link-by-link style; (2 observations from questionnaires and GPS data, however, are not always link-specific. Subpaths are defined as important portions of the route, such as major roads and landmarks. The cross-nested Logit (CNL structure is used for its tractable closed-form and its capability to explicitly capture the routes correlation. Nests represent subpaths other than links so that the number of nests is significantly reduced. Moreover, the proposed method simplifies the original link-based CNL model; therefore, it alleviates the estimation and computation difficulties. The estimation and forecast validation with real data are presented, and the results suggest that the new method is practical.

  9. Energy Efficient Position-Based Three Dimensional Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongdae Kim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on an energy efficient position-based three dimensional (3D routing algorithm using distance information, which affects transmission power consumption between nodes as a metric. In wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency is one of the primary objectives of research. In addition, recent interest in sensor networks is extended to the need to understand how to design networks in a 3D space. Generally, most wireless sensor networks are based on two dimensional (2D designs. However, in reality, such networks operate in a 3D space. Since 2D designs are simpler and easier to implement than 3D designs for routing algorithms in wireless sensor networks, the 2D assumption is somewhat justified and usually does not lead to major inaccuracies. However, in some applications such as an airborne to terrestrial sensor networks or sensor networks, which are deployed in mountains, taking 3D designs into consideration is reasonable. In this paper, we propose the Minimum Sum of Square distance (MSoS algorithm as an energy efficient position-based three dimensional routing algorithm. In addition, we evaluate and compare the performance of the proposed routing algorithm with other algorithms through simulation. Finally, the results of the simulation show that the proposed routing algorithm is more energy efficient than other algorithms in a 3D space.

  10. Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Based on Hybrid Route Planning and Location Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Kari Rye; Grønbæk, Kaj; Scharling, Tejs

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces methods and services called PerPosNav for development of custom indoor pedestrian navigation applications to be deployed on a variety of platforms. PerPosNav combines symbolic and geometry based modeling of buildings, and in turn combines graph-based and geometric route...

  11. Advanced flooding-based routing protocols for underwater sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, E.; Dol, H.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding-based protocols are a reliable solution to deliver packets in underwater sensor networks. However, these protocols potentially involve all the nodes in the forwarding process. Thus, the performance and energy efficiency are not optimal. In this work, we propose some advances of a flooding-based protocol with the goal to improve the performance and the energy efficiency. The first idea considers the node position information in order to reduce the number of relays that may apply flood...

  12. Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Hasan; Jung, Low Tang

    2013-01-01

    Today no one can deny the need for Smart Grid and it is being considered as of utmost importance to upgrade outdated electric infrastructure to cope with the ever increasing electric load demand. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered a promising candidate for internetworking of smart meters with the gateway using mesh topology. This paper investigates the performance of AODV routing protocol for WSN based smart metering deployment. Three case studies are presented to analyze its performance based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

  13. Optimal Re-Routes and Ground Delays Using a Route-Based Aggregate Air Traffic Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Lluis

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is very complex and with a high level of uncertainty. For this reason, developing an automated conflict resolution tool at NAS level is presented as a big challenge. One way to address the problem is by using aggregate models, which can significantly reduce its dimension and complexity. Significant effort has been made to develop an air traffic aggregate model capable to effectively state and solve the problem. In this study, a Route-Based Aggregate Model is developed and tested. It consists in a modification of several existing models and overcomes some issues identified in previous aggregate models. It allows the implementation of Traffic Flow Management conventional controls, such as ground delay and rerouting. These control strategies can be used to avoid congestion conflicts based on sectors and airports capacity as well as regions affected by convective weather. The optimization problem is posed as a Linear Programming routine, which guarantees an optimal solution that minimizes the total accumulated delay required to avoid such capacity conflicts. The solutions can be directly translated into specific instructions at aircraft level, via modification of the times of departure and flight plans. The model is integrated with Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), a state of the art air traffic simulation tool, and uses its files as both input and output. This allows simulating in FACET the solution obtained from the aggregate domain. The approach is validated by applying it in three realistic scenarios at different scales. Results show that, for time horizons larger than 2 hours, the accuracy of the aggregate model is similar to other simulation tools. Also, the modified flight plans, the product of the disaggregated solution, reduce the number of capacity conflicts in the FACET simulation. Future research will study the robustness of these solutions and determine the most appropriate scenarios where to

  14. In-route skyline querying for location-based services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuegang, Huang; Jensen, Kristian S.

    2005-01-01

    With the emergence of an infrastructure for location-aware mobile services, the processing of advanced, location-based queries that are expected to underlie such services is gaining in relevance, While much work has assumed that users move in Euclidean space, this paper assumes that movement...... their efficient computation. The queries take into account several spatial preferences. and they intuitively return a set of most interesting results for each result returned by the corresponding non-skyline queries. The paper also covers a performance study of the proposed techniques based on real point...

  15. Prediction based Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol for Vehicular Self-organizing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Fan, Quanrun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Wanjin

    2018-03-01

    PGPSR (Prediction based Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) is based on and extended the GPSR protocol to adapt to the high speed mobility of the vehicle auto organization network (VANET) and the changes in the network topology. GPSR is used in the VANET network environment, the network loss rate and throughput are not ideal, even cannot work. Aiming at the problems of the GPSR, the proposed PGPSR routing protocol, it redefines the hello and query packet structure, in the structure of the new node speed and direction information, which received the next update before you can take advantage of its speed and direction to predict the position of node and new network topology, select the right the next hop routing and path. Secondly, the update of the outdated node information of the neighbor’s table is deleted in time. The simulation experiment shows the performance of PGPSR is better than that of GPSR.

  16. DESIGNING DAILY PATROL ROUTES FOR POLICING BASED ON ANT COLONY ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problem of planning police patrol routes to regularly cover street segments of high crime density (hotspots with limited police forces. A good patrolling strategy is required to minimise the average time lag between two consecutive visits to hotspots, as well as coordinating multiple patrollers and imparting unpredictability in patrol routes. Previous studies have designed different police patrol strategies for routing police patrol, but these strategies have difficulty in generalising to real patrolling and meeting various requirements. In this research we develop a new police patrolling strategy based on Bayesian method and ant colony algorithm. In this strategy, virtual marker (pheromone is laid to mark the visiting history of each crime hotspot, and patrollers continuously decide which hotspot to patrol next based on pheromone level and other variables. Simulation results using real data testifies the effective, scalable, unpredictable and extensible nature of this strategy.

  17. AIB-OR: improving onion routing circuit construction using anonymous identity-based cryptosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet.

  18. ARBR: Adaptive reinforcement-based routing for DTN

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Pin-Han Ho; Naik, K.; Shihada, Basem

    2010-01-01

    other and make a forwarding decision for the stored messages based on a cost function at each contact with another node. The proposed protocol is characterized by not only considering the contact time statistics under a novel contact model, but also

  19. Static Three-Dimensional Fuzzy Routing Based on the Receiving Probability in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Khanmohammadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is a collection of low-cost, low-power and large-scale wireless sensor nodes. Routing protocols are an important topic in WSN. Every sensor node should use a proper mechanism to transmit the generated packets to its destination, usually a base station. In previous works, routing protocols use the global information of the network that causes the redundant packets to be increased. Moreover, it leads to an increase in the network traffic, to a decrease in the delivery ratio of data packets, and to a reduction in network life. In this paper, we propose a new inferential routing protocol called SFRRP (Static Three-Dimensional Fuzzy Routing based on the Receiving Probability. The proposed protocol solves the above mentioned problems considerably. The data packets are transmitted by hop-to-hop delivery to the base station. It uses a fuzzy procedure to transmit the sensed data or the buffered data packets to one of the neighbors called selected node. In the proposed fuzzy system, the distance and number of neighbors are input variables, while the receiving probability is the output variable. SFRRP just uses the local neighborhood information to forward the packets and is not needed by any redundant packet for route discovery. The proposed protocol has some advantages such as a high delivery ratio, less delay time, high network life, and less network traffic. The performance of the proposed protocol surpasses the performance of the Flooding routing protocol in terms of delivery ratio, delay time and network lifetime.

  20. A study of routing algorithms for SCI-Based multistage networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bin; Kristiansen, E.; Skaali, B.; Bogaerts, A.; )

    1994-03-01

    The report deals with a particular class of multistage Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) network systems and two important routing algorithms, namely self-routing and table-look up routing. The effect of routing delay on system performance is investigated by simulations. Adaptive routing and deadlock-free routing are studied. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  1. Multipath Activity Based Routing Protocol for Mobile ‎Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Omar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio networks improve spectrum utilization by ‎sharing licensed spectrum with cognitive radio devices. In ‎cognitive radio ad hoc networks the routing protocol is one ‎of the most challenging tasks due to the changes in ‎frequency spectrum and the interrupted connectivity ‎caused by the primary user activity. In this paper, a multi‎path activity based routing protocol for cognitive radio ‎network (MACNRP is proposed. The protocol utilizes ‎channel availability and creates multiple node-disjoint ‎routes between the source and destination nodes. The ‎proposed protocol is compared with D2CARP and FTCRP ‎protocols. The performance evaluation is conducted ‎through mathematical analysis and using OPNET ‎simulation. The performance of the proposed protocol ‎achieves an increase in network throughput; besides it ‎decreases the probability of route failure due to node ‎mobility and primary user activity. We have found that the ‎MACNRP scheme results in 50% to 75% reduction in ‎blocking probability and 33% to 78% improvement in ‎network throughput, with a reasonable additional routing ‎overhead and average packet delay. Due to the successful ‎reduction of collision between primary users and ‎cognitive users, the MACNRP scheme results in decreasing ‎the path failure rate by 50% to 87%.‎

  2. A Dynamic Optimization Method of Indoor Fire Evacuation Route Based on Real-time Situation Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yulin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available How to provide safe and effective evacuation routes is an important safeguard to correctly guide evacuation and reduce the casualties during the fire situation rapidly evolving in complex indoor environment. The traditional static path finding method is difficult to adjust the path adaptively according to the changing fire situation, which lead to the evacuation decision-making blindness and hysteresis. This paper proposes a dynamic method which can dynamically optimize the indoor evacuation routes based on the real-time situation awareness. According to the real-time perception of fire situation parameters and the changing indoor environment information, the evacuation route is optimized dynamically. The integrated representation of multisource indoor fire monitoring sensor observations oriented fire emergency evacuation is presented at first, real-time fire threat situation information inside building is then extracted from the observation data of multi-source sensors, which is used to constrain the dynamical optimization of the topology of the evacuation route. Finally, the simulation experiments prove that this method can improve the accuracy and efficiency of indoor evacuation routing.

  3. WEAMR — A Weighted Energy Aware Multipath Reliable Routing Mechanism for Hotline-Based WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyung Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR, a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which utilizes hotline-assisted routing to meet such requirements for mission critical applications. The protocol reduces the number of average hops from source to destination and provides unmatched reliability as compared to well known reactive ad hoc protocols i.e., AODV and AOMDV. Our protocol makes efficient use of network paths based on weighted cost calculation and intelligently selects the best possible paths for data transmissions. The path cost calculation considers end to end number of hops, latency and minimum energy node value in the path. In case of path failure path recalculation is done efficiently with minimum latency and control packets overhead. Our evaluation shows that our proposal provides better end-to-end delivery with less routing overhead and higher packet delivery success ratio compared to AODV and AOMDV. The use of multipath also increases overall life time of WSN network using optimum energy available paths between sender and receiver in WDNs.

  4. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  5. SACFIR: SDN-Based Application-Aware Centralized Adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring Routing Protocol for WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Hu, Xiaopeng; Wang, Fan

    2017-12-13

    Smart reconfiguration of a dynamic networking environment is offered by the central control of Software-Defined Networking (SDN). Centralized SDN-based management architectures are capable of retrieving global topology intelligence and decoupling the forwarding plane from the control plane. Routing protocols developed for conventional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) utilize limited iterative reconfiguration methods to optimize environmental reporting. However, the challenging networking scenarios of WSNs involve a performance overhead due to constant periodic iterative reconfigurations. In this paper, we propose the SDN-based Application-aware Centralized adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring (SACFIR) routing protocol with the centralized SDN iterative solver controller to maintain the load-balancing between flow reconfigurations and flow allocation cost. The proposed SACFIR's routing protocol offers a unique iterative path-selection algorithm, which initially computes suitable clustering based on residual resources at the control layer and then implements application-aware threshold-based multi-hop report transmissions on the forwarding plane. The operation of the SACFIR algorithm is centrally supervised by the SDN controller residing at the Base Station (BS). This paper extends SACFIR to SDN-based Application-aware Main-value Centralized adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring (SAMCFIR) to establish both proactive and reactive reporting. The SAMCFIR transmission phase enables sensor nodes to trigger direct transmissions for main-value reports, while in the case of SACFIR, all reports follow computed routes. Our SDN-enabled proposed models adjust the reconfiguration period according to the traffic burden on sensor nodes, which results in heterogeneity awareness, load-balancing and application-specific reconfigurations of WSNs. Extensive experimental simulation-based results show that SACFIR and SAMCFIR yield the maximum scalability, network lifetime and stability

  6. SACFIR: SDN-Based Application-Aware Centralized Adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring Routing Protocol for WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart reconfiguration of a dynamic networking environment is offered by the central control of Software-Defined Networking (SDN. Centralized SDN-based management architectures are capable of retrieving global topology intelligence and decoupling the forwarding plane from the control plane. Routing protocols developed for conventional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs utilize limited iterative reconfiguration methods to optimize environmental reporting. However, the challenging networking scenarios of WSNs involve a performance overhead due to constant periodic iterative reconfigurations. In this paper, we propose the SDN-based Application-aware Centralized adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring (SACFIR routing protocol with the centralized SDN iterative solver controller to maintain the load-balancing between flow reconfigurations and flow allocation cost. The proposed SACFIR’s routing protocol offers a unique iterative path-selection algorithm, which initially computes suitable clustering based on residual resources at the control layer and then implements application-aware threshold-based multi-hop report transmissions on the forwarding plane. The operation of the SACFIR algorithm is centrally supervised by the SDN controller residing at the Base Station (BS. This paper extends SACFIR to SDN-based Application-aware Main-value Centralized adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring (SAMCFIR to establish both proactive and reactive reporting. The SAMCFIR transmission phase enables sensor nodes to trigger direct transmissions for main-value reports, while in the case of SACFIR, all reports follow computed routes. Our SDN-enabled proposed models adjust the reconfiguration period according to the traffic burden on sensor nodes, which results in heterogeneity awareness, load-balancing and application-specific reconfigurations of WSNs. Extensive experimental simulation-based results show that SACFIR and SAMCFIR yield the maximum scalability, network lifetime

  7. An Ultra-Low-Latency Geo-Routing Scheme for Team-Based Unmanned Vehicular Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2016-02-26

    Results and lessons learned from the implementation of a novel ultra low-latency geo-routing scheme are presented in this paper. The geo-routing scheme is intended for team-based mobile systems whereby a cluster of unmanned autonomous vehicles are deployed to accomplish a critical mission under human supervision. The contention-free nature of the developed scheme lends itself to jointly achieve lower latency and higher throughput. Implementation challenges are presented and corresponding resolutions are discussed herewith. © 2015 IEEE.

  8. GIS-BASED ROUTE FINDING USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION AND URBAN TRAFFIC DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davoodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR, Floating Car Data (FCD, VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  9. Gis-Based Route Finding Using ANT Colony Optimization and Urban Traffic Data from Different Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, M.; Mesgari, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD), Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR), Floating Car Data (FCD), VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network) is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  10. Novel routes to liquid-based self-healing polymer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the current state-of-the-art and the progressing advancements in the field of self-healing materials, this thesis addresses several novel routes to advance the concept of liquid-based self-healing polymer systems. This thesis presents the concept and characterisation of a one-component

  11. Effective Social Relationship Measurement and Cluster Based Routing in Mobile Opportunistic Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Zhao, Nan; Li, Wenjia

    2017-01-01

    In mobile opportunistic networks, the social relationship among nodes has an important impact on data transmission efficiency. Motivated by the strong share ability of “circles of friends” in communication networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Wechat and so on, we take a real-life example to show that social relationships among nodes consist of explicit and implicit parts. The explicit part comes from direct contact among nodes, and the implicit part can be measured through the “circles of friends”. We present the definitions of explicit and implicit social relationships between two nodes, adaptive weights of explicit and implicit parts are given according to the contact feature of nodes, and the distributed mechanism is designed to construct the “circles of friends” of nodes, which is used for the calculation of the implicit part of social relationship between nodes. Based on effective measurement of social relationships, we propose a social-based clustering and routing scheme, in which each node selects the nodes with close social relationships to form a local cluster, and the self-control method is used to keep all cluster members always having close relationships with each other. A cluster-based message forwarding mechanism is designed for opportunistic routing, in which each node only forwards the copy of the message to nodes with the destination node as a member of the local cluster. Simulation results show that the proposed social-based clustering and routing outperforms the other classic routing algorithms. PMID:28498309

  12. Effective Social Relationship Measurement and Cluster Based Routing in Mobile Opportunistic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Zhao, Nan; Li, Wenjia

    2017-05-12

    In mobile opportunistic networks, the social relationship among nodes has an important impact on data transmission efficiency. Motivated by the strong share ability of "circles of friends" in communication networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Wechat and so on, we take a real-life example to show that social relationships among nodes consist of explicit and implicit parts. The explicit part comes from direct contact among nodes, and the implicit part can be measured through the "circles of friends". We present the definitions of explicit and implicit social relationships between two nodes, adaptive weights of explicit and implicit parts are given according to the contact feature of nodes, and the distributed mechanism is designed to construct the "circles of friends" of nodes, which is used for the calculation of the implicit part of social relationship between nodes. Based on effective measurement of social relationships, we propose a social-based clustering and routing scheme, in which each node selects the nodes with close social relationships to form a local cluster, and the self-control method is used to keep all cluster members always having close relationships with each other. A cluster-based message forwarding mechanism is designed for opportunistic routing, in which each node only forwards the copy of the message to nodes with the destination node as a member of the local cluster. Simulation results show that the proposed social-based clustering and routing outperforms the other classic routing algorithms.

  13. Management of Energy Consumption on Cluster Based Routing Protocol for MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Seno, Seyed-Amin; Wan, Tat-Chee; Budiarto, Rahmat; Yamada, Masashi

    The usage of light-weight mobile devices is increasing rapidly, leading to demand for more telecommunication services. Consequently, mobile ad hoc networks and their applications have become feasible with the proliferation of light-weight mobile devices. Many protocols have been developed to handle service discovery and routing in ad hoc networks. However, the majority of them did not consider one critical aspect of this type of network, which is the limited of available energy in each node. Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) is a robust/scalable routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and superior to existing protocols such as Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) in terms of throughput and overhead. Therefore, based on this strength, methods to increase the efficiency of energy usage are incorporated into CBRP in this work. In order to increase the stability (in term of life-time) of the network and to decrease the energy consumption of inter-cluster gateway nodes, an Enhanced Gateway Cluster Based Routing Protocol (EGCBRP) is proposed. Three methods have been introduced by EGCBRP as enhancements to the CBRP: improving the election of cluster Heads (CHs) in CBRP which is based on the maximum available energy level, implementing load balancing for inter-cluster traffic using multiple gateways, and implementing sleep state for gateway nodes to further save the energy. Furthermore, we propose an Energy Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol (EECBRP) which extends the EGCBRP sleep state concept into all idle member nodes, excluding the active nodes in all clusters. The experiment results show that the EGCBRP decreases the overall energy consumption of the gateway nodes up to 10% and the EECBRP reduces the energy consumption of the member nodes up to 60%, both of which in turn contribute to stabilizing the network.

  14. Towards Internet QoS provisioning based on generic distributed QoS adaptive routing engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikal, Amira Y; Badawy, M; Ali, Hesham A

    2014-01-01

    Increasing efficiency and quality demands of modern Internet technologies drive today's network engineers to seek to provide quality of service (QoS). Internet QoS provisioning gives rise to several challenging issues. This paper introduces a generic distributed QoS adaptive routing engine (DQARE) architecture based on OSPFxQoS. The innovation of the proposed work in this paper is its undependability on the used QoS architectures and, moreover, splitting of the control strategy from data forwarding mechanisms, so we guarantee a set of absolute stable mechanisms on top of which Internet QoS can be built. DQARE architecture is furnished with three relevant traffic control schemes, namely, service differentiation, QoS routing, and traffic engineering. The main objective of this paper is to (i) provide a general configuration guideline for service differentiation, (ii) formalize the theoretical properties of different QoS routing algorithms and then introduce a QoS routing algorithm (QOPRA) based on dynamic programming technique, and (iii) propose QoS multipath forwarding (QMPF) model for paths diversity exploitation. NS2-based simulations proved the DQARE superiority in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio, throughput, and control overhead. Moreover, extensive simulations are used to compare the proposed QOPRA algorithm and QMPF model with their counterparts in the literature.

  15. Towards Internet QoS Provisioning Based on Generic Distributed QoS Adaptive Routing Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Y. Haikal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing efficiency and quality demands of modern Internet technologies drive today’s network engineers to seek to provide quality of service (QoS. Internet QoS provisioning gives rise to several challenging issues. This paper introduces a generic distributed QoS adaptive routing engine (DQARE architecture based on OSPFxQoS. The innovation of the proposed work in this paper is its undependability on the used QoS architectures and, moreover, splitting of the control strategy from data forwarding mechanisms, so we guarantee a set of absolute stable mechanisms on top of which Internet QoS can be built. DQARE architecture is furnished with three relevant traffic control schemes, namely, service differentiation, QoS routing, and traffic engineering. The main objective of this paper is to (i provide a general configuration guideline for service differentiation, (ii formalize the theoretical properties of different QoS routing algorithms and then introduce a QoS routing algorithm (QOPRA based on dynamic programming technique, and (iii propose QoS multipath forwarding (QMPF model for paths diversity exploitation. NS2-based simulations proved the DQARE superiority in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio, throughput, and control overhead. Moreover, extensive simulations are used to compare the proposed QOPRA algorithm and QMPF model with their counterparts in the literature.

  16. A Game Theory-Based Obstacle Avoidance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujun Bi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The obstacle avoidance problem in geographic forwarding is an important issue for location-based routing in wireless sensor networks. The presence of an obstacle leads to several geographic routing problems such as excessive energy consumption and data congestion. Obstacles are hard to avoid in realistic environments. To bypass obstacles, most routing protocols tend to forward packets along the obstacle boundaries. This leads to a situation where the nodes at the boundaries exhaust their energy rapidly and the obstacle area is diffused. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing algorithm to solve the obstacle problem in wireless sensor networks based on a game-theory model. Our algorithm forms a concave region that cannot forward packets to achieve the aim of improving the transmission success rate and decreasing packet transmission delays. We consider the residual energy, out-degree and forwarding angle to determine the forwarding probability and payoff function of forwarding candidates. This achieves the aim of load balance and reduces network energy consumption. Simulation results show that based on the average delivery delay, energy consumption and packet delivery ratio performances our protocol is superior to other traditional schemes.

  17. A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs with their dynamic applications gained a tremendous attention of researchers. Constant monitoring of critical situations attracted researchers to utilize WSNs at vast platforms. The main focus in WSNs is to enhance network localization as much as one could, for efficient and optimal utilization of resources. Different approaches based upon redundancy are proposed for optimum functionality. Localization is always related with redundancy of sensor nodes deployed at remote areas for constant and fault tolerant monitoring. In this work, we propose a comparison of classic flooding and the gossip protocol for homogenous networks which enhances stability and throughput quiet significantly.  

  18. Policy administration in tag-based authorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Hinrichs, Timothy L.; Lee, Adam J.; Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Tag-Based Authorization (TBA) is a hybrid access control model that combines the ease of use of extensional access control models with the expressivity of logic-based formalisms. The main limitation of TBA is that it lacks support for policy administration. More precisely, it does not allow

  19. Probabilistic Routing Based on Two-Hop Information in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate an opportunistic routing protocol in delay/disruption tolerant networks (DTNs where the end-to-end path between source and destination nodes may not exist for most of the time. Probabilistic routing protocol using history of encounters and transitivity (PRoPHET is an efficient history-based routing protocol specifically proposed for DTNs, which only utilizes the delivery predictability of one-hop neighbors to make a decision for message forwarding. In order to further improve the message delivery rate and to reduce the average overhead of PRoPHET, in this paper we propose an improved probabilistic routing algorithm (IPRA, where the history information of contacts for the immediate encounter and two-hop neighbors has been jointly used to make an informed decision for message forwarding. Based on the Opportunistic Networking Environment (ONE simulator, the performance of IPRA has been evaluated via extensive simulations. The results show that IPRA can significantly improve the average delivery rate while achieving a better or comparable performance with respect to average overhead, average delay, and total energy consumption compared with the existing algorithms.

  20. An Enhanced Hybrid Social Based Routing Algorithm for MANET-DTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks is proposed in this paper: an Enhanced Hybrid Social Based Routing (HSBR algorithm for MANET-DTN as optimal solution for well-connected multihop mobile networks (MANET and/or worse connected MANET with small density of the nodes and/or due to mobility fragmented MANET into two or more subnetworks or islands. This proposed HSBR algorithm is fully decentralized combining main features of both Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Social Based Opportunistic Routing (SBOR algorithms. The proposed scheme is simulated and evaluated by replaying real life traces which exhibit this highly dynamic topology. Evaluation of new proposed HSBR algorithm was made by comparison with DSR and SBOR. All methods were simulated with different levels of velocity. The results show that HSBR has the highest success of packet delivery, but with higher delay in comparison with DSR, and much lower in comparison with SBOR. Simulation results indicate that HSBR approach can be applicable in networks, where MANET or DTN solutions are separately useless or ineffective. This method provides delivery of the message in every possible situation in areas without infrastructure and can be used as backup method for disaster situation when infrastructure is destroyed.

  1. Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser (PBEM) is a rules-based approach to enterprise management that can be used to automate certain management tasks. This parser simplifies the management of a given endeavor by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur. Policies are operating rules that can be referred to as a means of maintaining order, security, consistency, or other ways of successfully furthering a goal or mission. PBEM provides a way of managing configuration of network elements, applications, and processes via a set of high-level rules or business policies rather than managing individual elements, thus switching the control to a higher level. This software allows unique management rules (or commands) to be specified and applied to a cross-section of the Global Information Grid (GIG). This software embodies a parser that is capable of recognizing and understanding conversational English. Because all possible dialect variants cannot be anticipated, a unique capability was developed that parses passed on conversation intent rather than the exact way the words are used. This software can increase productivity by enabling a user to converse with the system in conversational English to define network policies. PBEM can be used in both manned and unmanned science-gathering programs. Because policy statements can be domain-independent, this software can be applied equally to a wide variety of applications.

  2. Time dependent policy-based access control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasilikos, Panagiotis; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2017-01-01

    also on other attributes of the environment such as the time. In this paper, we use systems of Timed Automata to model distributed systems and we present a logic in which one can express time-dependent policies for access control. We show how a fragment of our logic can be reduced to a logic......Access control policies are essential to determine who is allowed to access data in a system without compromising the data's security. However, applications inside a distributed environment may require those policies to be dependent on the actual content of the data, the flow of information, while...... that current model checkers for Timed Automata such as UPPAAL can handle and we present a translator that performs this reduction. We then use our translator and UPPAAL to enforce time-dependent policy-based access control on an example application from the aerospace industry....

  3. On condition based maintenance policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Shin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the case of a high-valuable asset, the Operation and Maintenance (O&M phase requires heavy charges and more efforts than the installation (construction phase, because it has long usage life and any accident of an asset during this period causes catastrophic damage to an industry. Recently, with the advent of emerging Information Communication Technologies (ICTs, we can get the visibility of asset status information during its usage period. It gives us new challenging issues for improving the efficiency of asset operations. One issue is to implement the Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM approach that makes a diagnosis of the asset status based on wire or wireless monitored data, predicts the assets abnormality, and executes suitable maintenance actions such as repair and replacement before serious problems happen. In this study, we have addressed several aspects of CBM approach: definition, related international standards, procedure, and techniques with the introduction of some relevant case studies that we have carried out.

  4. The Social Relationship Based Adaptive Multi-Spray-and-Wait Routing Algorithm for Disruption Tolerant Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Guan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing spray-based routing algorithms in DTN cannot dynamically adjust the number of message copies based on actual conditions, which results in a waste of resource and a reduction of the message delivery rate. Besides, the existing spray-based routing protocols may result in blind spots or dead end problems due to the limitation of various given metrics. Therefore, this paper proposes a social relationship based adaptive multiple spray-and-wait routing algorithm (called SRAMSW which retransmits the message copies based on their residence times in the node via buffer management and selects forwarders based on the social relationship. By these means, the proposed algorithm can remove the plight of the message congestion in the buffer and improve the probability of replicas to reach their destinations. The simulation results under different scenarios show that the SRAMSW algorithm can improve the message delivery rate and reduce the messages’ dwell time in the cache and further improve the buffer effectively.

  5. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  6. Multiple depots vehicle routing based on the ant colony with the genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunYing Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the distribution routing plans of multi-depots vehicle scheduling problem will increase exponentially along with the adding of customers. So, it becomes an important studying trend to solve the vehicle scheduling problem with heuristic algorithm. On the basis of building the model of multi-depots vehicle scheduling problem, in order to improve the efficiency of the multiple depots vehicle routing, the paper puts forward a fusion algorithm on multiple depots vehicle routing based on the ant colony algorithm with genetic algorithm. Design/methodology/approach: to achieve this objective, the genetic algorithm optimizes the parameters of the ant colony algorithm. The fusion algorithm on multiple depots vehicle based on the ant colony algorithm with genetic algorithm is proposed. Findings: simulation experiment indicates that the result of the fusion algorithm is more excellent than the other algorithm, and the improved algorithm has better convergence effective and global ability. Research limitations/implications: in this research, there are some assumption that might affect the accuracy of the model such as the pheromone volatile factor, heuristic factor in each period, and the selected multiple depots. These assumptions can be relaxed in future work. Originality/value: In this research, a new method for the multiple depots vehicle routing is proposed. The fusion algorithm eliminate the influence of the selected parameter by optimizing the heuristic factor, evaporation factor, initial pheromone distribute, and have the strong global searching ability. The Ant Colony algorithm imports cross operator and mutation operator for operating the first best solution and the second best solution in every iteration, and reserves the best solution. The cross and mutation operator extend the solution space and improve the convergence effective and the global ability. This research shows that considering both the ant colony and genetic algorithm

  7. A decision support system for mission-based ship routing considering multiple performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, You; Frangopol, Dan M.; Sabatino, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the risk associated with marine vessels subjected to inclement weather and sea conditions when developing a decision support system for ship routing. The generalized decision making framework developed in this paper performs a variety of tasks, including, but not limited to quantifying the flexural and fatigue performance of ship structures and employing multi-attribute utility theory to evaluate ship mission performance. A structural reliability approach is utilized to compute the probability of failure considering the uncertainties in structural capacity and load effects; specifically, effects of flexural and fatigue damage are investigated. The expected repair cost, cumulative fatigue damage, total travel time, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with ship routing are considered as consequences within the risk assessment procedure adopted in this paper. Additionally, the decision maker’s risk attitude is integrated into the presented approach by employing utility theory. The presented methodology can assist decision makers in making informed decisions concerning ship routing. In order to illustrate its capabilities the approach is applied to the Joint High-speed Sealift Ship. - Highlights: • Multi-attribute utility theory is proposed for the ship routing decision making. • Spectral-based fatigue damage and repair loss are computed. • Travel time and CO_2 emissions are incorporated within the decision making process. • The attitude of the decision maker has significant effects on the utility value.

  8. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Tajeddine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN. CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes’ battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node’s bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations.

  9. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations. PMID:25648712

  10. CENTERA: a centralized trust-based efficient routing protocol with authentication for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-02-02

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of "bad" nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics-maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility-and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates "bad", "misbehaving" or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated "bad" behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to "good" nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations.

  11. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided. PMID:22969350

  12. A Framing Link Based Tabu Search Algorithm for Large-Scale Multidepot Vehicle Routing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A framing link (FL based tabu search algorithm is proposed in this paper for a large-scale multidepot vehicle routing problem (LSMDVRP. Framing links are generated during continuous great optimization of current solutions and then taken as skeletons so as to improve optimal seeking ability, speed up the process of optimization, and obtain better results. Based on the comparison between pre- and postmutation routes in the current solution, different parts are extracted. In the current optimization period, links involved in the optimal solution are regarded as candidates to the FL base. Multiple optimization periods exist in the whole algorithm, and there are several potential FLs in each period. If the update condition is satisfied, the FL base is updated, new FLs are added into the current route, and the next period starts. Through adjusting the borderline of multidepot sharing area with dynamic parameters, the authors define candidate selection principles for three kinds of customer connections, respectively. Link split and the roulette approach are employed to choose FLs. 18 LSMDVRP instances in three groups are studied and new optimal solution values for nine of them are obtained, with higher computation speed and reliability.

  13. Automation of route identification and optimisation based on data-mining and chemical intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapkin, A A; Heer, P K; Jacob, P-M; Hutchby, M; Cunningham, W; Bull, S D; Davidson, M G

    2017-09-21

    Data-mining of Reaxys and network analysis of the combined literature and in-house reactions set were used to generate multiple possible reaction routes to convert a bio-waste feedstock, limonene, into a pharmaceutical API, paracetamol. The network analysis of data provides a rich knowledge-base for generation of the initial reaction screening and development programme. Based on the literature and the in-house data, an overall flowsheet for the conversion of limonene to paracetamol was proposed. Each individual reaction-separation step in the sequence was simulated as a combination of the continuous flow and batch steps. The linear model generation methodology allowed us to identify the reaction steps requiring further chemical optimisation. The generated model can be used for global optimisation and generation of environmental and other performance indicators, such as cost indicators. However, the identified further challenge is to automate model generation to evolve optimal multi-step chemical routes and optimal process configurations.

  14. Elementary students' evacuation route choice in a classroom: A questionnaire-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Song, Ziqi

    2018-02-01

    Children evacuation is a critical but challenging issue. Unfortunately, existing researches fail to effectively describe children evacuation, which is likely due to the lack of experimental and empirical data. In this paper, a questionnaire-based experiment was conducted with children aged 8-12 years to study children route choice behavior during evacuation from in a classroom with two exits. 173 effective questionnaires were collected and the corresponding data were analyzed. From the statistical results, we obtained the following findings: (1) position, congestion, group behavior, and backtracking behavior have significant effects on children route choice during evacuation; (2) age only affects children backtracking behavior, and (3) no prominent effects based on gender and guidance were observed. The above findings may help engineers design some effective evacuation strategies for children.

  15. A variable neighborhood descent based heuristic to solve the capacitated location-routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Jabal-Ameli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Location-routing problem (LRP is established as a new research area in the context of location analysis. The primary concern of LRP is on locating facilities and routing of vehicles among established facilities and existing demand points. In this work, we address the capacitated LRP which arises in many practical applications within logistics and supply chain management. The objective is to minimize the overall system costs which include the fixed costs of opening depots and using vehicles at each depot site, and the variable costs associated with delivery activities. A novel heuristic is proposed which is based on variable neighborhood descent (VND algorithm to solve the resulted problem. The computational study indicates that the proposed VND based heuristic is highly competitive with the existing solution algorithms in terms of solution quality.

  16. VINE ROUTES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyuben Hristov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a scheme for the modern vine route in Bulgaria. Five basic vine routes and one international, between Bulgaria, Macedonia and Greece are defined. All routes consider characteristic varieties of grapes and kinds of vine products. Vine tourist products combined with visits of important natural and anthropological object are in the bases of the defined routes. The described routes are an important contribution to development of alternative tourist products in the country.

  17. Blockchain-based Public Key Infrastructure for Inter-Domain Secure Routing

    OpenAIRE

    de la Rocha Gómez-Arevalillo , Alfonso; Papadimitratos , Panos

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A gamut of secure inter-domain routing protocols has been proposed in the literature. They use traditional PGP-like and centralized Public Key Infrastructures for trust management. In this paper, we propose our alternative approach for managing security associations, Secure Blockchain Trust Management (SBTM), a trust management system that instantiates a blockchain-based PKI for the operation of securerouting protocols. A main motivation for SBTM is to facilitate gradu...

  18. Energy-Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Kanakala; Venugopal Reddy Ananthula; Prashanthi Vempaty

    2014-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, all nodes are energy constrained. In such situations, it is important to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, we consider the issues of energy efficient communication in MANETs using network coding. Network coding is an effective method to improve the performance of wireless networks. COPE protocol implements network coding concept to reduce number of transmissions by mixing the packets at intermediate nodes. We incorporate COPE into cluster based routing proto...

  19. A Proposal for IoT Dynamic Routes Selection Based on Contextual Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Harilton da Silva; Filho, Raimir Holanda; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Rabelo, Ricardo de A L; Sousa, Natanael de C; Filho, José C C L S; Sobral, José V V

    2018-01-26

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is based on interconnection of intelligent and addressable devices, allowing their autonomy and proactive behavior with Internet connectivity. Data dissemination in IoT usually depends on the application and requires context-aware routing protocols that must include auto-configuration features (which adapt the behavior of the network at runtime, based on context information). This paper proposes an approach for IoT route selection using fuzzy logic in order to attain the requirements of specific applications. In this case, fuzzy logic is used to translate in math terms the imprecise information expressed by a set of linguistic rules. For this purpose, four Objective Functions (OFs) are proposed for the Routing Protocol for Low Power and Loss Networks (RPL); such OFs are dynamically selected based on context information. The aforementioned OFs are generated from the fusion of the following metrics: Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Number of Hops (NH) and Energy Consumed (EC). The experiments performed through simulation, associated with the statistical data analysis, conclude that this proposal provides high reliability by successfully delivering nearly 100% of data packets, low delay for data delivery and increase in QoS. In addition, an 30% improvement is attained in the network life time when using one of proposed objective function, keeping the devices alive for longer duration.

  20. Novel Opportunistic Network Routing Based on Social Rank for Device-to-Device Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been dramatic proliferation of research concerned with fifth-generation (5G mobile communication networks, among which device-to-device (D2D communication is one of the key technologies. Due to the intermittent connection of nodes, the D2D network topology may be disconnected frequently, which will lead to failure in transmission of large data files. In opportunistic networks, in case of encountering nodes which never meet before a flood message blindly to cause tremendous network overhead, a novel opportunistic network routing protocol based on social rank and intermeeting time (SRIT is proposed in this paper. An improved utility approach applied in utility replication based on encounter durations and intermeeting time is put forward to enhance the routing efficiency. Meanwhile, in order to select better candidate nodes in the network, a social graph among people is established when they socially relate to each other in social rank replication. The results under the scenario show an advantage of the proposed opportunistic network routing based on social rank and intermeeting time (SRIT over the compared algorithms in terms of delivery ratio, average delivery latency, and overhead ratio.

  1. A Proposal for IoT Dynamic Routes Selection Based on Contextual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harilton da Silva Araújo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is based on interconnection of intelligent and addressable devices, allowing their autonomy and proactive behavior with Internet connectivity. Data dissemination in IoT usually depends on the application and requires context-aware routing protocols that must include auto-configuration features (which adapt the behavior of the network at runtime, based on context information. This paper proposes an approach for IoT route selection using fuzzy logic in order to attain the requirements of specific applications. In this case, fuzzy logic is used to translate in math terms the imprecise information expressed by a set of linguistic rules. For this purpose, four Objective Functions (OFs are proposed for the Routing Protocol for Low Power and Loss Networks (RPL; such OFs are dynamically selected based on context information. The aforementioned OFs are generated from the fusion of the following metrics: Expected Transmission Count (ETX, Number of Hops (NH and Energy Consumed (EC. The experiments performed through simulation, associated with the statistical data analysis, conclude that this proposal provides high reliability by successfully delivering nearly 100% of data packets, low delay for data delivery and increase in QoS. In addition, an 30% improvement is attained in the network life time when using one of proposed objective function, keeping the devices alive for longer duration.

  2. Placement of effective work-in-progress limits in route-specific unit-based pull systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziengs, N.; Riezebos, J.; Germs, R.

    2012-01-01

    Unit-based pull systems control the throughput time of orders in a production system by limiting the number of orders on the shop floor. In production systems where orders can follow different routings on the shop floor, route-specific pull systems that control the progress of orders on the shop

  3. Bi-objective optimization for multi-modal transportation routing planning problem based on Pareto optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of study is to solve the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem that aims to select an optimal route to move a consignment of goods from its origin to its destination through the multi-modal transportation network. And the optimization is from two viewpoints including cost and time. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. Minimizing the total transportation cost and the total transportation time are set as the optimization objectives of the model. In order to balance the benefit between the two objectives, Pareto optimality is utilized to solve the model by gaining its Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier of the model can provide the multi-modal transportation operator (MTO and customers with better decision support and it is gained by the normalized normal constraint method. Then, an experimental case study is designed to verify the feasibility of the model and Pareto optimality by using the mathematical programming software Lingo. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case. Findings: The calculation results indicate that the proposed model and Pareto optimality have good performance in dealing with the bi-objective optimization. The sensitivity analysis also shows the influence of the variation of the demand and supply on the multi-modal transportation organization clearly. Therefore, this method can be further promoted to the practice. Originality/value: A bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. The Pareto frontier based sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case.

  4. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene.

  5. ADAPTIVE CLUSTER BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL WITH ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK IN DISASTER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Budianto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In post-disaster rehabilitation efforts, the availability of telecommunication facilities takes important role. However, the process to improve telecommunication facilities in disaster area is risky if it is done by humans. Therefore, a network method that can work efficiently, effectively, and capable to reach the widest possible area is needed. This research introduces a cluster-based routing protocol named Adaptive Cluster Based Routing Protocol (ACBRP equipped by Ant Colony Optimization method, and its implementation in a simulator developed by author. After data analysis and statistical tests, it can be concluded that routing protocol ACBRP performs better than AODV and DSR routing protocol. Pada upaya rehabilitasi pascabencana, ketersediaan fasilitas telekomunikasi memiliki peranan yang sangat penting. Namun, proses untuk memperbaiki fasilitas telekomunikasi di daerah bencana memiliki resiko jika dilakukan oleh manusia. Oleh karena itu, metode jaringan yang dapat bekerja secara efisien, efektif, dan mampu mencapai area seluas mungkin diperlukan. Penelitian ini memperkenalkan sebuah protokol routing berbasis klaster bernama Adaptive Cluster Based Routing Protocol (ACBRP, yang dilengkapi dengan metode Ant Colony Optimization, dan diimplementasikan pada simulator yang dikembangkan penulis. Setelah data dianalisis dan dilakukan uji statistik, disimpulkan bahwa protokol routing ACBRP beroperasi lebih baik daripada protokol routing AODV maupun DSR.

  6. An energy efficient multiple mobile sinks based routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peijun; Ruan, Feng

    2018-03-01

    With the fast development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), more and more energy efficient routing algorithms have been proposed. However, one of the research challenges is how to alleviate the hot spot problem since nodes close to static sink (or base station) tend to die earlier than other sensors. The introduction of mobile sink node can effectively alleviate this problem since sink node can move along certain trajectories, causing hot spot nodes more evenly distributed. In this paper, we mainly study the energy efficient routing method with multiple mobile sinks support. We divide the whole network into several clusters and study the influence of mobile sink number on network lifetime. Simulation results show that the best network performance appears when mobile sink number is about 3 under our simulation environment.

  7. Alternative chemical-based synthesis routes and characterization of nano-scale particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocchi, E.A.; Motta, M.S.; Solorzano, I.G.; Jena, P.K.; Moura, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Different nano-scale particles have been synthesized by alternative routes: nitrates dehydratation and oxide, or co-formed oxides, reduction by hydrogen. Chemical-based synthesis routes are described and thermodynamics studies and kinetics data are presented to support the feasibility for obtaining single-phase oxides and co-formed two-phase oxides. In addition, the reduction reaction has been applied to successfully produce metal/ceramic nanocomposites. Structural characterization has been carried out by means of X-ray diffraction and, more extensively, transmission electron microscopy operating in conventional diffraction contrast mode (CTEM) and high-resolution mode (HRTEM). Nano-scale size distribution of oxide particles is well demonstrated together with their defect-free structure in the lower range, around 20 nm, size. Structural features related to the synthesized nano-composites are also presented

  8. A Day-to-Day Route Choice Model Based on Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Day-to-day traffic dynamics are generated by individual traveler’s route choice and route adjustment behaviors, which are appropriate to be researched by using agent-based model and learning theory. In this paper, we propose a day-to-day route choice model based on reinforcement learning and multiagent simulation. Travelers’ memory, learning rate, and experience cognition are taken into account. Then the model is verified and analyzed. Results show that the network flow can converge to user equilibrium (UE if travelers can remember all the travel time they have experienced, but which is not necessarily the case under limited memory; learning rate can strengthen the flow fluctuation, but memory leads to the contrary side; moreover, high learning rate results in the cyclical oscillation during the process of flow evolution. Finally, both the scenarios of link capacity degradation and random link capacity are used to illustrate the model’s applications. Analyses and applications of our model demonstrate the model is reasonable and useful for studying the day-to-day traffic dynamics.

  9. Rigorous Progress on Algorithms Based Routing and Wavelength Assignment in Trans-Egypt Network (TEGYNET) Management

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El–Naser A. Mohammed; Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed; Osama S. Fragallah; Mohamed G. El-Abyad

    2013-01-01

    In simple wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) networks, a connection must be established along a route using a common wavelength on all of the links along the route. The introduction of wavelength converters into WDM cross connects increases the hardware cost and complexity. Given a set of connection requests, the routing and wavelength assignment problem involves finding a route (routing) and assigning a wavelength to each request. This paper has presented the WDM technology is being exten...

  10. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Clustering and Ant Colony Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring burst events in a kind of reactive wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a multipath routing protocol (MRP based on dynamic clustering and ant colony optimization (ACO is proposed.. Such an approach can maximize the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption. An important attribute of WSNs is their limited power supply, and therefore some metrics (such as energy consumption of communication among nodes, residual energy, path length were considered as very important criteria while designing routing in the MRP. Firstly, a cluster head (CH is selected among nodes located in the event area according to some parameters, such as residual energy. Secondly, an improved ACO algorithm is applied in the search for multiple paths between the CH and sink node. Finally, the CH dynamically chooses a route to transmit data with a probability that depends on many path metrics, such as energy consumption. The simulation results show that MRP can prolong the network lifetime, as well as balance of energy consumption among nodes and reduce the average energy consumption effectively.

  11. A Multi-Attribute Pheromone Ant Secure Routing Algorithm Based on Reputation Value for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless sensor networks, certain network problems have become more prominent, such as limited node resources, low data transmission security, and short network life cycles. To solve these problems effectively, it is important to design an efficient and trusted secure routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Traditional ant-colony optimization algorithms exhibit only local convergence, without considering the residual energy of the nodes and many other problems. This paper introduces a multi-attribute pheromone ant secure routing algorithm based on reputation value (MPASR. This algorithm can reduce the energy consumption of a network and improve the reliability of the nodes’ reputations by filtering nodes with higher coincidence rates and improving the method used to update the nodes’ communication behaviors. At the same time, the node reputation value, the residual node energy and the transmission delay are combined to formulate a synthetic pheromone that is used in the formula for calculating the random proportion rule in traditional ant-colony optimization to select the optimal data transmission path. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm can increase both the security of data transmission and the quality of routing service.

  12. A Multi-Attribute Pheromone Ant Secure Routing Algorithm Based on Reputation Value for Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yin, Na; Fu, Xiong; Lin, Qiaomin; Wang, Ruchuan

    2017-01-01

    With the development of wireless sensor networks, certain network problems have become more prominent, such as limited node resources, low data transmission security, and short network life cycles. To solve these problems effectively, it is important to design an efficient and trusted secure routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Traditional ant-colony optimization algorithms exhibit only local convergence, without considering the residual energy of the nodes and many other problems. This paper introduces a multi-attribute pheromone ant secure routing algorithm based on reputation value (MPASR). This algorithm can reduce the energy consumption of a network and improve the reliability of the nodes’ reputations by filtering nodes with higher coincidence rates and improving the method used to update the nodes’ communication behaviors. At the same time, the node reputation value, the residual node energy and the transmission delay are combined to formulate a synthetic pheromone that is used in the formula for calculating the random proportion rule in traditional ant-colony optimization to select the optimal data transmission path. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm can increase both the security of data transmission and the quality of routing service. PMID:28282894

  13. A routing protocol based on energy and link quality for Internet of Things applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kássio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A F; Neto, Augusto; Souza, José Neuman de

    2013-02-04

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  14. A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. F. Loureiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  15. A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kassio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A. F.; Neto, Augusto; de Souza, José Neuman

    2013-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare,environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols. PMID:23385410

  16. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Y Harold; Rajaram, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN) to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique.

  17. Operating Time Division for a Bus Route Based on the Recovery of GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time is an important source of data for time of day partition of the bus route. However, in practice, a bus driver may deliberately speed up or slow down on route so as to follow the predetermined timetable. The raw GPS data collected by the GPS device equipped on the bus, as a result, cannot reflect its real operating conditions. To address this concern, this study first develops a method to identify whether there is deliberate speed-up or slow-down movement of a bus. Building upon the relationships between the intersection delay, link travel time, and traffic flow, a recovery method is established for calculating the real bus travel time. Using the dwell time at each stop and the recovered travel time between each of them as the division indexes, a sequential clustering-based time of day partition method is proposed. The effectiveness of the developed method is demonstrated using the data of bus route 63 in Harbin, China. Results show that the partition method can help bus enterprises to design reasonable time of day intervals and significantly improve their level of service.

  18. Case-Based Policy and Goal Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Policy and Goal Recognizer (PaGR), a case- based system for multiagent keyhole recognition. PaGR is a knowledge recognition component within a decision...However, unlike our agent in the BVR domain, these recognition agents have access to perfect information. Single-agent keyhole plan recognition can be...listed below: 1. Facing Target 2. Closing on Target 3. Target Range 4. Within a Target’s Weapon Range 5. Has Target within Weapon Range 6. Is in Danger

  19. Cooperative Optimization QoS Cloud Routing Protocol Based on Bacterial Opportunistic Foraging and Chemotaxis Perception for Mobile Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to strengthen the mobile Internet mobility management and cloud platform resources utilization, optimizing the cloud routing efficiency is established, based on opportunistic bacterial foraging bionics, and puts forward a chemotaxis perception of collaborative optimization QoS (Quality of Services cloud routing mechanism. The cloud routing mechanism is based on bacterial opportunity to feed and bacterial motility and to establish the data transmission and forwarding of the bacterial population behavior characteristics. This mechanism is based on the characteristics of drug resistance of bacteria and the structure of the field, and through many iterations of the individual behavior and population behavior the bacteria can be spread to the food gathering area with a certain probability. Finally, QoS cloud routing path would be selected and optimized based on bacterial bionic optimization and hedge mapping relationship between mobile Internet node and bacterial population evolution iterations. Experimental results show that, compared with the standard dynamic routing schemes, the proposed scheme has shorter transmission delay, lower packet error ratio, QoS cloud routing loading, and QoS cloud route request overhead.

  20. Simulation of optimal arctic routes using a numerical sea ice model based on an ice-coupled ocean circulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Nam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the Arctic region has opened its mysterious passage to mankind, continuous attempts to take advantage of its fastest route across the region has been made. The Arctic region is still covered by thick ice and thus finding a feasible navigating route is essential for an economical voyage. To find the optimal route, it is necessary to establish an efficient transit model that enables us to simulate every possible route in advance. In this work, an enhanced algorithm to determine the optimal route in the Arctic region is introduced. A transit model based on the simulated sea ice and environmental data numerically modeled in the Arctic is developed. By integrating the simulated data into a transit model, further applications such as route simulation, cost estimation or hindcast can be easily performed. An interactive simulation system that determines the optimal Arctic route using the transit model is developed. The simulation of optimal routes is carried out and the validity of the results is discussed.

  1. Probabilistic Location-based Routing Protocol for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks with Intermittent Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho KUMAGAI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a sensor network, sensor data messages reach the nearest stationary sink node connected to the Internet by wireless multihop transmissions. Recently, various mobile sensors are available due to advances of robotics technologies and communication technologies. A location based message-by-message routing protocol, such as Geographic Distance Routing (GEDIR is suitable for such mobile wireless networks; however, it is required for each mobile wireless sensor node to know the current locations of all its neighbor nodes. On the other hand, various intermittent communication methods for a low power consumption requirement have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. Intermittent Receiver-driven Data Transmission (IRDT is one of the most efficient methods; however, it is difficult to combine the location based routing and the intermittent communication. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a probabilistic approach IRDT-GEDIR with the help of one of the solutions of the secretaries problem. Here, each time a neighbor sensor node wakes up from its sleep mode, an intermediate sensor node determines whether it forwards its buffered sensor data messages to it or not based on an estimation of achieved pseudo speed of the messages. Simulation experiments show that IRDT-GEDIR achieves higher pseudo speed of sensor data message transmissions and shorter transmission delay than achieves shorter transmission delay than the two naive combinations of IRDT and GEDIR in sensor networks with mobile sensor nodes and a stationary sink node. In addition, the guideline of the estimated numbers of the neighbor nodes of each intermediate sensor node is provided based on the results of the simulation experiments to apply the probabilistic approach IRDT-GEDIR.

  2. Routing in opportunistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

  3. Routing protocol for wireless quantum multi-hop mesh backbone network based on partially entangled GHZ state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pei-Ying; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen; Zhan, Hai-Tao; Hua, Jing-Yu

    2017-08-01

    Quantum multi-hop teleportation is important in the field of quantum communication. In this study, we propose a quantum multi-hop communication model and a quantum routing protocol with multihop teleportation for wireless mesh backbone networks. Based on an analysis of quantum multi-hop protocols, a partially entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is selected as the quantum channel for the proposed protocol. Both quantum and classical wireless channels exist between two neighboring nodes along the route. With the proposed routing protocol, quantum information can be transmitted hop by hop from the source node to the destination node. Based on multi-hop teleportation based on the partially entangled GHZ state, a quantum route established with the minimum number of hops. The difference between our routing protocol and the classical one is that in the former, the processes used to find a quantum route and establish quantum channel entanglement occur simultaneously. The Bell state measurement results of each hop are piggybacked to quantum route finding information. This method reduces the total number of packets and the magnitude of air interface delay. The deduction of the establishment of a quantum channel between source and destination is also presented here. The final success probability of quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks was simulated and analyzed. Our research shows that quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks through a partially entangled GHZ state is feasible.

  4. Strategic Air Traffic Planning Using Eulerian Route Based Modeling and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombelli, Alessandro

    Due to a soaring air travel growth in the last decades, air traffic management has become increasingly challenging. As a consequence, planning tools are being devised to help human decision-makers achieve a better management of air traffic. Planning tools are divided into two categories, strategic and tactical. Strategic planning generally addresses a larger planning domain and is performed days to hours in advance. Tactical planning is more localized and is performed hours to minutes in advance. An aggregate route model for strategic air traffic flow management is presented. It is an Eulerian model, describing the flow between cells of unidirectional point-to-point routes. Aggregate routes are created from flight trajectory data based on similarity measures. Spatial similarity is determined using the Frechet distance. The aggregate routes approximate actual well-traveled traffic patterns. By specifying the model resolution, an appropriate balance between model accuracy and model dimension can be achieved. For a particular planning horizon, during which weather is expected to restrict the flow, a procedure for designing airborne reroutes and augmenting the traffic flow model is developed. The dynamics of the traffic flow on the resulting network take the form of a discrete-time, linear time-invariant system. The traffic flow controls are ground holding, pre-departure rerouting and airborne rerouting. Strategic planning--determining how the controls should be used to modify the future traffic flow when local capacity violations are anticipated--is posed as an integer programming problem of minimizing a weighted sum of flight delays subject to control and capacity constraints. Several tests indicate the effectiveness of the modeling and strategic planning approach. In the final, most challenging, test, strategic planning is demonstrated for the six western-most Centers of the 22-Center national airspace. The planning time horizon is four hours long, and there is

  5. Energy Threshold-based Cluster Head Rotation for Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Raheem Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency represents a fundamental issue in WSNs, since the network lifetime period entirely depends on the energy of sensor nodes, which are usually battery-operated. In this article, an unequal clustering-based routing protocol has been suggested, where parameters of energy, distance, and density are involved in the cluster head election. Besides, the sizes of clusters are unequal according to distance, energy, and density. Furthermore, the cluster heads are not changed every round unless the residual energy reaches a specific threshold of energy. The outcomes of the conducted simulation confirmed that the performance of the suggested protocol achieves improvement in energy efficiency.

  6. A Constraint-Based Model for Fast Post-Disaster Emergency Vehicle Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Amadini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Disasters like terrorist attacks, earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcano eruptions are usually unpredictable events that affect a high number of people. We propose an approach that could be used as a decision support tool for a post-disaster response that allows the assignment of victims to hospitals and organizes their transportation via emergency vehicles. By exploiting the synergy between Mixed Integer Programming and Constraint Programming techniques, we are able to compute the routing of the vehicles so as to rescue much more victims than both heuristic based and complete approaches in a very reasonable time.

  7. A reliability-based approach of fastest routes planning in dynamic traffic network under emergency management situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an available emergency management system, it is important to conduct effective evacuation with reliable and real time optimal route plans. This paper aims at creating a route finding strategy by considering the time dependent factors as well as uncertainties that may be encountered during the emergency management system. To combine dynamic features with the level of reliability in the process of fastest route planning, the speed distribution of typical intercity roads is studied in depth, and the strategy of modifying real time speed to a more reliable value based on speed distribution is proposed. Two algorithms of route planning have been developed to find three optimal routes with the shortest travel time and the reliability of 0.9. In order to validate the new strategy, experimental implementation of the route planning method is conducted based on road speed information acquired by field study. The results show that the proposed strategy might provide more reliable routes in dynamic traffic networks by conservatively treating roads with large speed discretion or with relative extreme real speed value.

  8. Evidence-based policy versus morality policy: the case of syringe access programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; O'Quinn, Erin; Davis, Corey

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) combines proven interventions with clinical experience, ethics, and client preferences to inform treatment and services. Although EBP is integrated into most aspects of social work and public health, at times EBP is at odds with social policy. In this article the authors explore the paradox of evidence-based policy using syringe access programs (SAP) as a case example, and review methods of bridging the gap between the emphasis on EBP and lack of evidence informing SAP policy. Analysis includes the overuse of morality policy and examines historical and current theories why this paradox exists. Action steps are highlighted for creating effective policy and opportunities for public health change. Strategies on reframing the problem and shifting target population focus to garner support for evidence-based policy change are included. This interdisciplinary understanding of the way in which these factors converge is a critical first step in moving beyond morality-based policy toward evidence-based policy.

  9. Energy-Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kanakala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, all nodes are energy constrained. In such situations, it is important to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, we consider the issues of energy efficient communication in MANETs using network coding. Network coding is an effective method to improve the performance of wireless networks. COPE protocol implements network coding concept to reduce number of transmissions by mixing the packets at intermediate nodes. We incorporate COPE into cluster based routing protocol to further reduce the energy consumption. The proposed energy-efficient coding-aware cluster based routing protocol (ECCRP scheme applies network coding at cluster heads to reduce number of transmissions. We also modify the queue management procedure of COPE protocol to further improve coding opportunities. We also use an energy efficient scheme while selecting the cluster head. It helps to increase the life time of the network. We evaluate the performance of proposed energy efficient cluster based protocol using simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed ECCRP algorithm reduces energy consumption and increases life time of the network.

  10. QoS Supported IPTV Service Architecture over Hybrid-Tree-Based Explicit Routed Multicast Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chao Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advance in multimedia streaming and multicast transport technology, current IP multicast protocols, especially PIM-SM, become the major channel delivery mechanism for IPTV system over Internet. The goals for IPTV service are to provide two-way interactive services for viewers to select popular program channel with high quality for watching during fast channel surfing period. However, existing IP multicast protocol cannot meet above QoS requirements for IPTV applications between media server and subscribers. Therefore, we propose a cooperative scheme of hybrid-tree based on explicit routed multicast, called as HT-ERM to combine the advantages of shared tree and source tree for QoS-supported IPTV service. To increase network utilization, the constrained shortest path first (CSPF routing algorithm is designed for construction of hybrid tree to deliver the high-quality video stream over watching channel and standard quality over surfing channel. Furthermore, the Resource Reservation Protocol- Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE is used as signaling mechanism to set up QoS path for multicast channel admission control. Our simulation results demonstrated that the proposed HT-ERM scheme outperforms other multicast QoS-based delivery scheme in terms of channel switching delay, resource utilization, and blocking ratio for IPTV service.

  11. An Energy Centric Cluster-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosen, A S M Sanwar; Cho, Gi Hwan

    2018-05-11

    Clustering is an effective way to prolong the lifetime of a wireless sensor network (WSN). The common approach is to elect cluster heads to take routing and controlling duty, and to periodically rotate each cluster head's role to distribute energy consumption among nodes. However, a significant amount of energy dissipates due to control messages overhead, which results in a shorter network lifetime. This paper proposes an energy-centric cluster-based routing mechanism in WSNs. To begin with, cluster heads are elected based on the higher ranks of the nodes. The rank is defined by residual energy and average distance from the member nodes. With the role of data aggregation and data forwarding, a cluster head acts as a caretaker for cluster-head election in the next round, where the ranks' information are piggybacked along with the local data sending during intra-cluster communication. This reduces the number of control messages for the cluster-head election as well as the cluster formation in detail. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol saves the energy consumption among nodes and achieves a significant improvement in the network lifetime.

  12. Mobile Sinks Assisted Geographic and Opportunistic Routing Based Interference Avoidance for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farwa; Wadud, Zahid; Javaid, Nadeem; Alrajeh, Nabil; Alabed, Mohamad Souheil; Qasim, Umar

    2018-04-02

    The distinctive features of acoustic communication channel-like high propagation delay, multi-path fading, quick attenuation of acoustic signal, etc. limit the utilization of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). The immutable selection of forwarder node leads to dramatic death of node resulting in imbalanced energy depletion and void hole creation. To reduce the probability of void occurrence and imbalance energy dissipation, in this paper, we propose mobility assisted geo-opportunistic routing paradigm based on interference avoidance for UWSNs. The network volume is divided into logical small cubes to reduce the interference and to make more informed routing decisions for efficient energy consumption. Additionally, an optimal number of forwarder nodes is elected from each cube based on its proximity with respect to the destination to avoid void occurrence. Moreover, the data packets are recovered from void regions with the help of mobile sinks which also reduce the data traffic on intermediate nodes. Extensive simulations are performed to verify that our proposed work maximizes the network lifetime and packet delivery ratio.

  13. Energy Aware Cluster-Based Routing in Flying Ad-Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadil, Farhan; Raza, Ali; Khan, Muhammad Fahad; Maqsood, Muazzam; Mehmood, Irfan; Rho, Seungmin

    2018-05-03

    Flying ad-hoc networks (FANETs) are a very vibrant research area nowadays. They have many military and civil applications. Limited battery energy and the high mobility of micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent their two main problems, i.e., short flight time and inefficient routing. In this paper, we try to address both of these problems by means of efficient clustering. First, we adjust the transmission power of the UAVs by anticipating their operational requirements. Optimal transmission range will have minimum packet loss ratio (PLR) and better link quality, which ultimately save the energy consumed during communication. Second, we use a variant of the K-Means Density clustering algorithm for selection of cluster heads. Optimal cluster heads enhance the cluster lifetime and reduce the routing overhead. The proposed model outperforms the state of the art artificial intelligence techniques such as Ant Colony Optimization-based clustering algorithm and Grey Wolf Optimization-based clustering algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated in term of number of clusters, cluster building time, cluster lifetime and energy consumption.

  14. Energy Aware Cluster-Based Routing in Flying Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Aadil

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Flying ad-hoc networks (FANETs are a very vibrant research area nowadays. They have many military and civil applications. Limited battery energy and the high mobility of micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs represent their two main problems, i.e., short flight time and inefficient routing. In this paper, we try to address both of these problems by means of efficient clustering. First, we adjust the transmission power of the UAVs by anticipating their operational requirements. Optimal transmission range will have minimum packet loss ratio (PLR and better link quality, which ultimately save the energy consumed during communication. Second, we use a variant of the K-Means Density clustering algorithm for selection of cluster heads. Optimal cluster heads enhance the cluster lifetime and reduce the routing overhead. The proposed model outperforms the state of the art artificial intelligence techniques such as Ant Colony Optimization-based clustering algorithm and Grey Wolf Optimization-based clustering algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated in term of number of clusters, cluster building time, cluster lifetime and energy consumption.

  15. Case Study on Optimal Routing in Logistics Network by Priority-based Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Lin, Lin; Gen, Mitsuo; Shiota, Mitsushige

    Recently, research on logistics caught more and more attention. One of the important issues on logistics system is to find optimal delivery routes with the least cost for products delivery. Numerous models have been developed for that reason. However, due to the diversity and complexity of practical problem, the existing models are usually not very satisfying to find the solution efficiently and convinently. In this paper, we treat a real-world logistics case with a company named ABC Co. ltd., in Kitakyusyu Japan. Firstly, based on the natures of this conveyance routing problem, as an extension of transportation problem (TP) and fixed charge transportation problem (fcTP) we formulate the problem as a minimum cost flow (MCF) model. Due to the complexity of fcTP, we proposed a priority-based genetic algorithm (pGA) approach to find the most acceptable solution to this problem. In this pGA approach, a two-stage path decoding method is adopted to develop delivery paths from a chromosome. We also apply the pGA approach to this problem, and compare our results with the current logistics network situation, and calculate the improvement of logistics cost to help the management to make decisions. Finally, in order to check the effectiveness of the proposed method, the results acquired are compared with those come from the two methods/ software, such as LINDO and CPLEX.

  16. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyue He

    Full Text Available Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior.

  17. AVQS: Attack Route-Based Vulnerability Quantification Scheme for Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongbin Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification.

  18. AVQS: attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme for smart grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jongbin; Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seokjun; Shon, Taeshik

    2014-01-01

    A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification.

  19. Mobile Sinks Assisted Geographic and Opportunistic Routing Based Interference Avoidance for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farwa Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive features of acoustic communication channel-like high propagation delay, multi-path fading, quick attenuation of acoustic signal, etc. limit the utilization of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs. The immutable selection of forwarder node leads to dramatic death of node resulting in imbalanced energy depletion and void hole creation. To reduce the probability of void occurrence and imbalance energy dissipation, in this paper, we propose mobility assisted geo-opportunistic routing paradigm based on interference avoidance for UWSNs. The network volume is divided into logical small cubes to reduce the interference and to make more informed routing decisions for efficient energy consumption. Additionally, an optimal number of forwarder nodes is elected from each cube based on its proximity with respect to the destination to avoid void occurrence. Moreover, the data packets are recovered from void regions with the help of mobile sinks which also reduce the data traffic on intermediate nodes. Extensive simulations are performed to verify that our proposed work maximizes the network lifetime and packet delivery ratio.

  20. Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asheim, B.T.; Boschma, R.A.; Cooke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases, Regional Studies. This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related

  1. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Bloom Filter for Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On-demand multipath routing in a wireless ad hoc network is effective in achieving load balancing over the network and in improving the degree of resilience to mobility. In this paper, the salvage capable opportunistic node-disjoint multipath routing (SNMR protocol is proposed, which forms multiple routes for data transmission and supports packet salvaging with minimum overhead. The proposed mechanism constructs a primary path and a node-disjoint backup path together with alternative paths for the intermediate nodes in the primary path. It can be achieved by considering the reverse route back to the source stored in the route cache and the primary path information compressed by a Bloom filter. Our protocol presents higher capability in packet salvaging and lower overhead in forming multiple routes. Simulation results show that SNMR outperforms the compared protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio, normalized routing load, and throughput.

  2. A social activity and physical contact-based routing algorithm in mobile opportunistic networks for emergency response to sudden disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Lin, Yaguang; Zhang, Shanshan; Cai, Zhipeng

    2017-05-01

    Sudden disasters such as earthquake, flood and hurricane necessitate the employment of communication networks to carry out emergency response activities. Routing has a significant impact on the functionality, performance and flexibility of communication networks. In this article, the routing problem is studied considering the delivery ratio of messages, the overhead ratio of messages and the average delay of messages in mobile opportunistic networks (MONs) for enterprise-level emergency response communications in sudden disaster scenarios. Unlike the traditional routing methods for MONS, this article presents a new two-stage spreading and forwarding dynamic routing algorithm based on the proposed social activity degree and physical contact factor for mobile customers. A new modelling method for describing a dynamic evolving process of the topology structure of a MON is first proposed. Then a multi-copy spreading strategy based on the social activity degree of nodes and a single-copy forwarding strategy based on the physical contact factor between nodes are designed. Compared with the most relevant routing algorithms such as Epidemic, Prophet, Labelled-sim, Dlife-comm and Distribute-sim, the proposed routing algorithm can significantly increase the delivery ratio of messages, and decrease the overhead ratio and average delay of messages.

  3. Power Management Based Grid Routing Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Based MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHENG Bao-yu; YANG Zhen

    2004-01-01

    MANET ( Mobile Ad Hoc Network ) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary communication network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. The lifetime of a MANET depends on the battery resources of the mobile nodes. So energy consumption may one of important design criterions for MANET. With changing the idle model to sleep model in the grid environment, this paper proposes a new energy-aware routing protocol. Performance simulation results show that the proposed strategy can dynamic balance the traffic load inside the whole network, extend the lifetime of a MANET, and without decreasing the throughput ratio.

  4. Implementing evidence-based policy in a network setting: road safety policy in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Charlotte; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, in order to improve road safety in The Netherlands, the Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV) developed an evidence-based "Sustainable Safety" concept. Based on this concept, Dutch road safety policy, was seen as successful and as a best practice in Europe. In The Netherlands, the policy context has now changed from a sectoral policy setting towards a fragmented network in which safety is a facet of other transport-related policies. In this contribution, it is argued that the implementation strategy underlying Sustainable Safety should be aligned with the changed context. In order to explore the adjustments needed, two perspectives of policy implementation are discussed: (1) national evidence-based policies with sectoral implementation; and (2) decentralized negotiation on transport policy in which road safety is but one aspect. We argue that the latter approach matches the characteristics of the newly evolved policy context best, and conclude with recommendations for reformulating the implementation strategy.

  5. The extended TRIP supporting VoIP routing reservation with distributed QoS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Furong; Wu, Ye

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, an existing protocol, i.e. TRIP (Telephony Routing over IP) is developed to provide distributed QoS when making resource reservations for VoIP services such as H.323, SIP. Enhanced LSs (location servers) are deployed in ITADs (IP Telephony Administrative Domains) to take in charge of intra-domain routing policy because of small propagation price. It is an easy way to find an IP telephone route for intra-domain VoIP media association and simultaneously possess intra-domain load balancing features. For those routing reservations bridging domains, inter-domain routing policy is responsible for finding the shortest inter-domain route with enough resources. I propose the routing preference policy based on QoS price when the session traffic is shaped by a token bucket, related QoS messages, and message cooperation.

  6. The Effect of Storage and Routing Policies on Picker Blocking in a Real-life Narrow-aisle Warehouse

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gils, Teun; Caris, An; Ramaekers, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Upcoming e-commerce markets force warehouses to handle a large number of orders within short time windows. Narrow-aisle order picking systems allow to store a large number of products in small areas. In manual order picking systems, narrow aisles can result in substantial waiting time compared to wide-aisle systems. The objective of this study is to analyse the joint effect of the two main operational order picking planning problems, storage location assignment and order picker routing, on or...

  7. A Routing Protocol Based on Received Signal Strength for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiju Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs are featured by long propagation delay, limited energy, narrow bandwidth, high BER (Bit Error Rate and variable topology structure. These features make it very difficult to design a short delay and high energy-efficiency routing protocol for UWSNs. In this paper, a routing protocol independent of location information is proposed based on received signal strength (RSS, which is called RRSS. In RRSS, a sensor node firstly establishes a vector from the node to a sink node; the length of the vector indicates the RSS of the beacon signal (RSSB from the sink node. A node selects the next-hop along the vector according to RSSB and the RSS of a hello packet (RSSH. The node nearer to the vector has higher priority to be a candidate next-hop. To avoid data packets being delivered to the neighbor nodes in a void area, a void-avoiding algorithm is introduced. In addition, residual energy is considered when selecting the next-hop. Meanwhile, we establish mathematic models to analyze the robustness and energy efficiency of RRSS. Lastly, we conduct extensive simulations, and the simulation results show RRSS can save energy consumption and decrease end-to-end delay.

  8. Game-Theory-Based Approach for Energy Routing in a Smart Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June S. Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small power plants and buildings with renewable power generation capability have recently been added to traditional central power plants. Through these facilities, prosumers appear to have a concurrent role in both energy production and consumption. Based on bidirectional power transfers by large numbers of prosumers, a smart microgrid has become an important factor in efficiently controlling the microgrids used in power markets and in conducting effective power trades among grids. In this paper, we present an approach utilizing the game theory for effective and efficient energy routing, which is a novel and challenging procedure for a smart microgrid network. First, we propose strategies for choosing the desired transaction price for both electricity surpluses and shortages to maximize profits through energy transactions. An optimization scheme is utilized to search for an energy route with minimum cost using the solving method used in a traditional transportation problem by treating the sale and purchase quantities as transportation supply and demand, respectively. To evaluate the effect of the proposed decision strategies, we simulated our mechanism, and the results proved that our mechanism yields results pursued by each strategy. Our proposed strategies will contribute to spreading a smart microgrid for enhancing the utilization of microgrids.

  9. A novel communication mechanism based on node potential multi-path routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Youjun; Zhang, Chuanhao; Jiang, YiMing; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    With the network scales rapidly and new network applications emerge frequently, bandwidth supply for today's Internet could not catch up with the rapid increasing requirements. Unfortunately, irrational using of network sources makes things worse. Actual network deploys single-next-hop optimization paths for data transmission, but such "best effort" model leads to the imbalance use of network resources and usually leads to local congestion. On the other hand Multi-path routing can use the aggregation bandwidth of multi paths efficiently and improve the robustness of network, security, load balancing and quality of service. As a result, multi-path has attracted much attention in the routing and switching research fields and many important ideas and solutions have been proposed. This paper focuses on implementing the parallel transmission of multi next-hop data, balancing the network traffic and reducing the congestion. It aimed at exploring the key technologies of the multi-path communication network, which could provide a feasible academic support for subsequent applications of multi-path communication networking. It proposed a novel multi-path algorithm based on node potential in the network. And the algorithm can fully use of the network link resource and effectively balance network link resource utilization.

  10. Key Management Scheme Based on Route Planning of Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many wireless sensor network application scenarios the key management scheme with a Mobile Sink (MS should be fully investigated. This paper proposes a key management scheme based on dynamic clustering and optimal-routing choice of MS. The concept of Traveling Salesman Problem with Neighbor areas (TSPN in dynamic clustering for data exchange is proposed, and the selection probability is used in MS route planning. The proposed scheme extends static key management to dynamic key management by considering the dynamic clustering and mobility of MSs, which can effectively balance the total energy consumption during the activities. Considering the different resources available to the member nodes and sink node, the session key between cluster head and MS is established by modified an ECC encryption with Diffie-Hellman key exchange (ECDH algorithm and the session key between member node and cluster head is built with a binary symmetric polynomial. By analyzing the security of data storage, data transfer and the mechanism of dynamic key management, the proposed scheme has more advantages to help improve the resilience of the key management system of the network on the premise of satisfying higher connectivity and storage efficiency.

  11. Key Management Scheme Based on Route Planning of Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Liang, Jixing; Zheng, Bingxin; Jiang, Shengming; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-29

    In many wireless sensor network application scenarios the key management scheme with a Mobile Sink (MS) should be fully investigated. This paper proposes a key management scheme based on dynamic clustering and optimal-routing choice of MS. The concept of Traveling Salesman Problem with Neighbor areas (TSPN) in dynamic clustering for data exchange is proposed, and the selection probability is used in MS route planning. The proposed scheme extends static key management to dynamic key management by considering the dynamic clustering and mobility of MSs, which can effectively balance the total energy consumption during the activities. Considering the different resources available to the member nodes and sink node, the session key between cluster head and MS is established by modified an ECC encryption with Diffie-Hellman key exchange (ECDH) algorithm and the session key between member node and cluster head is built with a binary symmetric polynomial. By analyzing the security of data storage, data transfer and the mechanism of dynamic key management, the proposed scheme has more advantages to help improve the resilience of the key management system of the network on the premise of satisfying higher connectivity and storage efficiency.

  12. Integrating policy-based management and SLA performance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzong-Jye; Lin, Chin-Yi; Chang, Shu-Hsin; Yen, Meng-Tzu

    2001-10-01

    Policy-based management system provides the configuration capability for the system administrators to focus on the requirements of customers. The service level agreement performance monitoring mechanism helps system administrators to verify the correctness of policies. However, it is difficult for a device to process the policies directly because the policies are the management concept. This paper proposes a mechanism to decompose a policy into rules that can be efficiently processed by a device. Thus, the device may process the rule and collect the performance statistics information efficiently; and the policy-based management system may collect these performance statistics information and report the service-level agreement performance monitoring information to the system administrator. The proposed policy-based management system achieves both the policy configuration and service-level agreement performance monitoring requirements. A policy consists of a condition part and an action part. The condition part is a Boolean expression of a source host IP group, a destination host IP group, etc. The action part is the parameters of services. We say that an address group is compact if it only consists of a range of IP address that can be denoted by a pair of IP address and corresponding IP mask. If the condition part of a policy only consists of the compact address group, we say that the policy is a rule. Since a device can efficiently process a compact address and a system administrator prefers to define a range of IP address, the policy-based management system has to translate policy into rules and supplements the gaps between policy and rules. The proposed policy-based management system builds the relationships between VPN and policies, policy and rules. Since the system administrator wants to monitor the system performance information of VPNs and policies, the proposed policy-based management system downloads the relationships among VPNs, policies and rules to the

  13. Interface Assignment-Based AODV Routing Protocol to Improve Reliability in Multi-Interface Multichannel Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Suk Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of wireless mesh networks (WMNs has greatly increased, and the multi-interface multichannel (MIMC technic has been widely used for the backbone network. Unfortunately, the ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing protocol defined in the IEEE 802.11s standard was designed for WMNs using the single-interface single-channel technic. So, we define a problem that happens when the legacy AODV is used in MIMC WMNs and propose an interface assignment-based AODV (IA-AODV in order to resolve that problem. IA-AODV, which is based on multitarget path request, consists of the PREQ prediction scheme, the PREQ loss recovery scheme, and the PREQ sender assignment scheme. A detailed operation according to various network conditions and services is introduced, and the routing efficiency and network reliability of a network using IA-AODV are analyzed over the presented system model. Finally, after a real-world test-bed for MIMC WMNs using the IA-AODV routing protocol is implemented, the various indicators of the network are evaluated through experiments. When the proposed routing protocol is compared with the existing AODV routing protocol, it performs the path update using only 14.33% of the management frames, completely removes the routing malfunction, and reduces the UDP packet loss ratio by 0.0012%.

  14. An Adaptive Clustering Approach Based on Minimum Travel Route Planning for Wireless Sensor Networks with a Mobile Sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiqiang; Yang, Wu; Zhu, Lingyun; Wang, Dong; Feng, Xin

    2017-04-26

    In recent years, Wireless Sensor Networks with a Mobile Sink (WSN-MS) have been an active research topic due to the widespread use of mobile devices. However, how to get the balance between data delivery latency and energy consumption becomes a key issue of WSN-MS. In this paper, we study the clustering approach by jointly considering the Route planning for mobile sink and Clustering Problem (RCP) for static sensor nodes. We solve the RCP problem by using the minimum travel route clustering approach, which applies the minimum travel route of the mobile sink to guide the clustering process. We formulate the RCP problem as an Integer Non-Linear Programming (INLP) problem to shorten the travel route of the mobile sink under three constraints: the communication hops constraint, the travel route constraint and the loop avoidance constraint. We then propose an Imprecise Induction Algorithm (IIA) based on the property that the solution with a small hop count is more feasible than that with a large hop count. The IIA algorithm includes three processes: initializing travel route planning with a Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) algorithm, transforming the cluster head to a cluster member and transforming the cluster member to a cluster head. Extensive experimental results show that the IIA algorithm could automatically adjust cluster heads according to the maximum hops parameter and plan a shorter travel route for the mobile sink. Compared with the Shortest Path Tree-based Data-Gathering Algorithm (SPT-DGA), the IIA algorithm has the characteristics of shorter route length, smaller cluster head count and faster convergence rate.

  15. An Overlay Architecture for Throughput Optimal Multipath Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-14

    maximum throughput. Finally, we propose a threshold-based policy (BP-T) and a heuristic policy (OBP), which dynamically control traffic bifurcations...network stability region is available . Second, given any subset of nodes that are controllable, we also wish to develop an optimal routing policy that...case when tunnels do not overlap. We also develop a heuristic overlay control policy for use on general topologies, and show through simulation that

  16. A model-based eco-routing strategy for electric vehicles in large urban networks

    OpenAIRE

    De Nunzio , Giovanni; Thibault , Laurent; Sciarretta , Antonio

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A novel eco-routing navigation strategy and energy consumption modeling approach for electric vehicles are presented in this work. Speed fluctuations and road network infrastructure have a large impact on vehicular energy consumption. Neglecting these effects may lead to large errors in eco-routing navigation, which could trivially select the route with the lowest average speed. We propose an energy consumption model that considers both accelerations and impact of the ...

  17. A Hybrid Node Scheduling Approach Based on Energy Efficient Chain Routing for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimei Kang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is usually a significant goal in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this work, an energy efficient chain (EEC data routing approach is first presented. The coverage and connectivity of WSNs are discussed based on EEC. A hybrid node scheduling approach is then proposed. It includes sleep scheduling for cyclically monitoring regions of interest in time-driven modes and wakeup scheduling for tracking emergency events in event-driven modes. A failure rate is introduced to the sleep scheduling to improve the reliability of the system. A wakeup sensor threshold and a sleep time threshold are introduced in the wakeup scheduling to reduce the consumption of energy to the possible extent. The results of the simulation show that the proposed algorithm can extend the effective lifetime of the network to twice that of PEAS. In addition, the proposed methods are computing efficient because they are very simple to implement.

  18. Canadian-based aircrew exposure from cosmic radiation on commercial airline routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, M.J.; Green, A.R.; Lewis, B.J.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Schrewe, U. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); O' Brien, K. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, Arizona (United States); Feldsberger, E. [University of Graz (Austria)

    2000-07-01

    As part of a continuing study on the occupational exposure of Canadian-based aircrew, a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) was used to monitor this exposure on 64 flight routes spanning a range of geomagnetic latitudes between 40{sup o}S and 85{sup o}N. The microdosimetric data obtained from these flights were compared to that obtained from several terrestrial sources and were used to characterize the radiation field at jet altitudes. From 20 000 ambient dose equivalent rates obtained at various altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes, a correlation was developed to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position, altitude and date. By integration of this dose rate function over a great circle flight path, a predictive code was developed to provide a total ambient dose equivalent prediction for a given flight. (author)

  19. An auxiliary optimization method for complex public transit route network based on link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Lu, Jian; Yue, Xianfei; Zhou, Jialin; Li, Yunxuan; Wan, Qian

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by the missing (new) link prediction and the spurious existing link identification in link prediction theory, this paper establishes an auxiliary optimization method for public transit route network (PTRN) based on link prediction. First, link prediction applied to PTRN is described, and based on reviewing the previous studies, the summary indices set and its algorithms set are collected for the link prediction experiment. Second, through analyzing the topological properties of Jinan’s PTRN established by the Space R method, we found that this is a typical small-world network with a relatively large average clustering coefficient. This phenomenon indicates that the structural similarity-based link prediction will show a good performance in this network. Then, based on the link prediction experiment of the summary indices set, three indices with maximum accuracy are selected for auxiliary optimization of Jinan’s PTRN. Furthermore, these link prediction results show that the overall layout of Jinan’s PTRN is stable and orderly, except for a partial area that requires optimization and reconstruction. The above pattern conforms to the general pattern of the optimal development stage of PTRN in China. Finally, based on the missing (new) link prediction and the spurious existing link identification, we propose optimization schemes that can be used not only to optimize current PTRN but also to evaluate PTRN planning.

  20. The Impact of European Traffic Policy and Traffic Routes on the Development of the Ports of Rijeka and Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Ivaković

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea ports are the key segment of the traffic and economicdevelopment of maritime countries. Pan-European transportcorridors include the most important sea pmts and sea routes.They are an extension of the existing land corridors.The most important and the most promising crossings oftraffic corridors between the Central European, Pannonianand Adriatic areas, with the naturally shortest traffic routes directedtowards the Croatian sea ports are Corridor 58 ( Rijeka-Zagreb-Budapest and Corridor 5c (Ploce-Sarajevo-Osijek--Budapest. The primary purpose of this work is to study the importanceof the existing trading conditions and new investmentundertakings in the context of increase in competitiveness of theports of Rijeka and Place.The authors' attention is particularly directed to the constructionof new port terminals to increase the traffic potentialsof the Croatian sea ports. The formed conception with its characteristics,the methodology applied, and research results representthe quality starting points in determining a uniform portpolicy of the Republic of Croatia within the European trafficsystem.

  1. Improvement of routes and production of CaSO4-based dosimeters with unusual doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junot, Danilo Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry, associated with the known risks that this type of radiation can cause, has motivated the search for new radiation detectors, seeking improvements in the dosimetric characteristics and in the cost of production in comparison with commercial dosimeters disseminated. The motivation of this work is, therefore, to produce new thermoluminescent detectors through improved routes. Unusual elements in CaSO 4 matrix doping, such as terbium (Tb) and ytterbium (Yb), were used as dopants in this matrix, as well as the europium (Eu), the thulium (Tm) and the silver (Ag), resulting in samples of CaSO 4 :Eu,Tb, CaSO 4 :Tb,Yb, CaSO 4 :Tm,Ag and CaSO 4 :Eu,Ag that were prepared by means of an adaptation of the method developed by Yamashita (1971). The route of synthesis is based on the mixture of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) and dopant oxide (except for silver, incorporated in the form of metallic nanoparticles) in a solution of sulfuric acid. The mixture is heated until all the acid evaporates and only the powder of the material remains. In this route, the sulfuric acid is collected and can be reused. The phosphors produced were characterized by X-ray diffraction and radioluminescence techniques. The silver particles, produced by the polyol method, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Composites were obtained from the addition of Teflon to the phosphors. The thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the new materials produced were investigated. Thermoluminescent characteristics such as sensitivity, linearity, reproducibility, minimum detectable dose, kinetic order and fading were evaluated and discussed. The CaSO 4 :Tb,Eu composites showed TL glow curves with peaks at temperatures of 170 °C, 270 °C and 340 °C. The CaSO 4 :Tb,Yb composites presented TL glow curves with peaks at temperatures of 90 °C, 160 °C, 240 °C and 340 °C. CaSO 4 :Tm showed peaks at

  2. Enhancing Evidence-Based Public Health Policy: Developing and Using Policy Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Lisa M; Kietzman, Kathryn G

    2016-06-01

    Academic researchers and clinicians have a critical role in shaping public policies to improve the health of an aging America. Policy narratives that pair personal stories with research statistics are a powerful tool to share knowledge generated in academic and clinical settings with policymakers. Effective policy narratives rely on a trustworthy and competent narrator and a compelling story that highlights the personal impact of policies under consideration and academic research that bolsters the story. Awareness of the cultural differences in the motivations, expectations, and institutional constraints of academic researchers and clinicians as information producers and U.S. Congress and federal agencies as information users is critical to the development of policy narratives that impact policy decisions. The current article describes the development and use of policy narratives to bridge cultures and enhance evidence-based public health policies that better meet the needs of older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 11-17.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of a Novel Relay Node Based Secure Routing Protocol Using Multiple Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumathy Perumal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data gathering and optimal path selection for wireless sensor networks (WSN using existing protocols result in collision. Increase in collision further increases the possibility of packet drop. Thus there is a necessity to eliminate collision during data aggregation. Increasing the efficiency is the need of the hour with maximum security. This paper is an effort to come up with a reliable and energy efficient WSN routing and secure protocol with minimum delay. This technique is named as relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS. This protocol finds the rendezvous point for optimal transmission of data using a “splitting tree” technique in tree-shaped network topology and then to determine all the subsequent positions of a sink the “Biased Random Walk” model is used. In case of an event, the sink gathers the data from all sources, when they are in the sensing range of rendezvous point. Otherwise relay node is selected from its neighbor to transfer packets from rendezvous point to sink. A symmetric key cryptography is used for secure transmission. The proposed relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS is experimented and simulation results are compared with Intelligent Agent-Based Routing (IAR protocol to prove that there is increase in the network lifetime compared with other routing protocols.

  4. A method for selection of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation route considering socioeconomic cost based on contingent valuation method (CVM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik

    2008-02-01

    A transportation of SNF may cause an additional radiation exposure to human beings. It means that the radiological risk should be estimated and managed quantitatively for the public who live near the shipments route. Before the SNF transportation is performed, the route selection is concluded based on the radiological risk estimated with RADTRAN code in existing method generally. It means the existing method for route selection is based only on the radiological health risk but there are not only the impacts related to the radiological health risk but also the socioeconomic impacts related to the cost. In this study, a new method and its numerical formula for route selection on transporting SNF is proposed based on cost estimation because there are several costs in transporting SNF. The total cost consists of radiological health cost, transportation cost, and socioeconomic cost. Each cost is defined properly to the characteristics of SNF transportation and many coefficients and variables describing the meaning of each cost are obtained or estimated through many surveys. Especially to get the socioeconomic cost, contingent valuation method (CVM) is used with a questionnaire. The socioeconomic cost estimation is the most important part of the total cost originated from transporting SNF because it is a very dominant cost in the total cost. The route selection regarding SNF transportation can be supported with the proposed method reasonably and unnecessary or exhausting controversies about the shipments could be avoided

  5. Potential air pollutant emission from private vehicles based on vehicle route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huboyo, H. S.; Handayani, W.; Samadikun, B. P.

    2017-06-01

    Air emissions related to the transportation sector has been identified as the second largest emitter of ambient air quality in Indonesia. This is due to large numbers of private vehicles commuting within the city as well as inter-city. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Semarang city involving 711 private vehicles consisting of cars and motorcycles. The survey was conducted in random parking lots across the Semarang districts and in vehicle workshops. Based on the parking lot survey, the average distance private cars travelled in kilometers (VKT) was 17,737 km/year. The machine start-up number of cars during weekdays; weekends were on average 5.19 and 3.79 respectively. For motorcycles the average of kilometers travelled was 27,092 km/year. The machine start-up number of motorcycles during weekdays and weekends were on average 5.84 and 3.98, respectively. The vehicle workshop survey showed the average kilometers travelled to be 9,510 km/year for motorcycles, while for private cars the average kilometers travelled was 21,347 km/year. Odometer readings for private cars showed a maximum of 3,046,509 km and a minimum of 700 km. Meanwhile, for motorcycles, odometer readings showed a maximum of 973,164 km and a minimum of roughly 54.24 km. Air pollutant emissions on East-West routes were generally higher than those on South-North routes. Motorcycles contribute significantly to urban air pollution, more so than cars. In this study, traffic congestion and traffic volume contributed much more to air pollution than the impact of fluctuating terrain.

  6. Alternative electro-chemically based processing routes for joining of plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.krauss@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Materials Research III, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lorenz, Julia; Holstein, Nils; Konys, Juergen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Materials Research III, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Tungsten is considered in fusion technology as functional and structural material in the area of blanket and divertor for future application in DEMO. The KIT design of a He-cooled divertor includes joints between W and W-alloys as well as of W with Eurofer-steel. The main challenges range from expansion mismatch problem for tungsten/steel joints over metallurgical reactions with brittle phase formation to crack stopping ability and excellent surface wetting. These requirements were only met partly and insufficiently in the past e.g. by direct Cu-casting of tungsten onto steel. Both, the joining needs and the observed failure scenarios of conventionally joined components initiated the development of improved joining technologies based on electro-chemical processing routes. As electrolytes aqueous and aprotic, water free, system are integrated into this development line. In the first step principle requirements are presented to guarantee a reproducible and adherent deposition of scales based on Ni and Cu acting as inter layers and filler, respectively, to generate a real metallurgical bonding as demonstrate by 1100 deg. C joining tests. The development field aprotic systems based on ionic liquids is discussed with respect to enable development of refractory metal based fillers with focus high temperature W-W brazing.

  7. New routes to the functionalization patterning and manufacture of graphene-based materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, A; Russo, S; Craciun, M F; Alexeev, A; Barnes, M D; Nagareddy, V K; Wright, C D

    2018-06-06

    Graphene-based materials are being widely explored for a range of biomedical applications, from targeted drug delivery to biosensing, bioimaging and use for antibacterial treatments, to name but a few. In many such applications, it is not graphene itself that is used as the active agent, but one of its chemically functionalized forms. The type of chemical species used for functionalization will play a key role in determining the utility of any graphene-based device in any particular biomedical application, because this determines to a large part its physical, chemical, electrical and optical interactions. However, other factors will also be important in determining the eventual uptake of graphene-based biomedical technologies, in particular the ease and cost of manufacture of proposed device and system designs. In this work, we describe three novel routes for the chemical functionalization of graphene using oxygen, iron chloride and fluorine. We also introduce novel in situ methods for controlling and patterning such functionalization on the micro- and nanoscales. Our approaches are readily transferable to large-scale manufacturing, potentially paving the way for the eventual cost-effective production of functionalized graphene-based materials, devices and systems for a range of important biomedical applications.

  8. An Adaptive QoS Routing Solution for MANET Based Multimedia Communications in Emergency Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramrekha, Tipu Arvind; Politis, Christos

    The Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) is a wireless network deprived of any fixed central authoritative routing entity. It relies entirely on collaborating nodes forwarding packets from source to destination. This paper describes the design, implementation and performance evaluation of CHAMELEON, an adaptive Quality of Service (QoS) routing solution, with improved delay and jitter performances, enabling multimedia communication for MANETs in extreme emergency situations such as forest fire and terrorist attacks as defined in the PEACE project. CHAMELEON is designed to adapt its routing behaviour according to the size of a MANET. The reactive Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and proactive Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocols are deemed appropriate for CHAMELEON through their performance evaluation in terms of delay and jitter for different MANET sizes in a building fire emergency scenario. CHAMELEON is then implemented in NS-2 and evaluated similarly. The paper concludes with a summary of findings so far and intended future work.

  9. PSO-Optimized Hopfield Neural Network-Based Multipath Routing for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Sheikhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a dynamic collection of mobile computers without the need for any existing infrastructure. Nodes in a MANET act as hosts and routers. Designing of robust routing algorithms for MANETs is a challenging task. Disjoint multipath routing protocols address this problem and increase the reliability, security and lifetime of network. However, selecting an optimal multipath is an NP-complete problem. In this paper, Hopfield neural network (HNN which its parameters are optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is proposed as multipath routing algorithm. Link expiration time (LET between each two nodes is used as the link reliability estimation metric. This approach can find either node-disjoint or link-disjoint paths in singlephase route discovery. Simulation results confirm that PSO-HNN routing algorithm has better performance as compared to backup path set selection algorithm (BPSA in terms of the path set reliability and number of paths in the set.

  10. The roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research – an introduction to a virtual special issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Van Poeck, Katrien; Reid, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the themes of a virtual special issue (VSI) of Environmental Education Research (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focused on policy research in environmental and sustainability education (ESE). The broad purpose behind preparing the VSI was to consider...... the challenges involved in linking particular concepts of environment and sustainability with key themes in educational policy, and how this remains a heavily contested practice. Examples drawn from two decades of studies published in the journal show how these might be illustrated, addressed, problematized...

  11. Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy for Delay Tolerant Network under City Based Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Ayub

    Full Text Available Delay Tolerant Network (DTN multi-copy routing protocols are privileged to create and transmit multiple copies of each message that causes congestion and some messages are dropped. This process is known as reactive drop because messages were dropped re-actively to overcome buffer overflows. The existing reactive buffer management policies apply a single metric to drop source, relay and destine messages. Hereby, selection to drop a message is dubious because each message as source, relay or destine may have consumed dissimilar magnitude of network resources. Similarly, DTN has included time to live (ttl parameter which defines lifetime of message. Hence, when ttl expires then message is automatically destroyed from relay nodes. However, time-to-live (ttl is not applicable on messages reached at their destinations. Moreover, nodes keep replicating messages till ttl expires even-though large number of messages has already been dispersed. In this paper, we have proposed Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy (PQB-R for DTN under City Based Environments. The PQB-R classifies buffered messages into source, relay and destine queues. Moreover, separate drop metric has been applied on individual queue. The experiment results prove that proposed PQB-R has reduced number of messages transmissions, message drop and increases delivery ratio.

  12. Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy for Delay Tolerant Network under City Based Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Qaisar; Ngadi, Asri; Rashid, Sulma; Habib, Hafiz Adnan

    2018-01-01

    Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) multi-copy routing protocols are privileged to create and transmit multiple copies of each message that causes congestion and some messages are dropped. This process is known as reactive drop because messages were dropped re-actively to overcome buffer overflows. The existing reactive buffer management policies apply a single metric to drop source, relay and destine messages. Hereby, selection to drop a message is dubious because each message as source, relay or destine may have consumed dissimilar magnitude of network resources. Similarly, DTN has included time to live (ttl) parameter which defines lifetime of message. Hence, when ttl expires then message is automatically destroyed from relay nodes. However, time-to-live (ttl) is not applicable on messages reached at their destinations. Moreover, nodes keep replicating messages till ttl expires even-though large number of messages has already been dispersed. In this paper, we have proposed Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy (PQB-R) for DTN under City Based Environments. The PQB-R classifies buffered messages into source, relay and destine queues. Moreover, separate drop metric has been applied on individual queue. The experiment results prove that proposed PQB-R has reduced number of messages transmissions, message drop and increases delivery ratio.

  13. A Scalable Policy and SNMP Based Network Management Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Su-ping; DING Yong-sheng

    2009-01-01

    Traditional SNMP-based network management can not deal with the task of managing large-scaled distributed network,while policy-based management is one of the effective solutions in network and distributed systems management. However,cross-vendor hardware compatibility is one of the limitations in policy-based management. Devices existing in current network mostly support SNMP rather than Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol. By analyzing traditional network management and policy-based network management, a scalable network management framework is proposed. It is combined with Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) framework for policybased management and SNMP-based network management. By interpreting and translating policy decision to SNMP message,policy can be executed in traditional SNMP-based device.

  14. Multi-Gateway-Based Energy Holes Avoidance Routing Protocol for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, efficient energy conservation is required to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this work, we have given emphasis on balanced energy consumption and energy holes avoidance. This paper proposes a multi-gateway-based approach to reduce the transmission distance between the sender and the sink node. The area to be monitored is divided into regions and gateway nodes are deployed at optimal positions. We have designed a transmission scheme, in which sensors in the sink region communicate directly to the sink, sensors in the gateway region communicate directly to the gateway, and sensors in the cluster region transmit their data directly to their respective cluster head which transmits data to the gateway in its region. If the distance between a cluster head and the sink is less than the distance between the cluster head and the gateway node, the cluster head transmits data to the sink instead of the gateway node. We have compared the proposed protocol with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, Gateway Based Energy Aware Multi-Hop Routing (M-GEAR, and Gateway Based Stable Election Protocol (GSEP protocols. The protocol performs better than other protocols in terms of throughput, stability period, lifetime, residual energy, and the packet transmitted to the sink.

  15. Fuzzy Weight Cluster-Based Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cluster-based protocol is a kind of important routing in wireless sensor networks. However, due to the uneven distribution of cluster heads in classical clustering algorithm, some nodes may run out of energy too early, which is not suitable for large-scale wireless sensor networks. In this paper, a distributed clustering algorithm based on fuzzy weighted attributes is put forward to ensure both energy efficiency and extensibility. On the premise of a comprehensive consideration of all attributes, the corresponding weight of each parameter is assigned by using the direct method of fuzzy engineering theory. Then, each node works out property value. These property values will be mapped to the time axis and be triggered by a timer to broadcast cluster headers. At the same time, the radio coverage method is adopted, in order to avoid collisions and to ensure the symmetrical distribution of cluster heads. The aggregated data are forwarded to the sink node in the form of multihop. The simulation results demonstrate that clustering algorithm based on fuzzy weighted attributes has a longer life expectancy and better extensibility than LEACH-like algorithms.

  16. Structuring AHP-based maintenance policy selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Adriaan; Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; Hummel, J. Marjan; van der Wegen, Leonardus L.M.

    2015-01-01

    We aim to structure the maintenance policy selection process for ships, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Maintenance is an important contributor to reach the intended life-time of capital technical assets, and it is gaining increasing interest and relevance. A maintenance policy is a

  17. Topographical memory for newly-learned maps is differentially affected by route-based versus landmark-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beatty, Erin L.; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Wojtarowicz, Dorothy

    2018-01-01

    on their ability to distinguish previously studied 'old' maps from completely unfamiliar 'new' maps under conditions of high and low working memory load in the functional MRI scanner. Viewing old versus new maps was associated with relatively greater activation in a distributed set of regions including bilateral...... inferior temporal gyrus - an important region for recognizing visual objects. Critically, whereas the performance of participants who had followed a route-based strategy dropped to chance level under high working memory load, participants who had followed a landmark-based strategy performed at above chance...... levels under both high and low working memory load - reflected by relatively greater activation in the left inferior parietal lobule (i.e. rostral part of the supramarginal gyrus known as area PFt). Our findings suggest that landmark-based learning may buffer against the effects of working memory load...

  18. A study of driver's route choice behavior based on evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Ji, Yanjie; Du, Muqing; Deng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers' route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver's route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver's route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  19. A Study of Driver’s Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers’ route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver’s route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver’s route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  20. OceanRoute: Vessel Mobility Data Processing and Analyzing Model Based on MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Liu, Yingjian; Guo, Zhongwen; Jing, Wei

    2018-06-01

    The network coverage is a big problem in ocean communication, and there is no low-cost solution in the short term. Based on the knowledge of Mobile Delay Tolerant Network (MDTN), the mobility of vessels can create the chances of end-to-end communication. The mobility pattern of vessel is one of the key metrics on ocean MDTN network. Because of the high cost, few experiments have focused on research of vessel mobility pattern for the moment. In this paper, we study the traces of more than 4000 fishing and freight vessels. Firstly, to solve the data noise and sparsity problem, we design two algorithms to filter the noise and complement the missing data based on the vessel's turning feature. Secondly, after studying the traces of vessels, we observe that the vessel's traces are confined by invisible boundary. Thirdly, through defining the distance between traces, we design MR-Similarity algorithm to find the mobility pattern of vessels. Finally, we realize our algorithm on cluster and evaluate the performance and accuracy. Our results can provide the guidelines on design of data routing protocols on ocean MDTN.

  1. SPRINT-SELF: Social-Based Routing and Selfish Node Detection in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ioan Ciobanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since mobile devices nowadays have become ubiquitous, several types of networks formed over such devices have been proposed. One such approach is represented by opportunistic networking, which is based on a store-carry-and-forward paradigm, where nodes store data and carry it until they reach a suitable node for forwarding. The problem in such networks is how to decide what the next hop will be, since nodes do not have a global view of the network. We propose using the social network information of a node when performing routing, since a node is more likely to encounter members of its own social community than other nodes. In addition, we approximate a node’s contact as a Poisson distribution and show that we can predict its future behavior based on the contact history. Furthermore, since opportunistic network nodes may be selfish, we improve our solution by adding a selfish node detection and avoidance mechanism, which can help reduce the number of unnecessary messages sent in the network, and thus avoid congestion and decrease battery consumption. We show that our algorithm outperforms existing solutions such as BUBBLE Rap and Epidemic in terms of delivery cost and hit rate, as well as the rate of congestion introduced in the network, by testing in various realistic scenarios.

  2. Research on the Method of Urban Waterlogging Flood Routing Based on Hexagonal Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAI Guangling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An evolution of the urban waterlogging flood routing was studied in this paper based on the method of hexagonal grid modeling. Using the method of discrete grid, established an urban geometry model on account of the regular multi-scale discrete grid. With the fusion of 3D topographic survey data and 2D building vector data, formed a regular network model of surface. This model took multi special block into account, such as urban terrain and buildings. On this basis, a method of reverse flow deduction was proposed, which was an inverse computation from the state of flood to the evolution process. That is, based on the water depth of flood, made use of the connectivity with the outfall to calculate the range of water logging, and then implemented the urban waterlogging flood simulation deduction. The test indicated that, this method can implement the evolution of urban waterlogging scenario deduction effectively. And the correlational research could provide scientific basis for urban disaster prevention and emergency decision-making.

  3. Novel route of synthesis for cellulose fiber-based hybrid polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhwan, F. H.; Ilmiati, S.; Kurnia Adi, H.; Arumsari, R.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    Polyurethanes, obtained by the reaction of a diisocyanate compound with bifunctional or multifunctional reagent such as diols or polyols, have been studied intensively and well developed. The wide range modifier such as chemical structures and molecular weight to build polyurethanes led to designs of materials that may easily meet the functional product demand and to the extraordinary spreading of these materials in market. Properties of the obtained polymer are related to the chemical structure of polyurethane backbone. A number polyurethanes prepared from biomass-based monomers have been reported. Cellulose fiber, as a biomass material is containing abundant hydroxyl, promising material as chain extender for building hybrid polyurethanes. In previous researches, cellulose fiber was used as filler in synthesis of polyurethane composites. This paper reported a novel route of hybrid polyurethane synthesis, which a cellulose fiber was used as chain extender. The experiment performed by reacting 4,4’-Methylenebis (cyclohexyl isocyanate) (HMDI) and polyethylene glycol with variation of molecular weight to obtained pre-polyurethane, continued by adding micro fiber cellulose (MFC) with variation of type and composition in the mixture. The experiment was evaluated by NMR, FTIR, SEM and STA measurement. NMR and FTIR confirmed the reaction of the hybrid polyurethane. STA showed hybrid polyurethane has good thermal stability. SEM showed good distribution and dispersion of sorghum-based MFC.

  4. A TOTP-Based Enhanced Route Optimization Procedure for Mobile IPv6 to Reduce Handover Delay and Signalling Overhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Peer Azmat; Hasbullah, Halabi B.; Lawal, Ibrahim A.; Aminu Mu'azu, Abubakar; Tang Jung, Low

    2014-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of handheld mobile devices, multimedia applications like Voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, network music, and online gaming are gaining popularity in recent years. These applications are well known to be delay sensitive and resource demanding. The mobility of mobile devices, running these applications, across different networks causes delay and service disruption. Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6-based mobile nodes for continuous communication when they roam across different networks. However, the Route Optimization procedure in Mobile IPv6 involves the verification of mobile node's reachability at the home address and at the care-of address (home test and care-of test) that results in higher handover delays and signalling overhead. This paper presents an enhanced procedure, time-based one-time password Route Optimization (TOTP-RO), for Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization that uses the concepts of shared secret Token, time based one-time password (TOTP) along with verification of the mobile node via direct communication and maintaining the status of correspondent node's compatibility. The TOTP-RO was implemented in network simulator (NS-2) and an analytical analysis was also made. Analysis showed that TOTP-RO has lower handover delays, packet loss, and signalling overhead with an increased level of security as compared to the standard Mobile IPv6's Return-Routability-based Route Optimization (RR-RO). PMID:24688398

  5. A TOTP-Based Enhanced Route Optimization Procedure for Mobile IPv6 to Reduce Handover Delay and Signalling Overhead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer Azmat Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the proliferation of handheld mobile devices, multimedia applications like Voice over IP (VoIP, video conferencing, network music, and online gaming are gaining popularity in recent years. These applications are well known to be delay sensitive and resource demanding. The mobility of mobile devices, running these applications, across different networks causes delay and service disruption. Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6-based mobile nodes for continuous communication when they roam across different networks. However, the Route Optimization procedure in Mobile IPv6 involves the verification of mobile node’s reachability at the home address and at the care-of address (home test and care-of test that results in higher handover delays and signalling overhead. This paper presents an enhanced procedure, time-based one-time password Route Optimization (TOTP-RO, for Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization that uses the concepts of shared secret Token, time based one-time password (TOTP along with verification of the mobile node via direct communication and maintaining the status of correspondent node’s compatibility. The TOTP-RO was implemented in network simulator (NS-2 and an analytical analysis was also made. Analysis showed that TOTP-RO has lower handover delays, packet loss, and signalling overhead with an increased level of security as compared to the standard Mobile IPv6’s Return-Routability-based Route Optimization (RR-RO.

  6. Data-Based Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensors Networks – Tabuk Flood Monitoring System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Babiker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has been considered as the most important issue in wireless sensor networks. As in many applications, wireless sensors are scattered in a wide harsh area, where the battery replacement or charging will be quite difficult and it is the most important challenge. Therefore, the design of energy saving mechanism becomes mandatory in most recent research. In this paper, a new energy efficient clustered routing protocol is proposed: the proposed protocol is based on analyzing the data collected from the sensors in a base-station. Based on this analysis the cluster head will be selected as the one with the most useful data. Then, a variable time slot is specified to each sensor to minimize the transmission of repetitive and un-useful data. The proposed protocol Data-Based Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensors Networks (DCRP was compared with the famous energy efficient LEACH protocol and also with one of the recent energy efficient routing protocols named Position Responsive Routing Protocol (PRRP. DCRP has been used in monitoring the floods in Tabuk area –Saudi Arabia. It shows comparatively better results.

  7. A TOTP-based enhanced route optimization procedure for mobile IPv6 to reduce handover delay and signalling overhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Peer Azmat; Hasbullah, Halabi B; Lawal, Ibrahim A; Aminu Mu'azu, Abubakar; Tang Jung, Low

    2014-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of handheld mobile devices, multimedia applications like Voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, network music, and online gaming are gaining popularity in recent years. These applications are well known to be delay sensitive and resource demanding. The mobility of mobile devices, running these applications, across different networks causes delay and service disruption. Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6-based mobile nodes for continuous communication when they roam across different networks. However, the Route Optimization procedure in Mobile IPv6 involves the verification of mobile node's reachability at the home address and at the care-of address (home test and care-of test) that results in higher handover delays and signalling overhead. This paper presents an enhanced procedure, time-based one-time password Route Optimization (TOTP-RO), for Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization that uses the concepts of shared secret Token, time based one-time password (TOTP) along with verification of the mobile node via direct communication and maintaining the status of correspondent node's compatibility. The TOTP-RO was implemented in network simulator (NS-2) and an analytical analysis was also made. Analysis showed that TOTP-RO has lower handover delays, packet loss, and signalling overhead with an increased level of security as compared to the standard Mobile IPv6's Return-Routability-based Route Optimization (RR-RO).

  8. Adaptive MANET Multipath Routing Algorithm Based on the Simulated Annealing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize network topologies without any preexisting communication infrastructure. Due to characteristics like temporary topology and absence of centralized authority, routing is one of the major issues in ad hoc networks. In this paper, a new multipath routing scheme is proposed by employing simulated annealing approach. The proposed metaheuristic approach can achieve greater and reciprocal advantages in a hostile dynamic real world network situation. Therefore, the proposed routing scheme is a powerful method for finding an effective solution into the conflict mobile ad hoc network routing problem. Simulation results indicate that the proposed paradigm adapts best to the variation of dynamic network situations. The average remaining energy, network throughput, packet loss probability, and traffic load distribution are improved by about 10%, 10%, 5%, and 10%, respectively, more than the existing schemes.

  9. Secure Route Structures for Parallel Mobile Agents Based Systems Using Fast Binary Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a distributed environment, where a large number of computers are connected together to enable the large-scale sharing of data and computing resources, agents, especially mobile agents, are the tools for autonomously completing tasks on behalf of their owners. For applications of large-scale mobile agents, security and efficiency are of great concern. In this paper, we present a fast binary dispatch model and corresponding secure route structures for mobile agents dispatched in parallel to protect the dispatch routes of agents while ensuring the dispatch efficiency. The fast binary dispatch model is simple but efficient with a dispatch complexity of O(log2n. The secure route structures adopt the combination of public-key encryption and digital signature schemes and expose minimal route information to hosts. The nested structure can help detect attacks as early as possible. We evaluated the various models both analytically and empirically.

  10. A Sociability-Based Routing Scheme for Delay-Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabbri Flavio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of choosing the best forwarders in Delay-Tolerant Networks (DTNs is crucial for minimizing the delay in packet delivery and for keeping the amount of generated traffic under control. In this paper, we introduce sociable routing, a novel routing strategy that selects a subset of optimal forwarders among all the nodes and relies on them for an efficient delivery. The key idea is that of assigning to each network node a time-varying scalar parameter which captures its social behavior in terms of frequency and types of encounters. This sociability concept is widely discussed and mathematically formalized. Simulation results of a DTN of vehicles in urban environment, driven by real mobility traces, and employing sociable routing, is presented. Encouraging results show that sociable routing, compared to other known protocols, achieves a good compromise in terms of delay performance and amount of generated traffic.

  11. Routing and wavelength assignment based on normalized resource and constraints for all-optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Seong-Soon; Nam, Hyun-Soon; Lim, Chang-Kyu

    2003-08-01

    With the rapid growth of the Optical Internet, high capacity pipes is finally destined to support end-to-end IP on the WDM optical network. Newly launched 2D MEMS optical switching module in the market supports that expectations of upcoming a transparent optical cross-connect in the network have encouraged the field applicable research on establishing real all-optical transparent network. To open up a customer-driven bandwidth services, design of the optical transport network becomes more challenging task in terms of optimal network resource usage. This paper presents a practical approach to finding a route and wavelength assignment for wavelength routed all-optical network, which has λ-plane OXC switches and wavelength converters, and supports that optical paths are randomly set up and released by dynamic wavelength provisioning to create bandwidth between end users with timescales on the order of seconds or milliseconds. We suggest three constraints to make the RWA problem become more practical one on deployment for wavelength routed all-optical network in network view: limitation on maximum hop of a route within bearable optical network impairments, limitation on minimum hops to travel before converting a wavelength, and limitation on calculation time to find all routes for connections requested at once. We design the NRCD (Normalized Resource and Constraints for All-Optical Network RWA Design) algorithm for the Tera OXC: network resource for a route is calculated by the number of internal switching paths established in each OXC nodes on the route, and is normalized by ratio of number of paths established and number of paths equipped in a node. We show that it fits for the RWA algorithm of the wavelength routed all-optical network through real experiments on the distributed objects platform.

  12. Label-based routing for a family of scale-free, modular, planar and unclustered graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comellas, Francesc; Miralles, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    We give an optimal labeling and routing algorithm for a family of scale-free, modular and planar graphs with zero clustering. The relevant properties of this family match those of some networks associated with technological and biological systems with a low clustering, including some electronic circuits and protein networks. The existence of an efficient routing protocol for this graph model should help when designing communication algorithms in real networks and also in the understanding of their dynamic processes.

  13. Location aware event driven multipath routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Agent based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Sutagundar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs demand reliable and energy efficient paths for critical information delivery to sink node from an event occurrence node. Multipath routing facilitates reliable data delivery in case of critical information. This paper proposes an event triggered multipath routing in WSNs by employing a set of static and mobile agents. Every sensor node is assumed to know the location information of the sink node and itself. The proposed scheme works as follows: (1 Event node computes the arbitrary midpoint between an event node and the sink node by using location information. (2 Event node establishes a shortest path from itself to the sink node through the reference axis by using a mobile agent with the help of location information; the mobile agent collects the connectivity information and other parameters of all the nodes on the way and provides the information to the sink node. (3 Event node finds the arbitrary location of the special (middle intermediate nodes (above/below reference axis by using the midpoint location information given in step 1. (4 Mobile agent clones from the event node and the clones carry the event type and discover the path passing through special intermediate nodes; the path above/below reference axis looks like an arc. While migrating from one sensor node to another along the traversed path, each mobile agent gathers the node information (such as node id, location information, residual energy, available bandwidth, and neighbors connectivity and delivers to the sink node. (5 The sink node constructs a partial topology, connecting event and sink node by using the connectivity information delivered by the mobile agents. Using the partial topology information, sink node finds the multipath and path weight factor by using link efficiency, energy ratio, and hop distance. (6 The sink node selects the number of paths among the available paths based upon the criticalness of an event, and (7 if the event is non

  14. Multicolor Tunable Luminescence Based on Tb3+/Eu3+ Doping through a Facile Hydrothermal Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhou, Ting; Jiang, Jing; Geng, Huiyuan; Ning, Zhanglei; Lai, Xin; Bi, Jian; Gao, Daojiang

    2017-08-09

    Ln 3+ -doped fluoride is a far efficient material for realizing multicolor emission, which plays an important part in full-color displays, biolabeling, and MRI. However, studies on the multicolor tuning properties of Ln 3+ -doped fluoride are mainly concentrated on a complicated process using three or more dopants, and the principle of energy transfer mechanism is still unclear. Herein, multicolor tunable emission is successfully obtained only by codoping with Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ ions in β-NaGdF 4 submicrocrystals via a facile hydrothermal route. Our work reveals that various emission colors can be obtained and tuned from red, orange-red, pink, and blue-green to green under single excitation energy via codoping Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ with rationally changed Eu 3+ /Tb 3+ molar ratio due to the energy transfer between Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ ions in the β-NaGdF 4 host matrix. Meanwhile, the energy transfer mechanism in β-NaGdF 4 : x Eu 3+ /y Tb 3+ (x + y = 5 mol %) submicrocrystals is investigated. Our results evidence the potential of the dopants' distribution density as an effective way for analyzing energy transfer and multicolor-controlled mechanism in other rare earth fluoride luminescence materials. Discussions on the multicolor luminescence under a certain dopant concentration based on single host and wavelength excitation are essential toward the goal of the practical applications in the field of light display systems and optoelectronic devices.

  15. An Energy Efficient Stable Election-Based Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensor nodes usually have limited energy supply and they are impractical to recharge. How to balance traffic load in sensors in order to increase network lifetime is a very challenging research issue. Many clustering algorithms have been proposed recently for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, sensor networks with one fixed sink node often suffer from a hot spots problem since nodes near sinks have more traffic burden to forward during a multi-hop transmission process. The use of mobile sinks has been shown to be an effective technique to enhance network performance features such as latency, energy efficiency, network lifetime, etc. In this paper, a modified Stable Election Protocol (SEP, which employs a mobile sink, has been proposed for WSNs with non-uniform node distribution. The decision of selecting cluster heads by the sink is based on the minimization of the associated additional energy and residual energy at each node. Besides, the cluster head selects the shortest path to reach the sink between the direct approach and the indirect approach with the use of the nearest cluster head. Simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance than traditional routing algorithms, such as LEACH and SEP.

  16. Efficient routing on scale-free networks based on local information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Chuanyang; Wang Binghong; Wang Wenxu; Zhou Tao; Yang Huijie

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a new routing strategy with a single tunable parameter α only based on local information of network topology. The probability that a given node i with degree k i receives packets from its neighbors is proportional to k i α . In order to maximize the packets handling capacity of underlying structure that can be measured by the critical point of continuous phase transition from free flow to congestion, the optimal value of α is sought out. Through investigating the distributions of queue length on each node in free state, we give an explanation why the delivering capacity of the network can be enhanced by choosing the optimal α. Furthermore, dynamic properties right after the critical point are also studied. Interestingly, it is found that although the system enters the congestion state, it still possesses partial delivering capability which does not depend on α. This phenomenon suggests that the capacity of the scale-free network can be enhanced by increasing the forwarding ability of small important nodes which bear severe congestion

  17. Capacitated vehicle routing problem for PSS uses based on ubiquitous computing: An emerging markets approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ochoa-Ortíz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El problema de ruteo de vehículos bajo las limitaciones de capacidad y basado en computación ubicua desde una perspectiva relacionada con PSS (Producto-Servicio de Sistemas para desarrollar configuraciones para el transporte urbano de mercancías es abordado. Éste trabajo considera las especificidades de la logística urbana bajo un contexto de mercados emergentes. En este caso, involucra: i bajas competencias logísticas de los tomadores de decisiones; ii la limitada disponibilidad de datos; y iii restringido acceso a tecnología de alto desempeño para calcular rutas de transporte óptimas. Por lo tanto, se propone el uso de un software libre que proporciona soluciones de bajo costo (en tiempo y recursos. El artículo muestra la aplicación de los resultados de una herramienta de software basado en la Teoría de Grafos utilizado para analizar y resolver un CVRP (Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem. Se utilizó el caso de una empresa local de distribución de alimentos situada en una gran ciudad de México. Sobre la base de una flora de vehículos pequeños, todos con las mismas especificaciones técnicas y una capacidad de carga comparable.

  18. Cooperative and Adaptive Network Coding for Gradient Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Migabo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its low computational cost, the Gradient Based Routing (GBR broadcast of interest messages in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs causes significant packets duplications and unnecessary packets transmissions. This results in energy wastage, traffic load imbalance, high network traffic, and low throughput. Thanks to the emergence of fast and powerful processors, the development of efficient network coding strategies is expected to enable efficient packets aggregations and reduce packets retransmissions. For multiple sinks WSNs, the challenge consists of efficiently selecting a suitable network coding scheme. This article proposes a Cooperative and Adaptive Network Coding for GBR (CoAdNC-GBR technique which considers the network density as dynamically defined by the average number of neighbouring nodes, to efficiently aggregate interest messages. The aggregation is performed by means of linear combinations of random coefficients of a finite Galois Field of variable size GF(2S at each node and the decoding is performed by means of Gaussian elimination. The obtained results reveal that, by exploiting the cooperation of the multiple sinks, the CoAdNC-GBR not only improves the transmission reliability of links and lowers the number of transmissions and the propagation latency, but also enhances the energy efficiency of the network when compared to the GBR-network coding (GBR-NC techniques.

  19. An Improved Routing Optimization Algorithm Based on Travelling Salesman Problem for Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixue Xiong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A social network is a social structure, which is organized by the relationships or interactions between individuals or groups. Humans link the physical network with social network, and the services in the social world are based on data and analysis, which directly influence decision making in the physical network. In this paper, we focus on a routing optimization algorithm, which solves a well-known and popular problem. Ant colony algorithm is proposed to solve this problem effectively, but random selection strategy of the traditional algorithm causes evolution speed to be slow. Meanwhile, positive feedback and distributed computing model make the algorithm quickly converge. Therefore, how to improve convergence speed and search ability of algorithm is the focus of the current research. The paper proposes the improved scheme. Considering the difficulty about searching for next better city, new parameters are introduced to improve probability of selection, and delay convergence speed of algorithm. To avoid the shortest path being submerged, and improve sensitive speed of finding the shortest path, it updates pheromone regulation formula. The results show that the improved algorithm can effectively improve convergence speed and search ability for achieving higher accuracy and optimal results.

  20. A Trust-Based Secure Routing Scheme Using the Traceback Approach for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiawei; Liu, Anfeng; Zhang, Jian; Xiong, Neal N; Zeng, Zhiwen; Wang, Tian

    2018-03-01

    The Internet of things (IoT) is composed of billions of sensing devices that are subject to threats stemming from increasing reliance on communications technologies. A Trust-Based Secure Routing (TBSR) scheme using the traceback approach is proposed to improve the security of data routing and maximize the use of available energy in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EHWSNs). The main contributions of a TBSR are (a) the source nodes send data and notification to sinks through disjoint paths, separately; in such a mechanism, the data and notification can be verified independently to ensure their security. (b) Furthermore, the data and notification adopt a dynamic probability of marking and logging approach during the routing. Therefore, when attacked, the network will adopt the traceback approach to locate and clear malicious nodes to ensure security. The probability of marking is determined based on the level of battery remaining; when nodes harvest more energy, the probability of marking is higher, which can improve network security. Because if the probability of marking is higher, the number of marked nodes on the data packet routing path will be more, and the sink will be more likely to trace back the data packet routing path and find malicious nodes according to this notification. When data packets are routed again, they tend to bypass these malicious nodes, which make the success rate of routing higher and lead to improved network security. When the battery level is low, the probability of marking will be decreased, which is able to save energy. For logging, when the battery level is high, the network adopts a larger probability of marking and smaller probability of logging to transmit notification to the sink, which can reserve enough storage space to meet the storage demand for the period of the battery on low level; when the battery level is low, increasing the probability of logging can reduce energy consumption. After the level of battery

  1. A Trust-Based Secure Routing Scheme Using the Traceback Approach for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of things (IoT is composed of billions of sensing devices that are subject to threats stemming from increasing reliance on communications technologies. A Trust-Based Secure Routing (TBSR scheme using the traceback approach is proposed to improve the security of data routing and maximize the use of available energy in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EHWSNs. The main contributions of a TBSR are (a the source nodes send data and notification to sinks through disjoint paths, separately; in such a mechanism, the data and notification can be verified independently to ensure their security. (b Furthermore, the data and notification adopt a dynamic probability of marking and logging approach during the routing. Therefore, when attacked, the network will adopt the traceback approach to locate and clear malicious nodes to ensure security. The probability of marking is determined based on the level of battery remaining; when nodes harvest more energy, the probability of marking is higher, which can improve network security. Because if the probability of marking is higher, the number of marked nodes on the data packet routing path will be more, and the sink will be more likely to trace back the data packet routing path and find malicious nodes according to this notification. When data packets are routed again, they tend to bypass these malicious nodes, which make the success rate of routing higher and lead to improved network security. When the battery level is low, the probability of marking will be decreased, which is able to save energy. For logging, when the battery level is high, the network adopts a larger probability of marking and smaller probability of logging to transmit notification to the sink, which can reserve enough storage space to meet the storage demand for the period of the battery on low level; when the battery level is low, increasing the probability of logging can reduce energy consumption. After the level of

  2. Illicit Drugs, Policing and the Evidence-Based Policy Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari

    2013-01-01

    The mantra of evidence-based policy (EBP) suggests that endeavours to implement evidence-based policing will produce better outcomes. However there is dissonance between the rhetoric of EBP and the actuality of policing policy. This disjuncture is critically analysed using the case study of illicit drugs policing. The dissonance may be ameliorated…

  3. Unmanned Aerial ad Hoc Networks: Simulation-Based Evaluation of Entity Mobility Models’ Impact on Routing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Daniel Medjo Me Biomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An unmanned aerial ad hoc network (UAANET is a special type of mobile ad hoc network (MANET. For these networks, researchers rely mostly on simulations to evaluate their proposed networking protocols. Hence, it is of great importance that the simulation environment of a UAANET replicates as much as possible the reality of UAVs. One major component of that environment is the movement pattern of the UAVs. This means that the mobility model used in simulations has to be thoroughly understood in terms of its impact on the performance of the network. In this paper, we investigate how mobility models affect the performance of UAANET in simulations in order to come up with conclusions/recommendations that provide a benchmark for future UAANET simulations. To that end, we first propose a few metrics to evaluate the mobility models. Then, we present five random entity mobility models that allow nodes to move almost freely and independently from one another and evaluate four carefully-chosen MANET/UAANET routing protocols: ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV, optimized link state routing (OLSR, reactive-geographic hybrid routing (RGR and geographic routing protocol (GRP. In addition, flooding is also evaluated. The results show a wide variation of the protocol performance over different mobility models. These performance differences can be explained by the mobility model characteristics, and we discuss these effects. The results of our analysis show that: (i the enhanced Gauss–Markov (EGM mobility model is best suited for UAANET; (ii OLSR, a table-driven proactive routing protocol, and GRP, a position-based geographic protocol, are the protocols most sensitive to the change of mobility models; (iii RGR, a reactive-geographic hybrid routing protocol, is best suited for UAANET.

  4. A novel power efficient location-based cooperative routing with transmission power-upper-limit for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-05-15

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate.

  5. A Novel Power Efficient Location-Based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-Upper-Limit for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate. PMID:23676625

  6. Policy and Validity Prospects for Performance-Based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article describes performance-based assessment as expounded by its proponents, comments on these conceptions, reviews evidence regarding the technical quality of performance-based assessment, and considers its validity under various policy options. (JDD)

  7. CCS-DTN: clustering and network coding-based efficient routing in social DTNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenjing; Ma, Maode; Jin, Zhigang

    2014-12-25

    With the development of mobile Internet, wireless communication via mobile devices has become a hot research topic, which is typically in the form of Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). One critical issue in the development of DTNs is routing. Although there is a lot research work addressing routing issues in DTNs, they cannot produce an advanced solution to the comprehensive challenges since only one or two aspects (nodes' movements, clustering, centricity and so on) are considered when the routing problem is handled. In view of these defects in the existing works, we propose a novel solution to address the routing issue in social DTNs. By this solution, mobile nodes are divided into different clusters. The scheme, Spray and Wait, is used for the intra-cluster communication while a new forwarding mechanism is designed for the inter-cluster version. In our solution, the characteristics of nodes and the relation between nodes are fully considered. The simulation results show that our proposed scheme can significantly improve the performance of the routing scheme in social DTNs.

  8. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  9. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  10. Evaluation of powder metallurgical processing routes for multi-component niobium silicide-based high-temperature alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemueller, Hans Christoph Maximilian

    2016-03-22

    Niobium silicide-based composites are potential candidates to replace nickel-base superalloys for turbine applications. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility and differences in ensuing properties of various powder metallurgical processing techniques that are capable of manufacturing net-shape turbine components. Two routes for powder production, mechanical alloying and gas atomization were combined with compaction via hot isostatic pressing and powder injection molding.

  11. Roteamento de veículos com base em sistemas de informação geográfica Vehicle routing based on geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Diéguez Galvão

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Um algoritmo para roteamento de veículos é integrado a um Sistema de Informação Geográfica, de cuja base de dados obtém as informações necessárias para o roteamento e no qual mostra as rotas resultantes. O algoritmo de roteamento utilizado tem como base a metaheurística de simulated annealing, que apresenta neste caso resultados computacionais de boa qualidade. Descrevemos a interface do algoritmo com um SIG específico e a aplicação do sistema resultante a um programa de entregas simulado, no bairro de Copacabana, no Rio de Janeiro.An algorithm for vehicle routing is embedded into a Geographical Information System (GIS, from the database of which it extracts the information needed for the routing and where it displays the resulting routes. The routing algorithm is a simulated annealing metaheuristic that produces good quality routes in reduced computational times. We describe the embedding of the algorithm into a specific GIS software and the application of the routing system to a simulated delivery schedule in the neighbourhood of Copacabana, in Rio de Janeiro.

  12. Base-stock policies with reservations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Foreest, Nicky D.; Teunter, Ruud H.; Syntetos, Aris A.

    2018-01-01

    All intensively studied and widely applied inventory control policies satisfy demand in accordance with the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) rule, whether this demand is in backorder or not. Interestingly, this rule is sub-optimal when the fill-rate is constrained or when the backorder cost structure

  13. Energy neutral protocol based on hierarchical routing techniques for energy harvesting wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Umar B.; Ezugwu, Absalom E.; Ofem, Paulinus O.; Rajamäki, Jyri; Aderemi, Adewumi O.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, researchers in the field of wireless sensor networks have resorted to energy harvesting techniques that allows energy to be harvested from the ambient environment to power sensor nodes. Using such Energy harvesting techniques together with proper routing protocols, an Energy Neutral state can be achieved so that sensor nodes can run perpetually. In this paper, we propose an Energy Neutral LEACH routing protocol which is an extension to the traditional LEACH protocol. The goal of the proposed protocol is to use Gateway node in each cluster so as to reduce the data transmission ranges of cluster head nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol achieves a higher throughput and ensure the energy neutral status of the entire network.

  14. Modified Pagerank Algorithm Based Real-Time Metropolitan Vehicular Traffic Routing Using GPS Crowdsourcing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adithya Guru Vaishnav.S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a theoretical framework to find an optimized route from any source to destination considering the real-time traffic congestion issues. The distance of various possible routes from the source and destination are calculated and a PathRank is allocated in the descending order of distance to each possible path. Each intermediate locations are considered as nodes of a graph and the edges are represented by real-time traffic flow monitored using GoogleMaps GPS crowdsourcing data. The Page Rank is calculated for each intermediate node. From the values of PageRank and PathRank the minimum sum term is used to find an optimized route with minimal trade-off between shortest path and real-time traffic.

  15. Research on distributed QOS routing algorithm based on TCP/IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Chen, Yongqiang

    2011-10-01

    At present, network environment follow protocol standard of IPV4 is intended to do the best effort of network to provide network applied service for users, however, not caring about service quality.Thus the packet loss rate is high, it cannot reach an ideal applied results. This article through the establishment of mathematical model, put forward a new distributed multi QOS routing algorithm, given the realization process of this distributed QOS routing algorithm, and simulation was carried out by simulation software. The results show the proposed algorithm can improve the utilization rate of network resources and the service quality of network application.

  16. Dynamic Weather Routes: A Weather Avoidance Concept for Trajectory-Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, B. David; Love, John

    2011-01-01

    The integration of convective weather modeling with trajectory automation for conflict detection, trial planning, direct routing, and auto resolution has uncovered a concept that could help controllers, dispatchers, and pilots identify improved weather routes that result in significant savings in flying time and fuel burn. Trajectory automation continuously and automatically monitors aircraft in flight to find those that could potentially benefit from improved weather reroutes. Controllers, dispatchers, and pilots then evaluate reroute options to assess their suitability given current weather and traffic. In today's operations aircraft fly convective weather avoidance routes that were implemented often hours before aircraft approach the weather and automation does not exist to automatically monitor traffic to find improved weather routes that open up due to changing weather conditions. The automation concept runs in real-time and employs two keysteps. First, a direct routing algorithm automatically identifies flights with large dog legs in their routes and therefore potentially large savings in flying time. These are common - and usually necessary - during convective weather operations and analysis of Fort Worth Center traffic shows many aircraft with short cuts that indicate savings on the order of 10 flying minutes. The second and most critical step is to apply trajectory automation with weather modeling to determine what savings could be achieved by modifying the direct route such that it avoids weather and traffic and is acceptable to controllers and flight crews. Initial analysis of Fort Worth Center traffic suggests a savings of roughly 50% of the direct route savings could be achievable.The core concept is to apply trajectory automation with convective weather modeling in real time to identify a reroute that is free of weather and traffic conflicts and indicates enough time and fuel savings to be considered. The concept is interoperable with today

  17. Parameterizing road construction in route-based road weather models: can ground-penetrating radar provide any answers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D S; Chapman, L; Thornes, J E

    2011-01-01

    A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey of a 32 km mixed urban and rural study route is undertaken to assess the usefulness of GPR as a tool for parameterizing road construction in a route-based road weather forecast model. It is shown that GPR can easily identify even the smallest of bridges along the route, which previous thermal mapping surveys have identified as thermal singularities with implications for winter road maintenance. Using individual GPR traces measured at each forecast point along the route, an inflexion point detection algorithm attempts to identify the depth of the uppermost subsurface layers at each forecast point for use in a road weather model instead of existing ordinal road-type classifications. This approach has the potential to allow high resolution modelling of road construction and bridge decks on a scale previously not possible within a road weather model, but initial results reveal that significant future research will be required to unlock the full potential that this technology can bring to the road weather industry. (technical design note)

  18. Comparing the efficiency of transport routes and corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel GHIŢULEASA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the broader context of the importance granted to accessibility by the European spatial planning policies, comparing the efficiency of European and national transportation routes and corridors constitutes an issue of particular relevance for Romania. In order to resolve it, this paper proposes a methodology based on potential accessibility, determined by the total population served, and the efficiency of the path, by analogy with the least squares method. Both approaches were applied to internal and European routes.

  19. Policy-Based Negotiation Engine for Cross-Domain Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Farrokh; Chow, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    A successful policy negotiation scheme for Policy-Based Management (PBM) has been implemented. Policy negotiation is the process of determining the "best" communication policy that all of the parties involved can agree on. Specifically, the problem is how to reconcile the various (and possibly conflicting) communication protocols used by different divisions. The solution must use protocols available to all parties involved, and should attempt to do so in the best way possible. Which protocols are commonly available, and what the definition of "best" is will be dependent on the parties involved and their individual communications priorities.

  20. Content-addressable memory based enforcement of configurable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Michael J

    2014-05-06

    A monitoring device for monitoring transactions on a bus includes content-addressable memory ("CAM") and a response policy unit. The CAM includes an input coupled to receive a bus transaction tag based on bus traffic on the bus. The CAM stores data tags associated with rules of a security policy to compare the bus transaction tag to the data tags. The CAM generates an output signal indicating whether one or more matches occurred. The response policy unit is coupled to the CAM to receive the output signal from the CAM and to execute a policy action in response to the output signal.

  1. Strengthening Research Capacity and Evidence-Based Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... wider Central Asian region lack capacity to conduct empirical analysis and create policies based on research evidence. To address government priorities, the region needs quality research driven by local demands and analytical skills that can inform effective development responses through policy. This 39-month project, ...

  2. A review of Agent Based Modeling for agricultural policy evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremmydas, Dimitris; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Rozakis, Stelios

    2018-01-01

    Farm level scale policy analysis is receiving increased attention due to a changing agricultural policy orientation. Agent based models (ABM) are farm level models that have appeared in the end of 1990's, having several differences from traditional farm level models, like the consideration of

  3. Constraint Programming based Local Search for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Sala Reixach, Joan

    2012-01-01

    El projecte es centra en el "Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows". Explora i testeja un mètode basat en una formulació del problema en termes de programació de restriccions. Implementa un mètode de cerca local amb la capacitat de fer grans moviments anomenat "Large Neighbourhood Search".

  4. A rational route to SCM materials based on a 1-D cobalt selenocyanato coordination polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Jan; Näther, Christian

    2011-07-07

    Thermal annealing of a discrete complex with terminal SeCN anions and monodentate coligands enforces the formation of a 1D cobalt selenocyanato coordination polymer that shows slow relaxation of the magnetization. Therefore, this approach offers a rational route to 1D materials that might show single chain magnetic behaviour. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  5. Opportunity costs calculation in agent-based vehicle routing and scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schuur, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a real-time, dynamic pickup and delivery problem with timewindows where orders should be assigned to one of a set of competing transportation companies. Our approach decomposes the problem into a multi-agent structure where vehicle agents are responsible for the routing and

  6. Analysis of inertia thresholds based on real-world route choice data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In the context of route choice, inertial behaviour shows that drivers make choices that are satisfactory rather than optimal. Consequently, drivers may not necessarily alter their choice when confronted with a travel time increase on the current choice or a travel time decrease of a choice

  7. Dynamic route guidance algorithm based algorithm based on artificial immune system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To improve the performance of the K-shortest paths search in intelligent traffic guidance systems,this paper proposes an optimal search algorithm based on the intelligent optimization search theory and the memphor mechanism of vertebrate immune systems.This algorithm,applied to the urban traffic network model established by the node-expanding method,can expediently realize K-shortest paths search in the urban traffic guidance systems.Because of the immune memory and global parallel search ability from artificial immune systems,K shortest paths can be found without any repeat,which indicates evidently the superiority of the algorithm to the conventional ones.Not only does it perform a better parallelism,the algorithm also prevents premature phenomenon that often occurs in genetic algorithms.Thus,it is especially suitable for real-time requirement of the traffic guidance system and other engineering optimal applications.A case study verifies the efficiency and the practicability of the algorithm aforementioned.

  8. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP involves an artificial immune system (AIS that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2 and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  9. Development of Fe/Nb-based solar photocatalysts for water treatment: impact of different synthesis routes on materials properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marília C M; Amorim, Camila C; Moreira, Regina F P M; Oliveira, Luiz C A; Henriques, Andréia B; Leão, Mônica M D

    2018-04-27

    Semiconductors based on Fe/Nb oxides can present both solar sensitivity and high catalytic activity. However, there is still a lack regarding the comparison between different routes to produce Fe/Nb-based solar photocatalysts and the evaluation of the impact of the synthesis operating conditions on the material properties. In this work, Fe/Nb 2 O 5 ratio, type of precipitating agent, presence/absence of washing stage, and temperature of calcination were verified to be the most relevant parameters in the synthesis by the co-precipitation method. These factors led to remarkable differences in the properties and performance of the photocatalysts produced by each distinct synthesis route. Composition, iron species present in the materials, crystallinity characteristics, and pH of the catalysts were affected, leading to different photocatalytic activities under UV-Vis light. Due to their characteristics, the synthesized materials are potential photocatalysts for application in solar processes. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  10. "I CAMMINI DELLA REGINA" - Open Source based tools for preserving and culturally exploring historical traffic routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Colombo, Massimo; Antonovic, Milan; Cardoso, Mirko; Delucchi, Andrea; Gianocca, Giancarlo; Brovelli, Maria Antonia

    2015-04-01

    "I CAMMINI DELLA REGINA" (The Via Regina Paths) is an Interreg project funded within the transnational cooperation program between Italy and Switzerland 2007-2013. The aim of this project is the preservation and valorization of the cultural heritage linked to the walking historically paths crossing, connecting and serving the local territories. With the approach of leveraging the already existing tools, which generally consist of technical descriptions of the paths, the project uses the open source geospatial technologies to deploy innovative solutions which can fill some of the gaps in historical-cultural tourism offers. The Swiss part, and particularly the IST-SUPSI team, has been focusing its activities in the realization of two innovative solutions: a mobile application for the survey of historical paths and a storytelling system for immersive cultural exploration of the historical paths. The former, based on Android, allows to apply in a revised manner a consolidated and already successfully used methodology of survey focused on the conservation of the historical paths (Inventory of historical traffic routes in Switzerland). Up to now operators could rely only on hand work based on a combination of notes, pictures and GPS devices synthesized in manually drawn maps; this procedure is error prone and shows many problems both in data updating and extracting for elaborations. Thus it has been created an easy to use interface which allows to map, according to a newly developed spatially enabled data model, paths, morphological elements, and multimedia notes. When connected to the internet the application can send the data to a web service which, after applying linear referencing and further elaborating the data, makes them available using open standards. The storytelling system has been designed to provide users with cultural insights embedded in a multimedial and immersive geospatial portal. Whether the tourist is exploring physically or virtually the desired

  11. Differences in physical environmental characteristics between adolescents' actual and shortest cycling routes: a study using a Google Street View-based audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Hannah; Van Hecke, Linde; Van Dyck, Delfien; Baert, Tim; Van de Weghe, Nico; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2018-05-29

    The objective evaluation of the physical environmental characteristics (e.g. speed limit, cycling infrastructure) along adolescents' actual cycling routes remains understudied, although it may provide important insights into why adolescents prefer one cycling route over another. The present study aims to gain insight into the physical environmental characteristics determining the route choice of adolescent cyclists by comparing differences in physical environmental characteristics between their actual cycling routes and the shortest possible cycling routes. Adolescents (n = 204; 46.5% boys; 14.4 ± 1.2 years) recruited at secondary schools in and around Ghent (city in Flanders, northern part of Belgium) were instructed to wear a Global Positioning System device in order to identify cycling trips. For all identified cycling trips, the shortest possible route that could have been taken was calculated. Actual cycling routes that were not the shortest possible cycling routes were divided into street segments. Segments were audited with a Google Street View-based tool to assess physical environmental characteristics along actual and shortest cycling routes. Out of 160 actual cycling trips, 73.1% did not differ from the shortest possible cycling route. For actual cycling routes that were not the shortest cycling route, a speed limit of 30 km/h, roads having few buildings with windows on the street side and roads without cycle lane were more frequently present compared to the shortest possible cycling routes. A mixed land use, roads with commercial destinations, arterial roads, cycle lanes separated from traffic by white lines, small cycle lanes and cycle lanes covered by lighting were less frequently present along actual cycling routes compared to the shortest possible cycling routes. Results showed that distance mainly determines the route along which adolescents cycle. In addition, adolescents cycled more along residential streets (even if no cycle lane was

  12. Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in Burma's Democratic ... IDRC is providing funding to Simon Fraser University to support a network of ... The project will also encourage and assist in the creation of a business ...

  13. Moving Zimbabwe Forward : an Evidence Based Policy Dialogue ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moving Zimbabwe Forward : an Evidence Based Policy Dialogue ... levels of poverty, unemployment, inflation and poor service provision in the areas of education, ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  14. GROUP POLICY BASED AUTHENTICATION ON INCOMING CALLS FOR ANDROID SMARTPHONES

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita M. Kumbhar, Prof. Z.M Shaikh

    2016-01-01

    The numbers of Smartphone users increasing day by day. Hence, there is need to propose advanced Group Policy based Authentication for incoming calls for Android phone. Android platform provides a variety of functions that support the programming of face recognition, as in image processing. Group policy based authentication scheme increases the security which restricts the access of incoming call form un-authorized user. To solve problems, related to face recognition should be applied in the p...

  15. Personal computer based decision support system for routing nuclear spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Bobic, S.M.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin

    1989-01-01

    An approach has been formulated to route nuclear spent fuel over the US Interstate highway network. This approach involves the generation of alternative routes so that any potential adverse impacts will not only concentrate on regions along the shortest path between the nuclear power plant and repository. Extensive literature research on the shortest path finding algorithms has been carried out. Consequently, an extremely efficient shortest path algorithm has been implemented and significantly increases the overall system performance. State-of-the-art interactive computer graphics is used. In addition to easy-to-use pop-up menus, full color mapping and display capabilities are also incorporated. All of these features have been implemented on commonly available personal computers. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Thermosensitive PLA based nanodispersion for targeting brain tumor via intranasal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Darshana S.; Bajaj, Amrita N.; Athawale, Rajani B.; Shikhande, Shruti S.; Pandey, Abhijeet; Goel, Peeyush N.; Gude, Rajiv P.; Patil, Satish; Raut, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of drugs to the brain via nasal route has been studied by many researchers. However, low residence time, mucociliary clearance and enzymatically active environment of nasal cavity pose many challenges to successful nasal delivery of drugs. We aim to deliver methotrexate by designing thermosensitive nanodispersion exhibiting enhanced residence time in nasal cavity and bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB). PLA nanoparticles were developed using solvent evaporation technique. The developed nanoparticles were further dispersed in prepared thermosensitive vehicle of poloxamer 188 and Carbopol 934 to impart the property of increased residence time. The formulated nanoparticles demonstrated no interaction with the simulated nasal fluids (SNF), mucin, serum proteins and erythrocytes which demonstrate the safety of developed formulation for nasal administration. The penetration property of nanoparticles though the nasal mucosa was higher than the pure drug due to low mucociliary clearance. The developed nanoparticles diffused though the membrane pores and rapidly distributed into the brain portions compared to the pure drug. There was detectable and quantifiable amount of drug seen in the brain as demonstrated by in vivo brain distribution studies with considerably low amount of drug deposition in the lungs. The pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated the enhancement in circulation half life, area under curve (AUC) and Cmax of the drug when administered intranasal in encapsulated form. Thus, the thermosensitive nanodispersions are surely promising delivery systems for delivering anticancer agents though the nasal route for potential treatment of brain tumors. - Highlights: • The present investigation explores intra-nasal route as potential route for targeting brain tumor. • Thermosensitive nanodispersion has been formulated for enhancing nasal residence time. • PLA nanoparticles enhance penetration into the brain owing to hydrophobic nature and small size

  17. Thermosensitive PLA based nanodispersion for targeting brain tumor via intranasal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Darshana S., E-mail: darshanaj_cup@yahoo.com [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Bajaj, Amrita N. [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Athawale, Rajani B., E-mail: rajani.athawale@gmail.com [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Shikhande, Shruti S. [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Pandey, Abhijeet [H. R Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, Maharashtra (India); Goel, Peeyush N.; Gude, Rajiv P. [Gude Lab, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research & Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai 410 210 (India); Patil, Satish; Raut, Preeti [Cipla Pvt. Ltd., Vikhroli (West), Mumbai (India)

    2016-06-01

    Delivery of drugs to the brain via nasal route has been studied by many researchers. However, low residence time, mucociliary clearance and enzymatically active environment of nasal cavity pose many challenges to successful nasal delivery of drugs. We aim to deliver methotrexate by designing thermosensitive nanodispersion exhibiting enhanced residence time in nasal cavity and bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB). PLA nanoparticles were developed using solvent evaporation technique. The developed nanoparticles were further dispersed in prepared thermosensitive vehicle of poloxamer 188 and Carbopol 934 to impart the property of increased residence time. The formulated nanoparticles demonstrated no interaction with the simulated nasal fluids (SNF), mucin, serum proteins and erythrocytes which demonstrate the safety of developed formulation for nasal administration. The penetration property of nanoparticles though the nasal mucosa was higher than the pure drug due to low mucociliary clearance. The developed nanoparticles diffused though the membrane pores and rapidly distributed into the brain portions compared to the pure drug. There was detectable and quantifiable amount of drug seen in the brain as demonstrated by in vivo brain distribution studies with considerably low amount of drug deposition in the lungs. The pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated the enhancement in circulation half life, area under curve (AUC) and Cmax of the drug when administered intranasal in encapsulated form. Thus, the thermosensitive nanodispersions are surely promising delivery systems for delivering anticancer agents though the nasal route for potential treatment of brain tumors. - Highlights: • The present investigation explores intra-nasal route as potential route for targeting brain tumor. • Thermosensitive nanodispersion has been formulated for enhancing nasal residence time. • PLA nanoparticles enhance penetration into the brain owing to hydrophobic nature and small size

  18. An IPv6 routing lookup algorithm using weight-balanced tree based on prefix value for virtual router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingjiang; Zhou, Shuguang; Zhang, Qiaoduo; Li, Fenghua

    2016-10-01

    Virtual router enables the coexistence of different networks on the same physical facility and has lately attracted a great deal of attention from researchers. As the number of IPv6 addresses is rapidly increasing in virtual routers, designing an efficient IPv6 routing lookup algorithm is of great importance. In this paper, we present an IPv6 lookup algorithm called weight-balanced tree (WBT). WBT merges Forwarding Information Bases (FIBs) of virtual routers into one spanning tree, and compresses the space cost. WBT's average time complexity and the worst case time complexity of lookup and update process are both O(logN) and space complexity is O(cN) where N is the size of routing table and c is a constant. Experiments show that WBT helps reduce more than 80% Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) cost in comparison to those separation schemes. WBT also achieves the least average search depth comparing with other homogeneous algorithms.

  19. An Investigation of Immunogenicity of Chitosan-Based Botulinum Neurotoxin E Binding Domain Recombinant Candidate Vaccine via Mucosal Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Bagheripour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Botulism syndrome is caused by serotypes A-G of neurotoxins of Clostridium genus. Neurotoxin binding domain is an appropriate vaccine candidate due to its immunogenic activity. In this study, the immunogenicity of chitosan-based botulinum neurotoxin E binding domain recombinant candidate vaccine was investigated via mucosal route of administration. Methods: In this experimental study, chitosan nanoparticles containing rBoNT/E protein were synthesized by ionic gelation method and were administered orally and intranasally to mice. After each administration, IgG antibody titer was measured by ELISA method. Finally, all groups were challenged with active botulinum neurotoxin type E. Data were analyzed using Duncan and repeated ANOVA tests. The significance level was considered as p0.05, even intranasal route reduced the immunogenicity.

  20. DEADS: Depth and Energy Aware Dominating Set Based Algorithm for Cooperative Routing along with Sink Mobility in Underwater WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara Umar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance enhancement of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs in terms of throughput maximization, energy conservation and Bit Error Rate (BER minimization is a potential research area. However, limited available bandwidth, high propagation delay, highly dynamic network topology, and high error probability leads to performance degradation in these networks. In this regard, many cooperative communication protocols have been developed that either investigate the physical layer or the Medium Access Control (MAC layer, however, the network layer is still unexplored. More specifically, cooperative routing has not yet been jointly considered with sink mobility. Therefore, this paper aims to enhance the network reliability and efficiency via dominating set based cooperative routing and sink mobility. The proposed work is validated via simulations which show relatively improved performance of our proposed work in terms the selected performance metrics.

  1. A General Self-Organized Tree-Based Energy-Balance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liefeng; Tian, Kaiyun

    2014-04-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a system composed of a large number of low-cost micro-sensors. This network is used to collect and send various kinds of messages to a base station (BS). WSN consists of low-cost nodes with limited battery power, and the battery replacement is not easy for WSN with thousands of physically embedded nodes, which means energy efficient routing protocol should be employed to offer a long-life work time. To achieve the aim, we need not only to minimize total energy consumption but also to balance WSN load. Researchers have proposed many protocols such as LEACH, HEED, PEGASIS, TBC and PEDAP. In this paper, we propose a General Self-Organized Tree-Based Energy-Balance routing protocol (GSTEB) which builds a routing tree using a process where, for each round, BS assigns a root node and broadcasts this selection to all sensor nodes. Subsequently, each node selects its parent by considering only itself and its neighbors' information, thus making GSTEB a dynamic protocol. Simulation results show that GSTEB has a better performance than other protocols in balancing energy consumption, thus prolonging the lifetime of WSN.

  2. A simple urea-based route to ternary metal oxynitride nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, A.; Reshma, S.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Ternary metal oxynitrides are generally prepared by heating the corresponding metal oxides with ammonia for long durations at high temperatures. In order to find a simple route that avoids use of gaseous ammonia, we have employed urea as the nitriding agent. In this method, ternary metal oxynitrides are obtained by heating the corresponding metal carbonates and transition metal oxides with excess urea. By this route, ternary metal oxynitrides of the formulae MTaO 2 N (M=Ca, Sr or Ba), MNbO 2 N (M=Sr or Ba), LaTiO 2 N and SrMoO 3-x N x have been prepared successfully. The oxynitrides so obtained were generally in the form of nanoparticles, and were characterized by various physical techniques. - Graphical abstract: Nanoparticles of ternary metal oxynitrides can be synthesized by means of urea route. Given is the TEM image of the nanoparticles of CaTaO 2 N so obtained and the insets show the SAED pattern and HREM image of the nanoparticles

  3. Distribution Route Planning of Clean Coal Based on Nearest Insertion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunrui

    2018-01-01

    Clean coal technology has made some achievements for several ten years, but the research in its distribution field is very small, the distribution efficiency would directly affect the comprehensive development of clean coal technology, it is the key to improve the efficiency of distribution by planning distribution route rationally. The object of this paper was a clean coal distribution system which be built in a county. Through the surveying of the customer demand and distribution route, distribution vehicle in previous years, it was found that the vehicle deployment was only distributed by experiences, and the number of vehicles which used each day changed, this resulted a waste of transport process and an increase in energy consumption. Thus, the mathematical model was established here in order to aim at shortest path as objective function, and the distribution route was re-planned by using nearest-insertion method which been improved. The results showed that the transportation distance saved 37 km and the number of vehicles used had also been decreased from the past average of 5 to fixed 4 every day, as well the real loading of vehicles increased by 16.25% while the current distribution volume staying same. It realized the efficient distribution of clean coal, achieved the purpose of saving energy and reducing consumption.

  4. Energy Balance Routing Algorithm Based on Virtual MIMO Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianpo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are usually energy limited and therefore an energy-efficient routing algorithm is desired for prolonging the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a new energy balance routing algorithm which has the following three improvements over the conventional LEACH algorithm. Firstly, we propose a new cluster head selection scheme by taking into consideration the remaining energy and the most recent energy consumption of the nodes and the entire network. In this way, the sensor nodes with smaller remaining energy or larger energy consumption will be much less likely to be chosen as cluster heads. Secondly, according to the ratio of remaining energy to distance, cooperative nodes are selected to form virtual MIMO structures. It mitigates the uneven distribution of clusters and the unbalanced energy consumption of the whole network. Thirdly, we construct a comprehensive energy consumption model, which can reflect more realistically the practical energy consumption. Numerical simulations analyze the influences of cooperative node numbers and cluster head node numbers on the network lifetime. It is shown that the energy consumption of the proposed routing algorithm is lower than the conventional LEACH algorithm and for the simulation example the network lifetime is prolonged about 25%.

  5. Ecosystem Based Management in Transition: From Ocean Policy to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumweber, W. J.; Goldman, E.

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has been proposed as a means to improve resource management and stewardship for more than two decades. Over this history, its exact goals and approaches have evolved in concert with advances in science and policy, including a greater understanding of ecosystem function, valuation, and thresholds for change, along with direct reference to EBM principles in statute, regulation, and other Executive Actions. Most recently, and explicitly, the Administration's National Ocean Policy (NOP) called for the development of a Federal EBM framework that would outline principles and guidelines for implementing EBM under existing authorities. This cross-agency framework has yet to be developed, but, the NOP, and related Administration initiatives, have resulted in the practical application of EBM principles in several issue-specific policy initiatives ranging from fisheries and marine protected area management to coastal adaptation and water resource infrastructure investment. In each case, the application of EBM principles uses apparently unique policy mechanisms (e.g. marine planning, ecosystem services assessment, adaptive management, dynamic ocean management, etc.). Despite differences in terminology and policy context, each of these policy initiatives is linked at its core to concepts of integrated and adaptive management that consider broad ecosystem function and services. This practical history of EBM implementation speaks to both the challenges and opportunities in broad incorporation of EBM across diverse policy initiatives and frameworks. We suggest that the continued growth of EBM as a practical policy concept will require a move away from broad frameworks, and towards the identification of specific resource management issues and accompanying policy levers with which to address those issues. In order to promote this progression, Federal policy should recognize and articulate the diverse set of policy mechanisms encompassed under the

  6. Be-safe travel, a web-based geographic application to explore safe-route in an area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utamima, Amalia; Djunaidy, Arif

    2017-08-01

    In large cities in developing countries, the various forms of criminality are often found. For instance, the most prominent crimes in Surabaya, Indonesia is 3C, that is theft with violence (curas), theft by weighting (curat), and motor vehicle theft (curanmor). 3C case most often occurs on the highway and residential areas. Therefore, new entrants in an area should be aware of these kind of crimes. Route Planners System or route planning system such as Google Maps only consider the shortest distance in the calculation of the optimal route. The selection of the optimal path in this study not only consider the shortest distance, but also involves other factors, namely the security level. This research considers at the need for an application to recommend the safest road to be passed by the vehicle passengers while drive an area. This research propose Be-Safe Travel, a web-based application using Google API that can be accessed by people who like to drive in an area, but still lack of knowledge of the pathways which are safe from crime. Be-Safe Travel is not only useful for the new entrants, but also useful for delivery courier of valuables goods to go through the safest streets.

  7. Router Agent Technology for Policy-Based Network Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Sudhir, Gurusham; Chang, Hsin-Ping; James, Mark; Liu, Yih-Chiao J.; Chiang, Winston

    2011-01-01

    This innovation can be run as a standalone network application on any computer in a networked environment. This design can be configured to control one or more routers (one instance per router), and can also be configured to listen to a policy server over the network to receive new policies based on the policy- based network management technology. The Router Agent Technology transforms the received policies into suitable Access Control List syntax for the routers it is configured to control. It commits the newly generated access control lists to the routers and provides feedback regarding any errors that were faced. The innovation also automatically generates a time-stamped log file regarding all updates to the router it is configured to control. This technology, once installed on a local network computer and started, is autonomous because it has the capability to keep listening to new policies from the policy server, transforming those policies to router-compliant access lists, and committing those access lists to a specified interface on the specified router on the network with any error feedback regarding commitment process. The stand-alone application is named RouterAgent and is currently realized as a fully functional (version 1) implementation for the Windows operating system and for CISCO routers.

  8. Optimization of the Municipal Waste Collection Route Based on the Method of the Minimum Pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Petřík

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article is shown the use of Maple program for processing of data describing the position of municipal waste sources and topology of collecting area. The data are further processed through the use of graph theory algorithms, which enable creation of collection round proposal. In this case study is described method of waste pick-up solution in a certain village of approx. 1,600 inhabitants and built-up area of approx. 30 hectares. Village has approx. 11.5 kilometers of ride able routes, with approx. 1 kilometer without waste source. The first part shows topology of the village in light of location of waste sources and capacity of the routes. In the second part are topological data converted into data that can be processed by use of the Graph Theory and the correspondent graph is shown. Optimizing collection route in a certain graph means to find the Euler circle. However, this circle can be constructed only on condition that all the vertices of the graph are of an even degree. Practically this means that is necessary to introduce auxiliary edges – paths that will be passed twice. These paths will connect vertices with odd values. The optimal solution then requires that the total length of the inserted edges was minimal possible, which corresponds to the minimum pairing method. As it is a problem of exponential complexity, it is necessary to make some simplifications. These simplifications are depicted graphically and the results are displayed in the conclusion. The resulting graph with embedded auxiliary edges can be used as a basic decision making material for creation of real collection round that respects local limitations such as one way streets or streets where is the waste collection is not possible from both sides at the same time.

  9. Age replacement policy based on imperfect repair with random probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.H.; Qu, Jian; Zuo, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    In most of literatures of age replacement policy, failures before planned replacement age can be either minimally repaired or perfectly repaired based on the types of failures, cost for repairs and so on. In this paper, we propose age replacement policy based on imperfect repair with random probability. The proposed policy incorporates the case that such intermittent failure can be either minimally repaired or perfectly repaired with random probabilities. The mathematical formulas of the expected cost rate per unit time are derived for both the infinite-horizon case and the one-replacement-cycle case. For each case, we show that the optimal replacement age exists and is finite. - Highlights: • We propose a new age replacement policy with random probability of perfect repair. • We develop the expected cost per unit time. • We discuss the optimal age for replacement minimizing the expected cost rate.

  10. Worship Discourse and White Race-based Policy Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. Khari; Kaiser, Angela; Jackson, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study relies upon the 2004 National Politics Study to examine the association between exposure to race-based messages within places of worship and White race-based policy attitudes. The present study challenges the notion that, for White Americans, religiosity inevitably leads to racial prejudice. Rather, we argue, as others have, that religion exists on a continuum that spans from reinforcing to challenging the status quo of social inequality. Our findings suggests that the extent to which Whites discuss race along with the potential need for public policy solutions to address racial inequality within worship spaces, worship attendance contributes to support for public policies aimed at reducing racial inequality. On the other hand, apolitical and non-structural racial discussions within worship settings do seemingly little to move many Whites to challenge dominant idealistic perceptions of race that eschews public policy interventions as solutions to racial inequality. PMID:25324579

  11. A generic methodology for processing route synthesis and design based on superstructure optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Frauzem, Rebecca; Sanchez-Arcilla, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    a specially developed knowledge representation system, and (2) Super-O, a software interface that guides users through the formulation and solution of synthesis problems. Super-O transfers data between the different tools, including a library of generic models, representing a wide range of processing options...... are resolved and targets for improvement are identified through the use of integrated tools. In Stage 3, new alternatives are generated using the selected route and the previously identified targets. In addition to the various computer-aided tools, two special tools are presented: (1) a database employing...

  12. On Reliable and Efficient Data Gathering Based Routing in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Liaqat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents cooperative routing scheme to improve data reliability. The proposed protocol achieves its objective, however, at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Thus sink mobility is introduced to minimize the energy consumption cost of nodes as it directly collects data from the network nodes at minimized communication distance. We also present delay and energy optimized versions of our proposed RE-AEDG to further enhance its performance. Simulation results prove the effectiveness of our proposed RE-AEDG in terms of the selected performance matrics.

  13. On Reliable and Efficient Data Gathering Based Routing in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Tayyaba; Akbar, Mariam; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Javaid, Qaisar; Alghamdi, Turki Ali; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim

    2016-08-30

    This paper presents cooperative routing scheme to improve data reliability. The proposed protocol achieves its objective, however, at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Thus sink mobility is introduced to minimize the energy consumption cost of nodes as it directly collects data from the network nodes at minimized communication distance. We also present delay and energy optimized versions of our proposed RE-AEDG to further enhance its performance. Simulation results prove the effectiveness of our proposed RE-AEDG in terms of the selected performance matrics.

  14. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. The Architecture of WiFi-Based WSN for AMR System and E-HWMP Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of SoC technology in recent years, the ultra-low power WiFi System on SoC Chip has emerged. As a result, WiFi-based Wireless Sensor Networks come into use, especially used in Automatic Meter Reading. While because the nodes of Wireless Sensor Networks have limited energy supply, smaller storage capability and slower calculation ability, the current WiFi technology cannot be directly applied to WiFi-based Wireless Sensor Networks. The protocols should be upgraded and the security algorithms should be improved to meet the new requests. Firstly, this article describes the network architecture of WiFi-based WSN for AMR system and discusses the reason for using this analogous Mesh architecture. Secondly, the new Hardware architecture of WiFi-based WSN node is designed to realize the AMR system and verify the research work. The node can collect the data of power meter by WiFi and can be powered by a Lithium Battery. Thirdly, on the basis of study work of WiFi original routing protocol HWMP, a new method on improving the energy saving ability of HWMP to adapt the new features of WiFi-based WSN is proposed. And the simulation work on the new routing protocol E-HWMP has been done with NS2 and the simulation results show that the life cycle of the network has been extended to some degree.

  16. Wake-based ship route estimation in high-resolution SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, M. Daniela; Rufino, Giancarlo; D'Errico, Marco

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for wake detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar images of the sea. The algorithm has been conceived as part of a ship traffic monitoring system, in charge of ship detection validation and to estimate ship route features, such as heading and ground speed. In addition, it has been intended to be adequate for inclusion in an automatic procedure without human operator supervision. The algorithm exploits the Radon transform to identify the images ship wake on the basis of the well known theoretical characteristics of the wakes' geometry and components, that are the turbulent wake, the narrow-V wakes, and the Kelvin arms, as well as the typical appearance of such components in Synthetic Aperture Radar images of the sea as bright or dark linear feature. Examples of application to high-resolution X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar products (COSMOSkymed and TerraSAR-X) are reported, both for wake detection and ship route estimation, showing the achieved quality and reliability of wake detection, adequacy to automatic procedures, as well as speed measure accuracy.

  17. Risk Analysis of Reservoir Flood Routing Calculation Based on Inflow Forecast Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binquan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible risks in reservoir flood control and regulation cannot be objectively assessed by deterministic flood forecasts, resulting in the probability of reservoir failure. We demonstrated a risk analysis of reservoir flood routing calculation accounting for inflow forecast uncertainty in a sub-basin of Huaihe River, China. The Xinanjiang model was used to provide deterministic flood forecasts, and was combined with the Hydrologic Uncertainty Processor (HUP to quantify reservoir inflow uncertainty in the probability density function (PDF form. Furthermore, the PDFs of reservoir water level (RWL and the risk rate of RWL exceeding a defined safety control level could be obtained. Results suggested that the median forecast (50th percentiles of HUP showed better agreement with observed inflows than the Xinanjiang model did in terms of the performance measures of flood process, peak, and volume. In addition, most observations (77.2% were bracketed by the uncertainty band of 90% confidence interval, with some small exceptions of high flows. Results proved that this framework of risk analysis could provide not only the deterministic forecasts of inflow and RWL, but also the fundamental uncertainty information (e.g., 90% confidence band for the reservoir flood routing calculation.

  18. Base stock policies with degraded service to larger orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    We study an inventory system controlled by a base stock policy assuming a compound renewal demand process. We extend the base stock policy by incorporating rules for degrading the service of larger orders. Two specific rules are considered, denoted Postpone(q,t) and Split(q), respectively. The aim...... of using these rules is to achieve a given order fill rate of the regular orders (those of size less than or equal to the parameter q) having less inventory. We develop mathematical expressions for the performance measures order fill rate (of the regular orders) and average on-hand inventory level. Based...

  19. AR-RBFS: Aware-Routing Protocol Based on Recursive Best-First Search Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Kiani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy issue is one of the most important problems in wireless sensor networks. They consist of low-power sensor nodes and a few base station nodes. They must be adaptive and efficient in data transmission to sink in various areas. This paper proposes an aware-routing protocol based on clustering and recursive search approaches. The paper focuses on the energy efficiency issue with various measures such as prolonging network lifetime along with reducing energy consumption in the sensor nodes and increasing the system reliability. Our proposed protocol consists of two phases. In the first phase (network development phase, the sensors are placed into virtual layers. The second phase (data transmission is related to routes discovery and data transferring so it is based on virtual-based Classic-RBFS algorithm in the lake of energy problem environments but, in the nonchargeable environments, all nodes in each layer can be modeled as a random graph and then begin to be managed by the duty cycle method. Additionally, the protocol uses new topology control, data aggregation, and sleep/wake-up schemas for energy saving in the network. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol is optimal in the network lifetime and packet delivery parameters according to the present protocols.

  20. A condition-based maintenance policy for stochastically deteriorating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grall, A.; Berenguer, C.; Dieulle, L.

    2002-01-01

    We focus on the analytical modeling of a condition-based inspection/replacement policy for a stochastically and continuously deteriorating single-unit system. We consider both the replacement threshold and the inspection schedule as decision variables for this maintenance problem and we propose to implement the maintenance policy using a multi-level control-limit rule. In order to assess the performance of the proposed maintenance policy and to minimize the long run expected maintenance cost per unit time, a mathematical model for the maintained system cost is derived, supported by the existence of a stationary law for the maintained system state. Numerical experiments illustrate the performance of the proposed policy and confirm that the maintenance cost rate on an infinite horizon can be minimized by a joint optimization of the maintenance structure thresholds, or equivalently by a joint optimization of a system replacement threshold and the aperiodic inspection schedule

  1. SDP Policy Iteration-Based Energy Management Strategy Using Traffic Information for Commuter Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates an energy management method using traffic information for commuter hybrid electric vehicles. A control strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP is developed, which minimizes on average the equivalent fuel consumption, while satisfying the battery charge-sustaining constraints and the overall vehicle power demand for drivability. First, according to the sample information of the traffic speed profiles, the regular route is divided into several segments and the statistic characteristics in the different segments are constructed from gathered data on the averaged vehicle speeds. And then, the energy management problem is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear and constrained optimal control problem and a modified policy iteration algorithm is utilized to generate a time-invariant state-dependent power split strategy. Finally, simulation results over some driving cycles are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy.

  2. School Improvement Policy--Site-Based Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kenneth Tanner

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Have administrative functions of principals changed in schools practicing site-based management (SBM with shared governance? To deal with this issue we employed the Delphi technique and a panel of 24 experts from 14 states. The experts, which included educational specialists, researchers, writers, and elementary school principals, agreed that the implementation of SBM dramatically influences the roles of the principal in management/administration and leadership. Data revealed that the elementary principal's leadership role requires specialized skills to support shared governance, making it necessary to form professional development programs that adapt to innovations evolving from the implementation of SBM.

  3. A Systems Approach to the Aeromedical Aircraft Routing Problem Using a Computer-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    0: PIPP 4UaU1AOW :iuaTjPd TenVor bUTSr ’SN)OIm aISAS IU;-n aq MOq. Ul2aT 0 ’qje’_?iddp sw~isAs P 9sfl uat ay -SST.2P UT~eldsupi; TPOT -pdo~ la IC paaU...facilities. In each instance, these patterns are aligned with interregional trunk routes. • " Soja (LOWE75] developed a second method Df flow propen...a)0C 0 H)- ,,,, r,4Ca0 0’ON Ca 04 -&)W M X :: a) -41E a) u O r-O w) - *-f o UiW W Ca4-. 4-C,,z0 0 U) la )C40 r La0404 a 0 V)Ja) o a) 4-1 41) 4-1 a) a) a

  4. A dewetting route to grow heterostructured nanoparticles based on thin film heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Yin, Deqiang; Li, Qiang; Chen, Chunlin; Huang, Sumei; Wang, Zhongchang

    2015-12-21

    Heterostructured nanoparticles have received considerable attention for their various applications due to their unique and tunable functionalities with respect to their individual bulk constituents. However, the current wet chemical synthesis of multicomponent heterostructured nanoparticles is rather complicated. Here, we report a simple and quick method to fabricate Co-Au dumbbell arrays by dewetting Co/Au heterojunctions on a Si substrate and demonstrate that the Co-Au dumbbells vary in size from 2 to 28 nm. We further show by chemical mapping that Co bells are covered by a pseudomorphic Au wetting layer of ∼4 Å, preventing the bells from oxidation. By controlling the thickness of metal heterojunctions and the annealing time, the morphology of the Co-Au nanoparticle is found to be transformed from the dumbbell to the core shell. This facile route is demonstrated to be useful for fabricating other metal-metal and metal-oxide heterostructures and hence holds technological promise for functional applications.

  5. CREATING A RISK-BASED NETWORK FOR HAZMAT LOGISTICS BY ROUTE PRIORITIZATION WITH AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watchara SATTAYAPRASERT

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model, formulated by the criteria priority of each factor and its risk level was used for the prioritization. The results show that participants rank the risk of having a road accident as the top priority, followed by the risk of carriage unit explosion and the consequences of an incident (47.8%, 27.4% and 24.8% respectively. To examine this model, data for logistics of gasoline and diesel fuel in Rayong Province (Thailand were used for the model application. From the calculation, it was possible to reduce the risk of road accidents and the consequences by approximately 6.8% and 38.5% respectively by choosing the best alternative route instead of the current one.

  6. Similarity-Based Prediction of Travel Times for Vehicles Traveling on Known Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiesyte, Dalia; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    , historical data in combination with real-time data may be used to predict the future travel times of vehicles more accurately, thus improving the experience of the users who rely on such information. We propose a Nearest-Neighbor Trajectory (NNT) technique that identifies the historical trajectory......The use of centralized, real-time position tracking is proliferating in the areas of logistics and public transportation. Real-time positions can be used to provide up-to-date information to a variety of users, and they can also be accumulated for uses in subsequent data analyses. In particular...... of vehicles that travel along known routes. In empirical studies with real data from buses, we evaluate how well the proposed distance functions are capable of predicting future vehicle movements. Second, we propose a main-memory index structure that enables incremental similarity search and that is capable...

  7. Incentive Compatible and Globally Efficient Position Based Routing for Selfish Reverse Multicast in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh Varatharajan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of all-to-one selfish routing in the absence of a payment scheme in wireless sensor networks, where a natural model for cost is the power required to forward, referring to the resulting game as a Locally Minimum Cost Forwarding (LMCF. Our objective is to characterize equilibria and their global costs in terms of stretch and diameter, in particular finding incentive compatible algorithms that are also close to globally optimal. We find that although social costs for equilibria of LMCF exhibit arbitrarily bad worst-case bounds and computational infeasibility of reaching optimal equilibria, there exist greedy and local incentive compatible heuristics achieving near-optimal global costs.

  8. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  9. Vehicular Networking Enhancement And Multi-Channel Routing Optimization, Based on Multi-Objective Metric and Minimum Spanning Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppino Fazio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs represent a particular mobile technology that permits the communication among vehicles, offering security and comfort. Nowadays, distributed mobile wireless computing is becoming a very important communications paradigm, due to its flexibility to adapt to different mobile applications. VANETs are a practical example of data exchanging among real mobile nodes. To enable communications within an ad-hoc network, characterized by continuous node movements, routing protocols are needed to react to frequent changes in network topology. In this paper, the attention is focused mainly on the network layer of VANETs, proposing a novel approach to reduce the interference level during mobile transmission, based on the multi-channel nature of IEEE 802.11p (1609.4 standard. In this work a new routing protocol based on Distance Vector algorithm is presented to reduce the delay end to end and to increase packet delivery ratio (PDR and throughput in VANETs. A new metric is also proposed, based on the maximization of the average Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR level and the link duration probability between two VANET nodes. In order to relieve the effects of the co-channel interference perceived by mobile nodes, transmission channels are switched on a basis of a periodical SIR evaluation. A Network Simulator has been used for implementing and testing the proposed idea.

  10. An efficient routing algorithm for event based monitoring in a plant using virtual sink nodes in a wireless sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Vietla, Srinivas; Roy, D.A.; Biswas, B.B.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2010-01-01

    A Wireless Sensor Network is a collection of wireless sensor nodes arranged in a self-forming network without aid of any infrastructure or administration. The individual nodes have limited resources and hence efficient communication mechanisms between the nodes have to be devised for continued operation of the network in a plant environment. In wireless sensor networks a sink node or base station at one end acts as the recipient of information gathered by all other sensor nodes in the network and the information arrives at the sink through multiple hops across the nodes of the network. A routing algorithm has been developed in which a virtual sink node is generated whenever hop count of an ordinary node crosses a certain specified value. The virtual sink node acts as a recipient node for data of all neighboring nodes. This virtual sink helps in reducing routing overhead, especially when the sensor network is scaled to a larger network. The advantages with this scheme are less energy consumption, reduced congestion in the network and longevity of the network. The above algorithm is suitable for event based or interval based monitoring systems in nuclear plants. This paper describes the working of the proposed algorithm and provides its implementation details. (author)

  11. A Data-Gathering Scheme with Joint Routing and Compressive Sensing Based on Modified Diffusion Wavelets in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangping; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Sun, Yanjing

    2018-02-28

    Compressive sensing (CS)-based data gathering is a promising method to reduce energy consumption in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Traditional CS-based data-gathering approaches require a large number of sensor nodes to participate in each CS measurement task, resulting in high energy consumption, and do not guarantee load balance. In this paper, we propose a sparser analysis that depends on modified diffusion wavelets, which exploit sensor readings' spatial correlation in WSNs. In particular, a novel data-gathering scheme with joint routing and CS is presented. A modified ant colony algorithm is adopted, where next hop node selection takes a node's residual energy and path length into consideration simultaneously. Moreover, in order to speed up the coverage rate and avoid the local optimal of the algorithm, an improved pheromone impact factor is put forward. More importantly, theoretical proof is given that the equivalent sensing matrix generated can satisfy the restricted isometric property (RIP). The simulation results demonstrate that the modified diffusion wavelets' sparsity affects the sensor signal and has better reconstruction performance than DFT. Furthermore, our data gathering with joint routing and CS can dramatically reduce the energy consumption of WSNs, balance the load, and prolong the network lifetime in comparison to state-of-the-art CS-based methods.

  12. Simulation of optimal arctic routes using a numerical sea ice model based on an ice-coupled ocean circulation method

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Ho Nam; Inha Park; Ho Jin Lee; Mi Ok Kwon; Kyungsik Choi; Young-Kyo Seo

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the Arctic region has opened its mysterious passage to mankind, continuous attempts to take advantage of its fastest route across the region has been made. The Arctic region is still covered by thick ice and thus finding a feasible navigating route is essential for an economical voyage. To find the optimal route, it is necessary to establish an efficient transit model that enables us to simulate every possible route in advance. In this work, an enhanced algorithm to determine the o...

  13. Applying self-organizing map and modified radial based neural network for clustering and routing optimal path in wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoomod, Haider K.; Kareem Jebur, Tuka

    2018-05-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) play a critical role in today’s wireless ad hoc network research and consist of active nodes that can be in motion freely. Because it consider very important problem in this network, we suggested proposed method based on modified radial basis function networks RBFN and Self-Organizing Map SOM. These networks can be improved by the use of clusters because of huge congestion in the whole network. In such a system, the performance of MANET is improved by splitting the whole network into various clusters using SOM. The performance of clustering is improved by the cluster head selection and number of clusters. Modified Radial Based Neural Network is very simple, adaptable and efficient method to increase the life time of nodes, packet delivery ratio and the throughput of the network will increase and connection become more useful because the optimal path has the best parameters from other paths including the best bitrate and best life link with minimum delays. Proposed routing algorithm depends on the group of factors and parameters to select the path between two points in the wireless network. The SOM clustering average time (1-10 msec for stall nodes) and (8-75 msec for mobile nodes). While the routing time range (92-510 msec).The proposed system is faster than the Dijkstra by 150-300%, and faster from the RBFNN (without modify) by 145-180%.

  14. Diesel supply planning for offshore platforms by a mathematical model based on the vehicle routing problem with replenishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorot Astoures, H.; Alvarenga Rosa, R. de; Silva Rosa, A.

    2016-07-01

    Oil exploration in Brazil is mainly held by offshore platforms which require the supply of several products, including diesel to maintain its engines. One strategy to supply diesel to the platforms is to keep a vessel filled with diesel nearby the exploration basin. An empty boat leaves the port and goes directly to this vessel, then it is loaded with diesel. After that, it makes a trip to supply the platforms and when the boat is empty, it returns to the vessel to be reloaded with more diesel going to another trip. Based on this description, this paper proposes a mathematical model based on the Vehicle Routing Problem with Intermediate Replenishment Facilities (VRPIRF) to solve the problem. The purpose of the model is to plan the routes for the boats to meet the diesel requests of the platform. Given the fact that in the literature, papers about the VRPIRF are scarce and papers about the VRPIRF applied to offshore platforms were not found in the published papers, this paper is important to contribute with the evolution of this class of problem, bringing also a solution for a real application that is very important for the oil and gas business. The mathematical model was tested using the CPLEX 12.6. In order to assess the mathematical model, tests were done with data from the major Brazilian oil and gas company and several strategies were tested. (Author)

  15. Hidden policy ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption with keyword search against keyword guessing attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo; QIU; Jiqiang; LIU; Yanfeng; SHI; Rui; ZHANG

    2017-01-01

    Attribute-based encryption with keyword search(ABKS) enables data owners to grant their search capabilities to other users by enforcing an access control policy over the outsourced encrypted data. However,existing ABKS schemes cannot guarantee the privacy of the access structures, which may contain some sensitive private information. Furthermore, resulting from the exposure of the access structures, ABKS schemes are susceptible to an off-line keyword guessing attack if the keyword space has a polynomial size. To solve these problems, we propose a novel primitive named hidden policy ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption with keyword search(HP-CPABKS). With our primitive, the data user is unable to search on encrypted data and learn any information about the access structure if his/her attribute credentials cannot satisfy the access control policy specified by the data owner. We present a rigorous selective security analysis of the proposed HP-CPABKS scheme, which simultaneously keeps the indistinguishability of the keywords and the access structures. Finally,the performance evaluation verifies that our proposed scheme is efficient and practical.

  16. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  17. submitter Development of a processing route for carbon allotrope-based TiC porous nanocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, J P; Stora, T; Fernandes, C M; Bowen, P

    2017-01-01

    Ti-foils are currently used as a spallation target material to produce radioisotopes for physics research at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. However, radioisotope production rates often decrease over time due to material degradation from high operation temperatures. Due to enhanced release rates, porous nanomaterials are being studied as spallation target materials for isotope production. TiC is a material with a very high melting point making it an interesting material to replace the Ti-foils. However, in its nanometric form it sinters readily at high temperatures. To overcome this, a new processing route was developed where TiC was co-milled with graphite, carbon black or multi-wall carbon nanotubes in order to hinder the sintering of TiC. The obtained nanocomposite particle sizes, density, specific surface area and porosity were characterized and compared using ANOVA. All carbon allotropes mixed with the TiC, were able to successfully stabilize the nanometric TiC, hindering its sintering up to 1500 °C for 10...

  18. Security-Based Mechanism for Proactive Routing Schema Using Game Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Amraoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Game theory may offer a useful mechanism to address many problems in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. One of the key concepts in the research field of such networks with Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR is the security problem. Relying on applying game theory to study this problem, we consider two strategies during this suggested model: cooperate and not-cooperate. However, in such networks, it is not easy to identify different actions of players. In this paper, we have essentially been inspired from recent advances provided in game theory to propose a new model for security in MANETs. Our proposal presents a powerful tool with a large number of players where interactions are played multiple times. Moreover, each node keeps a cooperation rate (CR record of other nodes to cope with the behaviors and mitigate aggregate effect of other malicious devices. Additionally, our suggested security mechanism does not only take into consideration security requirements, but also take into account system resources and network performances. The simulation results using Network Simulator 3 are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposal.

  19. A Localization Based Cooperative Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Localization is one of the major aspects in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs. Therefore, it is important to know the accurate position of the sensor node in large scale applications like disaster prevention, tactical surveillance, and monitoring. Due to the inefficiency of the global positioning system (GPS in UWSN, it is very difficult to localize a node in underwater environment compared to terrestrial networks. To minimize the localization error and enhance the localization coverage of the network, two routing protocols are proposed; the first one is mobile autonomous underwater vehicle (MobiL-AUV and the second one is cooperative MobiL (CO-MobiL. In MobiL-AUV, AUVs are deployed and equipped with GPS and act as reference nodes. These reference nodes are used to localize all the nonlocalized ordinary sensor nodes in order to reduce the localization error and maximize the network coverage. CO-MobiL is presented in order to improve the network throughput by using the maximal ratio combining (MRC as diversity technique which combines both signals, received from the source and received from the relay at the destination. It uses amplify-and-forward (AF mechanism to improve the signal between the source and the destination. To support our claims, extensive simulations are performed.

  20. A dual justification for science-based policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2014-01-01

    Science-based policy-making has grown ever more important in recent years, in parallel with the dramatic increase in the complexity and uncertainty of the ways in which science and technology interact with society and economy at the national, regional and global level. Installing a proper framewo...

  1. Evidence-based ICT Policy for Development and Innovation | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evidence-based ICT Policy for Development and Innovation. The cost of access to information and communication technologies (ITCs) in Africa remains the major impediment to the participation of Africans in the networked society. While Africa is the region with the fastest growing number of mobile phone subscribers in the ...

  2. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  3. Self-Adapting Routing Overlay Network for Frequently Changing Application Traffic in Content-Based Publish/Subscribe System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the large-scale distributed simulation area, the topology of the overlay network cannot always rapidly adapt to frequently changing application traffic to reduce the overall traffic cost. In this paper, we propose a self-adapting routing strategy for frequently changing application traffic in content-based publish/subscribe system. The strategy firstly trains the traffic information and then uses this training information to predict the application traffic in the future. Finally, the strategy reconfigures the topology of the overlay network based on this predicting information to reduce the overall traffic cost. A predicting path is also introduced in this paper to reduce the reconfiguration numbers in the process of the reconfigurations. Compared to other strategies, the experimental results show that the strategy proposed in this paper could reduce the overall traffic cost of the publish/subscribe system in less reconfigurations.

  4. PROSPECTS OF THE REGIONAL INTEGRATION POLICY BASED ON CLUSTER FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tsepilova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop the theoretical foundations of regional integration policy and to determine its prospects on the basis of cluster formation. The authors use such research methods as systematization, comparative and complex analysis, synthesis, statistical method. Within the framework of the research, the concept of regional integration policy is specified, and its integration core – cluster – is allocated. The authors work out an algorithm of regional clustering, which will ensure the growth of economy and tax income. Measures have been proposed to optimize the organizational mechanism of interaction between the participants of the territorial cluster and the authorities that allow to ensure the effective functioning of clusters, including taxation clusters. Based on the results of studying the existing methods for assessing the effectiveness of cluster policy, the authors propose their own approach to evaluating the consequences of implementing the regional integration policy, according to which the list of quantitative and qualitative indicators is defined. The present article systematizes the experience and results of the cluster policy of certain European countries, that made it possible to determine the prospects and synergetic effect from the development of clusters as an integration foundation of regional policy in the Russian Federation. The authors carry out the analysis of activity of cluster formations using the example of the Rostov region – a leader in the formation of conditions for the cluster policy development in the Southern Federal District. 11 clusters and cluster initiatives are developing in this region. As a result, the authors propose measures for support of the already existing clusters and creation of the new ones.

  5. Routing Service Quality—Local Driver Behavior Versus Routing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    of the quality of one kind of location-based service, namely routing services. Specifically, the paper presents a framework that enables the comparison of the routes provided by routing services with the actual driving behaviors of local drivers. Comparisons include route length, travel time, and also route...... popularity, which are enabled by common driving behaviors found in available trajectory data. The ability to evaluate the quality of routing services enables service providers to improve the quality of their services and enables users to identify the services that best serve their needs. The paper covers......Mobile location-based services is a very successful class of services that are being used frequently by users with GPS-enabled mobile devices such as smartphones. This paper presents a study of how to exploit GPS trajectory data, which is available in increasing volumes, for the assessment...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF FISCAL AND BUDGETARY POLICIES BASED ON ECONOMIC THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIA CAMPEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical analysis of fiscal and budgetary policies cannot be achieved without first knowing how they are viewed in the economic theories. This approach is important to indicate the position and implications of fiscal and budgetary policy tools in the economic theory considering their major differences. Therefore, the paper aims is to investigate the fiscal and budgetary policies based on economic theories such as neoclassical, Keynesian and neo-Keynesian theory in order to indicate their divergent points. Once known these approaches at the economic theory level is easier to establish the appropriate measures taking into consideration the framing of a country economy in a certain pattern. This work was supported from the European Social Fund through Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013, project number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/59184 „Performance and excellence in postdoctoral research in Romanian economics science domain” (contract no. 0501/01.11.2010.

  7. An aggregate method to calibrate the reference point of cumulative prospect theory-based route choice model for urban transit network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Long, Man; Luo, Sida; Bao, Yu; Shen, Hanxia

    2015-12-01

    Transit route choice model is the key technology of public transit systems planning and management. Traditional route choice models are mostly based on expected utility theory which has an evident shortcoming that it cannot accurately portray travelers' subjective route choice behavior for their risk preferences are not taken into consideration. Cumulative prospect theory (CPT), a brand new theory, can be used to describe travelers' decision-making process under the condition of uncertainty of transit supply and risk preferences of multi-type travelers. The method to calibrate the reference point, a key parameter to CPT-based transit route choice model, determines the precision of the model to a great extent. In this paper, a new method is put forward to obtain the value of reference point which combines theoretical calculation and field investigation results. Comparing the proposed method with traditional method, it shows that the new method can promote the quality of CPT-based model by improving the accuracy in simulating travelers' route choice behaviors based on transit trip investigation from Nanjing City, China. The proposed method is of great significance to logical transit planning and management, and to some extent makes up the defect that obtaining the reference point is solely based on qualitative analysis.

  8. Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.

  9. Towards the Engineering of Dependable P2P-Based Network Control — The Case of Timely Routing Control Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutschku, Kurt; Nakao, Akihiro

    This paper introduces a methodology for engineering best-effort P2P algorithms into dependable P2P-based network control mechanism. The proposed method is built upon an iterative approach consisting of improving the original P2P algorithm by appropriate mechanisms and of thorough performance assessment with respect to dependability measures. The potential of the methodology is outlined by the example of timely routing control for vertical handover in B3G wireless networks. In detail, the well-known Pastry and CAN algorithms are enhanced to include locality. By showing how to combine algorithmic enhancements with performance indicators, this case study paves the way for future engineering of dependable network control mechanisms through P2P algorithms.

  10. Design of the smart home system based on the optimal routing algorithm and ZigBee network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengying Jiang

    Full Text Available To improve the traditional smart home system, its electric wiring, networking technology, information transmission and facility control are studied. In this paper, we study the electric wiring, networking technology, information transmission and facility control to improve the traditional smart home system. First, ZigBee is used to replace the traditional electric wiring. Second, a network is built to connect lots of wireless sensors and facilities, thanks to the capability of ZigBee self-organized network and Genetic Algorithm-Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (GA-PSOA to search for the optimal route. Finally, when the smart home system is connected to the internet based on the remote server technology, home environment and facilities could be remote real-time controlled. The experiments show that the GA-PSOA reduce the system delay and decrease the energy consumption of the wireless system.

  11. Particle impact damage in the gamma based TiAl alloy TNBV3B produced via three different processing routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhard, S.; Peters, P.W.M.; Roth-Fagaraseanu, D.; Turley, F.; Voggenreiter, H.

    2010-01-01

    The impact resistance of the TiAl alloy TNBV3B produced via three processing routes - cast, forged and extruded - has been studied on flat and airfoil-like shaped specimens making use of ballistic impact experiments. Several factors influencing the damage behaviour were investigated. The evolution of centre and edge impact induced damage in flat specimens is characterized for different energy levels. Additionally, edge impact was studied for airfoil-like shaped specimens. The results indicate that it is necessary to differentiate between the properties influencing the impact crack initiation and the impact induced crack growth. For the former, strength and ductility appear to have an important influence. A dynamic fracture toughness is probably adequate to describe impact induced crack growth. As such a property was not available an analogy is sought with crack growth behaviour under monotonic and cyclic loading based on microstructural influences found investigating the cracked surfaces after impact.

  12. Design of the smart home system based on the optimal routing algorithm and ZigBee network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dengying; Yu, Ling; Wang, Fei; Xie, Xiaoxia; Yu, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    To improve the traditional smart home system, its electric wiring, networking technology, information transmission and facility control are studied. In this paper, we study the electric wiring, networking technology, information transmission and facility control to improve the traditional smart home system. First, ZigBee is used to replace the traditional electric wiring. Second, a network is built to connect lots of wireless sensors and facilities, thanks to the capability of ZigBee self-organized network and Genetic Algorithm-Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (GA-PSOA) to search for the optimal route. Finally, when the smart home system is connected to the internet based on the remote server technology, home environment and facilities could be remote real-time controlled. The experiments show that the GA-PSOA reduce the system delay and decrease the energy consumption of the wireless system.

  13. The Silk Route from Land to Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Weatherford

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Route reached its historic and economic apogee under the Mongol Empire (1207–1368, as a direct result of the policies of Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan and his successors. Because the land network proved inefficient for the amount of goods needing transport from one part of the empire to another, the Mongols expanded the Silk Route to ocean shipping and thus created the first Maritime Silk Route. The sea traffic initially expanded the land routes but soon strangled them. With the expansion of the Maritime Silk Route through the fourteenth century, the land connections reverted to local networks and lost their global importance.

  14. Assessing of energy policies based on Turkish agriculture:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Cengiz; Nisa Mencet, M.; Ozkan, Burhan

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the current energy status of Turkey and the effects of national energy policies on Turkish agricultural support policies are discussed for both current and future requirements. Turkey is an energy-importing country producing 30 mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent) energy but consuming 80 mtoe. The energy import ratio of Turkey is 65-70% and the majority of this import is based on petroleum and natural gas. Furthermore, while world energy demand increases by 1.8% annually, Turkey's energy demand increases by about 8%. Although energy consumption in agriculture is much lower than the other sectors in Turkey, energy use as both input and output of agricultural sector is a very important issue due to its large agricultural potential and rural area. Total agricultural land area is 27.8 million hectares and about 66.5% of this area is devoted for cereal production. On the other hand, Turkey has over 4 million agricultural farm holdings of which 70-75% is engaged in cereal production. Machinery expenses, mainly diesel, constitute 30-50% of total variable expenses in cereal production costs. It is observed that energy policies pursued in agriculture have been directly affected by diesel prices in Turkey. Therefore, support policy tools for using diesel and electricity in agriculture are being pursued by the Turkish government

  15. Easy route to superhydrophobic copper-based wire-guided droplet microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Florian; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Sikorski, Pawel

    2009-09-22

    Droplet-based microfluidic systems are an expansion of the lab on a chip concept toward flexible, reconfigurable setups based on the modification and analysis of individual droplets. Superhydrophobic surfaces are one suitable candidate for the realization of droplet-based microfluidic systems as the high mobility of aqueous liquids on such surfaces offers possibilities to use novel or more efficient approaches to droplet movement. Here, copper-based superhydrophobic surfaces were produced either by the etching of polycrystalline copper samples along the grain boundaries using etchants common in the microelectronics industry, by electrodeposition of copper films with subsequent nanowire decoration based on thermal oxidization, or by a combination of both. The surfaces could be easily hydrophobized with thiol-modified fluorocarbons, after which the produced surfaces showed a water contact angle as high as 171 degrees +/- 2 degrees . As copper was chosen as the base material, established patterning techniques adopted from printed circuit board fabrication could be used to fabricate macrostructures on the surfaces with the intention to confine the droplets and, thus, to reduce the system's sensitivity to tilting and vibrations. A simple droplet-based microfluidic chip with inlets, outlets, sample storage, and mixing areas was produced. Wire guidance, a relatively new actuation method applicable to aqueous liquids on superhydrophobic surfaces, was applied to move the droplets.

  16. Exploring Young Children's Performance on and Acceptance of an Educational Scenario-Based Digital Game for Teaching Route-Planning Strategies: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hui; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2016-01-01

    Researchers suggest that game-based learning (GBL) can be used to facilitate mathematics learning. However, empirical GBL research that targets young children is still limited. The purposes of the study is to develop a scenario-based digital game to promote children's route-planning ability, to empirically explore children's learning performance…

  17. A Routing Algorithm for WiFi-Based Wireless Sensor Network and the Application in Automatic Meter Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Meter Reading (AMR network for the next generation Smart Grid is required to possess many essential functions, such as data reading and writing, intelligent power transmission, and line damage detection. However, the traditional AMR network cannot meet the previous requirement. With the development of the WiFi sensor node in the low power cost, a new kind of wireless sensor network based on the WiFi technology can be used in application. In this paper, we have designed a new architecture of WiFi-based wireless sensor network, which is suitable for the next generation AMR system. We have also proposed a new routing algorithm called Energy Saving-Based Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (E-HWMP on the premise of current algorithm, which can improve the energy saving of the HWMP and be suitable for the WiFi-based wireless sensor network. The simulation results show that the life cycle of network is extended.

  18. An Erbium-Based Bifuctional Heterogeneous Catalyst: A Cooperative Route Towards C-C Bond Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Oliverio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous bifuctional catalysts are multifunctional synthetic catalysts enabling efficient organic transformations by exploiting two opposite functionalities without mutual destruction. In this paper we report the first Er(III-based metallorganic heterogeneous catalyst, synthesized by post-calcination MW-assisted grafting and modification of the natural aminoacid L-cysteine. The natural acid–base distance between sites was maintained to assure the cooperation. The applicability of this new bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst to C-C bond formation and the supposed mechanisms of action are discussed as well.

  19. Memory-Aware Query Routing in Interactive Web-based Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Waas; M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractQuery throughput is one of the primary optimization goals in interactive web-based information systems in order to achieve the performance necessary to serve large user communities. Queries in this application domain differ significantly from those in traditional database applications:

  20. A Novel Cloud-Based Platform for Implementation of Oblivious Power Routing for Clusters of Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broojeni, Kianoosh; Amini, M. Hadi; Nejadpak, Arash

    2016-01-01

    is verified by MATLAB simulation. We also present a comprehensive cloud-based platform for further implementation of the proposed algorithm on the OPAL-RT real-time digital simulation system. The communication paths between the microgrids and the cloud environment can be emulated by OMNeT++....

  1. A Unified Algebraic and Logic-Based Framework Towards Safe Routing Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    Software - defined Networks ( SDN ). We developed a declarative platform for implementing SDN protocols using declarative...and debugging several SDN applications. Example-based SDN synthesis. Recent emergence of software - defined networks offers an opportunity to design...domain of Software - defined Networks ( SDN ). We developed a declarative platform for implementing SDN protocols using declarative networking

  2. GIS-Based Railway Route Selection for the Proposed Kenya-Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a procedure developed for automated railway feasibility analysis based on GIS and Multi-Criteria analysis. Good engineering railway alignment requirements are assessed and suitable factors and constraints for feasibility analysis derived. Relevant digital map layers are then prepared and reclassified ...

  3. Route-external and route-internal landmarks in route descriptions : Effects of route length and map design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, Hans; Maes, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Landmarks are basic ingredients in route descriptions. They often mark choice points: locations where travellers choose from different options how to continue the route. This study focuses on one of the loose ends in the taxonomy of landmarks. In a memory-based production experiment in which

  4. Settling Payments Fast and Private: Efficient Decentralized Routing for Path-Based Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Stefanie; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Kate, Aniket; Goldberg, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Path-based transaction (PBT) networks, which settle payments from one user to another via a path of intermediaries, are a growing area of research. They overcome the scalability and privacy issues in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum by replacing expensive and slow on-chain blockchain operations with inexpensive and fast off-chain transfers. In the form of credit networks such as Ripple and Stellar, they also enable low-price real-time gross settlements across different currencies. F...

  5. Hydrazine-based deposition route for device-quality CIGS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitzi, David B.; Yuan, Min; Liu, Wei; Kellock, Andrew J.; Chey, S. Jay; Gignac, Lynne; Schrott, Alex G.

    2009-01-01

    A simple solution-based approach for depositing CIGS (Cu-In-Ga-Se/S) absorber layers is discussed, with an emphasis on film characterization, interfacial properties and integration into photovoltaic devices. The process involves incorporating all metal and chalcogenide components into a single hydrazine-based solution, spin coating a precursor film, and heat treating in an inert atmosphere, to form the desired CIGS film with up to micron-scaled film thickness and grain size. PV devices (glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/i-ZnO/ITO) employing the spin-coated CIGS and using processing temperatures below 500 deg. C have yielded power conversion efficiencies of up to 10% (AM 1.5 illumination), without the need for a post-CIGS-deposition treatment in a gaseous Se source or a cyanide-based bath etch. Short-duration low-temperature (T < 200 deg. C ) oxygen treatment of completed devices is shown to have a positive impact on the performance of initially underperforming cells, thereby enabling better performance in devices prepared at temperatures below 500 deg. C

  6. Hydrazine-based deposition route for device-quality CIGS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitzi, David B. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, P. O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)], E-mail: dmitzi@us.ibm.com; Yuan, Min; Liu, Wei [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, P. O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kellock, Andrew J [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Rd, San Jose, CA 95120 (United States); Chey, S Jay; Gignac, Lynne; Schrott, Alex G [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, P. O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2009-02-02

    A simple solution-based approach for depositing CIGS (Cu-In-Ga-Se/S) absorber layers is discussed, with an emphasis on film characterization, interfacial properties and integration into photovoltaic devices. The process involves incorporating all metal and chalcogenide components into a single hydrazine-based solution, spin coating a precursor film, and heat treating in an inert atmosphere, to form the desired CIGS film with up to micron-scaled film thickness and grain size. PV devices (glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/i-ZnO/ITO) employing the spin-coated CIGS and using processing temperatures below 500 deg. C have yielded power conversion efficiencies of up to 10% (AM 1.5 illumination), without the need for a post-CIGS-deposition treatment in a gaseous Se source or a cyanide-based bath etch. Short-duration low-temperature (T < 200 deg. C ) oxygen treatment of completed devices is shown to have a positive impact on the performance of initially underperforming cells, thereby enabling better performance in devices prepared at temperatures below 500 deg. C.

  7. A Decentralized Fuzzy C-Means-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moh’d Alia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network’s lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  8. A decentralized fuzzy C-means-based energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, Osama Moh'd

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  9. A Decentralized Fuzzy C-Means-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols. PMID:25162060

  10. Cobalt-based orthopaedic alloys: Relationship between forming route, microstructure and tribological performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Bhairav [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Favaro, Gregory [CSM Instruments SA, Rue de la Gare 4, Galileo Center, CH-2034 Peseux (Switzerland); Inam, Fawad [Advanced Composite Training and Development Centre and School of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Glyndwr University, Mold Road, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom); School of Engineering and Materials Science and Nanoforce Technology Ltd, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Reece, Michael J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science and Nanoforce Technology Ltd, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Angadji, Arash [Orthopaedic Research UK, Furlong House, 10a Chandos Street, London W1G 9DQ (United Kingdom); Bonfield, William [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Huang, Jie [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: m.edirisinghe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The average longevity of hip replacement devices is approximately 10-15 years, which generally depends on many factors. But for younger generation patients this would mean that revisions may be required at some stage in order to maintain functional activity. Therefore, research is required to increase the longevity to around 25-30 years; a target that was initially set by John Charnley. The main issues related to metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacement devices are the high wear rates when malpositioned and the release of metallic ions into the blood stream and surrounding tissues. Work is required to reduce the wear rates and limit the amount of metallic ions being leached out of the current MoM materials, to be able to produce an ideal hip replacement material. The most commonly used MoM material is the cobalt-based alloys, more specifically ASTM F75, due to their excellent wear and corrosion resistance. They are either fabricated using the cast or wrought method, however powder processing of these alloys has been shown to improve the properties. One powder processing technique used is spark plasma sintering, which utilises electric current Joule heating to produce high heating rates to sinter powders to form an alloy. Two conventionally manufactured alloys (ASTM F75 and ASTM F1537) and a spark plasma sintered (SPS) alloy were evaluated for their microstructure, hardness, tribological performance and the release of metallic content. The SPS alloy with oxides and not carbides in its microstructure had the higher hardness, which resulted in the lowest wear and friction coefficient, with lower amounts of chromium and molybdenum detected from the wear debris compared to the ASTM F75 and ASTM F1537. In addition the wear debris size and size distribution of the SPS alloy generated were considerably small, indicating a material that exhibits excellent performance and more favourable compared to the current conventional cobalt based alloys used in orthopaedics. - Highlights

  11. A Novel Spatial-Temporal Voronoi Diagram-Based Heuristic Approach for Large-Scale Vehicle Routing Optimization with Time Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle routing optimization (VRO designs the best routes to reduce travel cost, energy consumption, and carbon emission. Due to non-deterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard complexity, many VROs involved in real-world applications require too much computing effort. Shortening computing time for VRO is a great challenge for state-of-the-art spatial optimization algorithms. From a spatial-temporal perspective, this paper presents a spatial-temporal Voronoi diagram-based heuristic approach for large-scale vehicle routing problems with time windows (VRPTW. Considering time constraints, a spatial-temporal Voronoi distance is derived from the spatial-temporal Voronoi diagram to find near neighbors in the space-time searching context. A Voronoi distance decay strategy that integrates a time warp operation is proposed to accelerate local search procedures. A spatial-temporal feature-guided search is developed to improve unpromising micro route structures. Experiments on VRPTW benchmarks and real-world instances are conducted to verify performance. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach is competitive with state-of-the-art heuristics and achieves high-quality solutions for large-scale instances of VRPTWs in a short time. This novel approach will contribute to spatial decision support community by developing an effective vehicle routing optimization method for large transportation applications in both public and private sectors.

  12. Graphene-Au nanoparticle based vertical heterostructures: a novel route towards high- ZT Thermoelectric devices

    KAUST Repository

    Juang, Zhen-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Chih; Shi, Yumeng; Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Ryuzaki, Sou; Saito, Noboru; Hsiung, Chia-En; Chang, Wen-Hao; Hernandez, Yenny; Han, Yu; Tamada, Kaoru; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    Monolayer graphene exhibits impressive in-plane thermal conductivity (>1000Wm–1 K–1). However, the out-of-plane thermal transport is limited due to the weak van der Waals interaction, indicating the possibility of constructing a vertical thermoelectric (TE) device. Here, we propose a cross-plane TE device based on the vertical heterostructures of few-layer graphene and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on Si substrates, where the incorporation of AuNPs further inhibits the phonon transport and enhances the electrical conductivity along vertical direction. A measurable Seebeck voltage is produced vertically between top graphene and bottom Si when the device is put on a hot surface and the figure of merit ZT is estimated as 1 at room temperature from the transient Harman method. The polarity of the output voltage is determined by the carrier polarity of the substrate. The device concept is also applicable to a flexible and transparent substrate as demonstrated.

  13. Optimization model of conventional missile maneuvering route based on improved Floyd algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Runping; Liu, Weidong

    2018-04-01

    Missile combat plays a crucial role in the victory of war under high-tech conditions. According to the characteristics of maneuver tasks of conventional missile units in combat operations, the factors influencing road maneuvering are analyzed. Based on road distance, road conflicts, launching device speed, position requirements, launch device deployment, Concealment and so on. The shortest time optimization model was built to discuss the situation of road conflict and the strategy of conflict resolution. The results suggest that in the process of solving road conflict, the effect of node waiting is better than detour to another way. In this study, we analyzed the deficiency of the traditional Floyd algorithm which may limit the optimal way of solving road conflict, and put forward the improved Floyd algorithm, meanwhile, we designed the algorithm flow which would be better than traditional Floyd algorithm. Finally, throgh a numerical example, the model and the algorithm were proved to be reliable and effective.

  14. Graphene-Au nanoparticle based vertical heterostructures: a novel route towards high- ZT Thermoelectric devices

    KAUST Repository

    Juang, Zhen-Yu

    2017-06-03

    Monolayer graphene exhibits impressive in-plane thermal conductivity (>1000Wm–1 K–1). However, the out-of-plane thermal transport is limited due to the weak van der Waals interaction, indicating the possibility of constructing a vertical thermoelectric (TE) device. Here, we propose a cross-plane TE device based on the vertical heterostructures of few-layer graphene and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on Si substrates, where the incorporation of AuNPs further inhibits the phonon transport and enhances the electrical conductivity along vertical direction. A measurable Seebeck voltage is produced vertically between top graphene and bottom Si when the device is put on a hot surface and the figure of merit ZT is estimated as 1 at room temperature from the transient Harman method. The polarity of the output voltage is determined by the carrier polarity of the substrate. The device concept is also applicable to a flexible and transparent substrate as demonstrated.

  15. Selective Area Sublimation: A Simple Top-down Route for GaN-Based Nanowire Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damilano, B; Vézian, S; Brault, J; Alloing, B; Massies, J

    2016-03-09

    Post-growth in situ partial SiNx masking of GaN-based epitaxial layers grown in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor is used to get GaN selective area sublimation (SAS) by high temperature annealing. Using this top-down approach, nanowires (NWs) with nanometer scale diameter are obtained from GaN and InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum well epitaxial structures. After GaN regrowth on InxGa1-xN/GaN NWs resulting from SAS, InxGa1-xN quantum disks (QDisks) with nanometer sizes in the three dimensions are formed. Low temperature microphotoluminescence experiments demonstrate QDisk multilines photon emission around 3 eV with individual line widths of 1-2 meV.

  16. To what extent are Canadian second language policies evidence-based? Reflections on the intersections of research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    THE PAPER ADDRESSES THE INTERSECTIONS BETWEEN RESEARCH FINDINGS AND CANADIAN EDUCATIONAL POLICIES FOCUSING ON FOUR MAJOR AREAS: (a) core and immersion programs for the teaching of French to Anglophone students, (b) policies concerning the learning of English and French by students from immigrant backgrounds, (c) heritage language teaching, and (d) the education of Deaf and hard-of hearing students. With respect to the teaching of French, policy-makers have largely ignored the fact that most core French programs produce meager results for the vast majority of students. Only a small proportion of students (languages, preferring instead to leave uncorrected the proposition that acquisition of languages such as American Sign Language by young children (with or without cochlear implants) will impede children's language and academic development. The paper reviews the kinds of policies, programs, and practices that could be implemented (at no additional cost) if policy-makers and educators pursued evidence-based educational policies.

  17. En Route: next-generation laser-plasma-based electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidding, Bernhard

    2008-05-01

    Accelerating electrons to relativistic energies is of fundamental interest, especially in particle physics. Today's accelerator technology, however, is limited by the maximum electric fields which can be created. This thesis presents results on various mechanisms aiming at exploiting the fields in focussed laser pulses and plasma waves for electron acceleration, which can be orders of magnitude higher than with conventional accelerators. With relativistic, underdense laser-plasma-interaction, quasimonoenergetic electron bunches with energies up to ∼50 MeV and normalized emittances of the order of 5mmmrad have been generated. This was achieved by focussing the ∼80 fs, 1 J pulses of the JETI-laser at the FSU Jena to intensities of several 10 19 W=cm 2 into gas jets. The experimental observations could be explained via ''bubble acceleration'', which is based on self-injection and acceleration of electrons in a highly nonlinear breaking plasma wave. For the rst time, this bubble acceleration was achieved explicitly in the self-modulated laser wakefield regime (SMLWFA). This quasimonoenergetic SMLWFA-regime stands out by relaxing dramatically the requirements on the driving laser pulse necessary to trigger bubble acceleration. This is due to self-modulation of the laser pulse in high-density gas jets, leading to ultrashort laser pulse fragments capable of initiating bubble acceleration. Electron bunches with durations < or similar 5 fs can thus be created, which is at least an order of magnitude shorter than with conventional accelerator technology. In addition, more than one laser pulse fragment can be powerful enough to drive a bubble. Distinct double peaks have been observed in the electron spectra, indicating that two quasimonoenergetic electron bunches separated by only few tens of fs have formed. This is backed up by PIC-Simulations (Particle-in-Cell). These results underline the feasibility of the construction of small table-top accelerators, while at the

  18. Electrohydrodynamic bubbling: an alternative route to fabricate porous structures of silk fibroin based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekemen, Zeynep; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Stride, Eleanor; Kaplan, David; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-05-13

    Conventional fabrication techniques and structures employed in the design of silk fibroin (SF) based porous materials provide only limited control over pore size and require several processing stages. In this study, it is shown that, by utilizing electrohydrodynamic bubbling, not only can new hollow spherical structures of SF be formed in a single step by means of bubbles, but the resulting bubbles can serve as pore generators when dehydrated. The bubble characteristics can be controlled through simple adjustments to the processing parameters. Bubbles with diameters in the range of 240-1000 μm were fabricated in controlled fashion. FT-IR characterization confirmed that the rate of air infused during processing enhanced β-sheet packing in SF at higher flow rates. Dynamic mechanical analysis also demonstrated a correlation between air flow rate and film tensile strength. Results indicate that electrohydrodynamically generated SF and their composite bubbles can be employed as new tools to generate porous structures in a controlled manner with a range of potential applications in biocoatings and tissue engineering scaffolds.

  19. Synthesis of encapsulated pigments based on Fe, Co and Si by route of polymeric precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, D.S.S.M.; Macedo Neto, O.C.; Paskocimas, C.A.; Varela, M.L.N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective is to apply the polymeric precursor method to obtain encapsulated pigments, the basis of oxides of iron and cobalt deposited on silica. The method has advantages such as reduction of time and reproducibility in the conventional methods, and also improves optical properties, thermal stability and morphology. The synthesis was based on the dissolution of the citric acid (complexing agent), addition of oxides of iron and cobalt (ions chromophores) polymerization of ethylene glycol and silica coating. The mixture was pre-calcined to form the precursor powder was analyzed by TG and DTA. Was then split, and calcined at different temperatures (700 ° C - 900 ° C) and analyzed by BET, DRX, MEV and UV-Visible. The pigments were stable thermally, with surface area ranging between 3,09 and 7,65 m² / g, formation of crystalline phases of cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2 O 4 ) and Cristobalite (SiO 2 ) and agglomerates of particles slightly rounded. (author)

  20. "We Brought It upon Ourselves": University-Based Teacher Education and the Emergence of Boot-Camp-Style Routes to Teacher Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of boot-camp-style routes to teacher certification in the last two decades is seen by many university-based teacher educators as the result of the advancement of conservative interests aimed at de-professionalizing teaching. This essay argues that this view only accounts for one piece of the answer, the other one being that some…

  1. Towards a Demand-Driven Agenda for Place-Based Policies in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    This policy study is the second report on the policy implications of the EU funded project Policy Incentives for the Creation of Knowledge – Methods and Evidence (PICK-ME). All contributions in the project related with place-based policy and cluster building are summarized and reviewed (Work...

  2. DLTS Analysis and Interface Engineering of Solution Route Fabricated Zirconia Based MIS Devices Using Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we have fabricated low-temperature sol-gel spin-coated and oxygen (O2) plasma treated ZrO2 thin film-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices. To understand the impact of plasma treatment on the Si/ZrO2 interface, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements were performed. It is reported that the interface state density ( D it) comes down to 7.1 × 1010 eV-1 cm-2 from 4 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2, after plasma treatment. The reduction in D it is around five times and can be attributed to the passivation of oxygen vacancies near the Si/ZrO2 interface, as they try to relocate near the interface. The energy level position ( E T) of interfacial traps is estimated to be 0.36 eV below the conduction band edge. The untreated ZrO2 film displayed poor leakage behavior due to the presence of several traps within the film and at the interface; O2 plasma treated films show improved leakage current density as they have been reduced from 5.4 × 10-8 A/cm2 to 1.98 × 10-9 A/cm2 for gate injection mode and 6.4 × 10-8 A/cm2 to 6.3 × 10-10 A/cm2 for substrate injection mode at 1 V. Hence, we suggest that plasma treatment might be useful in future device fabrication technology.

  3. Self-assembling organomodified Co/Al based layered double hydroxides (LDH) via one-step route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-yi; A.LEUTERITZ; U.WAGENKNECHT; G.HEINRICH

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of self-assembling organomodified Co/Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) via one-step route was studied.A common surfactant,sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS),was employed as an organic modifier.The behavior and structure of self-assembled intercalated organic Co/Al-LDH were investigated by FTIR,SEM,WAXS,element analysis and TGA.Based upon the WAXS results and calculation by Bragg equation,the interlayer distance (d value) for organic Co/Al-LDH is enlarged from 0.75 nm to 3.10 nm,showing that the self-assembling behavior has been carried out successfully.Considering the observation from SEM,the product shows the morphology of organic Co/Al-LDH of a layered structure.In addition,FTIR,element analysis and TGA analysis show that the modifier is intercalated into the gallery of the Co/Al-LDH.Since organic modification for nanofiller is deemed to be necessary before applying it into polymer,the successful preparation of organomodified Co/Al-LDH will be significantly beneficial to the preparation and investigation of novel polymer/LDH nanocomposite.

  4. Coexistence of multiple attractors and crisis route to chaos in a novel memristive diode bidge-based Jerk circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njitacke, Z.T.; Kengne, J.; Fotsin, H.B.; Negou, A. Nguomkam; Tchiotsop, D.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, a new memristor based oscillator is obtained from the autonomous Jerk circuit [Kengne et al., Nonlinear Dynamics (2016) 83: 751̶765] by substituting the nonlinear element of the original circuit with a first order memristive diode bridge. The model is described by a continuous time four-dimensional autonomous system with smooth nonlinearities. Various nonlinear analysis tools such as phase portraits, time series, bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré section and the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents are exploited to characterize different scenarios to chaos in the novel circuit. It is found that the system experiences period doubling and crisis routes to chaos. One of the major results of this work is the finding of a window in the parameters’ space in which the circuit develops hysteretic behaviors characterized by the coexistence of four different (periodic and chaotic) attractors for the same values of the system parameters. Basins of attractions of various coexisting attractors are plotted showing complex basin boundaries. As far as the authors’ knowledge goes, the novel memristive jerk circuit represents one of the simplest electrical circuits (no analog multiplier chip is involved) capable of four disconnected coexisting attractors reported to date. Both PSpice simulations of the nonlinear dynamics of the oscillator and laboratory experimental measurements are carried out to validate the theoretical analysis.

  5. A WEB-BASED FRAMEWORK FOR VISUALIZING INDUSTRIAL SPATIOTEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION USING STANDARD DEVIATIONAL ELLIPSE AND SHIFTING ROUTES OF GRAVITY CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysing spatiotemporal distribution patterns and its dynamics of different industries can help us learn the macro-level developing trends of those industries, and in turn provides references for industrial spatial planning. However, the analysis process is challenging task which requires an easy-to-understand information presentation mechanism and a powerful computational technology to support the visual analytics of big data on the fly. Due to this reason, this research proposes a web-based framework to enable such a visual analytics requirement. The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories. The calculation of gravity centers and ellipses is paralleled using Apache Spark to accelerate the processing. In the experiments, we use the enterprise registration dataset in Mainland China from year 1960 to 2015 that contains fine-grain location information (i.e., coordinates of each individual enterprise to demonstrate the feasibility of this framework. The experiment result shows that the developed visual analytics method is helpful to understand the multi-level patterns and developing trends of different industries in China. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to analyse any nature and social spatiotemporal point process with large data volume, such as crime and disease.

  6. a Web-Based Framework for Visualizing Industrial Spatiotemporal Distribution Using Standard Deviational Ellipse and Shifting Routes of Gravity Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Gui, Z.; Wu, H.; Wei, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Analysing spatiotemporal distribution patterns and its dynamics of different industries can help us learn the macro-level developing trends of those industries, and in turn provides references for industrial spatial planning. However, the analysis process is challenging task which requires an easy-to-understand information presentation mechanism and a powerful computational technology to support the visual analytics of big data on the fly. Due to this reason, this research proposes a web-based framework to enable such a visual analytics requirement. The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE) and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories. The calculation of gravity centers and ellipses is paralleled using Apache Spark to accelerate the processing. In the experiments, we use the enterprise registration dataset in Mainland China from year 1960 to 2015 that contains fine-grain location information (i.e., coordinates of each individual enterprise) to demonstrate the feasibility of this framework. The experiment result shows that the developed visual analytics method is helpful to understand the multi-level patterns and developing trends of different industries in China. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to analyse any nature and social spatiotemporal point process with large data volume, such as crime and disease.

  7. Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Navigation with the Help of A⁎-Based Routing Graphs in Large Unconstrained Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taia Alaoui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An A⁎-based routing graph is proposed to assist PDR indoor and outdoor navigation with handheld devices. Measurements are provided by inertial and magnetic sensors together with a GNSS receiver. The novelty of this work lies in providing a realistic motion support that mitigates the absence of obstacles and enables the calibration of the PDR model even in large spaces where GNSS signal is unavailable. This motion support is exploited for both predicting positions and updating them using a particle filter. The navigation network is used to correct for the gyro drift, to adjust the step length model and to assess heading misalignment between the pedestrian’s walking direction and the pointing direction of the handheld device. Several datasets have been tested and results show that the proposed model ensures a seamless transition between outdoor and indoor environments and improves the positioning accuracy. The drift is almost cancelled thanks to heading correction in contrast with a drift of 8% for the nonaided PDR approach. The mean error of filtered positions ranges from 3 to 5 m.

  8. Evaluating LSM-Based Water Budgets Over a West African Basin Assisted with a River Routing Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getirana, Augusto C. V.; Boone, Aaron; Peugeot, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Land Surface Model Intercomparison Project phase 2 (ALMIP-2), this study evaluates the water balance simulated by the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) over the upper Oum River basin, in Benin, using a mesoscale river routing scheme (RRS). The RRS is based on the nonlinear Muskingum Cunge method coupled with two linear reservoirs that simulate the time delay of both surface runoff and base flow that are produced by land surface models. On the basis of the evidence of a deep water-table recharge in that region,a reservoir representing the deep-water infiltration (DWI) is introduced. The hydrological processes of the basin are simulated for the 2005-08 AMMA field campaign period during which rainfall and stream flow data were intensively collected over the study area. Optimal RRS parameter sets were determined for three optimization experiments that were performed using daily stream flow at five gauges within the basin. Results demonstrate that the RRS simulates stream flow at all gauges with relative errors varying from -22% to 3% and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients varying from 0.62 to 0.90. DWI varies from 24% to 67% of the base flow as a function of the sub-basin. The relatively simple reservoir DWI approach is quite robust, and further improvements would likely necessitate more complex solutions (e.g., considering seasonality and soil type in ISBA); thus, such modifications are recommended for future studies. Although the evaluation shows that the simulated stream flows are generally satisfactory, further field investigations are necessary to confirm some of the model assumptions.

  9. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  10. Area-based initiatives - Engines of planning and policy innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Norvig Larsen, Jacob

    studies of local planning culture change are discussed. Main findings are that during the past two decades a general change in planning culture has developed gradually, triggered by urban regeneration full scale experimentation with place-based approaches. Second, planners as well as public administrators...... and development in planning culture turns out to be a more substantial result than the reduction of social exclusion and economic deprivation. The paper analyses all available official evaluation studies of Danish place-based urban policy initiatives from mid-1990s through 2010. In addition to this, recent...... attitude towards the involvement of local citizens and stakeholders is significantly transformed. While earlier, public participation in planning was mostly restricted to what was lawfully mandatory, the new turn in planning culture demonstrates a practice that goes much further in involving citizens...

  11. En Route: next-generation laser-plasma-based electron accelerators; En Route: Elektronenbeschleuniger der naechsten Generation auf Laser-Plasma-Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidding, Bernhard

    2008-05-15

    Accelerating electrons to relativistic energies is of fundamental interest, especially in particle physics. Today's accelerator technology, however, is limited by the maximum electric fields which can be created. This thesis presents results on various mechanisms aiming at exploiting the fields in focussed laser pulses and plasma waves for electron acceleration, which can be orders of magnitude higher than with conventional accelerators. With relativistic, underdense laser-plasma-interaction, quasimonoenergetic electron bunches with energies up to {approx}50 MeV and normalized emittances of the order of 5mmmrad have been generated. This was achieved by focussing the {approx}80 fs, 1 J pulses of the JETI-laser at the FSU Jena to intensities of several 10{sup 19}W=cm{sup 2} into gas jets. The experimental observations could be explained via 'bubble acceleration', which is based on self-injection and acceleration of electrons in a highly nonlinear breaking plasma wave. For the rst time, this bubble acceleration was achieved explicitly in the self-modulated laser wakefield regime (SMLWFA). This quasimonoenergetic SMLWFA-regime stands out by relaxing dramatically the requirements on the driving laser pulse necessary to trigger bubble acceleration. This is due to self-modulation of the laser pulse in high-density gas jets, leading to ultrashort laser pulse fragments capable of initiating bubble acceleration. Electron bunches with durations

  12. Assessing the environmental characteristics of cycling routes to school: a study on the reliability and validity of a Google Street View-based audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwolleghem, Griet; Van Dyck, Delfien; Ducheyne, Fabian; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet

    2014-06-10

    Google Street View provides a valuable and efficient alternative to observe the physical environment compared to on-site fieldwork. However, studies on the use, reliability and validity of Google Street View in a cycling-to-school context are lacking. We aimed to study the intra-, inter-rater reliability and criterion validity of EGA-Cycling (Environmental Google Street View Based Audit - Cycling to school), a newly developed audit using Google Street View to assess the physical environment along cycling routes to school. Parents (n = 52) of 11-to-12-year old Flemish children, who mostly cycled to school, completed a questionnaire and identified their child's cycling route to school on a street map. Fifty cycling routes of 11-to-12-year olds were identified and physical environmental characteristics along the identified routes were rated with EGA-Cycling (5 subscales; 37 items), based on Google Street View. To assess reliability, two researchers performed the audit. Criterion validity of the audit was examined by comparing the ratings based on Google Street View with ratings through on-site assessments. Intra-rater reliability was high (kappa range 0.47-1.00). Large variations in the inter-rater reliability (kappa range -0.03-1.00) and criterion validity scores (kappa range -0.06-1.00) were reported, with acceptable inter-rater reliability values for 43% of all items and acceptable criterion validity for 54% of all items. EGA-Cycling can be used to assess physical environmental characteristics along cycling routes to school. However, to assess the micro-environment specifically related to cycling, on-site assessments have to be added.

  13. Developing an eco-routing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The study develops eco-routing algorithms and investigates and quantifies the system-wide impacts of implementing an eco-routing system. Two eco-routing algorithms are developed: one based on vehicle sub-populations (ECO-Subpopulation Feedback Assign...

  14. Is Entrepreneurship a Route Out of Deprivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankish, Julian S.; Roberts, Richard G.; Coad, Alexander Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Frankish J. S., Roberts R. G., Coad A. and Storey D. J. Is entrepreneurship a route out of deprivation?, Regional Studies. This paper investigates whether entrepreneurship constitutes a route out of deprivation for those living in deprived areas. The measure of income/wealth used is based...... the wealth distribution. Hence, entrepreneurship can be a route out of deprivation....

  15. The Evolution of Policy Enactment on Gender-Based Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how policies and strategies to address school-related gender-based violence have evolved since 2000, when gender-based violence within education was largely invisible. Through an exploration of policy enactment in three countries--Liberia, South Africa, and Brazil--it traces remarkable progress in policy, programmes, and…

  16. Econometric Model of Rice Policy Based On Presidential Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi Sembiring, Surya; Hutauruk, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The objective of research is to build an econometric model based on Presidential Instruction rice policy. The data was monthly time series from March 2005 to September 2009. Rice policy model specification using simultaneous equation, consisting of 14 structural equations and four identity equation, which was estimated using Two Stages Least Squares (2SLS) method. The results show that: (1) an increase of government purchasing price of dried harvest paddy has a positive impact on to increase in total rice production and community rice stock, (2) an increase community rice stock lead to decrease the rice imports, (3) an increase of the realization of the distribution of subsidized ZA fertilizers and the realization of the distribution of subsidized NPK fertilizers has a positive impact on to increase in total rice production and community rice stock and to reduce rice imports, (4) the price of the dried harvest paddy is highly responsive to the water content of dried harvest paddy both the short run and long run, (5) the quantity of rice imported is highly responsive to the imported rice price, both short run and long run.

  17. The institutional economics of market-based climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerdman, E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the institutional barriers to implementing market-based climate policy, as well as to provide some opportunities to overcome them. The approach is that of institutional economics, with special emphasis on political transaction costs and path dependence. Instead of rejecting the neoclassical approach, this book uses it where fruitful and shows when and why it is necessary to employ a new or neo-institutionalist approach. The result is that equity is considered next to efficiency, that the evolution and possible lock-in of both formal and informal climate institutions are studied, and that attention is paid to the politics and law of economic instruments for climate policy, including some new empirical analyses. The research topics of this book include the set-up costs of a permit trading system, the risk that credit trading becomes locked-in, the potential legal problem of grandfathering in terms of actional subsidies under WTO law or state aid under EC law, and the changing attitudes of various European officials towards restricting the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms

  18. A new route for preparation of sodium-silicate-based hydrophobic silica aerogels via ambient-pressure drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangi, Uzma K H; Rao, A Venkateswara; Rao, A Parvathy

    2008-01-01

    An in-depth investigation into the synthesis of hydrophobic silica aerogels prepared by the surface derivatization of wet gels followed by subsequent drying at ambient pressure is reported. The following sol-gel parameters were examined for their effect on the physical properties of the derived aerogels: number of gel washings with water, percentage of hexane or methanol in silylating mixture, molar ratio of tartaric acid: Na 2 SiO 3 , gel aging period, weight% of silica, trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) percentage, and silylation period. These parameters were varied from 1 to 4, 0 to 100%, 0.27 to 1.2, 0 to 4 h, 1.5 to 8 wt.%, 20 to 40% and 6 to 24 h, respectively. The properties of hydrophobic silica aerogels synthesized by this new route were investigated in terms of bulk density, percentage volume shrinkage, percentage porosity, thermal conductivity and contact angle with water, and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The as-prepared hydrophobic silica aerogels exhibited high temperature stability (up to approximately 435 0 C) as measured by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA). The optimal sol-gel parameters were found to be a molar ratio of Na 2 SiO 3 :H 2 O : tartaric acid : TMCS of 1 : 146.67 : 0.86 : 9.46, an aging period of 3 h, four washings with water in 24 h and the use of a 50% hexane- or methanol-based silylating mixture. Aerogels prepared with these optimal parameters were found to exhibit 50% optical transparency in the visible range, 84 kg m -3 density, 0.090 W mK -1 thermal conductivity, 95% porosity and a contact angle of 146 0 with water

  19. Opportunity-based age replacement policy with minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhang, J.P.; Sheu, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes an opportunity-based age replacement policy with minimal repair. The system has two types of failures. Type I failures (minor failures) are removed by minimal repairs, whereas type II failures are removed by replacements. Type I and type II failures are age-dependent. A system is replaced at type II failure (catastrophic failure) or at the opportunity after age T, whichever occurs first. The cost of the minimal repair of the system at age z depends on the random part C(z) and the deterministic part c(z). The opportunity arises according to a Poisson process, independent of failures of the component. The expected cost rate is obtained. The optimal T * which would minimize the cost rate is discussed. Various special cases are considered. Finally, a numerical example is given

  20. Designing and implementing science-based methane policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, F.

    2017-12-01

    The phenomenal growth in shale gas production across the U.S. has significantly improved the energy security and economic prospects of the country. Natural gas is a "versatile" fuel that has application in every major end-use sector of the economy, both as a fuel and a feedstock. Natural gas has also played a significant role in reducing CO2 emissions from the power sector by displacing more carbon intensive fossil fuels. However, emissions of natural gas (predominantly methane) from the wellhead to the burner tip can erode this environmental benefit. Preserving the many benefits of America's natural gas resources requires smart, science-based policies to optimize the energy delivery efficiency of the natural gas supply chain and ensure that natural gas remains a key pillar in our transition to a low-carbon economy. Southwestern Energy (SWN) is the third largest natural gas producer in the United States. Over the last several years, SWN has participated in a number of scientific studies with regulatory agencies, academia and non-governmental entities that have led to over a dozen peer-reviewed papers on methane emissions from oil and gas operations. This presentation will review how our participation in these studies has informed our internal policies and procedures, as well as our external programs, including the ONE Future coalition (ONE Future). In particular, the presentation will highlight the impact of such studies on our Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) program, designing new methane research and on the ONE Future initiatives - all with the focus of improving the delivery efficiency of oil and gas operations. Our experience supports continued research in the detection and mitigation of methane emissions, with emphasis on longer duration characterization of methane emissions from oil and gas facilities and further development of cost-effective methane detection and mitigation techniques. We conclude from our scientific and operational experiences that a

  1. Role of ideas and ideologies in evidence-based health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, S

    2010-01-01

    Policy making in health is largely thought to be driven by three 'I's namely ideas, interests and institutions. Recent years have seen a shift in approach with increasing reliance being placed on role of evidence for policy making. The present article ascertains the role of ideas and ideologies in shaping evidence which is used to aid in policy decisions. The article discusses different theories of research-policy interface and the relative freedom of research-based evidence from the influence of ideas. Examples from developed and developed countries are cited to illustrate the contentions made. The article highlights the complexity of the process of evidence-based policy making, in a world driven by existing political, social and cultural ideologies. Consideration of this knowledge is paramount where more efforts are being made to bridge the gap between the 'two worlds' of researchers and policy makers to make evidence-based policy as also for policy analysts.

  2. An Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search-based Three-Stage Matheuristic for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Røpke, Stefan

    that serves all the customers. The second stage usesan Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) algorithm to minimise the travel distance, during the second phase all of the generated routes are considered by solving a set cover problem. The ALNS algorithm uses 4 destroy operators, 2 repair operators...

  3. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  4. Analysis of inertial choice behaviour based expected and experienced savings from a real-world route choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Rakha, H.; Van Berkum, E.; Van Arem, B.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of route choice, inertial behaviour shows that drivers make choices that are satisfactory rather than optimal. Consequently, drivers may not necessarily alter their choice when confronted with a travel time increase on the current choice or a travel time decrease of a choice

  5. Role of Travel Time Information on Day-to-Day Route Choice Behavior Based on Real-World Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, Mariska; Thomas, Tom; Chorus, Caspar; van Berkum, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that travel time information leads to reductions in traffic congestion and thereby improves network efficiency. An important research topic within travel behavior research is therefore how car drivers choose their routes, specifically when they receive travel time information.

  6. Mini-grid based off-grid electrification to enhance electricity access in developing countries: What policies may be required?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Palit, Debajit

    2016-01-01

    With 1.2 billion people still lacking electricity access by 2013, electricity access remains a major global challenge. Although mini-grid based electrification has received attention in recent times, their full exploitation requires policy support covering a range of areas. Distilling the experience from a five year research project, OASYS South Asia, this paper presents the summary of research findings and shares the experience from four demonstration activities. It suggests that cost-effective universal electricity service remains a challenge and reaching the universal electrification target by 2030 will remain a challenge for the less developed countries. The financial, organisational and governance weaknesses hinder successful implementation of projects in many countries. The paper then provides 10 policy recommendations to promote mini-grids as a complementary route to grid extension to promote electricity access for successful outcomes. - Highlights: •The academic and action research activities undertaken through OASYS South Asia Project are reported. •Evidence produced through a multi-dimensional participatory framework supplemented by four demonstration projects. •Funding and regulatory challenges militate against universal electrification objectives by 2030. •Innovative business approaches linking local mini-grids and livelihood opportunities exist. •Enabling policies are suggested to exploit such options.

  7. Databases as policy instruments. About extending networks as evidence-based policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoevelaar Herman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article seeks to identify the role of databases in health policy. Access to information and communication technologies has changed traditional relationships between the state and professionals, creating new systems of surveillance and control. As a result, databases may have a profound effect on controlling clinical practice. Methods We conducted three case studies to reconstruct the development and use of databases as policy instruments. Each database was intended to be employed to control the use of one particular pharmaceutical in the Netherlands (growth hormone, antiretroviral drugs for HIV and Taxol, respectively. We studied the archives of the Dutch Health Insurance Board, conducted in-depth interviews with key informants and organized two focus groups, all focused on the use of databases both in policy circles and in clinical practice. Results Our results demonstrate that policy makers hardly used the databases, neither for cost control nor for quality assurance. Further analysis revealed that these databases facilitated self-regulation and quality assurance by (national bodies of professionals, resulting in restrictive prescription behavior amongst physicians. Conclusion The databases fulfill control functions that were formerly located within the policy realm. The databases facilitate collaboration between policy makers and physicians, since they enable quality assurance by professionals. Delegating regulatory authority downwards into a network of physicians who control the use of pharmaceuticals seems to be a good alternative for centralized control on the basis of monitoring data.

  8. Beyond Traditional DTN Routing: Social Networks for Opportunistic Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Schurgot, Mary R.; Comaniciu, Cristina; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of routing protocols for intermittently connected ad hoc networks and discusses the trend toward social-based routing protocols. A survey of current routing solutions is presented, where routing protocols for opportunistic networks are classified based on the network graph employed. The need to capture performance tradeoffs from a multi-objective perspective is highlighted.

  9. To What Extent Are Canadian Second Language Policies Evidence-Based? Reflections on the Intersections of Research and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim eCummins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the intersections between research, ideology, and Canadian educational policies focusing on four major areas: (a core and immersion programs for the teaching of French to Anglophone students, (b policies concerning the learning of English and French by students from immigrant backgrounds, (c heritage language teaching, and (d the education of Deaf and hard-of hearing students. With respect to the teaching of French, policy-makers have largely ignored the fact that most core French programs produce meager results for the vast majority of students. Only a small proportion of students (< 10% attend more effective alternatives (e.g. French immersion and Intensive French programs. With respect to immigrant-background students, a large majority of teachers and administrators have not had opportunities to access the knowledge base regarding effective instruction for these students nor have they had opportunities for pre-service or in-service professional development regarding effective instructional practices. Educational policies have also treated the linguistic resources that children bring to school with, at best, benign neglect. In some cases (e.g., Ontario school systems have been explicitly prohibited from instituting enrichment bilingual programs that would promote students’ bilingualism and biliteracy. Finally, with respect to Deaf students, policy-makers have ignored overwhelming research on the positive relationship between academic success and the development of proficiency in natural sign languages, preferring instead to perpetuate the falsehood that acquisition of languages such as American Sign Language by young children (with or without cochlear implants will impede children’s language and academic development. The paper reviews the kinds of policies, programs, and practices that could be implemented (at no additional cost if policy-makers and educators pursued evidence-based educational policies.

  10. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  11. Optimization of Simple Monetary Policy Rules on the Base of Estimated DSGE-model

    OpenAIRE

    Shulgin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of coefficients in monetary policy rules is performed on the base of the DSGE-model with two independent monetary policy instruments estimated on the Russian data. It was found that welfare maximizing policy rules lead to inadequate result and pro-cyclical monetary policy. Optimal coefficients in Taylor rule and exchange rate rule allow to decrease volatility estimated on Russian data of 2001-2012 by about 20%. The degree of exchange rate flexibility parameter was found to be low...

  12. A Critical Assessment of Evidence-Based Policy and Practice in Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Clive; Drewery, Sian

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors consider how effective social work has been in terms of evidence-based policies and practice. They consider the role that "evidence" plays in policy making both in the wider context and, in particular, in relation to social work. The authors argue that there are numerous voices in the policy-making process and evidence only plays a minor role in terms of policy development and practice in social work.

  13. DS-ARP: a new detection scheme for ARP spoofing attacks based on routing trace for ubiquitous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Su; Lee, Jae Dong; Jeong, Young-Sik; Jeong, Hwa-Young; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Despite the convenience, ubiquitous computing suffers from many threats and security risks. Security considerations in the ubiquitous network are required to create enriched and more secure ubiquitous environments. The address resolution protocol (ARP) is a protocol used to identify the IP address and the physical address of the associated network card. ARP is designed to work without problems in general environments. However, since it does not include security measures against malicious attacks, in its design, an attacker can impersonate another host using ARP spoofing or access important information. In this paper, we propose a new detection scheme for ARP spoofing attacks using a routing trace, which can be used to protect the internal network. Tracing routing can find the change of network movement path. The proposed scheme provides high constancy and compatibility because it does not alter the ARP protocol. In addition, it is simple and stable, as it does not use a complex algorithm or impose extra load on the computer system.

  14. Development of a hybrid genetic algorithm based decision support system for vehicle routing and scheduling in supply chain logistics managment

    OpenAIRE

    Khanian, Seyed Mohammad Shafi

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Routing and Scheduling (VRS) constitute an important part of logistics management. Given the fact that the worldwide cost on physical distribution is evermore increasing, the global competition and the complex nature of logistics problems, one area, which determines the efficiency of all others, is the VRS activities. The application of Decision Support Systems (DSS) to assist logistics management with an efficient VRS could be of great benefit. Although the benefits of DSS in VRS are...

  15. A GIS-based decision support system for determining the shortest and safest route to forest fires: a case study in Mediterranean Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Abdullah E; Wing, Michael G; Sivrikaya, Fatih; Sakar, Dursun

    2012-03-01

    The ability of firefighting vehicles and staff to reach a fire area as quickly as possible is critical in fighting against forest fires. In this study, a Geographical Information System-based decision support system was developed to assist fire managers in determining the fastest and the safest or more reliable access routes from firefighting headquarters to fire areas. The decision support system was tested in the Kahramanmaras Forestry Regional Directoratein the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The study area consisted of forested lands which had been classified according to fire sensitivity. The fire response routing simulations considered firefighting teams located in 20 firefighting headquarter locations. The road network, the locations of the firefighting headquarters, and possible fire locations were mapped for simulation analysis. In alternative application simulations, inaccessible roads which might be closed due to fire or other reasons were indicated in the network analysis so that the optimum route was not only the fastest but also the safest and most reliable path. The selection of which firefighting headquarters to use was evaluated by considering critical response time to potential fire areas based on fire sensitivity levels. Results indicated that new firefighting headquarters should be established in the region in order to provide sufficient firefighting response to all forested lands. In addition, building new fire access roads and increasing the design speed on current roads could also increase firefighting response capabilities within the study area.

  16. Feasible Initial Population with Genetic Diversity for a Population-Based Algorithm Applied to the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Cruz-Chávez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic algorithm for obtaining feasible initial populations to the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows is presented. The theoretical formulation for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows is explained. The proposed method is primarily divided into a clustering algorithm and a two-phase algorithm. The first step is the application of a modified k-means clustering algorithm which is proposed in this paper. The two-phase algorithm evaluates a partial solution to transform it into a feasible individual. The two-phase algorithm consists of a hybridization of four kinds of insertions which interact randomly to obtain feasible individuals. It has been proven that different kinds of insertions impact the diversity among individuals in initial populations, which is crucial for population-based algorithm behavior. A modification to the Hamming distance method is applied to the populations generated for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows to evaluate their diversity. Experimental tests were performed based on the Solomon benchmarking. Experimental results show that the proposed method facilitates generation of highly diverse populations, which vary according to the type and distribution of the instances.

  17. Bellman Ford algorithm - in Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krianto Sulaiman, Oris; Mahmud Siregar, Amir; Nasution, Khairuddin; Haramaini, Tasliyah

    2018-04-01

    In a large scale network need a routing that can handle a lot number of users, one of the solutions to cope with large scale network is by using a routing protocol, There are 2 types of routing protocol that is static and dynamic, Static routing is manually route input based on network admin, while dynamic routing is automatically route input formed based on existing network. Dynamic routing is efficient used to network extensively because of the input of route automatic formed, Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of dynamic routing that uses the bellman-ford algorithm where this algorithm will search for the best path that traversed the network by leveraging the value of each link, so with the bellman-ford algorithm owned by RIP can optimize existing networks.

  18. New Hybrid Route to Biomimetic Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    To develop economical low-temperature routes to biomimetic synthesis of high-performance composite materials, with control of composition and structure based on the molecular mechanisms controlling...

  19. Critical Routes: Women Facing Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Critical Routes International Seminar – Women Facing Violence , which took place in Porto Alegre in 2008. The seminar was promoted by the Graduate Program on Collective Health at Unisinos and by the Public Health School/RS and was supported by outstanding researchers working in the fields of collective health, and social and human sciences. Initially, we discuss some conceptual aspects about gender violence, its dimensions and its consequences for the health and the life quality of the affected women. Our understanding is that violence is one of the most effective methods of controlling women in societies scarred with gender hierarchies. The structure of the seminar focused on three main discussion themes: breaking up with the violence, mechanisms for working with gender and hearing the services. These themes were chosen aiming at looking for ways to help the women and to explore efficient mechanisms to combat, reduce and, if possible, eliminate the violence perpetrated against women. At the end of the seminar, we reiterate the political commitment on the accomplishment of the public policies to face violence and the fight against all inequality, discrimination and violence forms based on gender.

  20. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  1. A Mobile Information System Based on Crowd-Sensed and Official Crime Data for Finding Safe Routes: A Case Study of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Mata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile information systems agendas are increasingly becoming an essential part of human life and they play an important role in several daily activities. These have been developed for different contexts such as public facilities in smart cities, health care, traffic congestions, e-commerce, financial security, user-generated content, and crowdsourcing. In GIScience, problems related to routing systems have been deeply explored by using several techniques, but they are not focused on security or crime rates. In this paper, an approach to provide estimations defined by crime rates for generating safe routes in mobile devices is proposed. It consists of integrating crowd-sensed and official crime data with a mobile application. Thus, data are semantically processed by an ontology and classified by the Bayes algorithm. A geospatial repository was used to store tweets related to crime events of Mexico City and official reports that were geocoded for obtaining safe routes. A forecast related to crime events that can occur in a certain place with the collected information was performed. The novelty is a hybrid approach based on semantic processing to retrieve relevant data from unstructured data sources and a classifier algorithm to collect relevant crime data from official government reports with a mobile application.

  2. A Rule-Based Spatial Reasoning Approach for OpenStreetMap Data Quality Enrichment; Case Study of Routing and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Finding relevant geospatial information is increasingly critical because of the growing volume of geospatial data available within the emerging “Big Data” era. Users are expecting that the availability of massive datasets will create more opportunities to uncover hidden information and answer more complex queries. This is especially the case with routing and navigation services where the ability to retrieve points of interest and landmarks make the routing service personalized, precise, and relevant. In this paper, we propose a new geospatial information approach that enables the retrieval of implicit information, i.e., geospatial entities that do not exist explicitly in the available source. We present an information broker that uses a rule-based spatial reasoning algorithm to detect topological relations. The information broker is embedded into a framework where annotations and mappings between OpenStreetMap data attributes and external resources, such as taxonomies, support the enrichment of queries to improve the ability of the system to retrieve information. Our method is tested with two case studies that leads to enriching the completeness of OpenStreetMap data with footway crossing points-of-interests as well as building entrances for routing and navigation purposes. It is concluded that the proposed approach can uncover implicit entities and contribute to extract required information from the existing datasets. PMID:29088125

  3. Eavesdropping-aware routing and spectrum allocation based on multi-flow virtual concatenation for confidential information service in elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wei; Yang, Hui; Yu, Ao; Xiao, Hongyun; He, Linkuan; Feng, Lei; Zhang, Jie

    2018-01-01

    The leakage of confidential information is one of important issues in the network security area. Elastic Optical Networks (EON) as a promising technology in the optical transport network is under threat from eavesdropping attacks. It is a great demand to support confidential information service (CIS) and design efficient security strategy against the eavesdropping attacks. In this paper, we propose a solution to cope with the eavesdropping attacks in routing and spectrum allocation. Firstly, we introduce probability theory to describe eavesdropping issue and achieve awareness of eavesdropping attacks. Then we propose an eavesdropping-aware routing and spectrum allocation (ES-RSA) algorithm to guarantee information security. For further improving security and network performance, we employ multi-flow virtual concatenation (MFVC) and propose an eavesdropping-aware MFVC-based secure routing and spectrum allocation (MES-RSA) algorithm. The presented simulation results show that the proposed two RSA algorithms can both achieve greater security against the eavesdropping attacks and MES-RSA can also improve the network performance efficiently.

  4. Economic and Environmental Evaluation of a Brick Delivery System Based on Multi-Trip Vehicle Loader Routing Problem for Small Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heungjo An

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available While large construction sites have on-site loaders to handle heavy and large packages of bricks, small brick manufacturers employ a truck-mounted loader or sometimes deploy a loader truck to accompany normal brick delivery trucks to small construction sites lacking on-site loaders. It may be very challenging for small contractors to manage a sustainable delivery system that is both cost-effective and environmentally friendly. To address this issue, this paper proposes to solve a multi-trip vehicle loader routing problem by uniquely planning routes and schedules of several types of vehicles considering their synchronized operations at customer sites and multi trips. This paper also evaluates the sustainability of the developed model from both economic and environmental perspectives. Case studies based on small construction sites in the Middle East demonstrate applications of the proposed model to make the most economical plans for delivering bricks. Compared to the single-trip vehicle loader routing problem, the proposed model reduces, on average, 18.7% of the total delivery cost while increasing CO2 emission negligibly. The economic benefit is mainly achieved by reducing the required number of vehicles. Brick plant managers can use the proposed mathematical model to plan the most cost-effective delivery schedules sustainably while minimizing negative environmental effects.

  5. A Rule-Based Spatial Reasoning Approach for OpenStreetMap Data Quality Enrichment; Case Study of Routing and Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mobasheri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Finding relevant geospatial information is increasingly critical because of the growing volume of geospatial data available within the emerging “Big Data” era. Users are expecting that the availability of massive datasets will create more opportunities to uncover hidden information and answer more complex queries. This is especially the case with routing and navigation services where the ability to retrieve points of interest and landmarks make the routing service personalized, precise, and relevant. In this paper, we propose a new geospatial information approach that enables the retrieval of implicit information, i.e., geospatial entities that do not exist explicitly in the available source. We present an information broker that uses a rule-based spatial reasoning algorithm to detect topological relations. The information broker is embedded into a framework where annotations and mappings between OpenStreetMap data attributes and external resources, such as taxonomies, support the enrichment of queries to improve the ability of the system to retrieve information. Our method is tested with two case studies that leads to enriching the completeness of OpenStreetMap data with footway crossing points-of-interests as well as building entrances for routing and navigation purposes. It is concluded that the proposed approach can uncover implicit entities and contribute to extract required information from the existing datasets.

  6. Hazmat Routes (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes (NTAD) were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  7. Development of evidence-based health policy documents in developing countries: a case of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani-Nasab, Mohammad Hasan; Seyedin, Hesam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Salehi, Masoud

    2014-02-07

    Evidence-based policy documents that are well developed by senior civil servants and are timely available can reduce the barriers to evidence utilization by health policy makers. This study examined the barriers and facilitators in developing evidence-based health policy documents from the perspective of their producers in a developing country. In a qualitative study with a framework analysis approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews using purposive and snowball sampling. A qualitative analysis software (MAXQDA-10) was used to apply the codes and manage the data. This study was theory-based and the results were compared to exploratory studies about the factors influencing evidence-based health policy-making. 18 codes and three main themes of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were identified. Factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents were identified by the participants: behavioral beliefs included quality of policy documents, use of resources, knowledge and innovation, being time-consuming and contextualization; normative beliefs included policy authorities, policymakers, policy administrators, and co-workers; and control beliefs included recruitment policy, performance management, empowerment, management stability, physical environment, access to evidence, policy making process, and effect of other factors. Most of the cited barriers to the development of evidence-based policy were related to control beliefs, i.e. barriers at the organizational and health system levels. This study identified the factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents based on the components of the theory of planned behavior. But in exploratory studies on evidence utilization by health policymakers, the identified factors were only related to control behaviors. This suggests that the theoretical approach may be preferable to the exploratory approach in identifying the barriers and facilitators of a behavior.

  8. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of information traffic over scale-free networks has been investigated systematically. A series of routing strategies of data packets have been proposed, including the local routing strategy, the next-nearest-neighbour routing strategy, and the mixed routing strategy based on local static and dynamic information.

  9. Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Simultaneous Delivery and Pick-Up Service Based on MCPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Gan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers two additional factors of the widely researched vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW. The two factors, which are very common characteristics in realworld, are uncertain number of vehicles and simultaneous delivery and pick-up service. Using minimization of the total transport costs as the objective of the extension VRPTW, a mathematic model is constructed. To solve the problem, an efficient multiswarm cooperative particle swarm optimization (MCPSO algorithm is applied. And a new encoding method is proposed for the extension VRPTW. Finally, comparing with genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, the MCPSO algorithm performs best for solving this problem.

  10. Advancing team-based primary health care: a comparative analysis of policies in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Esther; Mallinson, Sara; Misfeldt, Renee; Boakye, Omenaa; Nasmith, Louise; Wong, Sabrina T

    2017-07-17

    We analyzed and compared primary health care (PHC) policies in British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan to understand how they inform the design and implementation of team-based primary health care service delivery. The goal was to develop policy imperatives that can advance team-based PHC in Canada. We conducted comparative case studies (n = 3). The policy analysis included: Context review: We reviewed relevant information (2007 to 2014) from databases and websites. Policy review and comparative analysis: We compared and contrasted publically available PHC policies. Key informant interviews: Key informants (n = 30) validated narratives prepared from the comparative analysis by offering contextual information on potential policy imperatives. Advisory group and roundtable: An expert advisory group guided this work and a key stakeholder roundtable event guided prioritization of policy imperatives. The concept of team-based PHC varies widely across and within the three provinces. We noted policy gaps related to team configuration, leadership, scope of practice, role clarity and financing of team-based care; few policies speak explicitly to monitoring and evaluation of team-based PHC. We prioritized four policy imperatives: (1) alignment of goals and policies at different system levels; (2) investment of resources for system change; (3) compensation models for all members of the team; and (4) accountability through collaborative practice metrics. Policies supporting team-based PHC have been slow to emerge, lacking a systematic and coordinated approach. Greater alignment with specific consideration of financing, reimbursement, implementation mechanisms and performance monitoring could accelerate systemic transformation by removing some well-known barriers to team-based care.

  11. Microneedle-mediated immunization of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine enhances antigen-specific antibody immunity and reduces anti-vector responses compared to the intradermal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John B; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J; Moore, Anne C

    2014-08-21

    Substantial effort has been placed in developing efficacious recombinant attenuated adenovirus-based vaccines. However induction of immunity to the vector is a significant obstacle to its repeated use. Here we demonstrate that skin-based delivery of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine, HAdV5-PyMSP1₄₂, to mice using silicon microneedles induces equivalent or enhanced antibody responses to the encoded antigen, however it results in decreased anti-vector responses, compared to intradermal delivery. Microneedle-mediated vaccine priming and resultant induction of low anti-vector antibody titres permitted repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine vector. This resulted in significantly increased antigen-specific antibody responses in these mice compared to ID-treated mice. Boosting with a heterologous vaccine; MVA-PyMSP1₄₂ also resulted in significantly greater antibody responses in mice primed with HAdV5-PyMSP1₄₂ using MN compared to the ID route. The highest protection against blood-stage malaria challenge was observed when a heterologous route of immunization (MN/ID) was used. Therefore, microneedle-mediated immunization has potential to both overcome some of the logistic obstacles surrounding needle-and-syringe-based immunization as well as to facilitate the repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine thereby potentially reducing manufacturing costs of multiple vaccines. This could have important benefits in the clinical ease of use of adenovirus-based immunization strategies.

  12. Microneedle-mediated immunization of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine enhances antigen-specific antibody immunity and reduces anti-vector responses compared to the intradermal route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John B.; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Draper, Simon J.; Moore, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial effort has been placed in developing efficacious recombinant attenuated adenovirus-based vaccines. However induction of immunity to the vector is a significant obstacle to its repeated use. Here we demonstrate that skin-based delivery of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine, HAdV5-PyMSP142, to mice using silicon microneedles induces equivalent or enhanced antibody responses to the encoded antigen, however it results in decreased anti-vector responses, compared to intradermal delivery. Microneedle-mediated vaccine priming and resultant induction of low anti-vector antibody titres permitted repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine vector. This resulted in significantly increased antigen-specific antibody responses in these mice compared to ID-treated mice. Boosting with a heterologous vaccine; MVA-PyMSP142 also resulted in significantly greater antibody responses in mice primed with HAdV5-PyMSP142 using MN compared to the ID route. The highest protection against blood-stage malaria challenge was observed when a heterologous route of immunization (MN/ID) was used. Therefore, microneedle-mediated immunization has potential to both overcome some of the logistic obstacles surrounding needle-and-syringe-based immunization as well as to facilitate the repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine thereby potentially reducing manufacturing costs of multiple vaccines. This could have important benefits in the clinical ease of use of adenovirus-based immunization strategies. PMID:25142082

  13. Evidence-based policy? The use of mobile phones in hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettelt, Stefanie; Nolte, Ellen; McKee, Martin; Haugen, Odd Arild; Karlberg, Ingvar; Klazinga, Niek; Ricciardi, Walter; Teperi, Juha

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence-based policies have become increasingly accepted in clinical practice. However, policies on many of the non-clinical activities that take place in health care facilities may be less frequently evidence based. METHODS: We carried out a review of literature on safety of mobile

  14. Trip Energy Estimation Methodology and Model Based on Real-World Driving Data for Green Routing Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Til, Harrison J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-09

    A data-informed model to predict energy use for a proposed vehicle trip has been developed in this paper. The methodology leverages nearly 1 million miles of real-world driving data to generate the estimation model. Driving is categorized at the sub-trip level by average speed, road gradient, and road network geometry, then aggregated by category. An average energy consumption rate is determined for each category, creating an energy rates look-up table. Proposed vehicle trips are then categorized in the same manner, and estimated energy rates are appended from the look-up table. The methodology is robust and applicable to almost any type of driving data. The model has been trained on vehicle global positioning system data from the Transportation Secure Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and validated against on-road fuel consumption data from testing in Phoenix, Arizona. The estimation model has demonstrated an error range of 8.6% to 13.8%. The model results can be used to inform control strategies in routing tools, such as change in departure time, alternate routing, and alternate destinations to reduce energy consumption. This work provides a highly extensible framework that allows the model to be tuned to a specific driver or vehicle type.

  15. On the Implications of Knowledge Bases for Regional Innovation Policies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassink Robert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional innovation policies have been criticised for being too standardised, one-size-fits-all and place-neutral in character. Embedded in these debates, this paper has two aims: first, to analyse whether industries with different knowledge bases in regions in Germany have different needs for regional innovation policies, and secondly, to investigate whether knowledge bases can contribute to the fine-tuning of regional innovation policies in particular and to a modern, tailor-made, place-based regional innovation policy in general. It concludes that although needs differ due to differences in knowledge bases, those bases are useful only to a limited extent in fine-tuning regional innovation policies

  16. Development of Evidence-Based Health Policy Documents in Developing Countries: A Case of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani-Nasab, Mohammad Hasan; Seyedin, Hesam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Salehi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based policy documents that are well developed by senior civil servants and are timely available can reduce the barriers to evidence utilization by health policy makers. This study examined the barriers and facilitators in developing evidence-based health policy documents from the perspective of their producers in a developing country. Methods: In a qualitative study with a framework analysis approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews using purposive and snowball sampling. A qualitative analysis software (MAXQDA-10) was used to apply the codes and manage the data. This study was theory-based and the results were compared to exploratory studies about the factors influencing evidence-based health policymaking. Results: 18 codes and three main themes of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were identified. Factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents were identified by the participants: behavioral beliefs included quality of policy documents, use of resources, knowledge and innovation, being time-consuming and contextualization; normative beliefs included policy authorities, policymakers, policy administrators, and co-workers; and control beliefs included recruitment policy, performance management, empowerment, management stability, physical environment, access to evidence, policy making process, and effect of other factors. Conclusion: Most of the cited barriers to the development of evidence-based policy were related to control beliefs, i.e. barriers at the organizational and health system levels. This study identified the factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents based on the components of the theory of planned behavior. But in exploratory studies on evidence utilization by health policymakers, the identified factors were only related to control behaviors. This suggests that the theoretical approach may be preferable to the exploratory approach in identifying the barriers

  17. Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Siyuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in wireless networks has been heavily studied in the last decade. Many routing protocols are based on classic shortest path algorithms. However, shortest path-based routing protocols suffer from uneven load distribution in the network, such as crowed center effect where the center nodes have more load than the nodes in the periphery. Aiming to balance the load, we propose a novel routing method, called Circular Sailing Routing (CSR, which can distribute the traffic more evenly in the network. The proposed method first maps the network onto a sphere via a simple stereographic projection, and then the route decision is made by a newly defined "circular distance" on the sphere instead of the Euclidean distance in the plane. We theoretically prove that for a network, the distance traveled by the packets using CSR is no more than a small constant factor of the minimum (the distance of the shortest path. We also extend CSR to a localized version, Localized CSR, by modifying greedy routing without any additional communication overhead. In addition, we investigate how to design CSR routing for 3D networks. For all proposed methods, we conduct extensive simulations to study their performances and compare them with global shortest path routing or greedy routing in 2D and 3D wireless networks.

  18. Policy-Based mobility Management for Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.

    2007-01-01

    Next generation communications will be composed of flexible, scalable and context-aware, secure and resilient architectures and technologies that allow full mobility of the user and enable dynamic management policies that ensure end-to-end secure transmission of data and services across heterogen......Next generation communications will be composed of flexible, scalable and context-aware, secure and resilient architectures and technologies that allow full mobility of the user and enable dynamic management policies that ensure end-to-end secure transmission of data and services across...... access technology (RAT) association, user and flow context transfer, handover decision, and deployment priority. Index Terms— distributed RRM, centralized...

  19. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  20. Combining Correlation-Based and Reward-Based Learning in Neural Control for Policy Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2013-01-01

    Classical conditioning (conventionally modeled as correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (conventionally modeled as reinforcement learning or reward-based learning) have been found in biological systems. Evidence shows that these two mechanisms strongly involve learning about...... associations. Based on these biological findings, we propose a new learning model to achieve successful control policies for artificial systems. This model combines correlation-based learning using input correlation learning (ICO learning) and reward-based learning using continuous actor–critic reinforcement...... learning (RL), thereby working as a dual learner system. The model performance is evaluated by simulations of a cart-pole system as a dynamic motion control problem and a mobile robot system as a goal-directed behavior control problem. Results show that the model can strongly improve pole balancing control...

  1. The power and pain of market-based carbon policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Golub, A.; Pambudi, D.; Hertel, T.; Godde, C.; Herrero, M.; Cacho, O.; Gerber, P.

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to assess the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of carbon policies applied to the ruminant livestock sector [inclusive of the major ruminant species—cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus)]—with particular emphasis on

  2. A Semantic Based Policy Management Framework for Cloud Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing paradigm has gained tremendous momentum and generated intensive interest. Although security issues are delaying its fast adoption, cloud computing is an unstoppable force and we need to provide security mechanisms to ensure its secure adoption. In this dissertation, we mainly focus on issues related to policy management and access…

  3. Nudging socially isolated people towards well-being with the 'Happiness Route': design of a randomized controlled trial for the evaluation of a happiness-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Laura A; Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2013-09-20

    The Happiness Route is an innovative intervention that uses a happiness-based approach for people with an accumulation of risk factors for low well-being: socially isolated people with health impairments and a low socioeconomic status. The goal of this intervention is to improve well-being by engaging participants in intrinsically motivated activities with methods from positive psychology. We hypothesize that the primary outcome measure, emotional, social and psychological well-being of participants of the Happiness Route, will increase in comparison to the traditional and commonly-used problem-based approach. Secondary outcome measures are health-related quality of life, psychosocial functioning and health care consumption. Participants will be socially isolated people with health problems and a low socioeconomic status. Participants will be recruited in ten Dutch communities and candidates will be signed up by intermediaries, professionals from the health and social sector. Randomly assigned, half of the participants will follow the Happiness Route and half of the participants will follow the active, problem-focused control group 'Customized Care'. In total, 256 participants will be included. In both conditions, participants will receive counseling sessions from trained counselors. In the control group, participants will talk about their problems and the care they get and counselors help to optimize their care. In the Happiness Route, the counselor ask questions such as "How do you want to live your life?". The intervention helps people to find their 'passion', i.e., a positive goal-engaged and intrinsically motivated activity. It enables them to follow their passion through by a once-only personal happiness budget (maximal €500). We use well-validated and reliable questionnaires to measure primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline, directly after the intervention and at a nine-month follow-up. Shortcomings of earlier intervention studies in positive

  4. Persistent misunderstandings about evidence-based (sorry: informed!) policy-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Pierre-Olivier; Ouimet, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    The field of research on knowledge mobilization and evidence-informed policy-making has seen enduring debates related to various fundamental assumptions such as the definition of 'evidence', the relative validity of various research methods, the actual role of evidence to inform policy-making, etc. In many cases, these discussions serve a useful purpose, but they also stem from serious disagreement on methodological and epistemological issues. This essay reviews the rationale for evidence-informed policy-making by examining some of the common claims made about the aims and practices of this perspective on public policy. Supplementing the existing justifications for evidence-based policy making, we argue in favor of a greater inclusion of research evidence in the policy process but in a structured fashion, based on methodological considerations. In this respect, we present an overview of the intricate relation between policy questions and appropriate research designs. By closely examining the relation between research questions and research designs, we claim that the usual points of disagreement are mitigated. For instance, when focusing on the variety of research designs that can answer a range of policy questions, the common critical claim about 'RCT-based policy-making' seems to lose some, if not all of its grip.

  5. Future nuclear energy policy based on the Broad Outline of Nuclear Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shinzo

    2006-01-01

    The Broad Outline of Nuclear Energy Policy for about ten years was determined by the Cabinet meeting of Japan. Nuclear power plant safety and regulation, nuclear waste management, nuclear power production and nuclear power research and development were discussed. It determined that 3 nuclear power plants, which are building, should be built, and about 10 plants will be built to product 30 to 40 % of Japan electricity generation after 2030. FBR will be operated until 2050. The nuclear fuel cycle system will be used continuously. The nuclear power plant safety and nuclear waste management are so important for the nuclear industry that these subjects were discussed in detail. In order to understand and use the quantum beam technology, the advanced institutions and equipments and network among scientists, industry and people should be planed and practically used. (S.Y.)

  6. Better spent. Towards an 'Evidence-based' environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the 'Groene Rekenkamer' (Green Audit Office) is to examine and review the scientific value of white papers, bills and other proposals on different environmental subjects. Also attention will be paid to the suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of laws and regulations with respect to public health and environmental targets and to analyze and clarify possible risks of the implementation of policy (cost benefit analysis) [nl

  7. Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment based on multilayer virtual topology and ant colony optimization in elastic software-defined optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Feng; Rao, Lan; Xin, Xiangjun

    2017-07-01

    Elastic software-defined optical networks greatly improve the flexibility of the optical switching network while it has brought challenges to the routing and spectrum assignment (RSA). A multilayer virtual topology model is proposed to solve RSA problems. Two RSA algorithms based on the virtual topology are proposed, which are the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm of minimum consecutiveness loss and the ACO algorithm of maximum spectrum consecutiveness. Due to the computing power of the control layer in the software-defined network, the routing algorithm avoids the frequent link-state information between routers. Based on the effect of the spectrum consecutiveness loss on the pheromone in the ACO, the path and spectrum of the minimal impact on the network are selected for the service request. The proposed algorithms have been compared with other algorithms. The results show that the proposed algorithms can reduce the blocking rate by at least 5% and perform better in spectrum efficiency. Moreover, the proposed algorithms can effectively decrease spectrum fragmentation and enhance available spectrum consecutiveness.

  8. Risk assessment of alternative proliferation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Multi-Attribute Decision Theory is applied to rank II alternative routes to nuclear proliferation in order of difficulty in acquiring nuclear weapons by nonnuclear countries. The method is based on reducing the various variables affecting the decision to a single function providing a measure for the proliferation route. The results indicate that the most difficult route to obtain atomic weapons is through nuclear power reactors, specifically the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, heavy water Canada deuterium uranium reactor, and light water reactors such as boiling water and pressurized water reactors. The easiest routes are supercritical centrifuge isotope separation, laser isotope separation, and research reactor. However, nonnuclear routes available that result in substantial damage to life and property are easier than any nuclear route

  9. Hydrologic Response Unit Routing in SWAT to Simulate Effects of Vegetated Filter Strip for South-Korean Conditions Based on VFSMOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Jae Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model has been used worldwide for many hydrologic and Non-Point Source (NPS Pollution analyses on a watershed scale. However, it has many limitations in simulating the Vegetative Filter Strip (VFS because it considers only ‘filter strip width’ when the model estimates sediment trapping efficiency and does not consider the routing of sediment with overland flow which is expected to maximize the sediment trapping efficiency from upper agricultural subwatersheds to lower spatially-explicit filter strips. Therefore, the SWAT overland flow option between landuse-subwatersheds with sediment routing capability was enhanced by modifying the SWAT watershed configuration and SWAT engine based on the numerical model VFSMOD applied to South-Korean conditions. The enhanced SWAT can simulate the VFS sediment trapping efficiency for South-Korean conditions in a manner similar to the desktop VFSMOD-w system. Due to this enhancement, SWAT is applicable to simulate the effects of overland flow from upper subwatersheds to reflect increased runoff volume at the lower subwatershed, which occurs in the field if no diversion channel is installed. In this study, the enhanced SWAT model was applied to small watersheds located at Jaun-ri in South-Korea to simulate a diversion channel and spatially-explicit VFS. Sediment can be reduced by 31%, 65%, and 68%, with a diversion channel, the VFS, and the VFS with diversion channel, respectively. The enhanced SWAT should be used in estimating site-specific effects on sediment reduction with diversion channels and VFS, instead of the currently available SWAT, which does not simulate sediment routing in overland flow and does not consider other sensitive factors affecting sediment reduction with VFS.

  10. Mediated Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption and Its Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibraimi, L.; Petkovic, M.; Nikova, S.I.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem; Youm, Heung Youl; Yung, Moti

    2009-01-01

    In Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE), a user secret key is associated with a set of attributes, and the ciphertext is associated with an access policy over attributes. The user can decrypt the ciphertext if and only if the attribute set of his secret key satisfies the access

  11. Using an Online Tool to Support School-Based ICT Policy Planning in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinde, R.; Van Braak, J.; Tondeur, J.

    2010-01-01

    An important step towards the successful integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in schools is to facilitate their capacity to develop a school-based ICT policy resulting in an ICT policy plan. Such a plan can be defined as a school document containing strategic and operational elements concerning the integration of ICT in…

  12. Data-Based Decision Making at the Policy, Research, and Practice Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Ebbeler, J.

    2015-01-01

    Data-based decision making (DBDM) can lead to school improvement. However, schools struggle with the implementation of DBDM. In this symposium, we will discuss research and the implementation of DBDM at the national and regional policy level and the classroom level. We will discuss policy issues

  13. The process of developing policy based on global environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief presentation is given on developing policy based on a global environmental risk assessment. The author looks at the global warming issue as if it were a formal problem in risk assessment. He uses that framework to make one or two suggestions as to how the interaction of policy and research might evolve as the climate convention progresses

  14. A Machine Learning Concept for DTN Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovich, Rachel; Hylton, Alan; Papachristou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept and architecture of a machine learning based router for delay tolerant space networks. The techniques of reinforcement learning and Bayesian learning are used to supplement the routing decisions of the popular Contact Graph Routing algorithm. An introduction to the concepts of Contact Graph Routing, Q-routing and Naive Bayes classification are given. The development of an architecture for a cross-layer feedback framework for DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) protocols is discussed. Finally, initial simulation setup and results are given.

  15. An intersectionality-based policy analysis framework: critical reflections on a methodology for advancing equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankivsky, Olena; Grace, Daniel; Hunting, Gemma; Giesbrecht, Melissa; Fridkin, Alycia; Rudrum, Sarah; Ferlatte, Olivier; Clark, Natalie

    2014-12-10

    In the field of health, numerous frameworks have emerged that advance understandings of the differential impacts of health policies to produce inclusive and socially just health outcomes. In this paper, we present the development of an important contribution to these efforts - an Intersectionality-Based Policy Analysis (IBPA) Framework. Developed over the course of two years in consultation with key stakeholders and drawing on best and promising practices of other equity-informed approaches, this participatory and iterative IBPA Framework provides guidance and direction for researchers, civil society, public health professionals and policy actors seeking to address the challenges of health inequities across diverse populations. Importantly, we present the application of the IBPA Framework in seven priority health-related policy case studies. The analysis of each case study is focused on explaining how IBPA: 1) provides an innovative structure for critical policy analysis; 2) captures the different dimensions of policy contexts including history, politics, everyday lived experiences, diverse knowledges and intersecting social locations; and 3) generates transformative insights, knowledge, policy solutions and actions that cannot be gleaned from other equity-focused policy frameworks. The aim of this paper is to inspire a range of policy actors to recognize the potential of IBPA to foreground the complex contexts of health and social problems, and ultimately to transform how policy analysis is undertaken.

  16. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie, S.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  17. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  18. Research-Based Knowledge: Researchers' Contribution to Evidence-Based Practice and Policy Making in Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Erik Hagaseth; Plant, Peter

    2016-01-01

    To present evidence for the outcomes of career guidance is increasingly seen as pivotal for a further professionalization of policy making and service provision. This paper puts an emphasis on researchers' contribution to evidence-based practice and policy making in career guidance. We argue for a broader and more pluralistic research strategy to…

  19. A controlled community-based trial to promote smoke-free policy in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Adkins, Sarah; Begley, Kathy; York, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Rural, tobacco-growing areas are disproportionately affected by tobacco use, secondhand smoke, and weak tobacco control policies. The purpose was to test the effects of a stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention on readiness for smoke-free policy, and policy outcomes in rural underserved communities. A controlled community-based trial including 37 rural counties. Data were collected annually with community advocates (n = 330) and elected officials (n = 158) in 19 intervention counties and 18 comparison counties over 5 years (average response rate = 68%). Intervention communities received policy development strategies from community advisors tailored to their stage of readiness and designed to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science. Policy outcomes were tracked over 5 years. Communities receiving the stage-specific, tailored intervention had higher overall community readiness scores and better policy outcomes than the comparison counties, controlling for county-level smoking rate, population size, and education. Nearly one-third of the intervention counties adopted smoke-free laws covering restaurants, bars, and all workplaces compared to none of the comparison counties. The stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention acted as a value-added resource to local smoke-free campaigns by promoting readiness for policy, as well as actual policy change in rural communities. Although actual policy change and percent covered by the policies were modest, these areas need additional resources and efforts to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science in order to accelerate smoke-free policy change and reduce the enormous toll from tobacco in these high-risk communities. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  20. Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem Based on The Genetic Reactive Bone Route Algorithm whit Ant Colony System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Yousefikhoshbakht

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The TSP is considered one of the most well-known combinatorial optimization tasks and researchers have paid so much attention to the TSP for many years. In this problem, a salesman starts to move from an arbitrary place called depot and after visits all of the nodes, finally comes back to the depot. The objective is to minimize the total distance traveled by the salesman.  Because this problem is a non-deterministic polynomial (NP-hard problem in nature, a hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm called REACSGA is used for solving the TSP. In REACSGA, a reactive bone route algorithm that uses the ant colony system (ACS for generating initial diversified solutions and the genetic algorithm (GA as an improved procedure are applied. Since the performance of the Metaheuristic algorithms is significantly influenced by their parameters, Taguchi Method is used to set the parameters of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm is tested on several standard instances involving 24 to 318 nodes from the literature. The computational result shows that the results of the proposed algorithm are competitive with other metaheuristic algorithms for solving the TSP in terms of better quality of solution and computational time respectively. In addition, the proposed REACSGA is significantly efficient and finds closely the best known solutions for most of the instances in which thirteen best known solutions are also found.

  1. Comparison of policies in dynamic routing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelelli, E.; Bianchessi, N.; Mansini, R.; Speranza, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a company that has to satisfy customers' pick-up requests arriving over time every day. The overall objective of the company is to serve as many requests as possible at a minimum operational cost. When organizing its business the company has to fix some features of the service that may

  2. Increasing Use of Research Findings in Improving Evidence-Based Health Policy at the National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiwita Budiharsana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In February 2016, the Minister of Health decided to increase the use of research findings in improving the quality of the national health policy and planning. The Ministry of Health has instructed the National Institute of Health Research and Development or NIHRD to play a stronger role of monitoring and evaluating all health programs, because “their opinion and research findings should be the basis for changes in national health policies and planning”. Compared to the past, the Ministry of Health has increased the research budget for evidence-based research tremendously. However, there is a gap between the information needs of program and policy-makers and the information offered by researchers. A close dialogue is needed between the users (program managers, policy makers and planners and the suppliers (researchers and evaluators to ensure that the evidence-based supplied by research is useful for programs, planning and health policy.

  3. Routing in Wireless Multimedia Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hop, Laurens

    This paper describes an adapted version of the destination sequenced distance vector routing protocol (DSDV) which is suitable to calculate routes in a wireless real-time home network. The home network is based on a IEEE 802.11b ad hoc network and uses a scheduled token to enforce real-time

  4. Routing in Wireless Multimedia Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hop, Laurens

    This paper describes an adapted version of the destination sequenced distance vector routing protocol (DSDV) which is suitable to calculate routes in a wireless ¿real-time¿ home network. The home network is based on a IEEE 802.11b ad hoc network and uses a scheduled token to enforce real-time

  5. Increasing the Intensity over Time of an Electric-Assist Bike Based on the User and Route: The Bike Becomes the Gym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. De La Iglesia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many citizens have busy days that make finding time for physical activity difficult. Thus, it is important to provide citizens with tools that allow them to introduce physical activity into their lives as part of the day’s routine. This article proposes an app for an electric pedal-assist-system (PAS bicycle that increases the pedaling intensity so the bicyclist can achieve higher and higher levels of physical activity. The app includes personalized assist levels that have been adapted to the user’s strength/ability and a profile of the route, segmented according to its slopes. Additionally, a social component motivates interaction and competition between users based on a scoring system that shows the level of their performances. To test the training module, a case study in three different European countries lasted four months and included nine people who traveled 551 routes. The electric PAS bicycle with the app that increases intensity of physical activity shows promise for increasing levels of physical activity as a regular part of the day.

  6. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Research on taxi software policy based on big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Daoming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Through big data analysis, statistical analysis of a large number of factors affect the establishment of the rally car index set, By establishing a mathematical model to analyze the different space-time taxi resource “to match supply and demand” degree, combined with intelligent deployment to solve the “taxi difficult” this hot social issues. This article takes Shanghai as an example, the central park, Lu Xun park, century park three areas as the object of study. From the “sky drops fast travel intelligence platform” big data, Extracted passenger demand and the number of taxi Kongshi data. Then demand and supply of taxis to establish indicators matrix, get the degree of matching supply needs of the region. Then through the big data relevant policies of each taxi company. Using the method of cluster analysis, to find the decisive role of the three aspects of the factors, using principal component analysis, compare the advantages and disadvantages of the existing company’s programs. Finally, according to the above research to develop a reasonable taxi software related policies.

  8. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; Bruning, Nealia S

    2010-05-26

    Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the EBDM/EBPM process can be

  9. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruning Nealia S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM and evidence-based policy making (EBPM because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial

  10. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  11. School-based obesity policy, social capital, and gender differences in weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Thomas, Breanca

    2013-06-01

    We examined the associations among school-based obesity policies, social capital, and adolescents' self-reported weight control behaviors, focusing on how the collective roles of community and adopted policies affect gender groups differently. We estimated state-level ecologic models using 1-way random effects seemingly unrelated regressions derived from panel data for 43 states from 1991 to 2009, which we obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. We used multiplicative interaction terms to assess how social capital moderates the effects of school-based obesity policies. School-based obesity policies in active communities were mixed in improving weight control behaviors. They increased both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors among boys but did not increase healthy weight control behaviors among girls. Social capital is an important contextual factor that conditions policy effectiveness in large contexts. Heterogeneous behavioral responses are associated with both school-based obesity policies and social capital. Building social capital and developing policy programs to balance outcomes for both gender groups may be challenging in managing childhood obesity.

  12. Realizing IoT service's policy privacy over publish/subscribe-based middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Shiping; Wang, Shiyao; Cheng, Bo; Chen, Junliang

    2016-01-01

    The publish/subscribe paradigm makes IoT service collaborations more scalable and flexible, due to the space, time and control decoupling of event producers and consumers. Thus, the paradigm can be used to establish large-scale IoT service communication infrastructures such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems. However, preserving IoT service's policy privacy is difficult in this paradigm, because a classical publisher has little control of its own event after being published; and a subscriber has to accept all the events from the subscribed event type with no choice. Few existing publish/subscribe middleware have built-in mechanisms to address the above issues. In this paper, we present a novel access control framework, which is capable of preserving IoT service's policy privacy. In particular, we adopt the publish/subscribe paradigm as the IoT service communication infrastructure to facilitate the protection of IoT services policy privacy. The key idea in our policy-privacy solution is using a two-layer cooperating method to match bi-directional privacy control requirements: (a) data layer for protecting IoT events; and (b) application layer for preserving the privacy of service policy. Furthermore, the anonymous-set-based principle is adopted to realize the functionalities of the framework, including policy embedding and policy encoding as well as policy matching. Our security analysis shows that the policy privacy framework is Chosen-Plaintext Attack secure. We extend the open source Apache ActiveMQ broker by building into a policy-based authorization mechanism to enforce the privacy policy. The performance evaluation results indicate that our approach is scalable with reasonable overheads.

  13. Analytical and policy issues in energy economics: Uses of the FRS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    The relevant literature concerning several major analytical and policy issues in energy economics is reviewed and criticized. The possible uses of the Financial Reporting System (FRS) data base for the analysis of energy policy issues are investigated. Certain features of FRS data suggest several ways in which the data base can be used by policy makers. FRS data are collected on the firm level, and different segments of the same firm operating in different markets can be separately identified. The methods of collection as well as FRS's elaborate data verification process guarantee a high degree of accuracy and consistency among firms.

  14. Moving an Evidence-Based Policy Agenda Forward: Leadership Tips From the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Teresa

    2018-05-01

    Advancing evidence-based policy change is a leadership challenge that nurses should embrace. Key tips to ensure that evidence-based policy changes are successful at the individual, community, and population levels are offered to help nurses through the change process. The public trust in the nursing profession is a leverage point that should be used to advance the use of evidence, expedite change, and improve health for students and across communities.

  15. Science Based Policies: How Can Scientist Communicate their Points Across?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnakat, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    With the complexity of environmental problems faced today, both scientists and policymakers are striving to combine policy and administration with the physical and natural sciences in order to mitigate and prevent environmental degradation. Nevertheless, communicating science to policymakers has been difficult due to many barriers. Even though scientists and policymakers share the blame in the miscommunication. This paper will provide recommendations targeted to the scientific arena. Establishing guidelines for the cooperation of scientists and policymakers can be an unattainable goal due to the complexity and diversity of political policymaking and environmental issues. However, the recommendations provided in this paper are simple enough to be followed by a wide variety of audiences and institutions in the scientific fields. This will aid when trying to fill the gap that has prevented the enhancement of scientific policymaking strategies, which decide on the critical issue s such as the disposal, transportation and production of hazardous waste

  16. Using Internet-Based Videos as Pedagogical Tools in the Social Work Policy Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabeth Leukefeld

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Students often feel disconnected from their introductory social welfare policy courses. Therefore, it is important that instructors employ engaging pedagogical methods in the classroom. A review of the literature reveals that a host of methods have been utilized to attempt to interest students in policy courses, but there is no mention of using internet-based videos in the social welfare policy classroom. This article describes how to select and use appropriate internet-based videos from websites such as YouTube and SnagFilms, to effectively engage students in social welfare policy courses. Four rules are offered for choosing videos based on emotional impact, brevity, and relevance to course topics. The selected videos should elicit students’ passions and stimulate critical thinking when used in concert with instructor-generated discussion questions, writing assignments, and small group dialogue. Examples of the process of choosing videos, discussion questions, and student reactions to the use of videos are provided.

  17. WDM cross-connect cascade based on all-optical wavelength converters for routing and wavelength slot interchanging using a reduced number of internal wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Mikkelsen, Benny; Jørgensen, Bo Foged

    1998-01-01

    interchanging can be used to create a robust and nonblocking OXC. However, for an OXC with n fiber inlets each carrying m wavelengths the OXC requires n×m internal wavelengths, which constrains the size of the cross-connect. In this paper we therefore propose and demonstrate an architecture that uses a reduced......Optical transport layers need rearrangeable wavelength-division multiplexing optical cross-connects (OXCs) to increase the capacity and flexibility of the network. It has previously been shown that a cross-connect based on all-optical wavelength converters for routing as well as wavelength slot...... set of internal wavelengths without sacrificing cross-connecting capabilities. By inserting a partly equipped OXC with the new architecture in a 10-Gbit/s re-circulating loop setup we demonstrate the possibility of cascading up to ten OXCs. Furthermore, we investigate the regenerating effect...

  18. Route assessment using comparative risk factors integrated through a GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, D.M.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of potential alternative routes for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel was simplified through the use of comparative risk factors evaluated using detailed route and environmental attributes. The route characteristics, integrated into risk measures, vary strongly with location and were developed from national, state, and local sources. The route data and evaluation were managed using a geographic information system (GIS). An assessment of four real North Florida routes was performed and an interstate highway route exhibited the lowest risk based on the application of the risk factors

  19. Community-Based Wildlife Management In Tanzania: The Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based wildlife management (CWM) approach – known to others as community-based conservation – was first introduced in Tanzania in 1987/88. The approach intends to reconcile wildlife conservation and rural economic development. In the 1990s Tanzanians witnessed a rush by government Ministries and ...

  20. Secure Communication and Information Exchange using Authenticated Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Huda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available MANETs are considered as suitable for commercial applications such as law enforcement, conference meeting, and sharing information in a student classroom and critical services such as military operations, disaster relief, and rescue operations. Meanwhile, in military operation especially in the battlefield in freely medium which naturally needs high mobility and flexibility. Thus, applying MANETs make these networks vulnerable to various types of attacks such aspacket eavesdropping, data disseminating, message replay, message modification, and especially privacy issue. In this paper, we propose a secure communication and information exchange in MANET with considering secure adhoc routing and secure information exchange. Regarding privacy issue or anonymity, we use a reliable asymmetric encryption which protecting user privacy by utilizing insensitive user attributes as user identity, CP-ABE (Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption cryptographic scheme. We also design protocols to implement the proposed scheme for various battlefied scenarios in real evironment using embedded devices. Our experimental results showed that the additional of HMAC (Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code and AES (Advanced Encryption standard schemes using processor 1.2GHz only take processing time about 4.452 ms,  we can confirm that our approach by using CP-ABE with added HMAC and AES schemes make low overhead.

  1. The Role Played by Agricultural Policy-based Finance in New Village Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of the agricultural policy-based finance in terms of supporting the new village construction is analyzed: in the first place, the theoretical roots of agricultural policy-based finance supporting new village construction are "market failure" and "government intervention"; in the second place, the continual decline of agriculture and the "rural financial market failure" in recent years have become the objective evidence and historical mission for agricultural policy-based finance to support new village construction; in the third place, the combination of agricultural policy-based finance and new village construction is conducive to solving the "three agriculture" problems and facilitating the reform of new village construction. The feasibility of the support is analyzed: firstly, agricultural policy-based finance boasts the status and position of the "primary drive" in new village construction; secondly, the nation continuously deepens the reform of rural financial system and policy-based banks and strengthens the functions of Agricultural Development Bank, which provides policies for agricultural policy-based finance to support new village construction; thirdly, the 14 years’ reform and development of Agricultural Development Bank and the eleventh five year plan lay sound practical basis for the support of agricultural policy-based finance to new village construction. Based on the necessity and feasibility, the following six aspects are analyzed to fully display the function of the "first engine" of agricultural policy-related finance to new village construction. Firstly, strengthening the credit and loan aid to grain and cotton and some other agricultural products in the circulation domain; secondly, strengthening the credit and loan aid to agricultural industrialization in processing field; thirdly, intensifying the credit and loan aid to agricultural comprehensive development, rural infrastructure construction, application and promotion of

  2. The role of general practice in routes to diagnosis of lung cancer in Denmark: a population-based study of general practice involvement, diagnostic activity and diagnostic intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrandt, Louise Mahncke; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Jensen, Henry; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-22

    Lung cancer stage at diagnosis predicts possible curative treatment. In Denmark and the UK, lung cancer patients have lower survival rates than citizens in most other European countries, which may partly be explained by a comparatively longer diagnostic interval in these two countries. In Denmark, a pathway was introduced in 2008 allowing general practitioners (GPs) to refer patients suspected of having lung cancer directly to fast-track diagnostics. However, symptom presentation of lung cancer in general practice is known to be diverse and complex, and systematic knowledge of the routes to diagnosis is needed to enable earlier lung cancer diagnosis in Denmark. This study aims to describe the routes to diagnosis, the diagnostic activity preceding diagnosis and the diagnostic intervals for lung cancer in the Danish setting. We conducted a national registry-based cohort study on 971 consecutive incident lung cancer patients in 2010 using data from national registries and GP questionnaires. GPs were involved in 68.3% of cancer patients' diagnostic pathways, and 27.4% of lung cancer patients were referred from the GP to fast-track diagnostic work-up. A minimum of one X-ray was performed in 85.6% of all cases before diagnosis. Patients referred through a fast-track route more often had diagnostic X-rays (66.0%) than patients who did not go through fast-track (49.4%). Overall, 33.6% of all patients had two or more X-rays performed during the 90 days before diagnosis. Patients whose symptoms were interpreted as non-alarm symptoms or who were not referred to fast-track were more likely to experience a long diagnostic interval than patients whose symptoms were interpreted as alarm symptoms or who were referred to fast-track. Lung cancer patients followed several diagnostic pathways. The existing fast-track pathway must be supplemented to ensure earlier detection of lung cancer. The high incidence of multiple X-rays warrants a continued effort to develop more accurate lung

  3. The Effects of Teacher Efficacy, Teacher Certification Route, Content Hours in the Sciences, Field-Based Experiences and Class Size on Middle School Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Robina

    No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was signed into law in 2002 with the idea that all students, no matter the circumstances can learn and that highly qualified teachers should be present in every classrooms (United Stated Department of Education, 2011). The mandates of NCLB also forced states to begin measuring the progress of science proficiency beginning in 2007. The study determined the effects of teacher efficacy, the type of certification route taken by individuals, the number of content hours taken in the sciences, field-based experience and class size on middle school student achievement as measured by the 8th grade STAAR in a region located in South Texas. This data provides knowledge into the effect different teacher training methods have on secondary school science teacher efficacy in Texas and how it impacts student achievement. Additionally, the results of the study determined if traditional and alternative certification programs are equally effective in properly preparing science teachers for the classroom. The study described was a survey design comparing nonequivalent groups. The study utilized the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI). A 25-item efficacy scale made up of two subscales, Personal Science Teaching Efficacy Belief (PSTE) and Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy (STOE) (Bayraktar, 2011). Once the survey was completed a 3-Way ANOVA, MANOVA, and Multiple Linear Regression were performed in SPSS to calculate the results. The results from the study indicated no significant difference between route of certification on student achievement, but a large effect size was reported, 17% of the variances in student achievement can be accounted for by route of certification. A MANOVA was conducted to assess the differences between number of science content hours on a linear combination of personal science teacher efficacy, science teaching outcome expectancy and total science teacher efficacy as measured by the STEBI. No significant

  4. Combining rate-based and cap-and-trade emissions policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2003-12-01

    Rate-based emissions policies (like tradable performance standards, TPS) fix average emissions intensity, while cap-and-trade (CAT) policies fix total emissions. This paper shows that unfettered trade between rate-based and cap-and-trade programs always raises combined emissions, except when product markets are related in particular ways. Gains from trade are fully passed on to consumers in the rate-based sector, resulting in more output and greater emissions allocations. We consider several policy options to offset the expansion, including a tax, an 'exchange rate' to adjust for relative permit values, output-based allocation (OBA) for the rate-based sector, and tightening the cap. A range of combinations of tighter allocations could improve situations in both sectors with trade while holding emissions constant

  5. Value-based Q(s,S) policy for joint replenishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders

    replenishment order is issued, if the expected cost of ordering immediately according to the (s, S) policy is less than the expected cost of deferring the order until the next demand or until the level Q is reached. We use simulation to evaluate our policy. Applying the value-based Q(s, S) policy to a standard...... set of 12-item numerical examples from the literature, the long-run average cost of the best known solution is reduced by approximately 1%. Further examples are also investigated and in some cases for which the cost structure implies a high service level, the cost reduction exceeds 10% of the cost...

  6. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea after Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The…

  7. The theory-based policy evaluation method applied to the ex-post evaluation of climate change policies in the built environment in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmelink, Mirjam; Joosen, Suzanne; Blok, Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    The challenge within ex-post policy evaluation research is to unravel the whole policy process and evaluate the effect and effectiveness of the different steps. Through this unravelling of the policy implementation process, insight is gained on where something went wrong in the process of policy design and implementation and where the keys are for improving the effectiveness and efficiency. This article presents the results of an ex-post policy evaluation of the effect and effectiveness of the Energy Premium Regulation scheme and the Long Term Voluntary agreements to reduce CO 2 emissions in the built environment in the Netherlands applying the theory-based policy evaluation method. The article starts with a description of the theory-based policy evaluation method. The method begins with the formulation of a program theory, which describes the 'ideal' operation of a policy instrument, from the viewpoint of the policy makers. Thereupon the theory is checked and adapted through interviews with policy makers and executors, and the cause and effect chain is finally translated to (quantitative) indicators. The article shows that the theory-based evaluation method has benefits over other ex-post evaluation methods that include: The whole policy implementation process is evaluated and the focus is not just on the 'end-result' (i.e. efficiency improvement and CO 2 emission reduction). Through the development of indicators for each step in the implementation process, 'successes and failures' are quantified to the greatest possible extent. By applying this approach we not only learn whether policies are successful or not, but also why they succeeded or failed and how they can be improved

  8. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  9. Informing principal policy reforms in South Africa through data-based evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Wills

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa...

  10. Route-specific analysis for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report addresses a methodology for route-specific analysis, of which route-selection is one aspect. Identification and mitigation of specific hazards along a chosen route is another important facet of route-specific analysis. Route-selection and route-specific mitigation are two tools to be used in minimizing the risk of radioactive materials transportation and promoting public confidence. Other tools exist to improve the safety of transportation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Selection of a transportation mode and other, non-route-specific measures, such as improved driver training and improved cask designs, are additional tools to minimize transportation risk and promote public confidence. This report addresses the route-specific analysis tool and does not attempt to evaluate its relative usefulness as compared to other available tools. This report represents a preliminary attempt to develop a route-specific analysis methodlogy. The Western Interstate Energy Board High-Level Waste Committee has formed a Route-Specific Analysis Task Force which will build upon the methodology proposed in this Staff Report. As western states continue to investigate route-specific analysis issues, it is expected that the methodology will evolve into a more refined product representing the views of a larger group of interested parties in the West

  11. Chemical bath deposition route for the synthesis of ultra-thin CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Sánchez, Y.; Neuschitzer, M.; Xie, H.; Insignares-Cuello, C.; Izquierdo-Roca, V. [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); Peña, Y. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Saucedo, E., E-mail: esaucedo@irec.cat [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} (CISSe) photovoltaic grade thin films are usually grown by expensive vacuum based methods or chemical routes that require highly toxic precursors. In this work, we present the synthesis of CISSe absorbers by a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) route. In the first step, In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2−x}S stack was deposited as a precursor by CBD on Mo-coated soda lime glass substrates, using respectively thioacetamide and N,N′-dimethylthiourea as S source. Then the CISSe thin films were synthesized by the precursor's selenization at 450 °C. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tetragonal chalcopyrite structure of CISSe was identified by XRD and Raman, confirming that the major part of S was replaced by Se. SEM images show a compact and homogeneous film and by cross-section the thickness was estimated to be around 700 nm. Solar cells prepared with these absorbers exhibit an open circuit voltage of 369 mV, a short circuit current density of 13.7 mA/cm{sup 2}, a fill factor of 45% and an efficiency of 2.3%. - Highlights: • Deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2−x}S multi-stacks by chemical bath deposition • Synthesis of CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} via a two stage process • Demonstration of the viability of this low cost method to produce photovoltaic grade CuIn(S,Se){sub 2}.

  12. A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) Model for Multiple Exposure Routes of Soman in Multiple Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sweeney, Richard E; Langenberg, Jan P; Maxwell, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    ...) levels of soman challenge in three species (rat, guinea pig, marmoset). Allometric formulae were used to compute the compartment volumes, blood flow rates, tidal volume and respiratory rate based upon total animal weight...

  13. Policy recommendations to promote shale gas development in China based on a technical and economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jiehui; Luo, Dongkun; Xia, Liangyu; Feng, Lianyong

    2015-01-01

    Because of its resource potential and clean burning advantages, the development of shale gas can significantly increase the supply of cleaner energy while offering the associated benefits. To foster shale gas development, many policy incentives have been introduced in China. However, the current incentives have not been sufficiently aggressive, and the shale gas industry has been slow to develop. Existing policies thus need to be further improved. To provide effective support for decision makers in China, a technical and economic evaluation is performed in this study to explore the profitability of shale gas production in pilot zones. The results show that shale gas production is subeconomic under the current technical and economic conditions. Based on this evaluation, a policy analysis is conducted to investigate the profitability improvement offered by the major policies available in China to elucidate a path toward improving incentive policies. The results indicate that policy instruments related to gas prices, financial subsidies, corporate income taxes or combinations thereof could be used as priority options to improve policy incentives. Based on these results, recommendations are presented to improve the current incentive polices aimed at accelerating shale gas development. -- Highlights: •We explore the economic feasibility of shale gas development in China. •Current incentive policies cannot render shale gas development economically viable. •These incentives must be improved to effectively promote shale gas development. •We investigate the effect of the major policies available in China to light a path. •Recommendations are proposed to continually improve the incentive polices in China

  14. Economic transition policies in Chinese resource-based cities: An overview of government efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huijuan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Resource-based cities in China have made momentous contributions to the development of the national economy for decades. However, with the depletion of natural resources, their sustainable development is challenging and transition is important. The Chinese government has made great efforts to help resource-based cities. The purpose of this study is to investigate transition policies and their implementation. Firstly, we reviewed previous studies and summarized the essential elements of some successful resource-based cities, which are useful experiences for Chinese resource-based cities. Secondly, we studied the development of resource-based cities over the past 10 years with a focus on economic development, industrial structure, government revenue and environmental conditions. We found that resource-based cities were less developed compared to other cities. The main reasons are the after-effects of a planned economy, an unreasonable tax system, planning mistakes and misguided resources exploitation policies. Thirdly, we analyzed several aspects of the policy responses after the introduction of transition policies, including designating 69 resource-exhausted cities, supporting cities with funds and projects, formulating transition plans and evaluating transition performance. However, there are some deficiencies in the process of policy implementation. Finally, some recommendations were provided to improve transition performance and sustainable development for resource-based cities. - Highlights: ► Analyze the development of Chinese resource-based cities from four aspects. ► Analyze the causes of less development in resource-based cities. ► Investigate policies and their responses to transformation. ► Provide recommendations to improve transformation performance and sustainable development

  15. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    couple of decades. To deliver competitive service and price, transportation today needs to be cost effective. A company requiring for things to be shipped will aim at having the freight shipped as cheaply as possible while often satisfying certain time constraints. For the transportation company......, the effectiveness of the network is of importance aiming at satisfying as many costumer demands as possible at a low cost. Routing represent a path between locations such as an origin and destination for the object routed. Sometimes routing has a time dimension as well as the physical paths. This may...... set cost making the cost of the individual vehicle routes inter-dependant. Depending on the problem type, the size of the problems and time available for solving, different solution methods can be applicable. In this thesis both heuristic methods and several exact methods are investigated depending...

  16. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  17. Proxies for Anonymous Routing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Michael G; Syverson, Paul F; Goldschlag, David M

    1996-01-01

    ...), and file transfers (FTP) have been implemented. Onion routing provides application independent, real-time, and bi-directional anonymous connections that are resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis...

  18. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  19. Optimal policy for value-based decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Satohiro; Drugowitsch, Jan; Pouget, Alexandre

    2016-08-18

    For decades now, normative theories of perceptual decisions, and their implementation as drift diffusion models, have driven and significantly improved our understanding of human and animal behaviour and the underlying neural processes. While similar processes seem to govern value-based decisions, we still lack the theoretical understanding of why this ought to be the case. Here, we show that, similar to perceptual decisions, drift diffusion models implement the optimal strategy for value-based decisions. Such optimal decisions require the models' decision boundaries to collapse over time, and to depend on the a priori knowledge about reward contingencies. Diffusion models only implement the optimal strategy under specific task assumptions, and cease to be optimal once we start relaxing these assumptions, by, for example, using non-linear utility functions. Our findings thus provide the much-needed theory for value-based decisions, explain the apparent similarity to perceptual decisions, and predict conditions under which this similarity should break down.

  20. Developing Moral Sport Policies Through Act-Utilitarianism Based on Bentham’s Hedonic Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT C. SCHNEIDER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moral policy can be developed and maintained in sport organizations through an approach that incorporates act-utilitarianism (AU based on Jeremy Bentham’s hedonic calculus (HC. Sport managers’ effective application of AU based on HC takes on the form of a holistic approach to moral policy development and maintenance and requires an under-standing of the parts and process of a strict adherence to AU based on HC. The traits of common sense, habits, and past experience are supported by the utilitarian views held by Bentham and Mill to accurately predict happiness and un-happiness that result from actions (Beauchamp, 1982 and are also necessary to drive a holistic approach of AU based on HC that develops and maintains moral policy in sport organizations.