WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy assigns responsibilities

  1. 32 CFR 884.2 - Assigned responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.2 Assigned responsibilities. (a... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned responsibilities. 884.2 Section 884.2... requests for return of members to the United States for delivery to civilian authorities when the request...

  2. 75 FR 55354 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities Secretary's Order 3-2010 Subject: Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities to... Secretary to enforce sections 18A and 18B of the FLSA. 4. Delegation of Authority and Assignment of...

  3. 75 FR 55355 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility Secretary's Order 4-2010 Subject: Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility to the... delegations and assignments in full force and effect, except as expressly modified herein. 4. Delegation of...

  4. 75 FR 55352 - Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities Secretary's Order 5-2010 Subject: Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities to... rather than the Administrator, WHD (see also Secretary's Order 3-2010). 5. Delegations of Authority and...

  5. Energy crisis: policy response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemetz, P N [ed.

    1981-01-01

    Resource-management techniques must be applied to assess the risks, benefits, priorities, and potentials of the different energy options as prospective slowdowns in the flow of crude oil threaten recurring energy crises. The 23 contributors to this book use various managerial approaches in the formulation of energy policies. There is little agreement among the remedies put forth as to which policies will best achieve a balanced energy system. While some experts argue that Canadian energy policy should emphasize intensive development of coal, others claim that it ought to strive for greater reliance on electricity, and still others contend that the transition to soft energy paths is a preferable policy approach. The essays offer a broad range of policy responses, examining not only technical and economic possibilities, but political and institutional alternatives as well. 147 references, 18 figures, 30 tables.

  6. The "Post-Racial" Politics of Race: Changing Student Assignment Policy in Three School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathryn A.; Frankenberg, Erica; Diem, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Many school districts have recently revised, or tried to revise, their policies for assigning students to schools, because the legal and political status of racial and other kinds of diversity is uncertain, and the districts are facing fiscal austerity. This article presents case studies of politics and student assignment policy in three large…

  7. An assigned responsibility system for robotic teleoperation control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Nicolas; Lee, Kevin; Mann, Graham

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an architecture that explores a gap in the spectrum of existing strategies for robot control mode switching in adjustable autonomy. In situations where the environment is reasonably known and/or predictable, pre-planning these control changes could relieve robot operators of the additional task of deciding when and how to switch. Such a strategy provides a clear division of labour between the automation and the human operator(s) before the job even begins, allowing for individual responsibilities to be known ahead of time, limiting confusion and allowing rest breaks to be planned. Assigned Responsibility is a new form of adjustable autonomy-based teleoperation that allows the selective inclusion of automated control elements at key stages of a robot operation plan's execution. Progression through these stages is controlled by automatic goal accomplishment tracking. An implementation is evaluated through engineering tests and a usability study, demonstrating the viability of this approach and offering insight into its potential applications.

  8. Manual of functions, assignments, and responsibilities for nuclear safety: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-15

    The FAR Manual is a convenient easy-to-use collection of the functions, assignments, and responsibilities (FARs) of DOE nuclear safety personnel. Current DOE directives, including Orders, Secretary of Energy Notices, and other assorted policy memoranda, are the source of this information and form the basis of the FAR Manual. Today, the majority of FARs for DOE personnel are contained in DOE`s nuclear safety Orders. As these Orders are converted to rules in the Code of Federal Regulations, the FAR Manual will become the sole source for information relating to the functions, assignments, responsibilities of DOE nuclear safety personnel. The FAR Manual identifies DOE directives that relate to nuclear safety and the specific DOE personnel who are responsible for implementing them. The manual includes only FARs that have been extracted from active directives that have been approved in accordance with the procedures contained in DOE Order 1321.1B.

  9. 75 FR 66267 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility; Secretary's Order 6-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Business Act, as amended, 15 U.S.C. 644(n). (14) Social Security Act of 1935, as amended, Title III-Grants... Part V Department of Labor Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility; Secretary's... of Responsibility; Secretary's Order 6-2010 Subject: Delegation of Authority and Assignment of...

  10. 41 CFR 101-25.202 - Factors to be used to determine assignment of purchase responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... experience of agency purchasing and contracting officials and their operating units with due regard to... determine assignment of purchase responsibility. 101-25.202 Section 101-25.202 Public Contracts and Property... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.2-Interagency Purchase Assignments § 101-25.202 Factors to be used to determine...

  11. Backward- and forward-looking responsibility for obesity: policies from WHO, the EU and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallgårda, Signild; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Hartlev, Mette; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-10-01

    In assigning responsibility for obesity prevention a distinction may be drawn between who is responsible for the rise in obesity prevalence ('backward-looking responsibility'), and who is responsible for reducing it ('forward-looking responsibility'). We study how the two aspects of responsibility figure in the obesity policies of WHO (European Region), the EU and the Department of Health (England). Responsibility for the emergence and reduction of obesity is assigned to both individuals and other actors to different degrees in the policies, combining an individual and a systemic view. The policies assign backward-looking responsibility to individuals, the social environment, the authorities and businesses. When it comes to forward-looking responsibility, individuals are expected to play a central role in reducing and preventing obesity, but other actors are also urged to act. WHO assigns to individuals the lowest degree of backward- and forward-looking responsibility, and the Department of Health (England) assigns them the highest degree of responsibility. Differences in the assignment of backward- and above all forward-looking responsibility could be explained to some extent by the different roles of the three authorities making the plans. WHO is a UN agency with health as its goal, the EU is a liberal economic union with optimization of the internal European market as an important task, and England, as an independent sovereign country, has its own economic responsibilities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. "My Work Is Bleeding": Exploring Students' Emotional Responses to First-Year Assignment Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the emotional responses that assignment feedback can provoke in first-year undergraduates. The literature on the link between emotions and learning is well established, but surprisingly research on the relationship between emotions and feedback is still relatively scarce. This article aims to make an additional contribution to…

  13. 77 FR 69375 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility to the Director, Office of Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Labor Laws) of January 30, 2009. (7) Section 211(a) of the Labor Management Relations Act, 29 U.S.C. 181... Vol. 77 Friday, No. 222 November 16, 2012 Part III Department of Labor Office of the Secretary Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility to the Director, Office of Labor-Management...

  14. Antipodean Social Policy Responses to Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    the government enacted fiscal stimulus measures, the social policy component was small and the government soon returned to welfare retrenchment and workfare policy. Based on a detailed account of recent crisis policies as well as a condensed overview of previous crisis responses (to the 1970s oil shocks......, interest group structures, political institutions and policy legacies. The analysis shows that the recent differences cannot fully be explained through idiosyncratic factors, as partisan ideology was already crucial in strategic policy decisions during the first months of the crisis. The historical pattern...

  15. Global warming: Economic policy responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  16. Dose/response relationships and policy formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    The ICRP 26 cost/benefit approach to establishing operational radiation protection guidelines is discussed. The purpose is to aid the policy maker in the decision making process, using as a basis the dose-response curve

  17. 76 FR 18942 - Policies To Promote Rural Radio Service and To Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... absence of other Tribal-owned or Tribal-oriented media of mass communications in the area, or a showing... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 [MB Docket No. 09-52; FCC 11-28] Policies... Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission adopted a number of...

  18. 77 FR 2916 - Policies To Promote Rural Radio Service and To Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... bidding credit to Tribes with no interests in media of mass communications, for a total maximum bidding.... ADDRESSES: Peter Doyle or Thomas Nessinger, Federal Communications Commission, Media Bureau, Audio Division... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 09-52; FCC 11-190] Policies To...

  19. Canadian Policy Responses to International Comparison Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines policy responses across Canada to international student assessment programs such as the program for international student assessment, trends in international mathematics and science study, and progress in international reading and literacy study. Literature reviewed included refereed and non-refereed journal articles,…

  20. Evaluation of Meta scheduler Architectures and Task assignment Policies for High throughput Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Caron, E; Tsaregorodtsev, A Yu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a model and simulator for many clusters of heterogeneous PCs belonging to a local network. These clusters are assumed to be connected to each other through a global network and each cluster is managed via a local scheduler which is shared by many users. We validate our simulator by comparing the experimental and analytical results of a M/M/4 queuing system. These studies indicate that the simulator is consistent. Next, we do the comparison with a real batch system and we obtain an average error of 10.5\\% for the response time and 12\\% for the makespan. We conclude that the simulator is realistic and well describes the behaviour of a large-scale system. Thus we can study the scheduling of our system called \\dirac in a high throughput context. We justify our decentralized, adaptive and opportunistic approach in comparison to a centralized approach in such a context.

  1. Corporate Social Responsability and Organization Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta CRISTACHE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available At a time when the world is interested in phenomena such as, ecology, environment, food safety, ozone layer depletion, famine and their effects on social responsibility initiatives are becoming increasingly well received. Even if you can not give a real dimension of the concept of social responsibility-taking as any guarantee of success, an organization must be aware that there is only a tool for maximizing the value of image design, but an essential element of long-term success in direct connection with social and environmental performance of the community. To work is to highlight the link between corporate social responsibility strategies and success in solving organizational policies company issues under restrictive conditions imposed by nouile economic, social and political.

  2. The Policy to Promote Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosdahl, Anders

    thinking, a vision for the Danish welfare society. An inclusive labour market is one with “a place for everyone”, i.e. also for persons with a reduced working capacity, disabled, ethnic minorities and long-term unemployed – that is persons who have traditionally had difficulties in obtaining or remaining...... viewpoints in the current Danish debate (section 4). Section 5 includes some concluding remarks. Encouraging social responsibility of enterprises is one of the means to promote what in Denmark today is termed an inclusive labour market. The inclusive labour market is, according to current governmental...... in employment. An inclusive labour market is adapted to the needs and capabilities of diverse human beings, also employees, who should be able to reconcile work and family life. The policy to increase the social responsibility of enterprises and to promote an inclusive labour market includes several specific...

  3. 77 FR 1088 - Secretary's Order 1-2011; Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Secretary's Order 1-2011; Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities to the Employee Benefits Security Administration 1. Purpose. To delegate... under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), Federal Employees' Retirement System...

  4. Desire or Disease? Framing Obesity to Influence Attributions of Responsibility and Policy Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Joseph; McGlone, Matthew S

    2018-02-01

    The way we describe health threats affects perceptions of severity and preferred solutions to reduce risk. Most people agree obesity is a problem, but differ in how they attribute responsibility for development and decline of the disease. We explored effects of message framing on attributions of responsibility and support for public obesity policies using a 3 × 2 factorial design. Participants read one of six versions of a health message describing the negative effects of obesity. Message frames influenced respondent attributions and their support for policies to reduce obesity. Those who read a message that assigned agency to the disease (e.g., Obesity causes health problems) endorsed genetics as the cause to a greater degree than those who read a semantically equivalent message that instead assigned agency to people (e.g., Obese people develop health problems). In contrast, assigning agency to people rather than to the disease prompted higher attributions of individual responsibility and support for public policies. Explicit message frames that directly connected responsibility for obesity to either individual or societal factors had no effect on respondent perceptions. Findings suggest explicit arguments may be less effective in shifting perceptions of health threats than arguments embedded in agentic message frames. The results demonstrate specific message features that influence how people attribute responsibility for the onset and solution of obesity.

  5. Going Upstream: Policy as Sexual Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.; Issadore, Michelle N.

    2018-01-01

    Policy can and should be used as a tool of sexual violence prevention and response. In this chapter, we explore the historical, social justice, compliance, and best practice rationales for approaching policy development and revision differently.

  6. Local policy proposals can bridge Latino and (most) white Americans' response to immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuen J; Dovidio, John F; Jiménez, Tomás R; Schildkraut, Deborah J

    2018-01-30

    In the past 15 years, the adoption of subnational immigration policies in the United States, such as those established by individual states, has gone from nearly zero to over 300 per year. These include welcoming policies aimed at attracting and incorporating immigrants, as well as unwelcoming policies directed at denying immigrants access to public resources and services. Using data from a 2016 random digit-dialing telephone survey with an embedded experiment, we examine whether institutional support for policies that are either welcoming or hostile toward immigrants differentially shape Latinos' and whites' feelings of belonging in their state (Arizona/New Mexico, adjacent states with contrasting immigration policies). We randomly assigned individuals from the representative sample ( n = 1,903) of Latinos (US and foreign born) and whites (all US born) to consider policies that were either welcoming of or hostile toward immigrants. Across both states of residence, Latinos, especially those foreign born, regardless of citizenship, expressed more positive affect and greater belonging when primed with a welcoming (vs. hostile) policy. Demonstrating the importance of local norms, these patterns held among US-born whites, except among self-identified politically conservative whites, who showed more negative affect and lower levels of belonging in response to welcoming policies. Thus, welcoming immigration policies, supported by institutional authorities, can create a sense of belonging not only among newcomers that is vital to successful integration but also among a large segment of the population that is not a direct beneficiary of such policies-US-born whites.

  7. 77 FR 45696 - Further Amendment to Memorandum Describing Authority and Assigned Responsibilities of the General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... expeditious performance of its primary function and responsibility of deciding cases, the authority and... the Board Members' Offices, the Division of Judges, the Division of Information, the Security Office...

  8. 75 FR 3924 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility to the Administrative Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ...; (39) Toxic Substances Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2622; 29 CFR Part 24; (40) Vietnam Era Veterans... of Labor shall have the responsibility for providing legal advice to the Secretary, the Deputy... the implementation and administration of this Order. The Solicitor of Labor may also provide legal...

  9. 78 FR 45599 - Proposed Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Assigning Environmental Responsibilities to the State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...-30131 5. Social and Economic Impacts American Indian Religious Freedom Act, 42 U.S.C. 19961 Farmland... holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael T. Leary, Director of Planning and Program Development... consultations with federally-recognized Indian tribes. The FHWA will retain responsibility for conducting formal...

  10. Assignment of Responsibilities in the Management of Scrap Metal in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, E.L., E-mail: evaldo@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    This paper gives an overview of the activities of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), as the Brazilian regulatory authority responsible for licensing, inspecting, controlling and regulating all practices involving sources of ionizing radiation. The activities of the main departments of CNEN responsible for taking care of the practices and sources are described, especially those related to orphan sources and radioactive material in scrap metal. Finally, although Brazil does not yet have the necessary infrastructure to take care of the scrap metal issue, through the joint action of the relevant departments of CNEN it is hoped that the appropriate steps can be taken to build a national protocol, following the examples of other countries, especially Spain. (author)

  11. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses policies of 22 European Union member governments, designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) between 2000 and 2011. It categorises these policies by their regulatory strength and identifies the range of issues to which CSR policies are directed. The paper argues...... that Northern European, Scandinavian and UK governments are reconstructing their respective institutional structures to embed CSR concerns more explicitly therein. It concludes that these government CSR initiatives are converging, particularly around their increased regulatory strength and the broadening...

  12. Categorizing the telehealth policy response of countries and their implications for complementarity of telehealth policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sunil; Scott, Richard E

    2004-01-01

    Developing countries are exploring the role of telehealth to overcome the challenges of providing adequate health care services. However, this process faces disparities, and no complementarity in telehealth policy development. Telehealth has the potential to transcend geopolitical boundaries, yet telehealth policy developed in one jurisdiction may hamper applications in another. Understanding such policy complexities is essential for telehealth to realize its full global potential. This study investigated 12 East Asian countries that may represent a microcosm of the world, to determine if the telehealth policy response of countries could be categorized, and whether any implications could be identified for the development of complementary telehealth policy. The countries were Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Three categories of country response were identified in regard to national policy support and development. The first category was "None" (Cambodia, Myanmar, and Vietnam) where international partners, driven by humanitarian concerns, lead telehealth activity. The second category was "Proactive" (China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand) where national policies were designed with the view that telehealth initiatives are a component of larger development objectives. The third was "Reactive" (Hong Kong and Japan), where policies were only proffered after telehealth activities were sustainable. It is concluded that although complementarity of telehealth policy development is not occurring, increased interjurisdictional telehealth activity, regional clusters, and concerted and coordinated effort amongst researchers, practitioners, and policy makers may alter this trend.

  13. Defining response capacity to enhance climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, Emma L.; Neil Adger, W.

    2005-01-01

    Climate change adaptation and mitigation decisions made by governments are usually taken in different policy domains. At the individual level however, adaptation and mitigation activities are undertaken together as part of the management of risk and resources. We propose that a useful starting point to develop a national climate policy is to understand what societal response might mean in practice. First we frame the set of responses at the national policy level as a trade off between investment in the development and diffusion of new technology, and investment in encouraging and enabling society to change its behaviour and or adopt the new technology. We argue that these are the pertinent trade-offs, rather than those usually posited between climate change mitigation and adaptation. The preference for a policy response that focuses more on technological innovation rather than one that focuses on changing social behaviour will be influenced by the capacity of different societies to change their greenhouse gas emissions; by perceived vulnerability to climate impacts; and by capacity to modify social behaviour and physical environment. Starting with this complete vision of response options should enable policy makers to re-evaluate the risk environment and the set of response options available to them. From here, policy makers should consider who is responsible for making climate response decisions and when actions should be taken. Institutional arrangements dictate social and political acceptability of different policies, they structure worldviews, and they determine the provision of resources for investment in technological innovation and social change. The importance of focussing on the timing of the response is emphasised to maximise the potential for adjustments through social learning and institutional change at different policy scales. We argue that the ability to respond to climate change is both enabled and constrained by social and technological conditions

  14. Grain price spikes and beggar-thy-neighbor policy responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    on the agenda of various international policy fora, including the annual meetings of G20 countries in recent years. For that reason, recent studies have attempted to quantify the extent to which such policy actions contributed to the rise in food prices. A study by Jensen & Anderson (2014) uses the global AGE...... model GTAP and the corresponding database to quantify the global policy actions contributions to the raise in food prices by modeling the changes in distortions to agricultural incentives in the period 2006 to 2008. We link the results from this global model into a national AGE model, highlighting how...... global "Beggar-thy-Neighbor Policy Responses" impacted on poor households in Uganda. More specifically we examine the following research questions: What were the Ugandan economy-wide and poverty impacts of the price spikes? What was the impact of other countries "Beggar-thy-Neighbor Policy Responses...

  15. Global Financial Crisis – Policy Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakić Milojica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Six years after the outbreak of the financial crisis that had shaken the global financial system, experts and analysts all over the world continue discussing the effectiveness, scope and adequacy of mechanisms and measures implemented in the meantime, as well as the adequacy of the underlying theoretical concept. A global consent has been reached on ensuring financial stability through the interaction of monetary, fiscal and prudential policy to ensure the necessary macroprudential dimension of regulatory and supervisory frameworks. The USA crisis spilled over to Europe. Strong support of governments to bail out banks quickly resulted in sovereign debt crises in some peripheral EU Member States. Fiscal insolvency of these countries strongly shook the EU and increased doubts in the monetary union survival. The European Union stood united to defend the euro and responded strongly with a new complex and comprehensive financial stability framework. This supranational framework is a counterpart to the global financial stability framework created by the G20 member countries. Starting from the specific features of the monetary policy whose capacities are determined by euroisation, available instruments and resources for preventive supervisory activities, as well as the role of the government in crisis management, Montenegro created a framework for maintaining financial stability and prescribed fostering and maintaining financial stability as the main objective of the Central Bank of Montenegro.

  16. Responsive Feeding: Implications for Policy and Program Implementation12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice L.; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation. PMID:21270361

  17. Belief-Policies Cannot Ground Doxastic Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.

    2013-01-01

    William Alston has provided a by now well-known objection to the deontological conception of epistemic justification by arguing that since we lack control over our beliefs, we are not responsible for them. It is widely acknowledged that if Alston's argument is convincing, then it seems that the very

  18. Accounting for Knowledge in Policies of Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Magnusson, Hannes; Vetterlein, Antje; Wiener, Antje

    This article develops a framework that aims to account for knowledge in practices of responsibility. It embarks from the observation that norms in global governance are contested, and increasingly so, triggered by processes of globalisation which make inter-national encounters ever more likely....... By understanding these encounters as inter-cultural, the article focuses on knowledge practices that inform (diverging) understandings of fundamental norms. We argue that in order to increase long-term sustainable normativity under conditions of globalisation, researcher needs to uncover meso-level norms...

  19. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke

    This paper analyses policies of twenty two EU member governments designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) over the first decade of the century. Our paper categorizes policies for CSR into different types depending on their expected degree of regulatory strength. Secondly, whilst...... it identifies a wide range of issues to which government CSR policies are directed, it notes a tendency for these to have expanded from social affairs and employment issues, through environmental issues, to economic and trade and development issues. Thirdly, governments act as agents in their respective...... institutional structures to embed CSR concerns explicitly into these frameworks....

  20. Three essays on monetary policy responses to oil price shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Michael

    This dissertation contains three chapters which explore the question of how monetary policy should respond to changes in the price of oil. Each chapter explores the question from the perspective of a different economic environment. The first chapter examines welfare maximizing optimal monetary policy in a closed economy New Keynesian model that is extended to include household and firm demand for oil products, sticky wages, and capital accumulation. When households and firms demand oil products a natural difference arises between the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the core CPI, and the GDP deflator. I show that when nominal wages are flexible then the optimal policy places a heavy emphasis on stabilizing the inflation rate of the core CPI. If aggregate nominal wages are sticky then the central bank should focus on stabilizing some combination of core inflation and nominal wage inflation. Under no case examined is it optimal to stabilize either GDP deflator or CPI inflation. The second chapter examines monetary policy responses to oil price shocks in a small open economy with traded and non-traded goods. Oil and labor are used to produce the traded and non-traded goods and prices are sticky in the non-traded sector. I show analytically that the ratio of the oil and labor cost shares in the traded and non-traded sectors is crucial for determining the dynamic behavior of many macroeconomic variables after a rise in the price of oil. A policy of fixed exchange rates can produce higher or lower inflation in the non-traded sector depending upon the ratio. Likewise, a policy that stabilizes the inflation rate of prices in the non-traded sector can cause the nominal exchange rate to appreciate or depreciate. For the proper calibration, a policy that stabilizes core inflation produces results very close to the one that stabilizes non-traded inflation. Analytical results show that the fixed exchange rate always produces a unique solution. The policy of stabilizing non

  1. Forest fires and environmental haze in Southeast Asia: using the 'stakeholder' approach to assign costs and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, E; Johnston, D

    2001-10-01

    The 'seasonal haze' problem is one which afflicts large parts of Southeast Asia in years of drought. The major cause is forest, bush and field fires in the states of Kalimantan and Sumatra in Indonesia, and to a lesser extent in Sabah, Sarawak, and other parts of Malaysia. Almost all of these fires now seem preventable, since they are intentionally set to clear land for cultivation. Theoretically, the government authorities at central, provincial and local levels in these countries should be responsible for controlling activities in their territory. In practice, however, air pollution control through regulatory policies and practices is extraordinarily difficult to implement and maintain in a situation of this kind in developing countries, especially at a time of crippling economic setbacks. Moreover, the establishment of legal liability, through an international tribunal or otherwise, hardly seems a politically feasible course of action for the government of an affluent 'victim state' such as Singapore. Faith in the usual solutions--science, regulation, law and diplomacy--is weakened by one's sense of current realities. The purpose of this paper is to review the issues and suggested responses, the cost implications of each, the responsibilities as well as entitlements that might apply to the various stakeholders, and the special role of Singapore as an affluent 'victim state'. We also discuss the incentive mechanisms that would be needed to manage forest fires.

  2. Public Policy Responses to the Global Financial and Economic Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to assess the impact of the global fi nancial and economic crisis on two sectors in South Africa, namely, the automobile sector and the textile and clothing sector. It also examines the role of public policy in responding to that crisis. Its main objective is to determine whether or not those responses were ...

  3. Impact of socially responsible human resources policies on intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Barrena-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research focuses on the benefits that social responsibility can report on the area of human resources, examined the impact of a socially responsible configuration of human resource policies and practices in the generation value process for the company, and more specifically in its intellectual capital. Design/methodology/approach: The study performed a regression analysis, testing the individual effects of socially responsible human resource policies on intellectual capital, broken down into three main variables such as human, social and organizational capital. Findings: The results shed light on how the introduction of socially responsible aspects in the management of human resources can facilitate the exchange of knowledge, skills and attitudes human--capital; lead to improvements in communication, trust, cooperation among employees social-capital and, in turn, generates an institutionalized knowledge encoded in the own organizational culture –organizational capital–. Research limitations/implications: The study only provides information from large companies with over 250 employees. Practical implications: There are important implications in the measure of corporate social responsibility concerns in the area of human resources. Social implications: Also important intangible effects on non-economic variables are confirmed, such as intellectual capital. Originality/value: The value of the study lies in its novelty, testing socially responsible configurations of human resources as well as the direct effects of different policies on intellectual capital.

  4. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...

  5. Public Demand and Climate Change Policy Making in OECD Countries – From Dynamics of the Demand to Policy Responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Oehl

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is one of today’s major political challenges. The Kyoto Protocol assigned national emission reduction goals for the developed countries however national governments in these countries have implemented policies varying widely in range and ambition over time and across countries to meet their goals. Can this variation in policy making be explained by dierences in the typically taken for granted – but empirically often neglected – influence of public demand for climate protection?...

  6. Public Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Four Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, Atle; Gjølberg, Maria; Kourula, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) was historically a business-oriented idea that companies should voluntarily improve their social and environmental practices. More recently, CSR has increasingly attracted governments’ attention, and is now promoted in public policy, especially in the European......’ traditions favoring negotiated agreements and strong regulation to control corporate conduct. This article analyzes the conflicts and compatibilities arising when advanced welfare states introduce CSR, focusing on how the two traditions diverge and on how conflicts are reconciled. Empirically the study...

  7. Provider Behavior Under Global Budgeting and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Kai Chang MD, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Third-party payer systems are consistently associated with health care cost escalation. Taiwan’s single-payer, universal coverage National Health Insurance (NHI adopted global budgeting (GB to achieve cost control. This study captures ophthalmologists’ response to GB, specifically service volume changes and service substitution between low-revenue and high-revenue services following GB implementation, the subsequent Bureau of NHI policy response, and the policy impact. De-identified eye clinic claims data for the years 2000, 2005, and 2007 were analyzed to study the changes in Simple Claim Form (SCF claims versus Special Case Claims (SCCs. The 3 study years represent the pre-GB period, post-GB but prior to region-wise service cap implementation period, and the post-service cap period, respectively. Repeated measures multilevel regression analysis was used to study the changes adjusting for clinic characteristics and competition within each health care market. SCF service volume (low-revenue, fixed-price patient visits remained constant throughout the study period, but SCCs (covering services involving variable provider effort and resource use with flexibility for discretionary billing increased in 2005 with no further change in 2007. The latter is attributable to a 30% cap negotiated by the NHI Bureau with the ophthalmology association and enforced by the association. This study demonstrates that GB deployed with ongoing monitoring and timely policy responses that are designed in collaboration with professional stakeholders can contain costs in a health insurance–financed health care system.

  8. Ebola Virus Disease: Ethics and Emergency Medical Response Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S; Dudzinski, Denise M; Diekema, Douglas S; Tonelli, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Caring for patients affected with Ebola virus disease (EVD) while simultaneously preventing EVD transmission represents a central ethical challenge of the EVD epidemic. To address this challenge, we propose a model policy for resuscitation and emergent procedure policy of patients with EVD and set forth ethical principles that lend support to this policy. The policy and principles we propose bear relevance beyond the EVD epidemic, offering guidance for the care of patients with other highly contagious, virulent, and lethal diseases. The policy establishes (1) a limited code status for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD. Limited code status means that a code blue will not be called for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD at any stage of the disease; however, properly protected providers (those already in full protective equipment) may initiate resuscitative efforts if, in their clinical assessment, these efforts are likely to benefit the patient. The policy also requires that (2) resuscitation not be attempted for patients with advanced EVD, as resuscitation would be medically futile; (3) providers caring for or having contact with patients with confirmed or suspected EVD be properly protected and trained; (4) the treating team identify and treat in advance likely causes of cardiac and respiratory arrest to minimize the need for emergency response; (5) patients with EVD and their proxies be involved in care discussions; and (6) care team and provider discretion guide the care of patients with EVD. We discuss ethical issues involving medical futility and the duty to avoid harm and propose a utilitarian-based principle of triage to address resource scarcity in the emergency setting.

  9. Demand response experience in Europe: Policies, programmes and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torriti, Jacopo; Hassan, Mohamed G.; Leach, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, load growth, increases in intermittent generation, declining technology costs and increasing recognition of the importance of customer behaviour in energy markets have brought about a change in the focus of Demand Response (DR) in Europe. The long standing programmes involving large industries, through interruptible tariffs and time of day pricing, have been increasingly complemented by programmes aimed at commercial and residential customer groups. Developments in DR vary substantially across Europe reflecting national conditions and triggered by different sets of policies, programmes and implementation schemes. This paper examines experiences within European countries as well as at European Union (EU) level, with the aim of understanding which factors have facilitated or impeded advances in DR. It describes initiatives, studies and policies of various European countries, with in-depth case studies of the UK, Italy and Spain. It is concluded that while business programmes, technical and economic potentials vary across Europe, there are common reasons as to why coordinated DR policies have been slow to emerge. This is because of the limited knowledge on DR energy saving capacities; high cost estimates for DR technologies and infrastructures; and policies focused on creating the conditions for liberalising the EU energy markets. (author)

  10. Using community trait-distributions to assign microbial responses to pH changes and Cd in forest soils treated with wood ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Wallander, Håkan; Kjøller, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    is the current land-use. In forestry, wood ash has been proposed as a liming agent and a fertilizer, but has been questioned due to the risk associated with its Cd content. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of wood ash on the structure and function of decomposer microbial communities in forest......The identification of causal links between microbial community structure and ecosystem functions are required for a mechanistic understanding of ecosystem responses to environmental change. One of the most influential factors affecting plants and microbial communities in soil in managed ecosystems...... soils and to assign them to causal mechanisms. To do this, we assessed the responses to wood ash application of (i) the microbial community size and structure, (ii) microbial community trait-distributions, including bacterial pH relationships and Cd-tolerance, to assign the microbial responses to p...

  11. Communicable disease policy development in response to changing European political frontiers in Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, Brita Kaltenbrunner

    2008-11-01

    The European Union (EU) enlargement of 2004 brings both opportunities and challenges for public health. It is believed that further integration will bring direct health benefits, mainly through improved socioeconomic conditions, but there are also risks associated with the EU expansion, in particular cross-border health risks, such as the impact of the internal EU market policy of free movement and migration on communicable disease patterns. Against this background, this article examines communicable disease policy development in Finland, Norway and Sweden in response to changing European political frontiers, in particular the EU accession of the Baltic States. The emphasis is on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. The study is based on a qualitative and quantitative approach, using two complementary methods: documentary analysis and stakeholder analysis. The article identifies a distinct pattern in communicable disease policy development between 1990 and 2005. The turn of the new millennium saw a sharp increase in national attention and the priority assigned to communicable diseases in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The article argues that this development is likely to be related to the rising national, regional and European awareness of the public health challenges associated with communicable diseases in today's borderless Europe. It also shows that the Baltic health situation is a particular concern for Finland. Although there is increasing national and regional activity within the communicable disease area, there is a need for a more effective European approach to tackle the future communicable disease challenges that may follow in an increasingly interdependent and integrated Europe.

  12. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  13. Policy trends of extended producer responsibility in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Victor, Dennis

    2011-09-01

    This paper seeks to examine the provisions for extended producer responsibility (EPR) within the Malaysian environmental and waste management policies and to determine its existing practice and future prospects in Malaysia. Malaysian waste generation has been increasing drastically where solid waste generation was estimated to increase from about 9.0 million tonnes in 2000 to about 10.9 million tonnes in 2010, to about 12.8 million tonnes in 2015 and finally to about 15.6 million tonnes in 2020. Malaysian e-waste was estimated to be about 652 909 tonnes in 2006 and was estimated to increase to about 706 000 tonnes in 2010 and finally to about 1.2 million tonnes in 2020. The projected increasing generation of both solid waste and scheduled wastes is expected to burden the country's resources and environment in managing these wastes in a sustainable manner. The concept of EPR is provided for in the Malaysia waste management system via the Environmental Quality Act 1974 and the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007. However, these provisions in the policy are generic in nature without relevant regulations to enable its enforcement and as such the concept of EPR still remains on paper whereas the existing practice of EPR in Malaysia is limited through voluntary participation. In conclusion, policy trends of EPR in Malaysia seem to indicate that Malaysia may be embarking on the path towards EPR through the enactment of an EPR regulation.

  14. Public-policy responsibilities in a restructured electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1995-06-01

    In this report, we identify and define the key public-policy values, objectives, and actions that the US electricity industry currently meets. We also discuss the opportunities for meeting these objectives in a restructured industry that relies primarily on market forces rather than on government mandates. And we discuss those functions that governments might undertake, presumably because they will not be fully met by a restructured industry on its own. These discussions are based on a variety of inputs. The most important inputs came from participants in an April 1995 workshop on Public-Policy Responsibilities and Electric Industry Restructuring: Shaping the Research Agenda. Other sources of information and insights include the reviews of a draft of this report by workshop participants and others and the rapidly growing literature on electric-industry restructuring and its implications. One of the major concerns about the future of the electricity industry is the fate of numerous social and environmental programs supported by today`s electric utilities. Many people worry that a market-driven industry may not meet the public-policy objectives that electric utilities have met in the past. Examples of potentially at-risk programs include demand-side management (DSM), renewable energy, low-income weatherization, and fuel diversity. Workshop participants represented electric utilities, public utility commissions (PUCs), state energy offices, public-interest groups, other energy providers, and the research community.

  15. California's response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980: policy and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The public and private corporations and institutions in California that use radioactive materials and generate low-level radioactive waste have played a major role in shaping and guiding California's response to the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. Working together as the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (CAL RAD FORUM), these organizations carry out legislative and public education programs with the objective of establishing, in California, a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and maintaining access to existing disposal facilities in other states until the California facility is licensed and operating

  16. Ebola policies that hinder epidemic response by limiting scientific discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Pavlin, Julie A; Ripp, Jonathan A; Reithinger, Richard; Polyak, Christina S

    2015-02-01

    There is an unprecedented epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in west Africa. There has been a strong response from dedicated health professionals. However, there have also been irrational and fear-based responses that have contributed to misallocation of resources, stigma, and deincentivizing volunteers to combat Ebola at its source. Recently, the State of Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals issued a ban on those coming from affected countries wishing to attend the annual meetings of American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and the American Public Health Association, both of which were held in New Orleans. We argue against such policies, question evidence and motivations, and discuss their practical and ethical implications in hampering effective responses to EVD by the scientific community. We aim to shed light on this issue and its implications for the future of public health interventions, reflect on the responsibility of health providers and professional societies as advocates for patients and the public health, and call for health professionals and societies to work to challenge inappropriate political responses to public health crises. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Improving policy responses to the risk of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ari; Nathwani, Jatin; Pandey, Mahesh; Hurley, Fintan

    2007-02-01

    This paper offers a brief review of the need for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the available policy instruments for air pollution. To prioritize different possible actions, one needs to know which source of pollution causes how much damage. This requires an impact pathway analysis, that is, an analysis of the chain emission --> dispersion --> dose-response function --> monetary valuation. The methodology for this is described and illustrated with the results of the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) project series of the European Commission. Two examples of an application to CBA are shown: one where a proposed reduction of emission limits is justified, and one where it is not. It is advisable to subject any proposed regulation to a CBA, including an analysis of the uncertainties. Even if the uncertainties are large and a policy decision may have to take other considerations into account, a well-documented CBA clarifies the issues and provides a basis for rational discussion. One of the main sources of uncertainty lies in the monetary valuation of premature mortality, the dominant contribution to the damage cost of air pollution. As an alternative, an innovative policy tool is described, the Life Quality Index (LQI), a compound indicator comprising societal wealth and life expectancy. It is applied to the Canada-wide standards for particulate matter and ozone. Regardless of monetary valuation, a 50% reduction of PM10 concentrations in Europe and North America has been shown to yield a population-average life expectancy increase on the order of 4 to 5 mo.

  18. Biofuel policies and the impact of developing countries' policy responses to the 2007-2008 food price boom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, de Harry; Drabik, D.

    2016-01-01

    Economists have been unanimous that developing countries’ policy responses to high food grain prices in 2007–2008 in restricting exports and promoting imports increased both world food grain price levels and volatility. Furthermore, the literature emphasizes the self-defeating aspects of policy

  19. Developing Responsibility for Completing and Handing in Daily Homework Assignments for Students in Grades Three, Four, and Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Joan M.

    This practicum was designed to increase responsibility for completing and handing in homework among students in grades three, four, and five in a mid-Atlantic school district. Of a total of 128 students in these grades, 28 were identified to learn strategies to aid in completing homework. Nine solution strategies were employed: (1) provide…

  20. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; McKee, Martin; Rechel, Bernd; Rosenberg, Larry; Smith, James P

    2015-02-14

    Between now and 2030, every country will experience population ageing-a trend that is both pronounced and historically unprecedented. Over the past six decades, countries of the world had experienced only a slight increase in the share of people aged 60 years and older, from 8% to 10%. But in the next four decades, this group is expected to rise to 22% of the total population-a jump from 800 million to 2 billion people. Evidence suggests that cohorts entering older age now are healthier than previous ones. However, progress has been very uneven, as indicated by the wide gaps in population health (measured by life expectancy) between the worst (Sierra Leone) and best (Japan) performing countries, now standing at a difference of 36 years for life expectancy at birth and 15 years for life expectancy at age 60 years. Population ageing poses challenges for countries' economies, and the health of older populations is of concern. Older people have greater health and long-term care needs than younger people, leading to increased expenditure. They are also less likely to work if they are unhealthy, and could impose an economic burden on families and society. Like everyone else, older people need both physical and economic security, but the burden of providing these securities will be falling on a smaller portion of the population. Pension systems will be stressed and will need reassessment along with retirement policies. Health systems, which have not in the past been oriented toward the myriad health problems and long-term care needs of older people and have not sufficiently emphasised disease prevention, can respond in different ways to the new demographic reality and the associated changes in population health. Along with behavioural adaptations by individuals and businesses, the nature of such policy responses will establish whether population ageing will lead to major macroeconomic difficulties. Copyright © 2015 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  1. Backward- and forward-looking responsibility for obesity: policies from WHO, the EU and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Hartlev, Mette

    2015-01-01

    ackground: In assigning responsibility for obesity prevention a distinction may be drawn between who is responsible for the rise in obesity prevalence (‘backward-looking responsibility’), and who is responsible for reducing it (‘forward-looking responsibility’). Methods: We study how the two aspe...

  2. Venezuelan policies and responses on climate change and natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponi, Claudio; Rosales, Anibal

    1992-06-01

    Venezuela is an intertropical country which has the fortune not to suffer the severities of natural hazards which are usual in other countries of this region. It is a developing country, whose economy is heavily dependent on oil production and exports. Its greenhouse gas emissions are relatively low, but it is expected that the planned industrialization development will bring an associated increase in emissions. As a nation, Venezuela has a highly developed environmental consciousness. The Ministry of environment, the first in Latin America, was created in 1977, and has been the main contributor to the national policy of Disaster Prevention and Reduction. As in many developing countries actions and responses in this regard have been rather limited in scope, and even though legislation has been developed, many problems arise for its enforcement. Several local warning systems, civil defense procedures, and infrastructural protection measures are operational, however they have not been designed, revised, or planned taking into consideration the potential impacts of climate change. Presently Venezuela is an active participant state in the negotiation for a framework convention on climate change. That is a very difficult negotiation for our country. Here we have to conciliate enviromental principles with national economic interests. The elements of our position in this contex are presented in this statement.

  3. The causal flow between public opinion and policy: government responsiveness, leadership, or counter movement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakhverdian, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the causal relationship between public opinion and policy. Does opinion affect policy or is it the other way around? Three hypotheses take centre stage. The responsiveness hypothesis postulates that changes in public opinion lead to subsequent changes in policy in the same

  4. Brazil responses to the international financial crisis: A successful example of Keynesian policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Cunha André

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the economic policy responses of the Brazilian government to the international financial crisis. In doing so, the paper aims to answer a specific question: Can the economic policies implemented in 2008-09 be identified as Keynesian economic policies? It concludes that, despite the fact the Brazilian economic policies response to the international financial crisis seems remember Keynesian economic policies, it is not possible to argue that the recovery of the Brazilian economy can be considered a Keynesian showcase.

  5. The policy of household waste management in lithuania: how we could recycle more responsibly?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaištaraitė, Ieva

    2016-01-01

    The Policy of Household Waste Management in Lithuania: How We Could Recycle More Responsibly? The main purpose of these bachelor thesis is evaluate the impact of Lithuanian policy of household waste management for habitants’ behaviour. In this work the author aims to find out the behaviour changes caused by implementing policy and give the recommendations for the more effective policy of household waste management. The issue raised in this work – although there is creating sorting infrastruct...

  6. The challenge of multilingualism: in response to the language policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the requirements of the newly released Language Policy for Higher Education and provides guidelines for an educational approach that would support multilingual, higher education. In a nutshell, this policy challenges higher education institutions to provide in the linguistic needs of the new, more ...

  7. Virtue and Responsibility in Policy Research and Advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tholen, J.H.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    This book argues that ethical judgment by individual scientific policy advisors is more important than is often acknowledged. While many scientific policy advisors routinely present themselves as neutral or value free scientists, here is demonstrated that the ideal of scientific integrity as

  8. Policy Responsiveness and Political Accountability in City Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Sayers

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Peculiar patterns have emerged in municipal politics in Canada. Unlike at federal and provincial levels of government, party politics is weak or absent in cities. But looking at the entire history of municipal elections of three Western Canadian cities — Calgary, Edmonton and Vancouver — also finds that, again unlike politicians at higher levels, municipal representatives are increasingly more likely to win repeated re-elections, facing a much lower threat from any competitive challenge. In addition, the careers of municipal politicians are growing steadily longer, leading to relatively stable, almost static, city governments that tend to see change most commonly when councillors choose to step down, rather than being forced out. Such patterns, of course, run counter to the general presumption in lively democracies, including this one, that the responsiveness of government leaders (that is, following the wishes of their constituents and their accountability for the actions they take are best served by frequent turnovers in government: The need to throw politicians out every now and again to let new ones try and do things better. Whether the remarkable levels of stability and incumbency on city councils actually do serve the best interests of voters is unclear. More clear is that the lack of a party system at the city level seems to have contributed to this peculiar dynamic, and that city politicians have an interest in keeping it that way. While party affiliations provide a candidate some benefits in the form of campaign co-ordination, they also provide voters with increased clarity about what each candidate stands for policy-wise. That might be helpful to voters, but city politicians might find it more useful to blur their positions, leaving voters uncertain of exactly how to define a specific councillor’s stand, overall. The amount of information required to root through a councillor’s voting record, and the relatively light media

  9. Examining Arizona's Policy Response Post "Flores v. Arizona" in Educating K-12 English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Gomez, Laura; Cisneros, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of Arizona's policy response in educating English language learners by conducting a narrative review. A critical Latina/o theory approach was used to analyze the data. This study reveals 5 salient policy responses: (a) severely limit bilingual education, (b) develop controversial funding solutions, (c) implement a…

  10. Conceptualizing an Agenda for Social Responsibility and Public Policy at Montgomery College. A Briefing Paper. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michelle T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this briefing paper is to conceptualize a social responsibility and public policy agenda for Montgomery College. The briefing paper provides (a) a well researched perspective to embed a College culture to actualize social responsibility and public policy as institutional practices; (b) examines some of the opportunities and…

  11. Responses to Including Parents in Teacher Evaluation Policy: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Erica; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2018-01-01

    The intersection of development in family and school settings has been well established and education policies have begun to promote ways to bridge the two contexts (i.e. teacher evaluations). For this manuscript, authors focus on how teachers and principals used a state educator evaluation policy to position parents as authorities on education.…

  12. Policy and Statutory Responses to Advertising and Marketing in Schools. Legislation Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Koski, William S.; Boninger, Faith

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief describes the growth of schoolhouse advertising and marketing activities in the last few decades, assesses the harms associated with commercial activities in schools, and provides advocates, policymakers, and educators with a policy framework and model legislative language designed to protect children and the integrity of…

  13. Technical Report on Methodology: Cost Benefit Analysis and Policy Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearce DW; Howarth A; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  14. CASE STUDY: POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND RESPONSES TO PLAGIARISM IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    FOLTYNEK, Tomas; KRAVJAR, Julius; GLENDINNING, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The European project “Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education Across Europe“ has identified best practices and gaps related to plagiarism in different European countries. Slovakia is one of interesting ones, where national repository for plagiarism detection was established. However, there are still gaps in terms of policies and overall understanding of plagiarism. This case study describes what happened in Slovakia in last few years, compares the situation with other European c...

  15. Corporate Social Media Use Policy: Meeting Business and Ethical Responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gotterbarn , Don

    2012-01-01

    Part 5: Section 4: Citizens’ Involvement, Citizens’ Rights and ICT; International audience; Rapidly developing social media technology has made obsolete many corporate computer use policies. New types of policies need to be developed which address the blurring of the distinction between corporate and personal computing. The gradual change in whose smart technology is used, and how it is used in the service of employers needs to be controlled to promote possible positive effects for the employ...

  16. National policy response to climate change in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The South African government has taken several steps in response to climate change and its associated threats to human health. The National Climate Change Response Plan White Paper defines government's vision for effective climate change response...

  17. Shifting policy responses to domestic violence in the Netherlands and Spain (1980-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggeband, Conny

    2012-07-01

    This article seeks to understand differences in the evolution of policies to combat domestic violence against women in the Netherlands and Spain. Although policy change is often viewed as incremental change toward more progressive policies, the two countries studied here reflect opposing dynamics. The Netherlands moved from being a pioneering country to one that gradually marginalized the policy issue, whereas Spain, in contrast, recently developed innovative and far-reaching policies after a long period of low to moderate state responses. The case study points to the central role of frame negotiation, left-wing governments, and strong feminist mobilization.

  18. CASE STUDY: POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND RESPONSES TO PLAGIARISM IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLTYNEK, Tomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The European project “Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education Across Europe“ has identified best practices and gaps related to plagiarism in different European countries. Slovakia is one of interesting ones, where national repository for plagiarism detection was established. However, there are still gaps in terms of policies and overall understanding of plagiarism. This case study describes what happened in Slovakia in last few years, compares the situation with other European countries and discusses the results. Additionally, the number of occurrences of the terms “plagiarism” and “academic integrity” in media and on the Internet is examined in relation to recent changes.

  19. A comprehensive review of the policy and programmatic response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 46, No 2 (2012) > ... Yet, until recently, they have been neglected and not considered a health priority. ... Methods: Unpublished reports, documents, relevant files of the Ghana Health Service (GHS) were examined ... Keywords: chronic non-communicable diseases, health systems, health policy, funding, ...

  20. Pharmaceutical policies for the Third World--whose responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-16

    Several developing countries, such as Bangladesh, Cuba, India, and Mozambique, are currently formulating national pharmaceutical policies to reduce expenditures on drugs while increasing their availability to those in greatest need. 5 components of such national policies have been identified: 1) elimination of ineffective and inappropriate preparations through concentrating on a selection such as the World Health Organization's 200 "basic and essential drugs", coupled with national drug pricing policies that discriminate between essential drugs and non-essential or luxury drugs; 2) public systems of drug distribution which would reduce costs to the consumer; 3) importation of the limited number of drugs distributed through the public system in bulk, which might reduce costs by 20-25%; 4) use of generic rather than brand name drugs; and 5) establishment of domestic pharmaceutical industries within developing countries to encourage research into drugs for local health problems, reduce use of foreign exchange to import drugs, and increase local self-reliance in dealing with disease. In November 1982, Health Action International, a coordinating body for more than 50 publish interest groups seeking to promote rational use of pharmaceuticals, presented a draft internationl code on pharmaceuticals to the UN Conference on Trade and Development. A voluntary code produced in 1981 by the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers' Associations paid little attention to monitoring and enforcement. Little progress has been made, and the need for sensible policy making at the international and national levels has long been apparent.

  1. Credible Immigration Policy Reform: A Response to Briggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The authors agree with Vernon M. Briggs, Jr., that U.S. immigration policy has had unexpected consequences. The 1965 immigration reforms led to unanticipated chain migration from developing countries whereas the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act failed to slow unauthorized immigration. The result is a large foreign-born population with…

  2. Family Responsive Policies and Employee Retention Following Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer L.; Riley, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Among 324 employed women in Indiana, followed from pregnancy through 12 months postpartum, job attrition after childbirth was significantly decreased by employer policies, particularly length of maternity leave and ability to avoid mandatory overtime upon return, and was also decreased by supervisor and coworker social support, greater educational…

  3. Distribution of Responsibility for Social Security and Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...

  4. The Relation Between Policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility and Philosophical Moral Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Claus S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? To address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based ...

  5. National policy response to climate change in South Africa | Garland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African government has taken several steps in response to climate change and its associated threats to human health. The National Climate Change Response Plan White Paper defines government's vision for effective climate change response and transitioning to a climate-resilient, low-carbon economy.

  6. Health Policy Responsiveness: Lessons Learned from Maryland and Prince George's County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogie-Thomas, Byron; Sankofa, John; Reed, Crystal; Mfume, Kweisi; Doamekpor, Lauren Abla

    2018-04-01

    Effective, timely, and intentional policy efforts can significantly impact and improve the public's health and reduce racial and ethnic health disparities across the nation. Creating and implementing responsive policies at the state and county level is essential to supporting community efforts to improve health behaviors and health outcomes, particularly for communities of color who bear the brunt of disease risk and negative health outcomes. Using policy examples from the State of Maryland and Prince George's County, the largest and wealthiest predominately African-American county in the USA, this case study highlights the importance of state and county policy action when presented with opportunities to affect long-lasting, positive change. We examine each jurisdiction's policy response through the lens of timeliness, intentionality, and effectiveness. At first glance, it would appear that Maryland responded effectively to the rise in tobacco use. Similarly, at face value, it appears that Prince George's County's unchecked rise in obesity rates among African-Americans is an example of nonresponsiveness among local policymakers in the face of an obesity epidemic. However-guided by a more nuanced understanding of "policy responsiveness"-this analysis uncovers a more revealing picture, with important strengths and limitations seen in both policy situations. This analysis raises critical questions about the determinants of jurisdictions' health policy capacity and how policymakers might best be supported in their efforts to build an arsenal of health policies that are timely, effective, and intentional in meeting the needs of vulnerable communities.

  7. 76 FR 41186 - Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Service [Docket No. FSIS-2008-0008] Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and Clarification of Timeline for the Salmonella Initiative Program (SIP) AGENCY: Food... Federal Register notice (73 FR 4767- 4774), which described upcoming policy changes in the FSIS Salmonella...

  8. The EU’s Response to the Refugee Crisis: Taking Stock and Setting Policy Priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrera, S.; Blockmans, S.; Gros, D.; Guild, E.

    2015-01-01

    What have been the most important EU policy and legal responses to the 2015 refugee crisis? Is Europe acting in compliance with its founding principles? This Essay takes stock of the main results and policy outputs from the EU’s interventions in the refugee crisis. It critically highlights the

  9. Selective Acquiescence, Creative Commitment and Strategic Conformity: Situated National Policy Responses to Bologna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The non-binding nature of the Bologna Declaration and loose policy-making and implementation through the open method of coordination (OMC) have led to varied national responses to the Bologna Process. The OMC has allowed countries room for manoeuvre to interpret Bologna policy and attach different degrees of importance to it. Looking at the…

  10. Grain price spikes and beggar-thy-neighbor policy responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Anderson, Kym

    When prices spike in international grain markets, national governments often reduce the extent to which that spike affects their domestic food markets. Those actions exacerbate the price spike and international welfare transfer associated with that terms of trade change. Several recent analyses...... have assessed the extent to which those policies contributed to the 2006-08 international price rise, but only by focusing on one commodity or using a back-of-the envelope (BOTE) method. This paper provides a more-comprehensive analysis using a global economy-wide model that is able to take account...... of the interactions between markets for farm products that are closely related in production and/or consumption, and able to estimate the impacts of those insulating policies on grain prices and on the grain trade and economic welfare of the world’s various countries. Our results support the conclusion from earlier...

  11. Slum population in India: Extent and policy response

    OpenAIRE

    Upinder Sawhney

    2013-01-01

    An increasing pace of urbanization and the absence of affordable housing has resulted in growth of slums in urban India. The Government of India (GOI) has been incorporating certain programmes to alleviate poverty , create employment opportunities and encourage planned urban development in its public policy , yet there has been a fast emergence of slums in the Indian cities due to a number of factors. The present paper aims to analyze certain demographic attributes of the slum population in I...

  12. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by

  13. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by the Fraunhofer

  14. Financial Constraints and the Response of Business Investment to Monetary Policy Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Timothy J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study I investigate what impact monetary policy shocks have on firms’ fixed investment, the less liquid portion of gross investment that requires more planning. I account for firms facing financial constraints firms by utilizing a common measure of asset size, which is used in previous literature. I use two exogenous, continuous series of monetary policy shocks to show that constrained firms have statistically different responses to policy than unconstrained firms. Specifically, I find that constrained firms’ fixed investment significantly responds more to monetary policy shocks than unconstrained firms.

  15. Socially Responsible Organizational Buying: How Can Stakeholders Dictate Purchasing Policies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maignan, I.S.J.; MacAlister, D.

    2003-01-01

    This article investigates socially responsible buying (SRB), a subject that has received little attention in past marketing literature on buyer-seller relationships. On the basis of a brief review of the literature on corporate social responsibility, the article proposes a conceptualization of SRB

  16. U.K. policy responses to international influences - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1978-01-01

    An account is given of U.K. participation in international discussions directed towards the safe development and application of nuclear power. Particular attention is given to the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE), which is stated to be looking at the whole question of proliferation and the merits and disadvantages of a range of alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies. A summary is also given of U.K. participation in work on radiological protection (through the I.C.R.P.) and radioactive waste disposal. International cooperation in research and development is mentioned. Public involvement in policy making is also discussed briefly. (U.K.)

  17. Responsible management: the Dutch licensing policy for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slange, R.

    1994-01-01

    The governmental policy, to tolerate operation of existing nuclear installations not backed by the required operating permits, certainly is applied only in exceptional cases, and this all the more when the plant is a nuclear installation. Any decision to tolerate further operation must be justified by compliance with a number of rigid criteria, there may be a debate in Parliament about the case, third parties have the right participate in the decision-finding procedure, and there is the right of appeal. (orig.) [de

  18. Public policy versus individual rights and responsibility: an economist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-09-01

    Interventions to reduce childhood obesity entail ethical considerations. Although a rationale exists for government to intervene in a way that limits individual rights while protecting the public's health, a clear economic rationale also exists. The markets for goods and services that contribute to obesity are characterized by multiple failures that create an economic rationale for government to intervene (eg, consumers' lack of accurate information regarding obesogenic foods and beverages). If effective public policies for reducing obesity and its consequences are to be developed and implemented, individual rights and government interests must be balanced.

  19. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  20. What Is "Policy" and What Is "Policy Response"? An Illustrative Study of the Implementation of the Leadership Standards for Social Justice in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S. C.; Bagley, C.; Lumby, J.; Hamilton, T.; Woods, P.; Roberts, A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines "policy" and "policy response" through documentary analysis and an illustrative study of policy implementation. Our approach is informed by Foucault's (2009) theory that power relations in society are conditioned by a culturally generated set of ideas, and that these relations contain the space for both…

  1. Ebola Policies That Hinder Epidemic Response by Limiting Scientific Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Ramin; Pavlin, Julie A.; Ripp, Jonathan A.; Reithinger, Richard; Polyak, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    There is an unprecedented epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in west Africa. There has been a strong response from dedicated health professionals. However, there have also been irrational and fear-based responses that have contributed to misallocation of resources, stigma, and deincentivizing volunteers to combat Ebola at its source. Recently, the State of Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals issued a ban on those coming from affected countries wishing to attend the annual meetings...

  2. Evolution of Government Policies on Guiding Corporate Social Responsibility in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to unearth the ways in which the Chinese government uses policies to guide corporate social responsibility (CSR development in China. Co-word analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis were conducted on the relevant policy documents from 2005 to 2013 from the Chinese government. This paper illustrates the evolution of industry involvement in metagovernance of CSR, the evolution of intergovernmental relations in CSR policy formulation, and the evolution of policy relations on guiding CSR. The quantitative text analysis on policy documents reveals policy intentions and maps policy process, advancing understanding of policy orientation and evolution. The CSR reports of the same period of the State Grid in China are used as empirical evidence to validate the policy evolution. This work presents the overall evolution of the ways in which the Chinese government deployed its guiding strategy on CSR, and empirically demonstrates the organization of metagovernance maneuvered by China’s government to promote CSR development in China. It provides perspective and methods to analyze China’s networked government policies, and empirically answers the central question of metagovernance about the ways in which the organization of metagovernance is carried out.

  3. Assessing long-term effects of demand response policies in wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Saguan, Marcelo

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term issues in electricity markets in the presence of demand response development. Different policies have been implemented around the world aiming to develop demand response potential. Externalities, in particular the CO_2 externality, have been one of the key elements in the debate on the effectiveness of different policies regarding demand response development. Policy makers have several options to deal with this externality. The most direct one is to correct the externality by setting a CO_2 price at a level that corresponds to the cost to society of the corresponding CO_2 emissions. One alternative solution could be to subsidize carbon-free technologies as demand response. In this paper we examine potential long-term impacts of these two policies. We rely on a long-term market simulation model that characterizes expansion decisions in a competitive regime. We test for each policy two different scenarios regarding the possibility of internalization of the CO_2 externality. The results show that differences in development policies affect both investments and social costs in the wholesale electricity market and confirm previous findings that a market-driven development of demand response with the internalization of the CO_2 externality is the most efficient approach. (authors)

  4. Developing Public Policy in Romania: Focusing Responsability, Authority and Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. RINGSMUTH

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of foreign friends visiting fellow democracies to observe and participate in the civic culture, has a long and distinguished tradition. Tocqueville’s visit to and observations of the United States nearly 200 years ago provide a lofty exemplar to which few could pretend to or attempt to duplicate or approach. Nothing in the following observations is meant to make such a pretense1 My journey in Romania has been and will be substantially less noted and notable, but my observations are offered with similar intentions. Rather they are meant in the spirit and offered with the hope that they might, in some small way, begin to make a contribution to the dialogue about the development of democracy and democratic institutions in Romania. In particular, here, I am concerned with Romania’s ability, will and means to develop public policy.

  5. Reactance versus rationalization: divergent responses to policies that constrain freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin; Kay, Aaron C; Fitzsimons, Gavan J

    2012-02-01

    How do people respond to government policies and work environments that place restrictions on their personal freedoms? The psychological literature offers two contradictory answers to this question. Here, we attempt to resolve this apparent discrepancy. Specifically, we identify the absoluteness of a restriction as one factor that determines how people respond to it. Across two studies, participants responded to absolute restrictions (i.e., restrictions that were sure to come into effect) with rationalization: They viewed the restrictions more favorably, and valued the restricted freedoms less, compared with control participants. Participants responded in the opposite way to identical restrictions that were described as nonabsolute (i.e., as having a small chance of not coming into effect): In this case, participants displayed reactance, viewing the restrictions less favorably, and valuing the restricted freedoms more, compared with control participants. We end by discussing future research directions.

  6. Media-Policy Responses to Digitalization: a comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2017-01-01

    highly influential in the media-political frameworks of the 20th century and today. What is happening in the process of digitalization, however, is that these division lines dissolve. Earlier, the press produced journalism in written form, broadcasters audiovisual; but in the digital age, the ways...... of presenting the news are converging, making newspapers and broadcasters direct competitors in the same market (see, e.g., Søndergaard & Helles, 2014). So the question is to what extent this tri-sectional understanding of the media is adequate for the current media environment, and how processes of convergence...... challenge its core assumptions (see also Nielsen, 2014). Along those lines, the basic question of this paper is how different media systems and the actors in it adapt media politically to current changes in their contingencies? What happens to the guideposts of media policy when the landscape changes...

  7. Rules and Discretion in Monetary Policy: Is the Response of the Stock Market Rational?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Iulian MARINESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of the monetary policy conduct on the domestic capital market for a sample of developed countries where the capital market plays a significant role in the economy. We break down the policy rate innovations in rules-based and discretionary components in order to determine the degree of prudentiality in the monetary policy conduct and we study their accounts with respect to capital market rationality. The rules-based component is determined using an interpolated vanilla Taylor-rule policy rate at the event date and the discretionary component is obtained by subtracting the rules-based rate from the target monetary policy rate innovation. Using an event study approach, we analyze the impact of monetary policy components on the returns of the stock market and we determine that the conduct of the monetary policy can cause irrational responses of the capital market. More than that, we show, for the analyzed countries, that if the general level of discretion in the monetary policy is high the response of the stock market becomes increasingly erratic, indicating that forward guidance may help reduce uncertainty on capital markets.

  8. One stop crisis centres: A policy analysis of the Malaysian response to intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Manuela; Ali, Siti Hawa; Watts, Charlotte; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2011-06-21

    This article aims to investigate the processes, actors and other influencing factors behind the development and the national scale-up of the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) policy and the subsequent health model for violence-response. Methods used included policy analysis of legal, policy and regulatory framework documents, and in-depth interviews with key informants from governmental and non-governmental organisations in two States of Malaysia. The findings show that women's NGOs and health professionals were instrumental in the formulation and scaling-up of the OSCC policy. However, the subsequent breakdown of the NGO-health coalition negatively impacted on the long-term implementation of the policy, which lacked financial resources and clear policy guidance from the Ministry of Health. The findings confirm that a clearly-defined partnership between NGOs and health staff can be very powerful for influencing the legal and policy environment in which health care services for intimate partner violence are developed. It is critical to gain high level support from the Ministry of Health in order to institutionalise the violence-response across the entire health care system. Without clear operational details and resources policy implementation cannot be fully ensured and taken to scale.

  9. One stop crisis centres: A policy analysis of the Malaysian response to intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Charlotte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article aims to investigate the processes, actors and other influencing factors behind the development and the national scale-up of the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC policy and the subsequent health model for violence-response. Methods Methods used included policy analysis of legal, policy and regulatory framework documents, and in-depth interviews with key informants from governmental and non-governmental organisations in two States of Malaysia. Results The findings show that women's NGOs and health professionals were instrumental in the formulation and scaling-up of the OSCC policy. However, the subsequent breakdown of the NGO-health coalition negatively impacted on the long-term implementation of the policy, which lacked financial resources and clear policy guidance from the Ministry of Health. Conclusion The findings confirm that a clearly-defined partnership between NGOs and health staff can be very powerful for influencing the legal and policy environment in which health care services for intimate partner violence are developed. It is critical to gain high level support from the Ministry of Health in order to institutionalise the violence-response across the entire health care system. Without clear operational details and resources policy implementation cannot be fully ensured and taken to scale.

  10. Family Policy: The Conservative Challenge and the Progressive Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherlin, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    Examines the question of how family professionals should respond to the conservative pro-family movement. Argues that the response of liberal family professionals to date--consisting largely of a defense of pluralism--has been inadequate and should concentrate on the most important issues facing families currently. (JAC)

  11. Demand response policies for the implementation of smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koliou, E.

    2016-01-01

    With the grasp of a smart grid in sight, discussions have shifted the focus of system security measures away from generation capacity; apart from modifying the supply side, demand may also be exploited to keep the system in balance. Specifically, Demand Response (DR) is the concept of consumer load

  12. Education Policies for Gender Equity: Probing into State Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of non-discriminatory sex legislation provides theoretical and empirical grounds to examine responses by the state to gender equality. Tracing the trajectory of one such law in the U.S.--Title IX--over a period of 40 years, this study analyzes the extent to which the state: (1) acted as a unitary body, and (2) functioned to…

  13. Plagiarism-Proofing Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    2004-01-01

    Mr. Johnson has discovered that the higher the level of student engagement and creativity, the lower the probability of plagiarism. For teachers who would like to see such desirable results, he describes the characteristics of assignments that are most likely to produce them. Two scenarios of types of assignments that avoid plagiarism are…

  14. Health policy making under information constraints: an evaluation of the policy responses to the economic crisis in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranitis, Ilias; Siskou, Olga; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos

    2014-09-01

    Cost consolidation in the highly fragmented and inefficient Greek health care system was necessary. However, policies introduced were partly formed in a context of insufficient information. Expenditure data from a consumption point of view were lacking and the depth of the political and structural problems was of unknown magnitude to the supervisory authorities. Drawing upon relevant literature and evidence from the newly implemented OECD System of Health Accounts, the paper evaluates the health policy responses to the economic crisis in Greece. The discussion and recommendations are also of interest to other countries where data sources are not reliable or decisions are based on preliminary data and projections. Between 2009 and 2012, across-the-board cuts have resulted in a decline in public health expenditure for inpatient care by 8.6%, for pharmaceuticals by 42.3% and for outpatient care by 34.6%. Further cuts are expected from the ongoing reforms but more structural changes are needed. Cost-containment was not well targeted and expenditure cuts were not always addressed to the real reasons of the pre-crisis cost explosion. Policy responses were restricted to quick and easy fiscal adjustment, ignoring the need for substantial structural reforms or individuals' right to access health care irrespective of their financial capacity. Developing appropriate information infrastructure, restructuring and consolidating the hospital sector and moving toward a tax-based national health insurance could offer valuable benefits to the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Water demand management: A policy response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, R.; Tate, D.

    1990-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on the water resources of the Great Lakes region are discussed. It is predicted that there will be a relative water scarcity in the Great Lakes basin of Ontario as climate changes occur over the next two decades. Declines in water supply will be accompanied by deterioration in the quality of fresh water as higher temperatures and higher relative quantities of discharged wastewater to water bodies reduce both assimilative and dilutive capacity. The most cost effective policy is to encourage water conservation through programs of water demand management. Water should be priced at the point at which its marginal cost is equal to its marginal product, ie. if priced any higher, less efficient substitutes would be used. Not only would water usage, and subsequent degradation of used water, be reduced, but energy and other cost savings would be achieved. The additional costs that apply to water users could be returned to the communities as additional revenue to be applied against sewage treatment upgrades and other environmental enhancements. Communities involved in water study should consider the development of water use analysis models to assist with decision making about allocation, pricing and availability of water supplies. 10 refs

  16. Assessing the Assignment Policy for Army Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrell, Margaret C; Werber Castaneda, Laura; Schirmer, Peter; Hallmark, Bryan W; Kavanagh, Jennifer; Gershwin, Daniel; Steinberg, Paul

    2007-01-01

    ...) more generally -- and military missions fought on linear battlefields during past military engagements, prompted concern among some members of Congress about the role of women in military operations in Iraq...

  17. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...

  18. Climate Policy: Stop Wanting to Pay to Evade Our Responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne; Leroux, Justin

    2016-01-01

    We explore an alternative to existing economic instruments to tackle climate change: carbon liabilities. Such liabilities would hold countries responsible for future climate damage to the tune of their emissions over time. The prospect of having to repay this carbon debt over time is enough to discipline emitters, leading to the efficient emissions level. Contrary to existing instruments, our scheme does not rest on a consensus regarding the discount factor nor about climate forecasts; this, together with its reliance on observed damage, allows for better international participation and leads to a fairer division of costs and risks

  19. Issues on Luck Egalitarianism, Responsibility, and Intercultural Healthcare Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hoyos, Adalberto

    2016-04-01

    This article analyzes the criteria for the distribution of healthcare services through different justice theories such as utilitarianism and liberalism, pointing out the problems that arise when providing services to a culturally diverse population. The international epidemiological setting is a favorable one for discussing personal responsibility and luck egalitarianism; however, some provisions have to be made so that healthcare institutions do not treat ethnic, cultural, religious, and linguistic minorities unfairly. The article concludes by proposing that accommodations and culturally sensible attention should be provided when possible, without affecting the equal opportunity of others to access these services.

  20. ROMANIAN ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT – RESPONSIBILITY POLICIES AND BUSINESS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporations regarded as socially responsible can benefit from a large satisfied clientage while the public image of social irresponsibility can end up with a boycott or any other hostile actions from costumers. Positive contributions to social development can be considered by companies as long term investments in the consolidation of a safer community life, better educated and much more equitable which corporations can benefit from by unfolding their activities in a more dynamic, stable and resourceful environment. These are serious economic reasons which can be in the advantage of economic agents who can commit towards different social groups.

  1. Acidification research: evaluation and policy applications; a United Kingdom policy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.G.; Wilson, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The United Kingdom environmental research into the mechanisms of the atmospheric transport and deposition of acidity, to understand the impacts of that acidity on soils, surface waters, forests, crops and the built environment and the consequences for fishery status, freshwater and soil ecosystems. The Critical Loads Approach opens the possibility of more subtle and sensitive ways of tackling the problems of environmental acidification on the European scale. The United Kingdom is contributing vigorously to the Critical Loads Approach through the mapping exercises, the environmental studies that underpin them and the understanding of the driving deposition mechanisms which lead both to pollutant removal and ecosystem contamination. Future progress with the UN ECE Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution and the revision of the NO x , SO 2 and VOC protocols will rest in very large measure on the shared confidence within Europe in the knowledge of the underpinning environmental science. The Critical Loads Approach should provide an important policy focus within the international scientific community to set environmentally-based targets for future co-ordinated emission control programmes

  2. A Comparison of the Policy Response to Cultural Diversity in China and India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽娜

    2015-01-01

    This essay attempts to explore the current cultural diversity in China and India with the comparison of policy responses, especially the multiculturalism and language policies, as well as the policies on the workplace. Results show that India enriched and deepened its multiculturalism through the recognition of languages diversity, while China weakened its cultural diversity by popularizing one official language, Mandarin. However, both China and India should do more in practice to make different ethnic groups live and participant as equal partners in the social life.

  3. The Great Financial Crisis: How Effective is Macroeconomic Policy Response in the United Kingdom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clements Akinsoyinu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Great Financial Crisis has been touted to be the worst crisis since the Great Depression of 1930; its effect has profound ramifications on the global economy. The nature and the severity of the crisis provoked an unprecedented policy response from policy makers at both global and domestic levels. To address the rampaging crisis, the Bank of England implemented a number of conventional and unconventional policy measures to curtail the economic rot and to stimulate economic growth. There is a broad consensus in the empirical literature and other evidence found in this paper that a number of the policies implemented in the United Kingdom played a significant role in re-directing and stimulating the economy. This paper reviews the various policy measures adopted by the Bank of England from the inception of the financial crisis in 2008 and assesses their effectiveness in bringing back the economy from the brink of collapse. Our review shows that quantitative easing (QE policy and the expansionary fiscal policy adopted by the Bank of England were effective policy tools used in stimulating economic growth, stemming the effect and shortening the duration of the crisis in the United Kingdom

  4. Fair Package Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  5. My Favorite Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABCA Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes three assignments for enticing business communication students to undertake library research: an analysis of a Fortune 500 company, a career choice report, and a report on an organization that offers potential employment. (AEA)

  6. Historical WBAN ID Assignments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 4"x6" index cards represent the first written assignments of Weather Bureau Army Navy (WBAN) station identifier numbers by the National Climatic Data Center....

  7. Dynamic Sequence Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    D-136 548 DYNAMIIC SEQUENCE ASSIGNMENT(U) ADVANCED INFORMATION AND 1/2 DECISION SYSTEMS MOUNTAIN YIELW CA C A 0 REILLY ET AL. UNCLSSIIED DEC 83 AI/DS...I ADVANCED INFORMATION & DECISION SYSTEMS Mountain View. CA 94040 84 u ,53 V,..’. Unclassified _____ SCURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT...reviews some important heuristic algorithms developed for fas- ter solution of the sequence assignment problem. 3.1. DINAMIC MOGRAMUNIG FORMULATION FOR

  8. Evaluating the Mechanism of Oil Price Shocks and Fiscal Policy Responses in the Malaysian Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhet, Hussain A; Yusoff, Nora Yusma Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the symmetric impact of oil price shock on economy, to understand its mechanism channel and how fiscal policy response towards it. The Generalized Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition under the VAR methodology were employed. The empirical findings suggest that symmetric oil price shock has a positive and direct impact on oil revenue and government expenditure. However, the real GDP is vulnerable in a short-term but not in the long term period. These results would confirm that fiscal policy is the main mechanism channel that mitigates the adverse effects oil price shocks to the economy.

  9. Evaluating the Mechanism of Oil Price Shocks and Fiscal Policy Responses in the Malaysian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; Yusoff, Nora Yusma Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    The paper aims to explore the symmetric impact of oil price shock on economy, to understand its mechanism channel and how fiscal policy response towards it. The Generalized Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition under the VAR methodology were employed. The empirical findings suggest that symmetric oil price shock has a positive and direct impact on oil revenue and government expenditure. However, the real GDP is vulnerable in a short-term but not in the long term period. These results would confirm that fiscal policy is the main mechanism channel that mitigates the adverse effects oil price shocks to the economy.

  10. Energy-environment policy goals and instruments and electricity demand response. A framework for the analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Pablo del; Hernandez, F.

    2004-01-01

    The environment and energy realms have traditionally been two major focus of attention of EU and Member State (MS) policy. This attention has intensified in recent years as a response to, both, internal and external events and strategies (i.e., the Kyoto Protocol). In this context, the EU and its MS have set ambitious goals in the environmental and energy contexts and are already implementing packages of policies and measures. Both policies interact. Although there might be conflicts between both, there are also mutually reinforcing effects with significant policy implications. Actually, as stated in the Amsterdam Treaty, environmental protection is one of the major goals of energy policy (together with 'security of supply' and 'competitive energy systems'). On the other hand, the energy sector is instrumental in the success of environmental policy. In this context, a wide array of measures are currently being implemented in the EU and its MS which have a more or less direct impact on the electricity market. Particularly, Demand Side Management (DSM) activities, promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and measures aimed at the mitigation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are arguably three major instruments which have the potential to contribute to energy and environmental goals. The effectiveness and impact of there measures depends to a large extent on the demand response in the electricity market. Some of there measures affect the electricity demand curve, while others do not have a direct impact on the demand curve but affect the quantity of electricity demand by displacing the electricity supply curve. In turn, the effectiveness of energy and environmental policies may be different when electricity demand response varies (i.e., different elasticity demand). This paper entails an initial effort to provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of the interactions between electricity demand response and the above mentioned energy

  11. Real life working shift assignment problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, San-Nah; Kwek, Yeek-Ling; Tiong, Wei-King; Chiew, Kang-Leng

    2017-07-01

    This study concerns about the working shift assignment in an outlet of Supermarket X in Eastern Mall, Kuching. The working shift assignment needs to be solved at least once in every month. Current approval process of working shifts is too troublesome and time-consuming. Furthermore, the management staff cannot have an overview of manpower and working shift schedule. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop working shift assignment simulation and propose a working shift assignment solution. The main objective for this study is to fulfill manpower demand at minimum operation cost. Besides, the day off and meal break policy should be fulfilled accordingly. Demand based heuristic is proposed to assign working shift and the quality of the solution is evaluated by using the real data.

  12. Mineral supply constraints necessitate a global policy response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickless, Edmund

    2016-04-01

    Adoption on 12 December 2015 of The Paris Agreement, the first universal climate agreement, suggests that nations will invest in infrastructures for renewable energy sources paving the way to a global low-carbon society. These large-scale changes will require vast amounts of metals and minerals. Regardless of whether known supplies are enough to meet demand in the near future, efforts must be made now to forestall unpredictable yet inevitable supply shortages in the decades to come, shortages that would dramatically impact the building of additional generation and distribution capacity, and deployment of low-carbon technology. But in response to the current downturn in commodity prices, the global mining industry is downsizing and reducing investment in the new exploration, putting at risk future security of supply. Mining and climate change are inextricably linked; the new adaptive technologies needed to tackle climate change depend on extraction of minerals and metals. An interdisciplinary group supported by the International Union of Geological Sciences, the International Council for Science Unions and UNESCO proposes measures to avert the looming minerals crisis that is developing in the context of current recycling capacity and exploration trends. Our immediate goal is to stimulate discussion of supply constraints using available data on mineral reserves. We build on recent discussions of supply risk and criticality with a focus on the source of primary resources over the next two to three decades when the availability of metals for recycling will remain low. Current massive production of iron ore and other such commodities despite record low prices indicates a failure of the traditional supply and demand constraints. Broader discussions of metal and mineral supply beyond current criticality are needed given the pace of technological and demographic change as well as rapid development spurts. Furthermore, accessible mineral deposits are irregularly distributed

  13. The EPSRC's Policy of Responsible Innovation from a Trading Zones Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph; Parry, Sarah; Walls, John

    Responsible innovation (RI) is gathering momentum as an academic and policy debate linking science and society. Advocates of RI in research policy argue that scientific research should be opened up at an early stage so that many actors and issues can steer innovation trajectories. If this is done, they suggest, new technologies will be more responsible in different ways, better aligned with what society wants, and mistakes of the past will be avoided. This paper analyses the dynamics of RI in policy and practice and makes recommendations for future development. More specifically, we draw on the theory of 'trading zones' developed by Peter Galison and use it to analyse two related processes: (i) the development and inclusion of RI in research policy at the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); (ii) the implementation of RI in relation to the Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering (SPICE) project. Our analysis reveals an RI trading zone comprised of three quasi-autonomous traditions of the research domain - applied science, social science and research policy. It also shows how language and expertise are linking and coordinating these traditions in ways shaped by local conditions and the wider context of research. Building on such insights, we argue that a sensible goal for RI policy and practice at this stage is better local coordination of those involved and we suggest ways how this might be achieved.

  14. Health system strengthening in Cambodia-a case study of health policy response to social transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John; Khut, Qiu Yi; Oum, Sophal; Annear, Peter; Ky, Veng

    2009-10-01

    Cambodia, following decades of civil conflict and social and economic transition, has in the last 10 years developed health policy innovations in the areas of health contracting, health financing and health planning. This paper aims to outline recent social, epidemiological and demographic health trends in Cambodia, and on the basis of this outline, to analyse and discuss these policy responses to social transition. Sources of information included a literature review, participant observation in health planning development in Cambodia between 1993 and 2008, and comparative analysis of demographic health surveys between 2000 and 2005. In Cambodia there have been sharp but unequal improvements in child mortality, and persisting high maternal mortality rates. Data analysis demonstrates associations between location, education level and access to facility based care, suggesting the dominant role of socio-economic factors in determining access to facility based health care. These events are taking place against a background of rapid social transition in Cambodian history, including processes of decentralization, privatization and the development of open market economic systems. Primary policy responses of the Ministry of Health to social transition and associated health inequities include the establishment of health contracting, hospital health equity funds and public-private collaborations. Despite the internationally recognized health policy flexibility and innovation demonstrated in Cambodia, policy response still lags well behind the reality of social transition. In order to minimize the delay between transition and response, new policy making tactics are required in order to provide more flexible and timely responses to the ongoing social transition and its impacts on population health needs in the lowest socio-economic quintiles.

  15. Align, share responsibility and collaborate: potential considerations to aid in e-health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaban, Nouran; Day, Karen; Orr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Policies that support strategic development and implementation are related to health ICT implementation successes. This research aimed to explore the question, 'Why have we not seen more successful ICT implementation in healthcare, and what does policy have to do with success?' Healthcare systems are faced with rising costs, increased prevalence of chronic diseases and diminishing resources. E-health initiatives have gained acceptance in addressing these crucial health sector issues. National governments and healthcare organisations are finding it necessary to have health Information and Communications Technology (ICT) systems in place. However, poorly developed health information policies, lack of a clear business plan and ineffective leadership contribute to failure of ICT implementation in healthcare. This study uses a Grounded Theory approach, in which a series of data gathering activities will be completed. The first author attended the Health Information Management & Systems Society (HIMSS) Policy Summit in the USA in 2011. Five Summit participants were approached individually and informally discussed the 'meaningful use' policy and how it influences ICT implementation in healthcare. Field notes were made and analysed for themes relating to the research question. There were three overlapping concepts that all of the participants indicated as primary considerations for policymakers. The alignment aspect stresses the need to align e-health initiatives with overall health policy, ensuring that e-health is incorporated with other healthcare investments. The shared responsibility theme involves the need for e-health initiatives to be recognised as a priority along all levels of government, i.e. local, state, federal, and national. This stresses the importance of health ICT development and implementation in a joint government direction. The last theme is collaboration with stakeholders, including clear division of tasks and clarity about technical and non

  16. The financial crisis and global health: the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) policy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we interrogate the policy response of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to the global financial crisis, and discuss the likely global health implications, especially in low-income countries. In doing so, we ask if the IMF has meaningfully loosened its fiscal deficit targets in light of the economic challenges posed by the financial crisis and adjusted its macro-economic policy advice to this new reality; or has the rhetoric of counter-cyclical spending failed to translate into additional fiscal space for IMF loan-recipient countries, with negative health consequences? To answer these questions, we assess several post-crisis IMF lending agreements with countries requiring financial assistance, and draw upon recent academic studies and civil society reports examining policy conditionalities still being prescribed by the IMF. We also reference recent studies examining the health impacts of these conditionalities. We demonstrate that while the IMF has been somewhat more flexible in its crisis response than in previous episodes of financial upheaval, there has been no meaningful rethinking in the application of dominant neoliberal macro-economic policies. After showing some flexibility in the initial crisis response, the IMF is pushing for excessive contraction in most low and middle-income countries. We conclude that there remains a wide gap between the rhetoric and the reality of the IMF's policy and programming advice, with negative implications for global health.

  17. Denial of Treatment to Obese Patients—the Wrong Policy on Personal Responsibility for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Eyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries around the world, including Iran, obesity is reaching epidemic proportions. Doctors have recently taken, or expressed support for, an extreme ‘personal responsibility for health’ policy against obesity: refusing services to obese patients. This policy may initially seem to improve patients’ incentives to fight obesity. But turning access to medical services into a benefit dependent on health improvement is a bad policy. It conditions the very aid that patients need in order to become healthier or success in becoming healthier. Whatever else we may think of personal responsibility for health policies, this particular one is absurd. Unfortunately, quite a few personal responsibility for health policies use similar absurd conditioning. They mistakenly use ‘carrots’ or ‘sticks’ for adherence the basic means to the same health outcomes that they seek to promote. This perspective proposes the following rule of thumb: any conditional incentive for healthy choice should be in a currency other than the basic means to that healthy choice.

  18. FLEET ASSIGNMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the airline scheduling process and methods of its modeling. This article describes the main stages of airline scheduling process (scheduling, fleet assignment, revenue management, operations, their features and interactions. The main part of scheduling process is fleet assignment. The optimal solution of the fleet assignment problem enables airlines to increase their incomes up to 3 % due to quality improving of connections and execution of the planned number of flights operated by less number of aircraft than usual or planned earlier. Fleet assignment of scheduling process is examined and Conventional Leg-Based Fleet Assignment Model is analyzed. Finally strong and weak aspects of the model (SWOT are released and applied. The article gives a critical analysis of FAM model, with the purpose of identi- fying possible options and constraints of its use (for example, in cases of short-term and long-term planning, changing the schedule or replacing the aircraft, as well as possible ways to improve the model.

  19. Employment Policies in an Aging Society: Review of the Experiences of the OECD Countries with Population Aging and Their Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Heon Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the experiences of OECD countries with population aging and their policy responses, and suggest directions and measures of medium and long-term employment policies to cope with population aging in a comprehensive perspective. Specifically, following the policy objective of sustainable economic growth, we systematically classify policy types to cope with population aging and review possibilities and limitations of each policy type, while also considering Korea-specific situations as well as the experiences of other OECD countries. There are two broad types of employment policies to sustain economic growth in an aging society. One is to increase the quantity of labor force and the other is to enhance the quality of labor force. Policies to increase the quantity of labor force include pro-natalist policies, immigration policies, and policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people. Policies to enhance the quality of labor force include human resource development and flexicurity policies in the labor market. Our review suggests that direct pro-natalist policies seem to be ineffective. Also immigration policies cannot fundamentally solve the problem caused by population aging. Policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people seem to be the most effective policy. However, labor productivity should be an engine of economic growth in the long run when labor input reaches the limit of its capacity. In conclusion, in the long run, it is most important to enhance the quality of human capital and improve the functioning of the labor market to cope with the challenges of population aging.

  20. ECB policy responses between 2007 and 2014: A chronological analysis and an assessment of their effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the monetary policy responses of the European Central Bank (ECB to the global financial crisis and the European sovereign debt crisis. Our goals are on the one hand to explain chronologically the main measures in conventional and unconventional policies adopted by the ECB and on the other hand to analyse their effects on key interest rates, monetary aggregates and the money multiplier. The assessment is that the ECB’s monetary policy responses to the crisis have been “too little, too late”, constrained by the institutional framework, which prevents the ECB from acting as a true central bank with the role of lender of last resort.

  1. Access Denied: School Librarians' Responses to School District Policies on the Use of Social Media Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiScala, Jeffrey; Weeks, Ann Carlson

    2013-01-01

    Public school districts often block access to online social media tools. While considered a preventive measure to ensure student safety and limit district liability, this policy strips school librarians and their collaborating teachers of opportunities to instruct students in using social media tools creatively and responsibly. Using one school…

  2. The Politics of PISA: The Media, Policy and Public Responses in Norway and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Görgen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Using the PISA 2015 releases in Norway and England, this article explores how PISA has been presented in the media and how the policy level has responded to the results. England will be used as an example for comparison. The article presents early media responses from the 20 most circulated daily newspapers in the two countries and discusses them…

  3. Adaptive policy responses to climate change scenarios in the musi catchment, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, Brian; George, Biju; Malano, Hector; Hellegers, Petra

    2017-01-01

    In India the stresses on water resource systems have increased, due in part to increased demand for scarce water supplies. Yet, what could be of greater concern is the potential long-run threats of climate change affecting supplies. Before thinking of a policy response to these long-run concerns,

  4. Financial Crisis, Capital Outflows, and Policy Responses: Examples from East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ramkishen S.

    2007-01-01

    Financial crises seem to have become the norm rather than the exception since 1992. The author examines the impact of a crisis of confidence and resultant capital outflows from a small and open economy and the possible policy options in response to such outflows, using simple tools and definitions that will be familiar to any money and banking or…

  5. An assessment of government policy response to HIV/AIDS in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emphasis on the linkages between economic development, urban ... of policy response by counter-balancing the level of .... show high prevalence in the eastern and Volta regions ..... subjects such as English language, agriculture, life skills, ..... Work! USAID/Mobile Task Team on HIV/AIDS in Education,Accra. Claypoole, C.

  6. The credit crunch : Impacts on the housing market and policy responses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priemus, H.

    2009-01-01

    This contribution deals with the impact of the credit crunch on the Dutch housing market and the policy responses of the Dutch government so far. Reinhart and Rogoff have presented an overview of credit crises after WW II: what are the general characteristics and impacts? Also in the Netherlands,

  7. Social media policies: Implications for contemporary notions of corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stohl, C.; Etter, M.; Banghart, S.; Woo, D.

    Three global developments situate the context of this investigation: the increasing use of social media by organizations and their employees, the burgeoning presence of social media policies, and the heightened focus on corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this study the intersection of these

  8. 48 CFR 42.602 - Assignment and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment and location... Assignment and location. (a) A CACO may be assigned only when (1) the contractor has at least two locations..., or a full-time CACO may be assigned. In determining the location of the CACO, the responsible agency...

  9. Impulse-response analysis of monetary policy – Visegád group countries case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Myšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on comparability of monetary policies of Visegrád group countries (V4. Main objective of central banks function in V4 countries lies in maintaining price stability. For this purpose, inflation targeting regime is realized in a medium-term focus in V4, which means that there is a certain lag between monetary policy operation and its influence on an inflation target. Central bank does not have a direct impact on its ultimate goals. Therefore, any monetary policy analysis and assumption of its effectiveness comes out from an essential existence of a working transmission mechanism. Thus, changes in settings of monetary policy instruments have to be able to inflict causal changes on intermediary markets and via these markets on target markets. This situation can be modeled by the vector autoregressive (VAR model with suitable variables. Our main task is to compare a relationship between VAR model responses to predefined impulses for all V4 pairs. We use calibration technique for this purpose. Specifically, we will utilize one-dimensional calibration model with a linear calibration function for deriving unknown parameters. Moreover, we will test a significance of estimated parameters. We distinguish between model parameters for before-crisis- and during-crisis- data, because we suppose that financial crisis affects VAR model parameters significantly. Different responses in each country can mean the inability of the common monetary policy for V4 at present.

  10. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  11. Adaptive Governance, Uncertainty, and Risk: Policy Framing and Responses to Climate Change, Drought, and Flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Margot; Gupta, Joyeeta

    2016-02-01

    As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to climate change, droughts, and floods and what governance structures facilitate adaptation? This research interrogates and analyzes through content analysis, supplemented by semi-structured qualitative interviews, the policy response to climate change, drought, and flood in relation to agricultural producers in four case studies in river basins in Chile, Argentina, and Canada. First, an epistemological explanation of risk and uncertainty underscores a brief literature review of adaptive governance, followed by policy framing in relation to risk and uncertainty, and an analytical model is developed. Pertinent findings of the four cases are recounted, followed by a comparative analysis. In conclusion, recommendations are made to improve policies and expand adaptive governance to better account for uncertainty and risk. This article is innovative in that it proposes an expanded model of adaptive governance in relation to "risk" that can help bridge the barrier of uncertainty in science and policy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Trends and Issues in California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard - Learning from Response to Existing Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.

    2015-12-01

    Debate over lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation has included heated discussion about appropriate policies and their cost and feasibility. One prominent policy mechanism, a carbon intensity standard, rates transport fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and targets lower fuel pool carbon intensity through a market mechanism that uses a system of tradable, bankable credits and deficits. California instituted such a policy -- the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - in 2010, which targets a 10% carbon intensity (CI) reduction by 2020. The program rolled out amid concerns over slow development of new fuels expected to be very low carbon (such as cellulosic) and has faced court challenges that added considerable policy uncertainty. Since the program's start, state transport energy mix has shifted modestly but noticeably. Looking ahead, emerging issues for the program include amendments and re-adoption in response to a court ruling, potential interaction with California's multi-sector cap on carbon emissions (which started covering transport fuels in 2015), and impacts from similar CI standards in other jurisdictions. This study provides an analysis of fuel mix changes since the LCFS was implemented in 2011, and a discussion of emerging issues focusing on policy interaction. Descriptive statistics on alternative fuel use, available fuel pathways, and CI ratings are presented based on data from the California Air Resources Board (which runs the program). They document a shift towards more alternative fuels in a more diverse mix, with lower average CI ratings for most alternative fuel types. Financial incentives for various fuels are compared under the LCFS and the US federal Renewable Fuel Standard; disincentives from conceptually different carbon pricing schemes under the LCFS and the Cap-and-Trade are also outlined. The results provide important information on response to an existing market-based policy mechanism for addressing GHG

  13. The Relation Between Policies Concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Philosophical Moral Theories - An Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Claus Strue

    2010-01-01

    philosophical moral theories and the ethical content of business activities have mainly concentrated on the ethical decision-making of managers. Some of the most prominent investigations in that regard propose that managers mainly act in accordance with utilitarian moral theory (Fritzsche, D. J. and H. Becker......: 1984, Academy of Management Journal27(1), 166–175; Premeaux, S. and W. Mony: 1993, Journal of Business Ethics12, 349–357; Premeaux, S.: 2004, Journal of Business Ethics52, 269–278). I conclude that CSR policies are not based on utilitarian thinking, but instead, on some kind of common-sense morality......This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind...

  14. Personnel dose assignment practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1993-04-01

    Implementation of DOE N 5480.6 Radiological Control Manual Article 511(3) requirements, to minimize the assignment of personnel dosimeters, should be done only under a broader context ensuring that capabilities are in place to monitor and record personnel exposure both for compliance and for potential litigation. As noted in NCRP Report No. 114, personnel dosimetry programs are conducted to meet four major objectives: radiation safety program control and evaluation; regulatory compliance; epidemiological research; and litigation. A change to Article 511(3) is proposed that would require that minimizing the assignment of personnel dosimeters take place only following full evaluation of overall capabilities (e.g., access control, area dosimetry, etc.) to meet the NCRP objectives

  15. Scaffolding students’ assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses scaffolding in typical student assignments in mother tongue learning materials in upper secondary education in Denmark and the United Kingdom. It has been determined that assignments do not have sufficient scaffolding end features to help pupils understand concepts and build...... objects. The article presents the results of empirical research on tasks given in Danish and British learning materials. This work is based on a further development of my PhD thesis: “Learning materials in the subject of Danish” (Slot 2010). The main focus is how cognitive models (and subsidiary explicit...... learning goals) can help students structure their argumentative and communica-tive learning processes, and how various multimodal representations can give more open-ended learning possibilities for collaboration. The article presents a short introduction of the skills for 21st century learning and defines...

  16. Integration scenarios of Demand Response into electricity markets: Load shifting, financial savings and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerriegel, Stefan; Neumann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Demand Response allows for the management of demand side resources in real-time; i.e. shifting electricity demand according to fluctuating supply. When integrated into electricity markets, Demand Response can be used for load shifting and as a replacement for both control reserve and balancing energy. These three usage scenarios are compared based on historic German data from 2011 to determine that load shifting provides the highest benefit: its annual financial savings accumulate to €3.110 M for both households and the service sector. This equals to relative savings of 2.83% compared to a scenario without load shifting. To improve Demand Response integration, the proposed model suggests policy implications: reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and the time-lag between market transactions and delivery dates in electricity markets. - Highlights: •Comparison of 3 scenarios to integrate Demand Response into electricity markets. •These are: optimize procurement, offer as control reserve, avoid balancing energy. •Ex post simulation to quantify financial impact and policy implications. •Highest savings from load shifting with a cost reduction of 3%. •Model suggests reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and time lags as policy issues.

  17. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  18. Targeting brains, producing responsibilities: the use of neuroscience within British social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Tineke; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2015-05-01

    Concepts and findings 'translated' from neuroscientific research are finding their way into UK health and social policy discourse. Critical scholars have begun to analyse how policies tend to 'misuse' the neurosciences and, further, how these discourses produce unwarranted and individualizing effects, rooted in middle-class values and inducing guilt and anxiety. In this article, we extend such work while simultaneously departing from the normative assumptions implied in the concept of 'misuse'. Through a documentary analysis of UK policy reports focused on the early years, adolescence and older adults, we examine how these employ neuroscientific concepts and consequently (re)define responsibility. In the documents analysed, responsibility was produced in three different but intersecting ways: through a focus on optimisation, self-governance, and vulnerability. Our work thereby adds to social scientific examinations of neuroscience in society that show how neurobiological terms and concepts can be used to construct and support a particular imaginary of citizenship and the role of the state. Neuroscience may be leveraged by policy makers in ways that (potentially) reduce the target of their intervention to the soma, but do so in order to expand the outcome of the intervention to include the enhancement of society writ large. By attending as well to more critical engagements with neuroscience in policy documents, our analysis demonstrates the importance of being mindful of the limits to the deployment of a neurobiological idiom within policy settings. Accordingly, we contribute to increased empirical specificity concerning the impacts and translation of neuroscientific knowledge in contemporary society whilst refusing to take for granted the idea that the neurosciences necessarily have a dominant role (to play). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Desirable Strategic Petroleum Reserves policies in response to supply uncertainty: A stochastic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yang; Zhou, Peng; Tian, Lixin; Meng, Fanyi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic model is proposed to study Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR) policy. • The model aims to find desirable SPR size, acquisition, drawdown and refilling policy. • The impact of SPR policy and supply disruption on oil price has been examined. - Abstract: The paper proposes a survey on three issues related to Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR) policy. Firstly, what are the optimal SPR acquisition, drawdown and refilling policy in response to various market risks? Secondly, how SPR policy or actions will affect the market factors, i.e. oil demand or price. Thirdly, in what extend a disruption may induce price shock. For the purpose, the study proposed a Markov Decision Process model (SPR-MDP). In the model, oil supply, disruption size and duration are considered to be highly stochastic. Oil price is determined by market fundamentals exclusively. According to the empirical study, we come to some interesting conclusions. Firstly, oil price and disruption risk show different ways in influencing the desirable SPR size. It is found that the SPR size increases with the decrease of oil price while increase of disruption risk. Secondly, SPR acquisition may increase oil price slightly by influencing the basic fundamentals. In given case, we find acquisition of 7 million barrels per month increase the price by 2.6%. But the influence weakens with decrease of acquisition size. Thirdly, disruption duration shows significant impact on SPR drawdown policy. In a two-month disruption case, it is found that 51% of SPR should be released in the first month. Another 40% is released in the following month. The other 9% SPR is left for forthcoming disruptions. Meanwhile, SPR drawdown shows high efficient in damping oil price in the disruption. In given case, after drawdown of SPR, the oil prices only increases by 0.7% in the second month though continue disruption.

  20. Managing urban water crises: adaptive policy responses to drought and flood in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Head

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, I examine the quality of decision-making under conditions of rapidly evolving urban water crises, and the adaptive policy challenges of building regional resilience in response to both drought and flood. Like other regions of Australia, Southeast Queensland has been subject to substantial cycles of drought and flood. I draw on resilience literature concerning sustainability, together with governance literature on policy change, to explain the changing awareness of urban water crises and the strategic options available for addressing these crises in this case study. The problem of resilience thinking opens up a number of important questions about the efficacy and adaptability of the policy system. The case provides insights into the interplay between the ways in which problems are framed, the knowledge bases required for planning and decision-making, the collaborative governance processes required for managing complex and rapidly evolving issues, and the overall capacity for policy learning over time. Regional resilience was proclaimed as a policy goal by government, but the practices remained largely anchored in traditional technical frameworks. Centralized investment decisions and governance restructures provoked conflict between levels of government, undermining the capacity of stakeholders to create more consensual approaches to problem-solving and limiting the collective learning that could have emerged.

  1. Climate policy instruments and industry-effects and potential responses in the Swedish context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Efficient policy instruments for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases are essential for the realisation of a successful climate policy. General economic policy instruments have the potential for providing efficient emission reduction as they equalise marginal costs for emission reduction between different actors. They also provide incentives for a great variety of responses such as energy efficiency improvements, fuel substitution and reduced consumption of carbon intensive products. However, as a result of the fact that it has so far been impossible to implement policy instruments on a global scale, these instruments are often adapted in such a way that some of their potential advantages are eliminated. In this paper the possibility of different policy instruments to contribute to reductions in industrial CO 2 emissions, while preserving the competitiveness of industry, is evaluated theoretically. The consequences of increasing the cost of CO 2 emission in various industrial sectors are also discussed. Attention is directed towards carbon taxes, emission trading (ET), and regulation. CO 2 taxes without tax reductions and ET with allocation through auctioning have theoretical advantages in a global climate regime but may lead to significant disadvantages if implemented in a single or a small groups of countries. ET with free intensity-based allocation would in this case have a major advantage in combining incentives for emission reductions through efficiency improvements and fuel substitution, with little impact on production levels

  2. Global climate change. Economic dimensions of a cooperative international policy response beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the economic implications of a range of international abatement strategies and to identify the most cost effective approaches to achieve given environmental objectives. International responses to concerns about global warming are discussed and trends in sectoral and global patterns of production, consumption and trade are examined with a view to providing a business as-usual scenario for carbon dioxide emissions to the year 2020. The study uses a dynamic general equilibrium model of the world economy, MEGABARE. Simulation results for alternative stabilisation and emission reduction targets are also presented. Policy options are evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in stabilizing carbon dioxide emissions and impact on economic welfare in various countries and regions, including an analysis of the feedhack effects of policies on developing countries. Equity principles and rules, and joint implementation issues are also considered. The focus is on designing approaches to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the same amount as stabilisation policies, but at lower cost to the international community and with more equitable sharing of costs. An analysis of tradable carbon dioxide emission quota schemes is provided and some broad policy conclusions are noted in the final chapter on the economic impacts of emission abatement policies. 84 refs., 22 tabs., 50 figs

  3. Achieving walkable city in Indonesia: Policy and responsive design through public participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanan, Natalia; Darmoyono, Laksmi

    2017-11-01

    This paper discusses approaches to policy and planning of pedestrian facility that facilitate walking in cities in Indonesia. It applies quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze walkability in some cities. The new perspective in policy and planning are focusing on improving non-motorized mobility; it encourages walking and put the provision of the pedestrian facility as an integral part of built environmental planning and development. The policy perceives pedestrian facility in broad, not only about physical development, but also benefit to socioeconomic activity and environmental quality. It is expected that the implementation of policies and walkability concept could upgrade the pedestrian facility, as a walkable city delivers green atmosphere of the urban environment. A design competition of pedestrian facility was held to test the policy and accommodate input from the public. Public participation through competition also enriches the design of pedestrian facility that responsive to local condition. Implementation is still a challenge due to limited budget; however, there are tendencies that few cities improve pedestrian facilities to encourage people walking in order to make the city livable and environmentally friendly.

  4. Complex responsibilities : An empirical analysis of responsibilities and technological complexity in Dutch immigration policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Complex patterns of (international) co-operation between public and private actors are facilitated by new information and communication technologies. New technological practices challenge current systems of political, public management and frontline staff responsibilities since these

  5. Key drivers of 'good' corporate governance and the appropriateness of UK policy responses : final report

    OpenAIRE

    Filatotchev, Igor; Jackson, Gregory; Gospel, Howard; Allcock, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The DTI’s Corporate Law and Governance strategy aims to promote and deliver an effective\\ud framework for corporate governance in the UK, giving confidence to investors, business, and\\ud other stakeholders to underpin the relationship between an organisation and those who hold\\ud future financial claims against that organisation. However, corporate governance involves\\ud various problems of asymmetric information and incomplete contracts that generate a need for\\ud public policy responses to ...

  6. Establishment of Grain Farmers' Supply Response Model and Empirical Analysis under Minimum Grain Purchase Price Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang

    2012-01-01

    Based on farmers' supply behavior theory and price expectations theory, this paper establishes grain farmers' supply response model of two major grain varieties (early indica rice and mixed wheat) in the major producing areas, to test whether the minimum grain purchase price policy can have price-oriented effect on grain production and supply in the major producing areas. Empirical analysis shows that the minimum purchase price published annually by the government has significant positive imp...

  7. Pre-crisis Conditions and Government Policy Responses: Chile and Mexico during the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Martorano

    2014-01-01

    Chile and Mexico reacted to the crisis by implementing several policy responses, they achieved different outcomes. In particular, the Chilean economy recovered faster than the Mexican one. However, the main differences are related to social outcomes. On one hand, the Gini coefficient decreased in both countries. On the other hand, both overall and child poverty dropped in Chile while they rose sharply in Mexico. , Chile introduced a stimulus package twice as large the Mexican one. When the fi...

  8. Pew Memorial Trust policy synthesis: 3. Adolescent pregnancy: the responsibilities of policymakers.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, F; Brindis, C

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, adolescent pregnancy and childbearing have emerged as major health and social policy issues, sparking debates in local and national forums. The concern is a response to rates of adolescent sexual activity, pregnancy, and out-of-wedlock childbirth that have risen sharply in the past 20 years. The deleterious effects of early parenthood, especially in poor communities, have been amply documented; education, future employment, and health status are among the areas affected. Effo...

  9. Response to Environmental Policy Institute report on Savannah River Plant high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In a recently published report entitled ''Deadly Crop in the Tank Farm,'' the Environmental Policy Institute (EPI) presented its opinions on the hazards associated with waste management practices at SRP. The EPI's allegations were based on selected published Department of Energy and Du Pont reports and on raw data from the unpublished 200-Area Fault Tree Data Bank that it obtained in 1983. Professional staff at SRP have reviewed the report in detail and have provided responses in this document to all significant EPI statements and recommendations. The responses are grouped into five major categories: Waste Management Operations -- Past and Present, Accidents and Risks, Worker Exposure and Cancer Epidemiology, Groundwater Contamination, and Long-Term Waste Management. An overview of the responses is provided in the Summary, and the detailed responses are presented in the body of the report. 55 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Human responses to Florida red tides: policy awareness and adherence to local fertilizer ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Scheller, Karen; Reich, Andrew; Hitchcock, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Ullmann, Steven; Hoagland, Porter

    2014-09-15

    To mitigate the damages of natural hazards, policy responses can be beneficial only if they are effective. Using a self-administered survey approach, this paper focuses on the adherence to local fertilizer ordinances (i.e., county or municipal rules regulating the application of fertilizer to private lawns or facilities such as golf courses) implemented in jurisdictions along the Southwest Florida coast in response to hazardous blooms of Florida red tides (Karenia brevis). These ordinances play a role in the context of evolving programs of water pollution control at federal, state, water basin, and local levels. With respect to policy effectiveness, while the strength of physical linkages is of critical importance, the extent to which humans affected are aware of and adhere to the relevant rules, is equally critical. We sought to understand the public's depth of understanding about the rationales for local fertilizer ordinances. Respondents in Sarasota, Florida, were asked about their fertilizer practices in an area that has experienced several major blooms of Florida red tides over the past two decades. A highly educated, older population of 305 residents and "snowbirds" reported relatively little knowledge about a local fertilizer ordinance, its purpose, or whether it would change the frequency, size, or duration of red tides. This finding held true even among subpopulations that were expected to have more interest in or to be more knowledgeable about harmful algal blooms. In the face of uncertain science and environmental outcomes, and with individual motivations at odds with evolving public policies, the effectiveness of local community efforts to decrease the impacts of red tides may be compromised. Targeted social-science research on human perceptions about the risks of Florida red tides and education about the rationales for potential policy responses are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental Governance Challenges in Kiribati : An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the global notion of environmental governance is principally about how to achieve the goals of environmental conservation and sustainable development, analysing approaches to environmental governance invariably requires critical study of the policies and structures in place that determine how power is exercised and how environmental decisions are made not only in the abstract context of internationalism but with particular regard to national situations. This essay examines the legal and policy frameworks regulating environmental protection and the conservation of biodiversity within the broader goal of effective environmental governance in Kiribati . Acknowledging that Kiribati encounters formidable challenges in institutional, normative and policy terms, this essay particularly deals with the issue of pollution and its long- and short-term implications for this nation of many atolls. While highlighting the existence of significant treaties, municipal laws and diverse policy mechanisms, this essay identifies gaps and weaknesses, making suggestions for their reform and enhancement. Recognising that the path to the future lies in the synergy of initiatives and inputs from the government, the people and all other stakeholders in the environmental well-being of Kiribati, this essay proffers some viable trajectories for strategic responses.

  12. Nuclear energy policy in the United States 1990–2010: A federal or state responsibility?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffron, Raphael J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines from a policy perspective nuclear energy policy in the United States (US) from 1990 to 2010 and questions whether it is or has become a Federal or State responsibility. The present study, as befits policy research, engages with many disciplines (for example, in particular, law and politics) and hence the contributions move beyond that of nuclear energy policy literature and in particular to that on nuclear new build and other assessments of large infrastructure projects. Several examples at the Federal level are identified that demonstrate that the nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where it requires a focus on the power of actions at a more localised (state) level in order to re-ignite the industry. The research concludes that there remains a misunderstanding of the issue of project management for complex construction projects, and it is highly arguable whether many of its issues have been resolved. Further, the research asserts that the economics of nuclear energy are not the most influential reason for no nuclear new build in the US. -- Highlights: •Examines the US nuclear energy sector, 1990–2010. •Nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where an individual state is the key driver. •Misunderstanding of the project management and public administration. •Potential of the power of more localised (state) actions to re-ignite the industry

  13. Simulation of Farmers’ Response to Irrigation Water Pricing and Rationing Policies (Case Study: Zabol City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abouzar parhizkari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering that agricultural sector is the largest consumer of water, presenting integrated management for water resources and formulating effective policies to increase water productivity in this sector is essential. Therefore, using economic modeling , this study simulated the farmers’ responses to irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city. To achieve the study purpose, the State Wide Agricultural Production Model and Positive Mathematical Programming were applied. The required data for the years 2010-2011 was collected by completing questionnaires and collecting data sets from the relevant agencies of Zabol city in personal attendance. The results showed that imposing irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city leads to a reduction in the total cultivated area by 9/54 and 5/14 percent and a reduction in the water consumption by 6/23 and 7/01 percent, compared to the base year. Ultimately, irrigation water rationing policy, considering frugality of 18/9 million m3 of water, as the appropriate solution for the sustainability of water resources of Zabol city was proposed.

  14. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  15. From conceptual pluralism to practical agreement on policy: global responsibility for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Hammonds, Rachel; Ooms, Gorik; Barry, Donna; Chapman, Audrey; Van Damme, Wim

    2015-10-28

    As the human cost of the global economic crisis becomes apparent the ongoing discussions surrounding the post-2015 global development framework continue at a frenzied pace. Given the scale and scope of increased globalization moving forward in a post-Millennium Development Goals era, to protect and realize health equity for all people, has never been more challenging or more important. The unprecedented nature of global interdependence underscores the importance of proposing policy solutions that advance realizing global responsibility for global health. This article argues for advancing global responsibility for global health through the creation of a Global Fund for Health. It suggests harnessing the power of the exceptional response to the combined epidemics of AIDS, TB and Malaria, embodied in the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, to realize an expanded, reconceptualized Global Fund for Health. However this proposal creates both an analytical quandary embedded in conceptual pluralism and a practical dilemma for the scope and raison d'etre of a new Global Fund for Health. To address these issues we offer a logical framework for moving from conceptual pluralism in the theories supporting global responsibility for health to practical agreement on policy to realize this end. We examine how the innovations flowing from this exceptional response can be coupled with recent ideas and concepts, for example a global social protection floor, a Global Health Constitution or a Framework Convention for Global Health, that share the global responsibility logic that underpins a Global Fund for Health. The 2014 Lancet Commission on Global Governance for Health Report asks whether a single global health protection fund would be better for global health than the current patchwork of global and national social transfers. We concur with this suggestion and argue that there is much room for practical agreement on a Global Fund for Health that moves from the

  16. The health policy implications of individual adaptive behavior responses to smog pollution in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jie; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yi; Brooke Anderson, G; Li, Tiantian

    2017-09-01

    Smog pollution is a serious public health issue in urban China, where it is associated with public health through a range of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. Despite the negative health impacts of smog pollution, individual adaptive behaviors are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders the development of effective public policy to support and encourage the adoption of individual adaptive and mitigating behaviors to smog pollution. A questionnaire survey of 1141 randomly sampled individuals in a typical PM 2.5 -polluted Chinese city was designed to establish smog concerns and behavior changes during smog events. The results demonstrate a variety of behavior responses associated with risk perception, experience of smog, age, and gender of respondents. An understanding of these variations is critical to the development of effective public policy and ultimately to the improvement of public health in cities affected by smog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Globalization of labour markets challenges, adjustment and policy response in the EU and LDCS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyvenhoven, Arie; Molle, Willem

    1997-01-01

    To the classical driving forces of migration such as poverty, oppression and war, yet another is being added: globalization. The trend toward globalization has created new opportunities for trade and investment. These have had positive implications for economic growth and living standards. However, they also confront developed and less developed countries (LCDs) with difficult policy choices. Developed Countries (DCs) have to find a compromise between competitiveness and high labour costs, and between trade liberalization and immigration controls. LCDs have to decide whether to export labour or goods, and to accept foreign resources for development rather than migration. While, in the literature, the impact of globalization has been largely studied from specialist perspectives, this volume offers a comprehensive view of the issue. In Globalization of Labour Markets: Challenges, Adjustment and Policy Response in the European Union and Less Developed Countries international experts: Explain the welfare implicat...

  18. Chinese Foreign Policy in a Global Perspective: A Responsible Reformer "Striving For Achievement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Weissmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last four decades, China has moved from being an isolated country separated from the international community to having become one of the world’s major powers. It is vital to understand what is guiding Chinese foreign policy, why this is so, and not least what kind of power China is and will be in the future. This article analyses the vital elements and thinking that guides Chinese foreign policy, its priorities and decision making process. It is found that China's foreign policy is embedded in domestic issues. The foremost foreign policy objective is domestic political stability, which in turn is a necessity for the survival of one-party rule. Both are dependent on a combination of two key factors: continuing domestic economic growth and nationalism. The foreign policy is also closely linked to the Chinese self-perception, both its self-superiority/self-inferiority dualism and its multitude of confusing (overlapping identities about what China is and should be. A key turning year is 2008 when the "global" financial crisis severely affected the United States and Europe at a time of Chinese economic success, which gave China confidence to pursue a more active and aggressive/assertive stance on the international stage. It is concluded that China under Xi Jinping will not be a status que power accepting the world as it is, but nor are we to expect China to become a revisionist power aiming to remodel the global order. China is what can best be described as a responsible reformer "striving for achievements".

  19. Community-level policy responses to state marijuana legalization in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Hitchcock, Laura; McGroder, Nancy; Greto, Lindsey A; Richardson, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Washington State (WA) legalized a recreational marijuana market - including growing, processing and retail sales - through voter initiative 502 in November 2012. Legalized recreational marijuana retail sales began in July 2014. In response to state legalization of recreational marijuana, some cities and counties within the state have passed local ordinances that either further regulated marijuana markets, or banned them completely. The purpose of this study is to describe local-level marijuana regulations on recreational retail sales within the context of a state that had legalized a recreational marijuana market. Marijuana-related ordinances were collected from all 142 cities in the state with more than 3000 residents and from all 39 counties. Policies that were in place as of June 30, 2016 - two years after the state's recreational market opening - to regulate recreational marijuana retail sales within communities were systematically coded. A total of 125 cities and 30 counties had passed local ordinances to address recreational marijuana retail sales. Multiple communities implemented retail market bans, including some temporary bans (moratoria) while studying whether to pursue other policy options. As of June 30, 2016, 30% of the state population lived in places that had temporarily or permanently banned retail sales. Communities most frequently enacted zoning policies explicitly regulating where marijuana businesses could be established. Other policies included in ordinances placed limits on business hours and distance requirements (buffers) between marijuana businesses and youth-related land use types or other sensitive areas. State legalization does not necessarily result in uniform community environments that regulate recreational marijuana markets. Local ordinances vary among communities within Washington following statewide legalization. Further study is needed to describe how such local policies affect variation in public health and social outcomes

  20. Inoculation Policies in Response to Terrorist or WMD Attacks: Additional Factors to Consider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, P. M.

    2007-01-01

    When viewed on its own merits, the debate over who should be inoculated during a period of biological emergency is a rather straightforward public policy decision. The classic public policy 'balancing act' decision-making model is defaulted to as issues of fairness, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, adequacy of supply, mission performance, and constituencies are arrayed and adjudicated. This mainstream approach is appropriate as far as it goes but it also exemplifies a series of structural and perceptual weaknesses when applied to wartime or localized terrorism scenarios. In fact, the establishment of a vaccination policy appropriate to a flu pandemic falls squarely within this mainstream debate. Although the notion of a pandemic carries an assumption of a great many fatalities it does not possess the fear quotient, uncertainty, horror, unnaturalness, or inevitability of a bio-terror or biological warfare incident. As a result, the reliability and responsiveness of key personnel responding to a flu pandemic should be less of an issue than it will be in the event of an intentional man-made biological incident. The principal policy weakness in instances an intentional bio-attack stems from a generalized failure, or refusal, to systematically study the behavior of key personnel, first-responders, soldiers, or critical senior leadership during severe crises occurring in their own backyards. In other words, when the 'balloon goes up' how many of your responders and critical personnel will show up for work? This presentation considers many of the 'unaddressed' factors that experience has shown may have a determinative effect upon the efficacy of a response to a biological incident. Lessons are drawn from experiences of US forces station in the former West Germany, US Defense Department Continuity of Operations Programs, Hurricane Katrina, and the 9/11 attacks on the United States. (author)

  1. Inoculation Policies in Response to BW Attacks: Additional Factors to Consider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, P. M.

    2007-01-01

    When viewed on its own merits, the debate over who should be inoculated during a period of biological emergency is a rather straightforward public policy decision. The classic public policy 'balancing act' decision-making model is defaulted to as issues of fairness, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, adequacy of supply, mission performance, and constituencies are arrayed and adjudicated. This mainstream approach is appropriate as far as it goes but it also exemplifies a series of structural and perceptual weaknesses when applied to wartime or localized terrorism scenarios. In fact, the establishment of a vaccination policy appropriate to a flu pandemic falls squarely within this mainstream debate. Although the notion of a pandemic carries an assumption of a great many fatalities it does not possess the fear quotient, uncertainty, horror, unnaturalness, or inevitability of a bio-terror or biological warfare incident. As a result, the reliability and responsiveness of key personnel responding to a flu pandemic should be less of an issue than it will be in the event of an intentional man-made biological incident. The principal policy weakness in instances an intentional bio-attack stems from a generalized failure, or refusal, to systematically study the behavior of key personnel, first-responders, soldiers, or critical senior leadership during severe crises occurring in their own backyards. In other words, when the 'balloon goes up' how many of your responders and critical personnel will show up for work? This presentation considers many of the 'unaddressed' factors that experience has shown may have a determinative effect upon the efficacy of a response to a biological incident. Lessons are drawn from experiences of US forces station in the former West Germany, US Defense Department Continuity of Operations Programs, Hurricane Katrina, and the 9/11 attacks on the United States. (author)

  2. Public Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Four Nordic Countries: Harmony of Goals and Conflict of Means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midttun, A.; Gjølberg, M.; Kourula, A.; Sweet, S.; Vallentin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) was historically a business-oriented idea that companies should voluntarily improve their social and environmental practices. More recently, CSR has increasingly attracted governments’ attention, and is now promoted in public policy, especially in the European

  3. Promoting social responsibility for health: health impact assessment and healthy public policy at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmark, M B

    2001-09-01

    The 1997 Jakarta Declaration on Health Promotion into the 21st Century called for new responses to address the emerging threats to health. The declaration placed a high priority on promoting social responsibility for health, and it identified equity-focused health impact assessment as a high priority for action. This theme was among the foci at the 2000 Fifth Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Mexico. This paper, which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health. Health impact assessment may be highly technical and require sophisticated technology and expertise. But it can also be a simple, highly practical process, accessible to ordinary people, and one that helps a community come to grips with local circumstances that need changing for better health. To illustrate the possibilities, this paper presents a case study, the People Assessing Their Health (PATH) project from Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It places ordinary citizens, rather than community elites, at the very heart of local decision-making. Evidence from PATH demonstrates that low technology health impact assessment, done by and for local people, can shift thinking beyond the illness problems of individuals. It can bring into consideration, instead, how programmes and policies support or weaken community health, and illuminate a community's capacity to improve local circumstances for better health. This stands in contrast to evidence that highly technological approaches to community-level health impact assessment can be self-defeating. Further development of simple, people-centred, low technology approaches to health impact assessment at the local level is called for.

  4. Job Assignments under Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    Inefficient job assignments are usually explained with incomplete information about employees' abilities or contractual imperfections. We show that inefficient assignments arise even without uncertainty about the employee's ability and with complete contracts. Building on this result we provide...

  5. Institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying public policy responsibilities in a retail competitive electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of retail competition in the US electric power industry places at risk various environmental and social programmes such as demand side management, low income programmes and renewable energy. This paper presents institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying these kinds of public policy responsibilities in a disintegrated industry. Suggestions include customer owned electricity franchises, electricity facility siting marketplaces, electric industry foresight councils, model systems programmes, integrated social services programmes, collaborative electric service programmes, ISO standards and portfolio standards. These recommendations would be funded by a national transmission charge, a state level distribution charge and franchise level sales taxes, to be paid by transmission organizations, distribution organizations and electricity consumers, respectively. (author)

  6. Identifying structural barriers to an effective HIV response: using the National Composite Policy Index data to evaluate the human rights, legal and policy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Ferguson, Laura; Alfven, Tobias; Rugg, Deborah; Peersman, Greet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Attention to the negative effects of structural barriers on HIV efforts is increasing. Reviewing national legal and policy environments with attention to the international human rights commitments of states is a means of assessing and providing focus for addressing these barriers to effective HIV responses. Methods Law and policy data from the 171 countries reporting under the Declaration of Commitment from the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS were analyzed to assess attention to human rights in national legal and policy environments as relevant to the health and rights of key populations such as people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men and sex workers. Results Seventy-eight governments and civil society in 106 countries report the existence of laws and policies which present obstacles to accessing HIV services for key populations. Laws and policies which positively affect access to HIV-related services, in and of themselves constituting structural interventions, were also reported. The dissonance between laws and how this impacts the availability and use of HIV-related services deserve greater attention. Conclusions Recognition of the harms inherent in laws that constitute structural barriers to effective HIV responses and the potential positive role that a supportive legal environment can play suggests the need for legal reform to ensure an enabling regulatory framework within which HIV services can be effectively delivered and used by the populations who need them. Moving beyond laws and policies, further efforts are required to determine how to capture information on the range of structural barriers. Teasing apart the impact of different barriers, as well as the structural interventions put in place to address them, remains complicated. Capturing the impact of policy and legal interventions can ultimately support governments and civil society to ensure the human rights of key populations are protected in

  7. [Eight-step structured decision-making process to assign criminal responsibility and seven focal points for describing relationship between psychopathology and offense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The author suggested that it is essential for lawyers and psychiatrists to have a common understanding of the mutual division of roles between them when determining criminal responsibility (CR) and, for this purpose, proposed an 8-step structured CR decision-making process. The 8 steps are: (1) gathering of information related to mental function and condition, (2) recognition of mental function and condition,(3) psychiatric diagnosis, (4) description of the relationship between psychiatric symptom or psychopathology and index offense, (5) focus on capacities of differentiation between right and wrong and behavioral control, (6) specification of elements of cognitive/volitional prong in legal context, (7) legal evaluation of degree of cognitive/volitional prong, and (8) final interpretation of CR as a legal conclusion. The author suggested that the CR decision-making process should proceed not in a step-like pattern from (1) to (2) to (3) to (8), but in a step-like pattern from (1) to (2) to (4) to (5) to (6) to (7) to (8), and that not steps after (5), which require the interpretation or the application of section 39 of the Penal Code, but Step (4), must be the core of psychiatric expert evidence. When explaining the relationship between the mental disorder and offense described in Step (4), the Seven Focal Points (7FP) are often used. The author urged basic precautions to prevent the misuse of 7FP, which are: (a) the priority of each item is not equal and the relative importance differs from case to case; (b) each item is not exclusively independent, there may be overlap between items; (c) the criminal responsibility shall not be judged because one item is applicable or because a number of items are applicable, i. e., 7FP are not "criteria," for example, the aim is not to decide such things as 'the motive is understandable' or 'the conduct is appropriate', but should be to describe how psychopathological factors affected the offense specifically in the context of

  8. MARKET SUPPLY RESPONSE AND DEMAND FOR LOCAL RICE IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SELF-SUFFICIENCY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAHJI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the supply response and demand for local rice in Nigeria between 1960 and 2004. A system of equations using secondary data was estimated by OLS and 2SLS techniques. Area planted with local rice is mainly affected by expected price of output, agriculture wage rate and by the partial adjustment coefficient. The short-run response elasticity is 0.077. The implied long-run response elasticity is 1.578. The partial adjustment measure is 0.049. This, points to the difficulty of supply response to changing economic conditions. The price elasticity of demand obtained is 0.841. The demand for local rice is thus price inelastic. Rice income elasticity is 0.3378. It is also inelastic. The ban on rice importation in Nigeria could be said to be a step in the right direction. This policy should be continued and policed. However, price, output and non-price incentives that can exert significant influence on rice supply response and demand are required if the self-sufficiency goal is to be achieved.

  9. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  10. Corporate social responsibility and access to policy élites: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary J; Gilmore, Anna B; Smith, Katherine E; Collin, Jeff; Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2011-08-01

    Recent attempts by large tobacco companies to represent themselves as socially responsible have been widely dismissed as image management. Existing research supports such claims by pointing to the failings and misleading nature of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. However, few studies have focused in depth on what tobacco companies hoped to achieve through CSR or reflected on the extent to which these ambitions have been realised. Iterative searching relating to CSR strategies was undertaken of internal British American Tobacco (BAT) documents, released through litigation in the US. Relevant documents (764) were indexed and qualitatively analysed. In the past decade, BAT has actively developed a wide-ranging CSR programme. Company documents indicate that one of the key aims of this programme was to help the company secure access to policymakers and, thereby, increase the company's chances of influencing policy decisions. Taking the UK as a case study, this paper demonstrates the way in which CSR can be used to renew and maintain dialogue with policymakers, even in ostensibly unreceptive political contexts. In practice, the impact of this political use of CSR is likely to be context specific; depending on factors such as policy élites' understanding of the credibility of companies as a reliable source of information. The findings suggest that tobacco company CSR strategies can enable access to and dialogue with policymakers and provide opportunities for issue definition. CSR should therefore be seen as a form of corporate political activity. This underlines the need for broad implementation of Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Measures are needed to ensure transparency of interactions between all parts of government and the tobacco industry and for policy makers to be made more aware of what companies hope to achieve through CSR.

  11. Corporate social responsibility and access to policy élites: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Fooks

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent attempts by large tobacco companies to represent themselves as socially responsible have been widely dismissed as image management. Existing research supports such claims by pointing to the failings and misleading nature of corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives. However, few studies have focused in depth on what tobacco companies hoped to achieve through CSR or reflected on the extent to which these ambitions have been realised.Iterative searching relating to CSR strategies was undertaken of internal British American Tobacco (BAT documents, released through litigation in the US. Relevant documents (764 were indexed and qualitatively analysed. In the past decade, BAT has actively developed a wide-ranging CSR programme. Company documents indicate that one of the key aims of this programme was to help the company secure access to policymakers and, thereby, increase the company's chances of influencing policy decisions. Taking the UK as a case study, this paper demonstrates the way in which CSR can be used to renew and maintain dialogue with policymakers, even in ostensibly unreceptive political contexts. In practice, the impact of this political use of CSR is likely to be context specific; depending on factors such as policy élites' understanding of the credibility of companies as a reliable source of information.The findings suggest that tobacco company CSR strategies can enable access to and dialogue with policymakers and provide opportunities for issue definition. CSR should therefore be seen as a form of corporate political activity. This underlines the need for broad implementation of Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Measures are needed to ensure transparency of interactions between all parts of government and the tobacco industry and for policy makers to be made more aware of what companies hope to achieve through CSR.

  12. International policy and advisory response regarding children's exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure regulations/guidelines generally only consider acute effects, and not chronic, low exposures. Concerns for children's exposure are warranted due to the amazingly rapid uptake of many wireless devices by increasingly younger children. This review of policy and advice regarding children's RF-EMF exposure draws material from a wide variety of sources focusing on the current situation. This is not a systematic review, but aims to provide a representative cross-section of policy and advisory responses within set boundaries. There are a wide variety of approaches which I have categorized and tabulated ranging from ICNIRP/IEEE guidelines and "no extra precautions needed" to precautionary or scientific much lower maxima and extensive advice to minimize RF-EMF exposure, ban advertising/sale to children, and add exposure information to packaging. Precautionary standards use what I term an exclusion principle. The wide range of policy approaches can be confusing for parents/carers of children. Some consensus among advisory organizations would be helpful acknowledging that, despite extensive research, the highly complex nature of both RF-EMF and the human body, and frequent technological updates, means simple assurance of long-term safety cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, minimum exposure of children to RF-EMF is recommended. This does not indicate need for alarm, but mirrors routine health-and-safety precautions. Simple steps are suggested. ICNIRP guidelines need to urgently publish how the head, torso, and limbs' exposure limits were calculated and what safety margin was applied since this exposure, especially to the abdomen, is now dominant in many children.

  13. Causes, consequences, and policy responses to the migration of health workers: key findings from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Roberts, Margaret; Runnels, Vivien; Rajan, S Irudaya; Sood, Atul; Nair, Sreelekha; Thomas, Philomina; Packer, Corinne; MacKenzie, Adrian; Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Labonté, Ronald; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2017-04-05

    This study sought to better understand the drivers of skilled health professional migration, its consequences, and the various strategies countries have employed to mitigate its negative impacts. The study was conducted in four countries-Jamaica, India, the Philippines, and South Africa-that have historically been "sources" of health workers migrating to other countries. The aim of this paper is to present the findings from the Indian portion of the study. Data were collected using surveys of Indian generalist and specialist physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, dieticians, and other allied health therapists. We also conducted structured interviews with key stakeholders representing government ministries, professional associations, regional health authorities, health care facilities, and educational institutions. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Shortages of health workers are evident in certain parts of India and in certain specialty areas, but the degree and nature of such shortages are difficult to determine due to the lack of evidence and health information. The relationship of such shortages to international migration is not clear. Policy responses to health worker migration are also similarly embedded in wider processes aimed at health workforce management, but overall, there is no clear policy agenda to manage health worker migration. Decision-makers in India present conflicting options about the need or desirability of curtailing migration. Consequences of health work migration on the Indian health care system are not easily discernable from other compounding factors. Research suggests that shortages of skilled health workers in India must be examined in relation to domestic policies on training, recruitment, and retention rather than viewed as a direct consequence of the international migration of health workers.

  14. State Responses to Alcohol Use and Pregnancy: Findings From the Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS)

    OpenAIRE

    DRABBLE, LAURIE; THOMAS, SUE; O’CONNOR, LISA; ROBERTS, SARAH CM

    2014-01-01

    This article describes U.S. state policies related to alcohol use during pregnancy, using data from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS). Specifically, this study examines trends in policies enacted by states over time and types of policies enacted across states in the U.S., with a focus on whether laws were supportive or punitive toward women. Findings revealed substantial variability in characteristics of policies (19 primar...

  15. Policy responses during the Trump administration to older people's growing economic risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Michele E; Weller, Christian E

    2018-04-10

    Economic risk exposure through increased labor market volatility and growing caregiving responsibilities has risen for older Americans. At the same time, key protections such as unemployment insurance and Social Security have declined, while other protections-particularly in the private market-are limited or nonexistent. Social policy can lower the chance of risk exposure and the associated costs, especially with respect to unemployment and caregiving. In virtually all instances, however, the Trump administration has already moved to weaken existing protections. And it has offered either no proposals or very limited proposals to increase protections in the private sector As a result, an aging population will increasingly face rising economic risks on their own.

  16. Cyber-intrusion Auto-response and Policy Management System (CAPMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, Steve [ViaSat Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Lawrence, David [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States); Suvana, Prakash [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The Cyber-intrusion Auto-response and Policy Management System (CAPMS) project was funded by a grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program with contributions from two partner electric utilities: Southern California Edison (SCE) and Duke Energy. The goal of the project was to demonstrate protecting smart grid assets from a cyber attack in a way that “does not impede critical energy delivery functions.” This report summarizes project goals and activities for the CAPMS project and explores what did and did not work as expected. It concludes with an assessment of possible benefits and value of the system for the future.

  17. U.S. Policy Responses to Calls for the Medical Use of Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of U.S. policy responses to calls to allow patients to use cannabis for medical purposes. It first summarizes the research evidence on the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for various medical uses. It then outlines the challenges in developing new pharmaceutical cannabinoids that are safe, effective, and acceptable to patients. It briefly describes the strengths and limitations of the different ways in which U.S. states have allowed patients to use cannabis for medical purposes. These include allowing access for research trials only, allowing medical necessity as a defense against prosecution, and allowing commercial medical dispensaries to provide cannabis to approved patients. It argues that liberal definitions of indications for medical cannabis use and the commercialization of medical cannabis supply in California have produced the de facto legalization of recreational cannabis use. PMID:26339208

  18. 32 CFR 13.5 - Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CHIEF DEFENSE COUNSEL, DETAILED DEFENSE COUNSEL, AND CIVILIAN DEFENSE COUNSEL § 13.5 Policies. (a) Prohibition.... Personnel assigned to the Office of the Chief Defense Counsel, as well as all members of the Civilian...

  19. Early responses to zebra mussels in the Great Lakes: a journey from information vacuum to policy and regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Don W.; Kovalak, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species such as zebra mussels pose a threat to the economies and environments of coastal and fresh-water habitats around the world. Consequently, it is important that government policies and programs be adequate to protect these waters from invaders. This chapter documents key events that took place in the early years (1988-1991) of zebra mussel colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes and evaluates government responses (policies and programs) to this disruptive, invasive, freshwater species.

  20. Effects of behavioral response and vaccination policy on epidemic spreading--an approach based on evolutionary-game dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Tang, Ming; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-07-11

    How effective are governmental incentives to achieve widespread vaccination coverage so as to prevent epidemic outbreak? The answer largely depends on the complex interplay among the type of incentive, individual behavioral responses, and the intrinsic epidemic dynamics. By incorporating evolutionary games into epidemic dynamics, we investigate the effects of two types of incentives strategies: partial-subsidy policy in which certain fraction of the cost of vaccination is offset, and free-subsidy policy in which donees are randomly selected and vaccinated at no cost. Through mean-field analysis and computations, we find that, under the partial-subsidy policy, the vaccination coverage depends monotonically on the sensitivity of individuals to payoff difference, but the dependence is non-monotonous for the free-subsidy policy. Due to the role models of the donees for relatively irrational individuals and the unchanged strategies of the donees for rational individuals, the free-subsidy policy can in general lead to higher vaccination coverage. Our findings indicate that any disease-control policy should be exercised with extreme care: its success depends on the complex interplay among the intrinsic mathematical rules of epidemic spreading, governmental policies, and behavioral responses of individuals.

  1. Urban residents' response to and evaluation of low-carbon travel policies: Evidence from a survey of five eastern cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jichao; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Qianwen

    2018-03-24

    To address the problems of excessive energy consumption and global climate change, the Chinese government has issued numerous policies to guide urban residents' low-carbon travel behavior. To evaluate the validity of these policies from the perspective of public opinion, this study summarizes 22 policies from the four vantage points of economics, administration, technology, and public information and then measures residents' response to and evaluation of policies based on survey data on 1977 urban residents using stratified random sampling in five cities in eastern China. The results indicate that from the viewpoint of policy response, administrative policies for promoting public transport show the highest degree of response, followed by public information, technological, and economic policies. Specifically, the responses to parking and congestion fee policies are relatively stronger than those to vehicle purchase tax, vehicle and vessel tax, and fuel surcharge policies. Moreover, the responses to fuel surcharge policy are even weaker than car-restriction policies, including license-plate number restriction, license-plate lottery, and license-plate auction policies. From the viewpoint of policy evaluation, administrative policies for promoting public transport obtain the highest evaluations, followed by economic and technological policies. Residents' evaluations of car-restriction and public information policies are the lowest. In addition, a four-paradigm model is introduced to illustrate residents' reactions to each policy in terms of response and evaluation. Finally, several implementation strategies, including the anterior, concurrent, optional, core, supporting, and assisting policy options are proposed to guide urban residents' low-carbon travel behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority.ii The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey. We highlight the experience in each area as it relates to the identified barriers.

  3. Suicide Risk Response: Enhancing Patient Safety Through Development of Effective Institutional Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Laura; Felker, Bradford; Chaney, Edmund; Vollen, Karen; Berry, Karen; Revay, Barbara; Simon, Barbara; Kofoed, Lial; Ober, Scott; Worley, Linda

    2004-01-01

    A suicidal patient requires a prompt, coordinated intervention. In this paper, we describe a process for developing a suicidality policy, which may help clinics develop effective, locally adapted policies...

  4. A frame-critical policy analysis of Canada's response to the World Food Summit 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Catherine L; Hamill, Catherine; Rondeau, Krista; McIntyre, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 visit to Canada of Olivier De Schutter, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, led to a public rebuff by Canadian governmental officials. This paper adapts the frame-critical policy analysis of Schön and Rein (1994), to explore the rhetorical basis for this conflict. This examination is offered as an illustrative example of how food insecurity is framed as a public policy problem in a high-income nation and how this framing has changed over time. We analyze Canada's decade of sequential responses to the 1996 World Food Summit, spanning 1998-2008, in the form of Canada's Action Plan on Food Security, and its subsequent Progress Reports. We conducted a qualitative policy analysis, adapting the frame-critical approach first delineated by Schön and Rein (1994). This analysis uses a social constructionist approach to map out the relationships between tacit understanding of policy by particular actors, explicit rhetoric in the public domain, and action in this policy area over time. We identify three key ways in which competing rhetorical frames arise over time: frame shifts (e.g., a shift away from language highlighting the right to food and health); frame blending (e.g., discussion about poverty becomes obscured by complexity discourse); and within-frame incongruence (e.g., monitoring for health indicators that are unrelated to policy solutions). Together, these frames illustrate how the conflict embodied in the UN Special Rapporteur's visit has been deeply woven into the policy discourse on food insecurity in Canada over time. Frame-critical analysis is instructive for exposing and also predicting tensions that impede forward progress on difficult policy issues. Accordingly, such analyses may be helpful in not only dissecting how policy can become 'stuck' in the process of change but in active reframing towards new policy solutions.

  5. Storage Policies and Optimal Shape of a Storage System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaerpour, N.; De Koster, René; Yu, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    The response time of a storage system is mainly influenced by its shape (configuration), the storage assignment and retrieval policies, and the location of the input/output (I/O) points. In this paper, we show that the optimal shape of a storage system, which minimises the response time for single

  6. Reflecting on an impact evaluation of the Grade R programme: Method, results and policy responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Samuels

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the expansion since 2001 of a public pre-school programme in South Africa known as ‘Grade R’, summarises the findings from an impact evaluation of the introduction of Grade R, discusses the policy recommendations flowing from the evaluation and reflects on the process of implementing the recommendations. The Grade R programme has expanded dramatically, to the point where participation is nearly universal. Although a substantial literature points to large potential benefits from pre-school educational opportunities, the impact evaluation reported on in this article demonstrated that the Grade R programme, as implemented until 2011, had a limited impact on later educational outcomes. Improving the quality of Grade R, especially in schools serving low socio-economic status communities, thus emerges as a key policy imperative. Recommended responses include professionalising Grade R teachers, providing practical in-service support, increasing access to appropriate storybooks, empowering teachers to assess the development of their learners, and improving financial record-keeping of Grade R expenditure by provincial education departments. The impact evaluation was initiated by the Department of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME and the Department of Basic Education (DBE, and was conducted by independent researchers. The move towards increased evaluation of key government programmes is important for shifting the focus of programme managers and policymakers towards programme outcomes rather than only programme inputs. Yet the process is not without its challenges: following a clear process to ensure the implementation of the lessons learned from such an evaluation is not necessarily straightforward.

  7. Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.

  8. Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Niederdeppe

    Full Text Available This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718 to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.

  9. Impact of the decision-making environment on policy responses to road worker fatality in Manitoba and Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, Curt J

    2018-01-22

    Fatal accidents often lead to policy changes. However, the existing decision-making environment is critical to policy responses. This study compares the policy responses to similar events in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The key question explores the extent to which the policy decisions in each province differ despite the similarity of the events. Key documents were examined. Provincial court rulings, workplace health & safety incident investigation reports, court transcripts and police reports were used to compare resulting policy changes as well as the socio-political and economic decision-making context. Relevant clauses in resulting legislation were also compared to assess the specific changes that were made in each province. In each province, a young, female highway construction worker was killed. However, the provinces responded in very different ways. In Saskatchewan, the Premier called for recommendations to improve worker safety, initiating an in-depth governmental study and the development of a broad safety strategy. In Manitoba, political and social pressures shifted the decision-making environment and contributed to the rushed passing of a bill focused on traffic fine increases that resulted in record-breaking traffic fine revenue while failing to include broader safety measures. Different decision-making contexts can lead to vastly different policy outcomes even when responding to very similar events. Key differences included time constraints, access to information and the nature of the political process invoked.

  10. Nuclear power and the opting-out policy of the German Government. A matter of responsibility and controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, J.; Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    The article critically reviews the energy policy of the German Government and the plans for winding down nuclear power generation and instead pursue a policy for a ''green reshufflement'' of generation technologies, providing for incentives to switch to options for decentralized power generation with enhanced use of renewable energy sources. The article explains arguments against the Government's opting-out policy which were laid down in a memorandum presented to the Government by a group of five university professors, among them the authors of this article who, as experts in this domain, are aware of their responsibility as scientists and members of society and therefore explain their view of the policy issues, also referring to a recent expert opinion of the German Wissenschaftsrat (science council), which recommended to continue nuclear energy research programmes and nuclear power generation. (orig./CB) [de

  11. The importance of domestic mining, with particular regard to the expectations on a German and European energy policy. - Responsibility in energy policy - can we do without coal and nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, E.; Gerstein, L.

    1989-01-01

    The booklet contains two lectures on fundamental issues of the German energy policy. While the first contribution deals with the economic and energy-political significance of domestic coal, the second one looks for a formula of consent for a responsible energy policy supported in common, which is orientated along feasible and necessary aspects and along the responsibility for the future. (HSCH) [de

  12. The Master model on multi-actor and multilevel social responsibilities: A conceptual framework for policies and governance on stakeholders’ social responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, Patricia Almeida

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis working paper contributes to a collective discussion in a workshop occurring in January 2011 at the International Institute of Social Studies, bringing scholars from Europe and Brazil and aiming inter-university research collaboration on linking policies on social responsibility to development and equity. The paper serves as an introductory discussion for reframing the concept of corporate social responsibility into a broader umbrella concept of multi-actor and multilevel soc...

  13. Changes in alcohol policies and practices in bars and restaurants after completion of manager-focused responsible service training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Erickson, Darin J; Nelson, Toben F; Horvath, Keith J; Nederhoff, Dawn M; Hunt, Shanda L; Ecklund, Alexandra M; Toomey, Traci L

    2018-03-01

    Irresponsible and illegal serving practices at bars and restaurants, such as sales to obviously intoxicated patrons, can lead to various public health harms. Training managers of bars and restaurants in the development and promotion of responsible alcohol policies may help prevent risky and illegal alcohol serving practices. We implemented a training program for managers of bars/restaurants designed to establish and promote responsible beverage service policies/practices. The program included online and in-person components. Bars/restaurants were randomised to intervention (n = 171) and control (n = 163) groups. To assess changes in policies/practices, we surveyed managers prior to and at 1 and 6 months post-training. Logistic regression models assessed changes in policies/practices across time points. The proportion in the intervention group that had written alcohol policies increased from 62% to 95% by 6 months post-training while the control group increased from 65% to 79% (P managers in the intervention group reported they had communicated to their staff how to cut off intoxicated patrons, a significant increase from baseline (37%) and from the change observed in the control group (43%-56%). Prevalence of other policies/practices also increased post-training but differences between intervention and control groups were not statistically significant. Our training program appears to have led to implementation of some policies/practices. Additional studies are needed to determine how training can be combined with other strategies to further improve establishment policies and ultimately reduce alcohol-related harms. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. A Comparison of the Water Environment Policy of Europe and South Korea in Response to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change not only increases the atmospheric temperature, but also changes the precipitation conditions and patterns, which can lead to an increase in the frequency of occurrence of natural disasters, such as flooding and drought. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has reported fluctuations in the precipitation levels for each country from 1900 to 2005, based on global climate change, suggesting that environmental changes due to climate change manifest very differently based on the region. According to the results of studies that have been carried out recently, changes in the precipitation patterns based on climate change result in changes in the water environment, including alterations to the vegetation, land use, and river flow, while considerably influencing the rate of development of groundwater as well. In this study, the 3Is, which are the important variables of Ideas, Institutions, and Interests that are universal to the international field of political science, were used to comparatively analyze the water environment policies of South Korea and Europe. The first variable, Ideas, examined the influence of awareness on establishing the water environment policy in response to climate change. In particular, differences in the conceptual awareness of the water environment with regard to hyporheic zones were studied. The second variable, Institutions, examined the differences in the water environment policy within the national administration in response to climate change. The South Korean administration’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport and the Ministry of Environment were used in a case study. Finally, the results drawn from the third variable, i.e., Interests, for South Korea appear to differ from those of Europe, in terms of water environment policy. In this study, the water environment policy of South Korea was analyzed and compared to that of Europe in order to identify problems in South Korea

  15. The Master model on multi-actor and multilevel social responsibilities : A conceptual framework for policies and governance on stakeholders’ social responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Ashley (Patricia Almeida)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis working paper contributes to a collective discussion in a workshop occurring in January 2011 at the International Institute of Social Studies, bringing scholars from Europe and Brazil and aiming inter-university research collaboration on linking policies on social responsibility to

  16. Game theory and traffic assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  17. Writing Assignments that Promote Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Encourage students to write a detailed, analytical report correlating classroom discussions to an important historical event or a current event. Motivate students interview an expert from industry on a topic that was discussed in class. Ask the students to submit a report with supporting sketches, drawings, circuit diagrams and graphs. Propose that the students generate a complete a set of reading responses pertaining to an assigned topic. Require each student to bring in one comment or one question about an assigned reading. The assignment should be a recent publication in an appropriate journal. Have the students conduct a web search on an assigned topic. Ask them to generate a set of ideas that can relate to classroom discussions. Provide the students with a study guide. The study guide should provide about 10 or 15 short topics. Quiz the students on one or two of the topics. Encourage the students to design or develop some creative real-world examples based on a chapter discussed or a topic of interest. Require that students originate, develop, support and defend a viewpoint using a specifically assigned material. Make the students practice using or utilizing a set of new technical terms they have encountered in an assigned chapter. Have students develop original examples explaining the different terms. Ask the students to select one important terminology from the previous classroom discussions. Encourage the students to explain why they selected that particular word. Ask them to talk about the importance of the terminology from the point of view of their educational objectives and future career. Angelo, T. A. (1991). Ten easy pieces: Assessing higher learning in four dimensions. In T. A. Angelo (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success (pp. 17-31). New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 46. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  18. Demand Intensity, Market Parameters and Policy Responses towards Demand and Supply of Private Supplementary Tutoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Percy Lai Yin

    2010-01-01

    Based on some longitudinal studies of private tutoring in twelve cities, towns, municipalities and provinces of China, the paper endeavours to depict demand intensity, articulate market parameters and reflect on policy responses towards the demand-supply mechanism of the vast shadowy educational phenomena at primary and secondary levels. Such…

  19. State Employment Protection Statutes for Victims of Domestic Violence: Public Policy's Response to Domestic Violence as an Employment Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Ojha, Mamta U.; Macke, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that domestic violence has negative consequences on victims' employment; yet employers lag in recognizing this as a workplace issue. To address the problem, some states have established several policy solutions. To understand the scope of the public sector's response to domestic violence as a workplace issue, a content analysis…

  20. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  1. The U.S. Forest Service and its responsibilities under the national environmental policy act: a work design problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Auer; Kenneth Richards; David N. Seesholtz; Burnell Fischer; Christian Freitag; Joshua. Grice

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service’s responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act entail a wide range of activities including scoping, scientific analysis, social and economic analysis, managing public input and involvement, media relations, regulatory analysis, and litigation. These myriad duties raise several important organizational and management questions....

  2. UOP LDR 300 All Assignments New

    OpenAIRE

    ADMIN

    2018-01-01

    UOP LDR 300 All Assignments New Check this A+ tutorial guideline at http://www.ldr300assignment.com/ldr-300-uop/ldr-300-all-assignments-latest For more classes visit http://www.ldr300assignment.com LDR 300 Week 1 Assignment Leadership Assessment (2 Papers) LDR 300 Week 2 Assignment Leadership Theories Matrix (2 Set) LDR 300 Week 2 Assignment Formulating Leadership Part I (2 Papers) LDR 300 Week 3 Assignment Interaction and Influence Amo...

  3. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  4. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS' INCOME, REMITTANCE AND PRICES IN RURAL NIGERIA AMID POLICY RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent global financial crisis affected almost all aspect of human life. This paper explored effects of the global financial crisis on farmers' income, remittance and prices of food staples and highlighted certain government policy responses. The study was conducted in Nigeria. Secondary data were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, equivalent variation and Shannon index analysis. Results showed the global financial crisis affected the agrarian households/sector in Nigeria. The increase in prices meant more nominal income to farmers but grossly reduced their welfare due to decrease in real income as result of high inflation trend. Recommendations include that government should continue to sustain agrarian programs aimed at helping poor farmers to increase their capacity in production to meet the growing demand and changes. In both cases, the disturbed age structure has a reverse effect on the movement of the population (the size of reproductive contingent, but also to all other structures of the population (the size of contingent employment, population, compulsory school contingent, contingent dependent population ratio. Rating natural conditions aimed at separation of homogenous territorial units with some degree of benefits and limitations types of economic development.

  5. Policy and practice of work ability: a negotiation of responsibility in organizing return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seing, Ida; Ståhl, Christian; Nordenfelt, Lennart; Bülow, Pia; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2012-12-01

    In welfare policy and practical work it is unclear what the concept of work ability involves and assessments may be different among involved actors, partly due to a lack of theoretical research in relation to regulations and practice. Based on theoretical and legal aspects of work ability the aim of the study is to analyze stakeholders' perspectives on work ability in local practice by studying multi-stakeholder meetings. The material comprises nine digitally recorded multi-stakeholder meetings. Apart from the sick-listed individual, representatives from the public Social Insurance Agency, health care, employers, public employment service and the union participated in the meeting. The material was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three perspectives on work ability were identified: a medical perspective, a workplace perspective and a regulatory perspective. The meetings developed into negotiations of responsibility concerning workplace adjustments, rehabilitation efforts and financial support. Medical assessments served as objective expert statements to legitimize stakeholders' perspectives on work ability and return to work. Although the formal goal of the status meeting was to facilitate stakeholder collaboration, the results demonstrates an unequal distribution of power among cooperating actors where the employers had the "trump card" due to their possibilities to offer workplace adjustments. The employer perspective often determined whether or not persons could return to work and if they had work ability.

  6. Food Safety Incidents, Collateral Damage and Trade Policy Responses: China-Canada Agri-Food Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Huanan; Hobbs, Jill E.; Kerr, William A.

    2008-01-01

    As markets become globalized, food safety policy and international trade policy are increasingly intertwined. Globalization also means that food safety incidents are widely reported internationally. One result is that food safety incidents can negatively impact products where no food safety issue exists as consumers lose trust in both foreign and domestic food safety institutions. While the policy framework for dealing with directly effected imported foods is well understood, how to deal with...

  7. Public and state responses to high-level nuclear waste disposal: Learning from policy failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear waste policy in the United States has faded in large part because of public and state opposition to repository siting. However, that outcome was not inevitable. This paper argues that better policy design and greater attention to the crucial tasks of policy legitimation both by the U.S. Congress and by the Department of Energy might have significantly increased the chances for successful implementation. Even though the program now has a highly uncertain future, suggestions are offered for policy learning and change that may increase the probability of success

  8. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Njie-Jobe, Jainaba; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months, at 9 months, or at 9 and 18 months of age. At 4.5 months of age, 75% had nonprotective measles virus antibody levels. Following receipt of MV at 4.5 months of age, 77% (316/408) had protective antibody levels at 9 months of age; after a second dose at 9 months of age, 97% (326/337) had protective levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age than in the group that received MV at 9 months of age (P = .0001). In conclusion, an early 2-dose MV schedule was associated with protective measles virus antibody levels at 24 months of age in nearly all children. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Understanding the United States and Brazil's response to obesity: institutional conversion, policy reform, and the lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-06-10

    In the United States (US) and Brazil, obesity has emerged as a health epidemic. This article is driven by the following research questions: how did the US and Brazil's federal institutions respond to obesity? And how did these responses affect policy implementation? The aim of this article is therefore to conduct a comparative case study analysis of how these nations' institutions responded in order to determine the key lessons learned. This study uses primary and secondary qualitative data to substantiate causal arguments and factual claims. Brazil shows that converting preexisting federal agencies working in primary healthcare to emphasize the provision of obesity prevention services can facilitate policy implementation, especially in rural areas. Brazil also reveals the importance of targeting federal grant support to the highest obesity prevalence areas and imposing grant conditionalities, while illustrating how the incorporation of social health movements into the bureaucracy facilitates the early adoption of nutrition and obesity policies. None of these reforms were pursued in the US. Brazil's government has engaged in innovative institutional conversion processes aiding its ability to sustain its centralized influence when implementing obesity policy. The US government's adoption of Brazil's institutional innovations may help to strengthen its policy response.

  10. The Kenyan national response to internationally agreed sexual and reproductive health and rights goals: a case study of three policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronje, Rose N

    2013-11-01

    While priorities for, and decision-making processes on, sexual and reproductive health and rights have been determined and led mainly at the international level, conflicting power dynamics and responses at the national level in some countries have continued to pose challenges for operationalising international agreements. This paper demonstrates how these conflicts have played out in Kenya through an analysis of three policy-making processes, which led to the Adolescent Reproductive Health and Development Policy (2003), the Sexual Offences Act (2006), and the National Reproductive Health Policy (2007). The paper is based on data from a broader study on the drivers and inhibitors of sexual and reproductive health policy reform in Kenya, using a qualitative, case study design. Information was gathered through 54 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with governmental and civil society policy actors and an extensive review of policy documents and media reports. The paper shows that the transformative human rights framing of access to sexual and reproductive health, supported by both a strong global women's rights movement and progressive governmental and inter-governmental actors to defeat opposition to sexual and reproductive health and rights at the international level, has not been as influential or successful at the national level in Kenya, and has made comprehensive national reforms difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 32 CFR 644.396 - Assignment of personnel to administer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Assignment of personnel to administer. 644.396... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.396 Assignment of personnel to administer... responsible representative to each installation, or group of installations, to act under his staff supervision...

  12. A Poster Assignment Connects Information Literacy and Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a poster assignment in a writing and information literacy course required for undergraduate Life Sciences and Environmental Biology majors with the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences at McGill University. The assignment was introduced in response to weaknesses identified through course…

  13. People's response to policy change in agricultural development organization : the Benin case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tossou, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This book is about change. It deals with the way in which social actors, be they individuals or groups, involved in the agricultural development of Benin reconstruct for themselves the new policy context in order to develop relevant strategies translating policy measures into practical

  14. Advances in geospatial analysis platforms and tools: Creating space for differentiated policy and investment responses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maritz, Johan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available be targeted in planning and policy development, and a new "reading" of the South African space economy. The latter for example highlighting the importance of the policy centric network of densely settled clusters, local towns and service centres, regional...

  15. Incorporating traveler response to pricing policies in comprehensive activity-based models of transport demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khademi, E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of studies and continued policy interest in road pricing strategies and technologies represent new challenges to transportation researchers in their attempt to better understand and predict the impact of various pricing strategies on travel behavior. We contend that these policies

  16. Adaptive governance, uncertainty, and risk: policy framing and responses to climate change, drought, and flood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlbert, M.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to

  17. Shelter from the Storm: Roles, responsibilities, and challenges in United States housing policy governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Charley

    2017-11-01

    Housing is a critical social determinant of health. Housing policy not only affects health by improving housing quality, affordability, and insecurity; housing policy affects health upstream through the politics that shape housing policy design, implementation, and management. These politics, or governance strategies, determine the successes or failures of housing policy programs. This paper is an overview of challenges in housing policy governance in the United States. I examine the important relationship between housing and health, and emphasize why studying housing policy governance matters. I then present three cases of housing governance challenges in the United States, from each pathway by which housing affects health - housing quality, affordability, and insecurity. Each case corresponds to an arm of the TAPIC framework for evaluating governance (Krieger and Higgins) [1], to assess mechanisms of housing governance in each case. While housing governance has come a long way over the past century, political decentralization and the expansion of the submerged state have increased the number of political actors and policy conflict in many areas. This creates inherent challenges for improving accountability, transparency, and policy capacity. In many instances, too, reduced government accountability and transparency increases the risk of harm to the public and lessens governmental integrity. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    Written during an ongoing period of global economic crisis, The Welfare State as a Crisis Manager examines the practice and potential of using social policy to cope with crises. Through an in-depth analysis of social policy reactions in the wake of international economic shocks in four different...... welfare states, over a 40-year period, the book reveals the ways in which expansion and retrenchment are shaped by domestic politics and existing welfare state institutions. Moreover, the study addresses the kind of policy change triggered by economic crisis. In contrast to conventional wisdom...... and previous scholarship, reactions tend to be characterised by incrementalism and 'crisis routines' rather than fundamental deviations from earlier policy patterns. For the first time, the study of domestic political dynamics following crisis is systematically embedded in the transnational policy debate...

  19. 21 CFR 1405.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) Office of National Drug Control Policy awarding official?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug Control Policy Awarding Officials § 1405.400 What are my... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) Office of National Drug Control Policy awarding official? 1405.400 Section 1405.400 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL...

  20. Effective Homework Assignments. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Perhaps more than any question other than "How much time should students spend doing homework?" parents and educators want to know, "What kinds of homework assignments are most effective?" Clearly, the answers to this question vary according to many factors, especially the developmental level of students and the topic area. Generally, answers are…

  1. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    minimizing modification of the classic random priority method to solve this class of problems. We also provide some logical relations in our setting among standard axioms in the literature on assignment problems, and explore the robustness of our results to several extensions of our setting....

  2. Policy responses to problematic video game use: A systematic review of current measures and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; King, Daniel L; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Seung-Yup; Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Takacs, Zsofia K; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming. Methods After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review. Results Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically. Discussion and conclusions Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.

  3. People's response to policy change in agricultural development organization : the Benin case

    OpenAIRE

    Tossou, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This book is about change. It deals with the way in which social actors, be they individuals or groups, involved in the agricultural development of Benin reconstruct for themselves the new policy context in order to develop relevant strategies translating policy measures into practical objectives and concrete actions. The main objectives of the study are to:

    (1) understand the official definitions of the changing conditions in each of the cases studied and the rationales supp...

  4. Policy Responses to Changing Perceptions of the Role of Agriculture in Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, development economists had a dim view of the contribution that farmers made to modern economic growth, compared with manufacturers. Hence agricultural exports and manufacturing imports were often taxed. This view changed over time though, as first economists and then policy makers came to understand the high cost of an anti-agricultural, import-substituting industrialization strategy. This paper outlines how this change came about and the resulting economic policy reforms that ...

  5. Demand-Side Flexibility for Energy Transitions: Policy Recommendations for Developing Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Nursimulu, Anjali; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Vuille, François

    2016-01-01

    As a follow-up to IRGC's report on demand-side flexibility for energy transitions, this Policy Brief highlights that increasing flexibility in power systems is needed to accommodate higher shares of non-controllable and intermittent renewable generation, and that this requires changes to the market design and regulatory framework, to facilitate the development and deployment of appropriate technologies and market-based instruments (e.g. taxes and subsidies). The Policy Brief focuses on demand...

  6. The Courage to Critique Policies and Practices from within: Youth Participatory Action Research as Critical Policy Analysis. A Response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Anjale

    2011-01-01

    This response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School" by Jason G. Irizarry demonstrates how youth participatory action research (YPAR) as an instrument of subverting oppressive school policies and structures is a form of critical policy analysis (CPA). As an evolving method, CPA acknowledges the absent voices in…

  7. A regional perspective on the environment-climate change-migration nexus: Governance and policy responses to environmental refugees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available migration policies on reducing pressures to migrate, managing authorised movements, and controlling irregular flows. Regional impact of climate change 6Geography of research 7Project purpose and aims • This project focuses on the regional, national and sub... on environmental refugees to strengthen national disaster response plans for floods and droughts in the case study areas identified. 3. To develop local adaptive management strategies for environmental refugees in the case study areas identified. 8Project scales...

  8. Engaging with communities, engaging with patients: amendment to the NAPCRG 1998 Policy Statement on Responsible Research With Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michele L; Salsberg, Jon; Knot, Michaela; LeMaster, Joseph W; Felzien, Maret; Westfall, John M; Herbert, Carol P; Vickery, Katherine; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A; Ramsden, Vivian R; Zittleman, Linda; Martin, Ruth Elwood; Macaulay, Ann C

    2017-06-01

    In 1998, the North American Primary Care Research Group (NAPCRG) adopted a groundbreaking Policy Statement endorsing responsible participatory research (PR) with communities. Since that time, PR gained prominence in primary care research. To reconsider the original 1998 Policy Statement in light of increased uptake of PR, and suggest future directions and applications for PR in primary care. This work contributed to an updated Policy Statement endorsed by NAPCRG in 2015. 32 university and 30 community NAPCRG-affiliated research partners, convened a workshop to document lessons learned about implementing processes and principles of PR. This document emerged from that session and reflection and discussion regarding the original Policy Statement, the emerging PR literature, and our own experiences. The foundational principles articulated in the 1998 Policy Statement remain relevant to the current PR environment. Lessons learned since its publication include that the maturation of partnerships is facilitated by participatory processes that support increased community responsibility for research projects, and benefits generated through PR extend beyond research outcomes. Future directions that will move forward the field of PR in primary care include: (i) improve assessment of PR processes to better delineate the links between how PR teams work together and diverse PR outcomes, (ii) increase the number of models incorporating PR into translational research from project inception to dissemination, and (iii) increase application of PR approaches that support patient engagement in clinical settings to patient-provider relationship and practice change research. PR has markedly altered the manner in which primary care research is undertaken in partnership with communities and its principles and philosophies continue to offer means to assure that research results and processes improve the health of all communities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  9. Staff assignment practices in nursing homes: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anna; Straker, Jane K; Manning, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Consistent assignment, whereby nursing home staff members, particularly certified nurse aides, are assigned to the same residents on most shifts, is increasingly viewed as a cornerstone of culture change in nursing homes. It has been advocated as a best-care model that increases residents' quality of life while contributing to a more stable frontline staff. Given these potential benefits, consistent assignment is now widely viewed as superior to rotating assignment, an alternative staffing model that aims to distribute care burden more fairly among staff and ensure that workers are familiar with most residents. Despite favorable anecdotal reports about the benefits of consistent assignment, the research literature reports mixed and sometimes contradictory findings for this staffing practice. This article reviews the research pertaining to staff assignment practices in nursing homes. Reviewed here are 13 reports on experimental trials (6 reports), evaluation research (4 reports), and nursing home surveys (3 reports). The review reveals broad diversity in staffing practices and raises questions that challenge popular assumptions about consistent assignment. The article closes with a discussion of the research, policy, and practice implications of the research findings.

  10. Using tracking infrastructure to support public health programs, policies, and emergency response in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Nancy Loder; McKelvey, Wendy; Matte, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To describe how the New York City (NYC) Tracking Program has used nationally mandated Secure Portal infrastructure and staff analytical expertise to support programs and inform policy. The NYC Health Department assesses, investigates, and acts on a wide range of environmental concerns to protect the health of New Yorkers. Specific examples of highly effective policies or initiatives that relied on the NYC Tracking Program are described, including restaurant sanitary grade posting, rat indexing, converting boilers to cleaner-burning fuels, reducing exposure to mercury from fish and contaminated products, and responding to Superstorm Sandy. The NYC Tracking Program supports the Health Department in using inspectional, administrative, and health data to guide operations. Tracking has also allowed internal and external partners to use these data to guide policy development.

  11. An equity- and sustainability-based policy response to global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.; Wang, Y.-D.; Kim, Jong-dall

    1998-01-01

    In the debate over policy options for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, two precautionary approaches, 'no regrets' and 'insurance' have been proposed. An alternative to these is put forward which adopts an equity and sustainability based approach. It will not be easy to meet the challenge which this approach demands. From wealthy countries it will require a strong commitment to a social policy at home and an economic policy abroad that aims at sharing the ability of humankind to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. In developing countries the necessary improvement in lives and livelihoods must be achieved without repeating the unsustainable environmental and social legacy of the industrial era. (UK)

  12. Four Case Studies on Corporate Social Responsibility: Do Conflicts Affect a Company’s Corporate Social Responsibility Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A. Cedillo Torres

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies four multinationals (Apple, Canon, Coca-Cola, Walmart in relation to their CSR reporting. It will present a general outlook of the company's profile and its compliance with CSR standards. The article will focus on conflict situations concerning the social and environmental CSR practices of the four companies. Coca-Cola was criticized for over-exploiting and polluting water resources in India. Apple, Canon and Walmart were involved in social CSR issues. Walmart was caught using child labour in Bangladesh and has faced gender discrimination charges. In 2010 the media reported on suicides at Foxconn, one of Apple's biggest suppliers. And although Canon did not mention any employee stress-related problems at its factories, they nevertheless occurred.This article will discuss the different CSR issues that emerged within the mentioned multinationals. It will provide a comparison of the companies' CSR reporting before and after the problematic events occurred. The case studies show whether the multinationals acted before a conflict emerged or adapted their CSR policy when the problem was already widely known. Thus, it analyses whether the companies adopted clear and quantifiable policies after the issues occurred. The conclusion points out that the companies not only reported on CSR but that they also adopted long-term commitments. The findings also suggest that the conflicts may have contributed to the adoption of these multinationals' CSR commitments.

  13. Assessment Opt-Out Policies: State Responses to Parent Pushback. ECS Education Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie; Wixom, Micah Ann

    2015-01-01

    With new state assessments kicking into full swing across the country, schools are seeing more and more parents wanting to opt out their children. Determining whether states allow assessment opt-outs can be complex and is constantly evolving. In some states the answer is clear: State policies either allow or prohibit state assessment opt-outs, or…

  14. Governance and Knowledge Transformations in Educational Administration: Greek Responses to Global Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifakakis, Polychronis; Tsatsaroni, Anna; Sarakinioti, Antigone; Kourou, Menie

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the localisation of the global and European discourse of educational governance in the Greek education system through the changes that have been introduced in the field of education administration since 2009 by the then socialist government. Our research aims to contribute to the critical policy literature on the spreading…

  15. Leading Schools of Education in the Context of Academic Capitalism: Deans' Responses to State Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.; Teitelbaum, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    State education policy changes have contributed to a reduced interest in teaching and a decreased enrollment in education degree programs in North Carolina, USA. Pressure to cut budgets and generate revenue has added to a climate of academic capitalism influencing the ways in which deans lead schools of education. The purpose of this mixed-methods…

  16. Perspective on China's one-child family policy: spoiled children? Questions and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, N B

    1987-01-01

    China's 1-child policy has been effective in its objective of limiting population growth, yet the policy never has been imposed rigidly. For example, the policy is less restrictive in rural areas where 80% of the population live. It is argued the workers in the countryside need larger families for production. Between 1986-87, China's birthrate increased from 18/1000 - 21/1000, suggesting an easing of policy restrictions. Some population experts maintain that population increase is not a major problem as long as gross income figures continue to exceed the growth of population. Others indicate that a renewed emphasis on small families may be necessary. Some planners have observed developmental dynamics that have serious implications for traditional social and family values. 1 mental health expert has identified the "spoiled child syndrome," noting that the child in the 1- child family seems to be more dependent, less able to take care of himself/herself, more self-centered yet has a higher intelligence quotient. Parent training classes are now being developed.

  17. Reinterpreting Higher Education Quality in Response to Policies of Mass Education: The Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between mass education, higher education quality and policy development in Australia in the period 2008-2014, during which access to higher education was significantly increased. Over this time, which included a change of national government, the discursive relationship between mass higher education and…

  18. Preservation of Community College Logic: Organizational Responses to State Policies and Funding Practices in Three States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, John S.; Martin, Marie C.; López Damián, Ariadna Isabel; Hoggatt, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: With both policy pressures from state governments, including states' funding behaviors, and the logic of the institution deeply ingrained over decades, community colleges face considerable challenge in reconciling conflicting values and requirements. Yet, as organizations they adapt to survive, and outcomes of adaptation may lead to an…

  19. Labor Force Participation of Older Workers: Prospective Changes and Potential Policy Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favreault, Melissa; Ratcliffe, Caroline; Toder, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation were matched with longitudinal earnings histories and Social Security benefit data to estimate joint work and benefit receipt choices for people age 62 and older. The probability of working is shown to depend on worker characteristics and policy variables. (Author)

  20. Open-Access Colleges Responsible for Greatest Gains in Graduation Rates. Policy Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The largest gains in graduation rates over the past decade have been accomplished at open-access or nearly open-access colleges and universities. In addition, states could see even bigger increases if they directed their policies and supports toward improving graduation rates at these nonselective institutions. These findings from the author's…

  1. Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

  2. Mismatch of wind power capacity and generation: causing factors, GHG emissions and potential policy responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subtil Lacerda, J.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Policies to assure combatting climate change and realising energy security have stimulated a rapid growth in global installed capacity of renewable energy generation. The expansion of power generation from renewables, though, has so far lagged behind the growth in generation capacity. This indicates

  3. Policy Responses to the Recent Poor Performance of the U.S. Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Since the onset of the Great Recession, the U.S. labor market has been reeling. Public concern has largely focused on the unemployment rate, which rose to double digits and has since been stalled at just over 9 percent. This rate is unacceptably high, and macroeconomic policy efforts have been unsuccessful in bringing it down. The overall…

  4. Between Accommodating and Activating: Framing Policy Reforms in Response to Workforce Aging across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Anne C; Vliegenthart, Rens; van Selm, Martine

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, European governments have implemented activating policy reforms to maximize older workers' employment and employability, representing a paradigmatic change in approaches to work and retirement. This study isolates the factors that explain the relative success and failure of competitive frames that are either in favor of or against activating policies in European news coverage, by applying time-series analysis (ordinary least squares with panel-corrected standard errors) to monthly aggregated news coverage in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Spain over the timespan 2006-2013. The results show that pro-activating and counteractivating frames generally coincide in competitive framing environments. The pro-activating frame proliferated in times of high employment protection, whereas the counteractivating frame prevailed stronger in conservative compared with progressive newspapers, and gained momentum during the aftermath of the financial crisis and in times governments on the economic left were in power. The study advances knowledge of competitive issue framing by demonstrating how the economic, policy, and political context matters for the emergence and evolvement of competing frames. In addition, the findings contribute to the understanding of the factors that contribute to news representations that promote active aging in European news, which may foster support for policy reforms that sustain older workers' employability.

  5. Crop yields response to water pressures in the Ebro basin in Spain: risk and water policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, S.; Fernández-Haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

    2011-02-01

    The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro river basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  6. An assessment of market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Goldman, Charles; Ma, Ookie

    2013-01-01

    An impact of increased variable renewable generation is the need for balancing authorities to procure more ancillary services. While demand response resources are technically capable of providing these services, current experience across the U.S. illustrates they are relatively minor players in most regions. Accessing demand response resources for ancillary services may require a number of changes to policies and common practices at multiple levels. Regional reliability councils must first define ancillary services such that demand response resources may provide them. Once the opportunity exists, balancing authorities define and promulgate rules that set the infrastructure investments and performance attributes of a resource wishing to provide such services. These rules also dictate expected revenue streams which reveal the cost effectiveness of these resources. The regulatory compact between utility and state regulators, along with other statutes and decisions by state policymakers, may impact the interest of demand response program providers to pursue these resources as ancillary service providers. This paper identifies within these broad categories specific market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in different wholesale and retail environments, with emphasis on smaller customers who must be aggregated through a program provider to meet minimum size requirements for wholesale transactions. - Highlights: • We identify barriers keeping demand response from providing ancillary services. • Institutional, financial and program provider business model barriers exist. • Product definitions and rules do not always accommodate demand response well. • Expected revenues are uncertain and may not exceed required investments costs. • Regulatory compact and state statutes limit opportunities for program providers

  7. A Statistical Programme Assignment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way  across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly  important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the  plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and  case workers....

  8. A note on ranking assignments using reoptimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, L.R.; Andersen, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...

  9. An algorithm for ranking assignments using reoptimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...... technique. Computational results for the new algorithm are presented...

  10. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are addressing the NCDs situation in Tanzania and identify gaps for advancing the NCD research and policy agenda. A literature search was performed on PubMed and Google scholar with full text retrieval from HINARI of English language articles published between 2000 and 2012. Documents were read to extract information on what Tanzanian actors were doing that contributed to NCDs prevention, treatment, and control, and a narration was written out of these. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were searched for additional relevant articles. Websites of organizations active in the field of NCDs including the Government of Tanzania and WHO were searched for reports and grey literature. Lack of a specific and overarching NCD policy has slowed and fragmented the implementation of existing strategies to prevent and control NCDs and their determinants. The health system is not prepared to deal with the rising NCD burden although there are random initiatives to improve this situation. How the community is responding to these emerging conditions is still unknown, and the current health-seeking behavior and perceptions on the risk factors may not favor control of NCDs and their risk factors. There is limited information on the burden and determinants of NCDs to inform the design of an integrative and multisectorial policy. Evidence on effective interventions for NCD services in primary care levels and on community perceptions on NCDs and their care seeking is virtually absent. Research and public health interventions must be anchored in the policy, health system, and community platforms for a holistic response.

  11. Tweeting for and against public health policy: response to the Chicago Department of Public Health's electronic cigarette Twitter campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Choucair, Bechara; Mansour, Raed; Staub, Mackenzie; Simmons, Kendall

    2014-10-16

    In January 2014, the Chicago City Council scheduled a vote on local regulation of electronic cigarettes as tobacco products. One week prior to the vote, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) released a series of messages about electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) through its Twitter account. Shortly after the messages, or tweets, were released, the department's Twitter account became the target of a "Twitter bomb" by Twitter users sending more than 600 tweets in one week against the proposed regulation. The purpose of our study was to examine the messages and tweet patterns in the social media response to the CDPH e-cigarette campaign. We collected all tweets mentioning the CDPH in the week between the e-cigarette campaign and the vote on the new local e-cigarette policy. We conducted a content analysis of the tweets, used descriptive statistics to examine characteristics of involved Twitter users, and used network visualization and descriptive statistics to identify Twitter users prominent in the conversation. Of the 683 tweets mentioning CDPH during the week, 609 (89.2%) were anti-policy. More than half of anti-policy tweets were about use of electronic cigarettes for cessation as a healthier alternative to combustible cigarettes (358/609, 58.8%). Just over one-third of anti-policy tweets asserted that the health department was lying or disseminating propaganda (224/609, 36.8%). Approximately 14% (96/683, 14.1%) of the tweets used an account or included elements consistent with "astroturfing"-a strategy employed to promote a false sense of consensus around an idea. Few Twitter users were from the Chicago area; Twitter users from Chicago were significantly more likely than expected to tweet in support of the policy. Our findings may assist public health organizations to anticipate, recognize, and respond to coordinated social media campaigns.

  12. The development of new environmental policies and processes in response to a crisis: the case of the multiple barrier approach for safe drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, Ryan; Velaniskis, Jonas; Grosbois, Danuta de; Kreutzwiser, Reid D.; Loe, Rob de

    2010-01-01

    While new environmental policies and procedures often are developed incrementally, they can also result from crises or other significant events. In situations where policies and procedures are introduced in response to a crisis, questions about the strengths and weaknesses of existing mechanisms, and the extent to which they can be used to address concerns, may be ignored. This paper explores the complexities of introducing new policies and processes where planning systems and procedures already exist. Drinking water source protection policies that are being developed in response to the tragic events in Walkerton, Ontario, Canada serve as the context for the inquiry. Three case study watersheds were selected to reflect the diversity of municipal jurisdictions and water supply systems in Ontario. A content analysis was undertaken on regulatory and non-regulatory policy documents to determine the extent to which they addressed elements of the multi-barrier approach for drinking water safety. Findings from the research reveal considerable evidence of the multi-barrier approach in the policy and guiding documents analyzed. Policy development in response to a crisis can advance progress on the issue of drinking water safety and coincide with emerging governance strategies. Policy effectiveness may be enhanced by considering existing policies as well as contextual and jurisdictional differences.

  13. Legitimacy and institutional response strategies of public participation in nuclear policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Ahn, S. K.; Yun, Y. J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes that the approach to nuclear policy system should be changed to the participatory and resilient way from the managerial and anticipatory way. This change is surely reasonable in the point that, firstly, the managerial and anticipatory approach contains the internal weakness of not allowing trials and errors due to its centralized decision making and, secondly, active participation of general public can give a great contribution to the course of decision-making in science and technology as well. However, the expansion of public participation has the risk of falling into the deadlock of unreasonable populism, so the course and procedures of public participation need to be included in the process of decision making in the matter of science and technology systematically. Accordingly, this paper shows the research result on the process of public participation in Europe and suggests the possibility that there can be a balanced and effective system of public participation in nuclear policy making

  14. Labor Force Participation of Older Workers: Prospective Changes and Potential Policy Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Favreault, Melissa; Ratcliffe, Caroline; Toder, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    Increased labor force participation of the elderly can reduce the fiscal and economic stress from the projected aging of the population in the next century. This paper uses Survey of Income and Program Participation data matched with longitudinal earnings histories and Social Security benefit records to estimate joint work and benefit receipt choices for people age 62 and over. The probability of working is shown to depend on both worker characteristics and policy variables, with lower Social...

  15. SOCIAL LEGITIMACY VERSUS BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY POLICIES OF ANDALUSIAN GOLF COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José, Riquel Ligero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts an analysis of organizational motivations when developing policies for environmental liability. Specifically, to compare the production of social legitimacy to the improvement of organizational performance, we proceeded to test two models in a sector which in recent years has opened a wide debate on environmental sustainability. We refer to golf tourism in Andalusia, in which there has been a considerable increase in such facilities. We have used the statistical technique Partial Least Square (PLS.

  16. Domestic policy responses to the food price crisis: The case of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Grethe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In face of the global food crisis of 2007–2008, severe concerns arose about how developing countries would be affected by the extreme short-term fluctuations in international commodity prices. We examine the effects of the crisis on Bolivia, one of the poorest countries of the Americas. We focus on the effectiveness of the domestic policy interventions in preventing spillovers of the development of international food prices to domestic markets. Using a cointegration model, we study price interdependencies of wheat flour, sunflower oil and poultry. The analysis suggests that the policy measures taken had little effect on food security during the food crisis. Throughout the entire period, perfect price transmission between the Bolivian poultry and sunflower oil markets and the respective international reference markets existed. Bolivian prices were determined by international prices and the policy interventions in the markets of these two commodities were not found to have had an effect. The government’s large-scale wheat flour imports did not shield Bolivian consumers from the shocks of international prices.

  17. RUSSIA’S ‘FOREIGN AGENT’ LAW: A RESPONSE TO AMERICAN DEMOCRATIC PROMOTION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently passed the Russian ‘Foreign Agent’ law against foreign funding of NGOs and civil society has attracted criticism from almost every quarter. From home to abroad all party concerned (i.e., civil society organizations, NGO groups, donor countries (especiallyAmericaand European countries as well as some Russian opposition political parties are of the view that this bill has been introduced to scuttle the independent civic activities and in this way unconstitutional. However on the basis of overall analysis of ‘Foreign Agent’ law in the context of American democratic promotion policy this paper is of the view that this law simply cannot be characterized as anti-democratic, which is against the very basis of freedom and rule of law, by the anti-democratic Russian government but it should be seen as extension of same challenge which American democratic promotion policy is facing around the whole world. It is because of its illegal and unconstitutional method of regime change policy, with the help of foreign funded NGOs, and civil society which has compelled various countries includingRussiato resort this type of law. It is important to note that the promise of peace, stability and prosperity by the democratic promotion protagonists after the fall ofSoviet Unionhas not been realised till today. Instead what post-Soviet states are witnessing today is emergence of chauvinist nationalist government in respective countries which witnessed colour revolution. Whole region is now plunging into economic turmoil, ethnic nationalism, rise of religious fundamentalism and identity politics. Recent overthrow of legitimate Viktor Yanukovych government inUkraineand subsequent decision by incumbent government to exclude Russian as administrative language can be sited as example. That is why former American Republican Congressman Ron Paul is of the view that “US‘Democracy Promotion’ Destroys Democracy Overseas’’. In this context this paper

  18. ZAP: a distributed channel assignment algorithm for cognitive radio networks

    OpenAIRE

    Junior , Paulo Roberto ,; Fonseca , Mauro; Munaretto , Anelise; Viana , Aline ,; Ziviani , Artur

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We propose ZAP, an algorithm for the distributed channel assignment in cognitive radio (CR) networks. CRs are capable of identifying underutilized licensed bands of the spectrum, allowing their reuse by secondary users without interfering with primary users. In this context, efficient channel assignment is challenging as ideally it must be simple, incur acceptable communication overhead, provide timely response, and be adaptive to accommodate frequent changes in the network. Another ...

  19. Heat waves and cold spells: an analysis of policy response and perceptions of vulnerable populations in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Wolf; W Neil Adger; Irene Lorenzoni

    2010-01-01

    Heat waves and cold spells pose ongoing seasonal risks to the health and well-being of vulnerable individuals. Current attempts to address these risks in the UK are implemented through fuel-poverty strategies and heat-wave planning. This paper examines evidence from the UK on whether heat waves and cold spells are addressed differently by public policy in the UK given that risks are mediated by similar perceptions that shape behavioural responses by vulnerable individuals. It is based on a re...

  20. Policy responses to the European debt crisis treating the “symptoms” or the “disease”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antzoulatos Angelos A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional narrative for the European debt crisis stresses three factors, namely, bad policies and profligacy in the afflicted countries - mostly southern ones, flaws in the EMU design, and wise policies in the northern frugal countries. This paper argues that the root causes of the crisis lie in the failure of many “safety valves” of market economies, at many levels of the society, both in the crisis countries and in the more “prudent” EMU countries, in an economic environment where unfettered finance can overwhelm even the biggest and best managed economies. Hence, the policy responses based on the conventional narrative are akin to treating the “symptoms”, not the “disease”. As such, they may be setting the foundations for a bigger crisis in the future by strengthening the always-present perverse incentives of many economic players and by proposing complex and unworkable regulatory and supervisory structures. This, together with the unequal sharing of the burden of adjustment - both across and within countries, bodes ill for the long-term prospects of EMU, despite that the aforementioned failures are not intrinsically related to the euro.

  1. Using HL7 in hospital staff assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unluturk, Mehmet S

    2014-02-01

    Hospital staff assignments are the instructions that allocate the hospital staff members to the hospital beds. Currently, hospital administrators make the assignments without accessing the information regarding the occupancy of the hospital beds and the acuity of the patient. As a result, administrators cannot distinguish between occupied and unoccupied beds, and may therefore assign staff to unoccupied beds. This gives rise to uneven and inefficient staff assignments. In this paper, the hospital admission-discharge-transfer (ADT) system is employed both as a data source and an assignment device to create staff assignments. When the patient data is newly added or modified, the ADT system updates the assignment software client with the relevant data. Based on the relevant data, the assignment software client is able to construct staff assignments in a more efficient way. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: perceptions, problems, and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; McGuire, Amy L

    2012-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing has attracted a great amount of attention from policy makers, the scientific community, professional groups, and the media. Although it is unclear what the public demand is for these services, there does appear to be public interest in personal genetic risk information. As a result, many commentators have raised a variety of social, ethical, and regulatory issues associated with this emerging industry, including privacy issues, ensuring that DTC companies provide accurate information about the risks and limitations of their services, the possible adverse impact of DTC genetic testing on healthcare systems, and concern about how individuals may interpret and react to genetic risk information.

  3. Energy Conservation Guidebook : to be Used in Conjunction with the Energy Conservation Policies October 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    This guidebook is an instrument for implementing BPA`s Energy Conservation Policies established through the concensus of the four Area Office Managers and the Assistant Administrator for the Office of Energy Resources. As technical support for, and elaboration of, the Energy Conservation Policies, the Guidebook follows the format of the Policies themselves. The Guidebook tackles each section of the Policies in order, again assigning roles and responsibilities where appropriate, enlarging on policy issues and, where appropriate, outlining data considerations. The sections in order are: conservation load reduction, cost-effectiveness limits, BA management targets, consumer contributions, utility contribution, program verification, and program evaluation.

  4. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and policy coordination - first annual report, June 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This is the first annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, by Dr. George A. Keyworth, II, Science Advisor to the President and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). CIRRPC replaced the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET). Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy

  5. Agricultural Intensification in the Brazilian Agricultural-Forest Frontier: Land Use Responses to Development and Conservation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, R.; Koh, I.; le Polain de Waroux, Y.; Lambin, E.; Kastens, J.; Brown, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural expansion, extensive cattle ranching, and deforestation remain pressing challenges for sustainable development and climate mitigation throughout South America. In response to these challenges, national and local governments, as well as private and non-governmental actors have developed new forest conservation governance mechanisms. The objective of this study is to better understand how conservation policies interact with supply chain development to influence land use. In particular, we endeavor to understand the timing and spatial patterns of crop and cattle intensification, an understudied phenomenon that is critical to understanding the future of agricultural-forest frontiers and the impacts of conservation policies. We focus on Mato Grosso, the largest soy and cattle producing state in Brazil, which spans the Cerrado and Amazon biomes and has experienced higher levels of deforestation for agricultural expansion than any other state globally over the last decade. Using a newly created spatially explicit data set of land use intensity, supply chain development, and forest policy, we find that agricultural intensification is occurring rapidly in the region, but is only partially driven by changes in conservation policies. The intensification of cattle production is the result of improvements in deforestation monitoring, penalties, and enforcement, and increased land scarcity. Crop intensification, in contrast, preceded increases in conservation restrictions, and is associated with the positive spillovers resulting from agribusiness agglomeration and development. These results suggest that intensification is not a foregone conclusion of increasing forest conservation restrictions, but is highly dependent on wider development processes. A combined effort to direct agribusiness development away from forest regions via tax credits and subsidized credit, when applied in concert with stringent conservation requirements, could help promote intensification

  6. Health Care Market Concentration Trends In The United States: Evidence And Policy Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Brent D

    2017-09-01

    Policy makers and analysts have been voicing concerns about the increasing concentration of health care providers and health insurers in markets nationwide, including the potential adverse effect on the cost and quality of health care. The Council of Economic Advisers recently expressed its concern about the lack of estimates of market concentration in many sectors of the US economy. To address this gap in health care, this study analyzed market concentration trends in the United States from 2010 to 2016 for hospitals, physician organizations, and health insurers. Hospital and physician organization markets became increasingly concentrated over this time period. Concentration among primary care physicians increased the most, partially because hospitals and health care systems acquired primary care physician organizations. In 2016, 90 percent of Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) were highly concentrated for hospitals, 65 percent for specialist physicians, 39 percent for primary care physicians, and 57 percent for insurers. Ninety-one percent of the 346 MSAs analyzed may have warranted concern and scrutiny because of their concentration levels in 2016 and changes in their concentrations since 2010. Public policies that enhance competition are needed, such as stricter enforcement of antitrust laws, reducing barriers to entry, and restricting anticompetitive behaviors. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Maori challenges and crown responsibilities: Maori policymaker ideas on smokefree policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Heather; Parata, Kiri; Thomson, George

    2010-11-26

    To determine obstacles/opportunities within policy processes, for smokefree interventions appropriate to Maori. In particular, to explore Maori policymakers' ideas on how to achieve progress on smokefree homes, cars and community property. Documents and interviews with 16 senior Maori officials and Members of Parliament, and nine interviews in two case studies, were used to explore Maori policymakers' ideas for (i) Progress, within relevant policy processes, on smoking in homes, cars and community property; (ii) Particular interventions that the interviewees felt were most and least effective, practical, sustainable, politically feasible or desirable in some way; (iii) The context, and obstacles and opportunities for such interventions. The case studies were of a Maori health service and a group of Maori District Health Board managers. Several key themes emerged from the research including, (i) children as drivers for change, (ii) strong national and local indigenous leadership needed for change, (iii) delivering smokefree messages as part of wider healthy living approaches, (iv) targeting of the messages for greatest impact for Maori, (v) need for a Maori approach, not a general approach, (vi) central and local government having a significant role in the prevention of tobacco harm, (vii) ideas on how tobacco tax revenue should be spent on tobacco control, and (viii) the rights of children to smokefree environments. Results indicate that indigenous specific approaches and indigenous leadership are critical for Maori tobacco-free advances. Harnessing indigenous values and principles related to health, family and children was the preferred method of these Maori policymakers for delivering social marketing messages.

  8. Macro policy responses to oil booms and busts in the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutawa, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of oil shocks and macro policy changes in the United Arab Emirates are analyzed. A theoretical model is developed within the framework of the Dutch Disease literature. It contains four unique features that are applicable to the United Arab Emirates' economy. There are: (1) the presence of a large foreign labor force; (2) OPEC's oil export quotas; (3) the division of oil profits; and (4) the important role of government expenditures. The model is then used to examine the welfare effects of the above-mentioned shocks. An econometric model is then specified that conforms to the analytical model. In the econometric model the method of 'principal components' is applied owing to the undersized sample data. The principal components methodology is used in both the identification testing and the estimation of the structural equations. The oil and macro policy shocks are then simulated. The simulation results show that an oil-quantity boom leads to a higher welfare gain than an oil-price boom. Under certain circumstances, this finding is also confirmed by the comparative statistics that follow from the analytical model

  9. Nonlinear dynamics in ecosystem response to climatic change: Case studies and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Stottlemyer, Robert; Barrow, Wylie; Fagre, Dan; Baron, Jill S.; Price, Jeff; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Allen, Craig D.; Peterson, David L.; Ruggerone, Greg; Doyle, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Many biological, hydrological, and geological processes are interactively linked in ecosystems. These ecological phenomena normally vary within bounded ranges, but rapid, nonlinear changes to markedly different conditions can be triggered by even small differences if threshold values are exceeded. Intrinsic and extrinsic ecological thresholds can lead to effects that cascade among systems, precluding accurate modeling and prediction of system response to climate change. Ten case studies from North America illustrate how changes in climate can lead to rapid, threshold-type responses within ecological communities; the case studies also highlight the role of human activities that alter the rate or direction of system response to climate change. Understanding and anticipating nonlinear dynamics are important aspects of adaptation planning since responses of biological resources to changes in the physical climate system are not necessarily proportional and sometimes, as in the case of complex ecological systems, inherently nonlinear.

  10. Policy responses to hepatitis C in the Nordic countries: Gaps and discrepant reporting in the Hep-Nordic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Safreed-Harmon

    Full Text Available In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID. We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the extent to which these countries have policies supporting key elements of the public health response that is necessary to achieve the global goal of eliminating HCV as a public health threat.Fourteen stakeholders representing government agencies, medical societies, and civil society organisations (CSOs in the Nordic countries completed a cross-sectional online survey that included 21 policy questions related to national coordination, prevention, testing, linkage to care, and treatment. We summarised the findings in a descriptive analysis, and noted discrepant responses from stakeholders within the same country.Stakeholders reported that three of the five study countries have national viral hepatitis strategies, while only Iceland has a national HCV elimination goal. The availability of harm reduction services varies, with opioid substitution therapy provided for the general population throughout all countries, but not needle and syringe programmes. No country has access to anonymous HCV testing in all parts of the country. National HCV treatment guidelines are available in all countries except Finland, and all countries provide publicly funded direct-acting antiviral treatment. Disagreement regarding policies was observed across countries, and CSOs were the stakeholder group that most frequently answered survey questions incorrectly.The Nordic region as a whole has not consistently expressed its commitment to tackling HCV, despite the existence of large HCV epidemics among PWID in these countries. Stakeholder alignment and an established elimination goal with an accompanying strategy and implementation plan should be recognised as the basis for coordinated national

  11. Policy responses to hepatitis C in the Nordic countries: Gaps and discrepant reporting in the Hep-Nordic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Hetherington, Kristina L; Aleman, Soo; Alho, Hannu; Dalgard, Olav; Frisch, Tove; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Weis, Nina; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2018-01-01

    In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden), the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the extent to which these countries have policies supporting key elements of the public health response that is necessary to achieve the global goal of eliminating HCV as a public health threat. Fourteen stakeholders representing government agencies, medical societies, and civil society organisations (CSOs) in the Nordic countries completed a cross-sectional online survey that included 21 policy questions related to national coordination, prevention, testing, linkage to care, and treatment. We summarised the findings in a descriptive analysis, and noted discrepant responses from stakeholders within the same country. Stakeholders reported that three of the five study countries have national viral hepatitis strategies, while only Iceland has a national HCV elimination goal. The availability of harm reduction services varies, with opioid substitution therapy provided for the general population throughout all countries, but not needle and syringe programmes. No country has access to anonymous HCV testing in all parts of the country. National HCV treatment guidelines are available in all countries except Finland, and all countries provide publicly funded direct-acting antiviral treatment. Disagreement regarding policies was observed across countries, and CSOs were the stakeholder group that most frequently answered survey questions incorrectly. The Nordic region as a whole has not consistently expressed its commitment to tackling HCV, despite the existence of large HCV epidemics among PWID in these countries. Stakeholder alignment and an established elimination goal with an accompanying strategy and implementation plan should be recognised as the basis for coordinated national public health

  12. Public Policy Issues Associated with Tsunami Hazard Mitigation, Response and Recovery: Transferable Lessons from Recent Global Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2004, a sequence of devastating tsunamis has taken the lives of more than 300,000 people worldwide. The path of destruction left by each is typically measured in hundreds of meters to a few kilometers and its breadth can extend for hundreds even thousands of kilometers, crossing towns and countries and even traversing an entire oceanic basin. Tsunami disasters in Indonesia, Chile, Japan and elsewhere have also shown that the almost binary nature of tsunami impacts can present some unique risk reduction, response, recovery and rebuilding challenges, with transferable lessons to other tsunami vulnerable coastal communities around the world. In particular, the trauma can motivate survivors to relocate homes, jobs, and even whole communities to safer ground, sometimes at tremendous social and financial costs. For governments, the level of concentrated devastation usually exceeds the local capacity to respond and thus requires complex inter-governmental arrangements with regional, national and even international partners to support the recovery of impacted communities, infrastructure and economies. Two parallel projects underway in California since 2011—the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario project and the California Tsunami Policy Working Group (CTPWG)—have worked to digest key lessons from recent tsunami disasters, with an emphasis on identifying gaps to be addressed in the current state and federal policy framework to enhance tsunami risk awareness, hazard mitigation, and response and recovery planning ahead of disaster and also improve post-disaster implementation practices following a future California or U.S. tsunami event.

  13. The next 5 years of global HIV/AIDS policy: critical gaps and strategies for effective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Greg

    2008-08-01

    The University of California, Los Angeles Program in Global Health performed a landscape analysis based on interviews conducted between November 2006 and February 2007 with 35 key informants from major international organizations conducting HIV/AIDS work. Institutions represented included multilateral organizations, foundations, and governmental and non-governmental organizations. The purpose of this analysis is to assist major foundations and other institutions to understand better the international HIV/AIDS policy landscape and to formulate research and development programmes that can make a significant contribution to moving important issues forward in the HIV/AIDS policy arena. Topics identified during the interviews were organized around the four major themes of the Ford Foundation's Global HIV/AIDS Initiative: leadership and leadership development; equity; accountability; and global partnerships. Key informants focused on the need for a visionary response to the HIV pandemic, the need to maintain momentum, ways to improve the scope of leadership development programmes, ideas for improving gender equity and addressing regional disparities and the needs of vulnerable populations, recommendations for strengthening accountability mechanisms among governments, foundations, and civil society and on calling for increased collaboration and partnership among key players in the global HIV/AIDS response.

  14. Integrated assignment and path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  15. Eliciting a policy response for the rising epidemic of overweight-obesity in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, S; Reddy, K S

    2013-11-01

    India is experiencing multiple transitions with respect to nutrition patterns, epidemiology and demography. Along with staggering childhood undernutrition, a rapid rise in chronic diseases and their risk factors including overweight-obesity (O-O), among all sections of society, is compounding India's health challenges. We present an overview of the O-O scenario (prevalence, determinants) and profile existing initiatives to address this modifiable risk factor in India. Urgent attention from all sectors, committed resources, policy support and targeted actions are warranted to combat the dual burden of malnutrition. The health systems should be reoriented and strengthened, in addition to enabling actions in other sectors, to address prevention and control of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors like O-O. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Current account imbalances in the EMU: An assessment of official policy responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodig Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To handle the sovereign debt crisis in general and macroeconomic imbalances in particular the leading EU institutions and the Troika (European Central Bank, European Commission and International Monetary Fund adopted two broad approaches: The short-term approach is based on enhancing the Stability and Growth Pact and to impose fiscal austerity on crisis countries. The medium- to long-term strategy consists of internal devaluation via reducing wage costs. Both approaches were combined with structural adjustment programs in the spirit of the Washington Consensus. The Troika’s policy implies an asymmetric adjustment process burdening only crisis countries. It led to the shrinking of demand and output in crisis countries comparable to the Great Depression and brought the European Monetary Union to the edge of deflation. These polices must be judged as mislead increasing the risk of Japanese disease with more than one lost decade.

  17. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries in response to the global financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Leopold, Christine; de Joncheere, Kees

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze which pharmaceutical policies European countries applied during the global financial crisis. We undertook a survey with officials from public authorities for pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement of 33 European countries represented in the PPRI (Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information) network based on a questionnaire. The survey was launched in September 2010 and repeated in February 2011 to obtain updated information. During the survey period from January 2010 to February 2011, 89 measures were identified in 23 of the 33 countries surveyed which were implemented to contain public medicines expenditure. Price reductions, changes in the co-payments, in the VAT rates on medicines and in the distribution margins were among the most common measures. More than a dozen countries reported measures under discussion or planned, for the remaining year 2011 and beyond. The largest number of measures were implemented in Iceland, the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), Greece, Spain and Portugal, which were hit by the crisis at different times. Cost-containment has been an issue for high-income countries in Europe - no matter if hit by the crisis or not. In recent months, changes in pharmaceutical policies were reported from 23 European countries. Measures which can be implemented rather swiftly (e.g. price cuts, changes in co-payments and VAT rates on medicines) were among the most frequent measures. While the "crisis countries" (e.g. Baltic states, Greece, Spain) reacted with a bundle of measures, reforms in other countries (e.g. Poland, Germany) were not directly linked to the crisis, but also aimed at containing public spending. Since further reforms are under way, we recommend that the monitoring exercise is continued.

  18. Forecasting imbalances in the global health labor market and devising policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Campbell, James; Cometto, Giorgio; Maeda, Akiko; Liu, Jenny; Bruckner, Tim A; Arnold, Daniel R; Evans, Tim

    2018-01-11

    The High-Level Commission on Health Employment and Economic Growth released its report to the United Nations Secretary-General in September 2016. It makes important recommendations that are based on estimates of over 40 million new health sector jobs by 2030 in mostly high- and middle-income countries and a needs-based shortage of 18 million, mostly in low- and middle-income countries. This paper shows how these key findings were developed, the global policy dilemmas they raise, and relevant policy solutions. Regression analysis is used to produce estimates of health worker need, demand, and supply. Projections of health worker need, demand, and supply in 2030 are made under the assumption that historical trends continue into the future. To deliver essential health services required for the universal health coverage target of the Sustainable Development Goal 3, there will be a need for almost 45 million health workers in 2013 which is projected to reach almost 53 million in 2030 (across 165 countries). This results in a needs-based shortage of almost 17 million in 2013. The demand-based results suggest a projected demand of 80 million health workers by 2030. Demand-based analysis shows that high- and middle-income countries will have the economic capacity to employ tens of millions additional health workers, but they could face shortages due to supply not keeping up with demand. By contrast, low-income countries will face both low demand for and supply of health workers. This means that even if countries are able to produce additional workers to meet the need threshold, they may not be able to employ and retain these workers without considerably higher economic growth, especially in the health sector.

  19. Sweetening of the global diet, particularly beverages: patterns, trends, and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Hawkes, Corinna

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that excessive intake of added sugars has adverse effects on cardiometabolic health, which is consistent with many reviews and consensus reports from WHO and other unbiased sources. 74% of products in the US food supply contain caloric or low-calorie sweeteners, or both. Of all packaged foods and beverages purchased by a nationally representative sample of US households in 2013, 68% (by proportion of calories) contain caloric sweeteners and 2% contain low-calorie sweeteners. We believe that in the absence of intervention, the rest of the world will move towards this pervasiveness of added sugars in the food supply. Our analysis of trends in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages around the world, in terms of calories sold per person per day and volume sold per person per day, shows that the four regions with the highest consumption are North America, Latin America, Australasia, and western Europe. The fastest absolute growth in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages by country in 2009-14 was seen in Chile. We believe that action is needed to tackle the high levels and continuing growth in sales of such beverages worldwide. Many governments have initiated actions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in the past few years, including taxation (eg, in Mexico); reduction of their availability in schools; restrictions on marketing of sugary foods to children; public awareness campaigns; and positive and negative front-of-pack labelling. In our opinion, evidence of the effectiveness of these actions shows that they are moving in the right direction, but governments should view them as a learning process and improve their design over time. A key challenge for policy makers and researchers is the absence of a consensus on the relation of beverages containing low-calorie sweeteners and fruit juices with cardiometabolic outcomes, since decisions about whether these are healthy substitutes for sugar-sweetened beverages are an integral part of policy

  20. New constraints on mobility in Europe: Policy response to European crises or constitutional ambiguity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Jędrzejowska-Schiffauer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of recent measures undertaken by the governments of some European Union Member States such as the United Kingdom, Germany and Poland as well as of non-EU European countries such as Switzerland in order to face growing concerns in the public opinion with the increase of transnational migration flows on European continent. The authors analyse selected legislative, regulatory and administrative measures motivated by objectives of migration policy or affecting the mobility of workers, taken in the aftermath of the economic and financial crisis. They argue that, albeit political discourse unfavourable on immigration and migrant workers has become the mainstream in some countries, the measures taken by national governments and legislators seldom involve direct constraints on the free movement of workers which is safeguarded by EU treaty provisions. However, concrete examples illustrate that access of such workers to social security benefits has been restricted through making use of certain derogations from the principle of equal treatment allowed under EU law. In some cases national legislators had to abandon plans to limit directly the free movement of workers, because the envisaged provisions were incompatible with the EU Treaties. With regard to social security, regulatory measures and administrative actions may have effectively implemented national policy concerns with large-scale migration movements. In general, it could be concluded that the European Union, while struggling against multiple crises, has taken a not fully favourable approach to free movement and migration of EU citizens. The present political climate unfavourable to intra-European migration may be understood, from the perspective of historical analysis, as an expression of constitutional ambiguity underlying the European Union’s normative framework, consisting in a gap between its formally recognised noble values and the mentalities

  1. Integrating Graphing Assignments into a Money and Banking Course Using FRED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveley-O'Carroll, James

    2018-01-01

    Over the course of one semester, six empirical assignments that utilize FRED are used to introduce students of money and banking courses to the economic analysis required for the conduct of monetary policy. The first five assignments cover the following topics: inflation, bonds and stocks, monetary aggregates, the Taylor rule, and employment.…

  2. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  3. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  4. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones.

  5. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ZAP: a distributed channel assignment algorithm for cognitive radio networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munaretto Anelise

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose ZAP, an algorithm for the distributed channel assignment in cognitive radio (CR networks. CRs are capable of identifying underutilized licensed bands of the spectrum, allowing their reuse by secondary users without interfering with primary users. In this context, efficient channel assignment is challenging as ideally it must be simple, incur acceptable communication overhead, provide timely response, and be adaptive to accommodate frequent changes in the network. Another challenge is the optimization of network capacity through interference minimization. In contrast to related work, ZAP addresses these challenges with a fully distributed approach based only on local (neighborhood knowledge, while significantly reducing computational costs and the number of messages required for channel assignment. Simulations confirm the efficiency of ZAP in terms of (i the performance tradeoff between different metrics and (ii the fast achievement of a suitable assignment solution regardless of network size and density.

  7. Subcarrier Group Assignment for MC-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Ngoc Tho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two interference-based subcarrier group assignment strategies in dynamic resource allocation are proposed for MC-CDMA wireless systems to achieve high throughput in a multicell environment. Least interfered group assignment (LIGA selects for each session the subcarrier group on which the user receives the minimum interference, while best channel ratio group assignment (BCRGA chooses the subcarrier group with the largest channel response-to-interference ratio. Both analytical framework and simulation model are developed for evaluation of throughput distribution of the proposed schemes. An iterative approach is devised to handle the complex interdependency between multicell interference profiles in the throughput analysis. Illustrative results show significant throughput improvement offered by the interference-based assignment schemes for MC-CDMA multicell wireless systems. In particular, under low loading conditions, LIGA renders the best performance. However, as the load increases BCRGA tends to offer superior performance.

  8. Subcarrier Group Assignment for MC-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho Le-Ngoc

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Two interference-based subcarrier group assignment strategies in dynamic resource allocation are proposed for MC-CDMA wireless systems to achieve high throughput in a multicell environment. Least interfered group assignment (LIGA selects for each session the subcarrier group on which the user receives the minimum interference, while best channel ratio group assignment (BCRGA chooses the subcarrier group with the largest channel response-to-interference ratio. Both analytical framework and simulation model are developed for evaluation of throughput distribution of the proposed schemes. An iterative approach is devised to handle the complex interdependency between multicell interference profiles in the throughput analysis. Illustrative results show significant throughput improvement offered by the interference-based assignment schemes for MC-CDMA multicell wireless systems. In particular, under low loading conditions, LIGA renders the best performance. However, as the load increases BCRGA tends to offer superior performance.

  9. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.255 Section... Assignment option. (a) A mortgagee holding a mortgage insured pursuant to a conditional or firm commitment issued on or before November 30, 1983 has the option to assign, transfer and deliver to the Commissioner...

  10. 24 CFR 221.770 - Assignment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.770 Section... § 221.770 Assignment option. A mortgagee holding a conditional or firm commitment issued on or before... mortgagee's approved underwriter on or before November 30, 1983) has the option to assign, transfer and...

  11. Solving the rectangular assignment problem and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, J.; Volgenant, A.

    2010-01-01

    The rectangular assignment problem is a generalization of the linear assignment problem (LAP): one wants to assign a number of persons to a smaller number of jobs, minimizing the total corresponding costs. Applications are, e.g., in the fields of object recognition and scheduling. Further, we show

  12. Corporate social responsibility and policy making: what role does communication play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication is of central importance for business and public authorities to make substantial progress on the sustainability ladder. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is about the contribution of business to sustainability, and stakeholder theory is an integral concept of CSR. The literature

  13. European Union's Policy on Corporate Social Responsibility and Opportunities for the Maritime Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission encourages EU member states to promote corporate social responsibility (CSR) among national industries. Several EU member states have responded by legislation on CSR reporting and CSR action plans and strategies. This paper discusses the profitability of CSR and addresses...

  14. Making Demand Response a Reality in Europe: Policy, Regulations, and Deployment Status

    OpenAIRE

    Lamprinos, Ilias; Hatziargyriou, Nikos D.; Kokos, Isidoros; Dimeas, Aris Dimeas

    2016-01-01

    Power systems undergo massive operational and technological changes amid increasing demand for environmental sustainability and energy efficiency. The traditional, supplydriven approach, relying on large-scale generation plants, which has dominated old utilities, is reconsidered to incorporate the increased penetration of variable renewable energy sources, distributed generation and storage. Demand Response is an important instrument for improving energy efficiency, since it increases consume...

  15. Implementation of School Choice Policy: Interpretation and Response by Parents of Students with Special Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Woods, Philip A.; Woods, Glenys

    2001-01-01

    Provides empirically based insights into preferences, perceptions, and responses of parents of students with special education needs to the 1990s restructured school system in England. Uses analyses of quantitative/qualitative data generated by a large-scale research study on school choice. Reveals depth and range of problems encountered by these…

  16. Coal consumption, CO2 emission and economic growth in China: Empirical evidence and policy responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Harry; Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa; Salim, Ruhul

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between coal consumption and income in China using both supply-side and demand-side frameworks. Cointegration and vector error correction modeling show that there is a unidirectional causality running from coal consumption to output in both the short and long run under the supply-side analysis, while there is also a unidirectional causality running from income to coal consumption in the short and long run under the demand-side analysis. The results also reveal that there is bi-directional causality between coal consumption and pollutant emission both in the short and long run. Hence, it is very difficult for China to pursue a greenhouse gas abatement policy through reducing coal consumption. Switching to greener energy sources might be a possible alternative in the long run. - Highlights: ► Both supply-side and demand-side frameworks are used. ► Unidirectional causality from coal consumption to output in supply-side analysis. ► Unidirectional causality from income to coal consumption in demand-side analysis. ► Bi-directional causality between coal consumption and pollutant emission.

  17. Explaining Policy Responses to Danish and Irish Banking Failures during the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2013-01-01

    ) variations in domestic exposure to the financial industry, notably its relative size, dominant business models and exposure to real estate markets and 2) variations in institutional features, notably banking sector preferences and legacies of collective action. While limited explanatory power can......The 2008 global financial crisis produced very different responses in Ireland and Denmark. While both countries embraced depositor guarantee schemes and recapitalization programmes, these were designed and adopted in significantly different ways. Crucially, the Irish state initially assumed full...

  18. Conscientious objection and refusal to provide reproductive healthcare: a White Paper examining prevalence, health consequences, and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Wendy; Leitman, Liddy; Polin, Kate

    2013-12-01

    Global Doctors for Choice-a transnational network of physician advocates for reproductive health and rights-began exploring the phenomenon of conscience-based refusal of reproductive healthcare as a result of increasing reports of harms worldwide. The present White Paper examines the prevalence and impact of such refusal and reviews policy efforts to balance individual conscience, autonomy in reproductive decision making, safeguards for health, and professional medical integrity. The White Paper draws on medical, public health, legal, ethical, and social science literature published between 1998 and 2013 in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. Estimates of prevalence are difficult to obtain, as there is no consensus about criteria for refuser status and no standardized definition of the practice, and the studies have sampling and other methodologic limitations. The White Paper reviews these data and offers logical frameworks to represent the possible health and health system consequences of conscience-based refusal to provide abortion; assisted reproductive technologies; contraception; treatment in cases of maternal health risk and inevitable pregnancy loss; and prenatal diagnosis. It concludes by categorizing legal, regulatory, and other policy responses to the practice. Empirical evidence is essential for varied political actors as they respond with policies or regulations to the competing concerns at stake. Further research and training in diverse geopolitical settings are required. With dual commitments toward their own conscience and their obligations to patients' health and rights, providers and professional medical/public health societies must lead attempts to respond to conscience-based refusal and to safeguard reproductive health, medical integrity, and women's lives. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 'Healthy Ageing' policies and anti-ageing ideologies and practices: on the exercise of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Beatriz

    2008-12-01

    This paper explores how the exercise of the ethics of 'responsibility' for health care advanced through 'healthy ageing' and 'successful ageing' narratives in Western countries animates an array of 'authorities', including the 'anti-ageing medicine' movement as a strategy to address the anxieties of growing old in Western societies and as a tool to exercise the ethos of 'responsibility'. The choice of this type of authority as a source of guidance for self-constitution and the exercise of the 'responsible self', this paper will argue, enables the enactment of a type of late modernity notion of citizenship for ageing individuals based on principles of agelessness, health, independence and consumption power. Through interviews with anti-ageing consumers, however, it is also possible to argue the existence of tensions and contradictions that such a rigid model of self-constitution in later life produces, and the potential forms of resistance and contestations that may emerge as a result. In this way the current 'war on anti-ageing medicine' (Vincent 2003) becomes also symptomatic of bigger 'wars' taking place not only between institutions competing for control over knowledge and management of ageing, but between those in favour and against the homogenisation of life under the language of universal science, reason and market rationality.

  20. News media coverage of trans fat: health risks and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L

    2013-01-01

    Prior research indicates that the news media play a critical role in transmitting information to the public about the most pressing public health problems, and framing attributions about who in society is responsible for solving these problems. In this article, we use content analysis methods to study the agenda-setting and framing functions of the news media in shaping perceptions about the health risks posed by trans fat in the U.S. diet. A census of news stories focusing on trans fat was collected from the two largest circulation U.S. newspapers and three major television networks from 1998 to 2008 (N = 156). The content of news coverage was analyzed using a 23-item instrument. Findings indicated that the news media served an important agenda-setting role in educating the public about the presence of trans fat in the U.S. diet and describing the health risks these foods pose. In addition, results indicate that news media coverage framed attributions of responsibility for solving the problem of trans fat in the food supply. News stories noting the heart disease risks of trans fat were significantly more likely to mention governmental responses aimed at curbing consumption than news coverage that did not note these health risks.

  1. The role of scientists in acid mine drainage policy response in Gauteng, South Africa: Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . This government response came after considerable publicity in the media and threats of legal action by NGOs. • Complexity: historical link between government and mines, lack of inter-departmental coordination, scientific uncertainty, many actors involved... stream_source_info Funke3_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6180 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Funke3_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 The role of scientists in Acid Mine...

  2. Outbound medical tourism from Mongolia: a qualitative examination of proposed domestic health system and policy responses to this trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Byambaa, Tsogtbaatar; Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Janes, Craig; Ewan, Melanie

    2015-05-03

    Medical tourism is the practice of traveling across international boundaries in order to access medical care. Residents of low-to-middle income countries with strained or inadequate health systems have long traveled to other countries in order to access procedures not available in their home countries and to take advantage of higher quality care elsewhere. In Mongolia, for example, residents are traveling to China, Japan, Thailand, South Korea, and other countries for care. As a result of this practice, there are concerns that travel abroad from Mongolia and other countries risks impoverishing patients and their families. In this paper, we present findings from 15 interviews with Mongolian medical tourism stakeholders about the impacts of, causes of, and responses to outbound medical tourism. These findings were developed using a case study methodology that also relied on tours of health care facilities and informal discussions with citizens and other stakeholders during April, 2012. Based on these findings, health policy changes are needed to address the outflow of Mongolian medical tourists. Key areas for reform include increasing funding for the Mongolian health system and enhancing the efficient use of these funds, improving training opportunities and incentives for health workers, altering the local culture of care to be more supportive of patients, and addressing concerns of corruption and favouritism in the health system. While these findings are specific to the Mongolian health system, other low-to-middle income countries experiencing outbound medical tourism will benefit from consideration of how these findings apply to their own contexts. As medical tourism is increasing in visibility globally, continued research on its impacts and context-specific policy responses are needed.

  3. Fairness and Respect in Obesity Prevention Policies: A Response to David Buchanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine King

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his response to our article (1,2, David Buchanan introduces some useful and important distinctions in the concepts of equality and autonomy. He highlights, for example, the distinction between inequality and inequity, which captures the insight that not all differences between people are unjust. Unjust inequalities are a subset of differences between people, and theories of justice can be defined by how they determine which of these differences are unjust. In addition, he points out that autonomy is not simply a matter of negative liberty, but also about a positive capacity to act. This understanding of autonomy is consistent with the account we offered in the paper, which underlines the importance of both the capacity to understand available options, and the capacity to act on the choices that one makes.

  4. Understanding policy research in liminal spaces: Think tank responses to diverging principles of legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLevey, John

    2015-04-01

    Research on scientific, social scientific, and technical knowledge is increasingly focused on changes in institutionalized fields, such as the commercialization of university-based knowledge. Much less is known about how organizations produce and promote knowledge in the 'thick boundaries' between fields. In this article, I draw on 53 semi-structured interviews with Canadian think-tank executives, researchers, research fellows, and communication officers to understand how think-tank knowledge work is linked to the liminal spaces between institutionalized fields. First, although think-tank knowledge work has a broadly utilitarian epistemic culture, there are important differences between organizations that see intellectual simplicity and political consistency as the most important marker of credibility, versus those that emphasize inconsistency. A second major difference is between think tanks that argue for the separation of research and communication strategies and those that conflate them from beginning to end, arguably subordinating research to demands from more powerful fields. Finally, think tanks display different degrees of instrumentalism toward the public sphere, with some seeking publicity as an end in itself and others using it as a means to influence elite or public opinion. Together, we can see these differences as responses to diverging principles of legitimacy.

  5. How private car purchasing trends offset efficiency gains and the successful energy policy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O Gallachoir, Brian P.; Howley, Martin; Cunningham, Stephen; Bazilian, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, energy-related CO 2 emissions from transport energy in Ireland were 168% above 1990 levels. Private cars were responsible for approx 45% of transport energy demand in 2006 (excluding fuel tourism). The average annual growth of new cars between 1990 and 2006 was 5.2%. This paper focuses on these new cars entering the private car fleet, in particular the purchasing trend towards larger size cars. This has considerably offset the improvements in the technical efficiency of individual car models. The analysis was carried out on the detailed data of each individual new vehicle entering the fleet in 2000-2006. The average CO 2 emissions per kilometre for new petrol cars entering the Irish fleet grew from 166 to 168 g CO 2 /km from 2000 to 2005 and reduced to 164 in 2006. For diesel cars the average reduced from 166 in 2000 to 161 in 2006. The paper also discusses how a recent change in vehicle registration taxation and annual motor tax had a significant impact purchasing trends by supporting lower emission vehicles. Cars with emissions up to 155 g CO 2 /km represented 41% of new private cars sold in Ireland in 2007 compared with 84% during the period July-November 2008.

  6. Policy and regulatory responses to dual practice in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prado, Ariadna; González, Paula

    2007-12-01

    Physician dual practice is a widespread phenomenon which has implications for the equity, efficiency and quality of health care provision. Central to the analysis of physician dual practice is the trade-off between its benefits and costs, as well as the convenience of regulating it to undermine its adverse consequences. In this paper, we study and analyze different governmental responses to this activity. We find that internationally, there are wide variations in how governments tackle this issue. While some governments fully prohibit this practice, others regulate or restrict dual job holding with different intensities and regulatory instruments. The measures implemented include limiting the income physicians can earn through dual job holding, offering work benefits to physicians in exchange for their working exclusively in the public sector, raising public salaries, and allowing physicians to perform private practice at public facilities. We present the pros and cons of each of these alternatives and show how the health care market and institutional arrangements are crucial for the design and implementation of each of these strategies. The paper also identifies the need for empirical evidence on the effect of different government strategies on dual practice.

  7. RESPONSE OF NIGERIAN CASSAVA EXPANSION INITIATIVES TO CLIMATE CHANGES, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOME POLICY INSTRUMENT (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwumere Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the limiting response of Nigeria cassava expansion initiative to climate changes, economic growth and some policy instruments. The presidential initiative to make cassava a foreign exchange earner as well as ensuring that national demand are satisfied has made cassava a significant economic crop and resource input of industrial and international status. Currently, its derivatives such as animal feed, starch, ethanol, cassava chip, cassava flour, cassava liquor etc are in high demand. Having gained international recognition some factors need be examined to ascertain the limiting response of this economic crop some exogenous factors. The specific objectives of interest were to ascertain the response of cassava output expansion to rainfall, temperature, imports, exports, credit allocation to agribusiness, exchange rate, nominal interest rate, inflation and GDP from 1970 – 2012. Also, it examined the short and long run effects of these variables to cassava output so as to know how much adjustment it makes to reach the equilibrium. Secondary data were used for this research work. The technique of data analysis was auto- regressive modeling regression. To capture the long run and short run dynamics of cassava output behavior, the error correction model (ECM using the Engle-Granger methodology was adopted. The result revealed a very high rate of adjustment to long run equilibrium and the variables are correlated which means that impact of each variable on cassava output behavior in the economy is inseparable. The Error correction coefficient of -0.975 measures the speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium earned the expected negative sign and is statistically significant at 1% risk level. Thus, this study recommends that the emerging cassava economy of Nigeria would be adequately empowered for efficient productivity if the Government stipulate policies that will encourage domestic output expansion to meet the national and

  8. Building a Public Health Response to the Flint Water Crisis: Implications for Policy and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr-Holden, D.

    2017-12-01

    Flint, MI has experienced a recent, man-made public health crisis. The Flint Water Crisis, caused by a switch in the municipal water supply and subsequent violation of engineering and regulatory standards to ensure water quality lead to a large portion of the city being exposed to excess metals (including lead), bacteria and other water-borne pathogens. The data used to initially rebut the existence of the crisis were ecologically flawed as they included large numbers of people who were not on the Flint water supply. Policy-makers, municipal officials, the medical community, and public health professionals were at odds over the existence of a problem and the lack of data only fueled the debate. Pediatricians, lead by Dr. Mona Hannah-Attisha, began testing children in the Hurley Children's Medical Center for blood-lead levels and observed a 2-fold increase in elevated blood lead levels in Flint children compared to children in the area not on the Flint municipal water supply, where no increases in elevated lead were observed. Subsequent geospatial analyses revealed spatial clustering of cases based on where children live, go to school and play. These data represented the first step in data driven decision making leading to the subsequent switch of the municipal water supply and launch of subsequent advocacy efforts to remediate the effect of the Water Crisis. Since that time, a multi-disciplinary team of scientists including engineers, bench scientists, physicians and public health researchers have mounted evidence to promote complete replacement of the city's aging water infrastructure, developed a data registry to track cases and coordinate care and services for affected residents, and implemented a community engagement model that puts residents and community stakeholders at the heart of the planning and implementation efforts. The presentation will include data used at various stages to mount a public health response to the Flint Water Crisis and establish the

  9. Long-term power generation expansion planning with short-term demand response: Model, algorithms, implementation, and electricity policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Timo

    Electric sector models are powerful tools that guide policy makers and stakeholders. Long-term power generation expansion planning models are a prominent example and determine a capacity expansion for an existing power system over a long planning horizon. With the changes in the power industry away from monopolies and regulation, the focus of these models has shifted to competing electric companies maximizing their profit in a deregulated electricity market. In recent years, consumers have started to participate in demand response programs, actively influencing electricity load and price in the power system. We introduce a model that features investment and retirement decisions over a long planning horizon of more than 20 years, as well as an hourly representation of day-ahead electricity markets in which sellers of electricity face buyers. This combination makes our model both unique and challenging to solve. Decomposition algorithms, and especially Benders decomposition, can exploit the model structure. We present a novel method that can be seen as an alternative to generalized Benders decomposition and relies on dynamic linear overestimation. We prove its finite convergence and present computational results, demonstrating its superiority over traditional approaches. In certain special cases of our model, all necessary solution values in the decomposition algorithms can be directly calculated and solving mathematical programming problems becomes entirely obsolete. This leads to highly efficient algorithms that drastically outperform their programming problem-based counterparts. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of all tailored algorithms and the challenges from a modeling software developer's standpoint, providing an insider's look into the modeling language GAMS. Finally, we apply our model to the Texas power system and design two electricity policies motivated by the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's recently proposed CO2 emissions targets for the

  10. Aligning faith-based and national HIV/AIDS prevention responses? Factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process and response of faith-based NGOs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke

    2014-05-01

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against

  11. Scalable Task Assignment for Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula García

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a dynamic task assignment strategy for heterogeneous multi-robot teams in typical real world scenarios. The strategy must be efficiently scalable to support problems of increasing complexity with minimum designer intervention. To this end, we have selected a very simple auction-based strategy, which has been implemented and analysed in a multi-robot cleaning problem that requires strong coordination and dynamic complex subtask organization. We will show that the selection of a simple auction strategy provides a linear computational cost increase with the number of robots that make up the team and allows the solving of highly complex assignment problems in dynamic conditions by means of a hierarchical sub-auction policy. To coordinate and control the team, a layered behaviour-based architecture has been applied that allows the reusing of the auction-based strategy to achieve different coordination levels.

  12. 12 CFR 563e.28 - Assigned ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assigned ratings. 563e.28 Section 563e.28 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.28 Assigned ratings. (a) Ratings in general. Subject to paragraphs (b... performance under the lending, investment and service tests, the community development test, the small savings...

  13. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  14. Assignment of element and isotope factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Element and isotope factors are assigned in the NICS internal accounting system at the Exxon Fuel Fabrication Facility on the basis of coded information included on the material transfer documents. This paper explains more fully the manner in which NICS assigns these factors

  15. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  16. Mars - robust automatic backbone assignment of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Sang; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2004-01-01

    MARS a program for robust automatic backbone assignment of 13 C/ 15 N labeled proteins is presented. MARS does not require tight thresholds for establishing sequential connectivity or detailed adjustment of these thresholds and it can work with a wide variety of NMR experiments. Using only 13 C α / 13 C β connectivity information, MARS allows automatic, error-free assignment of 96% of the 370-residue maltose-binding protein. MARS can successfully be used when data are missing for a substantial portion of residues or for proteins with very high chemical shift degeneracy such as partially or fully unfolded proteins. Other sources of information, such as residue specific information or known assignments from a homologues protein, can be included into the assignment process. MARS exports its result in SPARKY format. This allows visual validation and integration of automated and manual assignment

  17. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  18. Integrating NEPA [National Environmental Policy Act] and CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs

  19. Searching for Truth: Internet Search Patterns as a Method of Investigating Online Responses to a Russian Illicit Drug Policy Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, James A; Quinn, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Background This is a methodological study investigating the online responses to a national debate over an important health and social problem in Russia. Russia is the largest Internet market in Europe, exceeding Germany in the absolute number of users. However, Russia is unusual in that the main search provider is not Google, but Yandex. Objective This study had two main objectives. First, to validate Yandex search patterns against those provided by Google, and second, to test this method's adequacy for investigating online interest in a 2010 national debate over Russian illicit drug policy. We hoped to learn what search patterns and specific search terms could reveal about the relative importance and geographic distribution of interest in this debate. Methods A national drug debate, centering on the anti-drug campaigner Egor Bychkov, was one of the main Russian domestic news events of 2010. Public interest in this episode was accompanied by increased Internet search. First, we measured the search patterns for 13 search terms related to the Bychkov episode and concurrent domestic events by extracting data from Google Insights for Search (GIFS) and Yandex WordStat (YaW). We conducted Spearman Rank Correlation of GIFS and YaW search data series. Second, we coded all 420 primary posts from Bychkov's personal blog between March 2010 and March 2012 to identify the main themes. Third, we compared GIFS and Yandex policies concerning the public release of search volume data. Finally, we established the relationship between salient drug issues and the Bychkov episode. Results We found a consistent pattern of strong to moderate positive correlations between Google and Yandex for the terms "Egor Bychkov" (r s = 0.88, P < .001), “Bychkov” (r s = .78, P < .001) and “Khimki”(r s = 0.92, P < .001). Peak search volumes for the Bychkov episode were comparable to other prominent domestic political events during 2010. Monthly search counts were 146,689 for “Bychkov” and

  20. Searching for truth: internet search patterns as a method of investigating online responses to a Russian illicit drug policy debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheluk, Andrey; Gillespie, James A; Quinn, Casey

    2012-12-13

    This is a methodological study investigating the online responses to a national debate over an important health and social problem in Russia. Russia is the largest Internet market in Europe, exceeding Germany in the absolute number of users. However, Russia is unusual in that the main search provider is not Google, but Yandex. This study had two main objectives. First, to validate Yandex search patterns against those provided by Google, and second, to test this method's adequacy for investigating online interest in a 2010 national debate over Russian illicit drug policy. We hoped to learn what search patterns and specific search terms could reveal about the relative importance and geographic distribution of interest in this debate. A national drug debate, centering on the anti-drug campaigner Egor Bychkov, was one of the main Russian domestic news events of 2010. Public interest in this episode was accompanied by increased Internet search. First, we measured the search patterns for 13 search terms related to the Bychkov episode and concurrent domestic events by extracting data from Google Insights for Search (GIFS) and Yandex WordStat (YaW). We conducted Spearman Rank Correlation of GIFS and YaW search data series. Second, we coded all 420 primary posts from Bychkov's personal blog between March 2010 and March 2012 to identify the main themes. Third, we compared GIFS and Yandex policies concerning the public release of search volume data. Finally, we established the relationship between salient drug issues and the Bychkov episode. We found a consistent pattern of strong to moderate positive correlations between Google and Yandex for the terms "Egor Bychkov" (r(s) = 0.88, P < .001), "Bychkov" (r(s) = .78, P < .001) and "Khimki"(r(s) = 0.92, P < .001). Peak search volumes for the Bychkov episode were comparable to other prominent domestic political events during 2010. Monthly search counts were 146,689 for "Bychkov" and 48,084 for "Egor Bychkov", compared to 53

  1. Reflective practice: assessment of assignments in English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskiené

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The construct alternative assessment has been widely used in higher education. It is often defined as any type of assessment of learners who provide a response to an assignment. The key features of alternative assessment are active participation of learners in self-evaluation of their performance, and the development of reflective thinking through reflective thinking (Schön, 1983. The success of alternative assessment in language teaching is predetermined by student’s performance and demonstrates learner’s language proficiency in contemporary communicative classrooms. This paper aims at researching the influence of students’ evaluations of various assignments for their linguistic development in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study uses learners’ assessment of different assignments and learners’ in-course and post-course written reflections on benefits to language mastery. Learners’ assignments included were contributions to portfolios (dossiers, such as essays and summaries, oral presentations, short impromptu talks, creative tasks, tests, and self-assessment notes (reflections on activities in learning ESP. Findings were obtained for two streams of the project participants. Results showed that self-assessment was beneficial for learners’ linguistic development. The context of learners’ reflections reveals that the attitudes to various assignments are affected by success or failure in students’ performance. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with previously identified difficulties and improve the quality of teaching.

  2. Anger, Sadness and Fear in Response to Breaking Crime and Accident News Stories: How Emotions Influence Support for Alcohol-Control Public Policies via Concern about Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solloway, Tyler; Slater, Michael D.; Chung, Adrienne; Goodall, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that discrete emotions, notably anger and fear, can explain effects of news articles on health and alcohol-control policy support. This study advances prior work by coding expressed emotional responses to messages (as opposed to directly manipulated emotions or forced responses), incorporating and controlling for central thoughts, including sadness (a particularly relevant response to tragic stories), and examining concern’s mediating role between emotion and policy support. An experiment with a national online adult panel had participants read one of 60 violent crime or accident news stories, each manipulated to mention or withhold alcohol’s causal contribution. Multi-group structural equation models suggest that stories not mentioning alcohol had a direct effect on policy support via fear and central thoughts, unmediated by concern. When alcohol was mentioned, sadness and anger affects alcohol-control support through concern. Findings help confirm that emotional responses are key in determining news story effects on public support of health policies. PMID:26491487

  3. Social limitations to livelihood adaptation : responses of maize-farming smallholder households to neoliberal policy reforms in Morelos, Southern Veracruz, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the adaptation of smallholders to market changes shaped by neoliberal policy reforms in the Mexican maize sector. Contrary to expectations about smallholder responses to a liberalised maize market, in the study area maize still is the main source of income. Farmers did not

  4. Allocation of authority in European health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize

    2012-11-01

    Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district: A case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-resource industries. Furthermore, policies had different effects on the industry's output value and profit. In the long-term, developing alternative industries (AI) helps increase the industrial output value and profit. Decreasing value added tax (VAT) has immediate results and a distinctive effect on industrial short-term production value and profit, its long-term effect being limited. The effect of production limit (PL) on industrial profit is stronger than output value, and financial support (FS) is more conducive to improve the latter. However, coal mining and coal-chemical loan increases decrease the gross industrial profit level. Technology innovation (TI) has the best individual policy overall effect on production value and profits. Furthermore, the simultaneous implementation of PL, TI and AI can generate the synergy effect for each of them. And the simultaneous implementation of VAT and one or couple of other policies will generate the crowding-out effect both for VAT and other policies. - Highlights: • A system dynamics model of the coal-chemical industry district economy evolution in Ordos is constructed. • The impact of coal and oil prices slump on the output value and profit of each industry is revealed. • The differences in the effects especially cumulative effects of different response policies are clarified. • The crowding-out and synergy effects of policy implementation are analyzed.

  6. Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ESL students ... and collaborative teaching/learning model involving the major course convenors. ... The quality of the work and mood of all concerned improved tremendously.

  7. Inferential backbone assignment for sparse data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitek, Olga; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Craig, Bruce; Vitek, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops an approach to protein backbone NMR assignment that effectively assigns large proteins while using limited sets of triple-resonance experiments. Our approach handles proteins with large fractions of missing data and many ambiguous pairs of pseudoresidues, and provides a statistical assessment of confidence in global and position-specific assignments. The approach is tested on an extensive set of experimental and synthetic data of up to 723 residues, with match tolerances of up to 0.5 ppm for C α and C β resonance types. The tests show that the approach is particularly helpful when data contain experimental noise and require large match tolerances. The keys to the approach are an empirical Bayesian probability model that rigorously accounts for uncertainty in the data at all stages in the analysis, and a hybrid stochastic tree-based search algorithm that effectively explores the large space of possible assignments

  8. Dynamic traffic assignment : genetic algorithms approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real-time route guidance is a promising approach to alleviating congestion on the nations highways. A dynamic traffic assignment model is central to the development of guidance strategies. The artificial intelligence technique of genetic algorithm...

  9. Cyber-Bullying: Developing Policy to Direct Responses that are Equitable and Effective in Addressing This Special Form of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen; Jackson, Margaret; Cassidy, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    The article reviews existing research on cyber-bullying, framed through a policy lens. It is clear that public policy issues for cyber-bullying involve tensions between the values of freedom of speech, the best interests of the child, and parental and school protective authority over the child. Given the complexity of the problem, as well as…

  10. Teacher Responses to Pay-for-Performance Policies: Survey Results from Four High-Poverty, Urban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John

    2011-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly adopting "pay-for-performance" policies in which teachers are compensated based on their performance as measured by classroom evaluations and/or student achievement test results. Prior research has produced largely inconclusive findings concerning support among teachers for these policies and their effects…

  11. People's responses to risks of electromagnetic fields and trust in government policy: the role of perceived risk, benefits and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, D.; Claassen, L.; Smid, T.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Trust in government policy affects the way people perceive and handle risks. In our study, we investigated the relationships between trust in government policy regarding electromagnetic fields (EMF), perceived risk and perceived benefits of public and personal EMF sources, perceived control over

  12. Statistical aspects of optimal treatment assignment

    OpenAIRE

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1980-01-01

    The issues of treatment assignment is ordinarily dealt with within the framework of testing aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) hypothesis. ATI research mostly uses linear regression techniques, and an ATI exists when the aptitude treatment (AT) regression lines cross each other within the relevant interval of the aptitude variable. Consistent with this approach is the use of the points of interaction of AT regression lines as treatment-assignment rule. The replacement of such rules by monot...

  13. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  14. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  15. Child morbidity and mortality associated with alternative policy responses to the economic crisis in Brazil: A nationwide microsimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasella, Davide; Basu, Sanjay; Hone, Thomas; Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Ocké-Reis, Carlos Octávio; Millett, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    Since 2015, a major economic crisis in Brazil has led to increasing poverty and the implementation of long-term fiscal austerity measures that will substantially reduce expenditure on social welfare programmes as a percentage of the country's GDP over the next 20 years. The Bolsa Família Programme (BFP)-one of the largest conditional cash transfer programmes in the world-and the nationwide primary healthcare strategy (Estratégia Saúde da Família [ESF]) are affected by fiscal austerity, despite being among the policy interventions with the strongest estimated impact on child mortality in the country. We investigated how reduced coverage of the BFP and ESF-compared to an alternative scenario where the level of social protection under these programmes is maintained-may affect the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) and socioeconomic inequalities in child health in the country until 2030, the end date of the Sustainable Development Goals. We developed and validated a microsimulation model, creating a synthetic cohort of all 5,507 Brazilian municipalities for the period 2017-2030. This model was based on the longitudinal dataset and effect estimates from a previously published study that evaluated the effects of poverty, the BFP, and the ESF on child health. We forecast the economic crisis and the effect of reductions in BFP and ESF coverage due to current fiscal austerity on the U5MR, and compared this scenario with a scenario where these programmes maintain the levels of social protection by increasing or decreasing with the size of Brazil's vulnerable populations (policy response scenarios). We used fixed effects multivariate regression models including BFP and ESF coverage and accounting for secular trends, demographic and socioeconomic changes, and programme duration effects. With the maintenance of the levels of social protection provided by the BFP and ESF, in the most likely economic crisis scenario the U5MR is expected to be 8.57% (95% CI: 6.88%-10.24%) lower

  16. The Ethics of U.S. Monetary Policy in Response to the Financial Crisis of 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bragues

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the financial crisis first erupted in the summer of 2007, the US Federal Reserve has sought to contain negative spillovers into the real economy by dramatically loosening monetary policy. Initially, this was done by lowering its key lending rates, but as the crisis has worsened, and rates have approached closer to zero, it has resorted to expanding its balance sheet in a historically unprecedented fashion. The Fed’s total assets have more than doubled to nearly $2 trillion since the summer of 2007.Much of the debate surrounding the wisdom of this extraordinary increase in the production of money has revolved around its expediency–in other words, will it actually work to rescue the economy? Very little has been said, at least explicitly, about whether it is the morally right thing to do.This paper seeks to fill this gap by providing a moral analysis of the Fed’s response to the financial crisis. For this purpose, we apply Aristotelian virtue theory, Lockean natural rights philosophy, Kantian deontology, and Benthamite utilitarianism. The idea is that if a consensus, or a strong majority, can be reached from differing philosophic assumptions and starting points, then the resulting judgment ought to be compelling for all neutral observers. On the basis that the Fed’s efforts are likely to result in a marked rise in inflation, we argue that every one of these four moral theories ultimately renders a negative judgment. As such, we conclude that the Fed is pursuing an immoral course.

  17. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN THE DRC: EVIDENCE OFREVENUE ASSIGNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Kithatu-Kiwekete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rationalefor central government to devolve resources for service provisionhas been debated in decentralization literature. Decentralization enhancesdemocracy,encouragesparticipation in local development initiativesandpromotes local political accountability.This discourse has been complemented bythe implementation of fiscal decentralization to increase the ability of sub-nationalgovernment in financing municipal service delivery. Fiscal decentralization hasoften been adopted by African statessince the onset ofthe New PublicManagement erain an effortto improvethe standard ofgovernance. The concernis that African states have taken minimal steps to adopt fiscal devolution thatpromotes revenue assignment which in turn limits sub-nationalgovernments’ability to generate own source revenues.This article examines the revenue assignment function of fiscal decentralization inthe Democratic Republic of Congo(DRCinthelight of decentralizationconcerns that have been raised by civil society, as the country charts its course todemocracy. The article is a desktop study that will consider documents andpoliciesin theDRCon thenational, provincialand locallevel as far asstaterevenue sourcesare concerned. Revenue assignment should enable DRC’sprovinces and local authoritiestogeneratesignificantrevenueindependently.However, post-conflict reconstruction and development efforts in the Great Lakesregion and in the DRC have largely isolated decentralization which wouldotherwise entrench local fiscalautonomy infinancing for local services anddevelopment. The article concludes that revenue generation for local authoritiesandtheprovinces in the DRC is still very centralised by the national government.Thearticleproposes policy recommendations that will be useful for the country toensurethatdecentralization effortsinclude fiscal devolution toenhance thefinancing for local development initiatives.

  18. Ambitions and Responsibilities: A Textual Analysis of the Norwegian National Curriculum Regulations for Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2014-01-01

    Society assigns professional educational programs the responsibility to aid students in learning and dedicate expert knowledge to furthering the well-being of citizens. This demand calls for addressing the how educational policies prioritize learning professionals' responsibility. Inspired by the theory of Jacques Derrida, we deconstruct the…

  19. Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

  20. Artificial intelligence applied to assigned merchandise location in retail sales systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Domínguez, O.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an option for improving the process of assigning storage locations for merchandise in a warehouse. A disadvantage of policies in the literature is that the merchandise is assigned allocation only according to the volume of sales and the rotation it presents. However, in some cases it is necessary to deal with other aspects such as family group membership, the physical characteristics of the products, and their sales pattern to design an integral policy. This paper presents an alternative to the afore- mentioned process using Flexsim®, artificial neural networks, and genetic algorithms.

  1. First Trimester Fetal Gender Assignment by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabahattin Altunyurt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficiency of genital tubercule angle on detecting fetal gender in first trimester by ultrasonography. Material-Method: Fetal sex assignment by ultrasound was carried out in 172 pregnancies at 11-13+6 weeks between 2007 June and 2007 December. Gestational age was determined by the measurement of crown-rump length (CRL. The ultrasound predictions were compared with actual sex at birth. Mid-sagittal planes of a section of the fetal genital tubercle were performed to identify the gender. Results: 155 of 172 patients’ data were achieved. The overall success rate was 92.3 % in sonographic assignment of fetal sex. The correct assignment rate in female fetuses was significantly higher than males (95.9 % - 88.8 % [p=0,001]. The correct identification of fetal sex improved with advancing gestational age from 89.3 % between 11-11+6 weeks, 92.5 % between 12-12+6 weeks and 93.4 % between 13-13+6 weeks (p=0,96. Conclusion: The fetal sex assignment by ultrasonography between 11-13+6 weeks had high success rate. The sensitivity of fetal sex assignment was not affected with fetus position and gestational age.

  2. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district : a case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-res...

  3. Protein secondary structure assignment revisited: a detailed analysis of different assignment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Brevern Alexandre G

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of methods are now available to perform automatic assignment of periodic secondary structures from atomic coordinates, based on different characteristics of the secondary structures. In general these methods exhibit a broad consensus as to the location of most helix and strand core segments in protein structures. However the termini of the segments are often ill-defined and it is difficult to decide unambiguously which residues at the edge of the segments have to be included. In addition, there is a "twilight zone" where secondary structure segments depart significantly from the idealized models of Pauling and Corey. For these segments, one has to decide whether the observed structural variations are merely distorsions or whether they constitute a break in the secondary structure. Methods To address these problems, we have developed a method for secondary structure assignment, called KAKSI. Assignments made by KAKSI are compared with assignments given by DSSP, STRIDE, XTLSSTR, PSEA and SECSTR, as well as secondary structures found in PDB files, on 4 datasets (X-ray structures with different resolution range, NMR structures. Results A detailed comparison of KAKSI assignments with those of STRIDE and PSEA reveals that KAKSI assigns slightly longer helices and strands than STRIDE in case of one-to-one correspondence between the segments. However, KAKSI tends also to favor the assignment of several short helices when STRIDE and PSEA assign longer, kinked, helices. Helices assigned by KAKSI have geometrical characteristics close to those described in the PDB. They are more linear than helices assigned by other methods. The same tendency to split long segments is observed for strands, although less systematically. We present a number of cases of secondary structure assignments that illustrate this behavior. Conclusion Our method provides valuable assignments which favor the regularity of secondary structure segments.

  4. Grouping puts figure-ground assignment in context by constraining propagation of edge assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Joseph L; Brook, Joseph L; Driver, Jon

    2010-05-01

    Figure-ground organization involves the assignment of edges to a figural shape on one or the other side of each dividing edge. Established visual cues for edge assignment primarily concern relatively local rather than contextual factors. In the present article, we show that an assignment for a locally unbiased edge can be affected by an assignment of a remote contextual edge that has its own locally biased assignment. We find that such propagation of edge assignment from the biased remote context occurs only when the biased and unbiased edges are grouped. This new principle, whereby grouping constrains the propagation of figural edge assignment, emerges from both subjective reports and an objective short-term edge-matching task. It generalizes from moving displays involving grouping by common fate and collinearity, to static displays with grouping by similarity of edge-contrast polarity, or apparent occlusion. Our results identify a new contextual influence on edge assignment. They also identify a new mechanistic relation between grouping and figure-ground processes, whereby grouping between remote elements can constrain the propagation of edge assignment between those elements. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://app.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  5. Auditing the Assignments of Top-Level Semantic Types in the UMLS Semantic Network to UMLS Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Geller, James; Bian, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is an important terminological system. By the policy of its curators, each concept of the UMLS should be assigned the most specific Semantic Types (STs) in the UMLS Semantic Network (SN). Hence, the Semantic Types of most UMLS concepts are assigned at or near the bottom (leaves) of the UMLS Semantic Network. While most ST assignments are correct, some errors do occur. Therefore, Quality Assurance efforts of UMLS curators for ST assignments should concentrate on automatically detected sets of UMLS concepts with higher error rates than random sets. In this paper, we investigate the assignments of top-level semantic types in the UMLS semantic network to concepts, identify potential erroneous assignments, define four categories of errors, and thus provide assistance to curators of the UMLS to avoid these assignments errors. Human experts analyzed samples of concepts assigned 10 of the top-level semantic types and categorized the erroneous ST assignments into these four logical categories. Two thirds of the concepts assigned these 10 top-level semantic types are erroneous. Our results demonstrate that reviewing top-level semantic type assignments to concepts provides an effective way for UMLS quality assurance, comparing to reviewing a random selection of semantic type assignments.

  6. Child morbidity and mortality associated with alternative policy responses to the economic crisis in Brazil: A nationwide microsimulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Ocké-Reis, Carlos Octávio; Millett, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Background Since 2015, a major economic crisis in Brazil has led to increasing poverty and the implementation of long-term fiscal austerity measures that will substantially reduce expenditure on social welfare programmes as a percentage of the country’s GDP over the next 20 years. The Bolsa Família Programme (BFP)—one of the largest conditional cash transfer programmes in the world—and the nationwide primary healthcare strategy (Estratégia Saúde da Família [ESF]) are affected by fiscal austerity, despite being among the policy interventions with the strongest estimated impact on child mortality in the country. We investigated how reduced coverage of the BFP and ESF—compared to an alternative scenario where the level of social protection under these programmes is maintained—may affect the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) and socioeconomic inequalities in child health in the country until 2030, the end date of the Sustainable Development Goals. Methods and findings We developed and validated a microsimulation model, creating a synthetic cohort of all 5,507 Brazilian municipalities for the period 2017–2030. This model was based on the longitudinal dataset and effect estimates from a previously published study that evaluated the effects of poverty, the BFP, and the ESF on child health. We forecast the economic crisis and the effect of reductions in BFP and ESF coverage due to current fiscal austerity on the U5MR, and compared this scenario with a scenario where these programmes maintain the levels of social protection by increasing or decreasing with the size of Brazil’s vulnerable populations (policy response scenarios). We used fixed effects multivariate regression models including BFP and ESF coverage and accounting for secular trends, demographic and socioeconomic changes, and programme duration effects. With the maintenance of the levels of social protection provided by the BFP and ESF, in the most likely economic crisis scenario the U5MR is

  7. Semi-infinite assignment and transportation games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Judith B.; Sánchez-Soriano, Joaqu´ın; Llorca, Navidad; Tijs, Stef; Goberna, Miguel A.; López, Marco A.

    2001-01-01

    Games corresponding to semi-infinite transportation and related assignment situations are studied. In a semi-infinite transportation situation, one aims at maximizing the profit from the transportation of a certain good from a finite number of suppliers to an infinite number of demanders. An

  8. Capacity constrained assignment in spatial databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    U, Leong Hou; Yiu, Man Lung; Mouratidis, Kyriakos

    2008-01-01

    large to fit in main memory. Motivated by this fact, we propose efficient algorithms for optimal assignment that employ novel edge-pruning strategies, based on the spatial properties of the problem. Additionally, we develop approximate (i.e., suboptimal) CCA solutions that provide a trade-off between...

  9. Statistical aspects of optimal treatment assignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    The issues of treatment assignment is ordinarily dealt with within the framework of testing aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) hypothesis. ATI research mostly uses linear regression techniques, and an ATI exists when the aptitude treatment (AT) regression lines cross each other within the relevant

  10. Tabu search for target-radar assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    In the paper the problem of assigning air-defense illumination radars to enemy targets is presented. A tabu search metaheuristic solution is described and the results achieved are compared to those of other heuristic approaches, implementation and experimental aspects are discussed. It is argued ...

  11. Strategy-Proof Assignment Of Multiple Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlanson, Albin; Szwagrzak, Karol

    2015-01-01

    We examine the strategy-proof allocation of multiple resources; an application is the assignment of packages of tasks, workloads, and compensations among the members of an organization. In the domain of multidimensional single-peaked preferences, we find that any allocation mechanism obtained by ...

  12. Optimal Processor Assignment for Pipeline Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    the use of ratios: initially each task is assigned a procesbuor2 the remaining proceborb are distributed in proportion to the quantities f,(1), 1 < i...algorithmns. IEEE Trans. onl Parallel and Distributed Systemns, 1 (4):470-499, October 1990. [26] P. Al. Kogge. The Architeture of Pipelined Comnputers

  13. Incentivized optimal advert assignment via utility decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, F.; Key, P.; Walton, N.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a large-scale Ad-auction where adverts are assigned over a potentially infinite number of searches. We capture the intrinsic asymmetries in information between advertisers, the advert platform and the space of searches: advertisers know and can optimize the average performance of their

  14. A game theoretic approach to assignment problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.

    2000-01-01

    Game theory deals with the mathematical modeling and analysis of conflict and cooperation in the interaction of multiple decision makers. This thesis adopts two game theoretic methods to analyze a range of assignment problems that arise in various economic situations. The first method has as

  15. Generalised Assignment Matrix Methodology in Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Discrete Mathematics instructors and students have long been struggling with various labelling and scanning algorithms for solving many important problems. This paper shows how to solve a wide variety of Discrete Mathematics and OR problems using assignment matrices and linear programming, specifically using Excel Solvers although the same…

  16. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Irrigation equipment is not capable of supplying adequate water to sustain the expected production of a... practice is not used. (7) For normal irrigated annual and biennial crops, the supply of available water at... determining losses under this section, assigned production will be used to offset the loss of production when...

  17. Accounting for Sustainability: An Active Learning Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…

  18. Parental knowledge of child development and the assignment of tractor work to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, William; Marlenga, Barbara; Berg, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    Many childhood farm tractor injuries occur during the performance of work that was assigned by parents, and some tractor work is beyond the developmental capabilities of children. This has been highlighted recently by a policy statement authored by the American Academy of Pediatrics. The objective of this study was 1) to assess child development knowledge of farm parents who received a new resource, the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT), and 2) to determine whether this knowledge was associated with use of NAGCAT in the assignment of tractor jobs and with compliance with 2 aspects of the NAGCAT tractor guideline. Secondary analysis of data collected during a randomized controlled trial that involved 450 farms in the United States and Canada was conducted. Variables assessed included 1) parental knowledge of child development across several age groups and 3 domains of child development (physical, cognitive, and psychosocial), 2) documentation of the most common tractor jobs assigned to each child, and 3) a report of whether NAGCAT was used in assigning these tractor jobs. High parental knowledge of child development was associated with enhanced use of NAGCAT and fewer violations when assigning tractor work to children. However, even in the presence of high knowledge, some farm parents still assigned to their children work that was in violation of NAGCAT. Educational interventions by themselves are not sufficient to remove many farm children from known occupational hazards. These findings are discussed in light of the recent policy statement on agricultural injuries from the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. National responses to global health targets: exploring policy transfer in the context of the UNAIDS '90-90-90' treatment targets in Ghana and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobie, Ellen; Matovu, Fred; Nanyiti, Aisha; Nonvignon, Justice; Abankwah, Daniel Nana Yaw; Case, Kelsey K; Hallett, Timothy B; Hanefeld, Johanna; Conteh, Lesong

    2018-01-01

    Global health organizations frequently set disease-specific targets with the goal of eliciting adoption at the national-level; consideration of the influence of target setting on national policies, programme and health budgets is of benefit to those setting targets and those intended to respond. In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS set 'ambitious' treatment targets for country adoption: 90% of HIV-positive persons should know their status; 90% of those on treatment; 90% of those achieving viral suppression. Using case studies from Ghana and Uganda, we explore how the target and its associated policy content have been adopted at the national level. That is whether adoption is in rhetoric only or supported by programme, policy or budgetary changes. We review 23 (14 from Ghana, 9 from Uganda) national policy, operational and strategic documents for the HIV response and assess commitments to '90-90-90'. In-person semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively sampled key informants (17 in Ghana, 20 in Uganda) involved in programme-planning and resource allocation within HIV to gain insight into factors facilitating adoption of 90-90-90. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically, inductively and deductively, guided by pre-existing policy theories, including Dolowitz and Marsh's policy transfer framework to describe features of the transfer and the Global Health Advocacy and Policy Project framework to explain observations. Regardless of notable resource constraints, transfer of the 90-90-90 targets was evident beyond rhetoric with substantial shifts in policy and programme activities. In both countries, there was evidence of attempts to minimize resource constraints by seeking programme efficiencies, prioritization of programme activities and devising domestic financing mechanisms; however, significant resource gaps persist. An effective health network, comprised of global and local actors, mediated the adoption and adaptation

  20. Using interviews to understand the assignment mechanism in a nonexperimental study: the case of eighth grade algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickles, Jordan H

    2011-10-01

    Many inquiries regarding the causal effects of policies or programs are based on research designs where the treatment assignment process is unknown, and thus valid inferences depend on tenuous assumptions about the assignment mechanism. This article draws attention to the importance of understanding the assignment mechanism in policy and program evaluation studies, and illustrates how information collected through interviews can develop a richer understanding of the assignment mechanism. Focusing on the issue of student assignment to algebra in 8th grade, I show how a preliminary data collection effort aimed at understanding the assignment mechanism is particularly beneficial in multisite observational studies in education. The findings, based on ten interviews and administrative data from a large school district, draw attention to the often ignored heterogeneity in the assignment mechanism across schools. These findings likely extend beyond the current research project in question to related educational policy issues such as ability grouping, tracking, differential course taking, and curricular intensity, as well as other social programs in which the assignment mechanism can differ across sites.

  1. Tweak, adapt, or transform: Policy scenarios in response to emerging bioenergy markets in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan. C. Atwell; Lisa. A. Schulte; Lynne M. Westphal

    2011-01-01

    Emerging bioenergy markets portend both boon and bane for regions of intensive agricultural production worldwide. To understand and guide the effects of bioenergy markets on agricultural landscapes, communities, and economies, we engaged leaders in the Corn Belt state of Iowa in a participatory workshop and follow-up interviews to develop future policy scenarios....

  2. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania : a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are

  3. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J.; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are addressing

  4. FSSIM, a bio-economic farm model for simulating the response of EU farming systems to agricultural and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louhichi, K.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Flichman, G.; Blanco, M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Heckelei, T.; Berentsen, P.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The disciplinary nature of most existing farm models as well as the issue specific orientation of most of the studies in agricultural systems research are main reasons for the limited use and re-use of bio-economic modelling for the ex-ante integrated assessment of policy decisions. The objective of

  5. Strategies to strengthen public health inputs to water policy in response to climate change: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goater, Sarah; Cook, Angus; Hogan, Anthony; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hieatt, Arron; Weinstein, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Under current climate change projections, the capacity to provide safe drinking water to Australian communities will be challenged. Part of this challenge is the lack of an adaptive governance strategy that transcends jurisdictional boundaries to support integrated policy making, regulation, or infrastructural adaptation. Consequently, some water-related health hazards may not be adequately captured or forecast under existing water resource management policies to ensure safe water supplies. Given the high degree of spatial and temporal variability in climate conditions experienced by Australian communities, new strategies for national health planning and prioritization for safe water supplies are warranted. The challenges facing public health in Australia will be to develop flexible and robust governance strategies that strengthen public health input to existing water policy, regulation, and surveillance infrastructure through proactive risk planning, adopting new technologies, and intersectoral collaborations. The proposed approach could assist policy makers avert or minimize risk to communities arising from changes in climate and water provisions both in Australia and in the wider Asia Pacific region.

  6. 78 FR 9765 - Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ..., during regular business hours, by arranging with the contact person identified below. FOR FURTHER...) and private businesses (such as banks and credit reporting companies), when we assign a new SSN, these... an individual with a work history, a driving record, and a credit history. Under the policy we are...

  7. Ambiguously Divided Responsibilities across Government Spheres: How they Impact the Policy Process and Result in Coordination Problems in the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Dubois

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies in decentralized settings associate ambiguities in the division of responsibilities between government spheres with coordination problems. This study explores the mechanisms behind this association, mainly drawing on in-depth interviews with local government officials in Poland. A typology emerges from the data. Ambiguities can refer to the policy content, but also to the rationale behind responsibilities. They may be real or perceived. The agent who perceives the ambiguities can be close to public administration (internal or further removed from it (external. External ambiguities mostly inhibit front-room stages of the policy cycle, while external ambiguities impede back-room stages. Through different paths, they contribute to tensions between government spheres, obstructing cooperation needed to address the ambiguities. Overall, the article contributes to a better understanding of the policy process in decentralized settings, unwraps the dynamic causal framework surrounding the ambiguities, and highlights the role of perceptions, not only by the electorate, but by public officials in particular.

  8. Policy responses to viral hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs in Member States of the WHO European region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spina, Alexander; Eramova, Irina; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unsafe injections, through infectious bodily fluids, are a major route of transmission for hepatitis B and C. Viral hepatitis burden among people who inject drugs is particularly high in many Member States of central and Eastern Europe while national capacity and willingness to address......, with less than one-third reportedly conducting regular serosurveys among people who inject drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight key gaps requiring attention in order to improve national policies and programmes in the region and ensure an adequate response to injection drug use-associated viral hepatitis...... of a national policy for hepatitis prevention and control; however less than one-third (27%) reported having written national strategies. Under half of the responding Member States reported holding events for World Hepatitis Day 2012. One-fifth reported offering hepatitis B and C testing free of charge...

  9. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed.

  10. Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-12-01

    Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education - This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper investigates how globalisation processes are constructed as policy problems when these transnational political agents propose adult education as a response. The author's main argument is that while UNESCO presents the provision of adult education as a means for governments worldwide to overcome disadvantages experienced by their own citizenry, the EU institutionalises learning experiences as a means for governments to sustain regional economic growth and political expansion. After reviewing the literature on globalisation to elucidate the theories that inform current understanding of contemporary economic, political, cultural and ecological changes as political problems, she presents the conceptual and methodological framework of her analysis. The author then examines the active role played by UNESCO and the EU in promoting adult education as a policy objective at transnational level, and unpacks the specific problem "representations" that are substantiated by these organisations. She argues that UNESCO and EU processes assign specific values and meanings to globalisation, and that these reflect a limited understanding of the complexity of globalisation. Finally, she considers two of the effects produced by these problem representations.

  11. Consistent assignment of nursing staff to residents in nursing homes: a critical review of conceptual and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tonya; Nolet, Kimberly; Bowers, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Consistent assignment of nursing staff to residents is promoted by a number of national organizations as a strategy for improving nursing home quality and is included in pay for performance schedules in several states. However, research has shown inconsistent effects of consistent assignment on quality outcomes. In order to advance the state of the science of research on consistent assignment and inform current practice and policy, a literature review was conducted to critique conceptual and methodological understandings of consistent assignment. Twenty original research reports of consistent assignment in nursing homes were found through a variety of search strategies. Consistent assignment was conceptualized and operationalized in multiple ways with little overlap from study to study. There was a lack of established methods to measure consistent assignment. Methodological limitations included a lack of control and statistical analyses of group differences in experimental-level studies, small sample sizes, lack of attention to confounds in multicomponent interventions, and outcomes that were not theoretically linked. Future research should focus on developing a conceptual understanding of consistent assignment focused on definition, measurement, and links to outcomes. To inform current policies, testing consistent assignment should include attention to contexts within and levels at which it is most effective. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2013.

  12. Careerism, Committee Assignments and the Electoral Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Jonathan N.; Sala, Brian R.

    1996-01-01

    Most scholars agree that members of Congress are strongly motivated by their desire for reelection. This assumption implies that members of Congress adopt institutions, rules, and norms of behavior in part to serve their electoral interests. Direct tests of the electoral connection are rare, however, because significant, exogenous changes in the electoral environment are difficult to identify. We develop and test an electoral rationale for the norm of committee assignment "property rights...

  13. Contact replacement for NMR resonance assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Pandurangan, Gopal; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2008-07-01

    Complementing its traditional role in structural studies of proteins, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is playing an increasingly important role in functional studies. NMR dynamics experiments characterize motions involved in target recognition, ligand binding, etc., while NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments identify and localize protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. The key bottleneck in these studies is to determine the backbone resonance assignment, which allows spectral peaks to be mapped to specific atoms. This article develops a novel approach to address that bottleneck, exploiting an available X-ray structure or homology model to assign the entire backbone from a set of relatively fast and cheap NMR experiments. We formulate contact replacement for resonance assignment as the problem of computing correspondences between a contact graph representing the structure and an NMR graph representing the data; the NMR graph is a significantly corrupted, ambiguous version of the contact graph. We first show that by combining connectivity and amino acid type information, and exploiting the random structure of the noise, one can provably determine unique correspondences in polynomial time with high probability, even in the presence of significant noise (a constant number of noisy edges per vertex). We then detail an efficient randomized algorithm and show that, over a variety of experimental and synthetic datasets, it is robust to typical levels of structural variation (1-2 AA), noise (250-600%) and missings (10-40%). Our algorithm achieves very good overall assignment accuracy, above 80% in alpha-helices, 70% in beta-sheets and 60% in loop regions. Our contact replacement algorithm is implemented in platform-independent Python code. The software can be freely obtained for academic use by request from the authors.

  14. An Ultimatum Game Approach to Billet Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing this...treatments are needed for this investigation. To conserve the subject pool and meet the budget, we elected to pursue treatments that covered salient...across billets can be partially offset through compensating wages ( hedonic wages) and/or the potential of future superior assignments. In the

  15. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, the prediction of protein secondary structure has been optimized using essentially one and the same assignment scheme known as DSSP. We present here a different scheme, which is more predictable. This scheme predicts directly the hydrogen bonds, which stabilize the secondary......-forward neural network with one hidden layer on a data set identical to the one used in earlier work....

  16. A career exploration assignment for first-year pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholy, Lydia; Zeenny, Rony

    2013-11-12

    To develop, implement, and assess student-learning outcomes from an assignment designed to expose first-year pharmacy students (P1) to a wide range of pharmacy career pathways. Students enrolled in a required Pharmacy Practice and Ethics course at the Lebanese American University chose 1 pharmacist career to investigate from a suggested list of 28 career pathways. Students completed a literature review on the selected career, interviewed a pharmacist practicing that career path in Lebanon, wrote a paper, and prepared and delivered a summary presentation to their classmates about the career pathway. Students peer evaluated their classmates after each presentation. More than 85% of the students scored ≥70% on the assignment based on their achievement of student learning outcomes. Responses on an anonymous questionnaire showed that more than 94.6% of students were satisfied with the extent to which the course allowed them to meet the established learning outcomes. A career exploration assignment provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to widen their knowledge and understanding of the different career pathways that are available for them.

  17. Assignment and Correspondence Tracking System - Tactical / Operational Reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Reporting data store for the Assignment and Correspondence Tracking System (ACT). ACT automates the assignment and tracking of correspondence processing within the...

  18. Are Law and Policy Clear and Consistent? Roles and Responsibilities of the Defense Acquisition Executive and the Chief Information Officer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    2223) are necessarily in conflict with one another or represent a “ prima facie ” conflict. However, we are pointing out that, because of the potentially...that DoD policy should state what constitutes “compliance” with government and DoD standards. The Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is obligated to issue...aircraft, weap- ons, command and control, communications, intelligence, and IT business systems. In contrast, the R&R of CIOs are generally restricted to

  19. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, F P; Graff, H; Mitchell, C; Lock, K

    2014-09-01

    The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives-for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions-can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  20. Tijuana alcohol control policies: a response to cross-border high-risk drinking by young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Cano, Saúl; Lauer, Elizabeth; Jiménez, Avelino; Voas, Robert B; Lange, James E

    2004-06-01

    Several thousand young Americans visit the bars in Tijuana, Mexico, each weekend night, raising concerns on both sides of the border. Measures implemented in San Diego, California, and Tijuana have successfully reduced the number of American visitors to Mexican bars. Although San Diego policies have been well-documented, this is the first article on investigation of measures enacted south of the border. Information on Tijuana alcohol policies was obtained from a survey of 29-36 bars from 1997 to 1999. The Tijuana police provided data on Americans arrested in Tijuana from 1998 to 1999. Our study found alcohol regulations are poorly enforced in Tijuana, suggesting that regulatory agencies are captured by bar owners. However, such a capture may be weakening. The importance of identifying and supporting Mexican interest groups, as opposed to the bar owners, as a mechanism to impede the capture of Tijuana's regulatory agencies is discussed. The number of Americans involved in alcohol-related crimes in Tijuana sharply decreased over time. However, such a success is largely related to the success of the San Diego efforts in reducing the number of American visitors to Tijuana. Also, by demonstrating the racial/ethnic heterogeneity of American visitors to Tijuana bars, our study points out the need for prevention policies designed north of the border to take such heterogeneity into account.

  1. Tweak, Adapt, or Transform: Policy Scenarios in Response to Emerging Bioenergy Markets in the U.S. Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Atwell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging bioenergy markets portend both boon and bane for regions of intensive agricultural production worldwide. To understand and guide the effects of bioenergy markets on agricultural landscapes, communities, and economies, we engaged leaders in the Corn Belt state of Iowa in a participatory workshop and follow-up interviews to develop future policy scenarios. Analysis of workshop and interview data, in conjunction with the results of regional social and ecological research, was used to develop a heuristic model outlining interactions between key drivers and outcomes of regional landscape change. Three policy scenarios were built on this framework and included the following approaches: tweak, adapt, and transform. Our results suggest that if macroscale markets, technologies, and federal farm policies are allowed to be the overriding drivers of farm owner and operator decision making, Iowa's agricultural landscapes will likely become highly efficient at row crop production at the cost of other desired outcomes. However, the perspectives of Iowa leaders demonstrate how multifunctional agricultural landscapes can be achieved through a concerted portfolio of change coordinated across local, regional, and national scales.

  2. Right Here Right Now: Developing an understanding of responses to smoking policy developments using online data collection in near to real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Fergie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health policymakers require timely evidence to inform decision-making, however, rapid social change often outpaces the capacity of traditional approaches to research to produce meaningful insights. The pervasion of mobile technologies and internet access offers opportunities for capturing context specific and near real-time data on people’s perceptions, behaviours and everyday experiences that could usefully inform decision-making. The Right Here Right Now pilot study was established to provide insights into public responses to, and lived experiences of, contemporary social and health issues. From May to October 2015, a cohort of 180 adults living in Glasgow were asked weekly questions. These questions were developed with decision-makers working in health and social policy or in response to topical newsworthy public health issues that arose. The questions were delivered through an online system and allowed participants to answer directly by website, SMS or post. Aim: An issue that was of high public health policy interest and debate during this period was the need for further tobacco and nicotine control. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of using an online data collection system with a cohort of Glasgow residents to provide rapid insights into public opinion on such policy developments. Method: Three smoking/vaping related questions were sent out to Right Here Right Now participants over the course of the study. The questions were in four parts, first a multiple choice question and then three qualitative follow-up questions based on participants’ responses to part one. The questions were developed with stakeholders working in health advocacy and policy development. They focused on: perceptions of the pervasion of e-cigarettes; legislation on smoking in cars carrying children; and reflections on ten years of the ‘smoking ban’ in enclosed public places. Results: The response rate ranged from 45% to 55% (65

  3. El procesamiento en fuero especial a responsables de violaciones a derechos humanos: los fueros militar y policial

    OpenAIRE

    Duque, César

    2007-01-01

    La Constitución Política del Ecuador asigna a la jurisdicción militar y policial la tarea de juzgar a aquellos militares o policías, que en el ejercicio de sus funciones, hayan cometido delitos de función. Entonces la existencia de normas especiales que regulan la administración de justicia respecto de miembros de la fuerza pública se explica porque de conformidad con la Constitución en determinados casos los militares y los policías tienen "fuero" en relación con ciertas conductas específica...

  4. Symmetric Logic Synthesis with Phase Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Benschop, N. F.

    2001-01-01

    Decomposition of any Boolean Function BF_n of n binary inputs into an optimal inverter coupled network of Symmetric Boolean functions SF_k (k \\leq n) is described. Each SF component is implemented by Threshold Logic Cells, forming a complete and compact T-Cell Library. Optimal phase assignment of input polarities maximizes local symmetries. The "rank spectrum" is a new BF_n description independent of input ordering, obtained by mapping its minterms onto an othogonal n \\times n grid of (transi...

  5. Testing the Effectiveness of Online Assignments in Theory of Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batu, Michael; Bower, Nancy; Lun, Esmond; Sadanand, Asha

    2018-01-01

    The authors investigated the effectiveness of online versus paper assignments using final examination scores in three cohorts of theory of finance. In particular, two cohorts were exposed to online assignments while another cohort was exposed to traditional assignments. The central result is that exposure to online assignments robustly leads to…

  6. Challenges in linking health research to policy: a commentary on developing a multi-stakeholder response to orphans and vulnerable children in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anakwah Kwadwo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Research and Development Division (RDD of the Ghana Health Service (GHS has a remit to build research capacity and conduct policy relevant research. By being situated within the GHS, RDD has good access to directors and programme managers, within and beyond the Ministry of Health. This structure has been facilitating collaboration through research cycles for 20 years, from agenda setting to discussions on policy relevance. This approach has been applied to research activities within the Addressing the Balance of Burden in AIDS (ABBA Research Programme Consortium to tackle the challenges facing HIV affected orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs. The government strategy on OVCs recommends they should be encouraged to live in their home communities rather than in institutions. We present lessons here on efforts to use research to build a response across different agencies to address the problems that communities and families face in caring for these children in their communities. This approach to building consensus on research priorities points to the value of collaboration and dialogue with multiple stakeholders as a means of fostering ownership of a research process and supporting the relevance of research to different groups. Our experience has shown that if the context within which researchers, policy makers and stakeholders work were better understood, the links between them were improved and research were communicated more effectively, then better policy making which links across different sectors may follow. At the same time, collaboration among these different stakeholders to ensure that research meets social needs, must also satisfy the requirements of scientific rigour.

  7. Consumers' Response to an On-Shelf Nutrition Labelling System in Supermarkets: Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Bollinger, Bryan; Sacco, Jocelyn; Liebman, Eli; Vanderlee, Lana; Zuo, Fei; Rosella, Laura; L'abbe, Mary; Manson, Heather; Hammond, David

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. This study is one of the first to report the positive impact of an on-shelf nutrition labelling system on supermarket sales and revenues-key information that was specifically requested by the US National Academies, as such labelling interventions may be more sustainable if they lead to higher revenues. Providing a nutrition rating system on the front of food packages or on retail shelf tags has been proposed as a policy strategy for supporting healthier food choices. Guiding Stars is an on-shelf nutrition labelling system that scores foods in a supermarket based on nutritional quality; scores are then translated into ratings of 0 to 3 stars. It is consistent with evidence-informed recommendations for well-designed labels, except for not labelling 0-star products. The largest supermarket retailer in Canada rolled out the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets across Ontario, Canada. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which consumers respond to an on-shelf nutrition labelling system in supermarkets to inform current and future nutrition labelling policies and practices. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we conducted a quasi-experimental study across 3 supermarket banners (or "chains") in Ontario, one of which implemented the Guiding Stars system in 2012. We used aggregated

  8. Assigned value improves memory of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing.

  9. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination second annual report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, A.L.

    1996-06-30

    This is the second annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, to replace the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy. During CIRRPC`s second year, the member agencies have called upon this interagency resource to assist in coordinating science and policy issues and to provide a vehicle to accomplish multiagency tasks.

  10. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination second annual report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    This is the second annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, to replace the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy. During CIRRPC's second year, the member agencies have called upon this interagency resource to assist in coordinating science and policy issues and to provide a vehicle to accomplish multiagency tasks

  11. METHOD FOR SOLVING FUZZY ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM USING MAGNITUDE RANKING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    D. Selvi; R. Queen Mary; G. Velammal

    2017-01-01

    Assignment problems have various applications in the real world because of their wide applicability in industry, commerce, management science, etc. Traditional classical assignment problems cannot be successfully used for real life problem, hence the use of fuzzy assignment problems is more appropriate. In this paper, the fuzzy assignment problem is formulated to crisp assignment problem using Magnitude Ranking technique and Hungarian method has been applied to find an optimal solution. The N...

  12. Cue competition affects temporal dynamics of edge-assignment in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Joseph L; Palmer, Stephen E

    2011-03-01

    Edge-assignment determines the perception of relative depth across an edge and the shape of the closer side. Many cues determine edge-assignment, but relatively little is known about the neural mechanisms involved in combining these cues. Here, we manipulated extremal edge and attention cues to bias edge-assignment such that these two cues either cooperated or competed. To index their neural representations, we flickered figure and ground regions at different frequencies and measured the corresponding steady-state visual-evoked potentials (SSVEPs). Figural regions had stronger SSVEP responses than ground regions, independent of whether they were attended or unattended. In addition, competition and cooperation between the two edge-assignment cues significantly affected the temporal dynamics of edge-assignment processes. The figural SSVEP response peaked earlier when the cues causing it cooperated than when they competed, but sustained edge-assignment effects were equivalent for cooperating and competing cues, consistent with a winner-take-all outcome. These results provide physiological evidence that figure-ground organization involves competitive processes that can affect the latency of figural assignment.

  13. [Economic crisis and employment conditions: gender differences and the response of social and employment policies. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Fons-Martinez, Jaime

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has had an impact across the European Union (EU), but has had a devastating impact on the labor market in Spain, which has become the country within the EU-15 with the worst employment indicators. The situation is worse in younger people, half of whom were unemployed in 2012, with a slightly higher rate in men (54.4%) than in women (51.8%). This high unemployment rate will be even more difficult to redress because of the decrease in public spending on active employment per percentage point of unemployment in 2012 compared with 2007. Furthermore, the decrease in spending on passive employment policies will worsen the health of the unemployed population. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Response of Corporate Dividend Policy to The Abolition of Tax Credit in the United Kingdom (U.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardo Basuki

    2007-06-01

    This study also investigates whether individual U.K. companies respond to the 1997 abolition of tax-credit. The test results show that the majority of companies in the sample do not change their dividend policies after the abolition of tax credit. It is possible that companies are reluctant to cut their dividend payment since the existing dividend payout could be sustained in the long-run. They also avoid sending negative signals to the market. Thus, companies typically chose to keep a dividend level relatively stable following the tax change in 1997. Only the minority of the U.K. companies experience a decline in their dividend payment. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the abolition of tax credit on dividends results in a decrease in aggregate dividend payment in order to satisfy a tax clientele.

  16. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY INTEGRATION IN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY POLICIES WITHIN B.R.D. - G.S.G. ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility can be an opportunity for integration and approach of issues related to Occupational Health and Safety, seen from a broader perspective than that of mere correlation with legislation. The present paper aims at analysing the way the growing interest, in terms of Corporate Social Responsibility, can contribute to improving the implementation of appropriate systems to prevent accidents at work within Romanian organisations. The case study that illustrates the good practices of BRD-Groupe Société Générale revealed the role of the instruments analysed as catalysts for improving the activity of occupational safety and health.

  17. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...... Java bytecode. While the resulting bytecode sequence can still be directly executed by traditional Virtual Machines, our novel VM can infer SSA form and confirm its safety with virtually no overhead....... have been shown to eliminate this cost by shifting SSA creation to the code producer. These new formats, however, are not backward compatible with the established Java class-file format. We propose a novel approach to transport SSA information implicitly through structural code properties of standard...

  18. Rationalization of some genetic anticodonic assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of most amino acids correlates well with that of their anticodon nucleotides, with Trp, Tyr, Ile, and Ser being the exceptions to this rule. Using previous data on hydrophobicity and binding constants, and new data on rates of esterification of polyadenylic acid with several N-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides, several of the anticodon assignments are rationalized. Chemical reasons are shown supporting the idea of the inclusion of the Ile in the catalog of biological amino acids late in the evolution, through a mutation of the existing tRNA and its aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. It was found that an addition of hexane increases the incorporation of hydrophobic Ac-Phe into poly-A, in support of the Fox (1965) and Oparin (1965) emphasis on the biogenetic importance of phase-separated systems.

  19. Assignment of uncertainties to scientific data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Long-standing problems of uncertainty assignment to scientific data came into a sharp focus in recent years when uncertainty information ('covariance files') had to be added to application-oriented large libraries of evaluated nuclear data such as ENDF and JEF. Question arouse about the best way to express uncertainties, the meaning of statistical and systematic errors, the origin of correlation and construction of covariance matrices, the combination of uncertain data from different sources, the general usefulness of results that are strictly valid only for Gaussian or only for linear statistical models, etc. Conventional statistical theory is often unable to give unambiguous answers, and tends to fail when statistics is bad so that prior information becomes crucial. Modern probability theory, on the other hand, incorporating decision information becomes group-theoretic results, is shown to provide straight and unique answers to such questions, and to deal easily with prior information and small samples. (author). 10 refs

  20. Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John

    2010-02-01

    This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the

  1. Storying Teacher Education Policy: Critical Counternarratives of Curricular, Pedagogical, and Activist Responses to State-Mandated Teacher Performance Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Nick; Dover, Alison; Dotson, Erica K.; Agarwal-Rangath, Ruchi

    2018-01-01

    The rise of high-stakes, standardized, teacher performance assessments (TPAs) is central to the industry being created out of the regulation, policing, and evaluation of university-based teacher education In addition to reinforcing a narrow and counter-critical framework, TPAs can shift responsibility for the evaluation of teacher candidates from…

  2. Local Responses to National Policy: The Contrasting Experiences of Two Midlands Cities to the Academies Act 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Penny; Abbott, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data from a series of semi-structured interviews this article reports on findings from a research project focusing on the responses of two local authorities and their secondary schools to the Academies Act 2010. The article considers the background and the development of the education system in both localities. It goes on to focus on…

  3. Rural response to climate change in poor countries: Ethics, policies and scientific support systems in their agricultural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sustaning Soil Productivity in Response to Global Climate Change is a two-part text bringing together the latest research in soil science and climatology and the ethical, political and social issues surrounding the stewardship of this vital resource. Chapters include scientific studies on microbial

  4. Student Response to Tuition Increase by Academic Majors: Empirical Grounds for a Cost-Related Tuition Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…

  5. Framing obesity in UK policy from the Blair years, 1997-2015: the persistence of individualistic approaches despite overwhelming evidence of societal and economic factors, and the need for collective responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; McLennan, Amy K

    2016-05-01

    Since 1997, and despite several political changes, obesity policy in the UK has overwhelmingly framed obesity as a problem of individual responsibility. Reports, policies and interventions have emphasized that it is the responsibility of individual consumers to make personal changes to reduce obesity. The Foresight Report 'Tackling Obesities: Future Choices' (2007) attempted to reframe obesity as a complex problem that required multiple sites of intervention well beyond the range of personal responsibility. This framing formed the basis for policy and coincided with increasing acknowledgement of the complex nature of obesity in obesity research. Yet policy and interventions developed following Foresight, such as the Change4Life social marketing campaign, targeted individual consumer behaviour. With the Conservative-Liberal Democrat government of 2011, intervention shifted to corporate and individual responsibility, making corporations voluntarily responsible for motivating individual consumers to change. This article examines shifts in the framing of obesity from a problem of individual responsibility, towards collective responsibility, and back to the individual in UK government reports, policies and interventions between 1997 and 2015. We show that UK obesity policies reflect the landscape of policymakers, advisors, political pressures and values, as much as, if not more than, the landscape of evidence. The view that the individual should be the central site for obesity prevention and intervention has remained central to the political framing of population-level obesity, despite strong evidence contrary to this. Power dynamics in obesity governance processes have remained unchallenged by the UK government, and individualistic framing of obesity policy continues to offer the path of least resistance. © 2016 World Obesity.

  6. The housing policy nexus and people’s responses to housing challenges in post-communist cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Tsenkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores major trends and patterns of change embedded in the overall process of economic, social and political transformation reshaping the urban challenges in eastern European cities. It reflects on important drivers of change such as efforts to create a market-based housing system and competitive housing markets in the post-communist urban world. The research draws much-needed attention to an important set of urban and housing policy issues with broad implications for understanding the transition process in the region. It explores the multi-layered processes of market-based housing reforms (privatisation, deregulation and devolution and their impact on the spatial transformation of urban housing markets in eastern European cities. The main argument, supported with empirical evidence from a number of eastern European cities, is that the impact of these most significant processes of urban change has created a mosaic of diverse urban challenges. Exploring these urban challenges through the housing lens sets the stage for a better understanding of urban social movements in eastern European cities and their dynamic realities. The article argues that the diverse role of urban social movements can be explained by reference to democratic traditions, practices and policy cultures in eastern European cities, and also to institutional structures and the capacity of non-market stakeholders. In some cases, stronger government and governance traditions since the political changes of the 1990s would allow non-government organisations to “voice” their concerns and be accepted as a legitimate partner in coalitions responding to urban challenges. In other cases, such capacity and institutional collaboration may be non-existent, leading to “exit” and abandonment of formal systems. In the first option, urban social movements have resurrected debates about gentrification and social segregation in housing estates and neighbourhoods previously

  7. Black gold to green gold: regional energy policy and the rehabilitation of coal in response to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, F. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Geology

    2009-03-15

    Energy production has come under increasing scrutiny as concerns about energy security and climate change have risen. In the UK changes in government structure and privatisation of the electricity industry have led to the emergence of multi-level governance. This means that decisions on how to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the electricity-generating sector should no longer be solely a national policy decision. Previous studies have sought to explore how renewable energy may develop under multi-level governance, but this paper pays attention to a traditional fossil fuel source, coal, which is still an important means of electricity generation. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel and advocates argue that carbon capture and storage techniques could make coal 'clean', paving the way for a long-term, secure and low emission way to produce energy. This study focuses on the Yorkshire and Humber Region, which has had a long association with coal mining and looks at the implications of this as the region seeks to develop a climate change action plan and an energy strategy within the new regional governance structures. The paper argues that the regional networks developed to address climate change are influenced by existing social power structures and alliances. The region as a territorial structure becomes a useful device in promoting national priorities.

  8. Searching for Truth: Internet Search Patterns as a Method of Investigating Online Responses to a Russian Illicit Drug Policy Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Zheluk, Andrey; Gillespie, James A; Quinn, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Background This is a methodological study investigating the online responses to a national debate over an important health and social problem in Russia. Russia is the largest Internet market in Europe, exceeding Germany in the absolute number of users. However, Russia is unusual in that the main search provider is not Google, but Yandex. Objective This study had two main objectives. First, to validate Yandex search patterns against those provided by Google, and second, to test this method's a...

  9. Neural correlates of temporal credit assignment in the parietal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M Gersch

    Full Text Available Empirical studies of decision making have typically assumed that value learning is governed by time, such that a reward prediction error arising at a specific time triggers temporally-discounted learning for all preceding actions. However, in natural behavior, goals must be acquired through multiple actions, and each action can have different significance for the final outcome. As is recognized in computational research, carrying out multi-step actions requires the use of credit assignment mechanisms that focus learning on specific steps, but little is known about the neural correlates of these mechanisms. To investigate this question we recorded neurons in the monkey lateral intraparietal area (LIP during a serial decision task where two consecutive eye movement decisions led to a final reward. The underlying decision trees were structured such that the two decisions had different relationships with the final reward, and the optimal strategy was to learn based on the final reward at one of the steps (the "F" step but ignore changes in this reward at the remaining step (the "I" step. In two distinct contexts, the F step was either the first or the second in the sequence, controlling for effects of temporal discounting. We show that LIP neurons had the strongest value learning and strongest post-decision responses during the transition after the F step regardless of the serial position of this step. Thus, the neurons encode correlates of temporal credit assignment mechanisms that allocate learning to specific steps independently of temporal discounting.

  10. Statistical issues in the estimation of assigned shares for carcinogenesis liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, L.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Congress is currently considering adopting a mathematical formula to assign shares in cancer causation to specific doses of radiation, for use in establishing liability and compensation awards. The proposed formula, if it were sound, would allow difficult problems in tort law and public policy to be resolved by reference to tabulated probabilities of causation. This article examines the statistical and conceptual bases for the proposed methodology. We find that the proposed formula is incorrect as an expression for probability and causation, that it implies hidden, debatable policy judgments in its treatment of factor interactions and uncertainties, and that it can not in general be quantified with sufficient precision to be useful. Three generic sources of statistical uncertainty are identified--sampling variability, population heterogeneity, and error propagation--that prevent accurate quantification of assigned shares. These uncertainties arise whenever aggregate epidemiological or risk data are used to draw causal inferences about individual cases

  11. DNA-based identification of invasive alien species in relation to Canadian federal policy and law, and the basis of rapid-response management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon G; Hanner, Robert H; Borisenko, Alex V

    2016-11-01

    Managing invasive alien species in Canada requires reliable taxonomic identification as the basis of rapid-response management. This can be challenging, especially when organisms are small and lack morphological diagnostic features. DNA-based techniques, such as DNA barcoding, offer a reliable, rapid, and inexpensive toolkit for taxonomic identification of individual or bulk samples, forensic remains, and even environmental DNA. Well suited for this requirement, they could be more broadly deployed and incorporated into the operating policy and practices of Canadian federal departments and should be authorized under these agencies' articles of law. These include Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Transport Canada, Environment Canada, Parks Canada, and Health Canada. These efforts should be harmonized with the appropriate provisions of provincial jurisdictions, for example, the Ontario Invasive Species Act. This approach necessitates that a network of accredited, certified laboratories exists, and that updated DNA reference libraries are readily accessible. Harmonizing this approach is vital among Canadian federal agencies, and between the federal and provincial levels of government. Canadian policy and law must also be harmonized with that of the USA when detecting, and responding to, invasive species in contiguous lands and waters. Creating capacity in legislation for use of DNA-based identifications brings the authority to fund, train, deploy, and certify staff, and to refine further developments in this molecular technology.

  12. Implementation of new policy and principles of harmonisation of nuclear emergency preparedness in conditions of emergency Response Centre of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janko, K.; Zatlkajova, H.; Sladek, V.

    2003-01-01

    With respect to Chernobyl accident the changes in understanding of nuclear emergency preparedness have initiated a developing process resulting in an effective enhancement of conditions ensuring adequate response to nuclear or radiological accidents of emergency situations in many countries. The Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) in frame of co-operations with IAEA, EC, OECD/NEA and other international organisations has actively participated in this challenging work targeting implementation of international experience and best practices in the country. The new international policy (principles declared e.g. in 'Memorandum of Understanding', IAEA, Vienna, 1997) based on experiences propagating importance of regional co-operation, harmonised approach and clear strategy for protective measures implementation in case of a nuclear or radiological accident has influenced the development also in Slovakia. The implementation process in the country was supported by changes in legal conditions regulating peaceful use of nuclear energy [1,2] including basic rules for emergency preparedness published in the second half of 1990 years. The principles of emergency preparedness in Slovakia fully support regional harmonisation and co-operation. Effective implementation of international practice and sharing of experience substantially contributed to the level of emergency response in the country and to the harmonisation of emergency response preparedness creating also conditions for an efficient regional integration. (authors)

  13. The Ebola threat: China's response to the West African epidemic and national development of prevention and control policies and infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hao-Jun; Gao, Hong-Wei; Ding, Hui; Zhang, Bi-Ke; Hou, Shi-Ke

    2015-02-01

    There is growing concern in West Africa about the spread of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus. With the increasing global public health risk, a coordinated international response is necessary. The Chinese government is prepared to work in collaboration with West African countries to assist in the containment and control of the epidemic through the contribution of medical expertise and mobile laboratory testing teams. Nationally, China is implementing prevention programs in major cities and provinces, the distribution of Ebola test kits, and the deployment of a new national Ebola research laboratory.

  14. The Policy Responses and Implications of the Global Financial Crisis in Asia: A Case Study for Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Goh Soo Khoon; Lim Mah Hui; Tan Yao Sua

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the 2008 Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on Malaysia’s economy as well as challenges and responses of the government in countering this crisis. It argues that the impact of the GFC is different from the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis (AFC). The AFC impacted the financial industry with the resultant collapse of Malaysia’s currency, while the GFC impacted the export sector with direct repercussions on Malaysia’s real economy. This paper explores the structural weakn...

  15. Dual earners’ willingness to accept an international assignment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, E.G.; Bossink, C.J.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.

    2005-01-01

    Multinational organisations experience difficulties in finding managers willing to accept international assignments. This study has therefore focused on factors that can predict males' and females' willingness to accept international assignments, or to follow their partners on international

  16. Efficient Mechanisms to Allocate Assignment Incentives in the Navy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nimon, R. W; Hall, Ricky D; Zaki, Hossam

    2005-01-01

    .... All assignments, however, may not necessarily be voluntary. These assignments (jobs) have been labeled as "hard to fill" by Navy leadership, and the Navy has implemented market-based, cash stipends to attract Sailors to these jobs...

  17. Policy and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of different family policy systems in Europe and evaluate their impact on the employment strategy of mothers with care responsibilities for dependent children. Design/methodology/approach – The paper outlines a typology of family policy...

  18. Science and technology policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Public...

  19. A Web Policy Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Sound technology policies can spell the difference between an effective website and an online nightmare. An effective web development policy addresses six key areas: roles and responsibilities, content/educational value, privacy and safety, adherence to copyright laws, technical standards, and use of commercial sites and services. (MLH)

  20. Comparing Examples: WebAssign versus Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Evan; Polak, Jeff; Hardin, Ashley; Risley, John, , Dr.

    2005-11-01

    Research shows students can learn from worked examples.^1 This pilot study compared two groups of students' performance (10 each) in solving physics problems. One group had access to interactive examples^2 released in WebAssign^3, while the other group had access to the counterpart textbook examples. Verbal data from students in problem solving sessions was collected using a think aloud protocol^4 and the data was analyzed using Chi's procedures.^5 An explanation of the methodology and results will be presented. Future phases of this pilot study based upon these results will also be discussed. ^1Atkinson, R.K., Derry, S.J., Renkl A., Wortham, D. (2000). ``Learning from Examples: Instructional Principles from the Worked Examples Research'', Review of Educational Research, vol. 70, n. 2, pp. 181-214. ^2Serway, R.A. & Faughn, J.S. (2006). College Physics (7^th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole. ^3 see www.webassign.net ^4 Ericsson, K.A. & Simon, H.A. (1984). Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ^5 Chi, Michelene T.H. (1997). ``Quantifying Qualitative Analyses of Verbal Data: A Practical Guide,'' The Journal of the Learning Sciences, vol. 6, n. 3, pp. 271-315.

  1. Bacteria as bullies: effects of linguistic agency assignment in health message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A; McGlone, Matthew S; Dragojevic, Marko

    2014-01-01

    When describing health threats, communicators can assign agency to the threat (e.g., "Hepatitis C has infected 4 million Americans") or to humans (e.g., "Four million Americans have contracted hepatitis C"). In an online experiment, the authors explored how assignment of agency affects perceptions of susceptibility and severity of a health threat, response efficacy, self-efficacy, fear arousal, and intentions to adopt health-protective recommendations. Participants were 719 individuals recruited through Mechanical Turk ( www.mturk.com ), a crowdsource labor market run by Amazon ( www.amazon.com ). The participants were assigned randomly to read 1 of 8 flyers defined by a 2×4 (Agency Assignment×Topic) factorial design. Each flyer examined 1 health threat (E. coli, necrotizing fasciitis, salmonella, or Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae) and was written in language that emphasized bacterial or human agency. Perceived susceptibility and severity were highest when bacterial agency language was used. Response efficacy, self-efficacy, and fear arousal were not significantly affected by agency assignment. Participants reported stronger intentions to adopt recommendations when bacteria agency language was used, but this effect did not reach conventional standards of significance (p < .051). The authors concluded that health communicators can increase target audiences' perceptions of susceptibility and severity by assigning agency to the threat in question when devising health messages.

  2. SCRAED - Simple and Complex Random Assignment in Experimental Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Alferes, Valentim R.

    2009-01-01

    SCRAED is a package of 37 self-contained SPSS syntax files that performs simple and complex random assignment in experimental designs. For between-subjects designs, SCRAED includes simple random assignment (no restrictions, forced equal sizes, forced unequal sizes, and unequal probabilities), block random assignment (simple and generalized blocks), and stratified random assignment (no restrictions, forced equal sizes, forced unequal sizes, and unequal probabilities). For within-subject...

  3. Design of an adaptive pole assignment controller for steam generators and its experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; No, Hee Cheon

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive observer is designed that both parameters and state variables of the steam generator are estimated simultaneously. A pole assignment controller is derived on the basis of the adaptive observer. The characteristics of the overall closed-loop control system can be expressed in terms of its poles, assigned poles. The troublesome tuning procedure of the P-I controller is reduced to the determination of the desired poles only. The proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional P-I controller through numerical simulation. Also, the adaptive pole assignment controller is studied experimentally by implementing it to the mock-up of the nuclear steam generator. The adaptive pole assignment controller shows better responses than the P-l controller does. (Author)

  4. Analysis of human resources for health strategies and policies in 5 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, in response to GFATM and PEPFAR-funded HIV-activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailhol, Johann; Craveiro, Isabel; Madede, Tavares; Makoa, Elsie; Mathole, Thubelihle; Parsons, Ann Neo; Van Leemput, Luc; Biesma, Regien; Brugha, Ruairi; Chilundo, Baltazar; Lehmann, Uta; Dussault, Gilles; Van Damme, Wim; Sanders, David

    2013-10-25

    Global Health Initiatives (GHIs), aiming at reducing the impact of specific diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), have flourished since 2000. Amongst these, PEPFAR and GFATM have provided a substantial amount of funding to countries affected by HIV, predominantly for delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) and prevention strategies. Since the need for additional human resources for health (HRH) was not initially considered by GHIs, countries, to allow ARV scale-up, implemented short-term HRH strategies, adapted to GHI-funding conditionality. Such strategies differed from one country to another and slowly evolved to long-term HRH policies. The processes and content of HRH policy shifts in 5 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa were examined. A multi-country study was conducted from 2007 to 2011 in 5 countries (Angola, Burundi, Lesotho, Mozambique and South Africa), to assess the impact of GHIs on the health system, using a mixed methods design. This paper focuses on the impact of GFATM and PEPFAR on HRH policies. Qualitative data consisted of semi-structured interviews undertaken at national and sub-national levels and analysis of secondary data from national reports. Data were analysed in order to extract countries' responses to HRH challenges posed by implementation of HIV-related activities. Common themes across the 5 countries were selected and compared in light of each country context. In all countries successful ARV roll-out was observed, despite HRH shortages. This was a result of mostly short-term emergency response by GHI-funded Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and to a lesser extent by governments, consisting of using and increasing available HRH for HIV tasks. As challenges and limits of short-term HRH strategies were revealed and HIV became a chronic disease, the 5 countries slowly implemented mid to long-term HRH strategies, such as formalisation of pilot initiatives, increase in HRH production and mitigation of internal migration of HRH

  5. Optimal assignment of incoming flights to baggage carousels at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.

    The problem considered in this report is an assignment problem occurring at airports. This problem concerns the assignment of baggage carousels in baggage claim halls to arriving aircraft (baggage carousel assignment problem). This is a highly dynamic problem since disruptions frequently occur du...... and in general is a substantial support in decision making....

  6. Computational Aspects of Assigning Agents to a Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Haris; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.

    2017-01-01

    -egalitarian assignments. The approach relies on an algorithm which is shown to be faster than general purpose algorithms for the assignment problem. We also extend the approach to probabilistic assignments and explore the computational features of existing, as well as new, methods for this setting....

  7. Computational aspects of assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Haris; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.

    2017-01-01

    -egalitarian assignments. The approach relies on an algorithm which is shown to be faster than general purpose algorithms for the assignment problem. We also extend the approach to probabilistic assignments and explore the computational features of existing, as well as new, methods for this setting....

  8. The Presentation Assignment: Creating Learning Opportunities for Diverse Student Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.; Bartle-Angus, Kathryn

    2000-01-01

    Finds the presentation assignment to be an effective method of providing students with the opportunity to apply the literacy skills they are learning in ways that are personally meaningful. Describes the presentation assignment framework and provides an example of an assignment that required students to analyze and interpret works of literature…

  9. Assignment Procedures in the Air Force Procurement Management Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joe H., Jr.; And Others

    An overview is presented of the procedure for offering jobs in the Air Force Procurement Management Information System (PROMIS), an assignment system which makes possible the use of human resources research findings to improve individual personnel assignments. A general framework for viewing personnel assignment systems is presented; then job…

  10. A Computerized Approach to Trickle-Process, Random Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braucht, G. Nicholas; Reichardt, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    Procedures for implementing random assignment with trickle processing and ways they can be corrupted are described. A computerized method for implementing random assignment with trickle processing is presented as a desirable alternative in many situations and a way of protecting against threats to assignment validity. (SLD)

  11. 7 CFR 900.106 - Assignment of mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of mediator. 900.106 Section 900.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Assignment of mediator. The Director of the Division shall assign a mediator, from the group designated by...

  12. A property of assignment type mixed integer linear programming problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, J.F.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we will proof that rather tight upper bounds can be given for the number of non-unique assignments that are achieved after solving the linear programming relaxation of some types of mixed integer linear assignment problems. Since in these cases the number of splitted assignments is

  13. One of My Favorite Assignments: Automated Teller Machine Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Paul S.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an assignment for an introductory computer science class that requires the student to write a software program that simulates an automated teller machine. Highlights include an algorithm for the assignment; sample file contents; language features used; assignment variations; and discussion points. (LRW)

  14. Student generated assignments about electrical circuits in a computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreman-de Olde, Cornelise; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated the design of assignments by students as a knowledge-generating activity. Students were required to design assignments for 'other students' in a computer simulation environment about electrical circuits. Assignments consisted of a question, alternatives, and feedback on

  15. New staff contract policy

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  16. Assessing sustainable freight policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of the study was to examine transportation demand management strategies related to long haul freight. It investigates freight : movements and truck vehicle miles traveled (TVMT) changes in response to certain transportation policies, inc...

  17. National Cyber Security Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Cyber Security Policy. Salient Features: Caters to ... Creating a secure cyber ecosystem. Creating an assurance framework. Encouraging Open Standards. Strengthening the Regulatory framework. Creating mechanisms for security threat early warning, vulnerability management and response to security threats.

  18. Deciding when physicians are unfit to practise: an analysis of responsibilities, policy and practice in 11 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckmann, Verena; Panteli, Dimitra; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Busse, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    In 1974, the European Economic Community established mutual recognition of medical qualifications obtained in any of its member states. Subsequently, a series of directives has elaborated on the initial provisions, with the most recent enacted in 2013. However, greater movement of physicians across borders and some high-profile scandals have raised questions about how to prevent a physician sanctioned in one country from simply moving to another, without undermining the principle of free movement. A survey of key informants in 11 European Union (EU) member states was supplemented by a review of peer-reviewed and grey literature, with the results validated by independent reviewers. It examined processes, adjudicative and disciplinary measures that are in place to evaluate physicians about whom concerns arise, and related sanctions, along with other aspects of professional standards and regulation. Overall, responses varied greatly between participating countries, with respect to the institutions responsible for the regulation of medical professions, the investigation processes in place, and the terminology used in each member state. While the types of sanction (removal from the register of medical professionals and/or licence revocation, suspension, dismissal, reprimand, warnings, fines, as well as additional education and training) applied are similar, both the roles of the individuals involved and the level of public disclosure of information vary considerably. However, some key features, such as the involvement of professional peers in disciplinary panels and the involvement of courts in criminal cases, are similar in most member states studied. Given the variation in the regulatory context, individuals and processes involved that is illustrated by our findings, a common understanding of definitions of what constitutes competence to practise, its impairment and its potential impact on patient safety becomes particularly important. Public disclosure of

  19. The paradox of verbal autopsy in cause of death assignment: symptom question unreliability but predictive accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serina, Peter; Riley, Ian; Hernandez, Bernardo; Flaxman, Abraham D; Praveen, Devarsetty; Tallo, Veronica; Joshi, Rohina; Sanvictores, Diozele; Stewart, Andrea; Mooney, Meghan D; Murray, Christopher J L; Lopez, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    We believe that it is important that governments understand the reliability of the mortality data which they have at their disposable to guide policy debates. In many instances, verbal autopsy (VA) will be the only source of mortality data for populations, yet little is known about how the accuracy of VA diagnoses is affected by the reliability of the symptom responses. We previously described the effect of the duration of time between death and VA administration on VA validity. In this paper, using the same dataset, we assess the relationship between the reliability and completeness of symptom responses and the reliability and accuracy of cause of death (COD) prediction. The study was based on VAs in the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) VA Validation Dataset from study sites in Bohol and Manila, Philippines and Andhra Pradesh, India. The initial interview was repeated within 3-52 months of death. Question responses were assessed for reliability and completeness between the two survey rounds. COD was predicted by Tariff Method. A sample of 4226 VAs was collected for 2113 decedents, including 1394 adults, 349 children, and 370 neonates. Mean question reliability was unexpectedly low ( kappa  = 0.447): 42.5 % of responses positive at the first interview were negative at the second, and 47.9 % of responses positive at the second had been negative at the first. Question reliability was greater for the short form of the PHMRC instrument ( kappa  = 0.497) and when analyzed at the level of the individual decedent ( kappa  = 0.610). Reliability at the level of the individual decedent was associated with COD predictive reliability and predictive accuracy. Families give coherent accounts of events leading to death but the details vary from interview to interview for the same case. Accounts are accurate but inconsistent; different subsets of symptoms are identified on each occasion. However, there are sufficient accurate and consistent

  20. Analysis of selected policies towards universal health coverage in Uganda: the policy implementation barometer protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoro, Charles; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Twalo, Thembinkosi; Mwendera, Chikondi; Douglas, Mbuyiselo; Mukuru, Moses; Kasasa, Simon; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2018-01-01

    Policy implementation remains an under researched area in most low and middle income countries and it is not surprising that several policies are implemented without a systematic follow up of why and how they are working or failing. This study is part of a larger project called Supporting Policy Engagement for Evidence-based Decisions (SPEED) for Universal Health Coverage in Uganda. It seeks to support policymakers monitor the implementation of vital programmes for the realisation of policy goals for Universal Health Coverage. A Policy Implementation Barometer (PIB) is proposed as a mechanism to provide feedback to the decision makers about the implementation of a selected set of policy programmes at various implementation levels (macro, meso and micro level). The main objective is to establish the extent of implementation of malaria, family planning and emergency obstetric care policies in Uganda and use these results to support stakeholder engagements for corrective action. This is the first PIB survey of the three planned surveys and its specific objectives include: assessment of the perceived appropriateness of implementation programmes to the identified policy problems; determination of enablers and constraints to implementation of the policies; comparison of on-line and face-to-face administration of the PIB questionnaire among target respondents; and documentation of stakeholder responses to PIB findings with regard to corrective actions for implementation. The PIB will be a descriptive and analytical study employing mixed methods in which both quantitative and qualitative data will be systematically collected and analysed. The first wave will focus on 10 districts and primary data will be collected through interviews. The study seeks to interview 570 respondents of which 120 will be selected at national level with 40 based on each of the three policy domains, 200 from 10 randomly selected districts, and 250 from 50 facilities. Half of the respondents at

  1. Employer, insurance, and health system response to long-term sick leave in the public sector: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijbel, Bodil; Josephson, Malin; Jensen, Irene; Vingård, Eva

    2005-06-01

    This study has been conducted to describe the situation of long-term sick-listed persons employed in the public sector regarding the medical reasons of their sick leave, the duration of their problems, the duration of the actual sick leave, rehabilitation support, rehabilitation measures, and the persons expectations of the future. Response rate of a postal questionnaire, where 484 women and 51 men on long-term sick leave answered, was 69%. The study-group consisted of 90% women with a median age of 50 years. The most common reasons for sick listing were long-lasting musculoskeletal problems, especially neck/shoulder pain, low back pain and osteoarthritis or other joint problems and mental problems, especially depression and burn-out syndromes. Forty-seven procent of the men and 57% of the women had been on the sick list for more than a year. Only half of them had been subjected to the legally required rehabilitation investigation of the employer This half got access to rehabilitation programs and/or vocational rehabilitation to a greater extent than those who not had been subjected to rehabilitation investigation. Less than half had been in contact with the workplace-connected rehabilitation actors, the Occupational Health Service or the Trade Union. In spite of this the sick-listed persons had a positive view of their future return to work. For long-term sick-listed persons in the public sector, there is a great potential for improvements of the rehabilitation at the workplace arena, in the involvement and cooperation between the already existing rehabilitation actors, in order to promote return to work.

  2. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  3. Acquisition Policy and Procedures Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    This Instruction establishes policies, responsibilities, and procedures for the procurement of goods and services to include supplies, equipment, publications, furniture, and information technology...

  4. Waste management policy and its implementation in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Following the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, on 7 January 1983, the Department of Energy's Commercial Nuclear Waste Program has been restructured to facilitate compliance with that Act. The responsibility for carrying out the functions of the Secretary of the DOE under the Act have been assigned to the Project Director of the newly created Nuclear Waste Policy Act Project Office. That Office will be operational until the mandated Office of Civilian Waste Management is activated. Those commercial waste management programmes - Remedial Action Program, West Valley Demonstration Project, Commercial Low-Level Waste and Waste Treatment and the Three Mile Island Program - which do not fall within the purview of the Act are the responsibility of the author. These programmes are described in the paper, which references those laws from which the Federal policy evolves. (author)

  5. Ethics and computing living responsibly in a computerized world

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    "Ethics and Computing, Second Edition promotes awareness of major issues and accepted procedures and policies in the area of ethics and computing using real-world companies, incidents, products and people." "Ethics and Computing, Second Edition is for topical undergraduate courses with chapters and assignments designed to encourage critical thinking and informed ethical decisions. Furthermore, this book will keep abreast computer science, computer engineering, and information systems professionals and their colleagues of current ethical issues and responsibilities."--Jacket.

  6. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  7. Maternal death inquiry and response in India - the impact of contextual factors on defining an optimal model to help meet critical maternal health policy objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalter Henry D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal death reviews have been utilized in several countries as a means of identifying social and health care quality issues affecting maternal survival. From 2005 to 2009, a standardized community-based maternal death inquiry and response initiative was implemented in eight Indian states with the aim of addressing critical maternal health policy objectives. However, state-specific contextual factors strongly influenced the effort's success. This paper examines the impact and implications of the contextual factors. Methods We identified community, public health systems and governance related contextual factors thought to affect the implementation, utilization and up-scaling of the death inquiry process. Then, according to selected indicators, we documented the contextual factors' presence and their impact on the process' success in helping meet critical maternal health policy objectives in four districts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. Based on this assessment, we propose an optimal model for conducting community-based maternal death inquiries in India and similar settings. Results The death inquiry process led to increases in maternal death notification and investigation whether civil society or government took charge of these tasks, stimulated sharing of the findings in multiple settings and contributed to the development of numerous evidence-based local, district and statewide maternal health interventions. NGO inputs were essential where communities, public health systems and governance were weak and boosted effectiveness in stronger settings. Public health systems participation was enabled by responsive and accountable governance. Communities participated most successfully through India's established local governance Panchayat Raj Institutions. In one instance this led to the development of a multi-faceted intervention well-integrated at multiple levels. Conclusions The impact of several contextual

  8. WebAssign: Assessing Your Students' Understanding Continuously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John S.

    1999-11-01

    Motivating students to learn is a constant challenge for faculty. Technology can play a significant role. One such solution is WebAssign — a web-based homework system that offers new teaching and learning opportunities for educators and their students. WebAssign delivers, collects, grades, and records customized homework assignments over the Internet. Students get immediate feedback with credit and instructors can implement "Just-in-Time" teaching. In this talk, I will describe how assignments can be generated with different numerical values for each question, giving each student a unique problem to solve. This feature encourages independent thinking with the benefit of collaborative learning. Example assignments taken from textbook questions and intellectually engaging Java applet simulations will be shown. Studies and first-hand experience on the educational impact of using WebAssign will also be discussed.

  9. A modeling of dynamic storage assignment for order picking in beverage warehousing with Drive-in Rack system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, M. Z.; Djatna, T.; Sugiarto

    2018-04-01

    This paper develops a dynamic storage assignment model to solve storage assignment problem (SAP) for beverages order picking in a drive-in rack warehousing system to determine the appropriate storage location and space for each beverage products dynamically so that the performance of the system can be improved. This study constructs a graph model to represent drive-in rack storage position then combine association rules mining, class-based storage policies and an arrangement rule algorithm to determine an appropriate storage location and arrangement of the product according to dynamic orders from customers. The performance of the proposed model is measured as rule adjacency accuracy, travel distance (for picking process) and probability a product become expiry using Last Come First Serve (LCFS) queue approach. Finally, the proposed model is implemented through computer simulation and compare the performance for different storage assignment methods as well. The result indicates that the proposed model outperforms other storage assignment methods.

  10. A probabilistic approach for validating protein NMR chemical shift assignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bowei; Wang, Yunjun; Wishart, David S.

    2010-01-01

    It has been estimated that more than 20% of the proteins in the BMRB are improperly referenced and that about 1% of all chemical shift assignments are mis-assigned. These statistics also reflect the likelihood that any newly assigned protein will have shift assignment or shift referencing errors. The relatively high frequency of these errors continues to be a concern for the biomolecular NMR community. While several programs do exist to detect and/or correct chemical shift mis-referencing or chemical shift mis-assignments, most can only do one, or the other. The one program (SHIFTCOR) that is capable of handling both chemical shift mis-referencing and mis-assignments, requires the 3D structure coordinates of the target protein. Given that chemical shift mis-assignments and chemical shift re-referencing issues should ideally be addressed prior to 3D structure determination, there is a clear need to develop a structure-independent approach. Here, we present a new structure-independent protocol, which is based on using residue-specific and secondary structure-specific chemical shift distributions calculated over small (3-6 residue) fragments to identify mis-assigned resonances. The method is also able to identify and re-reference mis-referenced chemical shift assignments. Comparisons against existing re-referencing or mis-assignment detection programs show that the method is as good or superior to existing approaches. The protocol described here has been implemented into a freely available Java program called 'Probabilistic Approach for protein Nmr Assignment Validation (PANAV)' and as a web server (http://redpoll.pharmacy.ualberta.ca/PANAVhttp://redpoll.pharmacy.ualberta.ca/PANAV) which can be used to validate and/or correct as well as re-reference assigned protein chemical shifts.

  11. Ant Colony Algorithm and Simulation for Robust Airport Gate Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport gate assignment is core task for airport ground operations. Due to the fact that the departure and arrival time of flights may be influenced by many random factors, the airport gate assignment scheme may encounter gate conflict and many other problems. This paper aims at finding a robust solution for airport gate assignment problem. A mixed integer model is proposed to formulate the problem, and colony algorithm is designed to solve this model. Simulation result shows that, in consideration of robustness, the ability of antidisturbance for airport gate assignment scheme has much improved.

  12. Environmental policy and climate change vulnerability in the Maldives: from the ‘lexicon of risk’ to social response to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Malatesta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The climate change vulnerability discourse in the Maldives coexists with a pervasive set of critical environmental factors of significance to the socio-environmental systems of small peripheral islands. This implies the need to strike a balance between global challenges associated with environmental processes at the supra-national scale and the adjustments and strategies implemented at the local scale in response to change. The current paper offers a discussion of this dialectic, in reference to both the broader contemporary debate in island studies, and the political and environmental context of the Maldives. We first outline the international scenario, and then go on, in the second part of the paper, to provide a reading of environmental policy on these islands. We argue that emphasizing the country’s environmental vulnerability has reinforced a ‘lexicon of risk’ within the environmental discourse and that, in recent years, this narrative has been one of the main forces driving the construction of contemporary Maldivian ‘nation-ness’.

  13. The Missing Main Effect of Welfare State Regimes: A Replication of ‘Social Policy Responsiveness in Developed Democracies’ by Brooks and Manza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate Breznau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a replication of Brooks and Manza's "Social Policy Responsiveness in Developed Democracies" published in 2006 in the American Sociological Review. The article finds that Brooks and Manza utilized an interaction term but excluded the main effect of one of the interacted variables. This model specification has specific implications: statistically, that the omitted main effect variable has no correlation with the residual error term from their regression; theoretically speaking, this means that all unobserved historical, cultural, and other characteristics that distinguish liberal democratic welfare regimes from others can be accounted for with a handful of quantitative measures. Using replicated data, this article finds that the Brooks and Manza models fail these assumptions. A sensitivity analysis using more than 800 regressions with different configurations of variables confirms this. In 99.5 percent of the cases, addition of the main effect removes Brooks and Manza's empirical findings completely. A theoretical discussion illuminates why these findings are not surprising. This article provides a reminder that models and theories are coterminous, each implied by the other.

  14. Privacy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  15. Assessing Segregation under a New Generation of Controlled Choice Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Erica

    2017-01-01

    Student assignment policies (SAPs) in K-12 schools can either reproduce or help ameliorate existing inequality. Some districts are trying to maintain voluntarily adopted integration policies despite the Supreme Court's recent 2007 decision in "Parents Involved," which prohibited most race-conscious school choice policies that were…

  16. Conclusion: Challenge and policy response.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashworth, G.J.; Dietvorst, A.G.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this final chapter, the editors provide a justification for the pursuit of the approach of the book as a whole by drawing together the specific studies of tourism in particular types of place. They present an integral approach to planning and management for tourism and recreation.

  17. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a…

  18. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  19. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  20. Unpacking the social construction of 'natural' disaster through policy discourses and institutional responses in Mexico: the case of Chalco Valley's floods, State of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón-Durand, F. d. J.

    2009-01-01

    This research analyses 'natural' disaster policies for Mexico. The objective is to demonstrate that 'natural' disaster and the policies oriented to prevent them are socially constructed. It adopts a constructionist perspective because it is concerned with the understanding of collective social constructions of meaning and knowledge that are determined by political and social processes. This study focuses on the relation between the discourses of disaster causality, policy problem construction...

  1. Family Policies and Gender Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, Marianne A.

    Public policies intended to help those who are disadvantaged by the traditional sexual division of family and work responsibilities often tend to perpetuate the very system responsible for many inequalities. One example of such policies is the present income tax structure. Because goods and services produced in the household are not taxed,…

  2. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  3. Bringing voice in policy building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Kane, Mary; Zocchi, Mark S; Gosa, Jessica; Lazar, Danielle; Pines, Jesse M

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of group concept mapping (GCM) as a tool for developing a conceptual model of an episode of acute, unscheduled care from illness or injury to outcomes such as recovery, death and chronic illness. Design/methodology/approach After generating a literature review drafting an initial conceptual model, GCM software (CS Global MAX TM ) is used to organize and identify strengths and directionality between concepts generated through feedback about the model from several stakeholder groups: acute care and non-acute care providers, patients, payers and policymakers. Through online and in-person population-specific focus groups, the GCM approach seeks feedback, assigned relationships and articulated priorities from participants to produce an output map that described overarching concepts and relationships within and across subsamples. Findings A clustered concept map made up of relational data points that produced a taxonomy of feedback was used to update the model for use in soliciting additional feedback from two technical expert panels (TEPs), and finally, a public comment exercise was performed. The results were a stakeholder-informed improved model for an acute care episode, identified factors that influence process and outcomes, and policy recommendations, which were delivered to the Department of Health and Human Services's (DHHS) Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. Practical implications This study provides an example of the value of cross-population multi-stakeholder input to increase voice in shared problem health stakeholder groups. Originality/value This paper provides GCM results and a visual analysis of the relational characteristics both within and across sub-populations involved in the study. It also provides an assessment of observational key factors supporting how different stakeholder voices can be integrated to inform model development and policy recommendations.

  4. Social Media Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stohl, Cynthia; Etter, Michael; Banghart, Scott

    2017-01-01

    of these trends is examined through a content analysis of 112 publicly available social media policies from the largest corporations in the world. The extent to which social media policies facilitate and/or constrain the communicative sensibilities and values associated with contemporary notions of CSR...... negotiation and participation in the social responsibilities of corporations. Moreover, policies generally enact organizational communication practices that are contrary to international CSR guidelines (e.g., the UN Global Compact and other international agreements). Findings suggest that social media...... policies represent a relatively unrecognized development in the institutionalization of CSR communicative norms and practices that call into question the promising affordances of social media for the inclusion of various voices in the public negotiation of what constitutes corporate social responsibility....

  5. Negotiating Languages and Cultures: Enacting Translingualism through a Translation Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia; Meier, Joyce; Wang, Xiqiao

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative project explores the affordances of a translation assignment in the context of a learner-centered pedagogy that places composition students' movement among languages and cultures as both a site for inquiry and subject of analysis. The translation assignment asks students to translate scholarly articles or culture stories from…

  6. On some special cases of the restricted assignment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C. (Chao); R.A. Sitters (René)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider some special cases of the restricted assignment problem. In this scheduling problem on parallel machines, any job j can only be assigned to one of the machines in its given subset Mj of machines. We give an LP-formulation for the problem with two job sizes and show that it

  7. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements. An...

  8. On the Use of Writing Assignments in Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    A typical writing assignment in upper level required courses is a term paper. However many economics majors, particularly those in business schools, need to develop skill at writing shorter pieces. In this paper I describe numerous examples of shorter writing assignments that I have incorporated into an Intermediate Microeconomic Theory course.…

  9. 7 CFR 1900.5 - Assignment of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of cases. 1900.5 Section 1900.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... REGULATIONS GENERAL Delegations of Authority § 1900.5 Assignment of cases. The State Director may, in writing...

  10. Students' Evaluation of Writing Assignments in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procidano, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study in which students in an abnormal psychology class rated the usefulness of drafts for two writing assignments. Reports that a research proposal was more effective than a case study in generating interest in psychology and opportunity for creativity. Concludes that writing assignments should reflect important aspects of a…

  11. 14 CFR 1245.109 - Assignment of title to NASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of title to NASA. 1245.109... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Patent Waiver Regulations § 1245.109 Assignment of title to NASA. (a) The instrument of waiver set forth in § 1245.115(c) shall be voided by NASA with respect to the domestic title to...

  12. Exogenous spatial attention influences figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, Shaun P; Flevaris, Anastasia V; Filapek, Joseph C

    2004-01-01

    In a hierarchical stage account of vision, figure-ground assignment is thought to be completed before the operation of focal spatial attention. Results of previous studies have supported this account by showing that unpredictive, exogenous spatial precues do not influence figure-ground assignment, although voluntary attention can influence figure-ground assignment. However, in these studies, attention was not summoned directly to a region in a figure-ground display. In three experiments, we addressed the relationship between figure-ground assignment and visuospatial attention. In Experiment 1, we replicated the finding that exogenous precues do not influence figure-ground assignment when they direct attention outside of a figure-ground stimulus. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that exogenous attention can influence figure-ground assignment if it is directed to one of the regions in a figure-ground stimulus. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that exogenous attention can influence figure-ground assignment in displays that contain a Gestalt figure-ground cue; this result suggests that figure-ground processes are not entirely completed prior to the operation of focal spatial attention. Exogenous spatial attention acts as a cue for figure-ground assignment and can affect the outcome of figure-ground processes.

  13. Parentage assignment of progeny in mixed milt fertilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... individuals. Overall, 98.8% of progeny were assigned to their parents using Family Assignment. Program (FAP). Selection of hyper-variable microsatellites in Caspian brown trout to identify unique alleles was effective for unambiguous parentage determination and estimation of genetic diversity in this study.

  14. Genetics of traffic assignment models for strategic transport planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliemer, M.C.J.; Raadsen, M.P.H.; Brederode, L.J.N.; Bell, M.G.H.; Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; Smith, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review and classification of traffic assignment models for strategic transport planning purposes by using concepts analogous to genetics in biology. Traffic assignment models share the same theoretical framework (DNA), but differ in capability (genes). We argue that all traffic

  15. Scaffolding Assignments and Activities for Undergraduate Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sarah; Justwan, Florian

    2018-01-01

    This article details assignments and lessons created for and tested in research methods courses at two different universities, a large state school and a small liberal arts college. Each assignment or activity utilized scaffolding. Students were asked to push beyond their comfort zone while utilizing concrete and/or creative examples,…

  16. Personnel shift assignment: Existence conditions and network models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jeroen P.; van den Berg, J.P.; Panton, David M.

    1994-01-01

    The personnel scheduling problem is known to be a five-stage process in which the final stage involves the assignment of shifts to the days worked in the schedule. This paper discusses the existence conditions for both continuous and forward rotating shift assignments and heuristic network

  17. 28 CFR 545.23 - Inmate work/program assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... community living area, unless the pretrial inmate has signed a waiver of his or her right not to work (see... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate work/program assignment. 545.23... WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.23 Inmate work/program assignment...

  18. Automating Formative and Summative Feedback for Individualised Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Ian Robert

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the rationale behind the use of a unique paper-based individualised accounting assignment, which automated the provision to students of immediate formative and timely summative feedback. Design/methodology/approach: As students worked towards completing their assignment, the package provided…

  19. submission of art studio-based assignments: students experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    are reluctant to complete their studio assignments on time are critically ... tative and qualitative data, derived from survey and interviews were used to ... is therefore exploratory and studio based. It ... mogenous group of students who report pro- ... Assignment management .... The analyses in this study are based on data.

  20. 13 CFR 500.210 - Assignment or transfer of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... has the effect of distributing the risks of the credit among other Lenders if: (i) Neither the loan... be modified, assigned, conveyed, sold or otherwise transferred by the Lender, in whole or in part... assignment or transfer of less than 100 percent of a Lender's interest in the Loan Documents and Guarantee...