Sample records for policy assigns responsibilities

  1. Assignment Procedure Biases in Randomised Policy Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldashev, Gani; Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander


    's propensity to act reciprocally. When people are motivated by reciprocity, the choice of assignment procedure influences the RCTs’ findings. We show that even credible and explicit randomisation procedures do not guarantee an unbiased prediction of the impact of policy interventions; however, they minimise......Randomised controlled trials (RCT) have gained ground as the dominant tool for studying policy interventions in many fields of applied economics. We analyse theoretically encouragement and resentful demoralisation in RCTs and show that these might be rooted in the same behavioural trait – people...... any bias relative to other less transparent assignment procedures....

  2. Assigning historic responsibility for extreme weather events (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Berntsen, Terje; Allen, Myles R.


    Recent scientific advances make it possible to assign extreme events to human-induced climate change and historical emissions. These developments allow losses and damage associated with such events to be assigned country-level responsibility.

  3. 32 CFR 884.2 - Assigned responsibilities. (United States)


    ... OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.2 Assigned responsibilities. (a... requests for return of members to the United States for delivery to civilian authorities when the request...) Requests for return of members to the United States for delivery to civilian authorities when the request...

  4. 75 FR 55355 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility Secretary's Order 4-2010 Subject: Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility to the... Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, 15 U.S.C. 2087; the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...

  5. 75 FR 55354 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities Secretary's Order 3-2010 Subject: Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities to... (FLSA) in sections 1511 and 1512 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, Public Law...

  6. 47 CFR 90.173 - Policies governing the assignment of frequencies. (United States)


    ... assignment to base stations or mobile stations in the Industrial/Business Pool are also available for... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Policies Governing the Assignment of Frequencies... this part, frequencies assigned to land mobile stations are available on a shared basis only and will...

  7. 76 FR 42574 - Policies To Promote Rural Radio Service and To Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures (United States)


    ... Matter of Policies to Promote Rural Radio Service and to Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Policies To Promote Rural Radio Service and To Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rules; announcement of...

  8. 77 FR 32034 - Policies To Promote Rural Radio Service and To Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures (United States)


    ... policies to promote rural radio service and to streamline allotment and assignment procedures. This notice... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Policies To Promote Rural Radio Service and To Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date...

  9. The "Post-Racial" Politics of Race: Changing Student Assignment Policy in Three School Districts (United States)

    McDermott, Kathryn A.; Frankenberg, Erica; Diem, Sarah


    Many school districts have recently revised, or tried to revise, their policies for assigning students to schools, because the legal and political status of racial and other kinds of diversity is uncertain, and the districts are facing fiscal austerity. This article presents case studies of politics and student assignment policy in three large…

  10. Manual of functions, assignments, and responsibilities for nuclear safety: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The FAR Manual is a convenient easy-to-use collection of the functions, assignments, and responsibilities (FARs) of DOE nuclear safety personnel. Current DOE directives, including Orders, Secretary of Energy Notices, and other assorted policy memoranda, are the source of this information and form the basis of the FAR Manual. Today, the majority of FARs for DOE personnel are contained in DOE`s nuclear safety Orders. As these Orders are converted to rules in the Code of Federal Regulations, the FAR Manual will become the sole source for information relating to the functions, assignments, responsibilities of DOE nuclear safety personnel. The FAR Manual identifies DOE directives that relate to nuclear safety and the specific DOE personnel who are responsible for implementing them. The manual includes only FARs that have been extracted from active directives that have been approved in accordance with the procedures contained in DOE Order 1321.1B.

  11. Chernobyl: A policy response study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segerstahl, B.


    Chernobyl consists of a series of papers concerned with societal responses to the accident at Chernobyl. The book is composed of a series of segments that focus of aspects of the post-accident policy: monitoring and assessment, health effects, agriculture and trade, international responses, and the media and credibility crisis. Seven European countries were investigated for information on how they dealt with the accident

  12. 75 FR 66267 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility; Secretary's Order 6-2010 (United States)


    ... Business Act, as amended, 15 U.S.C. 644(n). (14) Social Security Act of 1935, as amended, Title III-Grants.... E. The Solicitor of Labor is delegated authority and assigned responsibility for providing legal... Part V Department of Labor Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility; Secretary's...

  13. 75 FR 55352 - Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities (United States)


    .... Authority and responsibility for the Equal Pay Act, Section 6(d) of the FLSA, were transferred to the Equal... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office... Affordable Care Act of 2010, Public Law (Pub. L.) 111-148. These particular FLSA authorities of the Secretary...

  14. Policies Regulating the Assignments of the Bachelor of Education Programme of Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study (United States)

    Bose, Sutapa


    This case study examines the policies formulated by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), an open and distance learning university of India for regulating the practices related to the assignments of its Bachelor of Education programme. Following the examination it argues that some policies are formulated in the context of the…

  15. Education policy and frame conflict : Student assignment in the Wake County Public School System in North Carolina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Eyre (Dylan Samuel)


    textabstractThis research explores frame conflict in the context of education policy. It centers on the public discourse surrounding the retraction of a student assignment policy aimed at socio-economic diversity in the Wake County Public School System in North Carolina, USA. It argues that the

  16. Backward- and forward-looking responsibility for obesity: policies from WHO, the EU and England. (United States)

    Vallgårda, Signild; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Hartlev, Mette; Sandøe, Peter


    In assigning responsibility for obesity prevention a distinction may be drawn between who is responsible for the rise in obesity prevalence ('backward-looking responsibility'), and who is responsible for reducing it ('forward-looking responsibility'). We study how the two aspects of responsibility figure in the obesity policies of WHO (European Region), the EU and the Department of Health (England). Responsibility for the emergence and reduction of obesity is assigned to both individuals and other actors to different degrees in the policies, combining an individual and a systemic view. The policies assign backward-looking responsibility to individuals, the social environment, the authorities and businesses. When it comes to forward-looking responsibility, individuals are expected to play a central role in reducing and preventing obesity, but other actors are also urged to act. WHO assigns to individuals the lowest degree of backward- and forward-looking responsibility, and the Department of Health (England) assigns them the highest degree of responsibility. Differences in the assignment of backward- and above all forward-looking responsibility could be explained to some extent by the different roles of the three authorities making the plans. WHO is a UN agency with health as its goal, the EU is a liberal economic union with optimization of the internal European market as an important task, and England, as an independent sovereign country, has its own economic responsibilities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 73976 - Policies To Promote Rural Radio Service and To Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures (United States)


    ... Assignment Procedures, MB Docket No. 09-52, FCC 09-30, 24 FCC Rcd 5239 (2009). On January 28, 2010, the... Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures (the ``Order''), MB Docket No. 09-52, FCC 10-24, 25 FCC Rcd... Docket No. 09-52, FCC 10-24, 25 FCC Rcd 1583 (2010). The Order adopts changes to certain procedures...

  18. Antipodean Social Policy Responses to Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter


    In this article, I analyze the social policy reactions to economic crises in Australia and New Zealand. After the financial crisis of 2008, Australia built its crisis management strategy around a large fiscal stimulus with a significant social policy component, whereas New Zealand did not. While...... the government enacted fiscal stimulus measures, the social policy component was small and the government soon returned to welfare retrenchment and workfare policy. Based on a detailed account of recent crisis policies as well as a condensed overview of previous crisis responses (to the 1970s oil shocks...

  19. 77 FR 3911 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility to the Assistant Secretary for... (United States)


    ... Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act, as amended, 40 U.S.C. 329, 333; the Maritime Safety Act of..., 333. (e) Maritime Safety Act of 1958, 33 U.S.C. 941. (f) National Foundation on the Arts and the... and Assignment of Responsibility to the Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health; Notice...

  20. 77 FR 69375 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility to the Director, Office of Labor... (United States)


    ... Vol. 77 Friday, No. 222 November 16, 2012 Part III Department of Labor Office of the Secretary Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility to the Director, Office of Labor-Management Standards; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 222 / Friday, November 16, 2012 / Notices#0;#0; [[Page 69376

  1. Targeting Type 2: Linguistic Agency Assignment in Diabetes Prevention Policy Messaging. (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M; McGlone, Matthew S; Bell, Robert A


    We explored the effects of linguistic agency assignment on the persuasive impact of a fictitious medical journal editorial about Type 2 diabetes. Participants (N = 422) read 1 of 4 versions of an editorial that differed in the language used to describe the health threat posed by the disease (threat agency) and to outline a program for preventing it (prevention agency). Threat agency was assigned either to the disease (e.g., diabetes puts individuals' lives at risk) or to humans (e.g., individuals who acquire diabetes put their lives at risk). Prevention agency was assigned either to the recommended prevention behaviors (e.g., a healthy diet and regular exercise protect children from Type 2) or to humans (e.g., children who eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly protect themselves from Type 2). Respondents' perceptions of disease severity were higher when threat agency was assigned to diabetes rather than humans. However, attitudes toward the proposed prevention program were higher when prevention agency was assigned to humans rather than to the recommended behaviors. The latter finding contrasts with agency effects observed in previous research on a viral threat, suggesting that the optimal pattern of agency assignment in prevention messaging may be different for acute and chronic lifestyle diseases.

  2. Backward- and forward-looking responsibility for obesity: policies from WHO, the EU and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Hartlev, Mette


    ackground: In assigning responsibility for obesity prevention a distinction may be drawn between who is responsible for the rise in obesity prevalence (‘backward-looking responsibility’), and who is responsible for reducing it (‘forward-looking responsibility’). Methods: We study how the two aspe...... its own economic responsibilities.......ackground: In assigning responsibility for obesity prevention a distinction may be drawn between who is responsible for the rise in obesity prevalence (‘backward-looking responsibility’), and who is responsible for reducing it (‘forward-looking responsibility’). Methods: We study how the two...... aspects of responsibility figure in the obesity policies of WHO (European Region), the EU and the Department of Health (England). Results: Responsibility for the emergence and reduction of obesity is assigned to both individuals and other actors to different degrees in the policies, combining...

  3. The Rotation and Assignment of Imbalanced Air Force Specialties: A Policy Analysis Model. (United States)


    OCS R = REMO )TE. REQRENM. RIQOS /\\ - _:/ ., --- -- ..70 ~~RI QODL !1 \\ """... . .........................................."- 0 r -~- (0 II ( rI 1 22...Corporate System Model of a Sports Club: Using Simulatiiin as an Aid Policies which alter tour lengths or make minor changes in to Policy Making in a

  4. Global warming: Economic policy responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.


    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  5. Capturing Implicit Policy from NCLB Test Type Assignments of Students with Disabilities (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Kingston, Neal


    This study examined the learner characteristics and performance scores of students in the 2009 alternate assessment-modified achievement standard for one Midwestern state. Comparing performance differences by disability category for each content area from the students' 2008 test type assignments and performance scores facilitated examining the…

  6. Canadian Policy Responses to International Comparison Testing (United States)

    Volante, Louis


    This paper examines policy responses across Canada to international student assessment programs such as the program for international student assessment, trends in international mathematics and science study, and progress in international reading and literacy study. Literature reviewed included refereed and non-refereed journal articles,…

  7. The Personal Response: A Novel Writing Assignment to Engage First Year Students in Large Human Biology Classes (United States)

    Moni, Roger W.; Moni, Karen B.; Poronnik, Philip


    The teaching of highly valued scientific writing skills in the first year of university is challenging. This report describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a novel written assignment, "The Personal Response" and accompanying Peer Review, in the course, Human Biology (BIOL1015) at The University of Queensland. These assignments were…

  8. Corporate Social Responsability and Organization Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta CRISTACHE


    Full Text Available At a time when the world is interested in phenomena such as, ecology, environment, food safety, ozone layer depletion, famine and their effects on social responsibility initiatives are becoming increasingly well received. Even if you can not give a real dimension of the concept of social responsibility-taking as any guarantee of success, an organization must be aware that there is only a tool for maximizing the value of image design, but an essential element of long-term success in direct connection with social and environmental performance of the community. To work is to highlight the link between corporate social responsibility strategies and success in solving organizational policies company issues under restrictive conditions imposed by nouile economic, social and political.

  9. The Policy to Promote Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosdahl, Anders

    viewpoints in the current Danish debate (section 4). Section 5 includes some concluding remarks. Encouraging social responsibility of enterprises is one of the means to promote what in Denmark today is termed an inclusive labour market. The inclusive labour market is, according to current governmental...... in employment. An inclusive labour market is adapted to the needs and capabilities of diverse human beings, also employees, who should be able to reconcile work and family life. The policy to increase the social responsibility of enterprises and to promote an inclusive labour market includes several specific...... thinking, a vision for the Danish welfare society. An inclusive labour market is one with “a place for everyone”, i.e. also for persons with a reduced working capacity, disabled, ethnic minorities and long-term unemployed – that is persons who have traditionally had difficulties in obtaining or remaining...

  10. Scientists' response to societal impact policies: A policy paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.; Smit, Jorrit; van Drooge, L.


    Many countries have amended legislation and introduced policies to stimulate universities to transfer their knowledge to society. The effects of these policies on scientists are relatively unexplored. We employ principal–agent theory to increase our understanding of the relationship between impact

  11. Going Upstream: Policy as Sexual Violence Prevention and Response (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.; Issadore, Michelle N.


    Policy can and should be used as a tool of sexual violence prevention and response. In this chapter, we explore the historical, social justice, compliance, and best practice rationales for approaching policy development and revision differently.

  12. Thermal response to firefighting activities in residential structure fires: impact of job assignment and suppression tactic. (United States)

    Horn, Gavin P; Kesler, Richard M; Kerber, Steve; Fent, Kenneth W; Schroeder, Tad J; Scott, William S; Fehling, Patricia C; Fernhall, Bo; Smith, Denise L


    Firefighters' thermal burden is generally attributed to high heat loads from the fire and metabolic heat generation, which may vary between job assignments and suppression tactic employed. Utilising a full-sized residential structure, firefighters were deployed in six job assignments utilising two attack tactics (1. Water applied from the interior, or 2. Exterior water application before transitioning to the interior). Environmental temperatures decreased after water application, but more rapidly with transitional attack. Local ambient temperatures for inside operation firefighters were higher than other positions (average ~10-30 °C). Rapid elevations in skin temperature were found for all job assignments other than outside command. Neck skin temperatures for inside attack firefighters were ~0.5 °C lower when the transitional tactic was employed. Significantly higher core temperatures were measured for the outside ventilation and overhaul positions than the inside positions (~0.6-0.9 °C). Firefighters working at all fireground positions must be monitored and relieved based on intensity and duration. Practitioner Summary: Testing was done to characterise the thermal burden experienced by firefighters in different job assignments who responded to controlled residential fires (with typical furnishings) using two tactics. Ambient, skin and core temperatures varied based on job assignment and tactic employed, with rapid elevations in core temperature in many roles.

  13. Local policy proposals can bridge Latino and (most) white Americans' response to immigration. (United States)

    Huo, Yuen J; Dovidio, John F; Jiménez, Tomás R; Schildkraut, Deborah J


    In the past 15 years, the adoption of subnational immigration policies in the United States, such as those established by individual states, has gone from nearly zero to over 300 per year. These include welcoming policies aimed at attracting and incorporating immigrants, as well as unwelcoming policies directed at denying immigrants access to public resources and services. Using data from a 2016 random digit-dialing telephone survey with an embedded experiment, we examine whether institutional support for policies that are either welcoming or hostile toward immigrants differentially shape Latinos' and whites' feelings of belonging in their state (Arizona/New Mexico, adjacent states with contrasting immigration policies). We randomly assigned individuals from the representative sample ( n = 1,903) of Latinos (US and foreign born) and whites (all US born) to consider policies that were either welcoming of or hostile toward immigrants. Across both states of residence, Latinos, especially those foreign born, regardless of citizenship, expressed more positive affect and greater belonging when primed with a welcoming (vs. hostile) policy. Demonstrating the importance of local norms, these patterns held among US-born whites, except among self-identified politically conservative whites, who showed more negative affect and lower levels of belonging in response to welcoming policies. Thus, welcoming immigration policies, supported by institutional authorities, can create a sense of belonging not only among newcomers that is vital to successful integration but also among a large segment of the population that is not a direct beneficiary of such policies-US-born whites.

  14. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke


    This paper analyses policies of 22 European Union member governments, designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) between 2000 and 2011. It categorises these policies by their regulatory strength and identifies the range of issues to which CSR policies are directed. The paper argu...

  15. Individual and community responsibility for population policy. (United States)

    Last, J M


    The Government of Canada acknowledges its shared responsibility with individuals for controlling population growth. This stance is reflected in support to family planning programs, access to birth control devices, free availability of information on family planning procedures, and access to facilities for abortion. These issues have important ethical aspects, especially abortion. The question of when human life begins is theological or philosophical, not biological, and can never be resolved by scientists. In the opinion of the author, it is inappropriate for anti-abortion forces to insist that all others in society adhere to their belief that the fetus is a human person from the moment of conception. Moreover, it is improper to argue for making abortion a crime without taking every possible step to prevent unwanted pregnancies, especially among school children. Among devout supporters of the rights of the fetus, there is an unfortunate reluctance to permit effective sex education outside the home. However, only good education, combined with access to reliable contraception, can protect young people from unwanted pregnancy. It is ethical conduct for social planners and policy makers, public health specialists, and school teachers to collaborate in providing effective sex education. This education should begin no later than 10 years of age and be continued through high school. It should include discussion of sexually related emotional and social aspects of relationships, as well as basic facts about reproduction. Early in high school, information should be provided about contraceptive methods.

  16. Institutional and policy responses to uncertainty in environmental policy: A comparison of dutch and US styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentsen, Maarten J.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; O'Toole, Laurence J.


    Uncertainties regarding problem definition and policy response are an endemic pan of environmental decisionmaking. Some standard responses to uncertainty in decisionmaking are analyzed and then used to suggest the importance of learning-oriented policy processes in open, flexible, and adaptive

  17. 77 FR 45696 - Further Amendment to Memorandum Describing Authority and Assigned Responsibilities of the General... (United States)


    ... expeditious performance of its primary function and responsibility of deciding cases, the authority and... the Board Members' Offices, the Division of Judges, the Division of Information, the Security Office...

  18. 78 FR 45599 - Proposed Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Assigning Environmental Responsibilities to the State... (United States)


    ... 28, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments, identified by DOT Document Management System (DMS... MOU may be downloaded by accessing the DOT DMS docket, as described above, at http://www.regulations... FHWA remains responsible for the consultation. A copy of the proposed MOU may be viewed on the DOT DMS...

  19. Public Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Four Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, Atle; Gjølberg, Maria; Kourula, Arno


    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) was historically a business-oriented idea that companies should voluntarily improve their social and environmental practices. More recently, CSR has increasingly attracted governments’ attention, and is now promoted in public policy, especially in the European...

  20. Defining response capacity to enhance climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, Emma L.; Neil Adger, W.


    Climate change adaptation and mitigation decisions made by governments are usually taken in different policy domains. At the individual level however, adaptation and mitigation activities are undertaken together as part of the management of risk and resources. We propose that a useful starting point to develop a national climate policy is to understand what societal response might mean in practice. First we frame the set of responses at the national policy level as a trade off between investment in the development and diffusion of new technology, and investment in encouraging and enabling society to change its behaviour and or adopt the new technology. We argue that these are the pertinent trade-offs, rather than those usually posited between climate change mitigation and adaptation. The preference for a policy response that focuses more on technological innovation rather than one that focuses on changing social behaviour will be influenced by the capacity of different societies to change their greenhouse gas emissions; by perceived vulnerability to climate impacts; and by capacity to modify social behaviour and physical environment. Starting with this complete vision of response options should enable policy makers to re-evaluate the risk environment and the set of response options available to them. From here, policy makers should consider who is responsible for making climate response decisions and when actions should be taken. Institutional arrangements dictate social and political acceptability of different policies, they structure worldviews, and they determine the provision of resources for investment in technological innovation and social change. The importance of focussing on the timing of the response is emphasised to maximise the potential for adjustments through social learning and institutional change at different policy scales. We argue that the ability to respond to climate change is both enabled and constrained by social and technological conditions

  1. Belief-Policies Cannot Ground Doxastic Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.


    William Alston has provided a by now well-known objection to the deontological conception of epistemic justification by arguing that since we lack control over our beliefs, we are not responsible for them. It is widely acknowledged that if Alston's argument is convincing, then it seems that the very

  2. Accounting for Knowledge in Policies of Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Magnusson, Hannes; Vetterlein, Antje; Wiener, Antje

    This article develops a framework that aims to account for knowledge in practices of responsibility. It embarks from the observation that norms in global governance are contested, and increasingly so, triggered by processes of globalisation which make inter-national encounters ever more likely...

  3. HLA superfamily assignment is a predictor of immune response to cancer testis antigens and survival in ovarian cancer. (United States)

    Szender, J Brian; Eng, Kevin H; Matsuzaki, Junko; Miliotto, Anthony; Gnjatic, Sacha; Tsuji, Takemasa; Odunsi, Kunle


    To characterize the association between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) types and spontaneous antibody development to the cancer testis (CT) antigen NY-ESO-1. Tumor expression of NY-ESO-1 and serum antibodies to NY-ESO-1 were characterized in addition to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type for patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. HLA types were assigned to structure-based superfamilies and statistical associations were examined. HLA types were compared to existing reference libraries of HLA frequencies in a European-Caucasian American population. Out of 126 patients identified, 81% were expression positive and 48% had spontaneous antibody responses to NY-ESO-1. There was an association between HLA-B superfamily and seropositivity among patients with tumors expressing NY-ESO-1 (pHLA-B superfamily assignment were driven by HLA-B44. Among all patients, the B27 superfamily was over-represented compared with the general population (pHLA type appears to be associated with spontaneous anti-CT antigen antibodies, as well as with the overall risk of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke

    This paper analyses policies of twenty two EU member governments designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) over the first decade of the century. Our paper categorizes policies for CSR into different types depending on their expected degree of regulatory strength. Secondly, whilst...... it identifies a wide range of issues to which government CSR policies are directed, it notes a tendency for these to have expanded from social affairs and employment issues, through environmental issues, to economic and trade and development issues. Thirdly, governments act as agents in their respective...

  5. Accounting for Knowledge in Policies of Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Magnusson, Hannes; Vetterlein, Antje; Wiener, Antje

    This article develops a framework that aims to account for knowledge in practices of responsibility. It embarks from the observation that norms in global governance are contested, and increasingly so, triggered by processes of globalisation which make inter-national encounters ever more likely....... By understanding these encounters as inter-cultural, the article focuses on knowledge practices that inform (diverging) understandings of fundamental norms. We argue that in order to increase long-term sustainable normativity under conditions of globalisation, researcher needs to uncover meso-level norms....... These norms form the organising principles that may reconcile stakeholders diverging interpretation of fundamental norms, on the one hand, and the ensuing contestation over standardised procedures, on the other. We hold that negotiated, and therefore: sustainable, normativity at the meso-level may fill...

  6. Three essays on monetary policy responses to oil price shocks (United States)

    Plante, Michael

    This dissertation contains three chapters which explore the question of how monetary policy should respond to changes in the price of oil. Each chapter explores the question from the perspective of a different economic environment. The first chapter examines welfare maximizing optimal monetary policy in a closed economy New Keynesian model that is extended to include household and firm demand for oil products, sticky wages, and capital accumulation. When households and firms demand oil products a natural difference arises between the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the core CPI, and the GDP deflator. I show that when nominal wages are flexible then the optimal policy places a heavy emphasis on stabilizing the inflation rate of the core CPI. If aggregate nominal wages are sticky then the central bank should focus on stabilizing some combination of core inflation and nominal wage inflation. Under no case examined is it optimal to stabilize either GDP deflator or CPI inflation. The second chapter examines monetary policy responses to oil price shocks in a small open economy with traded and non-traded goods. Oil and labor are used to produce the traded and non-traded goods and prices are sticky in the non-traded sector. I show analytically that the ratio of the oil and labor cost shares in the traded and non-traded sectors is crucial for determining the dynamic behavior of many macroeconomic variables after a rise in the price of oil. A policy of fixed exchange rates can produce higher or lower inflation in the non-traded sector depending upon the ratio. Likewise, a policy that stabilizes the inflation rate of prices in the non-traded sector can cause the nominal exchange rate to appreciate or depreciate. For the proper calibration, a policy that stabilizes core inflation produces results very close to the one that stabilizes non-traded inflation. Analytical results show that the fixed exchange rate always produces a unique solution. The policy of stabilizing non

  7. Report of the written responses on National Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A Public Notice appeared in the March 2, 1977 edition of The Federal Register inviting the American people to comment on and make recommendations for the President's National Energy Policy. The Notice, signed by James R. Schlesinger, sought comment on eight broad areas of policy; but it also encouraged citizens to address the issues that most concerned them and to do so in their own style. The eight broad areas of energy policy are: conservation, imported energy, supply development, environment, Federal regulation, intergovernmental relations, citizen participation, and hardships. By April 1, 27,898 letters, telegrams, packages, mailgrams, and position papers had been received, 18,721 of these from the general public. Every letter was carefully read and reviewed. The policy issues mentioned in the Public Notice are listed with tables and brief descriptions of the responses. The tables also indicate consensus or the lack of it. (ERA citation 04:036682)

  8. A comprehensive review of the policy and programmatic response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Ghana have caused significant illness and death in Ghana for many years. Yet, until recently, they have been neglected and not considered a health priority. This paper reviews the national policy and programme response to chronic NCDs over the period 1992 ...

  9. Public Policy Responses to the Global Financial and Economic Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to assess the impact of the global fi nancial and economic crisis on two sectors in South Africa, namely, the automobile sector and the textile and clothing sector. It also examines the role of public policy in responding to that crisis. Its main objective is to determine whether or not those responses were ...

  10. Forest fires and environmental haze in Southeast Asia: using the 'stakeholder' approach to assign costs and responsibilities. (United States)

    Quah, E; Johnston, D


    The 'seasonal haze' problem is one which afflicts large parts of Southeast Asia in years of drought. The major cause is forest, bush and field fires in the states of Kalimantan and Sumatra in Indonesia, and to a lesser extent in Sabah, Sarawak, and other parts of Malaysia. Almost all of these fires now seem preventable, since they are intentionally set to clear land for cultivation. Theoretically, the government authorities at central, provincial and local levels in these countries should be responsible for controlling activities in their territory. In practice, however, air pollution control through regulatory policies and practices is extraordinarily difficult to implement and maintain in a situation of this kind in developing countries, especially at a time of crippling economic setbacks. Moreover, the establishment of legal liability, through an international tribunal or otherwise, hardly seems a politically feasible course of action for the government of an affluent 'victim state' such as Singapore. Faith in the usual solutions--science, regulation, law and diplomacy--is weakened by one's sense of current realities. The purpose of this paper is to review the issues and suggested responses, the cost implications of each, the responsibilities as well as entitlements that might apply to the various stakeholders, and the special role of Singapore as an affluent 'victim state'. We also discuss the incentive mechanisms that would be needed to manage forest fires.

  11. Tabulations of Responses from the 1999 Survey of Active Duty Personnel: Volume 1 Assignments, Careers, and Military Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deak, Mary


    The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on military assignments, retention issues, personal and military background, preparedness, mobilizations and deployments, family composition, use of military programs and services...

  12. Provider Behavior Under Global Budgeting and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Kai Chang MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Third-party payer systems are consistently associated with health care cost escalation. Taiwan’s single-payer, universal coverage National Health Insurance (NHI adopted global budgeting (GB to achieve cost control. This study captures ophthalmologists’ response to GB, specifically service volume changes and service substitution between low-revenue and high-revenue services following GB implementation, the subsequent Bureau of NHI policy response, and the policy impact. De-identified eye clinic claims data for the years 2000, 2005, and 2007 were analyzed to study the changes in Simple Claim Form (SCF claims versus Special Case Claims (SCCs. The 3 study years represent the pre-GB period, post-GB but prior to region-wise service cap implementation period, and the post-service cap period, respectively. Repeated measures multilevel regression analysis was used to study the changes adjusting for clinic characteristics and competition within each health care market. SCF service volume (low-revenue, fixed-price patient visits remained constant throughout the study period, but SCCs (covering services involving variable provider effort and resource use with flexibility for discretionary billing increased in 2005 with no further change in 2007. The latter is attributable to a 30% cap negotiated by the NHI Bureau with the ophthalmology association and enforced by the association. This study demonstrates that GB deployed with ongoing monitoring and timely policy responses that are designed in collaboration with professional stakeholders can contain costs in a health insurance–financed health care system.

  13. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca


    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...... responses, albeit in ways that go beyond traditional partisan theory.We show that the partisan conflict and the impact of parties are conditioned by existing welfare state configurations. In less generous welfare states, the party composition of governments plays a decisive role in shaping the direction...

  14. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos


    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  15. Communicable disease policy development in response to changing European political frontiers in Finland, Norway and Sweden. (United States)

    Bernitz, Brita Kaltenbrunner


    The European Union (EU) enlargement of 2004 brings both opportunities and challenges for public health. It is believed that further integration will bring direct health benefits, mainly through improved socioeconomic conditions, but there are also risks associated with the EU expansion, in particular cross-border health risks, such as the impact of the internal EU market policy of free movement and migration on communicable disease patterns. Against this background, this article examines communicable disease policy development in Finland, Norway and Sweden in response to changing European political frontiers, in particular the EU accession of the Baltic States. The emphasis is on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. The study is based on a qualitative and quantitative approach, using two complementary methods: documentary analysis and stakeholder analysis. The article identifies a distinct pattern in communicable disease policy development between 1990 and 2005. The turn of the new millennium saw a sharp increase in national attention and the priority assigned to communicable diseases in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The article argues that this development is likely to be related to the rising national, regional and European awareness of the public health challenges associated with communicable diseases in today's borderless Europe. It also shows that the Baltic health situation is a particular concern for Finland. Although there is increasing national and regional activity within the communicable disease area, there is a need for a more effective European approach to tackle the future communicable disease challenges that may follow in an increasingly interdependent and integrated Europe.

  16. Urban responses to restrictive conservation policy during drought (United States)

    Palazzo, Joseph; Liu, Owen R.; Stillinger, Timbo; Song, Runsheng; Wang, Ying; Hiroyasu, Elizabeth H. T.; Zenteno, Jose; Anderson, Sarah; Tague, Christina


    With climate change, the extent, severity, and frequency of droughts around the world are expected to increase. This study analyzed the ability of water districts to meet mandatory urban water conservation targets, which are a common policy response to drought. During California's recent record-breaking drought, a 25% state-wide use reduction objective was set and met. However, only 50% of urban water districts analyzed in this study reached their individual conservation target, which offers an opportunity to evaluate the factors associated with successful water use reduction. The findings show that the inclusion of water districts in the polycentric import structure may improve water conservation, but that source diversity may offer water districts a perceived buffer from the need for immediate water use reductions. Drought severity and lower median incomes are associated with greater water conservation, and conservation varies by hydrologic region. This analysis offers insights into institutional design and suggests that local biophysical and economic conditions shape responses in systematic ways that should be addressed by public policy responses to drought.

  17. Public-policy responsibilities in a restructured electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.


    In this report, we identify and define the key public-policy values, objectives, and actions that the US electricity industry currently meets. We also discuss the opportunities for meeting these objectives in a restructured industry that relies primarily on market forces rather than on government mandates. And we discuss those functions that governments might undertake, presumably because they will not be fully met by a restructured industry on its own. These discussions are based on a variety of inputs. The most important inputs came from participants in an April 1995 workshop on Public-Policy Responsibilities and Electric Industry Restructuring: Shaping the Research Agenda. Other sources of information and insights include the reviews of a draft of this report by workshop participants and others and the rapidly growing literature on electric-industry restructuring and its implications. One of the major concerns about the future of the electricity industry is the fate of numerous social and environmental programs supported by today`s electric utilities. Many people worry that a market-driven industry may not meet the public-policy objectives that electric utilities have met in the past. Examples of potentially at-risk programs include demand-side management (DSM), renewable energy, low-income weatherization, and fuel diversity. Workshop participants represented electric utilities, public utility commissions (PUCs), state energy offices, public-interest groups, other energy providers, and the research community.

  18. Policy trends of extended producer responsibility in Malaysia. (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Victor, Dennis


    This paper seeks to examine the provisions for extended producer responsibility (EPR) within the Malaysian environmental and waste management policies and to determine its existing practice and future prospects in Malaysia. Malaysian waste generation has been increasing drastically where solid waste generation was estimated to increase from about 9.0 million tonnes in 2000 to about 10.9 million tonnes in 2010, to about 12.8 million tonnes in 2015 and finally to about 15.6 million tonnes in 2020. Malaysian e-waste was estimated to be about 652 909 tonnes in 2006 and was estimated to increase to about 706 000 tonnes in 2010 and finally to about 1.2 million tonnes in 2020. The projected increasing generation of both solid waste and scheduled wastes is expected to burden the country's resources and environment in managing these wastes in a sustainable manner. The concept of EPR is provided for in the Malaysia waste management system via the Environmental Quality Act 1974 and the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007. However, these provisions in the policy are generic in nature without relevant regulations to enable its enforcement and as such the concept of EPR still remains on paper whereas the existing practice of EPR in Malaysia is limited through voluntary participation. In conclusion, policy trends of EPR in Malaysia seem to indicate that Malaysia may be embarking on the path towards EPR through the enactment of an EPR regulation.

  19. Ebola policies that hinder epidemic response by limiting scientific discourse. (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Pavlin, Julie A; Ripp, Jonathan A; Reithinger, Richard; Polyak, Christina S


    There is an unprecedented epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in west Africa. There has been a strong response from dedicated health professionals. However, there have also been irrational and fear-based responses that have contributed to misallocation of resources, stigma, and deincentivizing volunteers to combat Ebola at its source. Recently, the State of Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals issued a ban on those coming from affected countries wishing to attend the annual meetings of American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and the American Public Health Association, both of which were held in New Orleans. We argue against such policies, question evidence and motivations, and discuss their practical and ethical implications in hampering effective responses to EVD by the scientific community. We aim to shed light on this issue and its implications for the future of public health interventions, reflect on the responsibility of health providers and professional societies as advocates for patients and the public health, and call for health professionals and societies to work to challenge inappropriate political responses to public health crises. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Policy responses to hepatitis C in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Hetherington, Kristina L; Aleman, Soo


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden), the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted an exploratory study to investig......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden), the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted an exploratory study...... to investigate the extent to which these countries have policies supporting key elements of the public health response that is necessary to achieve the global goal of eliminating HCV as a public health threat. METHODS: Fourteen stakeholders representing government agencies, medical societies, and civil society...... organisations (CSOs) in the Nordic countries completed a cross-sectional online survey that included 21 policy questions related to national coordination, prevention, testing, linkage to care, and treatment. We summarised the findings in a descriptive analysis, and noted discrepant responses from stakeholders...

  1. Beyond personal responsibility: effects of causal attributions for overweight and obesity on weight-related beliefs, stigma, and policy support. (United States)

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Lebowitz, Matthew S


    The objective of this research was to compare the effects of different causal attributions for overweight and obesity, among individuals with overweight and obesity, on weight-related beliefs, stigmatising attitudes and policy support. In Study 1, an online sample of 95 US adults rated the extent to which they believed various factors caused their own weight status. In Study 2, 125 US adults read one of three randomly assigned online passages attributing obesity to personal responsibility, biology, or the 'food environment.' All participants in both studies were overweight or obese. All participants reported beliefs about weight loss, weight-stigmatising attitudes, and support for obesity-related policies. In Study 1, biological attributions were associated with low weight-malleability beliefs and blame, high policy support, but high internalised weight bias. 'Food environment' attributions were not associated with any outcomes, while 'personal responsibility' attributions were associated with high prejudice and blame. In Study 2, participants who received information about the food environment reported greater support for food-related policies and greater self-efficacy to lose weight. Emphasising the role of the food environment in causing obesity may promote food policy support and health behaviours without imposing the negative consequences associated with other attributions.

  2. Assignment Tracking Android Application


    Akanni, Feranmi Timothy


    One of the common ways of checking that knowledge is impacted into students at every level of education is by giving various tasks to students and part of the responsibilities of the teacher is to give assignments to students and check the solution provided by the students. Increase in technology development involves a number of mobile applications that are being developed and released on a daily basis, out of which Android operating application is one of the dominant mobile application. T...

  3. Developing Responsibility for Completing and Handing in Daily Homework Assignments for Students in Grades Three, Four, and Five. (United States)

    Shepard, Joan M.

    This practicum was designed to increase responsibility for completing and handing in homework among students in grades three, four, and five in a mid-Atlantic school district. Of a total of 128 students in these grades, 28 were identified to learn strategies to aid in completing homework. Nine solution strategies were employed: (1) provide…

  4. The shock routine: economic crisis and the nature of social policy response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooren, F.J.; Kaasch, A.; Starke, P.


    The idea that moments of crisis form opportunities for fundamental policy change is widespread in political science and public policy. It is usually associated with historical institutionalism and the notion of 'critical junctures'. On the basis of an in-depth analysis of social policy responses in

  5. The causal flow between public opinion and policy: government responsiveness, leadership, or counter movement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakhverdian, A.


    This article examines the causal relationship between public opinion and policy. Does opinion affect policy or is it the other way around? Three hypotheses take centre stage. The responsiveness hypothesis postulates that changes in public opinion lead to subsequent changes in policy in the same

  6. Venezuelan policies and responses on climate change and natural hazards (United States)

    Caponi, Claudio; Rosales, Anibal


    Venezuela is an intertropical country which has the fortune not to suffer the severities of natural hazards which are usual in other countries of this region. It is a developing country, whose economy is heavily dependent on oil production and exports. Its greenhouse gas emissions are relatively low, but it is expected that the planned industrialization development will bring an associated increase in emissions. As a nation, Venezuela has a highly developed environmental consciousness. The Ministry of environment, the first in Latin America, was created in 1977, and has been the main contributor to the national policy of Disaster Prevention and Reduction. As in many developing countries actions and responses in this regard have been rather limited in scope, and even though legislation has been developed, many problems arise for its enforcement. Several local warning systems, civil defense procedures, and infrastructural protection measures are operational, however they have not been designed, revised, or planned taking into consideration the potential impacts of climate change. Presently Venezuela is an active participant state in the negotiation for a framework convention on climate change. That is a very difficult negotiation for our country. Here we have to conciliate enviromental principles with national economic interests. The elements of our position in this contex are presented in this statement.

  7. Brazil responses to the international financial crisis: A successful example of Keynesian policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Cunha André


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the economic policy responses of the Brazilian government to the international financial crisis. In doing so, the paper aims to answer a specific question: Can the economic policies implemented in 2008-09 be identified as Keynesian economic policies? It concludes that, despite the fact the Brazilian economic policies response to the international financial crisis seems remember Keynesian economic policies, it is not possible to argue that the recovery of the Brazilian economy can be considered a Keynesian showcase.

  8. The challenge of multilingualism: in response to the language policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the requirements of the newly released Language Policy for Higher Education and provides guidelines for an educational approach that would support multilingual, higher education. In a nutshell, this policy challenges higher education institutions to provide in the linguistic needs of the new, more ...

  9. Examining Arizona's Policy Response Post "Flores v. Arizona" in Educating K-12 English Language Learners (United States)

    Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Gomez, Laura; Cisneros, Jesus


    This article provides an analysis of Arizona's policy response in educating English language learners by conducting a narrative review. A critical Latina/o theory approach was used to analyze the data. This study reveals 5 salient policy responses: (a) severely limit bilingual education, (b) develop controversial funding solutions, (c) implement a…

  10. Conceptualizing an Agenda for Social Responsibility and Public Policy at Montgomery College. A Briefing Paper. Revised (United States)

    Scott, Michelle T.


    The purpose of this briefing paper is to conceptualize a social responsibility and public policy agenda for Montgomery College. The briefing paper provides (a) a well researched perspective to embed a College culture to actualize social responsibility and public policy as institutional practices; (b) examines some of the opportunities and…

  11. Policy and Statutory Responses to Advertising and Marketing in Schools. Legislation Policy Brief (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Koski, William S.; Boninger, Faith


    This policy brief describes the growth of schoolhouse advertising and marketing activities in the last few decades, assesses the harms associated with commercial activities in schools, and provides advocates, policymakers, and educators with a policy framework and model legislative language designed to protect children and the integrity of…

  12. Responses to Including Parents in Teacher Evaluation Policy: A Critical Policy Analysis (United States)

    Fernández, Erica; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Donaldson, Morgaen L.


    The intersection of development in family and school settings has been well established and education policies have begun to promote ways to bridge the two contexts (i.e. teacher evaluations). For this manuscript, authors focus on how teachers and principals used a state educator evaluation policy to position parents as authorities on education.…

  13. Labor Supply Responses of Italian Women to Minimum Income Policies


    Anna Laura Mancini


    Minimum income policies are means-tested policies aimed at guarantee all citizens with a minimum level of income and at fighting social exclusion typically associated with extreme poverty. Their main shortcoming relies on the theoretical disincentive e¤ect on labour market participation they could generate in the bottom part of income distribution, due to the high e¤ective marginal tax rate they impose around the threshold level. This paper employs a structural labor supply model under discre...

  14. Corporate Social Media Use Policy: Meeting Business and Ethical Responsibilities


    Gotterbarn , Don


    Part 5: Section 4: Citizens’ Involvement, Citizens’ Rights and ICT; International audience; Rapidly developing social media technology has made obsolete many corporate computer use policies. New types of policies need to be developed which address the blurring of the distinction between corporate and personal computing. The gradual change in whose smart technology is used, and how it is used in the service of employers needs to be controlled to promote possible positive effects for the employ...

  15. National policy response to climate change in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M


    Full Text Available The South African government has taken several steps in response to climate change and its associated threats to human health. The National Climate Change Response Plan White Paper defines government's vision for effective climate change response...

  16. Shifting policy responses to domestic violence in the Netherlands and Spain (1980-2009). (United States)

    Roggeband, Conny


    This article seeks to understand differences in the evolution of policies to combat domestic violence against women in the Netherlands and Spain. Although policy change is often viewed as incremental change toward more progressive policies, the two countries studied here reflect opposing dynamics. The Netherlands moved from being a pioneering country to one that gradually marginalized the policy issue, whereas Spain, in contrast, recently developed innovative and far-reaching policies after a long period of low to moderate state responses. The case study points to the central role of frame negotiation, left-wing governments, and strong feminist mobilization.

  17. Prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in licensed premises that are associated with alcohol-related harm. (United States)

    Daly, Justine B; Campbell, Elizabeth M; Wiggers, John H; Considine, Robyn J


    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in a group of licensed premises associated with alcohol-related harm. During March 1999, 108 licensed premises with one or more police-identified alcohol-related incidents in the previous 3 months received a visit from a police officer. A 30-item audit checklist was used to determine the responsible hospitality policies being undertaken by each premises within eight policy domains: display required signage (three items); responsible host practices to prevent intoxication and under-age drinking (five items); written policies and guidelines for responsible service (three items); discouraging inappropriate promotions (three items); safe transport (two items); responsible management issues (seven items); physical environment (three items) and entry conditions (four items). No premises were undertaking all 30 items. Eighty per cent of the premises were undertaking 20 of the 30 items. All premises were undertaking at least 17 of the items. The proportion of premises undertaking individual items ranged from 16% to 100%. Premises were less likely to report having and providing written responsible hospitality documentation to staff, using door charges and having entry/re-entry rules. Significant differences between rural and urban premises were evident for four policies. Clubs were significantly more likely than hotels to have a written responsible service of alcohol policy and to clearly display codes of dress and conditions of entry. This study provides an indication of the extent and nature of responsible hospitality policies in a sample of licensed premises that are associated with a broad range of alcohol related harms. The finding that a large majority of such premises appear to adopt responsible hospitality policies suggests a need to assess the validity and reliability of tools used in the routine assessment of such policies, and of the potential for harm from licensed premises.

  18. Credible Immigration Policy Reform: A Response to Briggs (United States)

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline


    The authors agree with Vernon M. Briggs, Jr., that U.S. immigration policy has had unexpected consequences. The 1965 immigration reforms led to unanticipated chain migration from developing countries whereas the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act failed to slow unauthorized immigration. The result is a large foreign-born population with…

  19. Human-ignited wildfire patterns and responses to policy shifts (United States)

    M. L. Chas-Amil; J. P. Prestemon; C. J. McClean; J. Touza


    Development of efficient forest wildfire policies requires an understanding of the underlying reasons behind forest fire occurrences. Globally, there is a close relationship between forest wildfires and human activities; most wildfires are human events due to negligence (e.g., agricultural burning escapes) and deliberate actions (e.g., vandalism, pyromania, revenge,...

  20. Youth Unemployment, Ageing and Regional Welfare: The Regional Labour Market Policy Response to Ageing in Sweden


    Rauhut, Daniel; Kahila, Petri


    The aim of this paper is to discuss the regional labour market policy response to demographic ageing in Sweden and its consequences on the labour supply of young adults. Regions with ageing problems already experience significant problems at the labour market. The overall conclusion is that labour market policies in Sweden addressing the consequences of ageing fail to include young adults and the policies do not address regional heterogeneity regarding e.g. ageing and youth unemployment.

  1. National policy response to climate change in South Africa | Garland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African government has taken several steps in response to climate change and its associated threats to human health. The National Climate Change Response Plan White Paper defines government's vision for effective climate change response and transitioning to a climate-resilient, low-carbon economy.

  2. Selective Acquiescence, Creative Commitment and Strategic Conformity: Situated National Policy Responses to Bologna (United States)

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray


    The non-binding nature of the Bologna Declaration and loose policy-making and implementation through the open method of coordination (OMC) have led to varied national responses to the Bologna Process. The OMC has allowed countries room for manoeuvre to interpret Bologna policy and attach different degrees of importance to it. Looking at the…

  3. 76 FR 41186 - Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and... (United States)


    ... Service [Docket No. FSIS-2008-0008] Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and Clarification of Timeline for the Salmonella Initiative Program (SIP) AGENCY: Food... Federal Register notice (73 FR 4767- 4774), which described upcoming policy changes in the FSIS Salmonella...

  4. Grain price spikes and beggar-thy-neighbor policy responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Anderson, Kym


    When prices spike in international grain markets, national governments often reduce the extent to which that spike affects their domestic food markets. Those actions exacerbate the price spike and international welfare transfer associated with that terms of trade change. Several recent analyses...... have assessed the extent to which those policies contributed to the 2006–08 international price rises but only by focusing on one commodity or by using a back-of-the envelope (BOTE) method. The present more comprehensive analysis uses a global, economy-wide model that is able to take account...... of the interactions between markets for farm products that are closely related in production and/or consumption and able to estimate the impacts of those insulating policies on grain prices and on the grain trade and economic welfare of the world's various countries. Our results support the conclusion from earlier...

  5. Grain price spikes and beggar-thy-neighbor policy responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Anderson, Kym

    When prices spike in international grain markets, national governments often reduce the extent to which that spike affects their domestic food markets. Those actions exacerbate the price spike and international welfare transfer associated with that terms of trade change. Several recent analyses...... have assessed the extent to which those policies contributed to the 2006-08 international price rise, but only by focusing on one commodity or using a back-of-the envelope (BOTE) method. This paper provides a more-comprehensive analysis using a global economy-wide model that is able to take account...... of the interactions between markets for farm products that are closely related in production and/or consumption, and able to estimate the impacts of those insulating policies on grain prices and on the grain trade and economic welfare of the world’s various countries. Our results support the conclusion from earlier...

  6. Distribution of Responsibility for Social Security and Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    assistance for non-members. The first tier is basically state-run system, while the second tier is administered by the municipalities. As for the performance of the Danish labour market, participation rates are quite high and although unemployment rates are relatively high and differentiated across groups......It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...... of national law, while the rules for blue-collar workers are defined as part of the negotiations between the social partners. The Danish system of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is a two-tier system: unemployment insurance for members of unemployment insurance funds and social...

  7. Slum population in India: Extent and policy response


    Upinder Sawhney


    An increasing pace of urbanization and the absence of affordable housing has resulted in growth of slums in urban India. The Government of India (GOI) has been incorporating certain programmes to alleviate poverty , create employment opportunities and encourage planned urban development in its public policy , yet there has been a fast emergence of slums in the Indian cities due to a number of factors. The present paper aims to analyze certain demographic attributes of the slum population in I...

  8. Democracy's Denominator: Reassessing Responsiveness with Public Opinion on the National Policy Agenda. (United States)

    Barabas, Jason


    Democratic responsiveness concerns the degree to which government policies match public preferences. Responsiveness studies typically use national surveys to characterize public opinion, but whether poll questions overlap with the policy agenda is unknown. The first of two empirical analyses presented here, with hundreds of issues on the national agenda in the United States from 1947 to 2000, reveals that public opinion is mostly unrelated to policy outcomes. The picture appears to be even more ominous-that is, opinion and policy are negatively related-on highly salient issues that attract media attention. A second study revisiting published work confirms that responsiveness patterns look different depending upon whether studies of opinion-policy connections (a) begin with survey data and then examine policy developments, or (b) begin with national legislative agenda issues and then examine survey data. Thus, conclusions about democratic responsiveness depend upon the issues that are examined, and often opinion surveys do not include questions about tangible public policy options. In that sense, future changes in democratic responsiveness might go undetected because scholars often lack data on what goes into the denominator of democracy.

  9. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.


    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by the Fraunhofer

  10. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohnheit, P.E.


    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by

  11. Financial Constraints and the Response of Business Investment to Monetary Policy Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Timothy J.


    Full Text Available In this study I investigate what impact monetary policy shocks have on firms’ fixed investment, the less liquid portion of gross investment that requires more planning. I account for firms facing financial constraints firms by utilizing a common measure of asset size, which is used in previous literature. I use two exogenous, continuous series of monetary policy shocks to show that constrained firms have statistically different responses to policy than unconstrained firms. Specifically, I find that constrained firms’ fixed investment significantly responds more to monetary policy shocks than unconstrained firms.

  12. Assigning Homework to Couples and Families (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M.; Dickson, Jan


    Homework assignments, or "out-of-session assignments," have gained popularity among couple and family therapists due to their potential to solidify the work achieved during the course of therapy and to help clients take responsibility for their own change. Homework assignments also serve as a testing ground in therapy to determine what works and…

  13. Tabulations of Responses from the 1999 Survey of Spouses of Active Duty Personnel. Volume 1. Current Location, Military Assignments, and Military Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deak, Mary


    The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on current location, spouse's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse employment, family information, economic issues, and background...

  14. Media-Policy Responses to Digitalization: a comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske


    of media industries as well as media policy has been guided by a framework of three separate yet co-existing models (McQuail, 2000; Pool, 1983): the free press model (where the practically unlimited space for more publications have meant little or no regulation), the broadcast model (where limited number...... of, e.g., broadcast frequencies give cause for some regulation), and the common carrier model (where the presence of only very few actors in a critical, tele-communicative infrastructure has justified extensive public regulation). This distinction between different sectors and types of media has been...

  15. The health co-benefits of climate change policies: doctors have a responsibility to future generations. (United States)

    Roberts, Ian


    Mitigating climate change presents unrivalled opportunities for improving public health. The policies that need to be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will also bring about substantial reductions in heart disease, cancer, obesity, diabetes, road deaths and injuries, and air pollution. The health benefits arise because climate change policies necessarily impact on two of the most important determinants of health: human nutrition and human movement. Although the health co-benefits of climate change policies are increasingly recognised by health professionals they are not widely appreciated by those responsible for policy. Because the existence of important health co-benefits will dramatically reduce the cost to society of taking strong action to mitigate climate change, failure to appreciate their importance could have serious environmental consequences. Health professionals have an urgent responsibility to ensure that the health benefits of environmental policies are understood by the public and by policymakers.

  16. Evolution of Government Policies on Guiding Corporate Social Responsibility in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Tang


    Full Text Available This paper aims to unearth the ways in which the Chinese government uses policies to guide corporate social responsibility (CSR development in China. Co-word analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis were conducted on the relevant policy documents from 2005 to 2013 from the Chinese government. This paper illustrates the evolution of industry involvement in metagovernance of CSR, the evolution of intergovernmental relations in CSR policy formulation, and the evolution of policy relations on guiding CSR. The quantitative text analysis on policy documents reveals policy intentions and maps policy process, advancing understanding of policy orientation and evolution. The CSR reports of the same period of the State Grid in China are used as empirical evidence to validate the policy evolution. This work presents the overall evolution of the ways in which the Chinese government deployed its guiding strategy on CSR, and empirically demonstrates the organization of metagovernance maneuvered by China’s government to promote CSR development in China. It provides perspective and methods to analyze China’s networked government policies, and empirically answers the central question of metagovernance about the ways in which the organization of metagovernance is carried out.

  17. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  18. Assessing long-term effects of demand response policies in wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Saguan, Marcelo


    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term issues in electricity markets in the presence of demand response development. Different policies have been implemented around the world aiming to develop demand response potential. Externalities, in particular the CO 2 externality, have been one of the key elements in the debate on the effectiveness of different policies regarding demand response development. Policy makers have several options to deal with this externality. The most direct one is to correct the externality by setting a CO 2 price at a level that corresponds to the cost to society of the corresponding CO 2 emissions. One alternative solution could be to subsidize carbon-free technologies as demand response. In this paper we examine potential long-term impacts of these two policies. We rely on a long-term market simulation model that characterizes expansion decisions in a competitive regime. We test for each policy two different scenarios regarding the possibility of internalization of the CO 2 externality. The results show that differences in development policies affect both investments and social costs in the wholesale electricity market and confirm previous findings that a market-driven development of demand response with the internalization of the CO 2 externality is the most efficient approach. (authors)

  19. Developing Public Policy in Romania: Focusing Responsability, Authority and Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. RINGSMUTH


    Full Text Available The model of foreign friends visiting fellow democracies to observe and participate in the civic culture, has a long and distinguished tradition. Tocqueville’s visit to and observations of the United States nearly 200 years ago provide a lofty exemplar to which few could pretend to or attempt to duplicate or approach. Nothing in the following observations is meant to make such a pretense1 My journey in Romania has been and will be substantially less noted and notable, but my observations are offered with similar intentions. Rather they are meant in the spirit and offered with the hope that they might, in some small way, begin to make a contribution to the dialogue about the development of democracy and democratic institutions in Romania. In particular, here, I am concerned with Romania’s ability, will and means to develop public policy.

  20. Reactance versus rationalization: divergent responses to policies that constrain freedom. (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin; Kay, Aaron C; Fitzsimons, Gavan J


    How do people respond to government policies and work environments that place restrictions on their personal freedoms? The psychological literature offers two contradictory answers to this question. Here, we attempt to resolve this apparent discrepancy. Specifically, we identify the absoluteness of a restriction as one factor that determines how people respond to it. Across two studies, participants responded to absolute restrictions (i.e., restrictions that were sure to come into effect) with rationalization: They viewed the restrictions more favorably, and valued the restricted freedoms less, compared with control participants. Participants responded in the opposite way to identical restrictions that were described as nonabsolute (i.e., as having a small chance of not coming into effect): In this case, participants displayed reactance, viewing the restrictions less favorably, and valuing the restricted freedoms more, compared with control participants. We end by discussing future research directions.

  1. Structural NMR assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procter, J.B.; Torda, A.E.


    Full text: General automated NMR assignment approaches are aimed at full heteronuclear assignment, which is needed for structure determination. Usually, full assignment requires at least as much spectral information as is used for structure generation. For large proteins, obtaining sufficient spectral information may require a number of sample preparations and many spectra, resulting in a significant overhead for the use of NMR in biochemical investigation. For a protein of biochemical interest one may already have an x-ray crystal structure, but spectral assignment is still needed to use NMR as a structural probe for ligand binding studies. In this situation it may be possible to use much less spectral information to make an assignment based purely on the correspondence of structural data to the measurements contained in a few simple spectra. We introduce a framework to accomplish this 'structural assignment', and give some observations on the practical requirements for a structural assignment to succeed

  2. Activity re-assignment and microclimate selection of free-living Arabian oryx: responses that could minimise the effects of climate change on homeostasis? (United States)

    Hetem, Robyn S; Strauss, W Maartin; Fick, Linda G; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan


    Predicting whether behaviour could buffer the effects of climate change on long-lived mammals requires a better understanding of the long-term behavioural responses of mammals to environmental stress. Using biologging, we measured locomotor activity and microclimate selection, over eight months, in five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) living free in a Saudi Arabian desert. The oryx displayed seasonal flexibility in activity patterns, shifting from a continuous 24-h activity pattern with crepuscular peaks in cooler months to a predominantly nocturnal activity pattern during the hottest months, without reducing the total 24-h activity level. The proportion of total 24-h activity that occurred during daylight hours was just 29±8% during the hottest months, versus 53±8% (mean±SD, n=5 oryx) in the other months. The attenuation in diurnal activity levels during the hot months was accompanied by the selection of cooler microclimates, presumably via shade seeking, during the heat of the day. Analysis of miniature black globe (miniglobe) temperature from a remote sensor on the collar of two female animals revealed that oryx selected microclimates cooler than the microclimates in direct sun at higher environmental heat loads across all periods, but with enhanced efficiency during the dry periods. We have quantified activity re-assignment and microclimate selection as responses to hot arid conditions in a free-living artiodactyl. Such flexible behavioural processes may act to buffer the adverse effects of the progressively hotter and drier conditions predicted to occur with climate change. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Rules and Discretion in Monetary Policy: Is the Response of the Stock Market Rational?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Iulian MARINESCU


    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of the monetary policy conduct on the domestic capital market for a sample of developed countries where the capital market plays a significant role in the economy. We break down the policy rate innovations in rules-based and discretionary components in order to determine the degree of prudentiality in the monetary policy conduct and we study their accounts with respect to capital market rationality. The rules-based component is determined using an interpolated vanilla Taylor-rule policy rate at the event date and the discretionary component is obtained by subtracting the rules-based rate from the target monetary policy rate innovation. Using an event study approach, we analyze the impact of monetary policy components on the returns of the stock market and we determine that the conduct of the monetary policy can cause irrational responses of the capital market. More than that, we show, for the analyzed countries, that if the general level of discretion in the monetary policy is high the response of the stock market becomes increasingly erratic, indicating that forward guidance may help reduce uncertainty on capital markets.

  4. One stop crisis centres: A policy analysis of the Malaysian response to intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Charlotte


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article aims to investigate the processes, actors and other influencing factors behind the development and the national scale-up of the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC policy and the subsequent health model for violence-response. Methods Methods used included policy analysis of legal, policy and regulatory framework documents, and in-depth interviews with key informants from governmental and non-governmental organisations in two States of Malaysia. Results The findings show that women's NGOs and health professionals were instrumental in the formulation and scaling-up of the OSCC policy. However, the subsequent breakdown of the NGO-health coalition negatively impacted on the long-term implementation of the policy, which lacked financial resources and clear policy guidance from the Ministry of Health. Conclusion The findings confirm that a clearly-defined partnership between NGOs and health staff can be very powerful for influencing the legal and policy environment in which health care services for intimate partner violence are developed. It is critical to gain high level support from the Ministry of Health in order to institutionalise the violence-response across the entire health care system. Without clear operational details and resources policy implementation cannot be fully ensured and taken to scale.

  5. Health policy making under information constraints: an evaluation of the policy responses to the economic crisis in Greece. (United States)

    Goranitis, Ilias; Siskou, Olga; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos


    Cost consolidation in the highly fragmented and inefficient Greek health care system was necessary. However, policies introduced were partly formed in a context of insufficient information. Expenditure data from a consumption point of view were lacking and the depth of the political and structural problems was of unknown magnitude to the supervisory authorities. Drawing upon relevant literature and evidence from the newly implemented OECD System of Health Accounts, the paper evaluates the health policy responses to the economic crisis in Greece. The discussion and recommendations are also of interest to other countries where data sources are not reliable or decisions are based on preliminary data and projections. Between 2009 and 2012, across-the-board cuts have resulted in a decline in public health expenditure for inpatient care by 8.6%, for pharmaceuticals by 42.3% and for outpatient care by 34.6%. Further cuts are expected from the ongoing reforms but more structural changes are needed. Cost-containment was not well targeted and expenditure cuts were not always addressed to the real reasons of the pre-crisis cost explosion. Policy responses were restricted to quick and easy fiscal adjustment, ignoring the need for substantial structural reforms or individuals' right to access health care irrespective of their financial capacity. Developing appropriate information infrastructure, restructuring and consolidating the hospital sector and moving toward a tax-based national health insurance could offer valuable benefits to the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Education Policies for Gender Equity: Probing into State Responses (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.


    The implementation of non-discriminatory sex legislation provides theoretical and empirical grounds to examine responses by the state to gender equality. Tracing the trajectory of one such law in the U.S.--Title IX--over a period of 40 years, this study analyzes the extent to which the state: (1) acted as a unitary body, and (2) functioned to…

  7. Policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Central Asia. (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd


    The countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are confronted with one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics worldwide, largely driven through injecting drug use. This article, based on a review of academic and grey literature, explores how they have responded. We find major similarities and differences across the region. At one extreme is Turkmenistan, which denies that there is any problem, does not offer harm reduction services or HIV/AIDS treatment and does not report any meaningful data to the international community. Uzbekistan is also pretty closed to outside influences, has discontinued its opioid substitution project and shares with Turkmenistan the legal prohibition of male-to-male sex. Kyrgyzstan originally led many progressive approaches in the region and, like neighbouring Tajikistan, has received substantial assistance by international agencies, in particular the Global Fund. Kazakhstan, with a much higher gross domestic product per capita, has taken on the financing of harm reduction activities through its national budget and has liberalised its drug policies. Yet, across the region punitive approaches to injecting drug use and people living with HIV/AIDS persist as do stigma and discrimination, while coverage with harm reduction programmes and treatment services is still low although with substantial variation across countries.

  8. Climate change: what is the optimal international policy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, B.S.


    In each country, the factors which will determine the future growth in emissions of greenhouse gases are: the rate of population growth; the level of economic growth; the speed of technological change and the policy settings adopted. An international model called MAGABARE to develop new carbon dioxide emission scenarios which take account of these factors, is considered. Whether or not there is sustained economic growth, the model shows that emissions from non-OECD countries will grow more rapidly than emissions from OECD economies. The implication is that any agreement to limit emissions that is confined to OECD will become more ineffective overtime and in fact will create incentives to relocate emission intensive activities to non-OECD countries. In the long term, there must be a way of involving non-OECD countries in emission control. One important aspect of this is technology transfer for energy efficiency. A global tradable quota system would provide a mechanism for the international transfer of financial resources and energy efficient technology to developing countries and therefore provide a means of encouraging participation in the scheme. 7 figs., 4 refs

  9. Water demand management: A policy response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, R.; Tate, D.


    The impacts of climate change on the water resources of the Great Lakes region are discussed. It is predicted that there will be a relative water scarcity in the Great Lakes basin of Ontario as climate changes occur over the next two decades. Declines in water supply will be accompanied by deterioration in the quality of fresh water as higher temperatures and higher relative quantities of discharged wastewater to water bodies reduce both assimilative and dilutive capacity. The most cost effective policy is to encourage water conservation through programs of water demand management. Water should be priced at the point at which its marginal cost is equal to its marginal product, ie. if priced any higher, less efficient substitutes would be used. Not only would water usage, and subsequent degradation of used water, be reduced, but energy and other cost savings would be achieved. The additional costs that apply to water users could be returned to the communities as additional revenue to be applied against sewage treatment upgrades and other environmental enhancements. Communities involved in water study should consider the development of water use analysis models to assist with decision making about allocation, pricing and availability of water supplies. 10 refs

  10. Mental Health Policy Adoption as a Seminal Event: A Response to Recent Commentaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon C Shen


    Full Text Available The leadership for mental health is not commensurate with the burden of mental, neurological, and substance (MNS use disorders nationally or internationally. This is a sentiment I share with Prof. Jenkins (1 and Ms. Lee (2. With that said, I would like to make two clarifications about my study and two concomitant acknowledgements about its limitations (3. First, I conceptualized national mental health policy adoption as an isolated event. Policy adoption is one – albeit pivotal – node embedded in a ratification process. Second, I focused solely on external actors’ influence on policy adoption. Politics and policy are intertwined, and there are certainly actors situated inside, as well as outside, each country who are engaged with mental health policy-making, but they were not addressed by my study. I will elaborate on what I set out to do before giving pointed responses to their comments.

  11. The effects of collective anger and fear on policy support in response to terrorist attacks. (United States)

    Kim, Jaeshin


    Both correlational and experimental studies examined how perceived emotional responses of the majority of Americans to 9/11 affect individuals' support for government counter-terrorism policies (i.e., military intervention, anti-immigration, restricting civil liberties). Study 1 found associations between perceived collective emotions (i.e., anger, fear) and individuals' own corresponding emotions and those between perceived collective anger and counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated the associations of collective anger with policy support. Using experimental manipulations, Study 2 showed that collective anger had a significant effect on individuals' own anger and one significant and two marginal effects on counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated one of the marginal effects of collective anger on policy support. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of terrorist threat.

  12. Acidification research: evaluation and policy applications; a United Kingdom policy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.G.; Wilson, R.B.


    The United Kingdom environmental research into the mechanisms of the atmospheric transport and deposition of acidity, to understand the impacts of that acidity on soils, surface waters, forests, crops and the built environment and the consequences for fishery status, freshwater and soil ecosystems. The Critical Loads Approach opens the possibility of more subtle and sensitive ways of tackling the problems of environmental acidification on the European scale. The United Kingdom is contributing vigorously to the Critical Loads Approach through the mapping exercises, the environmental studies that underpin them and the understanding of the driving deposition mechanisms which lead both to pollutant removal and ecosystem contamination. Future progress with the UN ECE Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution and the revision of the NO x , SO 2 and VOC protocols will rest in very large measure on the shared confidence within Europe in the knowledge of the underpinning environmental science. The Critical Loads Approach should provide an important policy focus within the international scientific community to set environmentally-based targets for future co-ordinated emission control programmes

  13. Energy prices, development and the policy response in a small siege economy: Zimbabwe 1964-1981.


    Suckling J


    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on energy policy and economic policy responses to counter the economic implications of increasing petroleum prices in Zimbabwe 1964-1981 - discusses the power consumption impact on balance of payments, capital formation, gross domestic product, employment creation and income distribution; assesses export promotion and energy conservation (incl. Energy substitution, price control and rationing); stresses need for alternative energy sources (incl. Fuelwood, solar ...

  14. Factors influencing the policy responses of host governments to mass refugee influxes. (United States)

    Jacobsen, K


    "The policy responses of asylum governments to mass influxes of refugees have varied considerably. Focusing on less developed countries, this article explores why some host governments respond in relatively generous ways, while other governments act more restrictively. The policy alternatives available to receiving governments are classified, and a set of factors influencing refugee policy formation is explored. These factors include: the costs and benefits of accepting international assistance, relations with the sending country, political calculations about the local community's absorption capacity, and national security considerations." excerpt

  15. Climate Policy: Stop Wanting to Pay to Evade Our Responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne; Leroux, Justin


    We explore an alternative to existing economic instruments to tackle climate change: carbon liabilities. Such liabilities would hold countries responsible for future climate damage to the tune of their emissions over time. The prospect of having to repay this carbon debt over time is enough to discipline emitters, leading to the efficient emissions level. Contrary to existing instruments, our scheme does not rest on a consensus regarding the discount factor nor about climate forecasts; this, together with its reliance on observed damage, allows for better international participation and leads to a fairer division of costs and risks


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE Stefan


    Full Text Available Corporations regarded as socially responsible can benefit from a large satisfied clientage while the public image of social irresponsibility can end up with a boycott or any other hostile actions from costumers. Positive contributions to social development can be considered by companies as long term investments in the consolidation of a safer community life, better educated and much more equitable which corporations can benefit from by unfolding their activities in a more dynamic, stable and resourceful environment. These are serious economic reasons which can be in the advantage of economic agents who can commit towards different social groups.

  17. The Great Financial Crisis: How Effective is Macroeconomic Policy Response in the United Kingdom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clements Akinsoyinu


    Full Text Available The Great Financial Crisis has been touted to be the worst crisis since the Great Depression of 1930; its effect has profound ramifications on the global economy. The nature and the severity of the crisis provoked an unprecedented policy response from policy makers at both global and domestic levels. To address the rampaging crisis, the Bank of England implemented a number of conventional and unconventional policy measures to curtail the economic rot and to stimulate economic growth. There is a broad consensus in the empirical literature and other evidence found in this paper that a number of the policies implemented in the United Kingdom played a significant role in re-directing and stimulating the economy. This paper reviews the various policy measures adopted by the Bank of England from the inception of the financial crisis in 2008 and assesses their effectiveness in bringing back the economy from the brink of collapse. Our review shows that quantitative easing (QE policy and the expansionary fiscal policy adopted by the Bank of England were effective policy tools used in stimulating economic growth, stemming the effect and shortening the duration of the crisis in the United Kingdom

  18. Assessing the Assignment Policy for Army Women (United States)


    OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense PST private security team PSYOP psychological operations ROE rules of engagement RPG rocket-propelled grenade...were snipers, RPGs [rocket-propelled grenades], and all at one time. So the convoy commander goes up the road to the box. The special- ist is in the...The Impact of Pregnancy on U.S. Army Readiness, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Air Command and Staff College, April 1999. As of February 11, 2007

  19. Faculty Assignment Classification System. (United States)

    Whatcom Community Coll., Ferndale, WA.

    This document outlines the point-based faculty assignment classification system in effect at Whatcom Community College (Washington). The purpose of the point system is to provide an equitable and flexible means of compensating faculty members based on a system of assigning quantitative values to tasks. Teaching, which includes classroom…

  20. Reluctant Partner: Indonesia’s Response to U.S. Security Policies (United States)


    SPECIAL ASSESSMENT M A R C H 2 0 0 3 Asia -Pacific Responses to U.S. Security Policies Reluctant Partner: Indonesia’s Response to U.S. Security...Policies A N T H O N Y L . S M I T H Executive Summary ● Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Indonesia — and Southeast Asia more...United States in the war against terrorism, the Indonesian population is not generally supportive. These differences are also found in the political elite

  1. Evaluating the Mechanism of Oil Price Shocks and Fiscal Policy Responses in the Malaysian Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhet, Hussain A; Yusoff, Nora Yusma Mohamed


    The paper aims to explore the symmetric impact of oil price shock on economy, to understand its mechanism channel and how fiscal policy response towards it. The Generalized Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition under the VAR methodology were employed. The empirical findings suggest that symmetric oil price shock has a positive and direct impact on oil revenue and government expenditure. However, the real GDP is vulnerable in a short-term but not in the long term period. These results would confirm that fiscal policy is the main mechanism channel that mitigates the adverse effects oil price shocks to the economy.

  2. Energy-environment policy goals and instruments and electricity demand response. A framework for the analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Pablo del; Hernandez, F.


    The environment and energy realms have traditionally been two major focus of attention of EU and Member State (MS) policy. This attention has intensified in recent years as a response to, both, internal and external events and strategies (i.e., the Kyoto Protocol). In this context, the EU and its MS have set ambitious goals in the environmental and energy contexts and are already implementing packages of policies and measures. Both policies interact. Although there might be conflicts between both, there are also mutually reinforcing effects with significant policy implications. Actually, as stated in the Amsterdam Treaty, environmental protection is one of the major goals of energy policy (together with 'security of supply' and 'competitive energy systems'). On the other hand, the energy sector is instrumental in the success of environmental policy. In this context, a wide array of measures are currently being implemented in the EU and its MS which have a more or less direct impact on the electricity market. Particularly, Demand Side Management (DSM) activities, promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and measures aimed at the mitigation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are arguably three major instruments which have the potential to contribute to energy and environmental goals. The effectiveness and impact of there measures depends to a large extent on the demand response in the electricity market. Some of there measures affect the electricity demand curve, while others do not have a direct impact on the demand curve but affect the quantity of electricity demand by displacing the electricity supply curve. In turn, the effectiveness of energy and environmental policies may be different when electricity demand response varies (i.e., different elasticity demand). This paper entails an initial effort to provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of the interactions between electricity demand response and the above mentioned energy

  3. Align, share responsibility and collaborate: potential considerations to aid in e-health policy development. (United States)

    Ragaban, Nouran; Day, Karen; Orr, Martin


    Policies that support strategic development and implementation are related to health ICT implementation successes. This research aimed to explore the question, 'Why have we not seen more successful ICT implementation in healthcare, and what does policy have to do with success?' Healthcare systems are faced with rising costs, increased prevalence of chronic diseases and diminishing resources. E-health initiatives have gained acceptance in addressing these crucial health sector issues. National governments and healthcare organisations are finding it necessary to have health Information and Communications Technology (ICT) systems in place. However, poorly developed health information policies, lack of a clear business plan and ineffective leadership contribute to failure of ICT implementation in healthcare. This study uses a Grounded Theory approach, in which a series of data gathering activities will be completed. The first author attended the Health Information Management & Systems Society (HIMSS) Policy Summit in the USA in 2011. Five Summit participants were approached individually and informally discussed the 'meaningful use' policy and how it influences ICT implementation in healthcare. Field notes were made and analysed for themes relating to the research question. There were three overlapping concepts that all of the participants indicated as primary considerations for policymakers. The alignment aspect stresses the need to align e-health initiatives with overall health policy, ensuring that e-health is incorporated with other healthcare investments. The shared responsibility theme involves the need for e-health initiatives to be recognised as a priority along all levels of government, i.e. local, state, federal, and national. This stresses the importance of health ICT development and implementation in a joint government direction. The last theme is collaboration with stakeholders, including clear division of tasks and clarity about technical and non

  4. The Relation Between Policies Concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Philosophical Moral Theories - An Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Claus Strue


    This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind...... of common-sense morality? In order to address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based on the empirical data I collected, I start by suggesting some normative arguments used by the respondents....... Secondly, I suggest that these moral arguments implicitly rely on some specific moral principles, which I characterise. Thirdly, on the basis of these moral principles, I suggest the moral theories upon which the CSR policies are built. Previous empirical studies examining the relation between...

  5. Tears, fears and cheers: responses to the post-disaster school relocation policy in China. (United States)

    Ng, Guat Tin


    This paper reports on the results of a qualitative study on the responses of Chinese school children in one junior middle school and their parents to China's post-disaster school relocation policy. The sample comprised 22 pairs of parent-child dyads and two pupils whose parents could not be contacted. The study results were reported using Chambers and Wedel's (2009) conceptual framework, which delineates the fundamental elements of a policy. Content analysis was used to generate themes related to policy elements, such as goals, benefits and services. Both repetitive themes and idiosyncratic perspectives were reported so as to present a diversity of views. Despite adjustment difficulties and administrative problems reported by the study participants, the policy attention given to the rapid restoration of formal schooling for children was generally appreciated. The move back to the new school was greeted with cheer. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  6. Denial of Treatment to Obese Patients—the Wrong Policy on Personal Responsibility for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Eyal


    Full Text Available In many countries around the world, including Iran, obesity is reaching epidemic proportions. Doctors have recently taken, or expressed support for, an extreme ‘personal responsibility for health’ policy against obesity: refusing services to obese patients. This policy may initially seem to improve patients’ incentives to fight obesity. But turning access to medical services into a benefit dependent on health improvement is a bad policy. It conditions the very aid that patients need in order to become healthier or success in becoming healthier. Whatever else we may think of personal responsibility for health policies, this particular one is absurd. Unfortunately, quite a few personal responsibility for health policies use similar absurd conditioning. They mistakenly use ‘carrots’ or ‘sticks’ for adherence the basic means to the same health outcomes that they seek to promote. This perspective proposes the following rule of thumb: any conditional incentive for healthy choice should be in a currency other than the basic means to that healthy choice.

  7. The financial crisis and global health: the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) policy response. (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald


    In this article, we interrogate the policy response of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to the global financial crisis, and discuss the likely global health implications, especially in low-income countries. In doing so, we ask if the IMF has meaningfully loosened its fiscal deficit targets in light of the economic challenges posed by the financial crisis and adjusted its macro-economic policy advice to this new reality; or has the rhetoric of counter-cyclical spending failed to translate into additional fiscal space for IMF loan-recipient countries, with negative health consequences? To answer these questions, we assess several post-crisis IMF lending agreements with countries requiring financial assistance, and draw upon recent academic studies and civil society reports examining policy conditionalities still being prescribed by the IMF. We also reference recent studies examining the health impacts of these conditionalities. We demonstrate that while the IMF has been somewhat more flexible in its crisis response than in previous episodes of financial upheaval, there has been no meaningful rethinking in the application of dominant neoliberal macro-economic policies. After showing some flexibility in the initial crisis response, the IMF is pushing for excessive contraction in most low and middle-income countries. We conclude that there remains a wide gap between the rhetoric and the reality of the IMF's policy and programming advice, with negative implications for global health.

  8. Employment Policies in an Aging Society: Review of the Experiences of the OECD Countries with Population Aging and Their Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Heon Kim


    Full Text Available In this paper we review the experiences of OECD countries with population aging and their policy responses, and suggest directions and measures of medium and long-term employment policies to cope with population aging in a comprehensive perspective. Specifically, following the policy objective of sustainable economic growth, we systematically classify policy types to cope with population aging and review possibilities and limitations of each policy type, while also considering Korea-specific situations as well as the experiences of other OECD countries. There are two broad types of employment policies to sustain economic growth in an aging society. One is to increase the quantity of labor force and the other is to enhance the quality of labor force. Policies to increase the quantity of labor force include pro-natalist policies, immigration policies, and policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people. Policies to enhance the quality of labor force include human resource development and flexicurity policies in the labor market. Our review suggests that direct pro-natalist policies seem to be ineffective. Also immigration policies cannot fundamentally solve the problem caused by population aging. Policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people seem to be the most effective policy. However, labor productivity should be an engine of economic growth in the long run when labor input reaches the limit of its capacity. In conclusion, in the long run, it is most important to enhance the quality of human capital and improve the functioning of the labor market to cope with the challenges of population aging.

  9. ECB policy responses between 2007 and 2014: A chronological analysis and an assessment of their effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Carlos


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the monetary policy responses of the European Central Bank (ECB to the global financial crisis and the European sovereign debt crisis. Our goals are on the one hand to explain chronologically the main measures in conventional and unconventional policies adopted by the ECB and on the other hand to analyse their effects on key interest rates, monetary aggregates and the money multiplier. The assessment is that the ECB’s monetary policy responses to the crisis have been “too little, too late”, constrained by the institutional framework, which prevents the ECB from acting as a true central bank with the role of lender of last resort.

  10. Historical WBAN ID Assignments (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 4"x6" index cards represent the first written assignments of Weather Bureau Army Navy (WBAN) station identifier numbers by the National Climatic Data Center....

  11. My Favorite Assignment. (United States)

    ABCA Bulletin, 1983


    Describes three assignments for enticing business communication students to undertake library research: an analysis of a Fortune 500 company, a career choice report, and a report on an organization that offers potential employment. (AEA)

  12. Access Denied: School Librarians' Responses to School District Policies on the Use of Social Media Tools (United States)

    DiScala, Jeffrey; Weeks, Ann Carlson


    Public school districts often block access to online social media tools. While considered a preventive measure to ensure student safety and limit district liability, this policy strips school librarians and their collaborating teachers of opportunities to instruct students in using social media tools creatively and responsibly. Using one school…

  13. The credit crunch : Impacts on the housing market and policy responses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priemus, H.


    This contribution deals with the impact of the credit crunch on the Dutch housing market and the policy responses of the Dutch government so far. Reinhart and Rogoff have presented an overview of credit crises after WW II: what are the general characteristics and impacts? Also in the Netherlands,

  14. Financial Crisis, Capital Outflows, and Policy Responses: Examples from East Asia (United States)

    Rajan, Ramkishen S.


    Financial crises seem to have become the norm rather than the exception since 1992. The author examines the impact of a crisis of confidence and resultant capital outflows from a small and open economy and the possible policy options in response to such outflows, using simple tools and definitions that will be familiar to any money and banking or…

  15. Obesity, Battle of the Bulge-Policy behind Change: Whose Responsibility Is It and Who Pays? (United States)

    Mercer, Adrienne


    Objectives: Examination of the prevalence of obesity and overweight over the past two decades and the health implications that encompass increased risk for cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes. Focus on legislative policies and individual responsibility. Method: Literature review of local and national data on obesity, health…

  16. The Politics of PISA: The Media, Policy and Public Responses in Norway and England (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Görgen, Kristine


    Using the PISA 2015 releases in Norway and England, this article explores how PISA has been presented in the media and how the policy level has responded to the results. England will be used as an example for comparison. The article presents early media responses from the 20 most circulated daily newspapers in the two countries and discusses them…

  17. Social media policies: Implications for contemporary notions of corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stohl, C.; Etter, M.; Banghart, S.; Woo, D.

    Three global developments situate the context of this investigation: the increasing use of social media by organizations and their employees, the burgeoning presence of social media policies, and the heightened focus on corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this study the intersection of these

  18. Impulse-response analysis of monetary policy – Visegád group countries case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Myšková


    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on comparability of monetary policies of Visegrád group countries (V4. Main objective of central banks function in V4 countries lies in maintaining price stability. For this purpose, inflation targeting regime is realized in a medium-term focus in V4, which means that there is a certain lag between monetary policy operation and its influence on an inflation target. Central bank does not have a direct impact on its ultimate goals. Therefore, any monetary policy analysis and assumption of its effectiveness comes out from an essential existence of a working transmission mechanism. Thus, changes in settings of monetary policy instruments have to be able to inflict causal changes on intermediary markets and via these markets on target markets. This situation can be modeled by the vector autoregressive (VAR model with suitable variables. Our main task is to compare a relationship between VAR model responses to predefined impulses for all V4 pairs. We use calibration technique for this purpose. Specifically, we will utilize one-dimensional calibration model with a linear calibration function for deriving unknown parameters. Moreover, we will test a significance of estimated parameters. We distinguish between model parameters for before-crisis- and during-crisis- data, because we suppose that financial crisis affects VAR model parameters significantly. Different responses in each country can mean the inability of the common monetary policy for V4 at present.

  19. Intricacies in Drought Management Policy, Crisis Response and Preparedness: Linking the Interface (United States)

    Prakash, P.; Harter, T.


    Drought per se is often misrepresented as mere water scarcity issue overlooking the complexities associated with it. In many parts of the world, the drought management policy prescriptions are often driven by crisis management rather than preventive approach. As a result, the economic, social and environmental impact of droughts continues to increase even to this day. To overcome this calamity, nations should encourage coordinated effort at both national and regional scale. An integrated approach on open data sharing, technical advancement in monitoring and robust early warning system to deliver timely information to decision makers, drought projection through high performance mathematical model and effective impact assessment procedure, implementing proactive risk management measures and preparedness with effective emergency response programs plans, will certainly increase the likelihood of drought coping capabilities. The present study focuses on knowledge augmentation for better policy framework and action for all countries that suffer from droughts. A comprehensive database at the global scale has been compiled giving information on existing drought management policies/practices and the major challenges faced by major drought distressed countries. Plausible solution is suggested towards integrating the water management policy, response and preparedness, that has been garnered through the lessons from success/failure stories of nations with effective drought management policies

  20. Adaptive Governance, Uncertainty, and Risk: Policy Framing and Responses to Climate Change, Drought, and Flood. (United States)

    Hurlbert, Margot; Gupta, Joyeeta


    As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to climate change, droughts, and floods and what governance structures facilitate adaptation? This research interrogates and analyzes through content analysis, supplemented by semi-structured qualitative interviews, the policy response to climate change, drought, and flood in relation to agricultural producers in four case studies in river basins in Chile, Argentina, and Canada. First, an epistemological explanation of risk and uncertainty underscores a brief literature review of adaptive governance, followed by policy framing in relation to risk and uncertainty, and an analytical model is developed. Pertinent findings of the four cases are recounted, followed by a comparative analysis. In conclusion, recommendations are made to improve policies and expand adaptive governance to better account for uncertainty and risk. This article is innovative in that it proposes an expanded model of adaptive governance in relation to "risk" that can help bridge the barrier of uncertainty in science and policy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kovtun


    Full Text Available The monetary policy affects the regional economy through interest rates and its main parameter the Bank of Russia key rate. But do all the banks in the regions respond uniformly to monetary policy changes? The effects of monetary policy actions can vary across the regions within an economic entity, depending on the regional industrial output, the financial structure, household incomes, lending activity, etc. The analysis of the article aims to determine the monetary policy instruments that influence the development or degradation of the regional banking sector in Russia. This helps to identify the heterogeneous commercial bank responses to changes in conducted monetary policy. In order to assess the effects of macroeconomic shocks and instruments of banking supervision on lending activity, the Ordinary Least Squares estimator and Generalized Least Squares technique were applied. The Taylor rule was used to calculate the desired level of interest rate for the each region and, then, to compare the results with the Central Bank interest rate. The empirical results, described in the context of the regional analysis, demonstrate that Central Bank’s interest rate does not affect the lending activity in most of the regions. Finally, the author summarizes conclusions one can draw from the results and provides recommendations for economic policy makers, based on the results of empirical analysis.

  2. Trends and Issues in California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard - Learning from Response to Existing Climate Policy (United States)

    Witcover, J.


    Debate over lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation has included heated discussion about appropriate policies and their cost and feasibility. One prominent policy mechanism, a carbon intensity standard, rates transport fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and targets lower fuel pool carbon intensity through a market mechanism that uses a system of tradable, bankable credits and deficits. California instituted such a policy -- the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - in 2010, which targets a 10% carbon intensity (CI) reduction by 2020. The program rolled out amid concerns over slow development of new fuels expected to be very low carbon (such as cellulosic) and has faced court challenges that added considerable policy uncertainty. Since the program's start, state transport energy mix has shifted modestly but noticeably. Looking ahead, emerging issues for the program include amendments and re-adoption in response to a court ruling, potential interaction with California's multi-sector cap on carbon emissions (which started covering transport fuels in 2015), and impacts from similar CI standards in other jurisdictions. This study provides an analysis of fuel mix changes since the LCFS was implemented in 2011, and a discussion of emerging issues focusing on policy interaction. Descriptive statistics on alternative fuel use, available fuel pathways, and CI ratings are presented based on data from the California Air Resources Board (which runs the program). They document a shift towards more alternative fuels in a more diverse mix, with lower average CI ratings for most alternative fuel types. Financial incentives for various fuels are compared under the LCFS and the US federal Renewable Fuel Standard; disincentives from conceptually different carbon pricing schemes under the LCFS and the Cap-and-Trade are also outlined. The results provide important information on response to an existing market-based policy mechanism for addressing GHG

  3. Using Online Tools to Assess Public Responses to Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nophea Sasaki


    Full Text Available As a member of the Annex 1 countries to the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Japan is committed to reducing 6% of the greenhouse gas emissions. In order to achieve this commitment, Japan has undertaken several major mitigation measures, one of which is the domestic measure that includes ecologically friendly lifestyle programs, utilizing natural energy, participating in local environmental activities, and amending environmental laws. Mitigation policies could be achieved if public responses were strong. As the internet has increasingly become an online platform for sharing environmental information, public responses to the need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions may be assessed using available online tools. We used Google Insights for Search, Google AdWords Keyword Tool, and Google Timeline View to assess public responses in Japan based on the interest shown for five search terms that define global climate change and its mitigation policies. Data on online search interests from January 04, 2004 to July 18, 2010 were analyzed according to locations and categories. Our study suggests that the search interests for the five chosen search terms dramatically increased, especially when new mitigation policies were introduced or when climate change related events were organized. Such a rapid increase indicates that the Japanese public strongly responds to climate change mitigation policies.

  4. 42 CFR 433.146 - Rights assigned; assignment method. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights assigned; assignment method. 433.146 Section... Assignment of Rights to Benefits § 433.146 Rights assigned; assignment method. (a) Except as specified in... rights to any medical care support available under an order of a court or an administrative agency, and...

  5. Random Cell Identifiers Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bestak


    Full Text Available Despite integration of advanced functions that enable Femto Access Points (FAPs to be deployed in a plug-and-play manner, the femtocell concept still cause several opened issues to be resolved. One of them represents an assignment of Physical Cell Identifiers (PCIs to FAPs. This paper analyses a random based assignment algorithm in LTE systems operating in diverse femtocell scenarios. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparing the number of confusions for various femtocell densities, PCI ranges and knowledge of vicinity. Simulation results show that better knowledge of vicinity can significantly reduce the number of confusions events.

  6. 48 CFR 42.602 - Assignment and location. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment and location... Assignment and location. (a) A CACO may be assigned only when (1) the contractor has at least two locations..., or a full-time CACO may be assigned. In determining the location of the CACO, the responsible agency...

  7. Delegating responsibility for environmental transition - are innovations in renewable energy a system, policy or market responsibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik


    The European liberalisation of the energy sector has left open questions about the responsibility for future innovations in renewable energy.......The European liberalisation of the energy sector has left open questions about the responsibility for future innovations in renewable energy....

  8. Targeting brains, producing responsibilities: the use of neuroscience within British social policy. (United States)

    Broer, Tineke; Pickersgill, Martyn


    Concepts and findings 'translated' from neuroscientific research are finding their way into UK health and social policy discourse. Critical scholars have begun to analyse how policies tend to 'misuse' the neurosciences and, further, how these discourses produce unwarranted and individualizing effects, rooted in middle-class values and inducing guilt and anxiety. In this article, we extend such work while simultaneously departing from the normative assumptions implied in the concept of 'misuse'. Through a documentary analysis of UK policy reports focused on the early years, adolescence and older adults, we examine how these employ neuroscientific concepts and consequently (re)define responsibility. In the documents analysed, responsibility was produced in three different but intersecting ways: through a focus on optimisation, self-governance, and vulnerability. Our work thereby adds to social scientific examinations of neuroscience in society that show how neurobiological terms and concepts can be used to construct and support a particular imaginary of citizenship and the role of the state. Neuroscience may be leveraged by policy makers in ways that (potentially) reduce the target of their intervention to the soma, but do so in order to expand the outcome of the intervention to include the enhancement of society writ large. By attending as well to more critical engagements with neuroscience in policy documents, our analysis demonstrates the importance of being mindful of the limits to the deployment of a neurobiological idiom within policy settings. Accordingly, we contribute to increased empirical specificity concerning the impacts and translation of neuroscientific knowledge in contemporary society whilst refusing to take for granted the idea that the neurosciences necessarily have a dominant role (to play). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Individual differences in response to randomly assigned active individualized homeopathic and placebo treatment in fibromyalgia: implications of a double-blinded optional crossover design. (United States)

    Bell, Iris R; Lewis, Daniel A; Brooks, Audrey J; Schwartz, Gary E; Lewis, Sabrina E; Caspi, Opher; Cunningham, Victoria; Baldwin, Carol M


    To assess individual difference characteristics of subgroups of patients with fibromyalgia (FM) patients with respect to the decision to stay in or switch from randomly-assigned verum or placebo treatment during an optional crossover phase of a double-blinded homeopathy study. Double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, optional crossover clinical trial. Fifty-three (53) community-recruited patients with FM entered the optional crossover phase. Two homeopaths jointly selected an individualized homeopathic remedy for all patients. The pharmacy dispensed either verum LM remedy or indistinguishable placebo in accord with randomized assignment for 4 months and the patient's optional crossover decision for an additional 2 months. Patients completed a battery of baseline state/trait questionnaires, including mood, childhood neglect and abuse, and trait absorption. They rated global health (whole person-centered) and tender point pain on physical examination (disease-specific) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Rates of optional crossover from verum to placebo or placebo to verum were comparable (p = 0.6; 31%, and 41%, respectively). The switch subgroups had greater baseline psychologic issues (emotional neglect in placebo-switch; depression and anger in verum-switch). The verum-stay subgroup scored highest on treatment helpfulness and included all six exceptional responders who fell, prior to crossover, into the top terciles for improvement in both global health and pain. Patients staying in their randomly assigned groups, active or placebo (n = 34), scored significantly higher in trait absorption than did those who switched groups (n = 19). Individual difference factors may predict better and poorer responders with FM to specific and nonspecific effects of homeopathic and placebo treatment.

  10. Global climate change. Economic dimensions of a cooperative international policy response beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of this study is to assess the economic implications of a range of international abatement strategies and to identify the most cost effective approaches to achieve given environmental objectives. International responses to concerns about global warming are discussed and trends in sectoral and global patterns of production, consumption and trade are examined with a view to providing a business as-usual scenario for carbon dioxide emissions to the year 2020. The study uses a dynamic general equilibrium model of the world economy, MEGABARE. Simulation results for alternative stabilisation and emission reduction targets are also presented. Policy options are evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in stabilizing carbon dioxide emissions and impact on economic welfare in various countries and regions, including an analysis of the feedhack effects of policies on developing countries. Equity principles and rules, and joint implementation issues are also considered. The focus is on designing approaches to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the same amount as stabilisation policies, but at lower cost to the international community and with more equitable sharing of costs. An analysis of tradable carbon dioxide emission quota schemes is provided and some broad policy conclusions are noted in the final chapter on the economic impacts of emission abatement policies. 84 refs., 22 tabs., 50 figs

  11. Managing urban water crises: adaptive policy responses to drought and flood in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Head


    Full Text Available In this case study, I examine the quality of decision-making under conditions of rapidly evolving urban water crises, and the adaptive policy challenges of building regional resilience in response to both drought and flood. Like other regions of Australia, Southeast Queensland has been subject to substantial cycles of drought and flood. I draw on resilience literature concerning sustainability, together with governance literature on policy change, to explain the changing awareness of urban water crises and the strategic options available for addressing these crises in this case study. The problem of resilience thinking opens up a number of important questions about the efficacy and adaptability of the policy system. The case provides insights into the interplay between the ways in which problems are framed, the knowledge bases required for planning and decision-making, the collaborative governance processes required for managing complex and rapidly evolving issues, and the overall capacity for policy learning over time. Regional resilience was proclaimed as a policy goal by government, but the practices remained largely anchored in traditional technical frameworks. Centralized investment decisions and governance restructures provoked conflict between levels of government, undermining the capacity of stakeholders to create more consensual approaches to problem-solving and limiting the collective learning that could have emerged.

  12. Achieving walkable city in Indonesia: Policy and responsive design through public participation (United States)

    Tanan, Natalia; Darmoyono, Laksmi


    This paper discusses approaches to policy and planning of pedestrian facility that facilitate walking in cities in Indonesia. It applies quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze walkability in some cities. The new perspective in policy and planning are focusing on improving non-motorized mobility; it encourages walking and put the provision of the pedestrian facility as an integral part of built environmental planning and development. The policy perceives pedestrian facility in broad, not only about physical development, but also benefit to socioeconomic activity and environmental quality. It is expected that the implementation of policies and walkability concept could upgrade the pedestrian facility, as a walkable city delivers green atmosphere of the urban environment. A design competition of pedestrian facility was held to test the policy and accommodate input from the public. Public participation through competition also enriches the design of pedestrian facility that responsive to local condition. Implementation is still a challenge due to limited budget; however, there are tendencies that few cities improve pedestrian facilities to encourage people walking in order to make the city livable and environmentally friendly.

  13. Biodiversity and sectoral responsibility in the development of Swedish Forestry Policy, 1988-1993. (United States)

    Bush, Terrence


    In 1993 the Swedish parliament deregulated national forestry policy and established an environmental goal in parallel with the previous, long-standing goal of high wood production. This paper shows how the change occurred in the context of major changes in Swedish environmental policy during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Within a short time, new environmental legislation and the introduction of legal protection for small forest and agricultural habitats of high ecological value reoriented national forestry policy, away from an overriding focus on wood production to an increased awareness of nature conservation and biodiversity preservation. Reflecting a major compromise with the state, forest owners have gained greater freedom to manage their land, but must also improve environmental conditions while achieving high wood production, a policy known as 'freedom under responsibility'. The paper explains how both the parliament and industry supported increased nature conservation and biodiversity to maintain forest health and support the forestry industry, by favouring responsible resource use and not simply protection from human influence.

  14. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.


    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  15. Case Assignment in Agrammatism. (United States)

    Ruigendijk, Esther; van Zonneveld, Ron; Bastiaanse, Roelien


    This study evaluated the omission patterns of case markers in the spontaneous speech of 12 Dutch and German adult speakers with agrammatic aphasia within the framework of Chomsky's case theory. Data supported the hypothesis that, if no case assigner is produced, the noun will receive nominative case by default or the case-marking morpheme will be…

  16. Complex responsibilities : An empirical analysis of responsibilities and technological complexity in Dutch immigration policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.


    Complex patterns of (international) co-operation between public and private actors are facilitated by new information and communication technologies. New technological practices challenge current systems of political, public management and frontline staff responsibilities since these

  17. Assessment of policy responses to climate change and their effects on the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, R.G.; Smyser, C. (International Energy Agency, Paris (France))


    A progress report is presented on the significant role that energy plays in contributing to greenhouse emissions, the likely effect on energy markets of some of the policy responses contemplated to reduce those emissions, and the areas which warrant further investigation. IEA's work related to climate change focusses primarily on the OECD member countries, the next 15 years, and the transportation and electricity sectors. Special attention is paid to natural gas. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Pre-crisis Conditions and Government Policy Responses: Chile and Mexico during the Great Recession


    Bruno Martorano


    Chile and Mexico reacted to the crisis by implementing several policy responses, they achieved different outcomes. In particular, the Chilean economy recovered faster than the Mexican one. However, the main differences are related to social outcomes. On one hand, the Gini coefficient decreased in both countries. On the other hand, both overall and child poverty dropped in Chile while they rose sharply in Mexico. , Chile introduced a stimulus package twice as large the Mexican one. When the fi...

  19. Optimal processor assignment for pipeline computations (United States)

    Nicol, David M.; Simha, Rahul; Choudhury, Alok N.; Narahari, Bhagirath


    The availability of large scale multitasked parallel architectures introduces the following processor assignment problem for pipelined computations. Given a set of tasks and their precedence constraints, along with their experimentally determined individual responses times for different processor sizes, find an assignment of processor to tasks. Two objectives are of interest: minimal response given a throughput requirement, and maximal throughput given a response time requirement. These assignment problems differ considerably from the classical mapping problem in which several tasks share a processor; instead, it is assumed that a large number of processors are to be assigned to a relatively small number of tasks. Efficient assignment algorithms were developed for different classes of task structures. For a p processor system and a series parallel precedence graph with n constituent tasks, an O(np2) algorithm is provided that finds the optimal assignment for the response time optimization problem; it was found that the assignment optimizing the constrained throughput in O(np2log p) time. Special cases of linear, independent, and tree graphs are also considered.

  20. Response to Environmental Policy Institute report on Savannah River Plant high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In a recently published report entitled ''Deadly Crop in the Tank Farm,'' the Environmental Policy Institute (EPI) presented its opinions on the hazards associated with waste management practices at SRP. The EPI's allegations were based on selected published Department of Energy and Du Pont reports and on raw data from the unpublished 200-Area Fault Tree Data Bank that it obtained in 1983. Professional staff at SRP have reviewed the report in detail and have provided responses in this document to all significant EPI statements and recommendations. The responses are grouped into five major categories: Waste Management Operations -- Past and Present, Accidents and Risks, Worker Exposure and Cancer Epidemiology, Groundwater Contamination, and Long-Term Waste Management. An overview of the responses is provided in the Summary, and the detailed responses are presented in the body of the report. 55 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Scaffolding students’ assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, Marie Falkesgaard


    learning goals) can help students structure their argumentative and communica-tive learning processes, and how various multimodal representations can give more open-ended learning possibilities for collaboration. The article presents a short introduction of the skills for 21st century learning and defines......This article discusses scaffolding in typical student assignments in mother tongue learning materials in upper secondary education in Denmark and the United Kingdom. It has been determined that assignments do not have sufficient scaffolding end features to help pupils understand concepts and build...... objects. The article presents the results of empirical research on tasks given in Danish and British learning materials. This work is based on a further development of my PhD thesis: “Learning materials in the subject of Danish” (Slot 2010). The main focus is how cognitive models (and subsidiary explicit...

  2. File Sharing, Napster, and Institutional Responses: Educative, Developmental, or Responsive Policy? (United States)

    Lane, Jason E.; Healy, Margaret A.


    Student use of the Internet for such purposes as sharing and downloading illegal copies of music and movies presents new and complex challenges in the relationship between the institution and student. This article reviews the development of the file sharing phenomena; and through analysis of existing institutional responses, legal advice, media…

  3. Human responses to Florida red tides: policy awareness and adherence to local fertilizer ordinances. (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Scheller, Karen; Reich, Andrew; Hitchcock, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Ullmann, Steven; Hoagland, Porter


    To mitigate the damages of natural hazards, policy responses can be beneficial only if they are effective. Using a self-administered survey approach, this paper focuses on the adherence to local fertilizer ordinances (i.e., county or municipal rules regulating the application of fertilizer to private lawns or facilities such as golf courses) implemented in jurisdictions along the Southwest Florida coast in response to hazardous blooms of Florida red tides (Karenia brevis). These ordinances play a role in the context of evolving programs of water pollution control at federal, state, water basin, and local levels. With respect to policy effectiveness, while the strength of physical linkages is of critical importance, the extent to which humans affected are aware of and adhere to the relevant rules, is equally critical. We sought to understand the public's depth of understanding about the rationales for local fertilizer ordinances. Respondents in Sarasota, Florida, were asked about their fertilizer practices in an area that has experienced several major blooms of Florida red tides over the past two decades. A highly educated, older population of 305 residents and "snowbirds" reported relatively little knowledge about a local fertilizer ordinance, its purpose, or whether it would change the frequency, size, or duration of red tides. This finding held true even among subpopulations that were expected to have more interest in or to be more knowledgeable about harmful algal blooms. In the face of uncertain science and environmental outcomes, and with individual motivations at odds with evolving public policies, the effectiveness of local community efforts to decrease the impacts of red tides may be compromised. Targeted social-science research on human perceptions about the risks of Florida red tides and education about the rationales for potential policy responses are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear energy policy in the United States 1990–2010: A federal or state responsibility?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffron, Raphael J.


    This paper examines from a policy perspective nuclear energy policy in the United States (US) from 1990 to 2010 and questions whether it is or has become a Federal or State responsibility. The present study, as befits policy research, engages with many disciplines (for example, in particular, law and politics) and hence the contributions move beyond that of nuclear energy policy literature and in particular to that on nuclear new build and other assessments of large infrastructure projects. Several examples at the Federal level are identified that demonstrate that the nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where it requires a focus on the power of actions at a more localised (state) level in order to re-ignite the industry. The research concludes that there remains a misunderstanding of the issue of project management for complex construction projects, and it is highly arguable whether many of its issues have been resolved. Further, the research asserts that the economics of nuclear energy are not the most influential reason for no nuclear new build in the US. -- Highlights: •Examines the US nuclear energy sector, 1990–2010. •Nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where an individual state is the key driver. •Misunderstanding of the project management and public administration. •Potential of the power of more localised (state) actions to re-ignite the industry

  5. Simulation of Farmers’ Response to Irrigation Water Pricing and Rationing Policies (Case Study: Zabol City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abouzar parhizkari


    Full Text Available Considering that agricultural sector is the largest consumer of water, presenting integrated management for water resources and formulating effective policies to increase water productivity in this sector is essential. Therefore, using economic modeling , this study simulated the farmers’ responses to irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city. To achieve the study purpose, the State Wide Agricultural Production Model and Positive Mathematical Programming were applied. The required data for the years 2010-2011 was collected by completing questionnaires and collecting data sets from the relevant agencies of Zabol city in personal attendance. The results showed that imposing irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city leads to a reduction in the total cultivated area by 9/54 and 5/14 percent and a reduction in the water consumption by 6/23 and 7/01 percent, compared to the base year. Ultimately, irrigation water rationing policy, considering frugality of 18/9 million m3 of water, as the appropriate solution for the sustainability of water resources of Zabol city was proposed.

  6. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.


    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  7. From conceptual pluralism to practical agreement on policy: global responsibility for global health. (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Hammonds, Rachel; Ooms, Gorik; Barry, Donna; Chapman, Audrey; Van Damme, Wim


    As the human cost of the global economic crisis becomes apparent the ongoing discussions surrounding the post-2015 global development framework continue at a frenzied pace. Given the scale and scope of increased globalization moving forward in a post-Millennium Development Goals era, to protect and realize health equity for all people, has never been more challenging or more important. The unprecedented nature of global interdependence underscores the importance of proposing policy solutions that advance realizing global responsibility for global health. This article argues for advancing global responsibility for global health through the creation of a Global Fund for Health. It suggests harnessing the power of the exceptional response to the combined epidemics of AIDS, TB and Malaria, embodied in the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, to realize an expanded, reconceptualized Global Fund for Health. However this proposal creates both an analytical quandary embedded in conceptual pluralism and a practical dilemma for the scope and raison d'etre of a new Global Fund for Health. To address these issues we offer a logical framework for moving from conceptual pluralism in the theories supporting global responsibility for health to practical agreement on policy to realize this end. We examine how the innovations flowing from this exceptional response can be coupled with recent ideas and concepts, for example a global social protection floor, a Global Health Constitution or a Framework Convention for Global Health, that share the global responsibility logic that underpins a Global Fund for Health. The 2014 Lancet Commission on Global Governance for Health Report asks whether a single global health protection fund would be better for global health than the current patchwork of global and national social transfers. We concur with this suggestion and argue that there is much room for practical agreement on a Global Fund for Health that moves from the

  8. The health policy implications of individual adaptive behavior responses to smog pollution in urban China. (United States)

    Ban, Jie; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yi; Brooke Anderson, G; Li, Tiantian


    Smog pollution is a serious public health issue in urban China, where it is associated with public health through a range of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. Despite the negative health impacts of smog pollution, individual adaptive behaviors are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders the development of effective public policy to support and encourage the adoption of individual adaptive and mitigating behaviors to smog pollution. A questionnaire survey of 1141 randomly sampled individuals in a typical PM 2.5 -polluted Chinese city was designed to establish smog concerns and behavior changes during smog events. The results demonstrate a variety of behavior responses associated with risk perception, experience of smog, age, and gender of respondents. An understanding of these variations is critical to the development of effective public policy and ultimately to the improvement of public health in cities affected by smog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Globalization of labour markets challenges, adjustment and policy response in the EU and LDCS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyvenhoven, Arie; Molle, Willem


    To the classical driving forces of migration such as poverty, oppression and war, yet another is being added: globalization. The trend toward globalization has created new opportunities for trade and investment. These have had positive implications for economic growth and living standards. However, they also confront developed and less developed countries (LCDs) with difficult policy choices. Developed Countries (DCs) have to find a compromise between competitiveness and high labour costs, and between trade liberalization and immigration controls. LCDs have to decide whether to export labour or goods, and to accept foreign resources for development rather than migration. While, in the literature, the impact of globalization has been largely studied from specialist perspectives, this volume offers a comprehensive view of the issue. In Globalization of Labour Markets: Challenges, Adjustment and Policy Response in the European Union and Less Developed Countries international experts: Explain the welfare implicat...

  10. Chinese Foreign Policy in a Global Perspective: A Responsible Reformer "Striving For Achievement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Weissmann


    Full Text Available During the last four decades, China has moved from being an isolated country separated from the international community to having become one of the world’s major powers. It is vital to understand what is guiding Chinese foreign policy, why this is so, and not least what kind of power China is and will be in the future. This article analyses the vital elements and thinking that guides Chinese foreign policy, its priorities and decision making process. It is found that China's foreign policy is embedded in domestic issues. The foremost foreign policy objective is domestic political stability, which in turn is a necessity for the survival of one-party rule. Both are dependent on a combination of two key factors: continuing domestic economic growth and nationalism. The foreign policy is also closely linked to the Chinese self-perception, both its self-superiority/self-inferiority dualism and its multitude of confusing (overlapping identities about what China is and should be. A key turning year is 2008 when the "global" financial crisis severely affected the United States and Europe at a time of Chinese economic success, which gave China confidence to pursue a more active and aggressive/assertive stance on the international stage. It is concluded that China under Xi Jinping will not be a status que power accepting the world as it is, but nor are we to expect China to become a revisionist power aiming to remodel the global order. China is what can best be described as a responsible reformer "striving for achievements".

  11. Community-level policy responses to state marijuana legalization in Washington State. (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Hitchcock, Laura; McGroder, Nancy; Greto, Lindsey A; Richardson, Susan M


    Washington State (WA) legalized a recreational marijuana market - including growing, processing and retail sales - through voter initiative 502 in November 2012. Legalized recreational marijuana retail sales began in July 2014. In response to state legalization of recreational marijuana, some cities and counties within the state have passed local ordinances that either further regulated marijuana markets, or banned them completely. The purpose of this study is to describe local-level marijuana regulations on recreational retail sales within the context of a state that had legalized a recreational marijuana market. Marijuana-related ordinances were collected from all 142 cities in the state with more than 3000 residents and from all 39 counties. Policies that were in place as of June 30, 2016 - two years after the state's recreational market opening - to regulate recreational marijuana retail sales within communities were systematically coded. A total of 125 cities and 30 counties had passed local ordinances to address recreational marijuana retail sales. Multiple communities implemented retail market bans, including some temporary bans (moratoria) while studying whether to pursue other policy options. As of June 30, 2016, 30% of the state population lived in places that had temporarily or permanently banned retail sales. Communities most frequently enacted zoning policies explicitly regulating where marijuana businesses could be established. Other policies included in ordinances placed limits on business hours and distance requirements (buffers) between marijuana businesses and youth-related land use types or other sensitive areas. State legalization does not necessarily result in uniform community environments that regulate recreational marijuana markets. Local ordinances vary among communities within Washington following statewide legalization. Further study is needed to describe how such local policies affect variation in public health and social outcomes

  12. Inoculation Policies in Response to Terrorist or WMD Attacks: Additional Factors to Consider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, P. M.


    When viewed on its own merits, the debate over who should be inoculated during a period of biological emergency is a rather straightforward public policy decision. The classic public policy 'balancing act' decision-making model is defaulted to as issues of fairness, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, adequacy of supply, mission performance, and constituencies are arrayed and adjudicated. This mainstream approach is appropriate as far as it goes but it also exemplifies a series of structural and perceptual weaknesses when applied to wartime or localized terrorism scenarios. In fact, the establishment of a vaccination policy appropriate to a flu pandemic falls squarely within this mainstream debate. Although the notion of a pandemic carries an assumption of a great many fatalities it does not possess the fear quotient, uncertainty, horror, unnaturalness, or inevitability of a bio-terror or biological warfare incident. As a result, the reliability and responsiveness of key personnel responding to a flu pandemic should be less of an issue than it will be in the event of an intentional man-made biological incident. The principal policy weakness in instances an intentional bio-attack stems from a generalized failure, or refusal, to systematically study the behavior of key personnel, first-responders, soldiers, or critical senior leadership during severe crises occurring in their own backyards. In other words, when the 'balloon goes up' how many of your responders and critical personnel will show up for work? This presentation considers many of the 'unaddressed' factors that experience has shown may have a determinative effect upon the efficacy of a response to a biological incident. Lessons are drawn from experiences of US forces station in the former West Germany, US Defense Department Continuity of Operations Programs, Hurricane Katrina, and the 9/11 attacks on the United States. (author)

  13. Inoculation Policies in Response to BW Attacks: Additional Factors to Consider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, P. M.


    When viewed on its own merits, the debate over who should be inoculated during a period of biological emergency is a rather straightforward public policy decision. The classic public policy 'balancing act' decision-making model is defaulted to as issues of fairness, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, adequacy of supply, mission performance, and constituencies are arrayed and adjudicated. This mainstream approach is appropriate as far as it goes but it also exemplifies a series of structural and perceptual weaknesses when applied to wartime or localized terrorism scenarios. In fact, the establishment of a vaccination policy appropriate to a flu pandemic falls squarely within this mainstream debate. Although the notion of a pandemic carries an assumption of a great many fatalities it does not possess the fear quotient, uncertainty, horror, unnaturalness, or inevitability of a bio-terror or biological warfare incident. As a result, the reliability and responsiveness of key personnel responding to a flu pandemic should be less of an issue than it will be in the event of an intentional man-made biological incident. The principal policy weakness in instances an intentional bio-attack stems from a generalized failure, or refusal, to systematically study the behavior of key personnel, first-responders, soldiers, or critical senior leadership during severe crises occurring in their own backyards. In other words, when the 'balloon goes up' how many of your responders and critical personnel will show up for work? This presentation considers many of the 'unaddressed' factors that experience has shown may have a determinative effect upon the efficacy of a response to a biological incident. Lessons are drawn from experiences of US forces station in the former West Germany, US Defense Department Continuity of Operations Programs, Hurricane Katrina, and the 9/11 attacks on the United States. (author)

  14. Public Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Four Nordic Countries: Harmony of Goals and Conflict of Means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midttun, A.; Gjølberg, M.; Kourula, A.; Sweet, S.; Vallentin, S.


    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) was historically a business-oriented idea that companies should voluntarily improve their social and environmental practices. More recently, CSR has increasingly attracted governments’ attention, and is now promoted in public policy, especially in the European

  15. Promoting social responsibility for health: health impact assessment and healthy public policy at the community level. (United States)

    Mittelmark, M B


    The 1997 Jakarta Declaration on Health Promotion into the 21st Century called for new responses to address the emerging threats to health. The declaration placed a high priority on promoting social responsibility for health, and it identified equity-focused health impact assessment as a high priority for action. This theme was among the foci at the 2000 Fifth Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Mexico. This paper, which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health. Health impact assessment may be highly technical and require sophisticated technology and expertise. But it can also be a simple, highly practical process, accessible to ordinary people, and one that helps a community come to grips with local circumstances that need changing for better health. To illustrate the possibilities, this paper presents a case study, the People Assessing Their Health (PATH) project from Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It places ordinary citizens, rather than community elites, at the very heart of local decision-making. Evidence from PATH demonstrates that low technology health impact assessment, done by and for local people, can shift thinking beyond the illness problems of individuals. It can bring into consideration, instead, how programmes and policies support or weaken community health, and illuminate a community's capacity to improve local circumstances for better health. This stands in contrast to evidence that highly technological approaches to community-level health impact assessment can be self-defeating. Further development of simple, people-centred, low technology approaches to health impact assessment at the local level is called for.

  16. Public Participation in Establishing Legal Policy to TNCs' Responsibility Upon the Violation of Right to Enjoy Healthy Environment in Indonesia


    Wartini, Sri; Ghofur, Jamaludin


    Public participation needs to be improved to promote an access to justice when the right to enjoy a healthy environment is violated by TNCs. This article has two problem formulations: first, how is public participation in making legal policy for the responsibility of TNCs. Second, why is it necessary to design a legal policy against the responsibility of TNCs for violating the right to enjoy a healthy environment is necessary to promote an access of justice. This research is normative. The ap...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study examined the supply response and demand for local rice in Nigeria between 1960 and 2004. A system of equations using secondary data was estimated by OLS and 2SLS techniques. Area planted with local rice is mainly affected by expected price of output, agriculture wage rate and by the partial adjustment coefficient. The short-run response elasticity is 0.077. The implied long-run response elasticity is 1.578. The partial adjustment measure is 0.049. This, points to the difficulty of supply response to changing economic conditions. The price elasticity of demand obtained is 0.841. The demand for local rice is thus price inelastic. Rice income elasticity is 0.3378. It is also inelastic. The ban on rice importation in Nigeria could be said to be a step in the right direction. This policy should be continued and policed. However, price, output and non-price incentives that can exert significant influence on rice supply response and demand are required if the self-sufficiency goal is to be achieved.

  18. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  19. Corporate social responsibility and access to policy élites: an analysis of tobacco industry documents. (United States)

    Fooks, Gary J; Gilmore, Anna B; Smith, Katherine E; Collin, Jeff; Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley


    Recent attempts by large tobacco companies to represent themselves as socially responsible have been widely dismissed as image management. Existing research supports such claims by pointing to the failings and misleading nature of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. However, few studies have focused in depth on what tobacco companies hoped to achieve through CSR or reflected on the extent to which these ambitions have been realised. Iterative searching relating to CSR strategies was undertaken of internal British American Tobacco (BAT) documents, released through litigation in the US. Relevant documents (764) were indexed and qualitatively analysed. In the past decade, BAT has actively developed a wide-ranging CSR programme. Company documents indicate that one of the key aims of this programme was to help the company secure access to policymakers and, thereby, increase the company's chances of influencing policy decisions. Taking the UK as a case study, this paper demonstrates the way in which CSR can be used to renew and maintain dialogue with policymakers, even in ostensibly unreceptive political contexts. In practice, the impact of this political use of CSR is likely to be context specific; depending on factors such as policy élites' understanding of the credibility of companies as a reliable source of information. The findings suggest that tobacco company CSR strategies can enable access to and dialogue with policymakers and provide opportunities for issue definition. CSR should therefore be seen as a form of corporate political activity. This underlines the need for broad implementation of Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Measures are needed to ensure transparency of interactions between all parts of government and the tobacco industry and for policy makers to be made more aware of what companies hope to achieve through CSR.

  20. Corporate social responsibility and access to policy élites: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Fooks


    Full Text Available Recent attempts by large tobacco companies to represent themselves as socially responsible have been widely dismissed as image management. Existing research supports such claims by pointing to the failings and misleading nature of corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives. However, few studies have focused in depth on what tobacco companies hoped to achieve through CSR or reflected on the extent to which these ambitions have been realised.Iterative searching relating to CSR strategies was undertaken of internal British American Tobacco (BAT documents, released through litigation in the US. Relevant documents (764 were indexed and qualitatively analysed. In the past decade, BAT has actively developed a wide-ranging CSR programme. Company documents indicate that one of the key aims of this programme was to help the company secure access to policymakers and, thereby, increase the company's chances of influencing policy decisions. Taking the UK as a case study, this paper demonstrates the way in which CSR can be used to renew and maintain dialogue with policymakers, even in ostensibly unreceptive political contexts. In practice, the impact of this political use of CSR is likely to be context specific; depending on factors such as policy élites' understanding of the credibility of companies as a reliable source of information.The findings suggest that tobacco company CSR strategies can enable access to and dialogue with policymakers and provide opportunities for issue definition. CSR should therefore be seen as a form of corporate political activity. This underlines the need for broad implementation of Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Measures are needed to ensure transparency of interactions between all parts of government and the tobacco industry and for policy makers to be made more aware of what companies hope to achieve through CSR.

  1. Corporate Social Responsibility and Access to Policy Élites: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents (United States)

    Fooks, Gary J.; Gilmore, Anna B.; Smith, Katherine E.; Collin, Jeff; Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley


    Background Recent attempts by large tobacco companies to represent themselves as socially responsible have been widely dismissed as image management. Existing research supports such claims by pointing to the failings and misleading nature of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. However, few studies have focused in depth on what tobacco companies hoped to achieve through CSR or reflected on the extent to which these ambitions have been realised. Methods and Findings Iterative searching relating to CSR strategies was undertaken of internal British American Tobacco (BAT) documents, released through litigation in the US. Relevant documents (764) were indexed and qualitatively analysed. In the past decade, BAT has actively developed a wide-ranging CSR programme. Company documents indicate that one of the key aims of this programme was to help the company secure access to policymakers and, thereby, increase the company's chances of influencing policy decisions. Taking the UK as a case study, this paper demonstrates the way in which CSR can be used to renew and maintain dialogue with policymakers, even in ostensibly unreceptive political contexts. In practice, the impact of this political use of CSR is likely to be context specific; depending on factors such as policy élites' understanding of the credibility of companies as a reliable source of information. Conclusions The findings suggest that tobacco company CSR strategies can enable access to and dialogue with policymakers and provide opportunities for issue definition. CSR should therefore be seen as a form of corporate political activity. This underlines the need for broad implementation of Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Measures are needed to ensure transparency of interactions between all parts of government and the tobacco industry and for policy makers to be made more aware of what companies hope to achieve through CSR. Please see later in the article for the Editors

  2. Job Assignments under Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    Inefficient job assignments are usually explained with incomplete information about employees' abilities or contractual imperfections. We show that inefficient assignments arise even without uncertainty about the employee's ability and with complete contracts. Building on this result we provide...

  3. [Eight-step structured decision-making process to assign criminal responsibility and seven focal points for describing relationship between psychopathology and offense]. (United States)

    Okada, Takayuki


    The author suggested that it is essential for lawyers and psychiatrists to have a common understanding of the mutual division of roles between them when determining criminal responsibility (CR) and, for this purpose, proposed an 8-step structured CR decision-making process. The 8 steps are: (1) gathering of information related to mental function and condition, (2) recognition of mental function and condition,(3) psychiatric diagnosis, (4) description of the relationship between psychiatric symptom or psychopathology and index offense, (5) focus on capacities of differentiation between right and wrong and behavioral control, (6) specification of elements of cognitive/volitional prong in legal context, (7) legal evaluation of degree of cognitive/volitional prong, and (8) final interpretation of CR as a legal conclusion. The author suggested that the CR decision-making process should proceed not in a step-like pattern from (1) to (2) to (3) to (8), but in a step-like pattern from (1) to (2) to (4) to (5) to (6) to (7) to (8), and that not steps after (5), which require the interpretation or the application of section 39 of the Penal Code, but Step (4), must be the core of psychiatric expert evidence. When explaining the relationship between the mental disorder and offense described in Step (4), the Seven Focal Points (7FP) are often used. The author urged basic precautions to prevent the misuse of 7FP, which are: (a) the priority of each item is not equal and the relative importance differs from case to case; (b) each item is not exclusively independent, there may be overlap between items; (c) the criminal responsibility shall not be judged because one item is applicable or because a number of items are applicable, i. e., 7FP are not "criteria," for example, the aim is not to decide such things as 'the motive is understandable' or 'the conduct is appropriate', but should be to describe how psychopathological factors affected the offense specifically in the context of

  4. International policy and advisory response regarding children's exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary


    Radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure regulations/guidelines generally only consider acute effects, and not chronic, low exposures. Concerns for children's exposure are warranted due to the amazingly rapid uptake of many wireless devices by increasingly younger children. This review of policy and advice regarding children's RF-EMF exposure draws material from a wide variety of sources focusing on the current situation. This is not a systematic review, but aims to provide a representative cross-section of policy and advisory responses within set boundaries. There are a wide variety of approaches which I have categorized and tabulated ranging from ICNIRP/IEEE guidelines and "no extra precautions needed" to precautionary or scientific much lower maxima and extensive advice to minimize RF-EMF exposure, ban advertising/sale to children, and add exposure information to packaging. Precautionary standards use what I term an exclusion principle. The wide range of policy approaches can be confusing for parents/carers of children. Some consensus among advisory organizations would be helpful acknowledging that, despite extensive research, the highly complex nature of both RF-EMF and the human body, and frequent technological updates, means simple assurance of long-term safety cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, minimum exposure of children to RF-EMF is recommended. This does not indicate need for alarm, but mirrors routine health-and-safety precautions. Simple steps are suggested. ICNIRP guidelines need to urgently publish how the head, torso, and limbs' exposure limits were calculated and what safety margin was applied since this exposure, especially to the abdomen, is now dominant in many children.

  5. Causes, consequences, and policy responses to the migration of health workers: key findings from India. (United States)

    Walton-Roberts, Margaret; Runnels, Vivien; Rajan, S Irudaya; Sood, Atul; Nair, Sreelekha; Thomas, Philomina; Packer, Corinne; MacKenzie, Adrian; Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Labonté, Ronald; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn


    This study sought to better understand the drivers of skilled health professional migration, its consequences, and the various strategies countries have employed to mitigate its negative impacts. The study was conducted in four countries-Jamaica, India, the Philippines, and South Africa-that have historically been "sources" of health workers migrating to other countries. The aim of this paper is to present the findings from the Indian portion of the study. Data were collected using surveys of Indian generalist and specialist physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, dieticians, and other allied health therapists. We also conducted structured interviews with key stakeholders representing government ministries, professional associations, regional health authorities, health care facilities, and educational institutions. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Shortages of health workers are evident in certain parts of India and in certain specialty areas, but the degree and nature of such shortages are difficult to determine due to the lack of evidence and health information. The relationship of such shortages to international migration is not clear. Policy responses to health worker migration are also similarly embedded in wider processes aimed at health workforce management, but overall, there is no clear policy agenda to manage health worker migration. Decision-makers in India present conflicting options about the need or desirability of curtailing migration. Consequences of health work migration on the Indian health care system are not easily discernable from other compounding factors. Research suggests that shortages of skilled health workers in India must be examined in relation to domestic policies on training, recruitment, and retention rather than viewed as a direct consequence of the international migration of health workers.

  6. The policy responses to the Fukushima nuclear accident and their effect on Japanese energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masatsugu; Hughes, Larry


    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station received worldwide attention in March 2011; since then, much of the reporting has been limited to stories such as the state of the reactor, the trans-Pacific movement of flotsam caused by the tsunami, and the effect of the tsunami and accident on Japanese communities. Other than the closure of Japan's last operating reactor in May 2012, little has been discussed outside of Japan regarding the policies introduced in response by the Japanese government in its effort to maintain Japanese energy security and the effects on Japan's electricity suppliers and the Japanese people. This paper presents a detailed examination of the crisis-driven changes to policy and regulations instituted by the Japanese government and electricity suppliers in the immediate aftermath of the accident up to May 2012. The disruption to Japan's long-term energy policies is discussed in terms of the country's need to maintain its energy security. The paper also considers a number of different energy futures for Japan in light of the accident and how they could improve energy security in terms of availability, affordability, and acceptability. - Highlights: ► Since Fukushima, Japan's reactor capacity has dropped from almost 50 GW to zero. ► Emergency demand-reduction reduced TEPCO's 2011 summer peak by 18% compared to 2010. ► Restricting generation to non-nuclear sources affected Asian LNG and oil supplies. ► Nuclear technology will continue to play a role for Japanese electricity and exports

  7. Interactive Assignments for Online Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Lowry


    Full Text Available Students can experience first hand through interactive assignments what is involved in teaching an online course. Most students develop a whole new appreciation for the student learning process. Faculty are beginning to realize that online instruction is more than a series of readings posted to a course management system. This paper summarizes the faculty member's instructional strategies involved when creating student interaction assignments. The paper also summarizes the assignments, discussion board, and trends in education from the student's perspective. In summary, it concludes with the faculty's overall perspective concerning these assignments and how the assignments could be more effective for the student.

  8. The National Planning Policy Framework and Archaeology: A Response – How did the Profession come to this?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hinton


    Full Text Available The transition of planning policy for archaeology and the historic environment in England from Planning Policy Guidance note 16 (PPG 16 to the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF via Planning Policy Statement 5 (PPS5 is an important one. It mirrors in some ways the development of the commercial branch of archaeology, and of its professional institute, the Institute for Archaeologists (IfA. In this response I do not seek to reprise or challenge the key policy changes, magisterially summarised by Flatman and Perring, but to explore what they mean and have meant for the sector, how the discipline reacted (or should have reacted, and what it all means for professionalism.

  9. Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate. (United States)

    Chapin, F Stuart; Lovecraft, Amy L; Zavaleta, Erika S; Nelson, Joanna; Robards, Martin D; Kofinas, Gary P; Trainor, Sarah F; Peterson, Garry D; Huntington, Henry P; Naylor, Rosamond L


    Human activities are altering many factors that determine the fundamental properties of ecological and social systems. Is sustainability a realistic goal in a world in which many key process controls are directionally changing? To address this issue, we integrate several disparate sources of theory to address sustainability in directionally changing social-ecological systems, apply this framework to climate-warming impacts in Interior Alaska, and describe a suite of policy strategies that emerge from these analyses. Climate warming in Interior Alaska has profoundly affected factors that influence landscape processes (climate regulation and disturbance spread) and natural hazards, but has only indirectly influenced ecosystem goods such as food, water, and wood that receive most management attention. Warming has reduced cultural services provided by ecosystems, leading to some of the few institutional responses that directly address the causes of climate warming, e.g., indigenous initiatives to the Arctic Council. Four broad policy strategies emerge: (i) enhancing human adaptability through learning and innovation in the context of changes occurring at multiple scales; (ii) increasing resilience by strengthening negative (stabilizing) feedbacks that buffer the system from change and increasing options for adaptation through biological, cultural, and economic diversity; (iii) reducing vulnerability by strengthening institutions that link the high-latitude impacts of climate warming to their low-latitude causes; and (iv) facilitating transformation to new, potentially more beneficial states by taking advantage of opportunities created by crisis. Each strategy provides societal benefits, and we suggest that all of them be pursued simultaneously.

  10. Analysis of Control Policies and Dynamic Response of a Q-Car 2-DOF Semi Active System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ihsan


    Full Text Available Several control policies of Q-car 2-DOF semiactive system, namely skyhook, groundhook and hybrid controls are presented. Their ride comfort, suspension displacement and road-holding performances are analyzed and compared with passive system. The analysis covers both transient and steady state responses in time domain and transmissibility response in frequency domain. The results show that the hybrid control policy yields better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement for typical passenger cars. The hybrid control policy is also shown to be a better compromise between comfort, road-holding and suspension displacement than the skyhook and groundhook control policies.

  11. Intimate Partner Violence Screening and Response: Policies and Procedures Across Health Care Facilities. (United States)

    Williams, Jessica R; Halstead, Valerie; Salani, Deborah; Koermer, Natasha


    This study examines policies and procedures for identifying and responding to intimate partner violence (IPV) among different types of health care settings. This epidemiologic, cross-sectional, observational study design collected data from June 2014 to January 2015 through a telephone questionnaire from a stratified random sample of 288 health care facilities in Miami-Dade County, Florida. An overall response rate of 76.2% was achieved from 72 primary care clinics, 93 obstetrics/gynecology clinics, 106 pediatric clinics, and 17 emergency departments (EDs). There is a general awareness of the importance of IPV screening with 78.1% of facilities (95% CI, 73.9%-82.3%) reporting some type of IPV screening procedures. Wide variation exists, however, in how practices are implemented, with only 35.3% of facilities (95% CI, 29.5%-41.1%) implementing multicomponent, comprehensive IPV screening and response programs. Differences were also observed by setting with EDs reporting the most comprehensive programs. This study yields important empirical information regarding the extent to which IPV screening and response procedures are currently being implemented in both clinic and acute health care settings along with areas where improvements are needed. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cyber-intrusion Auto-response and Policy Management System (CAPMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, Steve [ViaSat Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Lawrence, David [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States); Suvana, Prakash [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States)


    The Cyber-intrusion Auto-response and Policy Management System (CAPMS) project was funded by a grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program with contributions from two partner electric utilities: Southern California Edison (SCE) and Duke Energy. The goal of the project was to demonstrate protecting smart grid assets from a cyber attack in a way that “does not impede critical energy delivery functions.” This report summarizes project goals and activities for the CAPMS project and explores what did and did not work as expected. It concludes with an assessment of possible benefits and value of the system for the future.

  13. Policy responses during the trump administration to older people's growing economic risk exposure. (United States)

    Tolson, Michele E; Weller, Christian E


    Economic risk exposure through increased labor market volatility and growing caregiving responsibilities has risen for older Americans. At the same time, key protections such as unemployment insurance and Social Security have declined, while other protections, particularly in the private market are limited or non-existent. Social policy can lower the chance of risk exposure and the associated costs especially with respect to unemployment and caregiving. In virtually all instances, however, the Trump administration has already moved to weaken existing protections. And, it has offered either no proposals or very limited proposals to increase protections in the private sector, for instance, by offering households tax deductions for caregiving costs. This approach, though, would largely benefit higher-income households and offer few or no benefits to low-income and middle-income households. As a result, an aging population will increasingly face rising economic risks on their own.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan DONE


    Full Text Available The parties involved in negotiating collective labour contracts define and follow their objectives from the perspective of interests that determine their existence. After 1989, in Romania, due to privatisation, at the companies’ level substantial changes have occurred with respect to the hierarchy coefficients. As a result, companies endowed with modern technologies and producing for export have motivational policies for their personnel, so that these are concerned with respect to the performance increase. Trade unions almost gave up direct involvement in determining and executing the incomes and expenditures budget, being concerned lately with achieving safe labour conditions, increasing professional training, and maintaining and raising the actual wage. The responsibility for optimising the relationship between labour and capital is with employers and trade unions, and the efficient solving of labour market issues cannot be done but through government, employers’ organisations and trade union.

  15. U.S. Policy Responses to Calls for the Medical Use of Cannabis (United States)

    Hall, Wayne


    This paper discusses the evolution of U.S. policy responses to calls to allow patients to use cannabis for medical purposes. It first summarizes the research evidence on the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for various medical uses. It then outlines the challenges in developing new pharmaceutical cannabinoids that are safe, effective, and acceptable to patients. It briefly describes the strengths and limitations of the different ways in which U.S. states have allowed patients to use cannabis for medical purposes. These include allowing access for research trials only, allowing medical necessity as a defense against prosecution, and allowing commercial medical dispensaries to provide cannabis to approved patients. It argues that liberal definitions of indications for medical cannabis use and the commercialization of medical cannabis supply in California have produced the de facto legalization of recreational cannabis use. PMID:26339208

  16. Early responses to zebra mussels in the Great Lakes: a journey from information vacuum to policy and regulation (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Don W.; Kovalak, William P.


    Invasive species such as zebra mussels pose a threat to the economies and environments of coastal and fresh-water habitats around the world. Consequently, it is important that government policies and programs be adequate to protect these waters from invaders. This chapter documents key events that took place in the early years (1988-1991) of zebra mussel colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes and evaluates government responses (policies and programs) to this disruptive, invasive, freshwater species.

  17. Effects of behavioral response and vaccination policy on epidemic spreading - an approach based on evolutionary-game dynamics (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Tang, Ming; Lai, Ying-Cheng


    How effective are governmental incentives to achieve widespread vaccination coverage so as to prevent epidemic outbreak? The answer largely depends on the complex interplay among the type of incentive, individual behavioral responses, and the intrinsic epidemic dynamics. By incorporating evolutionary games into epidemic dynamics, we investigate the effects of two types of incentives strategies: partial-subsidy policy in which certain fraction of the cost of vaccination is offset, and free-subsidy policy in which donees are randomly selected and vaccinated at no cost. Through mean-field analysis and computations, we find that, under the partial-subsidy policy, the vaccination coverage depends monotonically on the sensitivity of individuals to payoff difference, but the dependence is non-monotonous for the free-subsidy policy. Due to the role models of the donees for relatively irrational individuals and the unchanged strategies of the donees for rational individuals, the free-subsidy policy can in general lead to higher vaccination coverage. Our findings indicate that any disease-control policy should be exercised with extreme care: its success depends on the complex interplay among the intrinsic mathematical rules of epidemic spreading, governmental policies, and behavioral responses of individuals.

  18. Urban residents' response to and evaluation of low-carbon travel policies: Evidence from a survey of five eastern cities in China. (United States)

    Geng, Jichao; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Qianwen


    To address the problems of excessive energy consumption and global climate change, the Chinese government has issued numerous policies to guide urban residents' low-carbon travel behavior. To evaluate the validity of these policies from the perspective of public opinion, this study summarizes 22 policies from the four vantage points of economics, administration, technology, and public information and then measures residents' response to and evaluation of policies based on survey data on 1977 urban residents using stratified random sampling in five cities in eastern China. The results indicate that from the viewpoint of policy response, administrative policies for promoting public transport show the highest degree of response, followed by public information, technological, and economic policies. Specifically, the responses to parking and congestion fee policies are relatively stronger than those to vehicle purchase tax, vehicle and vessel tax, and fuel surcharge policies. Moreover, the responses to fuel surcharge policy are even weaker than car-restriction policies, including license-plate number restriction, license-plate lottery, and license-plate auction policies. From the viewpoint of policy evaluation, administrative policies for promoting public transport obtain the highest evaluations, followed by economic and technological policies. Residents' evaluations of car-restriction and public information policies are the lowest. In addition, a four-paradigm model is introduced to illustrate residents' reactions to each policy in terms of response and evaluation. Finally, several implementation strategies, including the anterior, concurrent, optional, core, supporting, and assisting policy options are proposed to guide urban residents' low-carbon travel behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Suicide Risk Response: Enhancing Patient Safety Through Development of Effective Institutional Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Laura; Felker, Bradford; Chaney, Edmund; Vollen, Karen; Berry, Karen; Revay, Barbara; Simon, Barbara; Kofoed, Lial; Ober, Scott; Worley, Linda


    A suicidal patient requires a prompt, coordinated intervention. In this paper, we describe a process for developing a suicidality policy, which may help clinics develop effective, locally adapted policies...

  20. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority.ii The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey. We highlight the experience in each area as it relates to the identified barriers.

  1. A frame-critical policy analysis of Canada's response to the World Food Summit 1998-2008. (United States)

    Mah, Catherine L; Hamill, Catherine; Rondeau, Krista; McIntyre, Lynn


    The 2012 visit to Canada of Olivier De Schutter, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, led to a public rebuff by Canadian governmental officials. This paper adapts the frame-critical policy analysis of Schön and Rein (1994), to explore the rhetorical basis for this conflict. This examination is offered as an illustrative example of how food insecurity is framed as a public policy problem in a high-income nation and how this framing has changed over time. We analyze Canada's decade of sequential responses to the 1996 World Food Summit, spanning 1998-2008, in the form of Canada's Action Plan on Food Security, and its subsequent Progress Reports. We conducted a qualitative policy analysis, adapting the frame-critical approach first delineated by Schön and Rein (1994). This analysis uses a social constructionist approach to map out the relationships between tacit understanding of policy by particular actors, explicit rhetoric in the public domain, and action in this policy area over time. We identify three key ways in which competing rhetorical frames arise over time: frame shifts (e.g., a shift away from language highlighting the right to food and health); frame blending (e.g., discussion about poverty becomes obscured by complexity discourse); and within-frame incongruence (e.g., monitoring for health indicators that are unrelated to policy solutions). Together, these frames illustrate how the conflict embodied in the UN Special Rapporteur's visit has been deeply woven into the policy discourse on food insecurity in Canada over time. Frame-critical analysis is instructive for exposing and also predicting tensions that impede forward progress on difficult policy issues. Accordingly, such analyses may be helpful in not only dissecting how policy can become 'stuck' in the process of change but in active reframing towards new policy solutions.

  2. Why study EU foreign policy at all? A response to Keuleers, Fonck, and Keukeleire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Hylke; Vanhoonacker - Kormoss, Sophie

    In an important article on the state of EU foreign policy research, Keuleers, Fonck and Keukeleire show that academics prefer the study of the EU foreign policy system and EU implementation over the consequences of EU foreign policy for recipient countries. While the article is empirical, based on a

  3. Characterizing incentives: an investigation of wildfire response and environmental entry policy (United States)

    Jude Bayham


    Policy makers face complex situations involving the analysis and weighting of multiple incentives that complicate the design of natural resource and environmental policy. The objective of this dissertation is to characterize policy makers’ incentives, and to investigate the consequences of those incentives on environmental and economic outcomes in the context of...

  4. Storage Policies and Optimal Shape of a Storage System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaerpour, N.; De Koster, René; Yu, Yugang


    The response time of a storage system is mainly influenced by its shape (configuration), the storage assignment and retrieval policies, and the location of the input/output (I/O) points. In this paper, we show that the optimal shape of a storage system, which minimises the response time for single

  5. Impact of the decision-making environment on policy responses to road worker fatality in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. (United States)

    Pankratz, Curt J


    Fatal accidents often lead to policy changes. However, the existing decision-making environment is critical to policy responses. This study compares the policy responses to similar events in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The key question explores the extent to which the policy decisions in each province differ despite the similarity of the events. Key documents were examined. Provincial court rulings, workplace health & safety incident investigation reports, court transcripts and police reports were used to compare resulting policy changes as well as the socio-political and economic decision-making context. Relevant clauses in resulting legislation were also compared to assess the specific changes that were made in each province. In each province, a young, female highway construction worker was killed. However, the provinces responded in very different ways. In Saskatchewan, the Premier called for recommendations to improve worker safety, initiating an in-depth governmental study and the development of a broad safety strategy. In Manitoba, political and social pressures shifted the decision-making environment and contributed to the rushed passing of a bill focused on traffic fine increases that resulted in record-breaking traffic fine revenue while failing to include broader safety measures. Different decision-making contexts can lead to vastly different policy outcomes even when responding to very similar events. Key differences included time constraints, access to information and the nature of the political process invoked.

  6. Acknowledging Individual Responsibility while Emphasizing Social Determinants in Narratives to Promote Obesity-Reducing Public Policy: A Randomized Experiment (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A.


    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity’s social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story’s main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity. PMID:25706743

  7. Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment. (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A


    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.

  8. Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Niederdeppe

    Full Text Available This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718 to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.

  9. Migrants and asylum seekers: policy responses in the United States to immigrants and refugees from Central America and the Caribbean. (United States)

    Mcbride, M J


    This article analyzes the complex political environment of US immigration and refugee policies in which tensions exist, especially with regard to Central America and the Caribbean. Recommendations for managing it more effectively in the future are discussed. Several western countries, including the US, have implemented stricter restriction policies as a result of the perceived threats to their economies and cultural homogeneity. In general, US immigration policy has addressed both economic concerns and domestic pressures, whereas US refugee policy has reflected foreign policy concerns. As a result of these policies, there has been an increasing number of immigrants from Mexico, as well as huge numbers of refugees from Cuba and Nicaragua. Yet, there has been limited acceptance of asylum seekers from Haiti, El Salvador and Guatemala. Among the policies passed by the US Congress to reduce illegal immigration and limit assistance to legal immigrants were the Welfare Reform Act, Illegal Immigration Reform, Immigration Responsibility Act of 1996, and the Proposition 187 movement. Revisions in the procedures of the Immigration and Naturalization Service were also made.

  10. The importance of domestic mining, with particular regard to the expectations on a German and European energy policy. - Responsibility in energy policy - can we do without coal and nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, E.; Gerstein, L.


    The booklet contains two lectures on fundamental issues of the German energy policy. While the first contribution deals with the economic and energy-political significance of domestic coal, the second one looks for a formula of consent for a responsible energy policy supported in common, which is orientated along feasible and necessary aspects and along the responsibility for the future. (HSCH) [de

  11. Changes in alcohol policies and practices in bars and restaurants after completion of manager-focused responsible service training. (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Erickson, Darin J; Nelson, Toben F; Horvath, Keith J; Nederhoff, Dawn M; Hunt, Shanda L; Ecklund, Alexandra M; Toomey, Traci L


    Irresponsible and illegal serving practices at bars and restaurants, such as sales to obviously intoxicated patrons, can lead to various public health harms. Training managers of bars and restaurants in the development and promotion of responsible alcohol policies may help prevent risky and illegal alcohol serving practices. We implemented a training program for managers of bars/restaurants designed to establish and promote responsible beverage service policies/practices. The program included online and in-person components. Bars/restaurants were randomised to intervention (n = 171) and control (n = 163) groups. To assess changes in policies/practices, we surveyed managers prior to and at 1 and 6 months post-training. Logistic regression models assessed changes in policies/practices across time points. The proportion in the intervention group that had written alcohol policies increased from 62% to 95% by 6 months post-training while the control group increased from 65% to 79% (P training 70% of managers in the intervention group reported they had communicated to their staff how to cut off intoxicated patrons, a significant increase from baseline (37%) and from the change observed in the control group (43%-56%). Prevalence of other policies/practices also increased post-training but differences between intervention and control groups were not statistically significant. Our training program appears to have led to implementation of some policies/practices. Additional studies are needed to determine how training can be combined with other strategies to further improve establishment policies and ultimately reduce alcohol-related harms. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. A Comparison of the Water Environment Policy of Europe and South Korea in Response to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Kim


    Full Text Available Climate change not only increases the atmospheric temperature, but also changes the precipitation conditions and patterns, which can lead to an increase in the frequency of occurrence of natural disasters, such as flooding and drought. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has reported fluctuations in the precipitation levels for each country from 1900 to 2005, based on global climate change, suggesting that environmental changes due to climate change manifest very differently based on the region. According to the results of studies that have been carried out recently, changes in the precipitation patterns based on climate change result in changes in the water environment, including alterations to the vegetation, land use, and river flow, while considerably influencing the rate of development of groundwater as well. In this study, the 3Is, which are the important variables of Ideas, Institutions, and Interests that are universal to the international field of political science, were used to comparatively analyze the water environment policies of South Korea and Europe. The first variable, Ideas, examined the influence of awareness on establishing the water environment policy in response to climate change. In particular, differences in the conceptual awareness of the water environment with regard to hyporheic zones were studied. The second variable, Institutions, examined the differences in the water environment policy within the national administration in response to climate change. The South Korean administration’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport and the Ministry of Environment were used in a case study. Finally, the results drawn from the third variable, i.e., Interests, for South Korea appear to differ from those of Europe, in terms of water environment policy. In this study, the water environment policy of South Korea was analyzed and compared to that of Europe in order to identify problems in South Korea

  13. The Master model on multi-actor and multilevel social responsibilities: A conceptual framework for policies and governance on stakeholders’ social responsibilities


    Ashley, Patricia Almeida


    textabstractThis working paper contributes to a collective discussion in a workshop occurring in January 2011 at the International Institute of Social Studies, bringing scholars from Europe and Brazil and aiming inter-university research collaboration on linking policies on social responsibility to development and equity. The paper serves as an introductory discussion for reframing the concept of corporate social responsibility into a broader umbrella concept of multi-actor and multilevel soc...

  14. The Master model on multi-actor and multilevel social responsibilities : A conceptual framework for policies and governance on stakeholders’ social responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Ashley (Patricia Almeida)


    textabstractThis working paper contributes to a collective discussion in a workshop occurring in January 2011 at the International Institute of Social Studies, bringing scholars from Europe and Brazil and aiming inter-university research collaboration on linking policies on social responsibility to

  15. Demand Intensity, Market Parameters and Policy Responses towards Demand and Supply of Private Supplementary Tutoring in China (United States)

    Kwok, Percy Lai Yin


    Based on some longitudinal studies of private tutoring in twelve cities, towns, municipalities and provinces of China, the paper endeavours to depict demand intensity, articulate market parameters and reflect on policy responses towards the demand-supply mechanism of the vast shadowy educational phenomena at primary and secondary levels. Such…

  16. State Employment Protection Statutes for Victims of Domestic Violence: Public Policy's Response to Domestic Violence as an Employment Matter (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Ojha, Mamta U.; Macke, Caroline


    Evidence indicates that domestic violence has negative consequences on victims' employment; yet employers lag in recognizing this as a workplace issue. To address the problem, some states have established several policy solutions. To understand the scope of the public sector's response to domestic violence as a workplace issue, a content analysis…

  17. High-Technology Trade Pattern Analysis: Its Use and Application for Industry Competitiveness Response and Government Policy Development


    Holbrook, J. A.


    The Canadian Advanced Technology Association (CATA) in collaboration with Industry Canada, sponsored a workshop on high-technology trade statistics in Ottawa, 19 October 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to review various approaches to high-technology trade pattern analysis, its use, and application for industrial competitiveness responses and government policy development.

  18. The U.S. Forest Service and its responsibilities under the national environmental policy act: a work design problem (United States)

    Matthew Auer; Kenneth Richards; David N. Seesholtz; Burnell Fischer; Christian Freitag; Joshua. Grice


    The U.S. Forest Service’s responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act entail a wide range of activities including scoping, scientific analysis, social and economic analysis, managing public input and involvement, media relations, regulatory analysis, and litigation. These myriad duties raise several important organizational and management questions....

  19. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste. (United States)

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley


    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  20. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.


    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  1. The European Union's Trade Policy Response to the Crisis: Paradigm lost or reinforced?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi De Ville


    Full Text Available This paper critically examines the European Union's (EU trade policy response to the global financial and economic crisis. Contrary to what would be expected, we find that the EU's neoliberal trade paradigm, as frankly presented in the 2006 Global Europe strategy, has not been delegitimized. The neoliberal (dis-course has even been reinforced. First, we theorize on the conditions for paradigmatic change and the importance of framing in the delegitimization phase. Second, we analyze the Commission's framing of the crisis, amounting to (i a downplaying of the nature of the crisis to a crisis in the financial subsystem of global capitalism; (ii an emphasis on the danger of protectionism that would worsen the crisis and lead to a 1930s 'Great Depression' scenario; and (iii advocation for further trade liberalization as a contribution to European and global recovery. Third, we show that this has been translated in practice such as through the limited use of anti-dumping measures and ever more ambitious trade agreements as with Korea. Finally, we explain why the crisis has not led to a delegitimization of the existing trade paradigm, pointing to the absence of a workable alternative paradigm, the role of European social democratic parties and the labour movement, and the interests of transnational business.

  2. Public and state responses to high-level nuclear waste disposal: Learning from policy failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.E.


    Nuclear waste policy in the United States has faded in large part because of public and state opposition to repository siting. However, that outcome was not inevitable. This paper argues that better policy design and greater attention to the crucial tasks of policy legitimation both by the U.S. Congress and by the Department of Energy might have significantly increased the chances for successful implementation. Even though the program now has a highly uncertain future, suggestions are offered for policy learning and change that may increase the probability of success

  3. The Kenyan national response to internationally agreed sexual and reproductive health and rights goals: a case study of three policies. (United States)

    Oronje, Rose N


    While priorities for, and decision-making processes on, sexual and reproductive health and rights have been determined and led mainly at the international level, conflicting power dynamics and responses at the national level in some countries have continued to pose challenges for operationalising international agreements. This paper demonstrates how these conflicts have played out in Kenya through an analysis of three policy-making processes, which led to the Adolescent Reproductive Health and Development Policy (2003), the Sexual Offences Act (2006), and the National Reproductive Health Policy (2007). The paper is based on data from a broader study on the drivers and inhibitors of sexual and reproductive health policy reform in Kenya, using a qualitative, case study design. Information was gathered through 54 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with governmental and civil society policy actors and an extensive review of policy documents and media reports. The paper shows that the transformative human rights framing of access to sexual and reproductive health, supported by both a strong global women's rights movement and progressive governmental and inter-governmental actors to defeat opposition to sexual and reproductive health and rights at the international level, has not been as influential or successful at the national level in Kenya, and has made comprehensive national reforms difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Online responses to the ending of the one-child policy in China: implications for preconception care. (United States)

    Liu, Fuqin; Bao, Jiaming; Boutain, Doris; Straughn, Marcia; Adeniran, Olusola; DeGrande, Heather; Harrell, Stevan


    A critical analysis of online public postings in response to the news about the ending of China's one-child policy was conducted. The specific study aims were to 1) identify the dominant public discourse in response to the news about the ending of the one-child policy and the beginning of the new two-child policy, and 2) explore implications for preconception care from the public discourse. Data sources were 10 top-ranked, online news media sites in China, including one Hong Kong-based media site. Selected online sites announced the news about the ending of the one-child policy on 29 October 2015. Online postings associated with the first news release of each online media site before midnight of 29 October were collected and analyzed. Critical discourse analysis was used for data analysis. Three main discourse concepts were identified. The online postings referenced the concepts of cost, generation, and timing with regard to the ending of the one-child policy and the beginning of the new two-child policy. Each concept represents an aspect of the public's view of preconception care, particularly interconception care, in China. These findings suggest that the change in the family planning policy may not result in a huge surge in the population in a short period of time, as some may opt not to have a second child. Nonetheless, there is an urgent need to incorporate interconception care into various health initiatives, as it is a time-sensitive choice for many couples to have a second child.

  5. EU Energy Policies Targeting the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Activities in the energy sector provide the greatest contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG, which are assigned primary responsibility for producing climate change. The European Union puts great emphasis on the mitigation of the environmental impact of the energy sector, in particular concerning the combat against climate change, this fact being demonstrated by the implementation of policies by the EU in this field. This paper aims to analyse the most important Community energy policies with environmental effects, such as setting of climate and energy targets for 2030, policies on nuclear and renewable energy or measures to increase energy efficiency.

  6. Shelter from the Storm: Roles, responsibilities, and challenges in United States housing policy governance. (United States)

    Willison, Charley


    Housing is a critical social determinant of health. Housing policy not only affects health by improving housing quality, affordability, and insecurity; housing policy affects health upstream through the politics that shape housing policy design, implementation, and management. These politics, or governance strategies, determine the successes or failures of housing policy programs. This paper is an overview of challenges in housing policy governance in the United States. I examine the important relationship between housing and health, and emphasize why studying housing policy governance matters. I then present three cases of housing governance challenges in the United States, from each pathway by which housing affects health - housing quality, affordability, and insecurity. Each case corresponds to an arm of the TAPIC framework for evaluating governance (Krieger and Higgins) [1], to assess mechanisms of housing governance in each case. While housing governance has come a long way over the past century, political decentralization and the expansion of the submerged state have increased the number of political actors and policy conflict in many areas. This creates inherent challenges for improving accountability, transparency, and policy capacity. In many instances, too, reduced government accountability and transparency increases the risk of harm to the public and lessens governmental integrity. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. How Parental and School Responses to Choice Policies Reconfigure a Rural Education Market in Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Morgan, Rosemary; Blackmore, Jill


    Market principles now dominate the education and social policies of many Anglophone countries, including Australia, but articulate differentially within specific contexts. Existing historical legacies, local economic and social conditions, and geographical settings interact with federal and state funding and transport policies to shape the nature…

  8. People's response to policy change in agricultural development organization : the Benin case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tossou, R.C.


    This book is about change. It deals with the way in which social actors, be they individuals or groups, involved in the agricultural development of Benin reconstruct for themselves the new policy context in order to develop relevant strategies translating policy measures into practical

  9. Constructing Teacher Agency in Response to the Constraints of Education Policy: Adoption and Adaptation (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah


    Drawing on agency literature, this paper demonstrates how teachers' professional agency emerged when seemingly conflicting strategies were imposed on them in policy reform. Policy discourse is often linked to performance and accountability measures, which teachers respond to in a number of ways. Some education researchers identify tensions caused…

  10. Adaptive governance, uncertainty, and risk: policy framing and responses to climate change, drought, and flood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlbert, M.; Gupta, J.


    As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to

  11. Business Etiquette (My Favorite Assignment). (United States)

    Forbes, Cassie


    Describes an assignment for a business communication course in which students give an oral presentation on some aspect of business manners and etiquette, thus increasing their awareness of the impact of social graces on communication in the business setting. (SR)

  12. Game theory and traffic assignment. (United States)


    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  13. Writing Assignments that Promote Active Learning (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    Encourage students to write a detailed, analytical report correlating classroom discussions to an important historical event or a current event. Motivate students interview an expert from industry on a topic that was discussed in class. Ask the students to submit a report with supporting sketches, drawings, circuit diagrams and graphs. Propose that the students generate a complete a set of reading responses pertaining to an assigned topic. Require each student to bring in one comment or one question about an assigned reading. The assignment should be a recent publication in an appropriate journal. Have the students conduct a web search on an assigned topic. Ask them to generate a set of ideas that can relate to classroom discussions. Provide the students with a study guide. The study guide should provide about 10 or 15 short topics. Quiz the students on one or two of the topics. Encourage the students to design or develop some creative real-world examples based on a chapter discussed or a topic of interest. Require that students originate, develop, support and defend a viewpoint using a specifically assigned material. Make the students practice using or utilizing a set of new technical terms they have encountered in an assigned chapter. Have students develop original examples explaining the different terms. Ask the students to select one important terminology from the previous classroom discussions. Encourage the students to explain why they selected that particular word. Ask them to talk about the importance of the terminology from the point of view of their educational objectives and future career. Angelo, T. A. (1991). Ten easy pieces: Assessing higher learning in four dimensions. In T. A. Angelo (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success (pp. 17-31). New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 46. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  14. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions. (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh


    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis.

  15. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos


    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months......, at 9 months, or at 9 and 18 months of age. At 4.5 months of age, 75% had nonprotective measles virus antibody levels. Following receipt of MV at 4.5 months of age, 77% (316/408) had protective antibody levels at 9 months of age; after a second dose at 9 months of age, 97% (326/337) had protective...... than in the group that received MV at 9 months of age (P = .0001). In conclusion, an early 2-dose MV schedule was associated with protective measles virus antibody levels at 24 months of age in nearly all children. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558....

  16. The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    Written during an ongoing period of global economic crisis, The Welfare State as a Crisis Manager examines the practice and potential of using social policy to cope with crises. Through an in-depth analysis of social policy reactions in the wake of international economic shocks in four different...... welfare states, over a 40-year period, the book reveals the ways in which expansion and retrenchment are shaped by domestic politics and existing welfare state institutions. Moreover, the study addresses the kind of policy change triggered by economic crisis. In contrast to conventional wisdom...

  17. State agency policy and program coordination in response to the co-occurrence of HIV, chemical dependency, and mental illness. (United States)

    Meyerson, Beth; Chu, Bong-Chul; Mills, M. Valerie


    The co-occurrence of HIV infection, chemical dependency, and mental illness challenges federal and state governments to develop flexible and coordinated health policy and financing for public health services. State agencies play a critical role in the organization and support of these services at the local level. With emerging stress upon state government budgets and concomitant increasing need for publicly funded services, state agency coordination may be an important policy safety net to assure services for populations at the margins of health systems. Despite this important potential role, nothing is known about the degree to which state HIV, substance abuse, and mental health agencies coordinate policies and/or programs in response to these co-morbid conditions. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to establish a conservative and initial understanding of state HIV, substance abuse, and mental health agency coordination of policy and program in response to the co-occurrence of HIV, chemical dependency, and mental illness. METHOD: Estimation of coordination was accomplished through the comparison of three surveys conducted among state substance abuse directors (1998), state AIDS directors (1999), and state mental health directors (2000). Data from 38 states were reviewed. RESULTS: The most frequently reported state agency activities included coordinating funding, engaging in integrative planning activities, and conducting staff cross-training. When compared for association with state characteristics, coordination among state agencies was found to be associated with Early Intervention Services (EIS) designation, higher rates of AIDS generally, higher rates of AIDS among African Americans, and higher rates of AIDS among Hispanic populations. Given the limitations of comparing three disparate surveys, we determined the estimate of interagency coordination to be conservative and preliminary. CONCLUSION: While this study was useful as an initial step toward identifying state

  18. The Eco-Sculpture Assignment: Using Art to Scaffold Metacognition (United States)

    Polegato, Rosemary


    The Eco-Sculpture Assignment demonstrates that art may be used as a conduit to scaffold metacognition in marketing courses. Theoretical underpinnings are drawn from the literature on pedagogy used in general, marketing, and art education contexts. The assignment is described in detail, followed by examples of learner response that illustrate…

  19. Graduate Writing Assignments across Faculties in a Canadian University (United States)

    Shi, Ling; Dong, Yanning


    This study examines 143 graduate assignments across 12 faculties or schools in a Canadian university in order to identify types of writing tasks. Based on the descriptions provided by the instructors, we identified nine types of assignments, with scholarly essay being the most common, followed by summary and response, literature review, project,…

  20. Regulatory policy for the prevention, detection, and response before events involving orphan sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Forteza; Yamil; Jerez Vegueria, Pablo F.; Quevedo Garcia, Jose R.; Pedro Diaz Guerra, Pedro


    The present paper shows the current policy drafted by the Regulatory Authority and the actions taken. As a conclusion, it also shows the level of safety reached in Cuba in relation to the treatment provide to the orphan sources

  1. Policy responses to problematic video game use: A systematic review of current measures and future possibilities. (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; King, Daniel L; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Seung-Yup; Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Takacs, Zsofia K; Demetrovics, Zsolt


    Background and aims Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming. Methods After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review. Results Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically. Discussion and conclusions Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.

  2. The Courage to Critique Policies and Practices from within: Youth Participatory Action Research as Critical Policy Analysis. A Response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School" (United States)

    Welton, Anjale


    This response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School" by Jason G. Irizarry demonstrates how youth participatory action research (YPAR) as an instrument of subverting oppressive school policies and structures is a form of critical policy analysis (CPA). As an evolving method, CPA acknowledges the absent voices in…

  3. Engaging with communities, engaging with patients: amendment to the NAPCRG 1998 Policy Statement on Responsible Research With Communities. (United States)

    Allen, Michele L; Salsberg, Jon; Knot, Michaela; LeMaster, Joseph W; Felzien, Maret; Westfall, John M; Herbert, Carol P; Vickery, Katherine; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A; Ramsden, Vivian R; Zittleman, Linda; Martin, Ruth Elwood; Macaulay, Ann C


    In 1998, the North American Primary Care Research Group (NAPCRG) adopted a groundbreaking Policy Statement endorsing responsible participatory research (PR) with communities. Since that time, PR gained prominence in primary care research. To reconsider the original 1998 Policy Statement in light of increased uptake of PR, and suggest future directions and applications for PR in primary care. This work contributed to an updated Policy Statement endorsed by NAPCRG in 2015. 32 university and 30 community NAPCRG-affiliated research partners, convened a workshop to document lessons learned about implementing processes and principles of PR. This document emerged from that session and reflection and discussion regarding the original Policy Statement, the emerging PR literature, and our own experiences. The foundational principles articulated in the 1998 Policy Statement remain relevant to the current PR environment. Lessons learned since its publication include that the maturation of partnerships is facilitated by participatory processes that support increased community responsibility for research projects, and benefits generated through PR extend beyond research outcomes. Future directions that will move forward the field of PR in primary care include: (i) improve assessment of PR processes to better delineate the links between how PR teams work together and diverse PR outcomes, (ii) increase the number of models incorporating PR into translational research from project inception to dissemination, and (iii) increase application of PR approaches that support patient engagement in clinical settings to patient-provider relationship and practice change research. PR has markedly altered the manner in which primary care research is undertaken in partnership with communities and its principles and philosophies continue to offer means to assure that research results and processes improve the health of all communities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  4. The policy response to macroeconomic and fiscal imbalances in Italy in the last fifteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bassanetti


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main macroeconomic trends and the debate on policy priorities in Italy since the advent of EMU. It argues that, in the decade up to the outbreak of the global crisis (1998-2007, in Italy the reform process came to a virtual standstill and fiscal policy was inconsistent with the commitments taken on at the European level. The paper suggests that the lack of resolute policy reactions to the institutional dysfunctions and structural weaknesses was due to the fragmentation of the political constituency, while a variety of favourable contingent factors masked the difficulties of the productive system. Had Italy been better positioned in terms of public finances and structural features in 2007, some of the adverse effects of the global and sovereign crises would have been avoided.

  5. Using tracking infrastructure to support public health programs, policies, and emergency response in New York City. (United States)

    Jeffery, Nancy Loder; McKelvey, Wendy; Matte, Thomas


    To describe how the New York City (NYC) Tracking Program has used nationally mandated Secure Portal infrastructure and staff analytical expertise to support programs and inform policy. The NYC Health Department assesses, investigates, and acts on a wide range of environmental concerns to protect the health of New Yorkers. Specific examples of highly effective policies or initiatives that relied on the NYC Tracking Program are described, including restaurant sanitary grade posting, rat indexing, converting boilers to cleaner-burning fuels, reducing exposure to mercury from fish and contaminated products, and responding to Superstorm Sandy. The NYC Tracking Program supports the Health Department in using inspectional, administrative, and health data to guide operations. Tracking has also allowed internal and external partners to use these data to guide policy development.

  6. Non-response bias in a community survey of drinking, alcohol-related experiences and public opinion on alcohol policy. (United States)

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Langley, John; Room, Robin


    The continuing decline in response rates to household surveys is a concern for the health and social sciences as it increases the risk of selective non-response biasing the estimates of interest. We analysed non-response bias in a postal survey measuring drinking behaviour, experience of harm and opinion on local government alcohol policies among residents in six New Zealand communities. The Continuum of Resistance model, which suggests that late respondents to a survey are most similar to non-respondents on the measures of interest, was used to guide our investigation. Men, younger people, those of Māori descent and those living in more deprived areas were less likely to respond to our survey than women, older people, those not of Māori descent and those living in comparatively affluent areas. Late respondents more closely resembled non-respondents demographically than early respondents. The prevalence of binge drinking and experience of assault was higher, and support for restrictive local government alcohol policies lower, among late respondents. Assuming the drinking behaviour and alcohol-related experiences of non-respondents were the same as those of late respondents, prevalence was under-estimated by 3.4% (relative difference: 13%) and 2.1% (relative difference: 21%) for monthly binge drinking and assault respectively. Policy support was not over-estimated. The findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that surveys under-estimate risk behaviour because of selective non-response and this bias increases as response rates fall. Notably, public opinion may not be subject to such misestimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effective Homework Assignments. Research Brief (United States)

    Cooper, Harris


    Perhaps more than any question other than "How much time should students spend doing homework?" parents and educators want to know, "What kinds of homework assignments are most effective?" Clearly, the answers to this question vary according to many factors, especially the developmental level of students and the topic area. Generally, answers are…

  8. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave


    minimizing modification of the classic random priority method to solve this class of problems. We also provide some logical relations in our setting among standard axioms in the literature on assignment problems, and explore the robustness of our results to several extensions of our setting....

  9. 77 FR 8174 - EPAAR Prescription for Work Assignments (United States)


    ... instructive language. The new policy language contained under 1511.011-74, Work Assignments (Deviation), will...) A small business that meets the definition of a small business found in the Small Business Act and..., Public Law 104-113, directs EPA to use voluntary consensus standards in it regulatory activities, unless...

  10. Policy Responses to Urban Shrinkage: From Growth Thinking to Civic Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.


    More and more European cities are confronted with population decline in a structural sense. This development of “urban shrinkage” has different causes, but similar effects: the city's hardware, software and mindware deteriorate. In this paper, we explore and assess policy strategies to respond to

  11. Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies (United States)

    Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia


    This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

  12. Open-Access Colleges Responsible for Greatest Gains in Graduation Rates. Policy Alert (United States)

    Doyle, William R.


    The largest gains in graduation rates over the past decade have been accomplished at open-access or nearly open-access colleges and universities. In addition, states could see even bigger increases if they directed their policies and supports toward improving graduation rates at these nonselective institutions. These findings from the author's…

  13. Policy Responses to the Recent Poor Performance of the U.S. Labor Market (United States)

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy


    Since the onset of the Great Recession, the U.S. labor market has been reeling. Public concern has largely focused on the unemployment rate, which rose to double digits and has since been stalled at just over 9 percent. This rate is unacceptably high, and macroeconomic policy efforts have been unsuccessful in bringing it down. The overall…

  14. The Response of Euro Area Sovereign Spreads to the ECB Unconventional Monetary Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.D.R. Dewachter (Hans); L. Iania (Leonardo); J. Wijnandts (Jean)


    textabstractWe analyse variations in sovereign bond yields and spreads following unconventional monetary policy announcements by the European Central Bank. Using a two-country, arbitrage-free, shadow-rate dynamic term structure model (SR-DTSM), we decompose countries’ yields into expectation and

  15. Reinterpreting Higher Education Quality in Response to Policies of Mass Education: The Australian Experience (United States)

    Pitman, Tim


    This article explores the relationship between mass education, higher education quality and policy development in Australia in the period 2008-2014, during which access to higher education was significantly increased. Over this time, which included a change of national government, the discursive relationship between mass higher education and…

  16. Leading Schools of Education in the Context of Academic Capitalism: Deans' Responses to State Policy Changes (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.; Teitelbaum, Kenneth


    State education policy changes have contributed to a reduced interest in teaching and a decreased enrollment in education degree programs in North Carolina, USA. Pressure to cut budgets and generate revenue has added to a climate of academic capitalism influencing the ways in which deans lead schools of education. The purpose of this mixed-methods…

  17. Between Accommodating and Activating: Framing Policy Reforms in Response to Workforce Aging across Europe. (United States)

    Kroon, Anne C; Vliegenthart, Rens; van Selm, Martine


    In the past decade, European governments have implemented activating policy reforms to maximize older workers' employment and employability, representing a paradigmatic change in approaches to work and retirement. This study isolates the factors that explain the relative success and failure of competitive frames that are either in favor of or against activating policies in European news coverage, by applying time-series analysis (ordinary least squares with panel-corrected standard errors) to monthly aggregated news coverage in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Spain over the timespan 2006-2013. The results show that pro-activating and counteractivating frames generally coincide in competitive framing environments. The pro-activating frame proliferated in times of high employment protection, whereas the counteractivating frame prevailed stronger in conservative compared with progressive newspapers, and gained momentum during the aftermath of the financial crisis and in times governments on the economic left were in power. The study advances knowledge of competitive issue framing by demonstrating how the economic, policy, and political context matters for the emergence and evolvement of competing frames. In addition, the findings contribute to the understanding of the factors that contribute to news representations that promote active aging in European news, which may foster support for policy reforms that sustain older workers' employability.

  18. Language Ideologies and Standard English Language Policy in Singapore: Responses of a "Designer Immigrant" Student (United States)

    De Costa, Peter I.


    This article reports on year-long critical ethnographic study conducted in a Singapore school and examines how the standard English language educational policy is interpreted by a Secondary 3 (Grade 9) female student from China. She is a member of an exclusive group of academically able students who has been carefully recruited by the local…

  19. Thinking upstream: the roles of international health and drug policies in public health responses to chemsex. (United States)

    Stevens, Oliver; Forrest, Jamie I


    Chemsex is a growing public health concern in urban centres, and few interventions exist to mitigate the significant sexual, drug-related, and social harms potentially experienced by people who participate in chemsex. In much of the world, these immediate harms are further compounded by the criminalisation and stigmatisation of both homosexuality and drug use, preventing participants fully engaging with treatment services or provision of health care. Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men participating in chemsex fall between the traditional definitions of key populations and consequently are poorly provided for by existing drug and sexual health frameworks. Aetiologically complex issues such as chemsex require multifaceted interventions that may fall outside conventional frameworks. Existing interventions have been designed and implemented at the local level. The use of international policy to mitigate these structural barriers, however, has largely been ignored. International policy is broad in nature and its implementation is, in principle, binding for member states. We believe that despite its low international prevalence, international policy can be of use in improving the lives of people who participate in chemsex. Through stimulating a much-needed debate on the interplay between sex and drugs within global health and harm reduction frameworks, this paper aims to address the paucity of substantial discussion surrounding the applicability of international language to chemsex. We analyse international policy aimed at addressing HIV, illicit drugs, harm reduction, and development, and make recommendations for both national advocacy, and advocates working to alter the positions of member states internationally.

  20. Governance and Knowledge Transformations in Educational Administration: Greek Responses to Global Policies (United States)

    Sifakakis, Polychronis; Tsatsaroni, Anna; Sarakinioti, Antigone; Kourou, Menie


    This article explores the localisation of the global and European discourse of educational governance in the Greek education system through the changes that have been introduced in the field of education administration since 2009 by the then socialist government. Our research aims to contribute to the critical policy literature on the spreading…

  1. Chapter 15: Using System Dynamics to Model Industry's Developmental Response to Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian; Inman, Daniel; Newes, Emily; Peck, Corey; Peterson, Steve; Stright, Dana; Vimmerstedt, Laura


    In this chapter we explore the potential development of the biofuels industry using the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), a system dynamics model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory through the support of the U.S. Department of Energy. The BSM is designed to analyze the implications of policy on the development of the supply chain for biofuels in the United States. It explicitly represents the behavior of decision makers such as farmers, investors, fueling station owners, and consumers. We analyze several illustrative case studies that explore a range of policies and discuss how incentives interact with individual parts of the supply chain as well as the industry as a whole. The BSM represents specific incentives that are intended to approximate policy in the form of selected laws and regulations. Through characterizing the decision making behaviors of economic actors within the supply chain that critically influence the adoption rate of new biofuels production technologies and demonstrating synergies among policies, we find that incentives with coordinated impacts on each major element of the supply chain catalyze net effects of decision maker behavior such that the combined incentives are greater than the summed effects of individual incentives in isolation.

  2. Turning rough sleepers into responsible citizens : Third way policies on homelessness in England and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Lia van Doorn; E. Tonkens


    On the eve of the twenty-first century, it is a scandal that there are still people sleeping rough on our streets. This is not a situation we can continue to tolerate in a modern and civil society. These were the words of Tony Blair in his foreword to the policy document Rough Sleeping, The

  3. Four Case Studies on Corporate Social Responsibility: Do Conflicts Affect a Company’s Corporate Social Responsibility Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A. Cedillo Torres


    Full Text Available This article studies four multinationals (Apple, Canon, Coca-Cola, Walmart in relation to their CSR reporting. It will present a general outlook of the company's profile and its compliance with CSR standards. The article will focus on conflict situations concerning the social and environmental CSR practices of the four companies. Coca-Cola was criticized for over-exploiting and polluting water resources in India. Apple, Canon and Walmart were involved in social CSR issues. Walmart was caught using child labour in Bangladesh and has faced gender discrimination charges. In 2010 the media reported on suicides at Foxconn, one of Apple's biggest suppliers. And although Canon did not mention any employee stress-related problems at its factories, they nevertheless occurred.This article will discuss the different CSR issues that emerged within the mentioned multinationals. It will provide a comparison of the companies' CSR reporting before and after the problematic events occurred. The case studies show whether the multinationals acted before a conflict emerged or adapted their CSR policy when the problem was already widely known. Thus, it analyses whether the companies adopted clear and quantifiable policies after the issues occurred. The conclusion points out that the companies not only reported on CSR but that they also adopted long-term commitments. The findings also suggest that the conflicts may have contributed to the adoption of these multinationals' CSR commitments.

  4. An assessment of market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Goldman, Charles; Ma, Ookie


    An impact of increased variable renewable generation is the need for balancing authorities to procure more ancillary services. While demand response resources are technically capable of providing these services, current experience across the U.S. illustrates they are relatively minor players in most regions. Accessing demand response resources for ancillary services may require a number of changes to policies and common practices at multiple levels. Regional reliability councils must first define ancillary services such that demand response resources may provide them. Once the opportunity exists, balancing authorities define and promulgate rules that set the infrastructure investments and performance attributes of a resource wishing to provide such services. These rules also dictate expected revenue streams which reveal the cost effectiveness of these resources. The regulatory compact between utility and state regulators, along with other statutes and decisions by state policymakers, may impact the interest of demand response program providers to pursue these resources as ancillary service providers. This paper identifies within these broad categories specific market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in different wholesale and retail environments, with emphasis on smaller customers who must be aggregated through a program provider to meet minimum size requirements for wholesale transactions. - Highlights: • We identify barriers keeping demand response from providing ancillary services. • Institutional, financial and program provider business model barriers exist. • Product definitions and rules do not always accommodate demand response well. • Expected revenues are uncertain and may not exceed required investments costs. • Regulatory compact and state statutes limit opportunities for program providers

  5. Wildfire policy and management in England: an evolving response from Fire and Rescue Services, forestry and cross-sector groups. (United States)

    Gazzard, Rob; McMorrow, Julia; Aylen, Jonathan


    Severe wildfires are an intermittent problem in England. The paper presents the first analysis of wildfire policy, showing its halting evolution over two decades. First efforts to coordinate wildfire management came from local fire operation groups, where stakeholders such as fire services, land owners and amenity groups shared knowledge and equipment to tackle the problem. A variety of structures and informal management solutions emerged in response to local needs. Knowledge of wildfire accumulated within regional and national wildfire forums and academic networks. Only later did the need for central emergency planning and the response to climate change produce a national policy response. Fire statistics have allowed wildfires to be spatially evidenced on a national scale only since 2009. National awareness of wildfire was spurred by the 2011 fire season, and the high-impact Swinley Forest fire, which threatened critical infrastructure and communities within 50 miles of London. Severe wildfire was included in the National Risk Register for the first time in 2013. Cross-sector approaches to wildfire proved difficult as government responsibility is fragmented along the hazard chain. Stakeholders such as the Forestry Commission pioneered good practice in adaptive land management to build fire resilience into UK forests. The grass-roots evolution of participatory solutions has also been a key enabling process. A coordinated policy is now needed to identify best practice and to promote understanding of the role of fire in the ecosystem.This article is part of a themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Analysis of public responses to preparedness policies: the cases of H1N1 influenza vaccination and gas mask distribution. (United States)

    Velan, Baruch; Boyko, Valentina; Shenhar, Gilead; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Kaplan, Giora


    During several months in 2009-2010, the Israeli population was asked to take part in two preparedness programs: Acquisition of gas masks against a potential chemical-warfare attack, and vaccination against the A/H1N1 influenza pandemics. Compliance with the first request was moderate and did not attract much attention, whereas compliance with the second request was very low and was accompanied by significant controversy. The aims of this study are to compare the public's attitudes towards these two preparedness campaigns, and to explore the roles of trust, reasoned assessment, and reflexive reactions in the public's response to governmental preparedness policies. The comparative analysis was based on a telephone survey of 2,018 respondents representing a cross-section of the adult Israeli population. Univariate analysis to describe associations of public response and attitude was performed by Chi-square tests. A set of queries related to actual compliance, trust in credibility of authorities, personal opinions, reasons for non-compliance, and attitudes towards uncertainties was used to characterize the response to mask-acquisition and vaccination. In the case of mask-acquisition, the dominant response profile was of trusting compliance based on non-conditional belief in the need to adhere to the recommendation (35.6% of respondents). In the case of vaccination, the dominant response profile was of trusting non-compliance based on a reflective belief in the need for adherence (34.8% of respondents). Among the variables examined in the study, passivity was found to be the major reason for non-compliance with mask-acquisition, whereas reasoned assessment of risk played a major role in non-compliance with vaccination. Realization of the complexity in dealing with uncertainty related to developing epidemics and to newly-developed vaccines was identified in the public's response to the H1N1 vaccination campaign. The newly identified profile of "trusting

  7. The development of new environmental policies and processes in response to a crisis: the case of the multiple barrier approach for safe drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, Ryan; Velaniskis, Jonas; Grosbois, Danuta de; Kreutzwiser, Reid D.; Loe, Rob de


    While new environmental policies and procedures often are developed incrementally, they can also result from crises or other significant events. In situations where policies and procedures are introduced in response to a crisis, questions about the strengths and weaknesses of existing mechanisms, and the extent to which they can be used to address concerns, may be ignored. This paper explores the complexities of introducing new policies and processes where planning systems and procedures already exist. Drinking water source protection policies that are being developed in response to the tragic events in Walkerton, Ontario, Canada serve as the context for the inquiry. Three case study watersheds were selected to reflect the diversity of municipal jurisdictions and water supply systems in Ontario. A content analysis was undertaken on regulatory and non-regulatory policy documents to determine the extent to which they addressed elements of the multi-barrier approach for drinking water safety. Findings from the research reveal considerable evidence of the multi-barrier approach in the policy and guiding documents analyzed. Policy development in response to a crisis can advance progress on the issue of drinking water safety and coincide with emerging governance strategies. Policy effectiveness may be enhanced by considering existing policies as well as contextual and jurisdictional differences.

  8. Tweeting for and against public health policy: response to the Chicago Department of Public Health's electronic cigarette Twitter campaign. (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Choucair, Bechara; Mansour, Raed; Staub, Mackenzie; Simmons, Kendall


    In January 2014, the Chicago City Council scheduled a vote on local regulation of electronic cigarettes as tobacco products. One week prior to the vote, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) released a series of messages about electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) through its Twitter account. Shortly after the messages, or tweets, were released, the department's Twitter account became the target of a "Twitter bomb" by Twitter users sending more than 600 tweets in one week against the proposed regulation. The purpose of our study was to examine the messages and tweet patterns in the social media response to the CDPH e-cigarette campaign. We collected all tweets mentioning the CDPH in the week between the e-cigarette campaign and the vote on the new local e-cigarette policy. We conducted a content analysis of the tweets, used descriptive statistics to examine characteristics of involved Twitter users, and used network visualization and descriptive statistics to identify Twitter users prominent in the conversation. Of the 683 tweets mentioning CDPH during the week, 609 (89.2%) were anti-policy. More than half of anti-policy tweets were about use of electronic cigarettes for cessation as a healthier alternative to combustible cigarettes (358/609, 58.8%). Just over one-third of anti-policy tweets asserted that the health department was lying or disseminating propaganda (224/609, 36.8%). Approximately 14% (96/683, 14.1%) of the tweets used an account or included elements consistent with "astroturfing"-a strategy employed to promote a false sense of consensus around an idea. Few Twitter users were from the Chicago area; Twitter users from Chicago were significantly more likely than expected to tweet in support of the policy. Our findings may assist public health organizations to anticipate, recognize, and respond to coordinated social media campaigns.

  9. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence (United States)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.


    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  10. The role of scientists in acid mine drainage policy response in Gauteng, South Africa: Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S


    Full Text Available of the problem Cause of the problem Distribution of authority Policy preferences ACF Application: AMD Coalitions • Tied to perceptions of severity & urgency. • In reaction to 2010 events. Do Nothing Act Now Hold On Scientists Scientists... framings © CSIR 2009 Do Nothing Act Now Hold On • Relatively homogenous in terms of composition and beliefs . • Coalition was “forced” to form, but after much deliberation consensus developed around short...

  11. Domestic policy responses to the food price crisis: The case of Bolivia


    Schüttel, Carsten; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Ihle, Rico; Grethe, Harald


    In face of the global food crisis of 2007–2008, severe concerns arose about how developing countries would be affected by the extreme short-term fluctuations in international commodity prices. We examine the effects of the crisis on Bolivia, one of the poorest countries of the Americas. We focus on the effectiveness of the domestic policy interventions in preventing spillovers of the development of international food prices to domestic markets. Using a cointegration model, we stud...

  12. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions


    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh


    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the pot...

  13. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries in response to the global financial crisis


    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Leopold, Christine; de Joncheere, Kees


    Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyze which pharmaceutical policies European countries applied during the global financial crisis. Methods: We undertook a survey with officials from public authorities for pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement of 33 European countries represented in the PPRI (Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information) network based on a questionnaire. The survey was launched in September 2010 and repeated in February 2011 to obtain updated informat...

  14. Domestic policy responses to the food price crisis: The case of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Grethe


    Full Text Available In face of the global food crisis of 2007–2008, severe concerns arose about how developing countries would be affected by the extreme short-term fluctuations in international commodity prices. We examine the effects of the crisis on Bolivia, one of the poorest countries of the Americas. We focus on the effectiveness of the domestic policy interventions in preventing spillovers of the development of international food prices to domestic markets. Using a cointegration model, we study price interdependencies of wheat flour, sunflower oil and poultry. The analysis suggests that the policy measures taken had little effect on food security during the food crisis. Throughout the entire period, perfect price transmission between the Bolivian poultry and sunflower oil markets and the respective international reference markets existed. Bolivian prices were determined by international prices and the policy interventions in the markets of these two commodities were not found to have had an effect. The government’s large-scale wheat flour imports did not shield Bolivian consumers from the shocks of international prices.

  15. Revised Interim Final Consolidated Enforcement Response and Penalty Policy for the Pre-Renovation Education Rule; Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule; and Lead-Based Paint Activities Rule (United States)

    This is the revised version of the Interim Final Consolidated Enforcement Response and Penalty Policy for the Pre-Renovation Education Rule; Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule; and Lead-Based Paint Activities Rule.

  16. [International policy (and the local response) and health in Brazil: the Special Public Health Service, 1942-1960]. (United States)

    de Campos, André Luiz Vieira


    This article analyzes the Special Public Health Service (SESP), a Brazilian-American agency created in 1942. Envisioned by the United States as a temporary wartime organization, SESP was transformed into an instrument of expansion of Brazilian state authority via the interactions around and Brazilian responses to these activities. After 1945, SESP reoriented its aims and became a structured organization consisting of a permanent horizontal network of health units linked to the Brazilian government's nation-building project. Notwithstanding their international origins, SESP's health policies involved not only the importation of a US model to Brazil but also projects marked by adaptation to the local reality.

  17. A regional perspective on the environment-climate change-migration nexus: Governance and policy responses to environmental refugees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M


    Full Text Available Conference 9 – 11 October 2017 A regional perspective on the environment-climate change-migration nexus Governance and policy responses to environmental refugees Dr Inga Jacobs-Mata 2Key human mobility terms 4Background – 1 billion by 2050: fact... or fiction? • Worldwide, between 2008 - 2015, an average of 26.4 million people were displaced by disasters each year - equivalent to one person every second. Africa particularly vulnerable in this regard. • The migration - environmental degradation...

  18. Energy Conservation Guidebook : to be Used in Conjunction with the Energy Conservation Policies October 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    This guidebook is an instrument for implementing BPA`s Energy Conservation Policies established through the concensus of the four Area Office Managers and the Assistant Administrator for the Office of Energy Resources. As technical support for, and elaboration of, the Energy Conservation Policies, the Guidebook follows the format of the Policies themselves. The Guidebook tackles each section of the Policies in order, again assigning roles and responsibilities where appropriate, enlarging on policy issues and, where appropriate, outlining data considerations. The sections in order are: conservation load reduction, cost-effectiveness limits, BA management targets, consumer contributions, utility contribution, program verification, and program evaluation.

  19. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and policy coordination - first annual report, June 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is the first annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, by Dr. George A. Keyworth, II, Science Advisor to the President and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). CIRRPC replaced the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET). Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy

  20. Policy responses to the European debt crisis treating the “symptoms” or the “disease”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antzoulatos Angelos A.


    Full Text Available The conventional narrative for the European debt crisis stresses three factors, namely, bad policies and profligacy in the afflicted countries - mostly southern ones, flaws in the EMU design, and wise policies in the northern frugal countries. This paper argues that the root causes of the crisis lie in the failure of many “safety valves” of market economies, at many levels of the society, both in the crisis countries and in the more “prudent” EMU countries, in an economic environment where unfettered finance can overwhelm even the biggest and best managed economies. Hence, the policy responses based on the conventional narrative are akin to treating the “symptoms”, not the “disease”. As such, they may be setting the foundations for a bigger crisis in the future by strengthening the always-present perverse incentives of many economic players and by proposing complex and unworkable regulatory and supervisory structures. This, together with the unequal sharing of the burden of adjustment - both across and within countries, bodes ill for the long-term prospects of EMU, despite that the aforementioned failures are not intrinsically related to the euro.

  1. Explaining Policy Responses to Danish and Irish Banking Failures during the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Lynggaard, Kennet


    responsibility for sector losses and only later defined terms for industry contributions. In Denmark, a negotiated settlement from the outset transferred most of the risk associated with banking failures collectively to the banking sector. The article assesses two explanations for these different responses: 1...

  2. 'Including health in systems responsible for urban planning': a realist policy analysis research programme. (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Friel, Sharon; Wilson, Andrew


    Realist methods are increasingly being used to investigate complex public health problems. Despite the extensive evidence base clarifying the built environment as a determinant of health, there is limited knowledge about how and why land-use planning systems take on health concerns. Further, the body of research related to the wider determinants of health suffers from not using political science knowledge to understand how to influence health policy development and systems. This 4-year funded programme of research investigates how the land-use planning system in New South Wales, Australia, incorporates health and health equity at multiple levels. The programme uses multiple qualitative methods to develop up to 15 case studies of different activities of the New South Wales land-use planning system. Comparison cases from other jurisdictions will be included where possible and useful. Data collection includes publicly available documentation and purposively sampled stakeholder interviews and focus groups of up to 100 participants across the cases. The units of analysis in each case are institutional structures (rules and mandates constraining and enabling actors), actors (the stakeholders, organisations and networks involved, including health-focused agencies), and ideas (policy content, information, and framing). Data analysis will focus on and develop propositions concerning the mechanisms and conditions within and across each case leading to inclusion or non-inclusion of health. Data will be refined using additional political science and sociological theory. Qualitative comparative analysis will compare cases to develop policy-relevant propositions about the necessary and sufficient conditions needed to include health issues. Ethics has been approved by Sydney University Human Research Ethics Committee (2014/802 and 2015/178). Given the nature of this research we will incorporate stakeholders, often as collaborators, throughout. We outline our research translation

  3. Equity policies in higher education : a legal evaluation of institutional responses


    Faakye, Solomon


    ABSTRACT Higher education equity policies have for as long as they have existed provoked serious legal controversy, especially in the largest system of higher education, i.e. the USA. In as much as these legal troubles have not arisen (yet) in Ghana, it can’t be taken for granted that such problems are far-fetched. In that sense this study is a work ahead of its time; in drawing analogies from American case Law, the work attempts to predict the possible legal issues that may arise in th...

  4. Response to ‘The National Planning Policy Framework and Archaeology: A Discussion’


    Rosten, Judith


    The CPRE believes good land-use planning is the unsung hero of environmental protection and, as defined by the National Policy Planning Framework (NPPF), the environment includes the natural, built and historic environment, of which archaeology is a part. The historic environment cons of the NPPF have been set out in the article and, in terms of archaeology in particular, the move away from public and research benefits is a step back. But there are also positives that can be taken from the ch...

  5. Agricultural Intensification in the Brazilian Agricultural-Forest Frontier: Land Use Responses to Development and Conservation Policy (United States)

    Garrett, R.; Koh, I.; le Polain de Waroux, Y.; Lambin, E.; Kastens, J.; Brown, J. C.


    Agricultural expansion, extensive cattle ranching, and deforestation remain pressing challenges for sustainable development and climate mitigation throughout South America. In response to these challenges, national and local governments, as well as private and non-governmental actors have developed new forest conservation governance mechanisms. The objective of this study is to better understand how conservation policies interact with supply chain development to influence land use. In particular, we endeavor to understand the timing and spatial patterns of crop and cattle intensification, an understudied phenomenon that is critical to understanding the future of agricultural-forest frontiers and the impacts of conservation policies. We focus on Mato Grosso, the largest soy and cattle producing state in Brazil, which spans the Cerrado and Amazon biomes and has experienced higher levels of deforestation for agricultural expansion than any other state globally over the last decade. Using a newly created spatially explicit data set of land use intensity, supply chain development, and forest policy, we find that agricultural intensification is occurring rapidly in the region, but is only partially driven by changes in conservation policies. The intensification of cattle production is the result of improvements in deforestation monitoring, penalties, and enforcement, and increased land scarcity. Crop intensification, in contrast, preceded increases in conservation restrictions, and is associated with the positive spillovers resulting from agribusiness agglomeration and development. These results suggest that intensification is not a foregone conclusion of increasing forest conservation restrictions, but is highly dependent on wider development processes. A combined effort to direct agribusiness development away from forest regions via tax credits and subsidized credit, when applied in concert with stringent conservation requirements, could help promote intensification

  6. Menace of E-Wastes in Developing Countries: An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu


    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, one of the most manifest indices of new age globalisation has been the transboundary movement of toxic and hazardous waste products, principally from developed countries to the developing countries otherwise known as the ‘Third World’. While waste generation is essentially a domestic problem, the issue has assumed global importance as industrialised countries continually seek convenient disposal sites outside their own shores. Despite increasing global, regional, and national legal and policy interventions to curb the menace of toxic and hazardous waste dumping, however, the problem has largely not abated. Against the backdrop of the enormous negative consequences of the transboundary movement of toxic and hazardous waste products in developing countries, and the impunity engendered by this ubiquitous practice, is it not high time that new strategies were evolved for tackling this menace? With the global proliferation of information technology continuing to escalate at an exponential rate, driven largely by the lure of exploiting the globalised info-tech market, this essay accentuates the latent dangers looming in developing countries particularly with regard to electronic wastes. Reflecting on the litany of treaties already adopted in responding to the problem of toxic and hazardous wastes, this essay attempts to highlight alternative policy and strategic initiatives against current trends.

  7. Macro policy responses to oil booms and busts in the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutawa, A.K.


    The effects of oil shocks and macro policy changes in the United Arab Emirates are analyzed. A theoretical model is developed within the framework of the Dutch Disease literature. It contains four unique features that are applicable to the United Arab Emirates' economy. There are: (1) the presence of a large foreign labor force; (2) OPEC's oil export quotas; (3) the division of oil profits; and (4) the important role of government expenditures. The model is then used to examine the welfare effects of the above-mentioned shocks. An econometric model is then specified that conforms to the analytical model. In the econometric model the method of 'principal components' is applied owing to the undersized sample data. The principal components methodology is used in both the identification testing and the estimation of the structural equations. The oil and macro policy shocks are then simulated. The simulation results show that an oil-quantity boom leads to a higher welfare gain than an oil-price boom. Under certain circumstances, this finding is also confirmed by the comparative statistics that follow from the analytical model

  8. Response to severe-accident policy statement: Boiling water reactor containment vulnerability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.R.; Burns, E.T.; Mairs, T.P.


    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC's) Severe-Accident Policy Statement, Safety Goal Policy Statement, Individual Plant Examination (IPE) Generic Letter, and Containment Performance Improvement (CPI) Program seek to characterize adequate containment performance. This paper describes a framework (developed through the cooperation of a number of utilities) within which the following can be accomplished: questions regarding plant-specific containment performance can be addressed; the impact of proposed plant modifications can be investigated and the results communicated to the NRC. The NRC is currently assessing the performance of all containment types under postulated severe-accident conditions. Issues have been raised by the NRC regarding containment performance because it is a final barrier protecting the public against the release of radionuclides under sever-accident conditions. In addition, there are several arenas where additional related issues may be raised, e.g., NUREG-1150 (final issue), IPE reviews by the NRC staff, recommended accident management strategies, accident management proposed generic letter, and the NRC generic evaluation of boiling water reactor. This paper presents the methodology developed in cooperation with a number of utilities to respond to the NRC initiatives requiring a plant-specific containment performance evaluation as part of the IPE process

  9. Evaluation of Automatically Assigned Job-Specific Interview Modules. (United States)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Lan, Qing; Ge, Calvin; Locke, Sarah J; Hosgood, Dean; Fritschi, Lin; Sadkowsky, Troy; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wei, Hu; Xu, Jun; Lam, Tai Hing; Kwong, Yok Lam; Chen, Kexin; Xu, Caigang; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chiu, Brian C H; Ip, Kai Ming Dennis; Purdue, Mark P; Bassig, Bryan A; Rothman, Nat; Vermeulen, Roel


    In community-based epidemiological studies, job- and industry-specific 'modules' are often used to systematically obtain details about the subject's work tasks. The module assignment is often made by the interviewer, who may have insufficient occupational hygiene knowledge to assign the correct module. We evaluated, in the context of a case-control study of lymphoid neoplasms in Asia ('AsiaLymph'), the performance of an algorithm that provided automatic, real-time module assignment during a computer-assisted personal interview. AsiaLymph's occupational component began with a lifetime occupational history questionnaire with free-text responses and three solvent exposure screening questions. To assign each job to one of 23 study-specific modules, an algorithm automatically searched the free-text responses to the questions 'job title' and 'product made or services provided by employer' using a list of module-specific keywords, comprising over 5800 keywords in English, Traditional and Simplified Chinese. Hierarchical decision rules were used when the keyword match triggered multiple modules. If no keyword match was identified, a generic solvent module was assigned if the subject responded 'yes' to any of the three solvent screening questions. If these question responses were all 'no', a work location module was assigned, which redirected the subject to the farming, teaching, health professional, solvent, or industry solvent modules or ended the questions for that job, depending on the location response. We conducted a reliability assessment that compared the algorithm-assigned modules to consensus module assignments made by two industrial hygienists for a subset of 1251 (of 11409) jobs selected using a stratified random selection procedure using module-specific strata. Discordant assignments between the algorithm and consensus assignments (483 jobs) were qualitatively reviewed by the hygienists to evaluate the potential information lost from missed questions with using

  10. Policy responses to hepatitis C in the Nordic countries: Gaps and discrepant reporting in the Hep-Nordic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Safreed-Harmon

    Full Text Available In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID. We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the extent to which these countries have policies supporting key elements of the public health response that is necessary to achieve the global goal of eliminating HCV as a public health threat.Fourteen stakeholders representing government agencies, medical societies, and civil society organisations (CSOs in the Nordic countries completed a cross-sectional online survey that included 21 policy questions related to national coordination, prevention, testing, linkage to care, and treatment. We summarised the findings in a descriptive analysis, and noted discrepant responses from stakeholders within the same country.Stakeholders reported that three of the five study countries have national viral hepatitis strategies, while only Iceland has a national HCV elimination goal. The availability of harm reduction services varies, with opioid substitution therapy provided for the general population throughout all countries, but not needle and syringe programmes. No country has access to anonymous HCV testing in all parts of the country. National HCV treatment guidelines are available in all countries except Finland, and all countries provide publicly funded direct-acting antiviral treatment. Disagreement regarding policies was observed across countries, and CSOs were the stakeholder group that most frequently answered survey questions incorrectly.The Nordic region as a whole has not consistently expressed its commitment to tackling HCV, despite the existence of large HCV epidemics among PWID in these countries. Stakeholder alignment and an established elimination goal with an accompanying strategy and implementation plan should be recognised as the basis for coordinated national

  11. Public Policy Issues Associated with Tsunami Hazard Mitigation, Response and Recovery: Transferable Lessons from Recent Global Disasters (United States)

    Johnson, L.


    Since 2004, a sequence of devastating tsunamis has taken the lives of more than 300,000 people worldwide. The path of destruction left by each is typically measured in hundreds of meters to a few kilometers and its breadth can extend for hundreds even thousands of kilometers, crossing towns and countries and even traversing an entire oceanic basin. Tsunami disasters in Indonesia, Chile, Japan and elsewhere have also shown that the almost binary nature of tsunami impacts can present some unique risk reduction, response, recovery and rebuilding challenges, with transferable lessons to other tsunami vulnerable coastal communities around the world. In particular, the trauma can motivate survivors to relocate homes, jobs, and even whole communities to safer ground, sometimes at tremendous social and financial costs. For governments, the level of concentrated devastation usually exceeds the local capacity to respond and thus requires complex inter-governmental arrangements with regional, national and even international partners to support the recovery of impacted communities, infrastructure and economies. Two parallel projects underway in California since 2011—the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario project and the California Tsunami Policy Working Group (CTPWG)—have worked to digest key lessons from recent tsunami disasters, with an emphasis on identifying gaps to be addressed in the current state and federal policy framework to enhance tsunami risk awareness, hazard mitigation, and response and recovery planning ahead of disaster and also improve post-disaster implementation practices following a future California or U.S. tsunami event.

  12. Health worker migration from South Africa: causes, consequences and policy responses. (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Sanders, David; Mathole, Thubelihle; Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel; Dambisya, Yoswa; Runnels, Vivien; Packer, Corinne; MacKenzie, Adrian; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn


    This paper arises from a four-country study that sought to better understand the drivers of skilled health worker migration, its consequences, and the strategies countries have employed to mitigate negative impacts. The four countries-Jamaica, India, the Philippines, and South Africa-have historically been "sources" of skilled health workers (SHWs) migrating to other countries. This paper presents the findings from South Africa. The study began with a scoping review of the literature on health worker migration from South Africa, followed by empirical data collected from skilled health workers and stakeholders. Surveys were conducted with physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists. Interviews were conducted with key informants representing educators, regulators, national and local governments, private and public sector health facilities, recruitment agencies, and professional associations and councils. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Interview data were analyzed thematically. There has been an overall decrease in out-migration of skilled health workers from South Africa since the early 2000s largely attributed to a reduced need for foreign-trained skilled health workers in destination countries, limitations on recruitment, and tighter migration rules. Low levels of worker satisfaction persist, although the Occupation Specific Dispensation (OSD) policy (2007), which increased wages for health workers, has been described as critical in retaining South African nurses. Return migration was reportedly a common occurrence. The consequences attributed to SHW migration are mixed, but shortages appear to have declined. Most promising initiatives are those designed to reinforce the South African health system and undertaken within South Africa itself. In the near past, South Africa's health worker shortages as a result of emigration were viewed as significant and harmful. Currently, domestic policies to improve health care and

  13. Current account imbalances in the EMU: An assessment of official policy responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodig Nina


    Full Text Available To handle the sovereign debt crisis in general and macroeconomic imbalances in particular the leading EU institutions and the Troika (European Central Bank, European Commission and International Monetary Fund adopted two broad approaches: The short-term approach is based on enhancing the Stability and Growth Pact and to impose fiscal austerity on crisis countries. The medium- to long-term strategy consists of internal devaluation via reducing wage costs. Both approaches were combined with structural adjustment programs in the spirit of the Washington Consensus. The Troika’s policy implies an asymmetric adjustment process burdening only crisis countries. It led to the shrinking of demand and output in crisis countries comparable to the Great Depression and brought the European Monetary Union to the edge of deflation. These polices must be judged as mislead increasing the risk of Japanese disease with more than one lost decade.

  14. Sweetening of the global diet, particularly beverages: patterns, trends, and policy responses. (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Hawkes, Corinna


    Evidence suggests that excessive intake of added sugars has adverse effects on cardiometabolic health, which is consistent with many reviews and consensus reports from WHO and other unbiased sources. 74% of products in the US food supply contain caloric or low-calorie sweeteners, or both. Of all packaged foods and beverages purchased by a nationally representative sample of US households in 2013, 68% (by proportion of calories) contain caloric sweeteners and 2% contain low-calorie sweeteners. We believe that in the absence of intervention, the rest of the world will move towards this pervasiveness of added sugars in the food supply. Our analysis of trends in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages around the world, in terms of calories sold per person per day and volume sold per person per day, shows that the four regions with the highest consumption are North America, Latin America, Australasia, and western Europe. The fastest absolute growth in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages by country in 2009-14 was seen in Chile. We believe that action is needed to tackle the high levels and continuing growth in sales of such beverages worldwide. Many governments have initiated actions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in the past few years, including taxation (eg, in Mexico); reduction of their availability in schools; restrictions on marketing of sugary foods to children; public awareness campaigns; and positive and negative front-of-pack labelling. In our opinion, evidence of the effectiveness of these actions shows that they are moving in the right direction, but governments should view them as a learning process and improve their design over time. A key challenge for policy makers and researchers is the absence of a consensus on the relation of beverages containing low-calorie sweeteners and fruit juices with cardiometabolic outcomes, since decisions about whether these are healthy substitutes for sugar-sweetened beverages are an integral part of policy

  15. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries in response to the global financial crisis. (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Leopold, Christine; de Joncheere, Kees


    The objective of this paper is to analyze which pharmaceutical policies European countries applied during the global financial crisis. We undertook a survey with officials from public authorities for pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement of 33 European countries represented in the PPRI (Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information) network based on a questionnaire. The survey was launched in September 2010 and repeated in February 2011 to obtain updated information. During the survey period from January 2010 to February 2011, 89 measures were identified in 23 of the 33 countries surveyed which were implemented to contain public medicines expenditure. Price reductions, changes in the co-payments, in the VAT rates on medicines and in the distribution margins were among the most common measures. More than a dozen countries reported measures under discussion or planned, for the remaining year 2011 and beyond. The largest number of measures were implemented in Iceland, the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), Greece, Spain and Portugal, which were hit by the crisis at different times. Cost-containment has been an issue for high-income countries in Europe - no matter if hit by the crisis or not. In recent months, changes in pharmaceutical policies were reported from 23 European countries. Measures which can be implemented rather swiftly (e.g. price cuts, changes in co-payments and VAT rates on medicines) were among the most frequent measures. While the "crisis countries" (e.g. Baltic states, Greece, Spain) reacted with a bundle of measures, reforms in other countries (e.g. Poland, Germany) were not directly linked to the crisis, but also aimed at containing public spending. Since further reforms are under way, we recommend that the monitoring exercise is continued.

  16. New constraints on mobility in Europe: Policy response to European crises or constitutional ambiguity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Jędrzejowska-Schiffauer


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of recent measures undertaken by the governments of some European Union Member States such as the United Kingdom, Germany and Poland as well as of non-EU European countries such as Switzerland in order to face growing concerns in the public opinion with the increase of transnational migration flows on European continent. The authors analyse selected legislative, regulatory and administrative measures motivated by objectives of migration policy or affecting the mobility of workers, taken in the aftermath of the economic and financial crisis. They argue that, albeit political discourse unfavourable on immigration and migrant workers has become the mainstream in some countries, the measures taken by national governments and legislators seldom involve direct constraints on the free movement of workers which is safeguarded by EU treaty provisions. However, concrete examples illustrate that access of such workers to social security benefits has been restricted through making use of certain derogations from the principle of equal treatment allowed under EU law. In some cases national legislators had to abandon plans to limit directly the free movement of workers, because the envisaged provisions were incompatible with the EU Treaties. With regard to social security, regulatory measures and administrative actions may have effectively implemented national policy concerns with large-scale migration movements. In general, it could be concluded that the European Union, while struggling against multiple crises, has taken a not fully favourable approach to free movement and migration of EU citizens. The present political climate unfavourable to intra-European migration may be understood, from the perspective of historical analysis, as an expression of constitutional ambiguity underlying the European Union’s normative framework, consisting in a gap between its formally recognised noble values and the mentalities

  17. Forecasting imbalances in the global health labor market and devising policy responses. (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Campbell, James; Cometto, Giorgio; Maeda, Akiko; Liu, Jenny; Bruckner, Tim A; Arnold, Daniel R; Evans, Tim


    The High-Level Commission on Health Employment and Economic Growth released its report to the United Nations Secretary-General in September 2016. It makes important recommendations that are based on estimates of over 40 million new health sector jobs by 2030 in mostly high- and middle-income countries and a needs-based shortage of 18 million, mostly in low- and middle-income countries. This paper shows how these key findings were developed, the global policy dilemmas they raise, and relevant policy solutions. Regression analysis is used to produce estimates of health worker need, demand, and supply. Projections of health worker need, demand, and supply in 2030 are made under the assumption that historical trends continue into the future. To deliver essential health services required for the universal health coverage target of the Sustainable Development Goal 3, there will be a need for almost 45 million health workers in 2013 which is projected to reach almost 53 million in 2030 (across 165 countries). This results in a needs-based shortage of almost 17 million in 2013. The demand-based results suggest a projected demand of 80 million health workers by 2030. Demand-based analysis shows that high- and middle-income countries will have the economic capacity to employ tens of millions additional health workers, but they could face shortages due to supply not keeping up with demand. By contrast, low-income countries will face both low demand for and supply of health workers. This means that even if countries are able to produce additional workers to meet the need threshold, they may not be able to employ and retain these workers without considerably higher economic growth, especially in the health sector.

  18. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities. (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M


    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. More General Optimal Offset Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Mallach


    Full Text Available This manuscript presents exact approaches to the general offset assignment problem arising in the address code generation phase of compilers for application-specific processors. First, integer programming models for architecture-dependent and theoretically motivated special cases of the problem are established. Then, these models are extended to provide the first widely applicable formulations for the most general problem setting, supporting processors with several address registers and complex addressing capabilities. Existing heuristics are similarly extended and practical applicability of the proposed methods is demonstrated by experimental evaluation using an established and large benchmark set. The experiments allow us to study the impact of exploiting more complex memory addressing capabilities on the address computation costs of real-world programs. We also show how to integrate operand reordering techniques for commutative instructions into existing solution approaches.

  20. The Random Quadratic Assignment Problem (United States)

    Paul, Gerald; Shao, Jia; Stanley, H. Eugene


    The quadratic assignment problem, QAP, is one of the most difficult of all combinatorial optimization problems. Here, we use an abbreviated application of the statistical mechanics replica method to study the asymptotic behavior of instances in which the entries of at least one of the two matrices that specify the problem are chosen from a random distribution P. Surprisingly, the QAP has not been studied before using the replica method despite the fact that the QAP was first proposed over 50 years ago and the replica method was developed over 30 years ago. We find simple forms for C min and C max , the costs of the minimal and maximum solutions respectively. Notable features of our results are the symmetry of the results for C min and C max and their dependence on P only through its mean and standard deviation, independent of the details of P.

  1. EU Engagement in the Arctic: Do the Policy Responses from the Arctic States Recognise the EU as a Legitimate Stakeholder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrul Hossain


    Full Text Available The Arctic states are bound in an institutional relationship by means of their actions through the Arctic Council (AC—an organisation created by the eight Arctic states. Although a number of its European Union (EU states are both members and observers in the AC, the EU is not, despite its clear stake in the Arctic, for of a number of reasons. The AC twice postponed the application of the EU in 2013; however, it granted the EU the right to observe the AC meetings as an “observer in principle.” In addition to the significant resource and commercial interests of the EU in the Arctic, it assumes a stewardship role in the Arctic. As the leader in combating global climate change, for example, the EU is committed to assuming responsibility for protecting the Arctic environment given that climate change does have a devastating impact in the Arctic. Moreover, the EU is also concerned about its and continental Europe's only indigenous people, the Sámi, a significant proportion of whom live in its Arctic member states of Finland and Sweden. Thus, in recent years, the EU has endorsed a series of policy documents concerning the Arctic. Against the background of this development, this article examines whether the policy responses of the Arctic states with regard to the EU's increased ambition to engage in Arctic matters make it a legitimate actor or stakeholder. The article concludes that even though the Arctic states, as the primary actors, determine the region's governance approach, they see also a general partnership role for the EU with regard to the common goals of knowledge-based responsible governance and sustainable development of the Arctic.

  2. Corporate social responsibility and policy making: what role does communication play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, A.


    Communication is of central importance for business and public authorities to make substantial progress on the sustainability ladder. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is about the contribution of business to sustainability, and stakeholder theory is an integral concept of CSR. The literature

  3. European Union's Policy on Corporate Social Responsibility and Opportunities for the Maritime Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Jan


    The European Commission encourages EU member states to promote corporate social responsibility (CSR) among national industries. Several EU member states have responded by legislation on CSR reporting and CSR action plans and strategies. This paper discusses the profitability of CSR and addresses...

  4. Coal consumption, CO2 emission and economic growth in China: Empirical evidence and policy responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Harry; Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa; Salim, Ruhul


    This article investigates the relationship between coal consumption and income in China using both supply-side and demand-side frameworks. Cointegration and vector error correction modeling show that there is a unidirectional causality running from coal consumption to output in both the short and long run under the supply-side analysis, while there is also a unidirectional causality running from income to coal consumption in the short and long run under the demand-side analysis. The results also reveal that there is bi-directional causality between coal consumption and pollutant emission both in the short and long run. Hence, it is very difficult for China to pursue a greenhouse gas abatement policy through reducing coal consumption. Switching to greener energy sources might be a possible alternative in the long run. - Highlights: ► Both supply-side and demand-side frameworks are used. ► Unidirectional causality from coal consumption to output in supply-side analysis. ► Unidirectional causality from income to coal consumption in demand-side analysis. ► Bi-directional causality between coal consumption and pollutant emission.

  5. 42 CFR 421.404 - Assignment of providers and suppliers to MACs. (United States)


    ... (MACs) § 421.404 Assignment of providers and suppliers to MACs. (a) Definitions. As used in this section... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of providers and suppliers to MACs. 421... indirectly, to significantly influence or direct the actions or policies of the group of suppliers or...

  6. Integrating Graphing Assignments into a Money and Banking Course Using FRED (United States)

    Staveley-O'Carroll, James


    Over the course of one semester, six empirical assignments that utilize FRED are used to introduce students of money and banking courses to the economic analysis required for the conduct of monetary policy. The first five assignments cover the following topics: inflation, bonds and stocks, monetary aggregates, the Taylor rule, and employment.…

  7. 47 CFR 1.9055 - Assignment of file numbers to spectrum leasing notifications and applications. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of file numbers to spectrum leasing... GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9055 Assignment of file numbers to spectrum leasing notifications and applications. Spectrum leasing notifications or...

  8. Conscientious objection and refusal to provide reproductive healthcare: a White Paper examining prevalence, health consequences, and policy responses. (United States)

    Chavkin, Wendy; Leitman, Liddy; Polin, Kate


    Global Doctors for Choice-a transnational network of physician advocates for reproductive health and rights-began exploring the phenomenon of conscience-based refusal of reproductive healthcare as a result of increasing reports of harms worldwide. The present White Paper examines the prevalence and impact of such refusal and reviews policy efforts to balance individual conscience, autonomy in reproductive decision making, safeguards for health, and professional medical integrity. The White Paper draws on medical, public health, legal, ethical, and social science literature published between 1998 and 2013 in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. Estimates of prevalence are difficult to obtain, as there is no consensus about criteria for refuser status and no standardized definition of the practice, and the studies have sampling and other methodologic limitations. The White Paper reviews these data and offers logical frameworks to represent the possible health and health system consequences of conscience-based refusal to provide abortion; assisted reproductive technologies; contraception; treatment in cases of maternal health risk and inevitable pregnancy loss; and prenatal diagnosis. It concludes by categorizing legal, regulatory, and other policy responses to the practice. Empirical evidence is essential for varied political actors as they respond with policies or regulations to the competing concerns at stake. Further research and training in diverse geopolitical settings are required. With dual commitments toward their own conscience and their obligations to patients' health and rights, providers and professional medical/public health societies must lead attempts to respond to conscience-based refusal and to safeguard reproductive health, medical integrity, and women's lives. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assignment Choice, Effort, and Assignment Completion: Does Work Ethic Predict Those Who Choose Higher-Effort Assignments? (United States)

    Parkhurst, John T.; Fleisher, Matthew S.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Woehr, David J.; Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.


    After completing the Multidimensional Work-Ethic Profile (MWEP), 98 college students were given a 20-problem math computation assignment and instructed to stop working on the assignment after completing 10 problems. Next, they were allowed to choose to finish either the partially completed assignment that had 10 problems remaining or a new…

  10. Integrated assignment and path planning (United States)

    Murphey, Robert A.


    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  11. 14 CFR 1214.105 - Apportionment and/or assignment of services. (United States)


    ..., Reimbursable Customers § 1214.105 Apportionment and/or assignment of services. (a) Subject to NASA approval, a customer may apportion and/or assign Shuttle services to third parties within the payload. No apportionment... apportioned/assigned payload elements within the payload is the responsibility of the customer. Any NASA...

  12. ZAP: a distributed channel assignment algorithm for cognitive radio networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munaretto Anelise


    Full Text Available Abstract We propose ZAP, an algorithm for the distributed channel assignment in cognitive radio (CR networks. CRs are capable of identifying underutilized licensed bands of the spectrum, allowing their reuse by secondary users without interfering with primary users. In this context, efficient channel assignment is challenging as ideally it must be simple, incur acceptable communication overhead, provide timely response, and be adaptive to accommodate frequent changes in the network. Another challenge is the optimization of network capacity through interference minimization. In contrast to related work, ZAP addresses these challenges with a fully distributed approach based only on local (neighborhood knowledge, while significantly reducing computational costs and the number of messages required for channel assignment. Simulations confirm the efficiency of ZAP in terms of (i the performance tradeoff between different metrics and (ii the fast achievement of a suitable assignment solution regardless of network size and density.

  13. Discipline and punish? Youth gangs' response to "zero-tolerance" policies in Honduras. (United States)

    Rivera, Lirio Gutiérrez


    The response of youth gangs to "zero tolerance" policing in Honduras are examined with respect to territoriality. Focusing on two main gangs, the Mara Salvatrucha and the 18th Street Gang, the ways in which state authority is challenged are assessed from an analysis of body territoriality, the respatialisation of organisational structures across urban neighbourhoods, and the production of new enclosed spaces of gang territoriality. These redefinitions of group territoriality strengthen the emotional bonds and sense of belonging towards the gang, enabling the emergence of a transnational/imagined community.

  14. Outbound medical tourism from Mongolia: a qualitative examination of proposed domestic health system and policy responses to this trend. (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Byambaa, Tsogtbaatar; Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Janes, Craig; Ewan, Melanie


    Medical tourism is the practice of traveling across international boundaries in order to access medical care. Residents of low-to-middle income countries with strained or inadequate health systems have long traveled to other countries in order to access procedures not available in their home countries and to take advantage of higher quality care elsewhere. In Mongolia, for example, residents are traveling to China, Japan, Thailand, South Korea, and other countries for care. As a result of this practice, there are concerns that travel abroad from Mongolia and other countries risks impoverishing patients and their families. In this paper, we present findings from 15 interviews with Mongolian medical tourism stakeholders about the impacts of, causes of, and responses to outbound medical tourism. These findings were developed using a case study methodology that also relied on tours of health care facilities and informal discussions with citizens and other stakeholders during April, 2012. Based on these findings, health policy changes are needed to address the outflow of Mongolian medical tourists. Key areas for reform include increasing funding for the Mongolian health system and enhancing the efficient use of these funds, improving training opportunities and incentives for health workers, altering the local culture of care to be more supportive of patients, and addressing concerns of corruption and favouritism in the health system. While these findings are specific to the Mongolian health system, other low-to-middle income countries experiencing outbound medical tourism will benefit from consideration of how these findings apply to their own contexts. As medical tourism is increasing in visibility globally, continued research on its impacts and context-specific policy responses are needed.

  15. Solving the rectangular assignment problem and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, J.; Volgenant, A.


    The rectangular assignment problem is a generalization of the linear assignment problem (LAP): one wants to assign a number of persons to a smaller number of jobs, minimizing the total corresponding costs. Applications are, e.g., in the fields of object recognition and scheduling. Further, we show

  16. Lexical Stress Assignment in Italian Developmental Dyslexia (United States)

    Paizi, Despina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina


    Stress assignment to Italian polysyllabic words is unpredictable, because stress is neither marked nor predicted by rule. Stress assignment, especially to low frequency words, has been reported to be a function of stress dominance and stress neighbourhood. Two experiments investigate stress assignment in sixth-grade, skilled and dyslexic, readers.…

  17. Fairness and Respect in Obesity Prevention Policies: A Response to David Buchanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine King


    Full Text Available In his response to our article (1,2, David Buchanan introduces some useful and important distinctions in the concepts of equality and autonomy. He highlights, for example, the distinction between inequality and inequity, which captures the insight that not all differences between people are unjust. Unjust inequalities are a subset of differences between people, and theories of justice can be defined by how they determine which of these differences are unjust. In addition, he points out that autonomy is not simply a matter of negative liberty, but also about a positive capacity to act. This understanding of autonomy is consistent with the account we offered in the paper, which underlines the importance of both the capacity to understand available options, and the capacity to act on the choices that one makes.

  18. Stereospecific assignments in proteins using exact NOEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orts, Julien; Vögeli, Beat; Riek, Roland, E-mail: [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Güntert, Peter, E-mail: [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry (Germany)


    Recently developed methods to measure distances in proteins with high accuracy by “exact” nuclear Overhauser effects (eNOEs) make it possible to determine stereospecific assignments, which are particularly important to fully exploit the accuracy of the eNOE distance measurements. Stereospecific assignments are determined by comparing the eNOE-derived distances to protein structure bundles calculated without stereospecific assignments, or an independently determined crystal structure. The absolute and relative CYANA target function difference upon swapping the stereospecific assignment of a diastereotopic group yields the respective stereospecific assignment. We applied the method to the eNOE data set that has recently been obtained for the third immunoglobulin-binding domain of protein G (GB3). The 884 eNOEs provide relevant data for 47 of the total of 75 diastereotopic groups. Stereospecific assignments could be established for 45 diastereotopic groups (96 %) using the X-ray structure, or for 27 diastereotopic groups (57 %) using structures calculated with the eNOE data set without stereospecific assignments, all of which are in agreement with those determined previously. The latter case is relevant for structure determinations based on eNOEs. The accuracy of the eNOE distance measurements is crucial for making stereospecific assignments because applying the same method to the traditional NOE data set for GB3 with imprecise upper distance bounds yields only 13 correct stereospecific assignments using the X-ray structure or 2 correct stereospecific assignments using NMR structures calculated without stereospecific assignments.

  19. How private car purchasing trends offset efficiency gains and the successful energy policy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O Gallachoir, Brian P.; Howley, Martin; Cunningham, Stephen; Bazilian, Morgan


    In 2006, energy-related CO 2 emissions from transport energy in Ireland were 168% above 1990 levels. Private cars were responsible for approx 45% of transport energy demand in 2006 (excluding fuel tourism). The average annual growth of new cars between 1990 and 2006 was 5.2%. This paper focuses on these new cars entering the private car fleet, in particular the purchasing trend towards larger size cars. This has considerably offset the improvements in the technical efficiency of individual car models. The analysis was carried out on the detailed data of each individual new vehicle entering the fleet in 2000-2006. The average CO 2 emissions per kilometre for new petrol cars entering the Irish fleet grew from 166 to 168 g CO 2 /km from 2000 to 2005 and reduced to 164 in 2006. For diesel cars the average reduced from 166 in 2000 to 161 in 2006. The paper also discusses how a recent change in vehicle registration taxation and annual motor tax had a significant impact purchasing trends by supporting lower emission vehicles. Cars with emissions up to 155 g CO 2 /km represented 41% of new private cars sold in Ireland in 2007 compared with 84% during the period July-November 2008.

  20. Understanding policy research in liminal spaces: Think tank responses to diverging principles of legitimacy. (United States)

    McLevey, John


    Research on scientific, social scientific, and technical knowledge is increasingly focused on changes in institutionalized fields, such as the commercialization of university-based knowledge. Much less is known about how organizations produce and promote knowledge in the 'thick boundaries' between fields. In this article, I draw on 53 semi-structured interviews with Canadian think-tank executives, researchers, research fellows, and communication officers to understand how think-tank knowledge work is linked to the liminal spaces between institutionalized fields. First, although think-tank knowledge work has a broadly utilitarian epistemic culture, there are important differences between organizations that see intellectual simplicity and political consistency as the most important marker of credibility, versus those that emphasize inconsistency. A second major difference is between think tanks that argue for the separation of research and communication strategies and those that conflate them from beginning to end, arguably subordinating research to demands from more powerful fields. Finally, think tanks display different degrees of instrumentalism toward the public sphere, with some seeking publicity as an end in itself and others using it as a means to influence elite or public opinion. Together, we can see these differences as responses to diverging principles of legitimacy.

  1. Policy and regulatory responses to dual practice in the health sector. (United States)

    García-Prado, Ariadna; González, Paula


    Physician dual practice is a widespread phenomenon which has implications for the equity, efficiency and quality of health care provision. Central to the analysis of physician dual practice is the trade-off between its benefits and costs, as well as the convenience of regulating it to undermine its adverse consequences. In this paper, we study and analyze different governmental responses to this activity. We find that internationally, there are wide variations in how governments tackle this issue. While some governments fully prohibit this practice, others regulate or restrict dual job holding with different intensities and regulatory instruments. The measures implemented include limiting the income physicians can earn through dual job holding, offering work benefits to physicians in exchange for their working exclusively in the public sector, raising public salaries, and allowing physicians to perform private practice at public facilities. We present the pros and cons of each of these alternatives and show how the health care market and institutional arrangements are crucial for the design and implementation of each of these strategies. The paper also identifies the need for empirical evidence on the effect of different government strategies on dual practice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwumere Joseph


    Full Text Available This study considered the limiting response of Nigeria cassava expansion initiative to climate changes, economic growth and some policy instruments. The presidential initiative to make cassava a foreign exchange earner as well as ensuring that national demand are satisfied has made cassava a significant economic crop and resource input of industrial and international status. Currently, its derivatives such as animal feed, starch, ethanol, cassava chip, cassava flour, cassava liquor etc are in high demand. Having gained international recognition some factors need be examined to ascertain the limiting response of this economic crop some exogenous factors. The specific objectives of interest were to ascertain the response of cassava output expansion to rainfall, temperature, imports, exports, credit allocation to agribusiness, exchange rate, nominal interest rate, inflation and GDP from 1970 – 2012. Also, it examined the short and long run effects of these variables to cassava output so as to know how much adjustment it makes to reach the equilibrium. Secondary data were used for this research work. The technique of data analysis was auto- regressive modeling regression. To capture the long run and short run dynamics of cassava output behavior, the error correction model (ECM using the Engle-Granger methodology was adopted. The result revealed a very high rate of adjustment to long run equilibrium and the variables are correlated which means that impact of each variable on cassava output behavior in the economy is inseparable. The Error correction coefficient of -0.975 measures the speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium earned the expected negative sign and is statistically significant at 1% risk level. Thus, this study recommends that the emerging cassava economy of Nigeria would be adequately empowered for efficient productivity if the Government stipulate policies that will encourage domestic output expansion to meet the national and

  3. Building a Public Health Response to the Flint Water Crisis: Implications for Policy and Decision-Making (United States)

    Furr-Holden, D.


    Flint, MI has experienced a recent, man-made public health crisis. The Flint Water Crisis, caused by a switch in the municipal water supply and subsequent violation of engineering and regulatory standards to ensure water quality lead to a large portion of the city being exposed to excess metals (including lead), bacteria and other water-borne pathogens. The data used to initially rebut the existence of the crisis were ecologically flawed as they included large numbers of people who were not on the Flint water supply. Policy-makers, municipal officials, the medical community, and public health professionals were at odds over the existence of a problem and the lack of data only fueled the debate. Pediatricians, lead by Dr. Mona Hannah-Attisha, began testing children in the Hurley Children's Medical Center for blood-lead levels and observed a 2-fold increase in elevated blood lead levels in Flint children compared to children in the area not on the Flint municipal water supply, where no increases in elevated lead were observed. Subsequent geospatial analyses revealed spatial clustering of cases based on where children live, go to school and play. These data represented the first step in data driven decision making leading to the subsequent switch of the municipal water supply and launch of subsequent advocacy efforts to remediate the effect of the Water Crisis. Since that time, a multi-disciplinary team of scientists including engineers, bench scientists, physicians and public health researchers have mounted evidence to promote complete replacement of the city's aging water infrastructure, developed a data registry to track cases and coordinate care and services for affected residents, and implemented a community engagement model that puts residents and community stakeholders at the heart of the planning and implementation efforts. The presentation will include data used at various stages to mount a public health response to the Flint Water Crisis and establish the

  4. The Dynamics of a Semi-Arid Region in Response to Climate and Water - Use Policy (United States)

    Mustard, John F.; Hamburg, Steve; Grant, John A.; Manning, Sara J.; Steinwand, Aaron; Howard, Chris


    The objectives of this project were to determine the response of semi-arid ecosystems to the combined forcings of climate variability and anthropogenic stress. Arid and semi-arid systems encompass close to 40% of the worlds land surface. The ecology of these regions are principally limited by water, and as the water resources wax and wane, so should the health and vigor of the ecosystems. Water, however, is a necessary and critical resource for humans living in these same regions. Thus for many and and semi-arid regions the natural systems and human systems are in direct competition for a limited resource. Increasing competition through development of and and semi-arid regions, export of water resources, as well as potential persistent changes in weather patterns are likely to lead to fundamental changes in carrying capacity, resilience, and ecology of these regions. A detailed understanding of these systems respond to forcing on a regional and local scale is required in order to better prepare for and manage future changes in the availability of water. In the Owens Valley CA, decadal changes in rainfall and increased use of groundwater resources by Los Angles (which derives 60-70% of its water from this region) have resulted in a large-scale experiment on the impacts of these changes in semi-arid ecosystems. This project works directly with the Inyo County Water Department (local water authority) and the Los Angles Department of Water and Power (regional demand on water resources) to understand changes, their causes, and impacts. Very detailed records have been kept for a number of selected sites in the valley which provide essential ground truth. These results are then scaled up through remote sensed data to regions scale to assess large scale patterns and link them to the fundamental decisions regarding the water resources of this region. A fundamental goal is to understand how resilient the native ecosystems are to large changes in water resources. Are they are

  5. Neural Mechanisms of Credit Assignment in a Multicue Environment (United States)

    Kolling, Nils; Brown, Joshua W.; Rushworth, Matthew


    In complex environments, many potential cues can guide a decision or be assigned responsibility for the outcome of the decision. We know little, however, about how humans and animals select relevant information sources that should guide behavior. We show that subjects solve this relevance selection and credit assignment problem by selecting one cue and its association with a particular outcome as the main focus of a hypothesis. To do this, we examined learning while using a task design that allowed us to estimate the focus of each subject's hypotheses on a trial-by-trial basis. When a prediction is confirmed by the outcome, then credit for the outcome is assigned to that cue rather than an alternative. Activity in medial frontal cortex is associated with the assignment of credit to the cue that is the main focus of the hypothesis. However, when the outcome disconfirms a prediction, the focus shifts between cues, and the credit for the outcome is assigned to an alternative cue. This process of reselection for credit assignment to an alternative cue is associated with lateral orbitofrontal cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Learners should infer which features of environments are predictive of significant events, such as rewards. This “credit assignment” problem is particularly challenging when any of several cues might be predictive. We show that human subjects solve the credit assignment problem by implicitly “hypothesizing” which cue is relevant for predicting subsequent outcomes, and then credit is assigned according to this hypothesis. This process is associated with a distinctive pattern of activity in a part of medial frontal cortex. By contrast, when unexpected outcomes occur, hypotheses are redirected toward alternative cues, and this process is associated with activity in lateral orbitofrontal cortex. PMID:26818500

  6. Aligning faith-based and national HIV/AIDS prevention responses? Factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process and response of faith-based NGOs in Tanzania. (United States)

    Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke


    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against

  7. A multiobjective approach towards weapon assignment in a ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (TCI) and involves the classification of aircraft into different platform types such as rotary wing, fixed wing, cargo, .... After consulting with TEWA DSS experts Potgieter [14] and Roux [15], as well as military expert Visser [20], a survey ... in the responses. A total of fourteen factors influencing WA assignment decisions were.

  8. Integrating NEPA [National Environmental Policy Act] and CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.


    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs

  9. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.


    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  10. Scalable Task Assignment for Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula García


    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a dynamic task assignment strategy for heterogeneous multi-robot teams in typical real world scenarios. The strategy must be efficiently scalable to support problems of increasing complexity with minimum designer intervention. To this end, we have selected a very simple auction-based strategy, which has been implemented and analysed in a multi-robot cleaning problem that requires strong coordination and dynamic complex subtask organization. We will show that the selection of a simple auction strategy provides a linear computational cost increase with the number of robots that make up the team and allows the solving of highly complex assignment problems in dynamic conditions by means of a hierarchical sub-auction policy. To coordinate and control the team, a layered behaviour-based architecture has been applied that allows the reusing of the auction-based strategy to achieve different coordination levels.

  11. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district: A case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun


    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-resource industries. Furthermore, policies had different effects on the industry's output value and profit. In the long-term, developing alternative industries (AI) helps increase the industrial output value and profit. Decreasing value added tax (VAT) has immediate results and a distinctive effect on industrial short-term production value and profit, its long-term effect being limited. The effect of production limit (PL) on industrial profit is stronger than output value, and financial support (FS) is more conducive to improve the latter. However, coal mining and coal-chemical loan increases decrease the gross industrial profit level. Technology innovation (TI) has the best individual policy overall effect on production value and profits. Furthermore, the simultaneous implementation of PL, TI and AI can generate the synergy effect for each of them. And the simultaneous implementation of VAT and one or couple of other policies will generate the crowding-out effect both for VAT and other policies. - Highlights: • A system dynamics model of the coal-chemical industry district economy evolution in Ordos is constructed. • The impact of coal and oil prices slump on the output value and profit of each industry is revealed. • The differences in the effects especially cumulative effects of different response policies are clarified. • The crowding-out and synergy effects of policy implementation are analyzed.

  12. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments (United States)

    Singh, Anil


    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  13. 7 CFR 784.15 - Assignments. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 784.15 Section 784.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.15 Assignments. Any person...

  14. Assignment of element and isotope factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.


    Element and isotope factors are assigned in the NICS internal accounting system at the Exxon Fuel Fabrication Facility on the basis of coded information included on the material transfer documents. This paper explains more fully the manner in which NICS assigns these factors

  15. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina


    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  16. 24 CFR 221.770 - Assignment option. (United States)


    ... MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Moderate Income Projects... mortgagee's approved underwriter on or before November 30, 1983) has the option to assign, transfer and... direct the mortgagee to assign, transfer and deliver the original credit instrument, and the mortgage...

  17. Frequency assignment for satellite multilevel SCPC systems (United States)

    Lau, Yuk-Hong; Skellern, D. J.


    A method for searching the frequency assignment for satellite multilevel SCPC systems is proposed based on the method for the case of equal carrier systems. The quality of assignment improves significantly on published results. The method requires only very short computations times.

  18. Reflective practice: assessment of assignments in English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskiené


    Full Text Available The construct alternative assessment has been widely used in higher education. It is often defined as any type of assessment of learners who provide a response to an assignment. The key features of alternative assessment are active participation of learners in self-evaluation of their performance, and the development of reflective thinking through reflective thinking (Schön, 1983. The success of alternative assessment in language teaching is predetermined by student’s performance and demonstrates learner’s language proficiency in contemporary communicative classrooms. This paper aims at researching the influence of students’ evaluations of various assignments for their linguistic development in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study uses learners’ assessment of different assignments and learners’ in-course and post-course written reflections on benefits to language mastery. Learners’ assignments included were contributions to portfolios (dossiers, such as essays and summaries, oral presentations, short impromptu talks, creative tasks, tests, and self-assessment notes (reflections on activities in learning ESP. Findings were obtained for two streams of the project participants. Results showed that self-assessment was beneficial for learners’ linguistic development. The context of learners’ reflections reveals that the attitudes to various assignments are affected by success or failure in students’ performance. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with previously identified difficulties and improve the quality of teaching.

  19. People's responses to risks of electromagnetic fields and trust in government policy: the role of perceived risk, benefits and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, D.; Claassen, L.; Smid, T.; Timmermans, D.R.M.


    Trust in government policy affects the way people perceive and handle risks. In our study, we investigated the relationships between trust in government policy regarding electromagnetic fields (EMF), perceived risk and perceived benefits of public and personal EMF sources, perceived control over

  20. Cyber-Bullying: Developing Policy to Direct Responses that are Equitable and Effective in Addressing This Special Form of Bullying (United States)

    Brown, Karen; Jackson, Margaret; Cassidy, Wanda


    The article reviews existing research on cyber-bullying, framed through a policy lens. It is clear that public policy issues for cyber-bullying involve tensions between the values of freedom of speech, the best interests of the child, and parental and school protective authority over the child. Given the complexity of the problem, as well as…

  1. The Teacher as a "Colony": A Case Study of Agentive Responses to "Colonising" Education Policy in Vietnam (United States)

    Saito, Eisuke; Atencio, Matthew; Khong, Thi Diem Hang; Takasawa, Naomi; Murase, Masatsugu; Tsukui, Atsushi; Sato, Manabu


    Neo-liberal educational policies that are being implemented globally work to foster competition among schools and teachers, as well as among children. In this situation, teachers must often come to accept the dominant representations of curricular policy developed by higher authorities. In this study, a case study design is used to describe how…

  2. Mandatory Drug Testing of Student Athletes: A Policy Response to "Vernonia School District, 47J v. Acton." (United States)

    DeMitchell, Todd A.; Carroll, Thomas


    The Vernonia (Oregon) School District passed a mandatory random drug testing policy for student athletes that was later upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court. A survey of randomly selected superintendents in five geographic regions disclosed that a majority of respondents who knew about the case were leaning toward not adopting a similar policy. (28…

  3. The Ethics of U.S. Monetary Policy in Response to the Financial Crisis of 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bragues


    Full Text Available Since the financial crisis first erupted in the summer of 2007, the US Federal Reserve has sought to contain negative spillovers into the real economy by dramatically loosening monetary policy. Initially, this was done by lowering its key lending rates, but as the crisis has worsened, and rates have approached closer to zero, it has resorted to expanding its balance sheet in a historically unprecedented fashion. The Fed’s total assets have more than doubled to nearly $2 trillion since the summer of 2007.Much of the debate surrounding the wisdom of this extraordinary increase in the production of money has revolved around its expediency–in other words, will it actually work to rescue the economy? Very little has been said, at least explicitly, about whether it is the morally right thing to do.This paper seeks to fill this gap by providing a moral analysis of the Fed’s response to the financial crisis. For this purpose, we apply Aristotelian virtue theory, Lockean natural rights philosophy, Kantian deontology, and Benthamite utilitarianism. The idea is that if a consensus, or a strong majority, can be reached from differing philosophic assumptions and starting points, then the resulting judgment ought to be compelling for all neutral observers. On the basis that the Fed’s efforts are likely to result in a marked rise in inflation, we argue that every one of these four moral theories ultimately renders a negative judgment. As such, we conclude that the Fed is pursuing an immoral course.

  4. Socioeconomic Response to Water Quality: a First Experience in Science and Policy Integration for the Izmit Bay Coastal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Gamze Tolun


    Full Text Available Deterioration of the Izmit Bay ecosystem, mainly caused by heavy industrialization and urbanization, has significantly impaired its beneficial use and resulted in the surrounding coastal zone losing its attractiveness for the inhabitants. An integrated coastal zone management approach has become an important requirement of future development plans to protect this fragile bay ecosystem. One of the main indicators of deterioration of the Izmit Bay coastal system is the decreasing water quality resulting from increased nutrient loads from the surrounding land.The consensus during the initial stakeholder meeting confirmed the widespread awareness of this phenomenon and "improvement of water quality in Izmit Bay" was determined as the main policy issue at stake. Public perception of and satisfaction with water quality were measured by a willingness to pay (WTP survey. The WTP for improved water quality was analyzed using the contingent valuation method. According to the questionnaire survey, 55% of the participants are willing to pay to increase the water quality. Impact of water quality on real-estate values was evaluated by hedonic pricing method, which is suitable for estimating direct and indirect use values of water resources. These results were used in a simulation model to assess coupled ecosystem, social, and economic system functioning of the Izmit Bay in response to various scenarios, and thus, to permit the necessary actions to be taken proactively. Two scenario simulations, for which domestic and runoff nitrogen loads are reduced independently, showed that hypothetical domestic wastewater treatment resulted in an improvement in simulated water transparency. The results suggest that domestic wastewater treatment should be a first priority for local administrations.

  5. Electre tri method used to storage location assignment into categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Elisa Fontana


    Full Text Available Day after day, the importance of a company having an efficient storage location assignment system increases. Moreover, since products have different warehouse costs and customers' requirements are also different, it is important to sort products in order to adopt strategies for inventory management that are appropriate for each product. However, adopting a policy for each product is not applicable in the real world. Therefore, companies usually categorize products into classes and thereafter adopt specific inventory management policies. Given this situation, this paper puts forward the arguments for adopting a multi-criteria method, Electre TRI, to sort products that both considers criteria relating to the characteristics of a product as to its physical location in the warehouse and the criteria that are important for inventory strategies, such as, for example, the profitability of each unit held in storage.

  6. Evaluating the Process and Extent of Institutionalization: A Case Study of a Rapid Response Unit for Health Policy in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Zida


    Full Text Available Background Good decision-making requires gathering and using sufficient information. Several knowledge translation platforms have been introduced in Burkina Faso to support evidence-informed decision-making. One of these is the rapid response service for health. This platform aims to provide quick access for policy-makers in Burkina Faso to highquality research evidence about health systems. The purpose of this study is to describe the process and extent of the institutionalization of the rapid response service. Methods A qualitative case study design was used, drawing on interviews with policy-makers, together with documentary analysis. Previously used institutionalization frameworks were combined to guide the analysis. Results Burkina Faso’s rapid response service has largely reached the consolidation phase of the institutionalization process but not yet the final phase of maturity. The impetus for the project came from designated project leaders, who convinced policy-makers of the importance of the rapid response service, and obtained resources to run a pilot. During the expansion stage, additional policy-makers at national and sub-national levels began to use the service. Unit staff also tried to improve the way it was delivered, based on lessons learned during the pilot stage. The service has, however, stagnated at the consolidation stage, and not moved into the final phase of maturity. Conclusion The institutionalization process for the rapid response service in Burkina Faso has been fluid rather than linear, with some areas developing faster than others. The service has reached the consolidation stage, but now requires additional efforts to reach maturity.

  7. Evaluating the Process and Extent of Institutionalization: A Case Study of a Rapid Response Unit for Health Policy in Burkina Faso. (United States)

    Zida, Andre; Lavis, John N; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Kouyate, Bocar; Ouedraogo, Salimata


    Good decision-making requires gathering and using sufficient information. Several knowledge translation platforms have been introduced in Burkina Faso to support evidence-informed decision-making. One of these is the rapid response service for health. This platform aims to provide quick access for policy-makers in Burkina Faso to highquality research evidence about health systems. The purpose of this study is to describe the process and extent of the institutionalization of the rapid response service. A qualitative case study design was used, drawing on interviews with policy-makers, together with documentary analysis. Previously used institutionalization frameworks were combined to guide the analysis. Burkina Faso's rapid response service has largely reached the consolidation phase of the institutionalization process but not yet the final phase of maturity. The impetus for the project came from designated project leaders, who convinced policy-makers of the importance of the rapid response service, and obtained resources to run a pilot. During the expansion stage, additional policy-makers at national and sub-national levels began to use the service. Unit staff also tried to improve the way it was delivered, based on lessons learned during the pilot stage. The service has, however, stagnated at the consolidation stage, and not moved into the final phase of maturity. The institutionalization process for the rapid response service in Burkina Faso has been fluid rather than linear, with some areas developing faster than others. The service has reached the consolidation stage, but now requires additional efforts to reach maturity. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly

  8. The Assignment Game : The Reduced Game


    Guillermo OWEN


    Let v be an assignment game. For a given reference payoff vector (x; y), and a coalition S, bargaining within the coalition can be represented by either the reduced game or the derived game. It is known that the reduced game need not be an assignment game (in fact, it need not be super additive) while the derived game is another assignment game, with modified reservation prices. We prove that, when the reference vector is in the core of the game, the derived game is the super additive cover o...

  9. Using a New Approach to Design Innovative Tools for Monitoring and Evaluating Water Policy of Burkina Faso in Response to Climate Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisse Z. Gahi


    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on water resources have jeopardized human security in the Sahel countries for many decades, especially in achieving food security. Many strategies and policies have been made to address such impacts. However, there are still difficulties to measure progress and the effectiveness of these policies and strategies with regard to climate risks. The lack of practical and consensual monitoring tool is one of the factors that can explain gaps in policies and initiatives to overcome these impacts. To move towards filling this gap, using ClimProspect model and a participatory approach, and based on in-depth vulnerability analysis, this paper makes available some innovative integrated and coherent resilience indicators and a new index for Burkina Faso’s water resources. Taking into account both climate and disaster risks, the indicators and index developed are related to warning, responses, recovery and long term resilience. The indicators-based index applied to three sites shows that agriculture water is less resilient to a changing climate with a score varying from 22.66% to 24%. These tools can help in formulating, implementation and reviewing water policy to secure water resources under the stress of climate change. The approach and findings bring together, on one hand, social and ecological resilience to climate risks, and sciences and policy on the other.

  10. Efficacy of Policy Response to the Financial and Economic Crisis (A Case Study of the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem O Salaam


    Full Text Available This piece of work seeks to perform detailed review and analysis of those factors that precipitated global financial and economic crises in 2008 with a focus on the United Kingdom economy. Impacts of the crises from both micro and macro economy perspectives are also analysed in conjunction with the sudden change in government policies from less rigid fiscal prudence, price stability, unsupportive employment policies as well as weak financial services supervision to unconventional stiff fiscal and monetary policies as well as hard core financial regulations with a primary aim to cleaning up the economic and the financial mess that characterised the meltdown. To finalise this work, it is concluded that efficiency of policy actions to address the economic menace to a large extent, helped British Economy to get out of the crisis despite that all the measures adopted were not considered to be perfect in its entirety. Other potential areas of study are also identified.

  11. Homework assignments in couple and family therapy. (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M


    Homework has been cited as an integral part of a number of theoretical orientations and therapy formats; unfortunately, very little has been written about its use with couples and families. This is despite the fact that many couple and family therapists espouse the use of homework or out-of-session assignments in order to help the effects of therapy jell. This article reviews some of the empirical literature on homework assignments and their effectiveness in the domain of therapy for families and couples. It also highlights the effectiveness of and the need for out-of-session assignments in treatment. A case illustration is used to demonstrate how homework assignments may be used as a significant change agent in couple and family treatment. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 12 CFR 25.28 - Assigned ratings. (United States)


    ... of discriminatory or other illegal credit practices in any geography by the bank or in any assessment...) of this section on the bank's assigned rating, the OCC considers the nature, extent, and strength of...

  13. 12 CFR 228.28 - Assigned ratings. (United States)


    ... evidence of discriminatory or other illegal credit practices in any geography by the bank or in any... described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section on the bank's assigned rating, the Board considers the nature...

  14. 12 CFR 345.28 - Assigned ratings. (United States)


    ... credit practices in any geography by the bank or in any assessment area by any affiliate whose loans have... section on the bank's assigned rating, the FDIC considers the nature, extent, and strength of the evidence...

  15. 12 CFR 563e.28 - Assigned ratings. (United States)


    ... practices in any geography by the savings association or in any assessment area by any affiliate whose loans...) of this section on the savings association's assigned rating, the OTS considers the nature, extent...

  16. Genetic algorithms for air traffic assignment


    Delahaye , Daniel; Alliot , Jean-Marc; Schoenauer , Marc; Farges , Jean-Loup


    International audience; In this paper, we show how genetic algorithms can be used to compute automatically a traffic assignment of aircraft on the air network to increase Air Traffic Control capacity in high density areas.

  17. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr


    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  18. Statistical aspects of optimal treatment assignment


    van der Linden, Willem J.


    The issues of treatment assignment is ordinarily dealt with within the framework of testing aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) hypothesis. ATI research mostly uses linear regression techniques, and an ATI exists when the aptitude treatment (AT) regression lines cross each other within the relevant interval of the aptitude variable. Consistent with this approach is the use of the points of interaction of AT regression lines as treatment-assignment rule. The replacement of such rules by monot...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Kithatu-Kiwekete


    Full Text Available The rationalefor central government to devolve resources for service provisionhas been debated in decentralization literature. Decentralization enhancesdemocracy,encouragesparticipation in local development initiativesandpromotes local political accountability.This discourse has been complemented bythe implementation of fiscal decentralization to increase the ability of sub-nationalgovernment in financing municipal service delivery. Fiscal decentralization hasoften been adopted by African statessince the onset ofthe New PublicManagement erain an effortto improvethe standard ofgovernance. The concernis that African states have taken minimal steps to adopt fiscal devolution thatpromotes revenue assignment which in turn limits sub-nationalgovernments’ability to generate own source revenues.This article examines the revenue assignment function of fiscal decentralization inthe Democratic Republic of Congo(DRCinthelight of decentralizationconcerns that have been raised by civil society, as the country charts its course todemocracy. The article is a desktop study that will consider documents andpoliciesin theDRCon thenational, provincialand locallevel as far asstaterevenue sourcesare concerned. Revenue assignment should enable DRC’sprovinces and local authoritiestogeneratesignificantrevenueindependently.However, post-conflict reconstruction and development efforts in the Great Lakesregion and in the DRC have largely isolated decentralization which wouldotherwise entrench local fiscalautonomy infinancing for local services anddevelopment. The article concludes that revenue generation for local authoritiesandtheprovinces in the DRC is still very centralised by the national government.Thearticleproposes policy recommendations that will be useful for the country toensurethatdecentralization effortsinclude fiscal devolution toenhance thefinancing for local development initiatives.

  20. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.


    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  1. The Collocation Policy: A Useful Personnel Assignment Policy for Those Who Don’t Understand Counterinsurgencies (United States)


    SECNAVINST 1300.12C, December 28, 2005, 2. 3 Department of the Navy, SECNAVINST 1300.12C, 2. 4 Max Boot. The Savage Wars of Peace : Small Wars and the...Boot, Max. The Savage Wars of Peace : Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books, 2003. Commandant of the Marine Corps. Marine...Women in the Military: flirting with disaster. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 1998 Mitchell, Brian. Weak Link: The Feminization of the

  2. Physician in Triage Versus Rotational Patient Assignment. (United States)

    Traub, Stephen J; Bartley, Adam C; Smith, Vernon D; Didehban, Roshanak; Lipinski, Christopher A; Saghafian, Soroush


    Physician in triage and rotational patient assignment are different front-end processes that are designed to improve patient flow, but there are little or no data comparing them. To compare physician in triage with rotational patient assignment with respect to multiple emergency department (ED) operational metrics. Design-Retrospective cohort review. Patients-Patients seen on 23 days on which we utilized a physician in triage with those patients seen on 23 matched days when we utilized rotational patient assignment. There were 1,869 visits during physician in triage and 1,906 visits during rotational patient assignment. In a simple comparison, rotational patient assignment was associated with a lower median length of stay (LOS) than physician in triage (219 min vs. 233 min; difference of 14 min; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5-27 min). In a multivariate linear regression incorporating multiple confounders, there was a nonsignificant reduction in the geometric mean LOS in rotational patient assignment vs. physician in triage (204 min vs. 217 min; reduction of 6.25%; 95% CI -3.6% to 15.2%). There were no significant differences between groups for left before being seen, left subsequent to being seen, early (within 72 h) returns, early returns with admission, or complaint ratio. In a single-site study, there were no statistically significant differences in important ED operational metrics between a physician in triage model and a rotational patient assignment model after adjusting for confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jesper


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

  4. National responses to global health targets: exploring policy transfer in the context of the UNAIDS '90-90-90' treatment targets in Ghana and Uganda. (United States)

    McRobie, Ellen; Matovu, Fred; Nanyiti, Aisha; Nonvignon, Justice; Abankwah, Daniel Nana Yaw; Case, Kelsey K; Hallett, Timothy B; Hanefeld, Johanna; Conteh, Lesong


    Global health organizations frequently set disease-specific targets with the goal of eliciting adoption at the national-level; consideration of the influence of target setting on national policies, programme and health budgets is of benefit to those setting targets and those intended to respond. In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS set 'ambitious' treatment targets for country adoption: 90% of HIV-positive persons should know their status; 90% of those on treatment; 90% of those achieving viral suppression. Using case studies from Ghana and Uganda, we explore how the target and its associated policy content have been adopted at the national level. That is whether adoption is in rhetoric only or supported by programme, policy or budgetary changes. We review 23 (14 from Ghana, 9 from Uganda) national policy, operational and strategic documents for the HIV response and assess commitments to '90-90-90'. In-person semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively sampled key informants (17 in Ghana, 20 in Uganda) involved in programme-planning and resource allocation within HIV to gain insight into factors facilitating adoption of 90-90-90. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically, inductively and deductively, guided by pre-existing policy theories, including Dolowitz and Marsh's policy transfer framework to describe features of the transfer and the Global Health Advocacy and Policy Project framework to explain observations. Regardless of notable resource constraints, transfer of the 90-90-90 targets was evident beyond rhetoric with substantial shifts in policy and programme activities. In both countries, there was evidence of attempts to minimize resource constraints by seeking programme efficiencies, prioritization of programme activities and devising domestic financing mechanisms; however, significant resource gaps persist. An effective health network, comprised of global and local actors, mediated the adoption and adaptation

  5. Auditing the Assignments of Top-Level Semantic Types in the UMLS Semantic Network to UMLS Concepts. (United States)

    He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Geller, James; Bian, Jiang


    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is an important terminological system. By the policy of its curators, each concept of the UMLS should be assigned the most specific Semantic Types (STs) in the UMLS Semantic Network (SN). Hence, the Semantic Types of most UMLS concepts are assigned at or near the bottom (leaves) of the UMLS Semantic Network. While most ST assignments are correct, some errors do occur. Therefore, Quality Assurance efforts of UMLS curators for ST assignments should concentrate on automatically detected sets of UMLS concepts with higher error rates than random sets. In this paper, we investigate the assignments of top-level semantic types in the UMLS semantic network to concepts, identify potential erroneous assignments, define four categories of errors, and thus provide assistance to curators of the UMLS to avoid these assignments errors. Human experts analyzed samples of concepts assigned 10 of the top-level semantic types and categorized the erroneous ST assignments into these four logical categories. Two thirds of the concepts assigned these 10 top-level semantic types are erroneous. Our results demonstrate that reviewing top-level semantic type assignments to concepts provides an effective way for UMLS quality assurance, comparing to reviewing a random selection of semantic type assignments.

  6. Protein secondary structure assignment revisited: a detailed analysis of different assignment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Brevern Alexandre G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of methods are now available to perform automatic assignment of periodic secondary structures from atomic coordinates, based on different characteristics of the secondary structures. In general these methods exhibit a broad consensus as to the location of most helix and strand core segments in protein structures. However the termini of the segments are often ill-defined and it is difficult to decide unambiguously which residues at the edge of the segments have to be included. In addition, there is a "twilight zone" where secondary structure segments depart significantly from the idealized models of Pauling and Corey. For these segments, one has to decide whether the observed structural variations are merely distorsions or whether they constitute a break in the secondary structure. Methods To address these problems, we have developed a method for secondary structure assignment, called KAKSI. Assignments made by KAKSI are compared with assignments given by DSSP, STRIDE, XTLSSTR, PSEA and SECSTR, as well as secondary structures found in PDB files, on 4 datasets (X-ray structures with different resolution range, NMR structures. Results A detailed comparison of KAKSI assignments with those of STRIDE and PSEA reveals that KAKSI assigns slightly longer helices and strands than STRIDE in case of one-to-one correspondence between the segments. However, KAKSI tends also to favor the assignment of several short helices when STRIDE and PSEA assign longer, kinked, helices. Helices assigned by KAKSI have geometrical characteristics close to those described in the PDB. They are more linear than helices assigned by other methods. The same tendency to split long segments is observed for strands, although less systematically. We present a number of cases of secondary structure assignments that illustrate this behavior. Conclusion Our method provides valuable assignments which favor the regularity of secondary structure segments.

  7. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey (United States)

    Ghaleb, Mageed A.; Salem, Ahmed M.


    The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. PMID:25506074

  8. Response of School Districts to the New York State Concussion Awareness and Management Act: Review of Policies and Procedures (United States)

    Kajankova, Maria; Oswald, Jennifer M.; Terranova, Lauren M.; Kaplen, Michael V.; Ambrose, Anne F.; Spielman, Lisa A.; Gordon, Wayne A.


    Background: By 2014, all states implemented concussion laws that schools must translate into daily practice; yet, limited knowledge exists regarding implementation of these laws. We examined the extent to which concussion management policies and procedure (P&P) documents of New York State school districts comply with the State's Concussion…

  9. Tweak, adapt, or transform: Policy scenarios in response to emerging bioenergy markets in the U.S (United States)

    Ryan. C. Atwell; Lisa. A. Schulte; Lynne M. Westphal


    Emerging bioenergy markets portend both boon and bane for regions of intensive agricultural production worldwide. To understand and guide the effects of bioenergy markets on agricultural landscapes, communities, and economies, we engaged leaders in the Corn Belt state of Iowa in a participatory workshop and follow-up interviews to develop future policy scenarios....

  10. Strategies to strengthen public health inputs to water policy in response to climate change: an Australian perspective. (United States)

    Goater, Sarah; Cook, Angus; Hogan, Anthony; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hieatt, Arron; Weinstein, Philip


    Under current climate change projections, the capacity to provide safe drinking water to Australian communities will be challenged. Part of this challenge is the lack of an adaptive governance strategy that transcends jurisdictional boundaries to support integrated policy making, regulation, or infrastructural adaptation. Consequently, some water-related health hazards may not be adequately captured or forecast under existing water resource management policies to ensure safe water supplies. Given the high degree of spatial and temporal variability in climate conditions experienced by Australian communities, new strategies for national health planning and prioritization for safe water supplies are warranted. The challenges facing public health in Australia will be to develop flexible and robust governance strategies that strengthen public health input to existing water policy, regulation, and surveillance infrastructure through proactive risk planning, adopting new technologies, and intersectoral collaborations. The proposed approach could assist policy makers avert or minimize risk to communities arising from changes in climate and water provisions both in Australia and in the wider Asia Pacific region.

  11. Pupil Vulnerability and School Exclusion: Developing Responsive Pastoral Policies and Practices in Secondary Education in the UK (United States)

    Tucker, Stanley


    How to best support pupils who are considered to be in danger of temporary or permanent exclusion from secondary school is an issue that is currently exercising policy makers, school managers and teachers in the UK. Using primary research data gained from interviews with secondary pupils, school managers and behaviour support staff in a group of…

  12. Ambiguously Divided Responsibilities across Government Spheres: How they Impact the Policy Process and Result in Coordination Problems in the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Dubois


    Full Text Available Empirical studies in decentralized settings associate ambiguities in the division of responsibilities between government spheres with coordination problems. This study explores the mechanisms behind this association, mainly drawing on in-depth interviews with local government officials in Poland. A typology emerges from the data. Ambiguities can refer to the policy content, but also to the rationale behind responsibilities. They may be real or perceived. The agent who perceives the ambiguities can be close to public administration (internal or further removed from it (external. External ambiguities mostly inhibit front-room stages of the policy cycle, while external ambiguities impede back-room stages. Through different paths, they contribute to tensions between government spheres, obstructing cooperation needed to address the ambiguities. Overall, the article contributes to a better understanding of the policy process in decentralized settings, unwraps the dynamic causal framework surrounding the ambiguities, and highlights the role of perceptions, not only by the electorate, but by public officials in particular.

  13. Optimization of Rated Officer Staff Assignments (United States)


    determinant +1, -1 or 0, which holds for the assignment problem (Bazaraa et al., 1990). The Unimodularity Theorem states for an integer matrix A with...The constraints of the assignment problem, in matrix notation, are defined as in part (b) of the Unimodularity Theorem , therefore since the coefficient...ABM Match Flow output for cA Ac C∈ N = 1 2( , ),NCN N ,...,N where is the navigator Match Flow output for cN Nc C∈ P = 1 2( , ), PCP P ,...,P

  14. Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education (United States)

    Milana, Marcella


    Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education - This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper investigates how globalisation processes are constructed as policy problems when these transnational political agents propose adult education as a response. The author's main argument is that while UNESCO presents the provision of adult education as a means for governments worldwide to overcome disadvantages experienced by their own citizenry, the EU institutionalises learning experiences as a means for governments to sustain regional economic growth and political expansion. After reviewing the literature on globalisation to elucidate the theories that inform current understanding of contemporary economic, political, cultural and ecological changes as political problems, she presents the conceptual and methodological framework of her analysis. The author then examines the active role played by UNESCO and the EU in promoting adult education as a policy objective at transnational level, and unpacks the specific problem "representations" that are substantiated by these organisations. She argues that UNESCO and EU processes assign specific values and meanings to globalisation, and that these reflect a limited understanding of the complexity of globalisation. Finally, she considers two of the effects produced by these problem representations.

  15. Alone in Eden: care aides' perceptions of consistent assignments. (United States)

    Andersen, Elizabeth; Spiers, Jude


    The Eden Alternative® is a philosophy of care and transformational model aimed at increasing quality of life for nursing home residents by enhancing institutional environments and restructuring delivery of care. Restructured care consists of three fundamental components: resident care provided primarily by care aides, enhanced responsibilities for care aides, and consistent assignment of residents to care aides. Researchers have focused on resident and family satisfaction with the model, but there is limited research evaluating the impact of the model on nursing home employees. This article is focused on their experiences. Convenience and purposive sampling were used to recruit 22 care aides from five nursing homes in a western Canadian city. Experiential interview data were collected and analyzed utilizing constant comparison to identify common themes. Although care aides initially welcomed the restructuring, they described gradually becoming overwhelmed by the work, confined by consistent assignments, and isolated from colleagues and other residents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Repeatable Writing Assignments to Enhance Student Writing. (United States)

    Wiebold, W. J.; And Others


    Discussed is the use of two short writing assignments and a peer review system in an undergraduate agronomy course to improve writing skills and the learning of agronomic principles. Provided is a course description and procedures used in the course. Student evaluation in the course is reviewed. (CW)

  17. Strategy-Proof Assignment Of Multiple Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlanson, Albin; Szwagrzak, Karol


    We examine the strategy-proof allocation of multiple resources; an application is the assignment of packages of tasks, workloads, and compensations among the members of an organization. In the domain of multidimensional single-peaked preferences, we find that any allocation mechanism obtained by ...

  18. Accounting for Sustainability: An Active Learning Assignment (United States)

    Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula


    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…

  19. Statistical aspects of optimal treatment assignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    The issues of treatment assignment is ordinarily dealt with within the framework of testing aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) hypothesis. ATI research mostly uses linear regression techniques, and an ATI exists when the aptitude treatment (AT) regression lines cross each other within the relevant

  20. Influence Of Agricultural Education Students Home Assignments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four courses offered in the first semester were used and their raw scores in homework /assignments and class tests made up the data. Performance of students was relatively high in homework. However, there was no significant relationship in performance in homework and class test, since the correlation was almost ...

  1. 5 CFR 870.901 - Assignments permitted. (United States)


    ..., corporations, or trustees, the insured individual must specify percentage shares, rather than dollar amounts or... increased insurance coverage under § 870.506 or during an open enrollment period, the increased coverage is considered included in the already existing assignment. The right to increase coverage remains with the...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assigned production. 1437.104 Section 1437.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  3. Enhanced functional and structural domain assignments using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The most populated families in MTB are involved in lipid metabolism, entry and survival of the bacillus in host. Interestingly, for 353 proteins, which we refer to as MTB-specific, no homologues have been identified. Numerous, previously unannotated, hypothetical proteins have been assigned domains and some of these ...

  4. income tax assignment under the ethiopian constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Constitution from an income tax point of view. And finally, the article ends with some concluding remarks. 1. Theories of Fiscal Federalism In Income Tax Assignment. Few countries pursue the course of decentralization on grounds of its perceived economic efficiency or equity. Political, social, cultural or historical forces are.

  5. Enhanced functional and structural domain assignments using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Superfamily relationships between families of unknown and known structures have increased structural in- formation by ~ 11%. Remote similarity detection methods have enabled domain assignments for 1325 'hypo- thetical proteins'. The most populated families in MTB are involved in lipid metabolism, entry and survival of.

  6. Dynamic traffic assignment on parallel computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K.; Frye, R.; Jakob, R.; Rickert, M.; Stretz, P.


    The authors describe part of the current framework of the TRANSIMS traffic research project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It includes parallel implementations of a route planner and a microscopic traffic simulation model. They present performance figures and results of an offline load-balancing scheme used in one of the iterative re-planning runs required for dynamic route assignment.

  7. Tabu search for target-radar assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    In the paper the problem of assigning air-defense illumination radars to enemy targets is presented. A tabu search metaheuristic solution is described and the results achieved are compared to those of other heuristic approaches, implementation and experimental aspects are discussed. It is argued...

  8. 48 CFR 208.7002 - Assignment authority. (United States)


    ... (MIPR) by a requiring activity and its acceptance by the contracting activity of another department, even though based on an oral communication, constitutes a one-time agreement. (ii) Consider repetitive... activities concerned. (b) Under the Integrated Materiel Management Program, assignments are made by the...

  9. Verifiable Task Assignment and Scheduling Controller (United States)


    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2017-0045 Verifiable Task Assignment and Scheduling Controller Clayton Rothwell Infoscitex Corporation...Chief, Supervisory Control Cognition Branch Supervisory Control and Cognition Branch Warfighter Interface Division //signed// KRISTOFFER A...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM

  10. Generalised Assignment Matrix Methodology in Linear Programming (United States)

    Jerome, Lawrence


    Discrete Mathematics instructors and students have long been struggling with various labelling and scanning algorithms for solving many important problems. This paper shows how to solve a wide variety of Discrete Mathematics and OR problems using assignment matrices and linear programming, specifically using Excel Solvers although the same…

  11. Teaching Historical Analysis through Creative Writing Assignments (United States)

    Peterson, Janine Larmon; Graham, Lea


    Incorporating creative writing exercises in history courses can heighten students' critical reading and analytical skills in an active learning model. We identify and define two types of possible assignments that use model texts as their locus: centripetal, which focuses on specific context and disciplinary terms, and centrifugal, which address…

  12. 78 FR 9765 - Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under (United States)


    ... an individual with a work history, a driving record, and a credit history. Under the policy we are...) and private businesses (such as banks and credit reporting companies), when we assign a new SSN, these institutions will still have records under the individual's old number. Additionally, because credit-reporting...

  13. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government. (United States)

    Martineau, F P; Graff, H; Mitchell, C; Lock, K


    The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives-for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions-can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  14. A Response to Proposed Budget Cuts Affecting Children's Mental Health: Protecting Policies and Programs That Promote Collective Efficacy. (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Atkins, Marc; Horwitz, Sarah; Kutash, Krista; Olin, S Serene; Burns, Barbara; Peth-Pierce, Robin; Kuppinger, Anne; Burton, Geraldine; Shorter, Priscilla; Kelleher, Kelly J


    Children stand to lose if the federal government follows through on threats to cut funding for critical safety-net programs that have long supported families and communities. Although cuts directly targeting children's mental health are a great concern, cuts to policies that support health, housing, education, and family income are equally disturbing. These less publicized proposed cuts affect children indirectly, but they have direct effects on their families and communities. The importance of these services is supported by an extensive body of social learning research that promotes collective efficacy-neighbors positively influencing each other-shown to have positive long-term effects on children's development and adult outcomes. In this article, the authors describe two federal programs that by virtue of their impact on families and communities are likely to promote collective efficacy and positively affect children's mental health; both programs are facing severe cutbacks. They suggest that states adopt a cross-system approach to promote policies and programs in general medical health, mental health, housing, education, welfare and social services, and juvenile justice systems as a viable strategy to strengthen families and communities and promote collective efficacy. The overall goal is to advance a comprehensive national mental health policy for children that enhances collaboration across systems and strengthens families and communities, which is especially critical for children living in marginalized communities.

  15. Tweak, Adapt, or Transform: Policy Scenarios in Response to Emerging Bioenergy Markets in the U.S. Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Atwell


    Full Text Available Emerging bioenergy markets portend both boon and bane for regions of intensive agricultural production worldwide. To understand and guide the effects of bioenergy markets on agricultural landscapes, communities, and economies, we engaged leaders in the Corn Belt state of Iowa in a participatory workshop and follow-up interviews to develop future policy scenarios. Analysis of workshop and interview data, in conjunction with the results of regional social and ecological research, was used to develop a heuristic model outlining interactions between key drivers and outcomes of regional landscape change. Three policy scenarios were built on this framework and included the following approaches: tweak, adapt, and transform. Our results suggest that if macroscale markets, technologies, and federal farm policies are allowed to be the overriding drivers of farm owner and operator decision making, Iowa's agricultural landscapes will likely become highly efficient at row crop production at the cost of other desired outcomes. However, the perspectives of Iowa leaders demonstrate how multifunctional agricultural landscapes can be achieved through a concerted portfolio of change coordinated across local, regional, and national scales.

  16. Right Here Right Now: Developing an understanding of responses to smoking policy developments using online data collection in near to real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Fergie


    Full Text Available Background: Health policymakers require timely evidence to inform decision-making, however, rapid social change often outpaces the capacity of traditional approaches to research to produce meaningful insights. The pervasion of mobile technologies and internet access offers opportunities for capturing context specific and near real-time data on people’s perceptions, behaviours and everyday experiences that could usefully inform decision-making. The Right Here Right Now pilot study was established to provide insights into public responses to, and lived experiences of, contemporary social and health issues. From May to October 2015, a cohort of 180 adults living in Glasgow were asked weekly questions. These questions were developed with decision-makers working in health and social policy or in response to topical newsworthy public health issues that arose. The questions were delivered through an online system and allowed participants to answer directly by website, SMS or post. Aim: An issue that was of high public health policy interest and debate during this period was the need for further tobacco and nicotine control. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of using an online data collection system with a cohort of Glasgow residents to provide rapid insights into public opinion on such policy developments. Method: Three smoking/vaping related questions were sent out to Right Here Right Now participants over the course of the study. The questions were in four parts, first a multiple choice question and then three qualitative follow-up questions based on participants’ responses to part one. The questions were developed with stakeholders working in health advocacy and policy development. They focused on: perceptions of the pervasion of e-cigarettes; legislation on smoking in cars carrying children; and reflections on ten years of the ‘smoking ban’ in enclosed public places. Results: The response rate ranged from 45% to 55% (65

  17. On Ideas as Actors: How Ideas about Yellow Fever Causality Shaped Public Health Policy Responses in 19th-Century Galveston. (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel S


    This article uses debates regarding yellow fever causality among leading healers in 19th-century Galveston, Texas, U.S., as a means of exploring the extent to which ideas are social actors. That is, the analysis demonstrates that ideas about yellow fever causality shaped contemporaneous public health policy responses to yellow fever outbreaks in 19th-century Galveston. The article contributes to the growing literature documenting that contagionist and anticontagionist views were often assimilated, and also supports the historiography showing that the predisposing/exciting causes dichotomy is a more robust intellectual framework for understanding 19th-century attributions of disease causality.

  18. Response to Action Memorandum - Policy for New Sources in Non-Attainment Areas, Hampton Roads Oil Refinery (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. A career exploration assignment for first-year pharmacy students. (United States)

    Sholy, Lydia; Zeenny, Rony


    To develop, implement, and assess student-learning outcomes from an assignment designed to expose first-year pharmacy students (P1) to a wide range of pharmacy career pathways. Students enrolled in a required Pharmacy Practice and Ethics course at the Lebanese American University chose 1 pharmacist career to investigate from a suggested list of 28 career pathways. Students completed a literature review on the selected career, interviewed a pharmacist practicing that career path in Lebanon, wrote a paper, and prepared and delivered a summary presentation to their classmates about the career pathway. Students peer evaluated their classmates after each presentation. More than 85% of the students scored ≥70% on the assignment based on their achievement of student learning outcomes. Responses on an anonymous questionnaire showed that more than 94.6% of students were satisfied with the extent to which the course allowed them to meet the established learning outcomes. A career exploration assignment provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to widen their knowledge and understanding of the different career pathways that are available for them.

  20. Solving Quadratic Assignment Problem with Fixed Assignment (QAPFA) using Branch and Bound Approach (United States)

    Shuthairah Syed-Abdullah, Sharifah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza; Mauziah Benjamin, Aida; Wibowo, Antoni; Ku-Mahamud, Ku-Ruhana


    Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) has been a very popular problem to be solved among researchers due to its practical applications. Several variants of QAP have been proposed by researchers in the past in order to reflect the real situations of QAP. One of the real problems of QAP is related with facilities which are required to be assigned to certain locations due to its function. In solving this problem, a fixed assignment has to be made thus allowing for the complexity of the problem to be reduced. Hence, this study introduces Quadratic Assignment Problem with Fixed Assignment (QAPFA) with the objective to minimize the assignment cost between the facility and location. This assignment takes into account the flow and distance between facility and location. QAPFA represents the real-world situation of the problem especially in dealing with specific requirement of some facilities to specific locations. Dataset of QAPFA is introduced and is solved using branch and bound approach. As for validation, the results of QAPFA are compared with QAP in terms of objective function and running time. The computational results show that the solution quality of QAPFA is lower when compared with the QAP, while the running time for QAPFA is lower than the QAP. Since the complexity of the problem is reduced by fixing the assignment, thus there is possibility that QAPFA has lower quality than QAP due to the fixed assignment. Nevertheless, in terms of running time QAPFA is better than QAP. It can be concluded that this problem reflect the real problem and practical to be used.

  1. Assignation of limited resources in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garduño Espinosa Armando


    Full Text Available Limited resources assignation is fundamental in the development of health services and since they will never be enough, justice is- sues arise. Many distributive justice theories are discussed: liberal, equilable and utilitarian, as well as ethic principles and cost-benefit relation, that is, the consequences. Palliative medicine is suggested as a strategy to reduce the cost of hospitable care and to enhance its designation.

  2. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael


    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...... Java bytecode. While the resulting bytecode sequence can still be directly executed by traditional Virtual Machines, our novel VM can infer SSA form and confirm its safety with virtually no overhead....

  3. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren


    In the last decade, the prediction of protein secondary structure has been optimized using essentially one and the same assignment scheme known as DSSP. We present here a different scheme, which is more predictable. This scheme predicts directly the hydrogen bonds, which stabilize the secondary......-forward neural network with one hidden layer on a data set identical to the one used in earlier work....

  4. Careerism, Committee Assignments and the Electoral Connection


    Katz, Jonathan N.; Sala, Brian R.


    Most scholars agree that members of Congress are strongly motivated by their desire for reelection. This assumption implies that members of Congress adopt institutions, rules, and norms of behavior in part to serve their electoral interests. Direct tests of the electoral connection are rare, however, because significant, exogenous changes in the electoral environment are difficult to identify. We develop and test an electoral rationale for the norm of committee assignment "property rights...

  5. Challenges in linking health research to policy: a commentary on developing a multi-stakeholder response to orphans and vulnerable children in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anakwah Kwadwo


    Full Text Available Abstract The Research and Development Division (RDD of the Ghana Health Service (GHS has a remit to build research capacity and conduct policy relevant research. By being situated within the GHS, RDD has good access to directors and programme managers, within and beyond the Ministry of Health. This structure has been facilitating collaboration through research cycles for 20 years, from agenda setting to discussions on policy relevance. This approach has been applied to research activities within the Addressing the Balance of Burden in AIDS (ABBA Research Programme Consortium to tackle the challenges facing HIV affected orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs. The government strategy on OVCs recommends they should be encouraged to live in their home communities rather than in institutions. We present lessons here on efforts to use research to build a response across different agencies to address the problems that communities and families face in caring for these children in their communities. This approach to building consensus on research priorities points to the value of collaboration and dialogue with multiple stakeholders as a means of fostering ownership of a research process and supporting the relevance of research to different groups. Our experience has shown that if the context within which researchers, policy makers and stakeholders work were better understood, the links between them were improved and research were communicated more effectively, then better policy making which links across different sectors may follow. At the same time, collaboration among these different stakeholders to ensure that research meets social needs, must also satisfy the requirements of scientific rigour.

  6. ROTC Policy Regarding Homosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S. Duemer


    Full Text Available This is a policy analysis, in a historical context, of how Association of American University institutions responded to Reserve Officer Training Corps policy excluding homosexuals. The time period for this study is 1982 to 1992. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data and arrive at conclusions. Secondary data provide additional depth and background. This study reveals seven different positions institutions have taken in response to ROTC policy, these include: supporting ROTC policy, neutrality, collective action, barring military recruiters from campus, distancing the institution from ROTC, and changing the campus climate. This includes examples taken from AAU institutions and rationales behind making policy decisions.

  7. Effects of individualized assignments on biology achievement (United States)

    Kremer, Philip L.

    A pretest-posttest, randomized, two groups, experimental, factorial design compared effects of detailed and nondetailed assignments on biology achievement over seven and a half months. Detailed assignments (favoring field independence and induction) employed block diagrams and stepwise directions. Nondetailed assignments (favoring field dependence and deduction) virtually lacked these. The accessible population was 101 tenth grade preparatory school male students. The 95 students enrolled in first year biology constituted the sample. Two by three ANOVA was done on residualized posttest score means of the students. Totally, the detailed students achieved significantly higher than the nondetailed students. This significantly higher achievement was only true of detailed students in the middle thirds of the deviation intelligence quotient (DIQ) range and of the grade point average (G.P.A.) range after the breakdown into upper, middle, and lower thirds of intellectual capability (ability and achievement). The upper third detailed DIQ grouping indirectly achieved higher than its peers, whereas the lower detailed DIQ third achieved lower than its peers. Thus, high capability students apparently benefit from flow and block diagrams, inductions, field independence, and high structure, whereas low capability students may be hindered by these.

  8. Capacity constrained assignment in spatial databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    U, Leong Hou; Yiu, Man Lung; Mouratidis, Kyriakos


    once) in M, (ii) the size of M is maximized (i.e., it comprises min{|P|, P q2Q q.k} pairs), and (iii) the total assignment cost (i.e., the sum of Euclidean distances within all pairs) is minimized. Thus, the CCA problem is to identify the assignment with the optimal overall quality; intuitively......, the quality of q's service to p in a given (q, p) pair is anti-proportional to their distance. Although max-flow algorithms are applicable to this problem, they require the complete distance-based bipartite graph between Q and P. For large spatial datasets, this graph is expensive to compute and it may be too...... large to fit in main memory. Motivated by this fact, we propose efficient algorithms for optimal assignment that employ novel edge-pruning strategies, based on the spatial properties of the problem. Additionally, we develop approximate (i.e., suboptimal) CCA solutions that provide a trade-off between...

  9. Gender differences in responses towards anti-smoking messages and policy implementation among future doctors in Malaysia. (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Ismail, Nurhuda; Noor, Norizal Mohd; Mohd Azman, Mohd Shafiq; Taib, Hanisah; Jusop, Junainah Mat; Salaudin, Nur Atirah


    Medical students' views may provide some direction for future policy considerations. The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in future doctors' receptiveness to currently implemented anti-smoking messages and the effectiveness of those messages. We administered a questionnaire to all students at a medical university in Malaysia, asking how frequently they noted anti- smoking policies, anti-smoking campaigns, and anti-smoking messages in schools. In addition, the questionnaire investigated most effective methods to convey these messages. A total of 522 (59.7%) students responded. Students were least likely to approve of total bans on cigarettes and increasing the price of cigarettes, and most likely to approve of bans on use of cigarettes in public places and sales to individuals less than 16 years old. Approval of total bans on cigarettes was more common in female students than in males OR=0.39 (95%CI: 0.18- 0.86). Furthermore, compared to the female students, the male students thought that printed media; OR=2.32 (95%CI: 1.31-4.10), radio; OR=1.93 (95%CI: 1.15-3.22) and the internet; OR=1.96 (95%CI: 1.15-3.33) were very effective at delivering anti-smoking messages. Gender differences existed in the future doctors' perception of the effectiveness of anti-smoking initiatives. Taking this gender difference into account may increase the receipt of anti-smoking messages in adolescents.

  10. United States chemical policy: Response considerations. Master's Thesis 1 Aug 90-7 Jun 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanDyke, L.L.


    Chemical weapons have been a controversial subject for years. Even before the Germans introduced modern chemical warfare on 22 April 1915 during World War I, issues concerning use of asphyxiating gases and other chemical agents surfaced. Discussions often became emotional and clouded the issues of the effects of this type of warfare. Propaganda and sensationalism contributed to negative public opinion and impacted on policy development. This study examines the development of the US's chemical policy by looking at significant events over time and analyzing developments and trends. An answer to the question of whether or not the US will respond with chemical weapons following use by a third world country against US military forces is concluded based on study findings. This study concluded that the US will not respond with chemical weapons against a third world country such as Iraq. Such use of chemical weapons would reverse the developments the US has made in recent years. The political considerations and the impact on future negotiations toward the banning of chemical weapons would be detrimental if the US did retaliate with chemical weapons.

  11. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination second annual report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.L.


    This is the second annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, to replace the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy. During CIRRPC's second year, the member agencies have called upon this interagency resource to assist in coordinating science and policy issues and to provide a vehicle to accomplish multiagency tasks

  12. Consumers' Response to an On-Shelf Nutrition Labelling System in Supermarkets: Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice. (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Bollinger, Bryan; Sacco, Jocelyn; Liebman, Eli; Vanderlee, Lana; Zuo, Fei; Rosella, Laura; L'abbe, Mary; Manson, Heather; Hammond, David


    Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. This study is one of the first to report the positive impact of an on-shelf nutrition labelling system on supermarket sales and revenues-key information that was specifically requested by the US National Academies, as such labelling interventions may be more sustainable if they lead to higher revenues. Providing a nutrition rating system on the front of food packages or on retail shelf tags has been proposed as a policy strategy for supporting healthier food choices. Guiding Stars is an on-shelf nutrition labelling system that scores foods in a supermarket based on nutritional quality; scores are then translated into ratings of 0 to 3 stars. It is consistent with evidence-informed recommendations for well-designed labels, except for not labelling 0-star products. The largest supermarket retailer in Canada rolled out the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets across Ontario, Canada. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which consumers respond to an on-shelf nutrition labelling system in supermarkets to inform current and future nutrition labelling policies and practices. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we conducted a quasi-experimental study across 3 supermarket banners (or "chains") in Ontario, one of which implemented the Guiding Stars system in 2012. We used aggregated

  13. The Response of Corporate Dividend Policy to The Abolition of Tax Credit in the United Kingdom (U.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardo Basuki


    This study also investigates whether individual U.K. companies respond to the 1997 abolition of tax-credit. The test results show that the majority of companies in the sample do not change their dividend policies after the abolition of tax credit. It is possible that companies are reluctant to cut their dividend payment since the existing dividend payout could be sustained in the long-run. They also avoid sending negative signals to the market. Thus, companies typically chose to keep a dividend level relatively stable following the tax change in 1997. Only the minority of the U.K. companies experience a decline in their dividend payment. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the abolition of tax credit on dividends results in a decrease in aggregate dividend payment in order to satisfy a tax clientele.

  14. [Economic crisis and employment conditions: gender differences and the response of social and employment policies. SESPAS report 2014]. (United States)

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Fons-Martinez, Jaime


    The economic crisis has had an impact across the European Union (EU), but has had a devastating impact on the labor market in Spain, which has become the country within the EU-15 with the worst employment indicators. The situation is worse in younger people, half of whom were unemployed in 2012, with a slightly higher rate in men (54.4%) than in women (51.8%). This high unemployment rate will be even more difficult to redress because of the decrease in public spending on active employment per percentage point of unemployment in 2012 compared with 2007. Furthermore, the decrease in spending on passive employment policies will worsen the health of the unemployed population. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy? (United States)

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T


    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patient Mobility for Elective Secondary Health Care Services in Response to Patient Choice Policies: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Lewis, Daniel; Mason, Malcolm; Sullivan, Richard; van der Meulen, Jan


    Our review establishes the empirical evidence for patient mobility for elective secondary care services in countries that allow patients to choose their health care provider. PubMed and Embase were searched for relevant articles between 1990 and 2015. Of 5,994 titles/abstracts reviewed, 26 studies were included. The studies used three main methodological models to establish mobility. Variation in the extent of patient mobility was observed across the studies. Mobility was positively associated with lower waiting times, indicators of better service quality, and access to advanced technology. It was negatively associated with advanced age or lower socioeconomic backgrounds. From a policy perspective we demonstrate that a significant proportion of patients are prepared to travel beyond their nearest provider for elective services. As a consequence, some providers are likely to be "winners" and others "losers," which could result in overall decreased provider capacity or inefficient utilization of existing services. Equity also remains a key concern.

  17. Framing obesity in UK policy from the Blair years, 1997-2015: the persistence of individualistic approaches despite overwhelming evidence of societal and economic factors, and the need for collective responsibility. (United States)

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; McLennan, Amy K


    Since 1997, and despite several political changes, obesity policy in the UK has overwhelmingly framed obesity as a problem of individual responsibility. Reports, policies and interventions have emphasized that it is the responsibility of individual consumers to make personal changes to reduce obesity. The Foresight Report 'Tackling Obesities: Future Choices' (2007) attempted to reframe obesity as a complex problem that required multiple sites of intervention well beyond the range of personal responsibility. This framing formed the basis for policy and coincided with increasing acknowledgement of the complex nature of obesity in obesity research. Yet policy and interventions developed following Foresight, such as the Change4Life social marketing campaign, targeted individual consumer behaviour. With the Conservative-Liberal Democrat government of 2011, intervention shifted to corporate and individual responsibility, making corporations voluntarily responsible for motivating individual consumers to change. This article examines shifts in the framing of obesity from a problem of individual responsibility, towards collective responsibility, and back to the individual in UK government reports, policies and interventions between 1997 and 2015. We show that UK obesity policies reflect the landscape of policymakers, advisors, political pressures and values, as much as, if not more than, the landscape of evidence. The view that the individual should be the central site for obesity prevention and intervention has remained central to the political framing of population-level obesity, despite strong evidence contrary to this. Power dynamics in obesity governance processes have remained unchallenged by the UK government, and individualistic framing of obesity policy continues to offer the path of least resistance. © 2016 World Obesity.

  18. Testing the Effectiveness of Online Assignments in Theory of Finance (United States)

    Batu, Michael; Bower, Nancy; Lun, Esmond; Sadanand, Asha


    The authors investigated the effectiveness of online versus paper assignments using final examination scores in three cohorts of theory of finance. In particular, two cohorts were exposed to online assignments while another cohort was exposed to traditional assignments. The central result is that exposure to online assignments robustly leads to…

  19. The core and related solution concepts for infinite assignment games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llorca, Natividad; Sanchez-Soriano, Joaquin; Tijs, Stef; Timmer, Judith B.


    Assignment problems where both sets of agents that have to be matched are countably infinite, the so-called infinite assignment problems, are studied as well as the related cooperative assignment games. Further, several solution concepts for these assignment games are studied. The first one is the

  20. Strategy-Proof Assignment Of Multiple Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlanson, Albin; Szwagrzak, Karol


    by maximizing a separably concave function over a polyhedral extension of the set of Pareto-efficient allocations is strategy-proof. Moreover, these are the only strategy-proof, unanimous, consistent, and resource-monotonic mechanisms. These mechanisms generalize the parametric rationing mechanisms (Young, 1987......We examine the strategy-proof allocation of multiple resources; an application is the assignment of packages of tasks, workloads, and compensations among the members of an organization. In the domain of multidimensional single-peaked preferences, we find that any allocation mechanism obtained...

  1. Symmetric Logic Synthesis with Phase Assignment


    Benschop, N. F.


    Decomposition of any Boolean Function BF_n of n binary inputs into an optimal inverter coupled network of Symmetric Boolean functions SF_k (k \\leq n) is described. Each SF component is implemented by Threshold Logic Cells, forming a complete and compact T-Cell Library. Optimal phase assignment of input polarities maximizes local symmetries. The "rank spectrum" is a new BF_n description independent of input ordering, obtained by mapping its minterms onto an othogonal n \\times n grid of (transi...

  2. Adaptive policy responses to water shortage mitigation in the arid regions--a systematic approach based on eDPSIR, DEMATEL, and MCDA. (United States)

    Azarnivand, Ali; Chitsaz, Nastaran


    Most of the arid and semi-arid regions are located in the developing countries, while the availability of water in adequate quantity and quality is an essential condition to approach sustainable development. In this research, "enhanced Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (eDPSIR)" sustainability framework was applied to deal with water shortage in Yazd, an arid province of Iran. Then, the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) technique was integrated into the driven components of eDPSIR, to quantify the inter-linkages among fundamental anthropogenic indicators (i.e. causes and effects). The paper's structure included: (1) identifying the indicators of DPSIR along with structuring eDPSIR causal networks, (2) using the DEMATEL technique to evaluate the inter-relationships among the causes and effects along with determining the key indicators, (3) decomposing the problem into a system of hierarchies, (4) employing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique to evaluate the weight of each criterion, and (5) applying complex proportional assessment with Grey interval numbers (COPRAS-G) method to obtain the most conclusive adaptive policy response. The systematic quantitative analysis of causes and effects revealed that the root sources of water shortage in the study area were the weak enforcement of law and regulations, decline of available freshwater resources for development, and desertification consequences. According to the results, mitigating the water shortage in Yazd could be feasible by implementation of such key adaptive policy-responses as providing effective law enforcement, updating the standards and regulations, providing social learning, and boosting stakeholders' collaboration.

  3. Local Responses to National Policy: The Contrasting Experiences of Two Midlands Cities to the Academies Act 2010 (United States)

    Smith, Penny; Abbott, Ian


    Drawing on data from a series of semi-structured interviews this article reports on findings from a research project focusing on the responses of two local authorities and their secondary schools to the Academies Act 2010. The article considers the background and the development of the education system in both localities. It goes on to focus on…

  4. Rural response to climate change in poor countries: Ethics, policies and scientific support systems in their agricultural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, C.J.


    Sustaning Soil Productivity in Response to Global Climate Change is a two-part text bringing together the latest research in soil science and climatology and the ethical, political and social issues surrounding the stewardship of this vital resource. Chapters include scientific studies on microbial

  5. Storying Teacher Education Policy: Critical Counternarratives of Curricular, Pedagogical, and Activist Responses to State-Mandated Teacher Performance Assessments (United States)

    Henning, Nick; Dover, Alison; Dotson, Erica K.; Agarwal-Rangath, Ruchi


    The rise of high-stakes, standardized, teacher performance assessments (TPAs) is central to the industry being created out of the regulation, policing, and evaluation of university-based teacher education In addition to reinforcing a narrow and counter-critical framework, TPAs can shift responsibility for the evaluation of teacher candidates from…

  6. Reporting the national antimicrobial consumption in Danish pigs: influence of assigned daily dosage values and population measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Nana Hee; Fertner, Mette Ely; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne


    , two new methods for assigning values for ADDs have recently emerged, one implemented by DANMAP, responsible for publishing annual reports on antimicrobial consumption, and one by the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA), responsible for the Yellow Card initiative. In addition to new ADD...... assignment methods, Denmark has also experienced a shift in the production pattern, towards a larger export of live pigs. The aims of this paper were to (1) describe previous and current ADD assignment methods used by the major Danish institutions and (2) to illustrate how ADD assignment method and choice...

  7. Policy and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders


    regimes in Europe – covering the 26 countries. A typology based on a cluster analysis of macro indicators of family policy – coverage of childcare, effective parental leave and spending on family policies. The cluster analysis is based on data from OECD family data base. Then follows an analysis......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of different family policy systems in Europe and evaluate their impact on the employment strategy of mothers with care responsibilities for dependent children. Design/methodology/approach – The paper outlines a typology of family policy...... of the impact of the different family policy regimes on mothers' employment strategies when they return into gainful employment, based on data from the European Social Survey, 2008. Findings – The authors have identified four different family policy models: extensive family policy, long parental leave, family...

  8. The housing policy nexus and people’s responses to housing challenges in post-communist cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Tsenkova


    Full Text Available This article explores major trends and patterns of change embedded in the overall process of economic, social and political transformation reshaping the urban challenges in eastern European cities. It reflects on important drivers of change such as efforts to create a market-based housing system and competitive housing markets in the post-communist urban world. The research draws much-needed attention to an important set of urban and housing policy issues with broad implications for understanding the transition process in the region. It explores the multi-layered processes of market-based housing reforms (privatisation, deregulation and devolution and their impact on the spatial transformation of urban housing markets in eastern European cities. The main argument, supported with empirical evidence from a number of eastern European cities, is that the impact of these most significant processes of urban change has created a mosaic of diverse urban challenges. Exploring these urban challenges through the housing lens sets the stage for a better understanding of urban social movements in eastern European cities and their dynamic realities. The article argues that the diverse role of urban social movements can be explained by reference to democratic traditions, practices and policy cultures in eastern European cities, and also to institutional structures and the capacity of non-market stakeholders. In some cases, stronger government and governance traditions since the political changes of the 1990s would allow non-government organisations to “voice” their concerns and be accepted as a legitimate partner in coalitions responding to urban challenges. In other cases, such capacity and institutional collaboration may be non-existent, leading to “exit” and abandonment of formal systems. In the first option, urban social movements have resurrected debates about gentrification and social segregation in housing estates and neighbourhoods previously



    D. Selvi; R. Queen Mary; G. Velammal


    Assignment problems have various applications in the real world because of their wide applicability in industry, commerce, management science, etc. Traditional classical assignment problems cannot be successfully used for real life problem, hence the use of fuzzy assignment problems is more appropriate. In this paper, the fuzzy assignment problem is formulated to crisp assignment problem using Magnitude Ranking technique and Hungarian method has been applied to find an optimal solution. The N...

  10. Optimization of demand assigned SCPC satellite networks (United States)

    Laborde, E.


    This paper investigates various system aspects and price tradeoffs involved in providing cost-effective Demand Assignment (DA) satellite channel service. Those network characteristics which significantly affect the ultimate cost-based decision are discussed. The number of stations participating in the DA or PA system, the number of satellite channels, and the traffic are kept parametric within expected limits, covering most of the present and future applications. In particular, the interrelationships between the network requirements (e.g., grade of service) and network elements, and the impacts of different blocking assignment allocations on the number of modems in the network is examined. A cost model is then derived that allows the evaluation and comparison of both DA and PA networks. Absolute and differential costing of PA and DA networks is permitted using economic quantities available to the system planner. These include modem cost, satellite channel cost, network size, and defined efficiency factors. Based on the differential cost comparisons for several DA and PA network strategies, tradeoffs have been derived to aid the system designer in configuring the most cost-effective DA network.

  11. Assigned value improves memory of proper names. (United States)

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G


    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing.

  12. The adaptive approach for storage assignment by mining data of warehouse management system for distribution centres (United States)

    Ming-Huang Chiang, David; Lin, Chia-Ping; Chen, Mu-Chen


    Among distribution centre operations, order picking has been reported to be the most labour-intensive activity. Sophisticated storage assignment policies adopted to reduce the travel distance of order picking have been explored in the literature. Unfortunately, previous research has been devoted to locating entire products from scratch. Instead, this study intends to propose an adaptive approach, a Data Mining-based Storage Assignment approach (DMSA), to find the optimal storage assignment for newly delivered products that need to be put away when there is vacant shelf space in a distribution centre. In the DMSA, a new association index (AIX) is developed to evaluate the fitness between the put away products and the unassigned storage locations by applying association rule mining. With AIX, the storage location assignment problem (SLAP) can be formulated and solved as a binary integer programming. To evaluate the performance of DMSA, a real-world order database of a distribution centre is obtained and used to compare the results from DMSA with a random assignment approach. It turns out that DMSA outperforms random assignment as the number of put away products and the proportion of put away products with high turnover rates increase.

  13. Are Law and Policy Clear and Consistent? Roles and Responsibilities of the Defense Acquisition Executive and the Chief Information Officer (United States)


    entire Defense Information Enterprise Architecture ( DIEA ). Most important, DoDD 8000.01 gives the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks and...Information Integration (ASD(NII))/DoD CIO the responsibility for providing standards for developing, maintaining, and implementing the DIEA , but not...for developing IT architectures based on DIEA standards. This means that DIEA standards specified by the DoD CIO can be used to electronically

  14. From generic to gender-responsive treatment: changes in social policies, treatment services, and outcomes of women in substance abuse treatment. (United States)

    Grella, Christine E


    In the past three decades, there has been increased recognition of the role of gender in influencing the course of substance use and treatment utilization. Concurrently, a substantial body of research on gender-related issues and substance abuse and its treatment has developed. This article reviews (1) policy initiatives that led to the growth of "specialized" treatment programs and services for women and recent policy changes that influence the provision of substance abuse treatment to women; (2) gender differences in the prevalence of substance use disorders and admissions to treatment; (3) gender differences in treatment needs,utilization, and outcomes, including long-term outcomes following treatment; (4) organizational characteristics of substance abuse treatment providers for women and the types of services provided in these programs; (5) treatment outcomes in gender-specific programs for women; and (6) the effectiveness of evidence-based treatment practices that have either been modified, or have the potential to be adapted, to address the treatment needs of women. This body of research is viewed within the context of a series of paradigm shifts from a generic treatment approach to a focus on gender differences and gender specificity and, most recently, to an emergent focus on gender responsiveness.

  15. DNA-based identification of invasive alien species in relation to Canadian federal policy and law, and the basis of rapid-response management. (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon G; Hanner, Robert H; Borisenko, Alex V


    Managing invasive alien species in Canada requires reliable taxonomic identification as the basis of rapid-response management. This can be challenging, especially when organisms are small and lack morphological diagnostic features. DNA-based techniques, such as DNA barcoding, offer a reliable, rapid, and inexpensive toolkit for taxonomic identification of individual or bulk samples, forensic remains, and even environmental DNA. Well suited for this requirement, they could be more broadly deployed and incorporated into the operating policy and practices of Canadian federal departments and should be authorized under these agencies' articles of law. These include Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Transport Canada, Environment Canada, Parks Canada, and Health Canada. These efforts should be harmonized with the appropriate provisions of provincial jurisdictions, for example, the Ontario Invasive Species Act. This approach necessitates that a network of accredited, certified laboratories exists, and that updated DNA reference libraries are readily accessible. Harmonizing this approach is vital among Canadian federal agencies, and between the federal and provincial levels of government. Canadian policy and law must also be harmonized with that of the USA when detecting, and responding to, invasive species in contiguous lands and waters. Creating capacity in legislation for use of DNA-based identifications brings the authority to fund, train, deploy, and certify staff, and to refine further developments in this molecular technology.

  16. National Cyber Security Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Cyber Security Policy. Salient Features: Caters to ... Creating a secure cyber ecosystem. Creating an assurance framework. Encouraging Open Standards. Strengthening the Regulatory framework. Creating mechanisms for security threat early warning, vulnerability management and response to security threats.

  17. Assessing sustainable freight policies. (United States)


    The main aim of the study was to examine transportation demand management strategies related to long haul freight. It investigates freight : movements and truck vehicle miles traveled (TVMT) changes in response to certain transportation policies, inc...

  18. New staff contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  19. A multistage linear array assignment problem (United States)

    Nicol, David M.; Shier, D. R.; Kincaid, R. K.; Richards, D. S.


    The implementation of certain algorithms on parallel processing computing architectures can involve partitioning contiguous elements into a fixed number of groups, each of which is to be handled by a single processor. It is desired to find an assignment of elements to processors that minimizes the sum of the maximum workloads experienced at each stage. This problem can be viewed as a multi-objective network optimization problem. Polynomially-bounded algorithms are developed for the case of two stages, whereas the associated decision problem (for an arbitrary number of stages) is shown to be NP-complete. Heuristic procedures are therefore proposed and analyzed for the general problem. Computational experience with one of the exact problems, incorporating certain pruning rules, is presented with one of the exact problems. Empirical results also demonstrate that one of the heuristic procedures is especially effective in practice.

  20. Rationalization of some genetic anticodonic assignments (United States)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.


    The hydrophobicity of most amino acids correlates well with that of their anticodon nucleotides, with Trp, Tyr, Ile, and Ser being the exceptions to this rule. Using previous data on hydrophobicity and binding constants, and new data on rates of esterification of polyadenylic acid with several N-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides, several of the anticodon assignments are rationalized. Chemical reasons are shown supporting the idea of the inclusion of the Ile in the catalog of biological amino acids late in the evolution, through a mutation of the existing tRNA and its aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. It was found that an addition of hexane increases the incorporation of hydrophobic Ac-Phe into poly-A, in support of the Fox (1965) and Oparin (1965) emphasis on the biogenetic importance of phase-separated systems.

  1. Assignment of uncertainties to scientific data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, F.H.


    Long-standing problems of uncertainty assignment to scientific data came into a sharp focus in recent years when uncertainty information ('covariance files') had to be added to application-oriented large libraries of evaluated nuclear data such as ENDF and JEF. Question arouse about the best way to express uncertainties, the meaning of statistical and systematic errors, the origin of correlation and construction of covariance matrices, the combination of uncertain data from different sources, the general usefulness of results that are strictly valid only for Gaussian or only for linear statistical models, etc. Conventional statistical theory is often unable to give unambiguous answers, and tends to fail when statistics is bad so that prior information becomes crucial. Modern probability theory, on the other hand, incorporating decision information becomes group-theoretic results, is shown to provide straight and unique answers to such questions, and to deal easily with prior information and small samples. (author). 10 refs

  2. Diagnosis code assignment: models and evaluation metrics. (United States)

    Perotte, Adler; Pivovarov, Rimma; Natarajan, Karthik; Weiskopf, Nicole; Wood, Frank; Elhadad, Noémie


    The volume of healthcare data is growing rapidly with the adoption of health information technology. We focus on automated ICD9 code assignment from discharge summary content and methods for evaluating such assignments. We study ICD9 diagnosis codes and discharge summaries from the publicly available Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) repository. We experiment with two coding approaches: one that treats each ICD9 code independently of each other (flat classifier), and one that leverages the hierarchical nature of ICD9 codes into its modeling (hierarchy-based classifier). We propose novel evaluation metrics, which reflect the distances among gold-standard and predicted codes and their locations in the ICD9 tree. Experimental setup, code for modeling, and evaluation scripts are made available to the research community. The hierarchy-based classifier outperforms the flat classifier with F-measures of 39.5% and 27.6%, respectively, when trained on 20,533 documents and tested on 2282 documents. While recall is improved at the expense of precision, our novel evaluation metrics show a more refined assessment: for instance, the hierarchy-based classifier identifies the correct sub-tree of gold-standard codes more often than the flat classifier. Error analysis reveals that gold-standard codes are not perfect, and as such the recall and precision are likely underestimated. Hierarchy-based classification yields better ICD9 coding than flat classification for MIMIC patients. Automated ICD9 coding is an example of a task for which data and tools can be shared and for which the research community can work together to build on shared models and advance the state of the art.

  3. Analysis of human resources for health strategies and policies in 5 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, in response to GFATM and PEPFAR-funded HIV-activities. (United States)

    Cailhol, Johann; Craveiro, Isabel; Madede, Tavares; Makoa, Elsie; Mathole, Thubelihle; Parsons, Ann Neo; Van Leemput, Luc; Biesma, Regien; Brugha, Ruairi; Chilundo, Baltazar; Lehmann, Uta; Dussault, Gilles; Van Damme, Wim; Sanders, David


    Global Health Initiatives (GHIs), aiming at reducing the impact of specific diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), have flourished since 2000. Amongst these, PEPFAR and GFATM have provided a substantial amount of funding to countries affected by HIV, predominantly for delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) and prevention strategies. Since the need for additional human resources for health (HRH) was not initially considered by GHIs, countries, to allow ARV scale-up, implemented short-term HRH strategies, adapted to GHI-funding conditionality. Such strategies differed from one country to another and slowly evolved to long-term HRH policies. The processes and content of HRH policy shifts in 5 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa were examined. A multi-country study was conducted from 2007 to 2011 in 5 countries (Angola, Burundi, Lesotho, Mozambique and South Africa), to assess the impact of GHIs on the health system, using a mixed methods design. This paper focuses on the impact of GFATM and PEPFAR on HRH policies. Qualitative data consisted of semi-structured interviews undertaken at national and sub-national levels and analysis of secondary data from national reports. Data were analysed in order to extract countries' responses to HRH challenges posed by implementation of HIV-related activities. Common themes across the 5 countries were selected and compared in light of each country context. In all countries successful ARV roll-out was observed, despite HRH shortages. This was a result of mostly short-term emergency response by GHI-funded Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and to a lesser extent by governments, consisting of using and increasing available HRH for HIV tasks. As challenges and limits of short-term HRH strategies were revealed and HIV became a chronic disease, the 5 countries slowly implemented mid to long-term HRH strategies, such as formalisation of pilot initiatives, increase in HRH production and mitigation of internal migration of HRH

  4. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis. (United States)

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard


    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  5. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?


    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut


    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  6. Statistical issues in the estimation of assigned shares for carcinogenesis liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, L.A. Jr.


    Congress is currently considering adopting a mathematical formula to assign shares in cancer causation to specific doses of radiation, for use in establishing liability and compensation awards. The proposed formula, if it were sound, would allow difficult problems in tort law and public policy to be resolved by reference to tabulated probabilities of causation. This article examines the statistical and conceptual bases for the proposed methodology. We find that the proposed formula is incorrect as an expression for probability and causation, that it implies hidden, debatable policy judgments in its treatment of factor interactions and uncertainties, and that it can not in general be quantified with sufficient precision to be useful. Three generic sources of statistical uncertainty are identified--sampling variability, population heterogeneity, and error propagation--that prevent accurate quantification of assigned shares. These uncertainties arise whenever aggregate epidemiological or risk data are used to draw causal inferences about individual cases

  7. Breast or bottle? HIV-positive women's responses to global health policy on infant feeding in India. (United States)

    Van Hollen, Cecilia


    This article describes how local responses to global health initiatives on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers reflect and transform sociocultural values in Tamil Nadu, India. Drawing from ethnographic research conducted from 2002 to 2008, the article compares guidelines for counseling HIV-positive mothers established by UNICEF and WHO with decision-making processes and perceptions of HIV-positive mothers. In addition to the financial considerations, three factors are identified as impinging on this decision: (1) a strong sociocultural value in favor of breastfeeding linked to historical traditions and contemporary state and international development discourses, (2) constructions of class identity, (3) the influence of a rights-based discourse in HIV/AIDS advocacy. This wide range of factors points to the difficulty of implementing the international protocols. This is the first study of its kind to closely examine the complex determinants in HIV-positive women's decisions and evaluations of infant feeding methods in India.

  8. Analysis of selected policies towards universal health coverage in Uganda: the policy implementation barometer protocol. (United States)

    Hongoro, Charles; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Twalo, Thembinkosi; Mwendera, Chikondi; Douglas, Mbuyiselo; Mukuru, Moses; Kasasa, Simon; Ssengooba, Freddie


    Policy implementation remains an under researched area in most low and middle income countries and it is not surprising that several policies are implemented without a systematic follow up of why and how they are working or failing. This study is part of a larger project called Supporting Policy Engagement for Evidence-based Decisions (SPEED) for Universal Health Coverage in Uganda. It seeks to support policymakers monitor the implementation of vital programmes for the realisation of policy goals for Universal Health Coverage. A Policy Implementation Barometer (PIB) is proposed as a mechanism to provide feedback to the decision makers about the implementation of a selected set of policy programmes at various implementation levels (macro, meso and micro level). The main objective is to establish the extent of implementation of malaria, family planning and emergency obstetric care policies in Uganda and use these results to support stakeholder engagements for corrective action. This is the first PIB survey of the three planned surveys and its specific objectives include: assessment of the perceived appropriateness of implementation programmes to the identified policy problems; determination of enablers and constraints to implementation of the policies; comparison of on-line and face-to-face administration of the PIB questionnaire among target respondents; and documentation of stakeholder responses to PIB findings with regard to corrective actions for implementation. The PIB will be a descriptive and analytical study employing mixed methods in which both quantitative and qualitative data will be systematically collected and analysed. The first wave will focus on 10 districts and primary data will be collected through interviews. The study seeks to interview 570 respondents of which 120 will be selected at national level with 40 based on each of the three policy domains, 200 from 10 randomly selected districts, and 250 from 50 facilities. Half of the respondents at

  9. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng


    and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs...... has much to offer in analyzing the policy process....

  10. Acquisition Policy and Procedures Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    This Instruction establishes policies, responsibilities, and procedures for the procurement of goods and services to include supplies, equipment, publications, furniture, and information technology...

  11. Efficient Mechanisms to Allocate Assignment Incentives in the Navy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nimon, R. W; Hall, Ricky D; Zaki, Hossam


    .... All assignments, however, may not necessarily be voluntary. These assignments (jobs) have been labeled as "hard to fill" by Navy leadership, and the Navy has implemented market-based, cash stipends to attract Sailors to these jobs...

  12. Dual earners’ willingness to accept an international assignment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, E.G.; Bossink, C.J.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.


    Multinational organisations experience difficulties in finding managers willing to accept international assignments. This study has therefore focused on factors that can predict males' and females' willingness to accept international assignments, or to follow their partners on international

  13. 75 FR 9763 - Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in... (United States)


    .... Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in Support of U.S. Armed Forces..., many U.S. military and civilian personnel were assigned outside the United States in support of... between the Federal Government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among...

  14. A Randomized Trial Testing the Impact of Narrative Vignettes vs. Guideline Summaries on Provider Response to a Professional Organization Clinical Policy for Safe Opioid Prescribing (United States)

    Meisel, Zachary F.; Metlay, Joshua P.; Sinnenberg, Lauren; Kilaru, Austin S.; Grossestreuer, Anne; Barg, Frances K.; Shofer, Frances S.; Rhodes, Karin V.; Perrone, Jeanmarie


    Background Clinical guidelines are known to be underused by practitioners. In response to the challenges of treating pain amidst a prescription opioid epidemic, the American College of Emergency Physicians published an evidence-based clinical policy for opioid prescribing in 2012. Evidence-based narratives, an effective method of communicating health information in a variety of settings, offer a novel strategy for disseminating guidelines to physicians and engaging providers with clinical evidence. Objectives To compare whether narrative vignettes embedded in the American College of Emergency Physician (ACEP) daily e-newsletter improved dissemination of the clinical policy to ACEP members, and engagement of members with the clinical policy, compared to traditional summary text. Methods A prospective randomized controlled study, entitled Stories to Promote Information using Narrative (SPIN) trial, was performed. Derived from qualitative interviews with 61 ACEP physicians, 4 narrative vignettes were selected and refined, using a consensus panel of clinical and implementation experts. All ACEP members were then block randomized by state of residence to receive alternative versions of a daily emailed newsletter for a total of 24 days during a 9 week period. Narrative newsletters contained a selection of vignettes that referenced opioid prescription dilemmas. Control newsletters contained a selection of descriptive text about the clinical policy using similar length and appearance to the narrative vignettes. Embedded in the newsletters were web links to the complete vignette or traditional summary text, as well as additional links to the full ACEP clinical policy and a website providing assistance with prescription drug monitoring program enrollment. The newsletters were otherwise identical. Outcomes measured were the percentage of subjects who visited any of the web pages that contained additional guideline related information and the odds of any unique physician

  15. Assigning quantum-mechanical initial conditions to cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, Massimo


    Quantum-mechanical initial conditions for the fluctuations of the geometry can be assigned in excess of a given physical wavelength. The two-point functions of the scalar and tensor modes of the geometry will then inherit corrections depending on which Hamiltonian is minimized at the initial stage of the evolution. The energy density of the background geometry is compared with the energy-momentum pseudo-tensor of the fluctuations averaged over the initial states, minimizing each different Hamiltonian. The minimization of adiabatic Hamiltonians leads to initial states whose back-reaction on the geometry is negligible. The minimization of non-adiabatic Hamiltonians, ultimately responsible for large corrections in the two-point functions, is associated with initial states whose energetic content is of the same order as the energy density of the background

  16. Medical Image Retrieval Using Multi-Texton Assignment. (United States)

    Tang, Qiling; Yang, Jirong; Xia, Xianfu


    In this paper, we present a multi-texton representation method for medical image retrieval, which utilizes the locality constraint to encode each filter bank response within its local-coordinate system consisting of the k nearest neighbors in texton dictionary and subsequently employs spatial pyramid matching technique to implement feature vector representation. Comparison with the traditional nearest neighbor assignment followed by texton histogram statistics method, our strategies reduce the quantization errors in mapping process and add information about the spatial layout of texton distributions and, thus, increase the descriptive power of the image representation. We investigate the effects of different parameters on system performance in order to choose the appropriate ones for our datasets and carry out experiments on the IRMA-2009 medical collection and the mammographic patch dataset. The extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has superior performance.

  17. Policy Development Fosters Collaborative Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Daniel M; Kaste, Linda M; Lituri, Kathy M


    This article provides an example of interprofessional collaboration for policy development regarding environmental global health vis-à-vis the Minamata Convention on Mercury. It presents an overview of mercury and mercury-related environmental health issues; public policy processes and stakeholde...... requiring dental engagement for interprofessional policy development include education, disaster response, HPV vaccination, pain management, research priorities, and antibiotic resistance....

  18. The Presentation Assignment: Creating Learning Opportunities for Diverse Student Populations. (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.; Bartle-Angus, Kathryn


    Finds the presentation assignment to be an effective method of providing students with the opportunity to apply the literacy skills they are learning in ways that are personally meaningful. Describes the presentation assignment framework and provides an example of an assignment that required students to analyze and interpret works of literature…

  19. 7 CFR 1463.111 - Offsets and assignments. (United States)


    ... assignment other than to: (i) A family member; or (ii) A party who had purchased a tobacco marketing quota... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets and assignments. 1463.111 Section 1463.111... Transition Payment Program § 1463.111 Offsets and assignments. (a) TTPP payments made to any person under...

  20. 42 CFR 405.912 - Assignment of appeal rights. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of appeal rights. 405.912 Section 405..., Reconsiderations, and Appeals Under Original Medicare (Part A and Part B) § 405.912 Assignment of appeal rights. (a... assignment of appeal rights from the beneficiary for that item or service. (b) Who may not be an assignee. An...

  1. Assessment of a Diversity Assignment in a PR Principles Course (United States)

    Gallicano, Tiffany Derville; Stansberry, Kathleen


    This study assesses an assignment for incorporating diversity into the principles of public relations course. The assignment is tailored to the challenges of using an active learning approach in a large lecture class. For the assignment, students write a goal, objectives, strategies, an identification of tactics, and evaluation plans for either…

  2. Student generated assignments about electrical circuits in a computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreman-de Olde, Cornelise; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.


    In this study we investigated the design of assignments by students as a knowledge-generating activity. Students were required to design assignments for 'other students' in a computer simulation environment about electrical circuits. Assignments consisted of a question, alternatives, and feedback on

  3. The paradox of verbal autopsy in cause of death assignment: symptom question unreliability but predictive accuracy. (United States)

    Serina, Peter; Riley, Ian; Hernandez, Bernardo; Flaxman, Abraham D; Praveen, Devarsetty; Tallo, Veronica; Joshi, Rohina; Sanvictores, Diozele; Stewart, Andrea; Mooney, Meghan D; Murray, Christopher J L; Lopez, Alan D


    We believe that it is important that governments understand the reliability of the mortality data which they have at their disposable to guide policy debates. In many instances, verbal autopsy (VA) will be the only source of mortality data for populations, yet little is known about how the accuracy of VA diagnoses is affected by the reliability of the symptom responses. We previously described the effect of the duration of time between death and VA administration on VA validity. In this paper, using the same dataset, we assess the relationship between the reliability and completeness of symptom responses and the reliability and accuracy of cause of death (COD) prediction. The study was based on VAs in the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) VA Validation Dataset from study sites in Bohol and Manila, Philippines and Andhra Pradesh, India. The initial interview was repeated within 3-52 months of death. Question responses were assessed for reliability and completeness between the two survey rounds. COD was predicted by Tariff Method. A sample of 4226 VAs was collected for 2113 decedents, including 1394 adults, 349 children, and 370 neonates. Mean question reliability was unexpectedly low ( kappa  = 0.447): 42.5 % of responses positive at the first interview were negative at the second, and 47.9 % of responses positive at the second had been negative at the first. Question reliability was greater for the short form of the PHMRC instrument ( kappa  = 0.497) and when analyzed at the level of the individual decedent ( kappa  = 0.610). Reliability at the level of the individual decedent was associated with COD predictive reliability and predictive accuracy. Families give coherent accounts of events leading to death but the details vary from interview to interview for the same case. Accounts are accurate but inconsistent; different subsets of symptoms are identified on each occasion. However, there are sufficient accurate and consistent

  4. Ethics and computing living responsibly in a computerized world

    CERN Document Server


    "Ethics and Computing, Second Edition promotes awareness of major issues and accepted procedures and policies in the area of ethics and computing using real-world companies, incidents, products and people." "Ethics and Computing, Second Edition is for topical undergraduate courses with chapters and assignments designed to encourage critical thinking and informed ethical decisions. Furthermore, this book will keep abreast computer science, computer engineering, and information systems professionals and their colleagues of current ethical issues and responsibilities."--Jacket.

  5. Maternal death inquiry and response in India - the impact of contextual factors on defining an optimal model to help meet critical maternal health policy objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalter Henry D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal death reviews have been utilized in several countries as a means of identifying social and health care quality issues affecting maternal survival. From 2005 to 2009, a standardized community-based maternal death inquiry and response initiative was implemented in eight Indian states with the aim of addressing critical maternal health policy objectives. However, state-specific contextual factors strongly influenced the effort's success. This paper examines the impact and implications of the contextual factors. Methods We identified community, public health systems and governance related contextual factors thought to affect the implementation, utilization and up-scaling of the death inquiry process. Then, according to selected indicators, we documented the contextual factors' presence and their impact on the process' success in helping meet critical maternal health policy objectives in four districts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. Based on this assessment, we propose an optimal model for conducting community-based maternal death inquiries in India and similar settings. Results The death inquiry process led to increases in maternal death notification and investigation whether civil society or government took charge of these tasks, stimulated sharing of the findings in multiple settings and contributed to the development of numerous evidence-based local, district and statewide maternal health interventions. NGO inputs were essential where communities, public health systems and governance were weak and boosted effectiveness in stronger settings. Public health systems participation was enabled by responsive and accountable governance. Communities participated most successfully through India's established local governance Panchayat Raj Institutions. In one instance this led to the development of a multi-faceted intervention well-integrated at multiple levels. Conclusions The impact of several contextual

  6. Maternal death inquiry and response in India--the impact of contextual factors on defining an optimal model to help meet critical maternal health policy objectives. (United States)

    Kalter, Henry D; Mohan, Pavitra; Mishra, Archana; Gaonkar, Narayan; Biswas, Akhil B; Balakrishnan, Sudha; Arya, Gaurav; Babille, Marzio


    Maternal death reviews have been utilized in several countries as a means of identifying social and health care quality issues affecting maternal survival. From 2005 to 2009, a standardized community-based maternal death inquiry and response initiative was implemented in eight Indian states with the aim of addressing critical maternal health policy objectives. However, state-specific contextual factors strongly influenced the effort's success. This paper examines the impact and implications of the contextual factors. We identified community, public health systems and governance related contextual factors thought to affect the implementation, utilization and up-scaling of the death inquiry process. Then, according to selected indicators, we documented the contextual factors' presence and their impact on the process' success in helping meet critical maternal health policy objectives in four districts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. Based on this assessment, we propose an optimal model for conducting community-based maternal death inquiries in India and similar settings. The death inquiry process led to increases in maternal death notification and investigation whether civil society or government took charge of these tasks, stimulated sharing of the findings in multiple settings and contributed to the development of numerous evidence-based local, district and statewide maternal health interventions. NGO inputs were essential where communities, public health systems and governance were weak and boosted effectiveness in stronger settings. Public health systems participation was enabled by responsive and accountable governance. Communities participated most successfully through India's established local governance Panchayat Raj Institutions. In one instance this led to the development of a multi-faceted intervention well-integrated at multiple levels. The impact of several contextual factors on the death inquiry process could be discerned, and suggested an

  7. A Bayesian approach to simultaneously quantify assignments and linguistic uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC FREDERICKSBURG; Ross, Timothy J [UNM


    Subject matter expert assessments can include both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. This paper examines assessments containing linguistic uncertainty associated with a qualitative description of a specific state of interest and the assignment uncertainty associated with assigning a qualitative value to that state. A Bayesian approach is examined to simultaneously quantify both assignment and linguistic uncertainty in the posterior probability. The approach is applied to a simplified damage assessment model involving both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. The utility of the approach and the conditions under which the approach is feasible are examined and identified.

  8. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.


    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  9. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182 (United States)

    Rothstein, Richard


    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a…

  10. Assessing Segregation under a New Generation of Controlled Choice Policies (United States)

    Frankenberg, Erica


    Student assignment policies (SAPs) in K-12 schools can either reproduce or help ameliorate existing inequality. Some districts are trying to maintain voluntarily adopted integration policies despite the Supreme Court's recent 2007 decision in "Parents Involved," which prohibited most race-conscious school choice policies that were…

  11. The Missing Main Effect of Welfare State Regimes: A Replication of ‘Social Policy Responsiveness in Developed Democracies’ by Brooks and Manza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate Breznau


    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a replication of Brooks and Manza's "Social Policy Responsiveness in Developed Democracies" published in 2006 in the American Sociological Review. The article finds that Brooks and Manza utilized an interaction term but excluded the main effect of one of the interacted variables. This model specification has specific implications: statistically, that the omitted main effect variable has no correlation with the residual error term from their regression; theoretically speaking, this means that all unobserved historical, cultural, and other characteristics that distinguish liberal democratic welfare regimes from others can be accounted for with a handful of quantitative measures. Using replicated data, this article finds that the Brooks and Manza models fail these assumptions. A sensitivity analysis using more than 800 regressions with different configurations of variables confirms this. In 99.5 percent of the cases, addition of the main effect removes Brooks and Manza's empirical findings completely. A theoretical discussion illuminates why these findings are not surprising. This article provides a reminder that models and theories are coterminous, each implied by the other.

  12. Environmental policy and climate change vulnerability in the Maldives: from the ‘lexicon of risk’ to social response to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Malatesta


    Full Text Available The climate change vulnerability discourse in the Maldives coexists with a pervasive set of critical environmental factors of significance to the socio-environmental systems of small peripheral islands. This implies the need to strike a balance between global challenges associated with environmental processes at the supra-national scale and the adjustments and strategies implemented at the local scale in response to change. The current paper offers a discussion of this dialectic, in reference to both the broader contemporary debate in island studies, and the political and environmental context of the Maldives. We first outline the international scenario, and then go on, in the second part of the paper, to provide a reading of environmental policy on these islands. We argue that emphasizing the country’s environmental vulnerability has reinforced a ‘lexicon of risk’ within the environmental discourse and that, in recent years, this narrative has been one of the main forces driving the construction of contemporary Maldivian ‘nation-ness’.

  13. Forest policy reform in Brazil (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage


    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  14. American energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmuntz, L.


    US energy policy has oscillated between public- and private-sector responsibility for many years. The history of energy policies reflects the differences in consumption and production of six competing regional interests as well as strong philosophical and economic differences, which allow changes in voting patterns to bring abrupt changes in policy. Other factors affecting US policy are the quality of energy forecasts, the religious fervor of the proponents of a sustainable society, and conflict with some environmental regulations. Energy policies should address a broad range of possible scenarios, with a goal of providing adequate energy at the lowest possible cost and with reasonable security. The Reagan administration will support an expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, the reform of overseas investment regulations, and the reform of gas and electric utility regulations. It will not support the World Bank energy facility or bilaterial long-term minimum purchase agreement. It may support oil tariffs or price guarantees for domestic prototype facilities. 7 tables.

  15. Social Media Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stohl, Cynthia; Etter, Michael; Banghart, Scott


    Three global developments situate the context of this investigation: the increasing use of social media by organizations and their employees, the burgeoning presence of social media policies, and the heightened focus on corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this study the intersection...... of these trends is examined through a content analysis of 112 publicly available social media policies from the largest corporations in the world. The extent to which social media policies facilitate and/or constrain the communicative sensibilities and values associated with contemporary notions of CSR...... negotiation and participation in the social responsibilities of corporations. Moreover, policies generally enact organizational communication practices that are contrary to international CSR guidelines (e.g., the UN Global Compact and other international agreements). Findings suggest that social media...

  16. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten


    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... was assigned with this task. The evaluation aimed to answer the crucial questions: Is the overall design of the portfolio of instruments appropriate? Does the impact of the instruments justify the costs, so that we reach the national goals in a cost efficient way? Will the current instrument portfolio be able...

  17. Conclusion: Challenge and policy response.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashworth, G.J.; Dietvorst, A.G.J.


    In this final chapter, the editors provide a justification for the pursuit of the approach of the book as a whole by drawing together the specific studies of tourism in particular types of place. They present an integral approach to planning and management for tourism and recreation.

  18. Convergence : Policy and Regulatory Response


    World Bank


    In the most general sense, convergence is the integration of any traditionally segmented areas of communications systems. Convergence is happening today in Egypt, and is driven by the growth of digital media and packet data communication. In specific terms, it is essential that the Government of Egypt should create the environment in which convergence can occur without impediment. This wil...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-An Atkinson


    Full Text Available Development of effective policy responses to address complex public health problems can be challenged by a lack of clarity about the interaction of risk factors driving the problem, differing views of stakeholders on the most appropriate and effective intervention approaches, a lack of evidence to support commonly implemented and acceptable intervention approaches, and a lack of acceptance of effective interventions. Consequently, political considerations, community advocacy and industry lobbying can contribute to a hotly contested debate about the most appropriate course of action; this can hinder consensus and give rise to policy resistance. The problem of alcohol misuse and its associated harms in New South Wales (NSW, Australia, provides a relevant example of such challenges. Dynamic simulation modelling is increasingly being valued by the health sector as a robust tool to support decision making to address complex problems. It allows policy makers to ask ‘what-if’ questions and test the potential impacts of different policy scenarios over time, before solutions are implemented in the real world. Participatory approaches to modelling enable researchers, policy makers, program planners, practitioners and consumer representatives to collaborate with expert modellers to ensure that models are transparent, incorporate diverse evidence and perspectives, are better aligned to the decision-support needs of policy makers, and can facilitate consensus building for action. This paper outlines a procedure for embedding stakeholder engagement and consensus building in the development of dynamic simulation models that can guide the development of effective, coordinated and acceptable policy responses to complex public health problems, such as alcohol-related harms in NSW.

  20. Reflections of Client Satisfaction: Reframing Family Perceptions of Mandatory Alternative School Assignment (United States)

    Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Aeby, Victor G.


    The authors in this study examined the client satisfaction of chronically disruptive students and their families (clients) following a mandatory alternative school assignment. Specifically, they looked at the satisfaction of the involved families and their responses recorded through three surveys completed at exit interviews during the 1999-2000…

  1. H-1, C-13, and N-15 resonance assignment of photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Trijntje J.; Oktaviani, Nur Alia; Kamikubo, Hironari; Kataoka, Mikio; Mulder, Frans A. A.

    Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is involved in the negative phototactic response towards blue light of the bacterium Halorhodospira halophila. Here, we report nearly complete backbone and side chain H-1, C-13 and N-15 resonance assignments at pH 5.8 and 20 A degrees C of PYP in its electronic

  2. Science and technology policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Public...... Accountability Procedures in Europe.   The first chapter presents Danish public accountability procedures and places them in historical perspective. The other chapters are case studies of genetically modified food, transport policy in the Copenhagen area with a focus on the Metro, and local waste management...

  3. WebAssign: Assessing Your Students' Understanding Continuously (United States)

    Risley, John S.


    Motivating students to learn is a constant challenge for faculty. Technology can play a significant role. One such solution is WebAssign — a web-based homework system that offers new teaching and learning opportunities for educators and their students. WebAssign delivers, collects, grades, and records customized homework assignments over the Internet. Students get immediate feedback with credit and instructors can implement "Just-in-Time" teaching. In this talk, I will describe how assignments can be generated with different numerical values for each question, giving each student a unique problem to solve. This feature encourages independent thinking with the benefit of collaborative learning. Example assignments taken from textbook questions and intellectually engaging Java applet simulations will be shown. Studies and first-hand experience on the educational impact of using WebAssign will also be discussed.

  4. Protein Side-Chain Resonance Assignment and NOE Assignment Using RDC-Defined Backbones without TOCSY Data3 (United States)

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall


    One bottleneck in NMR structure determination lies in the laborious and time-consuming process of side-chain resonance and NOE assignments. Compared to the well-studied backbone resonance assignment problem, automated side-chain resonance and NOE assignments are relatively less explored. Most NOE assignment algorithms require nearly complete side-chain resonance assignments from a series of through-bond experiments such as HCCH-TOCSY or HCCCONH. Unfortunately, these TOCSY experiments perform poorly on large proteins. To overcome this deficiency, we present a novel algorithm, called NASCA (NOE Assignment and Side-Chain Assignment), to automate both side-chain resonance and NOE assignments and to perform high-resolution protein structure determination in the absence of any explicit through-bond experiment to facilitate side-chain resonance assignment, such as HCCH-TOCSY. After casting the assignment problem into a Markov Random Field (MRF), NASCA extends and applies combinatorial protein design algorithms to compute optimal assignments that best interpret the NMR data. The MRF captures the contact map information of the protein derived from NOESY spectra, exploits the backbone structural information determined by RDCs, and considers all possible side-chain rotamers. The complexity of the combinatorial search is reduced by using a dead-end elimination (DEE) algorithm, which prunes side-chain resonance assignments that are provably not part of the optimal solution. Then an A* search algorithm is employed to find a set of optimal side-chain resonance assignments that best fit the NMR data. These side-chain resonance assignments are then used to resolve the NOE assignment ambiguity and compute high-resolution protein structures. Tests on five proteins show that NASCA assigns resonances for more than 90% of side-chain protons, and achieves about 80% correct assignments. The final structures computed using the NOE distance restraints assigned by NASCA have backbone RMSD 0

  5. Aerospace Policy Integration: USAF Operational Impacts in the Age of Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLeod, Mark


    .... Public policy is all about what you can do for citizens. Determining the probable success of policies is not easy, given our political system, and the difficulty in capturing costs and assigning values to perceived benefits...

  6. A probabilistic approach for validating protein NMR chemical shift assignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bowei; Wang, Yunjun; Wishart, David S.


    It has been estimated that more than 20% of the proteins in the BMRB are improperly referenced and that about 1% of all chemical shift assignments are mis-assigned. These statistics also reflect the likelihood that any newly assigned protein will have shift assignment or shift referencing errors. The relatively high frequency of these errors continues to be a concern for the biomolecular NMR community. While several programs do exist to detect and/or correct chemical shift mis-referencing or chemical shift mis-assignments, most can only do one, or the other. The one program (SHIFTCOR) that is capable of handling both chemical shift mis-referencing and mis-assignments, requires the 3D structure coordinates of the target protein. Given that chemical shift mis-assignments and chemical shift re-referencing issues should ideally be addressed prior to 3D structure determination, there is a clear need to develop a structure-independent approach. Here, we present a new structure-independent protocol, which is based on using residue-specific and secondary structure-specific chemical shift distributions calculated over small (3-6 residue) fragments to identify mis-assigned resonances. The method is also able to identify and re-reference mis-referenced chemical shift assignments. Comparisons against existing re-referencing or mis-assignment detection programs show that the method is as good or superior to existing approaches. The protocol described here has been implemented into a freely available Java program called 'Probabilistic Approach for protein Nmr Assignment Validation (PANAV)' and as a web server ( which can be used to validate and/or correct as well as re-reference assigned protein chemical shifts.

  7. Ant Colony Algorithm and Simulation for Robust Airport Gate Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao


    Full Text Available Airport gate assignment is core task for airport ground operations. Due to the fact that the departure and arrival time of flights may be influenced by many random factors, the airport gate assignment scheme may encounter gate conflict and many other problems. This paper aims at finding a robust solution for airport gate assignment problem. A mixed integer model is proposed to formulate the problem, and colony algorithm is designed to solve this model. Simulation result shows that, in consideration of robustness, the ability of antidisturbance for airport gate assignment scheme has much improved.

  8. Optimal Erasure Protection Assignment for Scalable Compressed Data with Small Channel Packets and Short Channel Codewords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Thie


    Full Text Available We are concerned with the efficient transmission of scalable compressed data over lossy communication channels. Recent works have proposed several strategies for assigning optimal code redundancies to elements in a scalable data stream under the assumption that all elements are encoded onto a common group of network packets. When the size of the data to be encoded becomes large in comparison to the size of the network packets, such schemes require very long channel codes with high computational complexity. In networks with high loss, small packets are generally more desirable than long packets. This paper proposes a robust strategy for optimally assigning elements of the scalable data to clusters of packets, subject to constraints on packet size and code complexity. Given a packet cluster arrangement, the scheme then assigns optimal code redundancies to the source elements subject to a constraint on transmission length. Experimental results show that the proposed strategy can outperform previously proposed code redundancy assignment policies subject to the above-mentioned constraints, particularly at high channel loss rates.

  9. Effects of Poland’s Pro‑Export Policy Implementation in the Context of the Plan for Responsible Development – a Preliminary Comparative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokińska Zofia


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a preliminary assessment of Poland’s export expansion policy in relation to the export of commodities, which is a result of the Government’s Plan for Responsible Development, in the context of existing barriers and the external and internal conditions reported by small and medium‑sized enterprises sector (SMEs. In the latest ranking of its competitive position in the global market for the period 2016-2017, Poland ranked 36th in the world. It should also be stressed that in this most recent world ranking Poland held the 16th position among EU Member States. A positive phenomenon in relation to Poland’s foreign trade in 2016, as compared to previous years, was that the value of export exceeded import, which allowed for a turnover surplus of nearly EUR 4.8 billion, i.e. two times higher than in 2015. In 2016 (and also in the first half of 2017 there was a favorable diversification of Polish export, demonstrating an increase in export to non‑EU markets of economically developed countries. After two years of relatively slow growth, export to this group of countries in 2016 increased by 5.6% (to EUR 12 billion, i.e. nearly 2.5 times faster than the total export. Despite the tariff‑free and quota‑free access to the single European market, there are still limits and barriers to the free movement of goods, and especially services. There are also many internal barriers in small and medium‑sized enterprises’ export to foreign markets, which limit their export expansion. Despite the gradual increase in export observed in recent years, the internationalization of non‑Polish enterprises is still much lower than in Western European countries. As a result, the share of Polish SMEs in the EU market is one third smaller than the EU average.

  10. Response surface modeling-based source contribution analysis and VOC emission control policy assessment in a typical ozone-polluted urban Shunde, China. (United States)

    You, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yun; Jang, Carey; Wang, Shuxiao; Gao, Jian; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Minhui; Zhu, Zhenghua; Wei, Hao; Yang, Wenwei


    To develop a sound ozone (O 3 ) pollution control strategy, it is important to well understand and characterize the source contribution due to the complex chemical and physical formation processes of O 3 . Using the "Shunde" city as a pilot summer case study, we apply an innovative response surface modeling (RSM) methodology based on the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling simulations to identify the O 3 regime and provide dynamic analysis of the precursor contributions to effectively assess the O 3 impacts of volatile organic compound (VOC) control strategy. Our results show that Shunde is a typical VOC-limited urban O 3 polluted city. The "Jiangmen" city, as the main upper wind area during July 2014, its VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions make up the largest contribution (9.06%). On the contrary, the contribution from local (Shunde) emission is lowest (6.35%) among the seven neighbor regions. The local VOCs industrial source emission has the largest contribution comparing to other precursor emission sectors in Shunde. The results of dynamic source contribution analysis further show that the local NO x control could slightly increase the ground O 3 under low (10.00%) and medium (40.00%) reduction ratios, while it could start to turn positive to decrease ground O 3 under the high NO x abatement ratio (75.00%). The real-time assessment of O 3 impacts from VOCs control strategies in Pearl River Delta (PRD) shows that the joint regional VOCs emission control policy will effectively reduce the ground O 3 concentration in Shunde. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Public policy response, aging in place, and big data platforms: Creating an effective collaborative system to cope with aging of the population. (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Chen, Yu


    The unprecedented rapid aging of the population is poised to become the next global public health challenge, as is apparent by the fact that 23.1% of the total global burden of disease is attributable to disorders in people aged 60 years and older. Aging of the population is the biggest driver of substantial increases in the prevalence of chronic conditions, and the prevalence of multi-morbidity is much higher in older age groups. This places a large burden on countries' health and long-term care systems. Many behavioral changes and public policy responses to aging of the population have been implemented to cope with these challenges. A system of "aging in place" has been implemented in some high-income countries in order to better provide coordinated and cost-effective health services for the elderly. This approach reduces institutional care while supporting home- or community-based care and other services. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT), assistive devices, medical diagnostics, and interventions offer many ways of more efficiently providing long-term care as part of aging in place. The use of big data on a web services platform in an effective collaborative system should promote systematic data gathering to integrate clinical and public health information systems to provide support across the continuum of care. However, the use of big data in collaborative system is a double-edged sword, as it also bring challenges for information sharing, standardized data gathering, and the security of personal information, that warrant full attention.

  12. There Are Many Purposes for Conditional Incentives to Accessing Healthcare; Comment on “Denial of Treatment to Obese Patients—the Wrong Policy on Personal Responsibility for Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Venkatapuram


    Full Text Available This commentary is a brief response to Nir Eyal’s argument that health policies should not make healthy behaviour a condition or prerequisite in order to access healthcare as it could result in the people who need healthcare the most not being able to access healthcare. While in general agreement due to the shared concern for equity, I argue that making health behaviour a condition to accessing healthcare can serve to develop commitment to lifestyle changes, make the health intervention more successful, help appreciate the value of the resources being spent, and help reflect on the possible risks of the intervention. I also argue that exporting or importing the carrot and stick policies to other countries without a solid understanding of the fiscal and political context of the rise of such policies in the US can lead to perverse consequences.

  13. "Like throwing a bowling ball at a battle ship" audience responses to Australian news stories about alcohol pricing and promotion policies: a qualitative focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Fogarty

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Policies affecting alcohol's price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. METHOD: From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18-25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. RESULTS: Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol's price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. CONCLUSIONS: News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol's price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well

  14. Neuroscience cannot answer these questions: a response to G. and R. Murrow's essay hypothesizing a link between dehumanization, human rights abuses and public policy. (United States)

    Hoffman, Morris B


    The Murrows' paper, 'A hypothetical link between dehumanization and human rights abuses', in which they propose that neuroscience may answer some difficult public policy questions, including questions about the First Amendment, is an unfortunate foray into law and public policy unjustified by the current state of neuroscience. Neuroscientific insights may one day have important implications for the law, and for some of the folk psychological assumptions embedded in the law, but they will never change the words of the written Constitution, or answer difficult policy questions in the interstices of those words. Suggesting that neuroscience can today inform these questions does a disservice to science, law and the complexity of the human condition.

  15. Moral Philosophy and Social Work Policy. (United States)

    Reiman, Amanda


    Policies in the United States regarding personal responsibility and deviant behavior often follow an underlying moral philosophy. This paper examines the philosophies in American social policy, and how beliefs about personal responsibility, definitions of deviance and the role of the social welfare system shape current policies.

  16. Moral Philosophy and Social Work Policy


    Reiman, Amanda


    Policies in the United States regarding personal responsibility and deviant behavior often follow an underlying moral philosophy. This paper examines the philosophies in American social policy, and how beliefs about personal responsibility, definitions of deviance and the role of the social welfare system shape current policies.

  17. Evaluation of Automatically Assigned Job-Specific Interview Modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Lan, Qing; Ge, Calvin; Locke, Sarah J; Hosgood, Dean; Fritschi, Lin; Sadkowsky, Troy; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wei, Hu; Xu, Jun; Lam, Tai Hing; Kwong, Yok Lam; Chen, Kexin; Xu, Caigang; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chiu, Brian C H; Ip, Kai Ming Dennis; Purdue, Mark P; Bassig, Bryan A; Rothman, Nat; Vermeulen, Roel

    OBJECTIVE: In community-based epidemiological studies, job- and industry-specific 'modules' are often used to systematically obtain details about the subject's work tasks. The module assignment is often made by the interviewer, who may have insufficient occupational hygiene knowledge to assign the

  18. Determining Feasible Solutions of a Multicriteria Assignment Problem.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an important research tool in operations research as it applies to a particular structure of the multicriteria assignment problem. The paper addresses the problem of effectiveness of feasible solutions of a multicriteria assignment problem and this was done in two steps. In the first step, we determine ...

  19. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements. An...

  20. An Algorithm for Protein Helix Assignment Using Helix Geometry. (United States)

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong


    Helices are one of the most common and were among the earliest recognized secondary structure elements in proteins. The assignment of helices in a protein underlies the analysis of its structure and function. Though the mathematical expression for a helical curve is simple, no previous assignment programs have used a genuine helical curve as a model for helix assignment. In this paper we present a two-step assignment algorithm. The first step searches for a series of bona fide helical curves each one best fits the coordinates of four successive backbone Cα atoms. The second step uses the best fit helical curves as input to make helix assignment. The application to the protein structures in the PDB (protein data bank) proves that the algorithm is able to assign accurately not only regular α-helix but also 310 and π helices as well as their left-handed versions. One salient feature of the algorithm is that the assigned helices are structurally more uniform than those by the previous programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction while the accurate assignment of a helix to a particular type underlies structure-function relationship in proteins.