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Sample records for policy analysis matrix

  1. Economic evaluation and Applications of the Policy Analysis Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... accomplished based on society values of products, internal and external product and the third row of matrix is gotten from discrepancy between first and second rows and utilized in policy analysis. Also, the calculations of relative advantage indicators are presented in Table 2. The shadowy value of opened ...

  2. Economic evaluation and Applications of the Policy Analysis Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By using benefit to costs index, internal rate of return, net present value and policy analysis matrix were calculated. The results show that intercropping was affordable than sole cropping. Sole cropping of these crops had no relative advantage, while mixed cropping had a relative advantage than sole cropping. Nominal ...

  3. Economic evaluation and Applications of the Policy Analysis Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... sensitivity analysis, sole and intercropping of millet and bean are presented in Table 6. Studying the effects of change in rate of exchange on the relative indicator advantage, the rate changed to 9000, 10000, 11000,. 12000, 13000 and 14000 Rials. NIPC index value based on PPP was reduced relative to ...

  4. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  5. Economic and accounting evaluation of rice milled production chains in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil and Uruguay with application of the Policy Analysis Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Rozane Leal de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Rice is the basis of diet for almost half of the world population, and its culture is one of the strategic agroindustrial production chains in the agribusiness environment, in both economic and social levels. Thus, the comparative analysis between the production chains of rice milled in Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, and Uruguay was mainly motivated by the interest in knowing the differences in the business environment and public policies that impact the competitiveness of this chain in both study regions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the economic efficiency, competitiveness, and effects of public policies of the rice production chain of milled rice in RS (Brazil relative to Uruguay. The data collected in this study are from the 2011-2012 harvests and indicators were calculated by applying the concepts of the policy analysis matrix (PAM. Results showed that the chains in both study regions were competitive under the existing market and policy conditions, revealed comparative advantage, transferred a high load of resources to other sectors of the economy, and satisfactorily remuneration of the domestic production factors. However, the competitiveness and comparative advantage shown in this study were not due to the encouraging intervention policies, as both production systems pay high taxes.

  6. R-matrix analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, D.C.

    1975-01-01

    Scattering and reaction processes involving very few nucleons are studied via the R matrix formalism of Wigner and Eisenbud. As examples, the d + 3 He, p + 4 He, 3 He + 4 He, and p + 6 Li are considered. (3 figures) (SDF)

  7. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  8. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  9. Analysis Matrix for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E. Branchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current digital revolution has ignited the evolution of communications grids and the development of new schemes for productive systems. Traditional technologic scenarios have been challenged, and Smart Cities have become the basis for urban competitiveness. The citizen is the one who has the power to set new scenarios, and that is why a definition of the way people interact with their cities is needed, as is commented in the first part of the article. At the same time, a lack of clarity has been detected in the way of describing what Smart Cities are, and the second part will try to set the basis for that. For all before, the information and communication technologies that manage and transform 21st century cities must be reviewed, analyzing their impact on new social behaviors that shape the spaces and means of communication, as is posed in the experimental section, setting the basis for an analysis matrix to score the different elements that affect a Smart City environment. So, as the better way to evaluate what a Smart City is, there is a need for a tool to score the different technologies on the basis of their usefulness and consequences, considering the impact of each application. For all of that, the final section describes the main objective of this article in practical scenarios, considering how the technologies are used by citizens, who must be the main concern of all urban development.

  10. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis.......'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  11. Differential analysis of matrix convex functions II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Tomiyama, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We continue the analysis in [F. Hansen, and J. Tomiyama, Differential analysis of matrix convex functions. Linear Algebra Appl., 420:102--116, 2007] of matrix convex functions of a fixed order defined in a real interval by differential methods as opposed to the characterization in terms of divided...

  12. Policy Analysis Reaches Midlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl A. Radin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of policy analysis that exists in the 21st century is quite different from that found earlier phases. The world of the 1960s that gave rise to this field in the US often seems unrelated to the world we experience today. These shifts have occurred as a result of a range of developments – technological changes, changes in the structure and processes of government both internally and globally, new expectations about accountability and transparency, economic and fiscal problems, and increased political and ideological conflict.It is clear globalization has had a significant impact on the field. Shifts in the type of decisionmaking also have created challenges for policy analysts since analysts are now clearly in every nook and cranny in the decisionmaking world. Thus it is relevant to look at the work that they do, the skills that they require, and the background experience that is relevant to them.

  13. Google matrix analysis of directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-10-01

    In the past decade modern societies have developed enormous communication and social networks. Their classification and information retrieval processing has become a formidable task for the society. Because of the rapid growth of the World Wide Web, and social and communication networks, new mathematical methods have been invented to characterize the properties of these networks in a more detailed and precise way. Various search engines extensively use such methods. It is highly important to develop new tools to classify and rank a massive amount of network information in a way that is adapted to internal network structures and characteristics. This review describes the Google matrix analysis of directed complex networks demonstrating its efficiency using various examples including the World Wide Web, Wikipedia, software architectures, world trade, social and citation networks, brain neural networks, DNA sequences, and Ulam networks. The analytical and numerical matrix methods used in this analysis originate from the fields of Markov chains, quantum chaos, and random matrix theory.

  14. Error Analysis of Band Matrix Method

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Takeo; Soga, Akira

    1984-01-01

    Numerical error in the solution of the band matrix method based on the elimination method in single precision is investigated theoretically and experimentally, and the behaviour of the truncation error and the roundoff error is clarified. Some important suggestions for the useful application of the band solver are proposed by using the results of above error analysis.

  15. Some topics in matrix iterative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandekar, D.C.; Menon, S.V.G.; Sahni, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    This report deals with the general theory of matrix iterative analysis. The contents of the report are presented in the form of lecture notes primarily because the report is an outcome of a series of lectures delivered in the Theoretical Reactor Physics Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. The first six lectures are devoted to the mathematical preliminaries needed to fully understand the subject. The remaining lectures provide an introduction to various iteractive methods and their intercomparison. (author)

  16. PRODUCT PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS - ARTHUR D. LITTLE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curmei Catalin Valeriu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades we have witnessed an unseen dynamism among companies, which is explained by their desire to engage in more activities that provide a high level of development and diversification. Thus, as companies are diversifying more and more, their managers confront a number of challenges arising from the management of resources for the product portfolio and the low level of resources with which companies can identify, at a time. Responding to these challenges, over time were developed a series of analytical product portfolio methods through which managers can balance the sources of cash flows from the multiple products and also can identify the place and role of products, in strategic terms, within the product portfolio. In order to identify these methods the authors of the present paper have conducted a desk research in order to analyze the strategic marketing and management literature of the last 2 decades. Widely were studied a series of methods that are presented in the marketing and management literature as the main instruments used within the product portfolio strategic planning process. Among these methods we focused on the Arthur D. Little matrix. Thus the present paper has the purpose to outline the characteristics and strategic implications of the ADL matrix within a company’s product portfolio. After conducting this analysis we have found that restricting the product portfolio analysis to the A.D.L. matrix is not a very wise decision. The A.D.L. matrix among with other marketing tools of product portfolio analysis have some advantages and disadvantages and is trying to provide, at a time, a specific diagnosis of a company’s product portfolio. Therefore, the recommendation for the Romanian managers consists in a combined use of a wide range of tools and techniques for product portfolio analysis. This leads to a better understanding of the whole mix of product markets, included in portfolio analysis, the strategic position

  17. Monetary Policy Analysis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysing monetary policy in Serbia. The National Bank of Serbia chose inflation targeting, which sets price stability as the main objective of monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the central bank uses different monetary policy instruments which analysis can provide us with the understanding of the main directions of their actions but also of the limitations of its application. Only through improvement of both instruments and monetary policy the central bank will create a better foundation for achieving monetary stability. In addition, the implementation of exchange rate policy is entrusted to the National Bank of Serbia, as the main regulator of the financial system. A mere use of managed floating exchange rate, as the chosen exchange rate regime, is an appropriate solution in the current economic circumstances and in accordance with the desired objective of monetary policy.

  18. Networks and Bargaining in Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogason, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A duscussion of the fight between proponents of rationalistic policy analysis and more political interaction models for policy analysis. The latter group is the foundation for the many network models of policy analysis of today.......A duscussion of the fight between proponents of rationalistic policy analysis and more political interaction models for policy analysis. The latter group is the foundation for the many network models of policy analysis of today....

  19. Perturbation analysis of nonlinear matrix population models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal Caswell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Perturbation analysis examines the response of a model to changes in its parameters. It is commonly applied to population growth rates calculated from linear models, but there has been no general approach to the analysis of nonlinear models. Nonlinearities in demographic models may arise due to density-dependence, frequency-dependence (in 2-sex models, feedback through the environment or the economy, and recruitment subsidy due to immigration, or from the scaling inherent in calculations of proportional population structure. This paper uses matrix calculus to derive the sensitivity and elasticity of equilibria, cycles, ratios (e.g. dependency ratios, age averages and variances, temporal averages and variances, life expectancies, and population growth rates, for both age-classified and stage-classified models. Examples are presented, applying the results to both human and non-human populations.

  20. ROMANIAN INVESTMENT POLICY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hategan Anca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the year 2009, the European Union, as well as the rest of the world, was affected by the economic and financial crisis, and one of the effects reflected in the decrease of foreign direct investment (FDI projects and also in the reduction of their host locations. Creating a healthy economic environment, that should be efficient for any form of international investment , represents the nowadays challenge of all market economies. This paper concentrates on analyzing our country’s attractiveness from the international investor’s point of view, it also focuses on the Romanian investment policy, its investment climate, as well as on identifying or valuating the strengths and opportunities offered by Romania. The advantages of the foreign direct investments are universally recognized and they basically include the expansion of the production capacity and income, job creation, technologically diffusion and economic development. Creating an appropriate economic environment, that is efficient for any form of international investments represents the nowadays challenge of all market economies. OECD member states experience, for example, outlines the advantages of a functional legal and normative climate, based on the principles of transparency and non discrimination, that are essential for attracting foreign investments. In the actual competition for attracting FDI, every state tries to offer as many incentives to the future foreign investors. The Romanian investment policy sets out incentives in a non-discriminatory and transparent way offering the investors the specific criteria. The Romanian business environment has improved significantly in recent years, driven in particular by EU accession. Major progress has been recorded in areas such as the fiscal environment, rule of law, the fight against corruption and property registration. When considering our country a possible location for the development of their businesses, the foreign

  1. Linear algebra and matrix analysis for statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto

    2014-01-01

    Matrices, Vectors, and Their OperationsBasic definitions and notations Matrix addition and scalar-matrix multiplication Matrix multiplication Partitioned matricesThe ""trace"" of a square matrix Some special matricesSystems of Linear EquationsIntroduction Gaussian elimination Gauss-Jordan elimination Elementary matrices Homogeneous linear systems The inverse of a matrixMore on Linear EquationsThe LU decompositionCrout's Algorithm LU decomposition with row interchanges The LDU and Cholesky factorizations Inverse of partitioned matrices The LDU decomposition for partitioned matricesThe Sherman-W

  2. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  3. Policy Analysis and Decisionmaking,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    on "PoI icy Analysis as appl ied to Hiqh-Level Decision-Makinq,’ orciani,’t, ard ,ponsored by Orinoquia Asociacion Civil , in Caracas. Vvelc/t l...substantive and tactical c. Rand’s experience (the new Institute for Civil Justice as a change) i

  4. Response matrix method for large LMFBR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.J.

    1977-06-01

    The feasibility of using response matrix techniques for computational models of large LMFBRs is examined. Since finite-difference methods based on diffusion theory have generally found a place in fast-reactor codes, a brief review of their general matrix foundation is given first in order to contrast it to the general strategy of response matrix methods. Then, in order to present the general method of response matrix technique, two illustrative examples are given. Matrix algorithms arising in the application to large LMFBRs are discussed, and the potential of the response matrix method is explored for a variety of computational problems. Principal properties of the matrices involved are derived with a view to application of numerical methods of solution. The Jacobi iterative method as applied to the current-balance eigenvalue problem is discussed

  5. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard

    2014-05-20

    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  6. Transformation of Croatian Disabled Policy: Analysis of Policy Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the idea of transformation of the policy-making mode of Croatian disabled policy, from the medical model, through the social model to the human rights model. The paper highlights 7 elements according to which these models differ, and which are structured into categories of problem-definition, goal-determination and then implementation of disabled policy. The analysis is focused on the goals of Croatian disabled policy, and is based on an interdisciplinary research project of political science, special education and social work. Empirical data were collected by document analysis, by interviewing relevant policy actors and by a survey with the members of representative bodies on all government levels. With the discourse analysis of documents, open coding of interviews and statistical analysis of data collected in the survey, the paper attempts, through the indicator of activity of persons with disability, to answer to what extent Croatian disabled policy is transformed into human rights policy.

  7. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  8. Rhetorical Analysis in Critical Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Rhetorical analysis, an approach to critical discourse analysis, is presented as a useful method for critical policy analysis and its effort to understand the role policies play in perpetuating inequality. A rhetorical analysis of Character "Matters!", the character education policy of a school board in Ontario, Canada, provides an…

  9. Google matrix analysis of DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Vivek; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2013-01-01

    For DNA sequences of various species we construct the Google matrix [Formula: see text] of Markov transitions between nearby words composed of several letters. The statistical distribution of matrix elements of this matrix is shown to be described by a power law with the exponent being close to those of outgoing links in such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW). At the same time the sum of ingoing matrix elements is characterized by the exponent being significantly larger than those typical for WWW networks. This results in a slow algebraic decay of the PageRank probability determined by the distribution of ingoing elements. The spectrum of [Formula: see text] is characterized by a large gap leading to a rapid relaxation process on the DNA sequence networks. We introduce the PageRank proximity correlator between different species which determines their statistical similarity from the view point of Markov chains. The properties of other eigenstates of the Google matrix are also discussed. Our results establish scale-free features of DNA sequence networks showing their similarities and distinctions with the WWW and linguistic networks.

  10. Google matrix analysis of DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kandiah

    Full Text Available For DNA sequences of various species we construct the Google matrix [Formula: see text] of Markov transitions between nearby words composed of several letters. The statistical distribution of matrix elements of this matrix is shown to be described by a power law with the exponent being close to those of outgoing links in such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW. At the same time the sum of ingoing matrix elements is characterized by the exponent being significantly larger than those typical for WWW networks. This results in a slow algebraic decay of the PageRank probability determined by the distribution of ingoing elements. The spectrum of [Formula: see text] is characterized by a large gap leading to a rapid relaxation process on the DNA sequence networks. We introduce the PageRank proximity correlator between different species which determines their statistical similarity from the view point of Markov chains. The properties of other eigenstates of the Google matrix are also discussed. Our results establish scale-free features of DNA sequence networks showing their similarities and distinctions with the WWW and linguistic networks.

  11. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  12. Intelligent data analysis based on rough correlativity matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Qunxiong

    2003-09-01

    This paper proposes a new data analysis method based on rough sets by rough correlativity matrix. In rough set theory, a table called information system or database is used as a special kind of formal language to represent knowledge, a rough correlativity matrix (RCM) can be seen as an internal representation of equivalence relations. Furthermore, this paper provides a new heuristic attributes reduction algorithm based on matrix computing, such as using matrix correlative implements to replace the relations computing between sets. Finally the paper adopts information transition matrix (ITM) of information theory to represent the certainty or uncertainty decision rules based on probability theory, namely, the information matrix composed of certainty factors gives the degree of belief of decision rules, on the contrary the "invert" ITM composed of coverage factor gives the interpretation of decision rules. The result of instance analysis is shown that it is an efficient and feasible method to deal with decision information table.

  13. International Conference on Matrix Analysis and its Applications 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in the field of matrix analysis based on contributions at the MAT-TRIAD 2015 conference. Topics covered include interval linear algebra and computational complexity, Birkhoff polynomial basis, tensors, graphs, linear pencils, K-theory and statistic inference, showing the ubiquity of matrices in different mathematical areas. With a particular focus on matrix and operator theory, statistical models and computation, the International Conference on Matrix Analysis and its Applications 2015, held in Coimbra, Portugal, was the sixth in a series of conferences. Applied and Computational Matrix Analysis will appeal to graduate students and researchers in theoretical and applied mathematics, physics and engineering who are seeking an overview of recent problems and methods in matrix analysis.

  14. Differential analysis of matrix convex functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Tomiyama, Jun

    2007-01-01

    We analyze matrix convex functions of a fixed order defined in a real interval by differential methods as opposed to the characterization in terms of divided differences given by Kraus [F. Kraus, Über konvekse Matrixfunktionen, Math. Z. 41 (1936) 18-42]. We obtain for each order conditions for ma...

  15. Random matrix analysis of human EEG data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šeba, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 91, - (2003), s. 198104-1 - 198104-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : random matrix theory * EEG signal Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 7.035, year: 2003

  16. Fundamentals of matrix analysis with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saff, Edward Barry

    2015-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of matrix theory from a geometric and physical perspective, and the authors address the functionality of matrices and their ability to illustrate and aid in many practical applications.  Readers are introduced to inverses and eigenvalues through physical examples such as rotations, reflections, and projections, and only then are computational details described and explored.  MATLAB is utilized to aid in reader comprehension, and the authors are careful to address the issue of rank fragility so readers are not flummoxed when MATLAB displays conflict wit

  17. Matrix-based introduction to multivariate data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    This book enables readers who may not be familiar with matrices to understand a variety of multivariate analysis procedures in matrix forms. Another feature of the book is that it emphasizes what model underlies a procedure and what objective function is optimized for fitting the model to data. The author believes that the matrix-based learning of such models and objective functions is the fastest way to comprehend multivariate data analysis. The text is arranged so that readers can intuitively capture the purposes for which multivariate analysis procedures are utilized: plain explanations of the purposes with numerical examples precede mathematical descriptions in almost every chapter. This volume is appropriate for undergraduate students who already have studied introductory statistics. Graduate students and researchers who are not familiar with matrix-intensive formulations of multivariate data analysis will also find the book useful, as it is based on modern matrix formulations with a special emphasis on ...

  18. Magnetic field and gradient analysis around matrix for HGMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, S.K.; Ha, D.W.; Ko, R.K.; Kwon, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A High Gradient Magnetic Separator (HGMS) uses matrix to make high magnetic field gradient so that ferro- or para-magnetic particles can be attracted to them by high magnetic force. These matrixes are usually composed of stainless wires having high magnetization characteristics. This paper deals with superconducting HGMS which is aimed for purifying wastewater by using stainless steel matrix. Background magnetic field up to 6 T is generated by a superconducting solenoid and the stainless steel matrix are arranged inside of the solenoid. In order to calculate magnetic forces exerting on magnetic particles in wastewater, it is important to calculate magnetic field and magnetic field gradient those are proportional to the magnetic force acting on the particle. So we presents magnetic field distribution analysis result and estimates how many times of magnetic force will act on a particle when the matrix are arranged or not.

  19. Modal cost analysis for linear matrix-second-order systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, R. E.; Hughes, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    Reduced models and reduced controllers for systems governed by matrix-second-order differential equations are obtained by retaining those modes which make the largest contributions to quadratic control objectives. Such contributions, expressed in terms of modal data, used as mode truncation criteria, allow the statement of the specific control objectives to influence the early model reduction from very high order models which are available, for example, from finite element methods. The relative importance of damping, frequency, and eigenvector in the mode truncation decisions are made explicit for each of these control objectives: attitude control, vibration suppression and figure control. The paper also shows that using modal cost analysis (MCA) on the closed loop modes of the optimally controlled system allows the construction of reduced control policies which feedback only those closed loop modal coordinates which are most critical to the quadratic control performance criterion. In this way, the modes which should be controlled (and hence the modes which must be observable by choice of measurements), are deduced from truncations of the optimal controller.

  20. The Intellectual Landscape of Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Sarah; Young, Michelle D.; Welton, Anjalé D.; Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Lee, Pei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    What counts as critical policy analysis in education? Over the past 30 years, a tightening of national educational policies can be seen in the USA and across the globe. Over this same period of time, a growing number of educational policy scholars, dissatisfied with traditional frameworks, have used critical frameworks in their analyses. Their…

  1. Evaluation and Policy Analysis: A Communicative Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Wallat

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for the next generation of students of human development is to help shape the paradigms by which we analyze and evaluate public policies for children and families. Advocates of building research and policy connections point to health care and stress experiences across home, school, and community as critical policy issues that expand the scope of contexts and outcomes studied. At a minimum, development researchers and practitioners will need to be well versed in available methods of inquiry; they will need to be "methodologically multilingual" when conducting evaluation and policy analysis, producing reports, and reporting their interpretations to consumer and policy audiences. This article suggests how traditional approaches to policy inquiry can be reconsidered in light of these research inquiry and communicative skills needed by all policy researchers. A fifteen year review of both policy and discourse processes research is presented to suggest ways to conduct policy studies within a communicative framework.

  2. Analysis of Damage in a Ceramic Matrix Composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Talreja, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Mechanisms of damage and the associated mechanical response are stud ied for a unidirectionally fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite subjected to uniaxial tensile loading parallel to fibers. A multi-stage development of damage is identified, and for each stage the governing mechanisms...... are discussed. For distributed matrix micro cracking a continuum damage model is used as the basis for describing the associated stress-strain behavior. A simplified analysis of frictional sliding at the fiber/matrix inter face is made to elucidate its effect on the stress-strain response....

  3. A comparative analysis of viral matrix proteins using disorder predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunker A Keith

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study (Goh G.K.-M., Dunker A.K., Uversky V.N. (2008 Protein intrinsic disorder toolbox for comparative analysis of viral proteins. BMC Genomics. 9 (Suppl. 2, S4 revealed that HIV matrix protein p17 possesses especially high levels of predicted intrinsic disorder (PID. In this study, we analyzed the PID patterns in matrix proteins of viruses related and unrelated to HIV-1. Results Both SIVmac and HIV-1 p17 proteins were predicted by PONDR VLXT to be highly disordered with subtle differences containing 50% and 60% disordered residues, respectively. SIVmac is very closely related to HIV-2. A specific region that is predicted to be disordered in HIV-1 is missing in SIVmac. The distributions of PID patterns seem to differ in SIVmac and HIV-1 p17 proteins. A high level of PID for the matrix does not seem to be mandatory for retroviruses, since Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV, an HIV cousin, has been predicted to have low PID level for the matrix; i.e. its matrix protein p15 contains only 21% PID residues. Surprisingly, the PID percentage and the pattern of predicted disorder distribution for p15 resemble those of the influenza matrix protein M1 (25%. Conclusion Our data might have important implications in the search for HIV vaccines since disorder in the matrix protein might provide a mechanism for immune evasion.

  4. What Can Policy Analysis Add to Evaluation Research?: Predictive Modeling and Policy Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Policy analysis, or policy study, is defined as the study of the nature, causes, and effects of alternative public policies; sometimes policy analysis refers to specific methods used. Two new developments associated with policy analysis are discussed. One is the concern for deducing the effects of alternative policies before they are adopted, as…

  5. Analysis of impurities in silver matrix by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.; Ishaque, M.; Mohammad, D.

    1999-01-01

    A procedure for the analysis of aluminium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc mainly using flame lens atomic absorption spectrophotometry has been described. The results depict that the presence of silver does not introduce any significant interference, when standards are prepared in matching silver matrix solutions. The calibration curves obey the straight-line equations passing through the origin. Thus the separation of silver matrix from the analyte solutions is not necessary. The method has successfully been applied for the analysis of silver foils, wires, battery grade silver oxides and silver nitrate samples containing analyte elements in the concentration range 2 to 40 ppm. (author)

  6. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, P

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the \\'policy analysis triangle\\' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation.

  7. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  8. Actual interaction effects between policy measures for energy efficiency-A qualitative matrix method and quantitative simulation results for households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Piet G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the conditions for a successful implementation of saving options, a general framework was developed to investigate possible interaction effects in sets of energy policy measures. Interaction regards the influence of one measure on the energy saving effect of another measure. The method delivers a matrix for all combinations of measures, with each cell containing qualitative information on the strength and type of interaction: overlapping, reinforcing, or independent of each other. Results are presented for the set of policy measures on household energy efficiency in the Netherlands for 1990-2003. The second part regards a quantitative analysis of the interaction effects between three major measures: a regulatory energy tax, investment subsidies and regulation of gas use for space heating. Using a detailed bottom-up model, household energy use in the period 1990-2000 was simulated with and without these measures. The results indicate that combinations of two or three policy measures yield 13-30% less effect than the sum of the effects of the separate measures

  9. Identifying Importance-Performance Matrix Analysis (IPMA) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the study revealed that human capital, organizational capital, technological capital and Islamic work ethics significantly influenced business performance. Then, this study explored the use of the Importance-Performance matrix analysis to identify priority factors that can be enhanced to increase business ...

  10. Policy Analysis and the Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Describes the need for reason, analysis, and experimentation in the provision of health services, and proposes that the institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences establish a center for policy studies to complement and interact with government policy formulation. (AL)

  11. Statistical analysis of effective singular values in matrix rank determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinides, Konstantinos; Yao, Kung

    1988-01-01

    A major problem in using SVD (singular-value decomposition) as a tool in determining the effective rank of a perturbed matrix is that of distinguishing between significantly small and significantly large singular values to the end, conference regions are derived for the perturbed singular values of matrices with noisy observation data. The analysis is based on the theories of perturbations of singular values and statistical significance test. Threshold bounds for perturbation due to finite-precision and i.i.d. random models are evaluated. In random models, the threshold bounds depend on the dimension of the matrix, the noisy variance, and predefined statistical level of significance. Results applied to the problem of determining the effective order of a linear autoregressive system from the approximate rank of a sample autocorrelation matrix are considered. Various numerical examples illustrating the usefulness of these bounds and comparisons to other previously known approaches are given.

  12. Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics by Square Matrix Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Li Hua [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Energy and Photon Sciences Directorate. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    2016-07-25

    The nonlinear dynamics of a system with periodic structure can be analyzed using a square matrix. In this paper, we show that because the special property of the square matrix constructed for nonlinear dynamics, we can reduce the dimension of the matrix from the original large number for high order calculation to low dimension in the first step of the analysis. Then a stable Jordan decomposition is obtained with much lower dimension. The transformation to Jordan form provides an excellent action-angle approximation to the solution of the nonlinear dynamics, in good agreement with trajectories and tune obtained from tracking. And more importantly, the deviation from constancy of the new action-angle variable provides a measure of the stability of the phase space trajectories and their tunes. Thus the square matrix provides a novel method to optimize the nonlinear dynamic system. The method is illustrated by many examples of comparison between theory and numerical simulation. Finally, in particular, we show that the square matrix method can be used for optimization to reduce the nonlinearity of a system.

  13. Bangladesh policy on prevention and control of non-communicable diseases: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin; Pervin, Sonia; Tanim, Md Imtiaz Alam; Niessen, Louis; Islam, Anwar

    2017-06-19

    This paper is aimed at critically assessing the extent to which Non-Communicable Disease NCD-related policies introduced in Bangladesh align with the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2013-2020 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of NCDs. The authors reviewed all relevant policy documents introduced by the Government of Bangladesh since its independence in 1971. The literature review targeted scientific and grey literature documents involving internet-based search, and expert consultation and snowballing to identify relevant policy documents. Information was extracted from the documents using a specific matrix, mapping each document against the six objectives of the WHO 2013-2020 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of NCDs. A total of 51 documents were identified. Seven (14%) were research and/or surveys, nine were on established policies (17%), while seventeen (33%) were on action programmes. Five (10%) were related to guidelines and thirteen (25%) were strategic planning documents from government and non-government agencies/institutes. The study covered documents produced by the Government of Bangladesh as well as those by quasi-government and non-government organizations irrespective of the extent to which the intended policies were implemented. The policy analysis findings suggest that although the government has initiated many NCD-related policies or programs, they lacked proper planning, implementation and monitoring. Consequently, Bangladesh over the years had little success in effectively addressing the growing burden of non-communicable diseases. It is imperative that future research critically assess the effectiveness of national NCD policies by monitoring their implementation and level of population coverage.

  14. Public Policies Analysis and the Prince System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behxhet Brajshori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Public Policies present governmental sectorial policies and according to several scholars those are defined based on "what does the Government do". In fact, those are mandatory state's principles for the Government that aims the implementation of the strategy, objectives and Government's goals in the function of its promises' fulfilment towards the electors and all of the country's citizens. Public Policies Analysis has to do with the monitoring of government's agenda which directly can influence on a specific community. The idea of public policies analysis in linked with the need that the Government through statistical data has to prove what is being worked. Public Policies Analysis evolves in terms of design, implementation and public policies' effects. One of the methods for predicting the probability that a specifi c public policy will be implemented or not, is the Prince System. The Prince System, actually, presents a technique for assessing the relative support or opposition to a particular policy from individuals, groups or organizations.

  15. Introduction: Discourse Analysis and Policy Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); R.J. Apthorpe (Raymond)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: As introduction to a collection on policy discourses and patterns of argumentation in international development, this paper clarifies different meanings of `discourse' and 'discourse analysis', including as applied in development studies, and explains why effective

  16. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  17. Musical structure analysis using similarity matrix and dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Yu; Jeong, Hong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2005-10-01

    Automatic music segmentation and structure analysis from audio waveforms based on a three-level hierarchy is examined in this research, where the three-level hierarchy includes notes, measures and parts. The pitch class profile (PCP) feature is first extracted at the note level. Then, a similarity matrix is constructed at the measure level, where a dynamic time warping (DTW) technique is used to enhance the similarity computation by taking the temporal distortion of similar audio segments into account. By processing the similarity matrix, we can obtain a coarse-grain music segmentation result. Finally, dynamic programming is applied to the coarse-grain segments so that a song can be decomposed into several major parts such as intro, verse, chorus, bridge and outro. The performance of the proposed music structure analysis system is demonstrated for pop and rock music.

  18. Google matrix analysis of C.elegans neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandiah, V., E-mail: kandiah@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Shepelyansky, D.L., E-mail: dima@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr

    2014-05-01

    We study the structural properties of the neural network of the C.elegans (worm) from a directed graph point of view. The Google matrix analysis is used to characterize the neuron connectivity structure and node classifications are discussed and compared with physiological properties of the cells. Our results are obtained by a proper definition of neural directed network and subsequent eigenvector analysis which recovers some results of previous studies. Our analysis highlights particular sets of important neurons constituting the core of the neural system. The applications of PageRank, CheiRank and ImpactRank to characterization of interdependency of neurons are discussed.

  19. Google matrix analysis of C.elegans neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandiah, V.; Shepelyansky, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    We study the structural properties of the neural network of the C.elegans (worm) from a directed graph point of view. The Google matrix analysis is used to characterize the neuron connectivity structure and node classifications are discussed and compared with physiological properties of the cells. Our results are obtained by a proper definition of neural directed network and subsequent eigenvector analysis which recovers some results of previous studies. Our analysis highlights particular sets of important neurons constituting the core of the neural system. The applications of PageRank, CheiRank and ImpactRank to characterization of interdependency of neurons are discussed.

  20. Recursive Principal Components Analysis Using Eigenvector Matrix Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Erdogmus

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Principal components analysis is an important and well-studied subject in statistics and signal processing. The literature has an abundance of algorithms for solving this problem, where most of these algorithms could be grouped into one of the following three approaches: adaptation based on Hebbian updates and deflation, optimization of a second-order statistical criterion (like reconstruction error or output variance, and fixed point update rules with deflation. In this paper, we take a completely different approach that avoids deflation and the optimization of a cost function using gradients. The proposed method updates the eigenvector and eigenvalue matrices simultaneously with every new sample such that the estimates approximately track their true values as would be calculated from the current sample estimate of the data covariance matrix. The performance of this algorithm is compared with that of traditional methods like Sanger's rule and APEX, as well as a structurally similar matrix perturbation-based method.

  1. Neutron activation analysis on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at giving support to the Worker's Health Awareness Program of the Municipal Department of Health of Belo Horizonte, an assessment related arsenic was carried out in two galvanising factories by means of hair and toenail samples analysis as biomonitors. The arsenic was determined in all matrixes from the factories where gold electrodeposition process was applied. This is because arsenic salts are usually added to gold bath to improve the metal covering. The high concentration results surprised the health surveillance professionals, and alerted for the need of assessing the influence of a long-term exposure. Studies concerning galvanising process have usually been developed broaching many aspects, but so far few works has pointed out the detection and measurement of other elements like arsenic. The k 0 -Instrumental Neutron Activation method was applied confirming to be a suitable technique on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes. (author)

  2. A National Scale Sustainable Agriculture Matrix of Indicators to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The ratification of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by all member countries of the United Nations demonstrates the determination of the international community in moving towards a sustainable future. To enable and encourage accountability, independent and transparent measurements of national sustainability efforts are essential. Among all sectors, agriculture is fundamental to all three pillars of sustainability, namely environment, society, and economy. However, the definition of a sustainable agriculture and the feasibility of measuring it remain elusive, in part because it encompasses both biophysical and socio-economic components that are still poorly integrated. Therefore, we have been developing a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix (SAM) on a national scale in order to measure country-level performance in agriculture. First proposed by Swaminathan for agricultural research and policy in 1990s, SAM is a collection of indicators measuring sustainable agriculture from environmental, social, and economic dimensions. The environmental dimension evaluates various impacts of agricultural production on the environment, such as water consumption and nutrient pollution. The economic dimension quantifies the costs and benefits for major stakeholders involved in agricultural production, including government, industry, farmers, and consumers. The social dimension considers three major aspects: 1) social welfare (e.g., hunger and poverty rate, nutritional quality, demography of rural community); 2) equity over sectors, space, and gender (e.g., access to resources/services and opportunities, distribution of income, land ownership and tenure rights); 3) systemic risk (e.g., fragility of the global agricultural production and trade system, resilience of a farm or a country to market and natural shocks). Translating the illustrative concepts into measureable indicators will not only provide an independent and transparent measurement of national performance in the

  3. Policy analysis of electricity demand flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas

    The large-scale development of variable renewable energy sources, like wind and solar power, increases the demand for flexibility in power systems. At the same time, their electricity production replaces that of conventional power plants – the traditional suppliers of flexibility, and consequently...... include a clear commitment to develop an "intelligent" energy system that utilises the flexibility potential of the demand side, a coherent policy strategy covering all aspects of the flexibility challenge has not yet been defined. By use of economic models and concepts of policy analysis, this thesis...... flexibility on the demand side. Its potential could be substantial and technical solutions are available. Still, demand flexibility is largely unutilised and establishing an enabling policy and regulatory framework has been identified as one of the major challenges. While the latest Danish energy policies...

  4. Policy Analysis, International Relations, and European Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Tatham, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the rationale of the special issue in terms of its objectives and guiding principles. It maps different evolutions and challenges within three analytical streams (1) regarding the field of policy analysis, (2) concerning the interaction between domestic and international...

  5. Interpretive policy analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, Severine; van Hulst, M.J.; Yanow, Dvora; van Nispen, Frans; Scholten, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines the character of interpretive policy analysis (IPA) and then looks at the history and present state of its practice in the Netherlands. In an approach commonly found in science studies, that history is traced through key actors and their publications, institutional locations,

  6. Proteomics analysis of the zebrafish skeletal extracellular matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurijn Y Kessels

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix of the immature and mature skeleton is key to the development and function of the skeletal system. Notwithstanding its importance, it has been technically challenging to obtain a comprehensive picture of the changes in skeletal composition throughout the development of bone and cartilage. In this study, we analyzed the extracellular protein composition of the zebrafish skeleton using a mass spectrometry-based approach, resulting in the identification of 262 extracellular proteins, including most of the bone and cartilage specific proteins previously reported in mammalian species. By comparing these extracellular proteins at larval, juvenile, and adult developmental stages, 123 proteins were found that differed significantly in abundance during development. Proteins with a reported function in bone formation increased in abundance during zebrafish development, while analysis of the cartilage matrix revealed major compositional changes during development. The protein list includes ligands and inhibitors of various signaling pathways implicated in skeletogenesis such as the Int/Wingless as well as the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways. This first proteomic analysis of zebrafish skeletal development reveals that the zebrafish skeleton is comparable with the skeleton of other vertebrate species including mammals. In addition, our study reveals 6 novel proteins that have never been related to vertebrate skeletogenesis and shows a surprisingly large number of differences in the cartilage and bone proteome between the head, axis and caudal fin regions. Our study provides the first systematic assessment of bone and cartilage protein composition in an entire vertebrate at different stages of development.

  7. Vector sparse representation of color image using quaternion matrix analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Yu, Licheng; Xu, Hongteng; Zhang, Hao; Nguyen, Truong

    2015-04-01

    Traditional sparse image models treat color image pixel as a scalar, which represents color channels separately or concatenate color channels as a monochrome image. In this paper, we propose a vector sparse representation model for color images using quaternion matrix analysis. As a new tool for color image representation, its potential applications in several image-processing tasks are presented, including color image reconstruction, denoising, inpainting, and super-resolution. The proposed model represents the color image as a quaternion matrix, where a quaternion-based dictionary learning algorithm is presented using the K-quaternion singular value decomposition (QSVD) (generalized K-means clustering for QSVD) method. It conducts the sparse basis selection in quaternion space, which uniformly transforms the channel images to an orthogonal color space. In this new color space, it is significant that the inherent color structures can be completely preserved during vector reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed sparse model is more efficient comparing with the current sparse models for image restoration tasks due to lower redundancy between the atoms of different color channels. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sparse image model avoids the hue bias issue successfully and shows its potential as a general and powerful tool in color image analysis and processing domain.

  8. Policy analysis and recommendations for the DCM research data exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report is a policy analysis and set of recommendations regarding open data policies and policies for new, transformative data environments that are being developed as part of the Connected Vehicle research program. It is presented in three secti...

  9. Using matrix isolation FTIR for trace atmospheric gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutawah, Jameela

    1998-01-01

    The matrix isolation technique combined with FTIR spectroscopy has been used for trace atmospheric gas analysis. The main objective was to develop this technique into a simple, reliable field method using the simplest possible apparatus to give reliable results. As a preliminary to the research, calibration curves of the intensity of IR absorptions of acetone, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, formic acid, N 2 O, SO 2 and ethylene were constructed for a range of concentrations of these reagents in CO 2 . All spectra were recorded on solid films at 77 K. Linear responses were observed for absorbance vs. concentration and the technique showed the best sensitivity for N 2 O which was detected at a minimum atmospheric concentration of ca. 32.5 ppb. Acetone, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethylene were detected at a minimum atmospheric concentration of ca. 3.3 ppm while formic acid was detected at a minimum atmospheric concentration of ca. 2.3 ppm. SO 2 was detected at a minimum atmospheric concentration of ca. 325 ppb. A thorough spectroscopic study was done on some carbonyl compounds in CO 2 matrices including the effect of CO 2 matrix on the IR spectra as in most cases spectra have never previously been recorded for these species in CO 2 matrices. Another study of some isotopic species of these compounds in CO 2 matrices was then done to see the presence of any interaction between the compounds and CO 2 matrix which could lead to slightly different spectra from those of the gas-phase or even from the spectra of the same compounds isolated in different matrices which have been reported in other studies. A new method for infrared analysis of multicomponent gas mixtures which involves a condensed phase sampling technique employing commercially available cryogenic equipment is described. Molecules are characterized by a small number of well defined infrared absorptions. As a method of pre-concentrating the atmospheric carbonyl compounds, different adsorbent materials were

  10. Carbon Sequestration in Colorado's Lands: A Spatial and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, N.; Brazeau, A.; Browning, K.; Meier, R.

    2017-12-01

    Managing landscapes to enhance terrestrial carbon sequestration has significant potential to mitigate climate change. While a previous carbon baseline assessment in Colorado has been published (Conant et al, 2007), our study pulls from the existing literature to conduct an updated baseline assessment of carbon stocks and a unique review of carbon policies in Colorado. Through a multi-level spatial analysis based in GIS and informed by a literature review, we established a carbon stock baseline and ran four land use and carbon stock projection scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. We identified 11 key policy recommendations for improving Colorado's carbon stocks, and evaluated each using Bardach's policy matrix approach (Bardach, 2012). We utilized a series of case studies to support our policy recommendations. We found that Colorado's lands have a carbon stock of 3,334 MMT CO2eq, with Forests and Woodlands holding the largest stocks, at 1,490 and 774 MMT CO2eq respectively. Avoided conversion of all Grasslands, Forests, and Wetlands in Colorado projected over 40 years would increase carbon stocks by 32 MMT CO2eq, 1,053 MMT CO2eq, and 36 MMT CO2eq, respectively. Over the 40-year study period, Forests and Woodlands areas are projected to shrink while Shrublands and Developed areas are projected to grow. Those projections suggest sizable increases in area of future wildfires and development in Colorado. We found that numerous policy opportunities to sequester carbon exist at different jurisdictional levels and across land cover types. The largest opportunities were found in state-level policies and policies impacting Forests, Grasslands, and Wetlands. The passage of statewide emission reduction legislation has the highest potential to impact carbon sequestration, although political and administrative feasibility of this option are relatively low. This study contributes to the broader field of carbon sequestration literature by examining the nexus of carbon stocks

  11. A macro-micromechanics analysis of a notched metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Catherine A.; Naik, Rajiv A.

    1992-01-01

    Macro- and micromechanics analysis were conducted to determine the matrix and fiber behaviors near the notch in a center-notched metal-matrix composite. In this approach, the macrolevel analysis models the entire notched specimen using a 3D finite element program that uses the vanishing-fiber-diameter model to simulate the elastic-plastic behavior of the matrix and the elastic behavior of the fiber. The microlevel behavior is analyzed using a discrete fiber-matrix model containing one fiber and the surrounding matrix. The viability of this analysis is demonstrated using results for a boron/aluminum monolayer.

  12. Co-movements among financial stocks and covariance matrix analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, Saba

    2003-01-01

    The major theories of finance leading into the main body of this research are discussed and our experiments on studying the risk and co-movements among stocks are presented. This study leads to the application of Random Matrix Theory (RMT) The idea of this theory refers to the importance of the empirically measured correlation (or covariance) matrix, C, in finance and particularly in the theory of optimal portfolios However, this matrix has recently come into question, as a large part of ...

  13. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  14. Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Zhao, Xiaoli; He, Yongxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's policy approach to renewable energies and assesses how effectively China has met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. First we briefly discuss the interactions between these two policies. Then we outline China's key renewable energy and renewable industrial policies and find that China's government has well recognized the need for this policy interaction. After that, we study the achievements and problems in China's wind and solar PV sector during 2005–2012 and argue that China's policy approach to renewable energies has placed priority first on developing a renewable energy manufacturing industry and only second on renewable energy itself, and it has not effectively met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. Lastly, we make an in-depth analysis of the three ideas underlying this policy approach, that is, the green development idea, the low-carbon leadership idea and indigenous innovation idea. We conclude that Chinas' policy approach to renewable energies needs to enhance the interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of China's policy strategy toward renewable energies. -- Highlights: •Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy are discussed. •China's key renewable energy and renewable energy industrial policies are outlined. •Two empirical cases illustrate China's policy approach to renewable energies. •We argue that China needs to enhance the interactions between the two policies. •Three ideas underlie China's policy approach to renewable energies

  15. Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of maternal and child health policies in. Malawi: The methodological perspective. Abstract. The question of why most health policies do not achieve their intended results continues to receive a considerable attention in the literature. This is in the light of the recognized gap between policy as intent and policy.

  16. Effects of ductile matrix failure in three dimensional analysis of metal matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Full three dimensional numerical cell model analyses are carried out for a metal reinforced by short fibers, to study the development of ductile matrix failure. A porous ductile material model is used to describe the effect of the nucleation and growth of voids to coalescence. In each case studied...... a rounded vertex on the yield surface. The full three dimensional model is used to study effects of deviations from equal transverse tension in directions perpendicular to the fibers. (C) 1998 Acta Metallurgica Inc....

  17. Spectral analysis of gluonic pole matrix elements for fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamberg, L. P.; Mukherjee, A.B.; Mulders, P.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    The nonvanishing of gluonic pole matrix elements can explain the appearance of single spin asymmetries in high-energy scattering processes. We use a spectator framework approach to investigate the spectral properties of quark-quark-gluon correlators and use this to study gluonic pole matrix

  18. Negociatrix policy game: building capacities in trade policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balie, J.; Hofwegen, van G.; Jongeneel, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Negociatrix Policy Game is a tool for training in multilateral negotiation, which has been developed through a partnership between FAO and the University of Wageningen in the Netherlands. This tool is a software based on a quantitative model and a simulation that consents to underline the

  19. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF MONETARY POLICY INDICATORS VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANAMARIA POPESCU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to characterize through statistical indicators of statistical data that we have available. The purpose of this paper is to present statistical indicators, primary and secondary, simple and synthetic, which is frequently used for statistical characterization of statistical series. We can thus analyze central tendency, and data variability, form and concentration distributions package data using analytical tools in Microsoft Excel that enables automatic calculation of descriptive statistics using Data Analysis option from the Tools menu. We will also study the links which exist between statistical variables can be studied using two techniques, correlation and regression. From the analysis of monetary policy in the period 2003 - 2014 and information provided by the website of the National Bank of Romania (BNR seems to be a certain tendency towards eccentricity and asymmetry of financial data series.

  20. Matrix problems in the certification analysis of botanical materials by neutron activation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, E.; Heydorn, K.

    1995-01-01

    Plant materials often contain a mineral fraction as an inseparable part of the plant matrix. Methods for trace analysis in biological materials may not include the amount of determinand present in such mineral fractions, but for certification purposes it must be included. Instrumental methods of ...

  1. Office of Integrated Assessment and Policy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The mission of the Office of Integrated Assessments and Policy Analysis (OIAPA) is to examine current and future policies related to the development and use of energy technologies. The principal ongoing research activity to date has focused on the impacts of several energy sources, including coal, oil shale, solar, and geothermal, from the standpoint of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. An additional project has recently been initiated on an evaluation of impacts associated with the implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act. The impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act on energy supply constitute the principal research focus of OIAPA for the near term. From these studies a research approach will be developed to identify certain common elements in the regulatory evaluation cycle as a means of evaluating subsequent environmental, health, and socioeconomic impact. It is planned that an integrated assessment team examine studies completed or underway on the following aspects of major regulations: health, risk assessment, testing protocols, environment control cost/benefits, institutional structures, and facility siting. This examination would assess the methodologies used, determine the general applicability of such studies, and present in a logical form information that appears to have broad general application. A suggested action plan for the State of Tennessee on radioactive and hazardous waste management is outlined

  2. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  3. Analysis of Symmetrical Pulse Width Modulation Strategies for Matrix Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, K.B.; Jorgensen, A.H.; Helle, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new and easy way to understand the derivation of the modulation functions for matrix converters. It is shown how the duty cycles can be calculated using techniques known from the back-to-back (B2B) voltage source inverter (VSI), thus making the subject accessible to people...... with prior knowledge in standard drives. A new modulation strategy is presented minimizing harmonic distortion compared to the standard double-sided space vector modulation for matrix converters. An improvement to an existing modulator is also presented where the proposed modification improves the harmonic...... performance. The strategies are compared both analytically and by the use of both simulations and measurements on a 12 kW matrix converter prototype.It is found that the proposed modulator has superior performance compared to modulators with equal switching frequencies and an equal number of switchings....

  4. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  5. S-matrix analysis of the baryon electric charge correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Pok Man; Friman, Bengt; Redlich, Krzysztof; Sasaki, Chihiro

    2018-03-01

    We compute the correlation of the net baryon number with the electric charge (χBQ) for an interacting hadron gas using the S-matrix formulation of statistical mechanics. The observable χBQ is particularly sensitive to the details of the pion-nucleon interaction, which are consistently incorporated in the current scheme via the empirical scattering phase shifts. Comparing to the recent lattice QCD studies in the (2 + 1)-flavor system, we find that the natural implementation of interactions and the proper treatment of resonances in the S-matrix approach lead to an improved description of the lattice data over that obtained in the hadron resonance gas model.

  6. Graph Transformation and Designing Parallel Sparse Matrix Algorithms beyond Data Dependence Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    H.X. Lin

    2004-01-01

    Algorithms are often parallelized based on data dependence analysis manually or by means of parallel compilers. Some vector/matrix computations such as the matrix-vector products with simple data dependence structures (data parallelism) can be easily parallelized. For problems with more complicated data dependence structures, parallelization is less straightforward. The data dependence graph is a powerful means for designing and analyzing parallel algorithms. However, for sparse matrix comput...

  7. Analysis of the essential spectrum of singular matrix differential operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ibrogimov, O. O.; Siegl, Petr; Tretter, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 260, č. 4 (2016), s. 3881-3926 ISSN 0022-0396 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : essential spectrum * system of singular differential equations * operator matrix * Schur complement * magnetohydrodynamics * Stellar equilibrium model Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016

  8. Soft Play Detection in Shooter Games Using Hit Matrix Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Laasonen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft play is a form of cheating where players deliberately play easy against each other. We evaluate different methods for detecting the players engaging in soft play in shooter games using data generated with synthetic players. These methods are used when analysing the hit matrix of the game.

  9. Proteomics analysis of the zebrafish skeletal extracellular matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Maurijn Y; Huitema, Leonie F A; Boeren, Sjef; Kranenbarg, Sander; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; van Leeuwen, Johan L; de Vries, Sacco C

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix of the immature and mature skeleton is key to the development and function of the skeletal system. Notwithstanding its importance, it has been technically challenging to obtain a comprehensive picture of the changes in skeletal composition throughout the development of bone

  10. Proteomics Analysis of the Zebrafish Skeletal Extracellular Matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, M.Y.; Huitema, L.F.A.; Boeren, S.; Kranenbarg, S.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.; Vries, de S.C.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix of the immature and mature skeleton is key to the development and function of the skeletal system. Notwithstanding its importance, it has been technically challenging to obtain a comprehensive picture of the changes in skeletal composition throughout the development of bone

  11. Performance analysis of alpha divergence in nonnegative matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    are only studying the performance of the NMF algorithm in musical sound factorization, we have not dealt with the clustering and synthesis part in this paper. We will now discuss the application of NMF for source separation in detail in the remaining part of the section. A) Nonnegative Matrix Factorization: The NMF algorithm ...

  12. Performance analysis of alpha divergence in nonnegative matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of original instrument sound signals from complex music signals without any prior information is one of the most challenging problems under the framework of Blind Source Separation (BSS). Due to their effectiveness in other applications of BSS, Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) based methods have ...

  13. Analysis of Symmetrical Pulse Width Modulation Strategies for Matrix Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, K.B.; Jorgensen, A.H.; Helle, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new and easy way to understand the derivation of the modulation functions for matrix converters. It is shown how the duty cycles can be calculated using techniques known from the back-to-back (B2B) voltage source inverter (VSI), thus making the subject accessible to people...

  14. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Sabrina; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Das, Susmita; Chowdhury, Syeda Nafisa; Iqbal, Mohammad; Akter, Syeda Mahsina; Jahan, Khurshid; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are essential for nutrition of infants and young children. Bangladesh has one of the highest levels of malnutrition globally along with sub-optimal IYCF practices. A supportive policy environment is essential to ensure that effective IYCF interventions are scaled up. The objectives of our study were to assess the support for IYCF in the national policy environment through policy analysis and stakeholder analysis and in so doing identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment. We used a matrix developed by SAIFRN (the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network) to systematically identify supportive national policies, plans and guidelines for IYCF. We adapted narrative synthesis and descriptive approaches to analyze policy content, based on four themes with a focus on support for mothers. We conducted three Net-Map interviews to identify stakeholders who influenced the policies and programs related to IYCF. We identified 19 national policy documents relevant to IYCF. Overall, there was good level of support for IYCF practices at policy level - particularly regarding general support for IYCF and provision of information to mothers - but these were not consistently supported at implementation level, particularly regarding specificity and population coverage. We identified gaps regarding the training of health workers, capacity building, the monitoring and targeting of vulnerable mothers and providing an enabling environment to mothers, specifically with respect to maternity leave for working women. Urban populations and providers outside the public sector remained uncovered by policy. Our stakeholder analysis identified government entities such as the National Nutrition Service, as the most influential in terms of both technical and funding support as they had the mandate for formulation and implementation of policies and national programs. Stakeholders from different sectors played important

  15. Analysis of the release process of phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride from ethylcellulose matrix granules V. Release properties of ethylcellulose layered matrix granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Atsuko; Fujii, Ryuta; Yonezawa, Yorinobu; Sunada, Hisakazu

    2008-04-01

    In the pharmaceutical preparation of a controlled release drug, it is very important and necessary to understand the release properties. In previous papers, a combination of the square-root time law and cube-root law equations was confirmed to be a useful equation for qualitative treatment. It was also confirmed that the combination equation could analyze the release properties of layered granules as well as matrix granules. The drug release property from layered granules is different from that of matrix granules. A time lag occurs before release, and the entire release property of layered granules was analyzed using the combination of the square-root time law and cube-root law equations. It is considered that the analysis method is very useful and efficient for both matrix and layered granules. Comparing the granulation methods, it is easier to control the manufacturing process by tumbling granulation (method B) than by tumbling-fluidized bed granulation (method C). Ethylcellulose (EC) layered granulation by a fluidized bed granulator might be convenient for the preparation of controlled release dosage forms as compared with a tumbling granulator, because the layered granules prepared by the fluidized bed granulator can granulate and dry at the same time. The time required for drying by the fluidized bed granulator is shorter than that by the tumbling granulator, so the fluidized bed granulator is convenient for preparation of granules in handling and shorter processing time than the tumbling granulator. It was also suggested that the EC layered granules prepared by the fluidized bed granulator were suitable for a controlled release system as well as the EC matrix granules.

  16. Generalized canonical analysis based on optimizing matrix correlations and a relation with IDIOSCAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.; Cléroux, R.; Ten Berge, Jos M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Carroll's method for generalized canonical analysis of two or more sets of variables is shown to optimize the sum of squared inner-product matrix correlations between a consensus matrix and matrices with canonical variates for each set of variables. In addition, the method that analogously optimizes

  17. A case of extreme simplicity of the core matrix in three-mode principal components analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murakami, Takashi; Ten Berge, Jos M.F.; Kiers, Henk A.L.

    In three-mode Principal Components Analysis, the P x Q x R core matrix G can be transformed to simple structure before it is interpreted. It is well-known that, when P = QR, G can be transformed to the identity matrix, which implies that all elements become equal to values specified a priori. In the

  18. Immobilized carbon nanotubes as matrix for MALDI-TOF-MS analysis: applications to neutral small carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shi-fang; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Zhi-hong; Guo, Yin-long

    2005-03-01

    In this work, we reported on the advantages of immobilized carbon nanotubes as a novel MALDI-matrix. Recently, carbon nanotubes have been reported to be an effective MALDI matrix for small molecules (Anal. Chem.2003, 75, 6191), as it can eliminate the interfering matrix peaks as well as form a web morphology to fully disperse the analyte and allow strong ultraviolet absorption for enhanced pulsed laser desorption and ionization. In our study, to overcome the problem that the carbon nanotube matrix may fly off from the target, a type of polyurethane adhesive, NIPPOLAN-DC-205, is introduced to immobilize carbon nanotubes on the target, which enables widespread application of carbon nanotubes as matrix for MALDI-MS analysis. At the same time, the properties of the carbon nanotubes as an efficient matrix remained after immobilization. The presence of NIPPOLAN-DC-205 increases the time for analysis at a particular desorption spot by minimizing the time-consuming search for "hot spots" and facilitating experiments such as post source decay (PSD) which need longer-lasting signals. Moreover, NIPPOLAN-DC-205 produces no interference peaks and can easily be cleaned with acetone. Fast evaporation technology may be used to enhance signal reproducibility in MALDI analysis using carbon nanotubes as matrix. Consequently, the applicability of the carbon nanotube as matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis of low molecular mass analytes is highly improved. The feasibility of the method employing polyurethane is demonstrated by comparison of the results produced from the carbon nanotube matrix with and without immobilization. In addition, neutral small carbohydrates, which are difficult to be ionized normally, can be cationized with high efficiency by MALDI-TOF-MS using the immobilized carbon nanotube matrix. The method was further applied to analyze peptides and detect urine glucose successfully.

  19. Policy Analysis of Road Traffic Injury Prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. Methods This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified. In the second phase of the study, the identified policies were ranked by prioritization matrices. The two policies with the highest scores were selected. ‘Policy triangle framework’ was used for Policy analyzing. Stakeholders of these policies (42 people) were interviewed. Data were analyzed manually by implementing Content-Analysis methods. Results The policies of “pupil liaisons” and “safety belt” were selected for analysis from thirteen potential identified polices. The results of some studies revealed that safety belts had not been properly used in Iran (less than 80%). There was an eight-year hiatus between the approval of the safety belts policy and implementation of this policy. Eight actors were identified for safety belts policy. Lack of diligence in implementation of the policy, failing to pay adequate attention to education and the culture of driving, and failing to select an organization for the implementation of the policy, were identified as the main weaknesses of this policy. For ‘pupil liaisons’ policy, five actors were identified. Following the implementation of this policy, the number of penalties was reduced (17.9%). Neglecting scientific findings and individual-based nature of the policy were identified as the primary weaknesses of this policy. Conclusions Taking serious measures to properly execute the policy, educating people, selecting an efficient organization that is

  20. Analysis of the energetic sector through the national energetic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon Lozano, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    The author shows the results of the national energetic balance 1975-2005, through the energetic matrix of the country, giving an annual growth of 5.1% in this period of offer of primary energy, where the mineral coal participates with 9,6%, the hydraulic energy with 4,8%, natural gas with 4,2%, trash with 2,4% and petroleum with 2,2%, while the firewood fell in 0,5%

  1. Life Modeling and Design Analysis for Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The primary research efforts focused on characterizing and modeling static failure, environmental durability, and creep-rupture behavior of two classes of ceramic matrix composites (CMC), silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) and carbon fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (C/SiC). An engineering life prediction model (Probabilistic Residual Strength model) has been developed specifically for CMCs. The model uses residual strength as the damage metric for evaluating remaining life and is posed probabilistically in order to account for the stochastic nature of the material s response. In support of the modeling effort, extensive testing of C/SiC in partial pressures of oxygen has been performed. This includes creep testing, tensile testing, half life and residual tensile strength testing. C/SiC is proposed for airframe and propulsion applications in advanced reusable launch vehicles. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the models predictive capabilities as well as the manner in which experimental tests are being selected in such a manner as to ensure sufficient data is available to aid in model validation.

  2. Policy and stakeholder analysis of infant and young child feeding programmes in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godakandage, Sanjeeva S P; Senarath, Upul; Jayawickrama, Hiranya S; Siriwardena, Indika; Wickramasinghe, S W A D A; Arumapperuma, Prasantha; Ihalagama, Sathyajith; Nimalan, Srisothinathan; Archchuna, Ramanathan; Umesh, Claudio; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF) play a critical role in growth and development of children. A favourable environment supported by appropriate policies and positive contributions from all stakeholders are prerequisites for achieving optimal IYCF practices. This study aimed to assess the IYCF-related policy environment and role of stakeholders in policy making in Sri Lanka, in order to identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment to better support appropriate IYCF and reduce childhood malnutrition. We mapped national level policy-related documents on IYCF, and conducted a stakeholder analysis of IYCF policy making. A matrix was designed to capture data from IYCF policy-related documents using a thematic approach. A narrative synthesis of data from different documents was conducted to achieve the first objective. We then conducted an analysis of technical and funding links of stakeholders who shape IYCF policies and programmes in Sri Lanka using the Net-Map technique, to achieve the second objective. A total of 35 respondents were purposively selected based on their knowledge on the topic, and individual interviews were conducted. Twenty four policies were identified that contained provisions in line with global recommendations for best-practice IYCF, marketing of breast milk substitutes, strengthening health and non-health systems, maternity benefits, inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building, health education and supplementation. However, there is no separate, written policy on IYCF in Sri Lanka. Participants identified 56 actors involved in shaping IYCF policies and programmes through technical support, and 36 through funding support. The Government Health Sector was the most connected as well as influential, followed by development partners. Almost all actors in the networks were supportive for IYCF policies and programmes. All evidence-based recommendations are covered in related policies. However, advocacy should be targeted

  3. Policy and stakeholder analysis of infant and young child feeding programmes in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeeva S. P. Godakandage

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF play a critical role in growth and development of children. A favourable environment supported by appropriate policies and positive contributions from all stakeholders are prerequisites for achieving optimal IYCF practices. This study aimed to assess the IYCF-related policy environment and role of stakeholders in policy making in Sri Lanka, in order to identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment to better support appropriate IYCF and reduce childhood malnutrition. Methods We mapped national level policy-related documents on IYCF, and conducted a stakeholder analysis of IYCF policy making. A matrix was designed to capture data from IYCF policy-related documents using a thematic approach. A narrative synthesis of data from different documents was conducted to achieve the first objective. We then conducted an analysis of technical and funding links of stakeholders who shape IYCF policies and programmes in Sri Lanka using the Net-Map technique, to achieve the second objective. A total of 35 respondents were purposively selected based on their knowledge on the topic, and individual interviews were conducted. Results Twenty four policies were identified that contained provisions in line with global recommendations for best-practice IYCF, marketing of breast milk substitutes, strengthening health and non-health systems, maternity benefits, inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building, health education and supplementation. However, there is no separate, written policy on IYCF in Sri Lanka. Participants identified 56 actors involved in shaping IYCF policies and programmes through technical support, and 36 through funding support. The Government Health Sector was the most connected as well as influential, followed by development partners. Almost all actors in the networks were supportive for IYCF policies and programmes. Conclusions and recommendations All evidence

  4. Reaching beyond Democracy in Educational Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy analyses have tended toward either the impact of policies on student achievement or the furthering of progressive ideals, regularly theorized through concepts of democracy. In this theoretical essay, I suggest that democracy has become a vehicle for cauterized projects of individualized and contingent state status rather than…

  5. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs...... has much to offer in analyzing the policy process....

  6. Interpretation and Analysis of Privacy Policies of Websites in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhotre, Prashant Shantaram; Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant

    2017-01-01

    Privacy policy is vital and legal document that allows websites/companies to communicate users on how data is gathered, the ways of collection, its purpose, and its management. Once user accepts it, the user approves the disclosure of his/her personal/behavioral data to websites under...... the conditions specified in the policy document. So, ideally the privacy policies should be readable and provide sufficient information to empower users to make knowledgeable decisions. Thus, we have examined more than 50 privacy policies and discussed the content analysis in this paper. We discovered...... that the policies are not only unstructured but also described in complicated language. Our analysis shows that the user data security measures are nonspecific and unsatisfactory in 57% privacy policies. In spite of huge amount of information collection, the privacy policies does not have clear description...

  7. Policy research and analysis organizations: an account of recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing from interviews, archival documents and a range of other sources, this article takes stock of key public policy research and analysis organizations in Ethiopia. It sheds light on the significance of professionalization of policy analysis and its contributions to closing the gap between knowledge and policymaking, offers ...

  8. Impact Of Monetary Policy On Financial Asset Returns: An Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact of monetary policy on financial asset returns, with particular reference to stocks. The minimum discount rate and an index based on the direction of change in discount rate were used as monetary policy proxies. The analysis was done using a multi-association model of which ...

  9. Diffraction as a Method of Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Jasmine B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in critical policy analysis have occurred alongside the new materialisms in qualitative research. These lines of scholarship have unfolded along two separate, but related, tracks. In particular, the new materialist method of "diffraction" aligns with many elements of critical policy analysis. Both involve critical…

  10. Statistical analysis of latent generalized correlation matrix estimation in transelliptical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2017-02-01

    Correlation matrix plays a key role in many multivariate methods (e.g., graphical model estimation and factor analysis). The current state-of-the-art in estimating large correlation matrices focuses on the use of Pearson's sample correlation matrix. Although Pearson's sample correlation matrix enjoys various good properties under Gaussian models, its not an effective estimator when facing heavy-tail distributions with possible outliers. As a robust alternative, Han and Liu (2013b) advocated the use of a transformed version of the Kendall's tau sample correlation matrix in estimating high dimensional latent generalized correlation matrix under the transelliptical distribution family (or elliptical copula). The transelliptical family assumes that after unspecified marginal monotone transformations, the data follow an elliptical distribution. In this paper, we study the theoretical properties of the Kendall's tau sample correlation matrix and its transformed version proposed in Han and Liu (2013b) for estimating the population Kendall's tau correlation matrix and the latent Pearson's correlation matrix under both spectral and restricted spectral norms. With regard to the spectral norm, we highlight the role of "effective rank" in quantifying the rate of convergence. With regard to the restricted spectral norm, we for the first time present a "sign subgaussian condition" which is sufficient to guarantee that the rank-based correlation matrix estimator attains the optimal rate of convergence. In both cases, we do not need any moment condition.

  11. Applied risk analysis to the future Brazilian electricity generation matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair; Fernandez, Eloi; Correa, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    This study compares energy conversion systems for the generation of electrical power, with an emphasis on the Brazilian energy matrix. The financial model applied in this comparison is based on the Portfolio Theory, developed by Harry Markowitz. The risk-return ratio related to the electrical generation mix predicted in the National Energy Plan - 2030, published in 2006 by the Brazilian Energy Research Office, is evaluated. The increase of non-traditional renewable energy in this expected electrical generating mix, specifically, residues of sugar cane plantations and wind energy, reduce not only the risk but also the average cost of the kilowatt-hour generated.

  12. Immunohistologic analysis of the cholesteatoma matrix in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayot, D; Béné, M C; Faure, G C; Wayoff, M; Perrin, C

    1991-09-01

    The immunohistological characteristics of retraction pockets, cholesteatoma matrix and granulomatous tissue were compared in 14 samples from pediatric cholesteatoma. The junction between epidermis and the middle ear mucosa appeared as the most inflammatory area, displaying the characteristics of delayed type hypersensitivity. CD1 + Langerhans cells were observed in all epidermic areas, but expressed class II molecules only in the vicinity of polymorphonuclear infiltrates. Numerous mast cells and IgA producing cells were also observed, suggesting that defenses from the mucosal immune system are summoned and contribute to the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma.

  13. A Computer Program to Compile a Flander-Amidon Interaction Analysis Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Robert C.

    1970-01-01

    A program was written in FORTRAN IV for an IBM 3600 to produce the Flanders-Amidon Interaction Analysis Matrix and to also produce percentages of certain p FORTRAN IV and V for the Univac 1108. (Editor/RT)

  14. Google matrix analysis of the multiproduct world trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-04-01

    Using the United Nations COMTRADE database [United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database, available at: http://comtrade.un.org/db/. Accessed November (2014)] we construct the Google matrix G of multiproduct world trade between the UN countries and analyze the properties of trade flows on this network for years 1962-2010. This construction, based on Markov chains, treats all countries on equal democratic grounds independently of their richness and at the same time it considers the contributions of trade products proportionally to their trade volume. We consider the trade with 61 products for up to 227 countries. The obtained results show that the trade contribution of products is asymmetric: some of them are export oriented while others are import oriented even if the ranking by their trade volume is symmetric in respect to export and import after averaging over all world countries. The construction of the Google matrix allows to investigate the sensitivity of trade balance in respect to price variations of products, e.g. petroleum and gas, taking into account the world connectivity of trade links. The trade balance based on PageRank and CheiRank probabilities highlights the leading role of China and other BRICS countries in the world trade in recent years. We also show that the eigenstates of G with large eigenvalues select specific trade communities.

  15. Aspects with Program Analysis for Security Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan

    . This dissertation explores the principles of adding challenging security policies to existing systems with great flexibility and modularity. The policies concerned cover both classical access control and explicit information flow policies. We built our solution by combining aspect-oriented programming techniques......Enforcing security policies to IT systems, especially for a mobile distributed system, is challenging. As society becomes more IT-savvy, our expectations about security and privacy evolve. This is usually followed by changes in regulation in the form of standards and legislation. In many cases......, small modification of the security requirement might lead to substantial changes in a number of modules within a large mobile distributed system. Indeed, security is a crosscutting concern which can spread to many business modules within a system, and is difficult to be integrated in a modular way...

  16. Analysis of gene set using shrinkage covariance matrix approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjanto, Suryaefiza; Aripin, Rasimah

    2013-09-01

    Microarray methodology has been exploited for different applications such as gene discovery and disease diagnosis. This technology is also used for quantitative and highly parallel measurements of gene expression. Recently, microarrays have been one of main interests of statisticians because they provide a perfect example of the paradigms of modern statistics. In this study, the alternative approach to estimate the covariance matrix has been proposed to solve the high dimensionality problem in microarrays. The extension of traditional Hotelling's T2 statistic is constructed for determining the significant gene sets across experimental conditions using shrinkage approach. Real data sets were used as illustrations to compare the performance of the proposed methods with other methods. The results across the methods are consistent, implying that this approach provides an alternative to existing techniques.

  17. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure Kadidiatou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  18. Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

    2012-10-01

    State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

  19. Analysis of aeroplane boarding via spacetime geometry and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmat, E [Department of Computer Science, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Berend, D [Department of Computer Science, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Sapir, L [Department of Management and Industrial Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Skiena, S [Department of Computer science, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Stolyarov, N [Department of Computer Science, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2006-07-21

    We show that aeroplane boarding can be asymptotically modelled by two-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. Boarding time is given by the maximal proper time among curves in the model. Discrepancies between the model and simulation results are closely related to random matrix theory. The models can be used to explain why some commonly practiced airline boarding policies are ineffective and even detrimental. (letter to the editor)

  20. Analysis of aeroplane boarding via spacetime geometry and random matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmat, E; Berend, D; Sapir, L; Skiena, S; Stolyarov, N

    2006-01-01

    We show that aeroplane boarding can be asymptotically modelled by two-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. Boarding time is given by the maximal proper time among curves in the model. Discrepancies between the model and simulation results are closely related to random matrix theory. The models can be used to explain why some commonly practiced airline boarding policies are ineffective and even detrimental. (letter to the editor)

  1. Implementation lessons for school food policies and marketing restrictions in the Philippines: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Erica; Thow, Anne Marie; Bell, Colin; Engelhardt, Katrin; Gamolo-Naliponguit, Ella Cecilia; Go, John Juliard; Sacks, Gary

    2018-01-23

    The school environment can enhance children's skills, knowledge and behaviours in relation to healthy eating. However, in many countries, unhealthy foods are commonly available in schools, and children can be exposed to aggressive marketing by the food industry. Taking the perspective of policymakers, this study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to effective school food policy development and implementation in the Philippines. In May 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 policymakers and stakeholders involved in school food policymaking and implementation in the Philippines. The Health Policy Analysis Triangle was used to identify interview questions and to guide the thematic analysis. These included the political and socio-environmental context, strengths and limitations of existing policy content, roles and behaviours of actors, implementation processes, policy outcomes, and opportunities to improve policy coherence. The Department of Education's policy 'Orders' represented a relatively strong policy framework for the education sector of the Philippines. However, a lack of human and financial resources for implementation, planning, and policy enforcement limited the impact of the policy on the healthiness of school food provision. Ambiguity in policy wording allowed a wide interpretation of the foods eligible to be provided in schools, and led to difficulties in effective monitoring and enforcement. Food companies used existing relationships with schools to promote their brands and compromise the establishment of a stronger food policy agenda. We found a motivated group of actors engaging in policy-oriented learning and advocating for a stronger policy alternative so as to improve the school food environment. The adoption of policy mechanisms being used to promote healthy dietary practices in the school setting will be strengthened by more robust implementation planning processes, and resources to support implementation and enforcement

  2. Public opinion and environmental policy output: a cross-national analysis of energy policies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    This article studies how public opinion is associated with the introduction of renewable energy policies in Europe. While research increasingly seeks to model the link between public opinion and environmental policies, the empirical evidence is largely based on a single case: the US. This limits the generalizability of findings and we argue accordingly for a systematic, quantitative study of how public opinion drives environmental policies in another context. Theoretically, we combine arguments behind the political survival of democratic leaders with electoral success and environmental politics. Ultimately, we suggest that office-seeking leaders introduce policies that seem favorable to the domestic audience; if the public prefers environmental protection, the government introduces such policies in turn. The main contribution of this research is the cross-country empirical analysis, where we combine data on the public’s environmental attitudes and renewable energy policy outputs in a European context between 1974 and 2015. We show that as public opinion shifts towards prioritizing the environment, there is a significant and positive effect on the rate of renewable energy policy outputs by governments in Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, quantitative study of public opinion and environmental policies across a large set of countries, and we demonstrate that the mechanisms behind the introduction of renewable energy policies follow major trends across European states.

  3. Representations of women and drug use in policy: A critical policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa

    2018-03-13

    Contemporary research in the drugs field has demonstrated a number of gender differences in patterns and experiences of substance use, and the design and provision of gender-responsive interventions has been identified as an important policy issue. Consequently, whether and how domestic drug policies attend to women and gender issues is an important question for investigation. This article presents a policy audit and critical analysis of Australian national and state and territory policy documents. It identifies and discusses two key styles of problematisation of women's drug use in policy: 1) drug use and its effect on women's reproductive role (including a focus on pregnant women and women who are mothers), and 2) drug use and its relationship to women's vulnerability to harm (including violent and sexual victimisation, trauma, and mental health issues). Whilst these are important areas for policy to address, we argue that such representations of women who use drugs tend to reinforce particular understandings of women and drug use, while at the same time contributing to areas of 'policy silence' or neglect. In particular, the policy documents analysed are largely silent about the harm reduction needs of all women, as well as the needs of women who are not mothers, young women, older women, transwomen or other women deemed to be outside of dominant normative reproductive discourse. This analysis is important because understanding how women's drug use is problematised and identifying areas of policy silence provides a foundation for redressing gaps in policy, and for assessing the likely effectiveness of current and future policy approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring use of research evidence in public health policy: a policy content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex

    2014-05-23

    There are few Australian studies showing how research evidence is used to inform the development of public health policy. International research has shown that compensation for injury rehabilitation can have negative impacts on health outcomes. This study examined transport injury compensation policy in the Australian state of Victoria to: determine type and purpose of reference to information sources; and to identify the extent of reference to academic research evidence in transport related injury rehabilitation compensation policy. Quantitative content analysis of injury rehabilitation compensation policies (N = 128) from the Victorian state government transport accident compensation authority. The most commonly referenced types of information were Internal Policy (median = 6 references per policy), Clinical/Medical (2.5), and Internal Legislation (1). Academic Research Evidence was the least often referenced source of information. The main purpose of reference to information was to support injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation claims decision-making. Transport injury compensation policy development is complex; with multiple sources of information cited including legislation, internal policy, external policy and clinical/medical evidence. There is limited use of academic research evidence in Victorian state government injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation policies. Decisions regarding compensation for injury treatment and rehabilitation services could benefit from greater use of academic research evidence. This study is one of the first to examine the use of research evidence in existing Australian public health policy decision-making using rigorous quantitative methods. It provides a practical example of how use of research evidence in public health policy can be objectively measured.

  5. Phosphoric acid as a matrix additive for MALDI MS analysis of phosphopeptides and phosphoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellström, Sven; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2004-01-01

    ,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB) matrix. Phosphoric acid in combination with 2,5-DHB matrix significantly enhanced phosphopeptide ion signals in MALDI mass spectra of crude peptide mixtures derived from the phosphorylated proteins alpha-casein and beta-casein. The beneficial effects of adding up to 1% phosphoric...... acid to 2,5-DHB were also observed in LC-MALDI-MS analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides of B. subtilis PrkC phosphoprotein. Finally, the mass resolution of MALDI mass spectra of intact proteins was significantly improved by using phosphoric acid in 2,5-DHB matrix....

  6. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  7. Analytical quality assurance in veterinary drug residue analysis methods: matrix effects determination and monitoring for sulfonamides analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Rübensam, Gabriel; Jank, Louise; Barreto, Fabiano; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Silvia Díaz-Cruz, M; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    In residue analysis of veterinary drugs in foodstuff, matrix effects are one of the most critical points. This work present a discuss considering approaches used to estimate, minimize and monitoring matrix effects in bioanalytical methods. Qualitative and quantitative methods for estimation of matrix effects such as post-column infusion, slopes ratios analysis, calibration curves (mathematical and statistical analysis) and control chart monitoring are discussed using real data. Matrix effects varying in a wide range depending of the analyte and the sample preparation method: pressurized liquid extraction for liver samples show matrix effects from 15.5 to 59.2% while a ultrasound-assisted extraction provide values from 21.7 to 64.3%. The matrix influence was also evaluated: for sulfamethazine analysis, losses of signal were varying from -37 to -96% for fish and eggs, respectively. Advantages and drawbacks are also discussed considering a workflow for matrix effects assessment proposed and applied to real data from sulfonamides residues analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia Policy: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А V Suleimanov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia modern foreign policy is analyzed. As is known, Turkey and Iran historically were the competing parties for spheres of influence in Transcaucasia, as well as Russia, the USA and the Great Britain. Regional relations between Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia are discussed in context of Nagorno-Karabakh and Georgia-South Ossetia conflicts and Caspian problem.

  9. Analysis of State Bullying Laws and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Cassel, Victoria; Bell, Ariana; Springer, J. Fred

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has become widely viewed as an urgent social, health, and education concern that has moved to the forefront of public debate on school legislation and policy. The Columbine High School shooting in 1999 was the first of many high-profile incidents of violent behavior that appeared to implicate bullying as an underlying cause…

  10. SECURITY POLICIES APPROACHED BY VALUE ANALYSIS CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Varlanuta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to redefine the role of the end users of the Internet facilities, in the process of creation of more secure transactions on the Internet, in respect of their privacy. In this context, the purpose is to introduce the use of end user (customer value concept in the process of Security policy framework design.

  11. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governments in Southeast Asia have adopted a range of policies aimed at controlling the disease in animals, preventing its spread to humans and strengthening national preparedness for an avian influenza pandemic. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together national research agencies ...

  12. The improved Apriori algorithm based on matrix pruning and weight analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Zhenhong

    2018-04-01

    This paper uses the matrix compression algorithm and weight analysis algorithm for reference and proposes an improved matrix pruning and weight analysis Apriori algorithm. After the transactional database is scanned for only once, the algorithm will construct the boolean transaction matrix. Through the calculation of one figure in the rows and columns of the matrix, the infrequent item set is pruned, and a new candidate item set is formed. Then, the item's weight and the transaction's weight as well as the weight support for items are calculated, thus the frequent item sets are gained. The experimental result shows that the improved Apriori algorithm not only reduces the number of repeated scans of the database, but also improves the efficiency of data correlation mining.

  13. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  14. Health policy, health systems research and analysis capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis (HPSR&A) is an applied science that deals with complexity as it tries to provide lessons, tools and methods to understand and improve health systems and health policy. It is defined by the kinds of questions asked rather than a particular methodology.

  15. Policy analysis of the English graduation benchmark in Taiwan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author ...

  16. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Final technical report / statistical compilation of the ICT sector and policy analysis : a communication for development approach to scientific training and research and its extension digital transformations; seeking applied frameworks and indicators. Download PDF. Studies. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy ...

  17. Compensation of matrix effects in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of pesticides using a combination of matrix matching and multiple isotopically labeled internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Katsuhara, Miki; Nakajima, Masahiro

    2017-11-17

    In the multi-residue analysis of pesticides using GC-MS, the quantitative results are adversely affected by a phenomenon known as the matrix effect. Although the use of matrix-matched standards is considered to be one of the most practical solutions to this problem, complete removal of the matrix effect is difficult in complex food matrices owing to their inconsistency. As a result, residual matrix effects can introduce analytical errors. To compensate for residual matrix effects, we have developed a novel method that employs multiple isotopically labeled internal standards (ILIS). The matrix effects of ILIS and pesticides were evaluated in spiked matrix extracts of various agricultural commodities, and the obtained data were subjected to simple statistical analysis. Based on the similarities between the patterns of variation in the analytical response, a total of 32 isotopically labeled compounds were assigned to 338 pesticides as internal standards. It was found that by utilizing multiple ILIS, residual matrix effects could be effectively compensated. The developed method exhibited superior quantitative performance compared with the common single-internal-standard method. The proposed method is more feasible for regulatory purposes than that using only predetermined correction factors and is considered to be promising for practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tourism policy analysis: the case of post-independence Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nyakunu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism policy is an important domain for tourism researchers. Despite its significance, the analysis and unpacking of the making of tourism policy has so far attracted only limited attention in the global South. This paper reports on the case study of tourism policy in post-independence Namibia. It is disclosed that policy development is led by professional knowledge in support of the leading interest groups in the country's tourism economy, namely large local and private sector enterprises. By contrast, the role of small firms (SMEs, which constitute the largest segment of tourism firms in Namibia, is marginal.

  19. Statistical analysis of latent generalized correlation matrix estimation in transelliptical distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2016-01-01

    Correlation matrices play a key role in many multivariate methods (e.g., graphical model estimation and factor analysis). The current state-of-the-art in estimating large correlation matrices focuses on the use of Pearson's sample correlation matrix. Although Pearson's sample correlation matrix enjoys various good properties under Gaussian models, it is not an effective estimator when facing heavy-tailed distributions. As a robust alternative, Han and Liu [J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 109 (2015) 275-2...

  20. Noise policy: sound policy? A meta level analysis and evaluation of noise policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its negative health effects, noise policy has been developed in the Netherlands during the last four decades, aimed at preventing and reducing noise by road and railway traffic, industry and aviation. Academic literature illustrated that significant changes have occurred in many sectoral

  1. Analytical development of disturbed matrix eigenvalue problem applied to mixed convection stability analysis in Darcy media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Haikel Ben; Bennacer, Rachid

    2008-08-01

    This work consists in evaluating algebraically and numerically the influence of a disturbance on the spectral values of a diagonalizable matrix. Thus, two approaches will be possible; to use the theorem of disturbances of a matrix depending on a parameter, due to Lidskii and primarily based on the structure of Jordan of the no disturbed matrix. The second approach consists in factorizing the matrix system, and then carrying out a numerical calculation of the roots of the disturbances matrix characteristic polynomial. This problem can be a standard model in the equations of the continuous media mechanics. During this work, we chose to use the second approach and in order to illustrate the application, we choose the Rayleigh-Bénard problem in Darcy media, disturbed by a filtering through flow. The matrix form of the problem is calculated starting from a linear stability analysis by a finite elements method. We show that it is possible to break up the general phenomenon into other elementary ones described respectively by a disturbed matrix and a disturbance. A good agreement between the two methods was seen. To cite this article: H.B. Hamed, R. Bennacer, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  2. Modelling of polypropylene fibre-matrix composites using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP fibre-matrix composites previously prepared and studied experimentally were modelled using finite element analysis (FEA in this work. FEA confirmed that fibre content and composition controlled stress distribution in all-PP composites. The stress concentration at the fibre-matrix interface became greater with less fibre content. Variations in fibre composition were more significant in higher stress regions of the composites. When fibre modulus increased, the stress concentration at the fibres decreased and the shear stress at the fibre-matrix interface became more intense. The ratio between matrix modulus and fibre modulus was important, as was the interfacial stress in reducing premature interfacial failure and increasing mechanical properties. The model demonstrated that with low fibre concentration, there were insufficient fibres to distribute the applied stress. Under these conditions the matrix yielded when the applied stress reached the matrix yield stress, resulting in increased fibre axial stress. When the fibre content was high, there was matrix depletion and stress transfer was inefficient. The predictions of the FEA model were consistent with experimental and published data.

  3. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    delegation to honor former South Korean President Kim Dae- jung ; a resumption of activity at the Kaesong Industrial Complex; bilateral talks between U.S...task is more urgent or more important than solving the people’s food problem and eating problem.”21 Pyongyang currently faces the archetypical ...1, 2007. Jung Sung-ki. Kim Jong-il Interested in Vietnamese-style Reform Policy, Korea Times. October 28, 2007. 65 Hong, Ihk-pyo. A Shift Toward

  4. Social media for public health: an exploratory policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Ingrid; Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2015-02-01

    To accomplish the aims of public health practice and policy today, new forms of communication and education are being applied. Social media are increasingly relevant for public health and used by various actors. Apart from benefits, there can also be risks in using social media, but policies regulating engagement in social media is not well researched. This study examined European public health-related organizations' social media policies and describes the main components of existing policies. This research used a mixed methods approach. A content analysis of social media policies from European institutions, non-government organizations (NGOs) and social media platforms was conducted. Next, individuals responsible for social media in their organization or projects completed a survey about their social media policy. Seventy-five per cent of institutions, NGOs and platforms had a social media policy available. The primary aspects covered within existing policies included data and privacy protection, intellectual property and copyright protection and regulations for the engagement in social media. Policies were intended to regulate staff use, to secure the liability of the institution and social responsibility. Respondents also stressed the importance of self-responsibility when using social media. This study of social media policies for public health in Europe provides a first snapshot of the existence and characteristics of social media policies among European health organizations. Policies tended to focus on legal aspects, rather than the health of the social media user. The effect of such policies on social media adoption and usage behaviour remains to be examined. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. A Policy Analysis of Strategies to Manage Medical Holdovers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Tammie M

    2005-01-01

    This study is a policy analysis of the Community Based Health Care Initiative (CBHCI) implemented to address the problems for Soldiers mobilized and deployed in support of Operations Noble Eagle, Enduring Freedom, and Iraqi Freedom...

  6. A comparative analysis of capacity adequacy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Botterud, Audun; Wolfgang, Ove

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a stochastic dynamic optimization model is used to analyze the effect of different generation adequacy policies in restructured power systems. The expansion decisions of profit-maximizing investors are simulated under a number of different market designs: Energy Only with and without a price cap, Capacity Payment, Capacity Obligation, Capacity Subscription, and Demand Elasticity. The results show that the overall social welfare is reduced compared to a centralized social welfare optimization for all policies except Capacity Subscription and Demand Elasticity. In particular, an energy only market with a low price cap leads to a significant increase in involuntary load shedding. Capacity payments and obligations give additional investment incentives and more generating capacity, but also result in a considerable transfer of wealth from consumers to producers due to the capacity payments. Increased demand elasticity increases social welfare, but also results in a transfer from producers to consumers, compared to the theoretical social welfare optimum. In contrast, the capacity subscription policy increases the social welfare, and both producers and consumers benefit. This is possible because capacity subscription explicitly utilizes differences in consumers' preferences for uninterrupted supply. This advantage must be weighed against the cost of implementation, which is not included in the model.

  7. Developing effective policy strategies to retain health workers in rural Bangladesh: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Lal B; Joarder, Taufique; Islam, Sheikh Md Shariful; Uddin, Aftab; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2015-05-20

    Retention of human resources for health (HRH), particularly physicians and nurses in rural and remote areas, is a major problem in Bangladesh. We reviewed relevant policies and provisions in relation to HRH aiming to develop appropriate rural retention strategies in Bangladesh. We conducted a document review, thorough search and review of relevant literature published from 1971 through May 2013, key informant interviews with policy elites (health policy makers, managers, researchers, etc.), and a roundtable discussion with key stakeholders and policy makers. We used the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the rural retention policies under 4 domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and 16 sub-domains. Over the past four decades, Bangladesh has developed and implemented a number of health-related policies and provisions concerning retention of HRH. The district quota system in admissions is in practice to improve geographical representation of the students. Students of special background including children of freedom fighters and tribal population have allocated quotas. In private medical and nursing schools, at least 5% of seats are allocated for scholarships. Medical education has a provision for clinical rotation in rural health facilities. Further, in the public sector, every newly recruited medical doctor must serve at least 2 years at the upazila level. To encourage serving in hard-to-reach areas, particularly in three Hill Tract districts of Chittagong division, the government provides an additional 33% of the basic salary, but not exceeding US$ 38 per month. This amount is not attractive enough, and such provision is absent for those working in other rural areas. Although the government has career development and promotion plans for doctors and nurses, these plans are often not clearly specified and not implemented effectively. The government is

  8. A fully feminist foreign policy? : A postcolonial feminist analysis of Sweden's Feminist Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Mia-Lie

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a postcolonial feminist discourse analysis of Sweden’s Feminist Foreign Policy. Sweden’s Feminist Foreign Policy is unique to the world, but it is not the only case of incorporating a gender perspective as a central part of national or international politics. Feminism and gender perspectives are increasingly receiving attention and space in global politics. The Swedish case could therefore inform us about where politics are heading. Previous research on the Feminist Foreign Pol...

  9. Analysis of Competitiveness and Government Policy on Rice, Corn and Soybean Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetyo Ari Bowo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice, corn and soybean is the strategic commodities and the government always maintains their availability. Indonesia still imports rice, corn and soybean and implements the policy of tariffs, taxes and subsidies on rice, corn, soybean imports and farming inputs. Central Java is the main producer of rice, corn and soybean with the contibution of Gross Regional Domestic Product of the food crop sub-sector to the highest Provincial GRDP in Indonesian. This research examines the competitiveness and the government policy towards rice, corn and soybean farming in Central Java Province. It uses secondary data of Farming Economic Analysis from the relevant agencies and scientific publications on the international price of rice, corn and soybean that is analyzed using the quantitative descriptive method with analysis tool of Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The PAM result shows that the rice farming in Cilacap Regency and the corn farming in Grobogan Regency have competitive and comparative advantage. The soybean farming in Grobogan only has a comparative advantage. Overall the government policies are protective towards the rice farming in Cilacap, but not protective towards the corn and soybean farming in Grobogan. The sensitivity analysis shows that the advantages and competitiveness of the rice farming in Cilacap and the corn and soybean farming in Grobogan are sensitive towards the international price changes of commodities and fertilizers, the labor cost changes, the exchange rate fluctuations of Rupiah towards USD, and the import tariff changes of commodities.

  10. Characteristic analysis on UAV-MIMO channel based on normalized correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi jun; Chen, Zi li; Hu, Yong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication.

  11. Characteristic Analysis on UAV-MIMO Channel Based on Normalized Correlation Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi jun, Gao; Zi li, Chen; Yong Jiang, Hu

    2014-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication. PMID:24977185

  12. XRF analysis of criminalistic samples by use of sample capsulation in a fusible organic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakova, K.G.; Gimel'farb, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    A method of express preparation of liquid, powdered solid samples and suspensions for XRF analysis is proposed which is based on sample capsulation in a fusible organic matrix. Procedures have been developed of XRF analysis of criminalistic samples by use of the method suggested. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Perturbation analysis of transient population dynamics using matrix projection models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Iain

    2016-01-01

    to different applications: choosing a method to use may be challenging. Here, I review existing methods for prospective transient perturbation analysis, and identify a number of key considerations for ecologists when choosing a method. These include the approach taken in calculating the perturbation, the type...

  14. Analysis of your professional liability insurance policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SADUSK, J F; HASSARD, H; WATERSON, R

    1958-01-01

    The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following:1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field.2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances.3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage.4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for "latent liability" claims as the years go along-certainly for his lifetime.5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000.6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service.7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage.8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice.9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors.

  15. Social determinants of health and health equity policy research: exploring the use, misuse, and nonuse of policy analysis theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embrett, Mark G; Randall, G E

    2014-05-01

    Despite a dramatic growth in SDH/HE (social determinants of health/health equity) public policy research and demonstrated government interest in promoting equity in health policies, health inequities are actually growing among some populations and there is little evidence that "healthy public policies" are being adopted and implemented. Moreover, these issues are typically failing to even reach governments' policy agendas, which is a critical step towards serious debate and the identification of policy options. This systematic review pursues three main objectives. First, is to identify barriers to SDH/HE issues reaching the government policy agenda. Second, to evaluate the characteristics of peer-reviewed research articles that utilize common policy analysis theories. And third, to determine the extent to which the SDH/HE literature utilizes common policy analysis theories. Our systematic review, conducted in June 2012, identified 6200 SDH/HE related articles in the peer-reviewed literature; however, only seven articles explicitly used a commonly recognized policy analysis theory to inform their analysis. Our analysis revealed that the SDH/HE policy literature appears to be focused on advocacy rather than analysis and that the use of policy analysis theory is extremely limited. Our results also suggest that when such theories are incorporated into an analysis they are often not comprehensively employed. We propose explanations for this non-use and misuse of policy analysis theory, and conclude that researchers may have greater influence in helping to get SDH/HE issues onto government policy agendas if they gain a greater understanding of the policy process and the value of incorporating policy analysis theories into their research. Using a policy analysis lens to help identify why healthy public policies are typically not being adopted is an important step towards moving beyond advocacy to understanding and addressing some of the political barriers to reforms

  16. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  17. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  18. Sparse Non-negative Matrix Factorization (SNMF) based color unmixing for breast histopathological image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Xiang, Lei; Wang, Guanhao; Ganesan, Shridar; Feldman, Michael; Shih, Natalie Nc; Gilmore, Hannah; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-12-01

    Color deconvolution has emerged as a popular method for color unmixing as a pre-processing step for image analysis of digital pathology images. One deficiency of this approach is that the stain matrix is pre-defined which requires specific knowledge of the data. This paper presents an unsupervised Sparse Non-negative Matrix Factorization (SNMF) based approach for color unmixing. We evaluate this approach for color unmixing of breast pathology images. Compared to Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF), the sparseness constraint imposed on coefficient matrix aims to use more meaningful representation of color components for separating stained colors. In this work SNMF is leveraged for decomposing pure stained color in both Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) images. SNMF is compared with Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Color Deconvolution (CD), and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) based approaches. SNMF demonstrated improved performance in decomposing brown diaminobenzidine (DAB) component from 36 IHC images as well as accurately segmenting about 1400 nuclei and 500 lymphocytes from H & E images. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypothesis testing of matrix graph model with application to brain connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yin; Li, Lexin

    2017-09-01

    Brain connectivity analysis is now at the foreground of neuroscience research. A connectivity network is characterized by a graph, where nodes represent neural elements such as neurons and brain regions, and links represent statistical dependence that is often encoded in terms of partial correlation. Such a graph is inferred from the matrix-valued neuroimaging data such as electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. There have been a good number of successful proposals for sparse precision matrix estimation under normal or matrix normal distribution; however, this family of solutions does not offer a direct statistical significance quantification for the estimated links. In this article, we adopt a matrix normal distribution framework and formulate the brain connectivity analysis as a precision matrix hypothesis testing problem. Based on the separable spatial-temporal dependence structure, we develop oracle and data-driven procedures to test both the global hypothesis that all spatial locations are conditionally independent, and simultaneous tests for identifying conditional dependent spatial locations with false discovery rate control. Our theoretical results show that the data-driven procedures perform asymptotically as well as the oracle procedures and enjoy certain optimality properties. The empirical finite-sample performance of the proposed tests is studied via intensive simulations, and the new tests are applied on a real electroencephalography data analysis. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  20. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  1. Creating 'healthy built environment' legislation in Australia; a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Marie-Thow, Anne; Baum, Fran; Friel, Sharon; McCue, Peter

    2017-09-05

    Influencing healthy public policy through health advocacy remains challenging. This policy analysis research uses theories of agenda setting to understand how health came to be considered for specific mention in legislation arising from land-use planning system reform in New South Wales, Australia. This qualitative study follows critical realist methodology to conduct a policy analysis of the case. We collected data from purposively sampled in-depth interviews (n = 9), a focus group and documentary analysis. We used three classic policy process (agenda setting) theories to develop an analytic framework for explaining the empirical data: Multiple Streams; Punctuated Equilibrium Theory and Advocacy Coalition Framework. The reform process presented a window of opportunity that opened incrementally over a 2 year period. The opportunity was grasped by individual policy entrepreneurs who subsequently formed a coalition of healthy planning advocates focused on strategically positioning 'health' as legislative objective for the new system. The actual point of influence seemed to appear suddenly when challenges to a perceived economic development agenda within the reforms peaked, and the health objective, see as non-threatening by all stakeholders, was taken up. Our analysis demonstrates how this particular point of influence followed sustained long-term activity by health advocates prior to and during the reform process. We demonstrate a theory-driven policy analysis of health advocacy efforts to influence an instance of major land-use planning reform. The application of multiple policy process theories enables deep understanding of what is required to effectively advocate for healthy public policy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Stakeholders Analysis of Policy-Making Process: The Case of Timber Legality Policy on Private Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyaningrum Mulyaningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to identify and measure the relationships among stakeholders that influence the process of policy-making in defining legality of timber from private forests. The study focuses on the policy-making process of the Ministry of Forestry Regulation P.38/Menhut-II/2009 on Standard and Guidelines for Assessment of Sustainable Forest Management Performance and Timber Legality Verification of Concessionaire or of the Private Forest License Holder as the subject that has been implemented in several private forest management units as follow: Giri Mukti Wana Tirta in Lampung, Koperasi Serba Usaha APIK in Bali, Koperasi Hutan Jaya Lestari in South East Sulawesi, and Koperasi Wana Lestari Menoreh Kulonprogo in Yogyakarta. This research used a qualitative approach and the analysis method used in this research is a modified-stakeholder analysis that developed by ODA (1995, Reitbergen et al. (1998, and Mayer (2005. The stakeholder analysis shows that the interests and influences do not consider private forest farmers as primary stakeholder during  the process of policy formulation.  The strong national and international interests, supported by high authority could not be influnced by the role of the NGOs and academicians. The imbalance of responsibilities, rights, and revenues that was experienced by  farmers as the manager of private forest when started implementing the policy was more as burdens, it means implementation of the policy was more as burdens. Strong relationships between the Ministry of Forestry with the state as a core could not empower the relationship with private forest farmers. As result, policy assumptions cannot be implemented properly.Keywords: policy making process, timber legality, private forest, stakeholder.DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.156

  3. Numerical solution of quadratic matrix equations for free vibration analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the efficient and accurate solution of the eigenvalue problem represented by quadratic matrix equations. Such matrix forms are obtained in connection with the free vibration analysis of structures, discretized by finite 'dynamic' elements, resulting in frequency-dependent stiffness and inertia matrices. The paper presents a new numerical solution procedure of the quadratic matrix equations, based on a combined Sturm sequence and inverse iteration technique enabling economical and accurate determination of a few required eigenvalues and associated vectors. An alternative procedure based on a simultaneous iteration procedure is also described when only the first few modes are the usual requirement. The employment of finite dynamic elements in conjunction with the presently developed eigenvalue routines results in a most significant economy in the dynamic analysis of structures.

  4. Random Matrix Theory Approach to Indonesia Energy Portfolio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahardhika, Alifian; Purqon, Acep

    2017-07-01

    In a few years, Indonesia experienced difficulties in maintaining energy security, the problem is the decline in oil production from 1.6 million barrels per day to 861 thousand barrels per day in 2012. However, there is a difference condition in 2015 until the third week in 2016, world oil prices actually fell at the lowest price level since last 12 years. The decline in oil prices due to oversupply of oil by oil-producing countries of the world due to the instability of the world economy. Wave of layoffs in Indonesia is a response to the decline in oil prices, this led to the energy and mines portfolios Indonesia feared would not be more advantageous than the portfolio in other countries. In this research, portfolio analysis will be done on energy and mining in Indonesia by using stock price data of energy and mines in the period 26 November 2010 until April 1, 2016. It was found that the results have a wide effect of the market potential is high in the determination of the return on the portfolio energy and mines. Later, it was found that there are eight of the thirty stocks in the energy and mining portfolio of Indonesia which have a high probability of return relative to the average return of stocks in a portfolio of energy and mines.

  5. A holistic approach combining factor analysis, positive matrix factorization, and chemical mass balance applied to receptor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, N; Pushpavanam, S; Anu, N

    2013-12-01

    Rapid urbanization and population growth resulted in severe deterioration of air quality in most of the major cities in India. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the contribution of various sources of air pollution to enable us to determine effective control policies. The present work focuses on the holistic approach of combining factor analysis (FA), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and chemical mass balance (CMB) for receptor modeling in order to identify the sources and their contributions in air quality studies. Insight from the emission inventory was used to remove subjectivity in source identification. Each approach has its own limitations. Factor analysis can identify qualitatively a minimal set of important factors which can account for the variations in the measured data. This step uses information from emission inventory to qualitatively match source profiles with factor loadings. This signifies the identification of dominant sources through factors. PMF gives source profiles and source contributions from the entire receptor data matrix. The data from FA is applied for rank reduction in PMF. Whenever multiple solutions exist, emission inventory identifies source profiles uniquely, so that they have a physical relevance. CMB identifies the source contributions obtained from FA and PMF. The novel approach proposed here overcomes the limitations of the individual methods in a synergistic way. The adopted methodology is found valid for a synthetic data and also the data of field study.

  6. Effect of the sample matrix on measurement uncertainty in X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, P.; Brueggemann, L.; Wennrich, R.

    2005-01-01

    The estimation of measurement uncertainty, with reference to univariate calibration functions, is discussed in detail in the Eurachem Guide 'Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement'. The adoption of these recommendations to quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) involves basic problems which are above all due to the strong influence of the sample matrix on the analytical response. In XRF-analysis, the proposed recommendations are consequently applicable only to the matrix corrected response. The application is also restricted with regard to both the matrices and analyte concentrations. In this context the present studies are aimed at the problems to predict measurement uncertainty also with reference to more variable sample compositions. The corresponding investigations are focused on the use of the intensity of the Compton scattered tube line as an internal standard to assess the effect of the individual sample matrix on the analytical response relatively to a reference matrix. Based on this concept the estimation of the measurement uncertainty of an analyte presented in an unknown specimen can be predicted in consideration of the data obtained under defined matrix conditions

  7. An Analysis of the Retention of a Diamond Particle in a Metallic Matrix after Hot Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiecka-Jamrozek J.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with computer modelling of the retention of a synthetic diamond particle in a metallic matrix produced by powder metallurgy. The analyzed sintered powders can be used as matrices for diamond impregnated tools. First, the behaviour of sintered cobalt powder was analyzed. The model of a diamond particle embedded in a metallic matrix was created using Abaqus software. The preliminary analysis was performed to determine the mechanical parameters that are independent of the shape of the crystal. The calculation results were compared with the experimental data. Next, sintered specimens obtained from two commercially available powder mixtures were studied. The aim of the investigations was to determine the influence of the mechanical and thermal parameters of the matrix materials on their retentive properties. The analysis indicated the mechanical parameters that are responsible for the retention of diamond particles in a matrix. These mechanical variables have been: the elastic energy of particle, the elastic energy of matrix and the radius of plastic zone around particle.

  8. Public participation in the process of local public health policy, using policy network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yukyung; Kim, Chang-Yup; You, Myoung Soon; Lee, Kun Sei; Park, Eunyoung

    2014-11-01

    To assess the current public participation in-local health policy and its implications through the analysis of policy networks in health center programs. We examined the decision-making process in sub-health center installations and the implementation process in metabolic syndrome management program cases in two districts ('gu's) of Seoul. Participants of the policy network were selected by the snowballing method and completed self-administered questionnaires. Actors, the interactions among actors, and the characteristics of the network were analyzed by Netminer. The results showed that the public is not yet actively participating in the local public health policy processes of decision-making and implementation. In the decision-making process, most of the network actors were in the public sector, while the private sector was a minor actor and participated in only a limited number of issues after the major decisions were made. In the implementation process, the program was led by the health center, while other actors participated passively. Public participation in Korean public health policy is not yet well activated. Preliminary discussions with various stakeholders, including civil society, are needed before making important local public health policy decisions. In addition, efforts to include local institutions and residents in the implementation process with the public officials are necessary to improve the situation.

  9. PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON GOVERNMENT SPENDING IN ACEH: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON MAQASID PERFORMANCE PAIRWISE MATRIX (MPPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dayyan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Governments provide a host of goods and services to their citizens to achieve various socio-economic objectives. Such spending is done through various programs that include social security, education, infrastructure, health and economic. Several conventional approaches for measuring efficiency of government expenditure have been proposed in the literature. Most of these measures are quantitative in nature. For government spending based on Shari’ah oriented public policy (al-Siyasah al-Shar’iyyah, which is value loaded, there is a need for complementary qualitative yardstick to measure whether such spending achieves Maqasid al-Shari’ah. The present study has made use of content analysis to develop a Maqasid Performance Pairwise Matrix (MPPM, as one of the tools of Islamic oriented public policy (al-Siyasah al-Shar’iyyah; to measure the public perception on government expenditure in Aceh in eight areas and the extent to which the expenditure conforms to Maqasid al-Shari’ah. MPPM was used as an instrument to survey 233 respondents in Aceh. The data from the survey were validated analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. The findings from the study are mixed. Government spending in Aceh in Education and health achieved results at the level of Complements (Hajiyat, beyond the basic need (Daruriyat. Whereas in the other six areas, which include economics, public services and housing, government spending is only able to satisfy the basic needs of the Acehnese. The study concludes with recommendations and suggestions for future research. =========================================== Pemerintah menyediakan tempat barang dan jasa untuk warga negara mereka untuk mencapai berbagai tujuan sosial-ekonomi. Seperti pengeluaran, yang dilakukan melalui berbagai program termasuk jaminan sosial, pendidikan infrastruktur, kesehatan dan ekonomi. Beberapa pendekatan konvensional untuk mengukur efisiensi pengeluaran pemerintah telah ada dalam sejumlah literatur

  10. Global climate change policies. An analysis of CDM policies with an adapted GTAP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shunli

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the relationships between spatial-economic interaction and global warming just discussed, this study aims to analyze the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) policies from an economic point of view. The research question of this study is formulated as follows: What will be the impacts of clirnate change policies, in particular CDM policies, on the economic performance of (groups of) countries in our global economic system, taking spatial interaction and general equilibrium effects into account? The purpose of addressing the issue of economic performance for (groups of) countries in the economic system is not just to identify winners and losers from international treaties. Rather, winning or losing may even determine the implementation and willingness of individual countries to participate in international environmental treaties, as illustrated by the recent withdrawal of the US from the Kyoto Protocol. By analyzing the economic impacts of an international environmental treaty for individual (groups of) countries, the framework that will be used to analyze this research question may be useful to determine the attractiveness of some global environmental policies, both for the world as a whole and for individual (groups of) countries. The research question will be answered by dividing it into six subquestions: (1) What is the position of CDM policies in the broad context of climate policy regimes?; (2) How should the relationship between human behavior and the physical environment be ideally modeled from an economic perspective? (3) How should the spatial dimension be incorporated in this framework of interaction between the economic and ecological system?; (4) How can climate change issues be incorporated in general equilibrium models in general, and in GTAP-E (extension of the Global Trade Analysis Project) in particular?; (5) How can CDM policies be implemented in the GTAP-E model?; and (6) What are the impacts of these climate change policies on

  11. Quality in environmental science for policy: assessing uncertainty as a component of policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxim, L.; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489

    2011-01-01

    The sheer number of attempts to define and classify uncertainty reveals an awareness of its importance in environmental science for policy, though the nature of uncertainty is often misunderstood. The interdisciplinary field of uncertainty analysis is unstable; there are currently several incomplete

  12. A Policy Analysis of Student Attendance Standards Related to State Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…

  13. Non-negative matrix analysis in x-ray spectromicroscopy: choosing regularizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Rachel; Wild, Stefan M; Jacobsen, Chris

    2016-01-28

    In x-ray spectromicroscopy, a set of images can be acquired across an absorption edge to reveal chemical speciation. We previously described the use of non-negative matrix approximation methods for improved classification and analysis of these types of data. We present here an approach to find appropriate values of regularization parameters for this optimization approach.

  14. Conversion Matrix Analysis of GaAs HEMT Active Gilbert Cell Mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear model of the GaAs HEMT active Gilbert cell mixer is investigated. Based on the model, the conversion gain expression of active Gilbert cell mixers is derived theoretically by using conversion matrix analysis method. The expression is verified by harmonic balance...

  15. Application of AHP-Ansoff Matrix Analysis in Business Diversification: The case of Evergrande Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Nan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of enterprise strategic research, the AHP—Ansoff Matrix analysis method, is put forward in this paper for the first time and applied in the enterprise practices. By using this research method, the development strategy of enterprise diversification is analyzed scientifically and reasonably with Evergrande group as the example. And finally, main procedures of the method are summarized.

  16. Application of AHP-Ansoff Matrix Analysis in Business Diversification: The case of Evergrande Group

    OpenAIRE

    Yin Nan

    2016-01-01

    A new method of enterprise strategic research, the AHP—Ansoff Matrix analysis method, is put forward in this paper for the first time and applied in the enterprise practices. By using this research method, the development strategy of enterprise diversification is analyzed scientifically and reasonably with Evergrande group as the example. And finally, main procedures of the method are summarized.

  17. Comparative analysis of alcohol control policies in 30 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Brand

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption causes an estimated 4% of the global disease burden, prompting governments to impose regulations to mitigate the adverse effects of alcohol. To assist public health leaders and policymakers, the authors developed a composite indicator-the Alcohol Policy Index-to gauge the strength of a country's alcohol control policies.The Index generates a score based on policies from five regulatory domains-physical availability of alcohol, drinking context, alcohol prices, alcohol advertising, and operation of motor vehicles. The Index was applied to the 30 countries that compose the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between policy score and per capita alcohol consumption. Countries attained a median score of 42.4 of a possible 100 points, ranging from 14.5 (Luxembourg to 67.3 (Norway. The analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between score and consumption (r = -0.57; p = 0.001: a 10-point increase in the score was associated with a one-liter decrease in absolute alcohol consumption per person per year (95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.5 l. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the Index by showing that countries' scores and ranks remained relatively stable in response to variations in methodological assumptions.The strength of alcohol control policies, as estimated by the Alcohol Policy Index, varied widely among 30 countries located in Europe, Asia, North America, and Australia. The study revealed a clear inverse relationship between policy strength and alcohol consumption. The Index provides a straightforward tool for facilitating international comparisons. In addition, it can help policymakers review and strengthen existing regulations aimed at minimizing alcohol-related harm and estimate the likely impact of policy changes.

  18. A social network analysis of Canadian food insecurity policy actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Jessiman-Perreault, Geneviève; Mah, Catherine L; Godley, Jenny

    2018-01-31

    This paper aims to: (i) visualize the networks of food insecurity policy actors in Canada, (ii) identify potential food insecurity policy entrepreneurs (i.e., individuals with voice, connections, and persistence) within these networks, and (iii) examine the political landscape for action on food insecurity as revealed by social network analysis. A survey was administered to 93 Canadian food insecurity policy actors. They were each asked to nominate 3 individuals whom they believed to be policy entrepreneurs. Ego-centred social network maps (sociograms) were generated based on data on nominees and nominators. Seventy-two percent of the actors completed the survey; 117 unique nominations ensued. Eleven actors obtained 3 or more nominations and thus were considered policy entrepreneurs. The majority of actors nominated actors from the same province (71.5%) and with a similar approach to theirs to addressing food insecurity (54.8%). Most nominees worked in research, charitable, and other nongovernmental organizations. Networks of Canadian food insecurity policy actors exist but are limited in scope and reach, with a paucity of policy entrepreneurs from political, private, or governmental jurisdictions. The networks are divided between food-based solution actors and income-based solution actors, which might impede collaboration among those with differing approaches to addressing food insecurity.

  19. Local-global analysis of crack growth in continuously reinfoced ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Ahmed, Shamim

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a mathematical model for predicting the strength and micromechanical failure characteristics of continuously reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The local-global analysis models the vicinity of a propagating crack tip as a local heterogeneous region (LHR) consisting of spring-like representation of the matrix, fibers and interfaces. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of LHR size, component properties, and interface conditions on the strength and sequence of the failure processes in the unidirectional composite system.

  20. Development of pin-by-pin core analysis method using three-dimensional direct response matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazuya; Hino, Tetsushi; Mitsuyasu, Takeshi; Aoyama, Motoo

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional direct response matrix method using a Monte Carlo calculation has been developed. The direct response matrix is formalized by four subresponse matrices in order to respond to a core eigenvalue k and thus can be recomposed at each outer iteration in core analysis. The subresponse matrices can be evaluated by ordinary single fuel assembly calculations with the Monte Carlo method in three dimensions. Since these subresponse matrices are calculated for the actual geometry of the fuel assembly, the effects of intra- and inter-assembly heterogeneities can be reflected on global partial neutron current balance calculations in core analysis. To verify this method, calculations for heterogeneous systems were performed. The results obtained using this method agreed well with those obtained using direct calculations with a Monte Carlo method. This means that this method accurately reflects the effects of intra- and inter-assembly heterogeneities and can be used for core analysis. A core analysis method, in which neutronic calculations using this direct response matrix method are coupled with thermal-hydraulic calculations, has also been developed. As it requires neither diffusion approximation nor a homogenization process of lattice constants, a precise representation of the effects of neutronic heterogeneities is possible. Moreover, the fuel rod power distribution can be directly evaluated, which enables accurate evaluations of core thermal margins. A method of reconstructing the response matrices according to the condition of each node in the core has been developed. The test revealed that the neutron multiplication factors and the fuel rod neutron production rates could be reproduced by interpolating the elements of the response matrix. A coupled analysis of neutronic calculations using the direct response matrix method and thermal-hydraulic calculations for an ABWR quarter core was performed, and it was found that the thermal power and coolant

  1. Acceleration of criticality analysis solution convergence by matrix eigenvector for a system with weak neutron interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Takada, Tomoyuki; Kuroishi, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kadotani, Hiroyuki [Shizuoka Sangyo Univ., Iwata, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the case of Monte Carlo calculation to obtain a neutron multiplication factor for a system of weak neutron interaction, there might be some problems concerning convergence of the solution. Concerning this difficulty in the computer code calculations, theoretical derivation was made from the general neutron transport equation and consideration was given for acceleration of solution convergence by using the matrix eigenvector in this report. Accordingly, matrix eigenvector calculation scheme was incorporated together with procedure to make acceleration of convergence into the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP. Furthermore, effectiveness of acceleration of solution convergence by matrix eigenvector was ascertained with the results obtained by applying to the two OECD/NEA criticality analysis benchmark problems. (author)

  2. A game theory analysis of green infrastructure stormwater management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Reshmina; Garg, Jugal; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.

    2017-09-01

    Green stormwater infrastructure has been demonstrated as an innovative water resources management approach that addresses multiple challenges facing urban environments. However, there is little consensus on what policy strategies can be used to best incentivize green infrastructure adoption by private landowners. Game theory, an analysis framework that has historically been under-utilized within the context of stormwater management, is uniquely suited to address this policy question. We used a cooperative game theory framework to investigate the potential impacts of different policy strategies used to incentivize green infrastructure installation. The results indicate that municipal regulation leads to the greatest reduction in pollutant loading. However, the choice of the "best" regulatory approach will depend on a variety of different factors including politics and financial considerations. Large, downstream agents have a disproportionate share of bargaining power. Results also reveal that policy impacts are highly dependent on agents' spatial position within the stormwater network, leading to important questions of social equity and environmental justice.

  3. Multidisciplinary Product Decomposition and Analysis Based on Design Structure Matrix Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Tufail

    2014-01-01

    Design structure matrix (DSM) modeling in complex system design supports to define physical and logical configuration of subsystems, components, and their relationships. This modeling includes product decomposition, identification of interfaces, and structure analysis to increase the architectural...... interactions across subsystems and components. For this purpose, Cambridge advanced modeler (CAM) software tool is used to develop the system matrix. The analysis of the product (printer) architecture includes clustering, partitioning as well as structure analysis of the system. The DSM analysis is helpful...... understanding of the system. Since product architecture has broad implications in relation to product life cycle issues, in this paper, mechatronic product is decomposed into subsystems and components, and then, DSM model is developed to examine the extent of modularity in the system and to manage multiple...

  4. Irrigation water policy analysis using a business simulation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, M.; Holst, G.; Musshoff, O.

    2016-10-01

    Despite numerous studies on farmers' responses to changing irrigation water policies, uncertainties remain about the potential of water pricing schemes and water quotas to reduce irrigation. Thus far, policy impact analysis is predominantly based upon rational choice models that assume behavioral assumptions, such as a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker. Also, econometric techniques are applied which could lack internal validity due to uncontrolled field data. Furthermore, such techniques are not capable of identifying ill-designed policies prior to their implementation. With this in mind, we apply a business simulation game for ex ante policy impact analysis of irrigation water policies at the farm level. Our approach has the potential to reveal the policy-induced behavioral change of the participants in a controlled environment. To do so, we investigate how real farmers from Germany, in an economic experiment, respond to a water pricing scheme and a water quota intending to reduce irrigation. In the business simulation game, the participants manage a "virtual" cash-crop farm for which they make crop allocation and irrigation decisions during several production periods, while facing uncertain product prices and weather conditions. The results reveal that a water quota is able to reduce mean irrigation applications, while a water pricing scheme does not have an impact, even though both policies exhibit equal income effects for the farmers. However, both policies appear to increase the variation of irrigation applications. Compared to a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker, the participants apply less irrigation on average, both when irrigation is not restricted and when a water pricing scheme applies. Moreover, the participants' risk attitude affects the irrigation decisions.

  5. Dividend Policy and Corporate Value (A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tifani Titah Dwi Tyastari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the effect of dividend policy on corporate value, as well as to examine and analyze the variation of result study on corporate value in Indonesia.Dividend Signaling Model was the grand theory used to explain the effect of dividend policy on corporate value. This study used meta-analysis approach with the sample were 70 researches in Indonesia, both the published and unpublished in 2007-2015. The result of this study, meta-analysis strengthens the findings of the previous study which stated that the dividend policy could increase the corporate value. The differences of the previous studies were due to the presence of moderation effect from the measurement model of corporate value and dividend corporate.

  6. Direct Surface Analysis of Fungal Species by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Nancy B.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Jon H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kingsley, Mark T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Karen L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    Intact spores and/or hyphae of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). This study investigates various methods of sample preparation and matrices to determine optimum collection and analysis criteria for fungal analysis by MALDI-MS. Fungi are applied to the MALDI sample target as untreated, sonicated, acid/heat treated, or blotted directly from the fungal culture with double-stick tape. Ferulic acid or sinapinic acid matrix solution is layered over the dried samples and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Statistical analysis of the data show that simply using double stick tape to collect and transfer to a MALDI sample plate typically worked as well as the other preparation methods, but requires the least sample handling.

  7. Relative effects of landscape-scale wetland amount and landscape matrix quality on wetland vertebrates: a 'meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnelle, Pauline E; Lindsay, Kathryn E; Fahrigi, Lenore

    2015-04-01

    Conservation management of wetland-dependent species generally focuses on preserving or increasing wetland habitat. However, the quality of the landscape matrix (the intervening non-wetland portion of the landscape) has been shown to be more important than wetland availability for some wetland-dependent species. We used meta-analysis to compare the effects of wetland amount (measured as the area of wetland habitat in a landscape) and matrix quality (measured as the area of forest cover in the same landscape) on the population abundance of wetland-dependent vertebrates. We combined data across 63 studies conducted in forested ecoregions worldwide and extracted 330 population responses for 155 species, at the spatial scale that best predicted the effects of wetland. amount and forest amount for each response. In addition, to ensure that our results were not biased by the scale selected, we assessed whether the relative effects of wetland and forest amount were scale dependent. We found that the amount of wetland in a landscape had a larger effect than the amount of forest on the abundance of mammals and birds whereas, surprisingly, for amphibians the amount of forest in a landscape was more important than the amount of wetland. For reptiles, both wetland amount and forest amount showed only weak,effects on abundance. These results were not scale dependent, i.e., they were consistent across spatial scales. Our results suggest that the population distribution of wetland-dependent amphibians is more strongly related to landscape matrix quality than to wetland availability in a landscape, likely due to their requirement for access to terrestrial resources. We conclude that conservation policies for wetland biodiversity that focus only on wetland habitat will be ineffective in conserving many of these species. In addition, population viability analyses based only on wetland amount may overestimate the capacity of a landscape to support populations of wetland

  8. Graph Transformation and Designing Parallel Sparse Matrix Algorithms beyond Data Dependence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.X. Lin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are often parallelized based on data dependence analysis manually or by means of parallel compilers. Some vector/matrix computations such as the matrix-vector products with simple data dependence structures (data parallelism can be easily parallelized. For problems with more complicated data dependence structures, parallelization is less straightforward. The data dependence graph is a powerful means for designing and analyzing parallel algorithms. However, for sparse matrix computations, parallelization based on solely exploiting the existing parallelism in an algorithm does not always give satisfactory results. For example, the conventional Gaussian elimination algorithm for the solution of a tri-diagonal system is inherently sequential, so algorithms specially for parallel computation has to be designed. After briefly reviewing different parallelization approaches, a powerful graph formalism for designing parallel algorithms is introduced. This formalism will be discussed using a tri-diagonal system as an example. Its application to general matrix computations is also discussed. Its power in designing parallel algorithms beyond the ability of data dependence analysis is shown by means of a new algorithm called ACER (Alternating Cyclic Elimination and Reduction algorithm.

  9. Values in Health Policy – A Concept Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Shams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the significant role “values” play in decision-making no definition or attributes regarding the concept have been provided in health policy-making. This study aimed to clarify the defining attributes of a concept of value and its irrelevant structures in health policy-making. We anticipate our findings will help reduce the semantic ambiguities associated with the use of “values” and other concepts such as principles, criteria, attitudes, and beliefs. Methods An extensive search of literature was carried out using electronic data base and library. The overall search strategy yielded about 1540 articles and 450 additional records. Based on traditional qualitative research, studies were purposefully selected and the coding of articles continued until data saturation was reached. Accordingly, 31 articles, 2 books, and 5 other documents were selected for the review. We applied Walker and Avant’s method of concept analysis in studying the phenomenon. Definitions, applications, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept of “value in health policy-making” were extracted. We also identified similarities and differences that exist between and within them. Results We identified eight major attributes of “value in health policy-making”: ideological origin, affect one’s choices, more resistant to change over time, source of motivation, ability to sacrifice one’s interest, goal-oriented nature for community, trans-situational and subjectivity. Other features pinpointed include alternatives, antecedents, and consequences. Alternative, antecedents and consequences case may have more or fewer attributes or may lack one of these attributes and at the same time have other distinctive ones. Conclusion Despite the use of the value framework, ambiguities still persist in providing definition of the concept value in health policy-making. Understanding the concept of value in health policy-making may provide extra

  10. Opportunities for strengthening infant and young child feeding policies in South Asia: Insights from the SAIFRN policy analysis project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Karn, Sumit; Devkota, Madhu Dixit; Rasheed, Sabrina; Roy, S K; Suleman, Yasmeen; Hazir, Tabish; Patel, Archana; Gaidhane, Abhay; Puri, Seema; Godakandage, Sanjeeva; Senarath, Upul; Dibley, Michael J

    2017-06-13

    South Asian countries experience some of the highest levels of child undernutrition in the world, strongly linked to poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. Strong and responsive policy support is essential for effective interventions to improve IYCF. This study aimed to identify opportunities for strengthening the policy environment in the region to better support appropriate infant and young child feeding. We mapped policies relevant to infant and young child feeding in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal, based on a common matrix. The matrix described potentially relevant policies ranging from high-level strategic policy documents to implementation-level guidelines. We analyzed the data based on themes focused on caregiver interactions with IYCF interventions: provision of correct information to mothers, training of frontline workers, enabling mothers to engage with service providers and strategic support for IYCF. Policy support for IYCF was present in relation to each of the themes assessed. In all countries, there was support for nutrition in National Development Plans, and all countries had some level of maternity protection and restrictions on marketing of breast milk substitutes. Sectoral and implementation-level policy documents contained provisions for system strengthening for IYCF and for training of frontline workers. The key opportunities for strengthening IYCF policy support were in relation to translating strategic directives into implementation level documents; improving multi-sectoral support and coordination; and increased clarity regarding roles and responsibilities of frontline workers interacting with mothers. These findings can support efforts to strengthen IYCF policy at the national and regional level.

  11. Opportunities for strengthening infant and young child feeding policies in South Asia: Insights from the SAIFRN policy analysis project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Asian countries experience some of the highest levels of child undernutrition in the world, strongly linked to poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF practices. Strong and responsive policy support is essential for effective interventions to improve IYCF. This study aimed to identify opportunities for strengthening the policy environment in the region to better support appropriate infant and young child feeding. Methods We mapped policies relevant to infant and young child feeding in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal, based on a common matrix. The matrix described potentially relevant policies ranging from high-level strategic policy documents to implementation-level guidelines. We analyzed the data based on themes focused on caregiver interactions with IYCF interventions: provision of correct information to mothers, training of frontline workers, enabling mothers to engage with service providers and strategic support for IYCF. Results Policy support for IYCF was present in relation to each of the themes assessed. In all countries, there was support for nutrition in National Development Plans, and all countries had some level of maternity protection and restrictions on marketing of breast milk substitutes. Sectoral and implementation-level policy documents contained provisions for system strengthening for IYCF and for training of frontline workers. Conclusions The key opportunities for strengthening IYCF policy support were in relation to translating strategic directives into implementation level documents; improving multi-sectoral support and coordination; and increased clarity regarding roles and responsibilities of frontline workers interacting with mothers. These findings can support efforts to strengthen IYCF policy at the national and regional level.

  12. Data Envelopment Analysis of different climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Buchner, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in the political, scientific and economic debate on climate change suggest that it is of critical importance to develop new approaches able to compare policy scenarios for their environmental effectiveness, their distributive effects, their enforceability, their costs and many other dimensions. This paper discusses a quantitative methodology to assess the relative performance of different climate policy scenarios when accounting for their long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The proposed procedure is based on Data Envelopment Analysis, here employed in evaluating the relative efficiency of eleven global climate policy scenarios. The methodology provides a promising comparison framework; it can be seen as a way of setting some basic guidelines to frame further debates and negotiations and can be flexibly adopted and modified by decision makers to obtain relevant information for policy design. Three major findings emerge from this analysis: (1) stringent climate policies can outperform less ambitious proposals if all sustainability dimensions are taken into account; (2) a carefully chosen burden-sharing rule is able to bring together climate stabilisation and equity considerations; and (3) the most inefficient strategy results from the failure to negotiate a post-2012 global climate agreement. (author)

  13. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  14. Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 avr. 2010 ... Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2005, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has been financing the master's program in health and population at the Institut supérieure des sciences de la population (ISSP), Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

  15. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis. As the presence and influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) continues to widen and deepen, so too does its impact on economic development. However, much work needs to be done before the linkages between economic development ...

  16. A Unified Framework for Monetary Theory and Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall

    2005-01-01

    Search-theoretic models of monetary exchange are based on explicit descriptions of the frictions that make money essential. However, tractable versions of these models typically make strong assumptions that render them ill suited for monetary policy analysis. We propose a new framework, based on explicit micro foundations, within which macro…

  17. Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2005, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has been financing the master's program in health and population at the Institut supérieure des sciences de la population (ISSP), Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. However, after ...

  18. A Critical Policy Analysis of Texas' "Closing the Gaps 2015"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Thackik, Stefani Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This critical policy analysis uses critical race theory to provide a counter narrative to the P-16 initiative in Texas known as "Closing the Gaps 2015". Findings indicate that while these reforms aim to increase educational access and achievement for people of color, they fall short of addressing systemic inequities such as enduring…

  19. Palliative care policy analysis in Iran: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Ansari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Palliative care programs are rapidly evolving for patients with life-threatening illnesses. Increased and earlier access for facilities is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy, and research. Aim: This study was conducted to explain stakeholders' perceptions of the factors affecting the design of such a palliative care system and its policy analysis. Methodology: Semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted following purposive sampling of the participants. Twenty-two participants were included in the study. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative-directed content analysis based on "policy analysis triangle" framework. Results: The findings showed the impact of four categories, namely context (political, social, and structural feasibility, content (target setting, process (attracting stakeholder participation, the standardization of care, and education management, and actors (the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, health-care providers, and volunteers in the analysis of the palliative care policies of Iran. Conclusion: In the past 6 years, attention to palliative care has increased significantly as a result of the National Cancer Research Network with the support of the Ministry of Health. The success of health system plan requires great attention to its aspects of social, political, and executive feasibility. Careful management by policymakers of different stakeholders is vital to ensure support for any national plan, but this is challenging to achieve.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Analysis of Ethiopia's National ICT Policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as infrastructure, services, applications, universal access, cyber security, social media, and users. Broadband infrastructure development is ... other technologies it enables to transform organizations and redefine social relations. In essence, ... public policies and disciplines. First, document analysis was carried out to study.

  1. Research, Evaluation, and Policy Analysis: Heuristics for Disciplined Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon E.

    Research, evaluation, and policy analysis are elements of inquiry whose functions, aims, purposes, intended audiences, and intended outcomes have been confused in the literature discussing how to accomplish them. Using the definition of "disciplined inquiry" provided by Cronbach and Suppes (1969), which defines disciplined inquiry as the…

  2. A health app developer's guide to law and policy: a multi-sector policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Karliychuk, Tanya; Gillies, Donna; Mintzes, Barbara; Raven, Melissa; Grundy, Quinn

    2017-10-02

    Apps targeted at health and wellbeing sit in a rapidly growing industry associated with widespread optimism about their potential to deliver accessible and cost-effective healthcare. App developers might not be aware of all the regulatory requirements and best practice principles are emergent. Health apps are regulated in order to minimise their potential for harm due to, for example, loss of personal health privacy, financial costs, and health harms from delayed or unnecessary diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. We aimed to produce a comprehensive guide to assist app developers in producing health apps that are legally compliant and in keeping with high professional standards of user protection. We conducted a case study analysis of the Australian and related international policy environment for mental health apps to identify relevant sectors, policy actors, and policy solutions. We identified 29 policies produced by governments and non-government organisations that provide oversight of health apps. In consultation with stakeholders, we developed an interactive tool targeted at app developers, summarising key features of the policy environment and highlighting legislative, industry and professional standards around seven relevant domains: privacy, security, content, promotion and advertising, consumer finances, medical device efficacy and safety, and professional ethics. We annotated this developer guidance tool with information about: the relevance of each domain; existing legislative and non-legislative guidance; critiques of existing policy; recommendations for developers; and suggestions for other key stakeholders. We anticipate that mental health apps developed in accordance with this tool will be more likely to conform to regulatory requirements, protect consumer privacy, protect consumer finances, and deliver health benefit; and less likely to attract regulatory penalties, offend consumers and communities, mislead consumers, or deliver health harms. We

  3. Legalization of Educational Public Policies: Analysis of Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urá Lobato Martins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a critical analysis of the issue of legalization of public policies that deal with the right to education. Therefore, the literature review will be made, as well as an analysis of some precedents of the Supreme Court on the issue of legalization of this fundamental right. At the end, it will be shown that the right to education generates citizens the subjective rights of audience immediately, the effectiveness of this right.

  4. Integral equation analysis of complex (M)MIC-structures with optimized system matrix decomposition and novel quadrature techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupel, T.; Hansen, V.

    2004-05-01

    Using integral equation methods for the analysis of complex (M)MIC structures, the computation and storage effort for the solution of the linear systems of equations with their fully populated matrices still forms the main bottleneck. In the last years, remarkable improvements could be achieved by means of diakoptic methods and related preconditiners. In this contribution, we present a method based on the optimized decomposition of the system matrix depending on the circuit topology. The system matrix is splitted in a densely populated matrix and a mainly blockdiagonal matrix with overlapping submatrices. The latter matrix is used for the generation of high performance preconditioners within Krylov subspace methods using sparsified matrix storage methods, adaptive Cholesky decompositions and optimized forward/backward substitutions. Furthermore, we present an integration technique using a complete analytical treatment for the strongly oscillating parts of the spectral domain integrands allowing the analysis of very large structures as compared to the wavelength.

  5. Analysis of policy alternatives on the public acceptance of nuclear power plant in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young-Sung; Lee, Byong-Whi

    1995-01-01

    Public acceptance has become an important factor in nuclear power program particularly after Chernobyl accident and recent rapid democratization in Korea. A method reflecting public opinions in order to improve public acceptance is to find out the public preference values for its policy alternatives. In this study, the conjoint analysis was applied to find out the quantitative values of public preferences for twelve policy alternatives to support communities surrounding nuclear power plants in Korea. To implement the analysis, questionnaires of trade-off matrix form were mailed to the science teachers of middle or high school through-out the country who had the experience of visiting nuclear power plant. The quantitative preference values for potential policy alternatives were estimated, which made it possible to forecast the effectiveness of each option. It was revealed that the improvement of reactor safety 100 times and the establishment of civilian monitoring system for nuclear safety would be two best options to improve public acceptance of nuclear power in Korea. (author)

  6. Procedure for Matrix Effect Reduction in Metal Analysis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eshaikh, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    A procedure for matrix effect reduction is proposed to enhance the precision of quantitative analysis of metal alloys using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). This procedure is based on a number of successive steps in order to correct the signal fluctuations caused by plasma interaction and the matrix effect. The first step is the selection of optimum parameter settings of the detection system, such as laser power, delay time, and focal distance. The second step is the estimation of the absolute or relative values of impurities on the basis of the internal standard calibration. The third step is the analysis of the metal basis of the alloy used as an internal standard, which requires spectrum averaging, whole integral spectrum normalization, and self-absorption correction. Three sets of metal-based alloys (aluminum, steel, and copper) are used in this investigation as reference standards for calibration and validation. Successive improvements of the quality of calibration curves are observed during the proposed procedure.

  7. Solution of quadratic matrix equations for free vibration analysis of structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.

    1973-01-01

    An efficient digital computer procedure and the related numerical algorithm are presented herein for the solution of quadratic matrix equations associated with free vibration analysis of structures. Such a procedure enables accurate and economical analysis of natural frequencies and associated modes of discretized structures. The numerically stable algorithm is based on the Sturm sequence method, which fully exploits the banded form of associated stiffness and mass matrices. The related computer program written in FORTRAN V for the JPL UNIVAC 1108 computer proves to be substantially more accurate and economical than other existing procedures of such analysis. Numerical examples are presented for two structures - a cantilever beam and a semicircular arch.

  8. Experimental and numerical analysis of aramid fiber laminates with DCPD resin matrix subjected to impact tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocian Miroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research for innovative composite material solutions for impact absorbers is focused on the analysis of their ability to absorb impact energy. For this purpose, aramid fiber laminate with DCPD resin matrix was prepared. Laminate samples were tested on the drop test and were subjected to ballistic loads. The laminate structure was modeled with ABAQUS software with the objective to optimize and estimate the ability to absorb impact energy in the range of high speeds (350m/s.

  9. Adaptation of chemical methods of analysis to the matrix of pyrite-acidified mining lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzsprung, P.; Friese, K.

    2000-01-01

    Owing to the unusual matrix of pyrite-acidified mining lakes, the analysis of chemical parameters may be difficult. A number of methodological improvements have been developed so far, and a comprehensive validation of methods is envisaged. The adaptation of the available methods to small-volume samples of sediment pore waters and the adaptation of sensitivity to the expected concentration ranges is an important element of the methods applied in analyses of biogeochemical processes in mining lakes [de

  10. Welfare reform at 15 and the state of policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and opponents alike expected the law to have profound consequences, the article considers two ways to explain this surprising outcome, showing that (1) quantitative policy analysis has been ill equipped to capture the PRWORA's effects and (2) expectations were nonetheless wrong because they failed to appreciate how thoroughly Aid to Families with Dependent Children had already been eroded in the decades prior to its reform. Welfare reform was not the beginning of a process of policy change; it was the end of one. In response to these findings, the article describes how a more critical perspective on reform matters for social work researchers, advocates, and practitioners.

  11. Geographical classification of wine and olive oil by means of classification and influence matrix analysis (CAIMAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Davide; Mauri, Andrea; Todeschini, Roberto; Buratti, Susanna

    2006-06-16

    Classification and influence matrix analysis (CAIMAN) is a new classification method, recently proposed and based on the influence matrix (also called leverage matrix). Depending on the purposes of the classification analysis, CAIMAN can be used in three outlines: (1) D-CAIMAN is a discriminant classification method, (2) M-CAIMAN is a class modelling method allowing a sample to be classified, not classified at all, or assigned to more than one class (confused) and (3) A-CAIMAN deals with the asymmetric case, where only a reference class needs to be modelled. In this work, the geographic classification of samples of wine and olive oil has been carried out by means of CAIMAN and its results compared with discriminant analysis, by focusing great attention on the model predictive capabilities. The geographic characterization has been carried out on three different datasets: extra virgin olive oils produced in a small area, with a "protected denomination of origin" label, wines with different denominations of origin, but produced in enclosed geographical areas, and olive oils belonging to different production areas. Final results seem to indicate that the application of CAIMAN to the geographical origin identification offers several advantages: first, it shows--on an average basis--good performances; second, it is able to deal in a simple way classification problems related to tipicity, authenticity, and uniqueness characterization, which are of increasing interest in food quality issues.

  12. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  13. MOVES-Matrix and distributed computing for microscale line source dispersion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haobing; Xu, Xiaodan; Rodgers, Michael O; Xu, Yanzhi Ann; Guensler, Randall L

    2017-07-01

    MOVES and AERMOD are the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended models for use in project-level transportation conformity and hot-spot analysis. However, the structure and algorithms involved in running MOVES make analyses cumbersome and time-consuming. Likewise, the modeling setup process, including extensive data requirements and required input formats, in AERMOD lead to a high potential for analysis error in dispersion modeling. This study presents a distributed computing method for line source dispersion modeling that integrates MOVES-Matrix, a high-performance emission modeling tool, with the microscale dispersion models CALINE4 and AERMOD. MOVES-Matrix was prepared by iteratively running MOVES across all possible iterations of vehicle source-type, fuel, operating conditions, and environmental parameters to create a huge multi-dimensional emission rate lookup matrix. AERMOD and CALINE4 are connected with MOVES-Matrix in a distributed computing cluster using a series of Python scripts. This streamlined system built on MOVES-Matrix generates exactly the same emission rates and concentration results as using MOVES with AERMOD and CALINE4, but the approach is more than 200 times faster than using the MOVES graphical user interface. Because AERMOD requires detailed meteorological input, which is difficult to obtain, this study also recommends using CALINE4 as a screening tool for identifying the potential area that may exceed air quality standards before using AERMOD (and identifying areas that are exceedingly unlikely to exceed air quality standards). CALINE4 worst case method yields consistently higher concentration results than AERMOD for all comparisons in this paper, as expected given the nature of the meteorological data employed. The paper demonstrates a distributed computing method for line source dispersion modeling that integrates MOVES-Matrix with the CALINE4 and AERMOD. This streamlined system generates exactly the same emission rates and

  14. Matrix analysis and risk management to avert depression and suicide among workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi Takeaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide is among the most tragic outcomes of all mental disorders, and the prevalence of suicide has risen dramatically during the last decade, particularly among workers. This paper reviews and proposes strategies to avert suicide and depression with regard to the mind body medicine equation hypothesis, metrics analysis of mental health problems from a public health and clinical medicine view. In occupational fields, the mind body medicine hypothesis has to deal with working environment, working condition, and workers' health. These three factors chosen in this paper were based on the concept of risk control, called San-kanri, which has traditionally been used in Japanese companies, and the causation concepts of host, agent, and environment. Working environment and working condition were given special focus with regard to tackling suicide problems. Matrix analysis was conducted by dividing the problem of working conditions into nine cells: three prevention levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary were proposed for each of the three factors of the mind body medicine hypothesis (working environment, working condition, and workers' health. After using these main strategies (mind body medicine analysis and matrix analysis to tackle suicide problems, the paper talks about the versatility of case-method teaching, "Hiyari-Hat activity," routine inspections by professionals, risk assessment analysis, and mandatory health check-up focusing on sleep and depression. In the risk assessment analysis, an exact assessment model was suggested using a formula based on multiplication of the following three factors: (1 severity, (2 frequency, and (3 possibility. Mental health problems, including suicide, are rather tricky to deal with because they involve evaluation of individual cases. The mind body medicine hypothesis and matrix analysis would be appropriate tactics for suicide prevention because they would help the evaluation of this issue as a

  15. Establishment of a Policy Analysis Capability in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole M.P. NEVES

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian government, like other governments of former communist countries, emerged from the collapsed Soviet Union ill prepared to confront the complex challenges of governing under a democratic, free market system. At the core of governments that formulate sound public policies, successfully implement programs, and respond effectively to rapidly changing situations is the capacity to carry out independent, high quality research and analysis that results in improved decision making. During the 21st century, the need and acceptance of the incorporation of policy analysis courses in public administration curricula in Romania is expected to grow. In time, educational programs are expected to result in the following consequences: _ Formation of a body of strong independent policy researchers employed by the national and local governments as well as by universities and non-profit institutions _ Utilization of analytical outcomes as tools of political, social and economic improvement by the executive, legislative and judicial branches and by non-profit and private sectors _ Greater public understanding of and participation in public policy processes.

  16. Economic analysis requirements in support of orbital debris regulatory policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1996-10-01

    As the number of Earth orbiting objects increases so does the potential for generating orbital debris with the consequent increase in the likelihood of impacting and damaging operating satellites. Various debris remediation approaches are being considered that encompass both in-orbit and return-to-Earth schema and have varying degrees of operations, cost, international competitiveness, and safety implications. Because of the diversity of issues, concerns and long-term impacts, there is a clear need for the setting of government policies that will lead to an orderly abatement of the potential orbital debris hazards. These policies may require the establishment of a supportive regulatory regime. The Department of Transportation is likely to have regulatory responsibilities relating to orbital debris stemming from its charge to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security interests and foreign policy interests of the United States. This paper describes DOT's potential regulatory role relating to orbital debris remediation, the myriad of issues concerning the need for establishing government policies relating to orbital debris remediation and their regulatory implications, the proposed technological solutions and their economic and safety implications. Particular emphasis is placed upon addressing cost-effectiveness and economic analyses as they relate to economic impact analysis in support of regulatory impact analysis.

  17. Assumptions and Policy Decisions for Vital Area Identification Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myungsu; Bae, Yeon-Kyoung; Lee, Youngseung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and IAEA guidance indicate that certain assumptions and policy questions should be addressed to a Vital Area Identification (VAI) process. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power conducted a VAI based on current Design Basis Threat and engineering judgement to identify APR1400 vital areas. Some of the assumptions were inherited from Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as a sabotage logic model was based on PSA logic tree and equipment location data. This paper illustrates some important assumptions and policy decisions for APR1400 VAI analysis. Assumptions and policy decisions could be overlooked at the beginning stage of VAI, however they should be carefully reviewed and discussed among engineers, plant operators, and regulators. Through APR1400 VAI process, some of the policy concerns and assumptions for analysis were applied based on document research and expert panel discussions. It was also found that there are more assumptions to define for further studies for other types of nuclear power plants. One of the assumptions is mission time, which was inherited from PSA.

  18. Proteomic analysis of skeletal organic matrix from the stony coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jeana L; Mass, Tali; Haramaty, Liti; Zelzion, Ehud; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Falkowski, Paul G

    2013-03-05

    It has long been recognized that a suite of proteins exists in coral skeletons that is critical for the oriented precipitation of calcium carbonate crystals, yet these proteins remain poorly characterized. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of proteins extracted from the cell-free skeleton of the hermatypic coral, Stylophora pistillata, combined with a draft genome assembly from the cnidarian host cells of the same species, we identified 36 coral skeletal organic matrix proteins. The proteome of the coral skeleton contains an assemblage of adhesion and structural proteins as well as two highly acidic proteins that may constitute a unique coral skeletal organic matrix protein subfamily. We compared the 36 skeletal organic matrix protein sequences to genome and transcriptome data from three other corals, three additional invertebrates, one vertebrate, and three single-celled organisms. This work represents a unique extensive proteomic analysis of biomineralization-related proteins in corals from which we identify a biomineralization "toolkit," an organic scaffold upon which aragonite crystals can be deposited in specific orientations to form a phenotypically identifiable structure.

  19. Robust and sparse correlation matrix estimation for the analysis of high-dimensional genomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Angela; Coretto, Pietro; Fratello, Michele; Tagliaferri, Roberto; Stegle, Oliver

    2018-02-15

    Microarray technology can be used to study the expression of thousands of genes across a number of different experimental conditions, usually hundreds. The underlying principle is that genes sharing similar expression patterns, across different samples, can be part of the same co-expression system, or they may share the same biological functions. Groups of genes are usually identified based on cluster analysis. Clustering methods rely on the similarity matrix between genes. A common choice to measure similarity is to compute the sample correlation matrix. Dimensionality reduction is another popular data analysis task which is also based on covariance/correlation matrix estimates. Unfortunately, covariance/correlation matrix estimation suffers from the intrinsic noise present in high-dimensional data. Sources of noise are: sampling variations, presents of outlying sample units, and the fact that in most cases the number of units is much larger than the number of genes. In this paper, we propose a robust correlation matrix estimator that is regularized based on adaptive thresholding. The resulting method jointly tames the effects of the high-dimensionality, and data contamination. Computations are easy to implement and do not require hand tunings. Both simulated and real data are analyzed. A Monte Carlo experiment shows that the proposed method is capable of remarkable performances. Our correlation metric is more robust to outliers compared with the existing alternatives in two gene expression datasets. It is also shown how the regularization allows to automatically detect and filter spurious correlations. The same regularization is also extended to other less robust correlation measures. Finally, we apply the ARACNE algorithm on the SyNTreN gene expression data. Sensitivity and specificity of the reconstructed network is compared with the gold standard. We show that ARACNE performs better when it takes the proposed correlation matrix estimator as input. The R

  20. Quality in environmental science for policy: Assessing uncertainty as a component of policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxim, Laura; Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der

    2011-01-01

    The sheer number of attempts to define and classify uncertainty reveals an awareness of its importance in environmental science for policy, though the nature of uncertainty is often misunderstood. The interdisciplinary field of uncertainty analysis is unstable; there are currently several incomplete notions of uncertainty leading to different and incompatible uncertainty classifications. One of the most salient shortcomings of present-day practice is that most of these classifications focus on quantifying uncertainty while ignoring the qualitative aspects that tend to be decisive in the interface between science and policy. Consequently, the current practices of uncertainty analysis contribute to increasing the perceived precision of scientific knowledge, but do not adequately address its lack of socio-political relevance. The 'positivistic' uncertainty analysis models (like those that dominate the fields of climate change modelling and nuclear or chemical risk assessment) have little social relevance, as they do not influence negotiations between stakeholders. From the perspective of the science-policy interface, the current practices of uncertainty analysis are incomplete and incorrectly focused. We argue that although scientific knowledge produced and used in a context of political decision-making embodies traditional scientific characteristics, it also holds additional properties linked to its influence on social, political, and economic relations. Therefore, the significance of uncertainty cannot be assessed based on quality criteria that refer to the scientific content only; uncertainty must also include quality criteria specific to the properties and roles of this scientific knowledge within political, social, and economic contexts and processes. We propose a conceptual framework designed to account for such substantive, contextual, and procedural criteria of knowledge quality. At the same time, the proposed framework includes and synthesizes the various

  1. Conversion Matrix Analysis of SiGe HBT Gilbert Cell Mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Vidkjær, Jens; Krozer, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    The frequency response of SiGe HBT active mixers based on the Gilbert cell topology is analyzed theoretically. The time-varying operation of the Gilbert cell mixer is taken into account by applying conversion matrix analysis. The main bandwidth limiting mechanisms experienced in SiGe HBT Gilbert...... cell mixers performing frequency conversion of ultra-wideband signals is discussed. The analysis is verified by computer simulations using a realistic high-frequency large-signal SiGe HBT model. Design optimization steps towards ultra-wideband operation for Gilbert cell mixers is discussed....

  2. Local-global analysis of crack growth in continuously reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Ahmed, Shamin

    1988-01-01

    The development is described of a mathematical model for predicting the strength and micromechanical failure characteristics of continuously reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The local-globe analysis models the vicinity of a propagating crack tip as a local heterogeneous region (LHR) consisting of spring like representation of the matrix, fibers and interfaces. This region is embedded in an anisotropic continuum (representing the bulk composite) which is modeled by conventional finite elements. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of LHR size, component properties, interface conditions, etc. on the strength and sequence of the failure processes in the unidirectional composite system. The results are compared with those predicted by the models developed by Marshall et al. (1985) and by Budiansky et al. (1986).

  3. Visualizing the dental biofilm matrix by means of fluorescence lectin-binding analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawakoli, Pune Nina; Neu, Thomas R; Busck, Mette Marie

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a poorly studied, yet important component of dental biofilms. Fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA) is a powerful tool to characterize glycoconjugates in the biofilm matrix. This study aimed to systematically investigate the ability of 75 fluorescently labeled...... of sucrose. For five lectins that proved particularly suitable, stained biovolumes were quantified and correlated to the bacterial composition of the biofilms. Additionally, combinations of up to three differently labeled lectins were tested. Of the 10 lectins, five bound particularly well in 48-h......-biofilms: Aleuria aurantia (AAL), Calystega sepiem (Calsepa), Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA), Morniga-G (MNA-G) and Helix pomatia (HPA). No significant correlation between the binding of specific lectins and bacterial composition was found. Fluorescently labeled lectins enable the visualization of glycoconjugates...

  4. New methodology developed for the differential scanning calorimetry analysis of polymeric matrixes incorporating phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreneche, Camila; Solé, Aran; Miró, Laia; Martorell, Ingrid; Cabeza, Luisa F; Fernández, A Inés

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, thermal comfort needs in buildings have led to an increase in energy consumption of the residential and service sectors. For this reason, thermal energy storage is shown as an alternative to achieve reduction of this high consumption. Phase change materials (PCM) have been studied to store energy due to their high storage capacity. A polymeric material capable of macroencapsulating PCM was developed by the authors of this paper. However, difficulties were found while measuring the thermal properties of these materials by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymeric matrix interferes in the detection of PCM properties by DSC. To remove this interfering effect, a new methodology which replaces the conventional empty crucible used as a reference in the DSC analysis by crucibles composed of the polymeric matrix was developed. Thus, a clear signal from the PCM is obtained by subtracting the new full crucible signal from the sample signal. (paper)

  5. Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Brøgger, Katja; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis The panelists present the findings of a joint empirical research project carried out at Aarhus University (DPU/Copenhagen) and at Teachers College, Columbia University (New York). The research project succeeded to identify...... discursive networks of political stakeholders and policy advisors that were considered key actors in the Danish school reform. The research team investigated how these networks interrelate, change over time, and represent different constituents (government, academe, business), at times contradicting...... or collaborating with each other, respectively. Against the backdrop of globalization studies in comparative education, the research project attempted to identify borrowers, translators, and brokers of educational reform drawing on a complementary set of expertise from social network analysis methodology (Oren...

  6. HPLC-MS/MS method optimisation for matrix metalloproteinase 3 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 determination in human blood serum using target analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik, Petra; Krajnc, Metka Koren; Pahor, Artur; Finšgar, Matjaž; Knez, Željko

    2018-02-20

    A quantitative analysis of zinc endopeptidases matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) from human blood serum are presented. Both matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are present in human blood serum and can be used as biomarkers for different diseases. The analysis was performed using LC-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, based on two specific peptides of each MMP in comparison with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). While the conditions for the LC-MS/MS analysis of MMP9 peptides were previously reported for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the analysis of MMP3 peptides was newly quantified for human blood serum herein for the first time. For MMP3, the linear behaviour was determined in the concentration range from 1.0-200.0ng/mL (R 2 =0.997) with an LLOD of 0.5ng/mL. For MMP9, linearity was determined in the concentration range from 6.5-65.0ng/mL (R 2 =0.995) with an LLOD of 2.0ng/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving Australia's renewable energy project policy and planning: A multiple stakeholder analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nigel; Rice, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy (RE) is part of Australia's and the world's energy supply matrix with over A$100 billion spent annually on RE projects since 2007. Businesses seeking to invest in RE projects, particularly in the wind and solar energy sectors, may face an onerous collection of planning approvals and permitting processes that impede investment and implementation. In this study, we draw on international and domestic stakeholder inputs to a governmental inquiry in Australia to show how RE projects might be approved in shortened timeframes with reduced associated costs. The process mapping and stakeholder analysis demonstrates that RE supply projects can benefit from standardized approval processes and documentation, a 360° deep engagement with stakeholders, and expanded electricity grid access in resource areas, augmented through supportive public policy and planning frameworks. In addition, stakeholder objections to project approval and implementation streamlining were used to contrast the efficacy of the proposed changes in policy. -- Highlights: •Highlights the over A$200 billion spent annually on global RE projects. •Describes a typical two stage, multi-layered governance RE project approval process. •Exposes long 3 year and multi-million dollar cost approvals for RE projects. •Identifies multi-million dollar remote grid connections as an RE project impediment. •Outlines RE project policy and guidelines shortcomings and proposed improvements

  8. An Analysis of Reconstituted Fluid Milk Pricing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Glen D. Whipple

    1983-01-01

    This analysis suggests that alteration of the reconstituted fluid milk pricing provisions of federal and state milk market orders would have a substantial impact on market equilibrium. A reactive programming model of the U.S. milk market was used to simulate the effects of altered reconstituted fluid milk pricing policy. The solutions indicate that reconstituted fluid milk, as a lower cost alternative to fresh fluid milk, would make up a substantial portion of the fluid milk consumption in so...

  9. A Computable OLG Model for Gender and Growth Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agénor

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a computable Overlapping Generations (OLG) model for gender and growth policy analysis. The model accounts for human and physical capital accumulation (both public and private), intra- and inter-generational health persistence, fertility choices, and women's time allocation between market work, child rearing, and home production. Bargaining between spouses and gender bias, in the form of discrimination in the work place and mothers' time allocation between daughters and so...

  10. Policy Adoption of Forest Management Unit: A Knowledge Diffusion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijanti Julijanti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the policy adoption process of Forest Management Unit (FMU concept, there has been disagreement of stakeholders on FMUs concept. This disagreement is caused by the exchange of knowledge, information, and perception among stakeholders involved. The results of these interactions could speed up, slow down, and prevent the adoption process of FMU policy. The study objective was analyzing process of knowledge diffusion of FMUs development policy and stakeholders interaction in PFMU Batutegi and PFMU Kotaagung Utara, Indonesia. Adoption process was analyzed by the logical diffusion technique based on knowledge time of FMUs concept received and its interaction space. Social interaction among stakeholders was analyzed using method developed by International Development Studies analysis, i.e. interaction among discourse/narrative, actors/networks and politics/interests. The results showed that knowledge diffusion of FMUs concept in both PFMU tends to cascade diffusion. Factors was affecting of it process were network, role of opinion leaders, willingness to know, and understand on FMUs concept. Indicative strategy is needed as anticipating and overcoming an obstacle in its internalization process, i.e. harmonization of legislative and executive relationship, building an opinion the importance of FMU, and optimalizing network for bureaucratic problems. Keywords: Forest Management Unit, knowledge diffusion, network, policy adoption

  11. Policies for Reintegrating Crop and Livestock Systems: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food production regions that span a range of socioeconomic contexts, Brazil, New Zealand, and the United States, incentivize or disincentivize the use of integrated crop and livestock practices (ICLS. Our analysis indicates that Brazil and New Zealand have the most favorable policy environment for ICLS, while the United States provides the least favorable environment. The balance of policy incentives and disincentives across our three cases studies mirrors current patterns of ICLS usage. Brazil and New Zealand have both undergone a trend toward mixed crop livestock systems in recent years, while the United States has transitioned rapidly toward continuous crop and livestock production. If transitions to ICLS are desired, particularly in the United States, it will be necessary to change agricultural, trade, environmental, biofuels, and food safety policies that currently buffer farmers from risk, provide too few incentives for pollution reduction, and restrict the presence of animals in crop areas. It will also be necessary to invest more in research and development in all countries to identify the most profitable ICLS technologies in each region.

  12. Visualizing the dental biofilm matrix by means of fluorescence lectin-binding analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawakoli, Pune N; Neu, Thomas R; Busck, Mette M; Kuhlicke, Ute; Schramm, Andreas; Attin, Thomas; Wiedemeier, Daniel B; Schlafer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a poorly studied, yet important component of dental biofilms. Fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA) is a powerful tool to characterize glycoconjugates in the biofilm matrix. This study aimed to systematically investigate the ability of 75 fluorescently labeled lectins to visualize and quantify extracellular glycoconjugates in dental biofilms. Lectin binding was screened on pooled supragingival biofilm samples collected from 76 subjects using confocal microscopy. FLBA was then performed with 10 selected lectins on biofilms grown in situ for 48 h in the absence of sucrose. For five lectins that proved particularly suitable, stained biovolumes were quantified and correlated to the bacterial composition of the biofilms. Additionally, combinations of up to three differently labeled lectins were tested. Of the 10 lectins, five bound particularly well in 48-h-biofilms: Aleuria aurantia (AAL), Calystega sepiem (Calsepa), Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA), Morniga-G (MNA-G) and Helix pomatia (HPA). No significant correlation between the binding of specific lectins and bacterial composition was found. Fluorescently labeled lectins enable the visualization of glycoconjugates in the dental biofilm matrix. The characterization and quantification of glycoconjugates in dental biofilms require a combination of several lectins. For 48-h-biofilms grown in absence of sucrose, AAL, Calsepa, HPA, LEA, and MNA-G are recommendable.

  13. Sparse and smooth canonical correlation analysis through rank-1 matrix approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïssa-El-Bey, Abdeldjalil; Seghouane, Abd-Krim

    2017-12-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a well-known technique used to characterize the relationship between two sets of multidimensional variables by finding linear combinations of variables with maximal correlation. Sparse CCA and smooth or regularized CCA are two widely used variants of CCA because of the improved interpretability of the former and the better performance of the later. So far, the cross-matrix product of the two sets of multidimensional variables has been widely used for the derivation of these variants. In this paper, two new algorithms for sparse CCA and smooth CCA are proposed. These algorithms differ from the existing ones in their derivation which is based on penalized rank-1 matrix approximation and the orthogonal projectors onto the space spanned by the two sets of multidimensional variables instead of the simple cross-matrix product. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms are tested on simulated experiments. On these results, it can be observed that they outperform the state of the art sparse CCA algorithms.

  14. Enamel matrix derivative for replanted teeth in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To investigate the effect of enamel matrix derivative (EMD on periodontal healing of replanted teeth in animal models. Materials and Methods The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Knowledge and Scopus for articles published up to Oct 2012. Animal studies in which EMD was applied in transplanted or replanted teeth with adequate controls and histological data were considered. Normal periodontal healing or root resorption determined by histology after EMD was applied in replanted teeth with adequate controls was used as outcome measures. The following search strategy was used: ('Emdogain' OR 'enamel matrix proteins' OR 'enamel matrix derivative' AND ('avulsion' OR 'transplantion' OR 'autotransplantation' OR 'replantation'. Results Six animal studies were included in the final review. There was great heterogeneity in study design among included studies. Two studies with similar study designs were identified and analyzed by a meta-analysis. The pooled estimates showed a significantly higher normal healing and surface resorption and significantly less inflammatory and replacement resorption in EMD-treated groups compared with non-EMD-treated groups. Conclusions With the limitations of this systematic review, the use of EMD led to greater normal periodontal healing and surface root resorption and less inflammatory and replacement root resorption in the presence of periodontal ligaments. However, no definite conclusion could be drawn with regard to the effect of EMD on periodontal healing and root resorption when no periodontal ligaments exist.

  15. Analysis of world terror networks from the reduced Google matrix of Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zant, Samer; Frahm, Klaus M.; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2018-01-01

    We apply the reduced Google matrix method to analyze interactions between 95 terrorist groups and determine their relationships and influence on 64 world countries. This is done on the basis of the Google matrix of the English Wikipedia (2017) composed of 5 416 537 articles which accumulate a great part of global human knowledge. The reduced Google matrix takes into account the direct and hidden links between a selection of 159 nodes (articles) appearing due to all paths of a random surfer moving over the whole network. As a result we obtain the network structure of terrorist groups and their relations with selected countries including hidden indirect links. Using the sensitivity of PageRank to a weight variation of specific links we determine the geopolitical sensitivity and influence of specific terrorist groups on world countries. The world maps of the sensitivity of various countries to influence of specific terrorist groups are obtained. We argue that this approach can find useful application for more extensive and detailed data bases analysis.

  16. Alternative calibration techniques for counteracting the matrix effects in GC-MS-SPE pesticide residue analysis - a statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimayi, Cornelius; Odusanya, David; Mtunzi, Fanyana; Tsoka, Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the efficiency of application of four different multivariate calibration techniques, namely matrix-matched internal standard (MMIS), matrix-matched external standard (MMES), solvent-only internal standard (SOIS) and solvent-only external standard (SOES) on the detection and quantification of 20 organochlorine compounds from high, low and blank matrix water sample matrices by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled to solid phase extraction (SPE). Further statistical testing, using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) by applying MANOVA, T-tests and Levene's F tests indicates that matrix composition has a more significant effect on the efficiency of the analytical method than the calibration method of choice. Matrix effects are widely described as one of the major sources of errors in GC-MS multiresidue analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics proved that the matrix-matched internal standard calibration was the best approach to use for samples of varying matrix composition as it produced the most precise average mean recovery of 87% across all matrices tested. The use of an internal standard calibration overall produced more precise total recoveries than external standard calibration, with mean values of 77% and 64% respectively. The internal standard calibration technique produced a particularly high overall standard deviation of 38% at 95% confidence level indicating that it is less robust than the external standard calibration method which had an overall standard error of 32% at 95% confidence level. Overall, the matrix-matched external standard calibration proved to be the best calibration approach for analysis of low matrix samples which consisted of the real sample matrix as it had the most precise recovery of 98% compared to other calibration approaches for the low-matrix samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, Robert F.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Searcy, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO 2 -limiting policy is enacted.

  18. A Potentially Heteroglossic Policy Becomes Monoglossic in Context: An Ethnographic Analysis of Paraguayan Bilingual Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographic and discursive approaches to educational language policy (ELP) that explore how policy is appropriated in context are important for understanding policy success/failure in meeting goals of educational equity for language-minoritized students. This study describes how Paraguayan national policy for universal bilingual education…

  19. Analysis of product efficiency of hybrid vehicles and promotion policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyundo; Oh, Inha

    2010-01-01

    The key aim of this study is to evaluate the product efficiency of current hybrid vehicles and suggest effective policies to promote hybrid vehicles in the Korean automobile market and development trends of hybrid vehicles. The efficiency levels for car models sold in Korea, including hybrid ones, were measured using the recently developed discrete additive data envelopment analysis (DEA) model that reflects consumer preference. The result of the analysis shows that current hybrid vehicles on the market are still at lower competitive advantage than traditional car models with conventional combustion engines and we can suggest a mix of incentive policies to promote the competitiveness of hybrid vehicles. In addition, we also identify two distinctive trends of hybrid vehicle development: environment-oriented hybrid vehicles and performance-oriented hybrid vehicles. It implies that the government should take account of development trends of hybrid vehicles to achieve the policy goals in designing support schemes and automobile companies that are willing to develop hybrid vehicles can also gain some insights for making strategic decisions. (author)

  20. Application of Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis on operational development and evaluations of hospital development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Z-Q; Shi, A-M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the application of Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis on operational development and evaluations of hospital departments. We selected 73 clinical and medical technology departments of our hospital from 2011 to 2013, and evaluated our hospital by Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis according to the volume of services, medical quality, work efficiency, patients' evaluations, development capacity, operational capability, economic benefits, comprehensive evaluation of hospital achievement, innovation ability of hospital, influence of hospital, human resources of hospital, health insurance costs, etc. It was found that among clinical departments, there were 11 in Stars (22.4%), 17 in cash cow (34.7%), 15 in question marks (31.2%), 6 Dogs (12.2%), 16 in the youth stage of life cycle assessment (27.6%), 14 in the prime stage (24.1%), 12 in the stationary stage (20.7%), 9 in the aristocracy stage (15.5%) and 7 in the recession stage (12.1%). Among medical technology departments, there were 5 in Stars (20.8%), 1 in Cash cow (4.2%), 10 in question marks (41.6%), 8 Dogs (29.1%), 9 in the youth stage of life cycle assessment (37.5%), 4 in the prime stage (16.7%), 4 in the stable stage (16.7%), 1 in the aristocracy stage (4.2%) and 6 in the recession stage (25%). In conclusion, Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis is suitable for operational development and comprehensive evaluations of hospital development, and it plays an important role in providing hospitals with development strategies.

  1. Development of oral health policy in Nigeria: an analysis of the role of context, actors and policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiaba, Enyi; Uguru, Nkoli; Ebenso, Bassey; Russo, Giuliano; Ezumah, Nkoli; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-05-06

    In Nigeria, there is a high burden of oral health diseases, poor coordination of health services and human resources for delivery of oral health services. Previous attempts to develop an Oral Health Policy (OHP) to decrease the oral disease burden failed. However, a policy was eventually developed in November 2012. This paper explores the role of contextual factors, actors and the policy process in the development of the OHP and possible reasons why the current approved OHP succeeded. The study was undertaken across Nigeria; information gathered through document reviews and in-depth interviews with five groups of purposively selected respondents. Analysis of the policy development process was guided by the policy triangle framework, examining context, policy process and actors involved in the policy development. The foremost enabling factor was the yearning among policy actors for a policy, having had four failed attempts. Other factors were the presence of a democratically elected government, a framework for health sector reform instituted by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH). The approved OHP went through all stages required for policy development unlike the previous attempts. Three groups of actors played crucial roles in the process, namely academics/researchers, development partners and policy makers. They either had decision making powers or influenced policy through funding or technical ability to generate credible research evidence, all sharing a common interest in developing the OHP. Although evidence was used to inform the development of the policy, the complex interactions between the context and actors facilitated its approval. The OHP development succeeded through a complex inter-relationship of context, process and actors, clearly illustrating that none of these factors could have, in isolation, catalyzed the policy development. Availability of evidence is necessary but not sufficient for developing policies in this area. Wider socio

  2. Social Cost Benefit Analysis for Environmental Policy-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zeeuw, A.; In t Veld, R.; Van Soest, D.; Meuleman, L.; Hoogewoning, P.

    2008-01-01

    Review of the theoretical literature and the current debate on the valuation of environmental goods and services, on the discounting of future benefits and costs, and on how social cost benefit analysis (SCBAs) can be integrated in the policy and decision making process. It is concluded that SCBA can be a good decision support method in environmental policy-making if it is transparent and if all impacts are taken into account. Furthermore, the SCBA process should be participative, and politicians must be prepared to take responsibility for the assumptions behind the SCBA, including the assumptions on valuation and on the discount rate. Such a political role makes each SCBA a unique product of a politically responsible actor, and makes it possible for other stakeholders to have calculated an alternative SCBA based on their own assumptions. This Background Study also contains the proceedings of the international SCBA conference organised by RMNO on 16-17 January 2008

  3. Cosmetic Analysis Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos Catharino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new “omic” platform—Cosmetomics—that proves to be extremely simple and effective in terms of sample preparation and readiness for data acquisition/interpretation is presented. This novel approach employing Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI for cosmetic analysis has proven to readily identify and quantify compounds of interest. It also allows full control of all the production phases, as well as of the final product, by integration of both analytical and statistical data. This work has focused on products of daily use, namely nail polish, lipsticks and eyeliners of multiple brands sold in the worldwide market.

  4. Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Strength Analysis of a Novel Dot-matrix Oscillating Wave Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Meng; Xiao, Chengsi; Sun, Jinwei; Shao, Zhuxiao; Zheng, Qiuhong

    2017-12-01

    The paper analyzes hydrodynamic characteristics and the strength of a novel dot-matrix oscillating wave energy converter, which is in accordance with nowadays’ research tendency: high power, high efficiency, high reliability and low cost. Based on three-dimensional potential flow theory, the paper establishes motion control equations of the wave energy converter unit and calculates wave loads and motions. On this basis, a three-dimensional finite element model of the device is built to check its strength. Through the analysis, it can be confirmed that the WEC is feasible and the research results could be a reference for wave energy’s exploration and utilization.

  5. Analysis of a high intensity shear zone between overlapping fiber ends in a polymer matrix composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Britta

    2008-01-01

    The formation of high intensity shear zones in a glass fiber reinforced thermoplast is studied numerically. The thermoplast is characterized by a finite strain elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation and the calculations are carried out using a dynamic finite element program where plane strain...... that develop as the highly deformed region approaches the limit resulting from network stiffening in the polymer. A simple analysis assuming periodicity is included in order to study the mechanical behaviour of the polymer matrix between fiber ends with long overlap....

  6. Exploring an S-matrix for gravitational collapse II a momentum space analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    We complement our earlier position-space exploration of a recently proposed S-matrix for transplanckian scattering by a momentum-space analysis. As in the previous paper, we restrict ourselves to the case of axisymmetric collisions of extended sources. Comparison between the two formulations allows for several cross-checks while showing their complementary advantages. In particular, the momentum-space formulation leads to an easier computation of the emitted-graviton spectra and to an attempt to study the system beyond its critical points into the presumed gravitational-collapse regime.

  7. Cost minimisation analysis of using acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) for breast reconstruction compared with standard techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R K; Wright, C K; Gandhi, A; Charny, M C; Barr, L

    2013-03-01

    We performed a cost analysis (using UK 2011/12 NHS tariffs as a proxy for cost) comparing immediate breast reconstruction using the new one-stage technique of acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) with implant versus the standard alternative techniques of tissue expander (TE)/implant as a two-stage procedure and latissimus dorsi (LD) flap reconstruction. Clinical report data were collected for operative time, length of stay, outpatient procedures, and number of elective and emergency admissions in our first consecutive 24 patients undergoing one-stage Strattice reconstruction. Total cost to the NHS based on tariff, assuming top-up payments to cover Strattice acquisition costs, was assessed and compared to the two historical control groups matched on key variables. Eleven patients having unilateral Strattice reconstruction were compared to 10 having TE/implant reconstruction and 10 having LD flap and implant reconstruction. Thirteen patients having bilateral Strattice reconstruction were compared to 12 having bilateral TE/implant reconstruction. Total costs were: unilateral Strattice, £3685; unilateral TE, £4985; unilateral LD and implant, £6321; bilateral TE, £5478; and bilateral Strattice, £6771. The cost analysis shows a financial advantage of using acellular dermal matrix (Strattice) in unilateral breast reconstruction versus alternative procedures. The reimbursement system in England (Payment by Results) is based on disease-related groups similar to that of many countries across Europe and tariffs are based on reported hospital costs, making this analysis of relevance in other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Lake algae chemotaxonomy technology based on fluorescence excitation emission matrix and parallel factor analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Na; Han, Xiu-Rong; Su, Rong-Guo; Shi, Xiao-Yong

    2014-03-01

    An in vivo three-dimensional fluorescence method for the determination of algae community structure was developed by parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis and CHEMTAX. The PARAFAC model was applied to fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) of 23 algae species and 12 fluorescent components were identified according to the residual sum of squares and specificity of the composition profiles of fluorescent. Based on the 12 fluorescent components, the algae species at different growth stages were correctly classified at the division level using Bayesian discriminant analysis (BDA). Then the reference fluorescent component ratio matrix was constructed for CHEMTAX, and the EEM-PARAFAC-CHEMTAX method was developed to differentiate taxonomic groups of algae. When the fluorometric method was used for 531 single-species samples, the average correct discrimination ratio (CDR) was 99.1% and the correct discrimination ratios (CDRs) were 100% at the division level except Chlorophyta, the CDR of which was 97.5%. The CDRs for 95 mixtures were above 98.5% for the dominant algae species and above 90.5% for the subdominant algae species, with average relative contents of 69.7% and 26.4%, respectively. This technique would be of great aid when low-cost and rapid analysis is needed for samples in a large batch.

  9. A Nuclear Waste Management Cost Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, R. W.; Hill, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Although integrated assessments of climate change policy have frequently identified nuclear energy as a promising alternative to fossil fuels, these studies have often treated nuclear waste disposal very simply. Simple assumptions about nuclear waste are problematic because they may not be adequate to capture relevant costs and uncertainties, which could result in suboptimal policy choices. Modeling nuclear waste management costs is a cross-disciplinary, multi-scale problem that involves economic, geologic and environmental processes that operate at vastly different temporal scales. Similarly, the climate-related costs and benefits of nuclear energy are dependent on environmental sensitivity to CO2 emissions and radiation, nuclear energy's ability to offset carbon emissions, and the risk of nuclear accidents, factors which are all deeply uncertain. Alternative value systems further complicate the problem by suggesting different approaches to valuing intergenerational impacts. Effective policy assessment of nuclear energy requires an integrated approach to modeling nuclear waste management that (1) bridges disciplinary and temporal gaps, (2) supports an iterative, adaptive process that responds to evolving understandings of uncertainties, and (3) supports a broad range of value systems. This work develops the Nuclear Waste Management Cost Model (NWMCM). NWMCM provides a flexible framework for evaluating the cost of nuclear waste management across a range of technology pathways and value systems. We illustrate how NWMCM can support policy analysis by estimating how different nuclear waste disposal scenarios developed using the NWMCM framework affect the results of a recent integrated assessment study of alternative energy futures and their effects on the cost of achieving carbon abatement targets. Results suggest that the optimism reflected in previous works is fragile: Plausible nuclear waste management costs and discount rates appropriate for intergenerational cost

  10. Using the Kaldor-Hicks Tableau Format for Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutilla, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This note describes the Kaldor-Hicks (KH) tableau format as a framework for distributional accounting in cost-benefit analysis and policy evaluation. The KH tableau format can serve as a heuristic aid for teaching microeconomics-based policy analysis, and offer insight to policy analysts and decisionmakers beyond conventional efficiency analysis.

  11. Social Analysis in Development Interventions: Policy Artefact or Constructive Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANNA PRICE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently attention has focused on the role of social researchers in the processes of construction and transmission of knowledge about global poverty and its reduction. This paper examines some of the formative efforts by pioneering social researchers in development institutions to step into the realm of policy making to construct processes for project preparation and management through social analysis. Before 1970 development planners invoked ‘social' or ‘human' factors only as an excuse to explain away project failures - they designed and implemented development projects in the absence of any strategies or regulatory frameworks for managing their social impacts. Recognizing that project investments represent induced change and constitute a social process in themselves, pioneering social researchers constructed policies and procedures to introduce sociological content and method into the project cycle and so re-order social outcomes. Were such constructs merely policy artefacts? Even as the constructs helped to shift the statements of the development discourse towards ‘people oriented' poverty reduction, new modalities appeared which tested the limits of the agreed methods. Institutions may forget, neglect, contest or re-write the documents if in perceived conflict with the institutional ‘core business'. Yet those pioneering efforts created institutional space for, and understanding of, social analysis, with a measure of flow-on international recognition. Tracking social analysis in several international institutions and in a significant emerging economy, China, this paper highlights not only a history full of lessons to be learned where social analysis is not practiced systematically but also outlines some future challenges.

  12. Mapping Areas for Policy Evaluation: an Analysis of Rural Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONASTEROLO

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of the effect of the EU membership on the agricultural and rural counties of Hungary, paying particular attention to the introduction of the CAP and Cohesion Policy. Moving from the mixed case study approach introduced for the evaluation of Rural Development policies, Hungarian rural areas are mapped using multivariate statistical methodologies (principal components analysis and cluster analysis on a set of relevant variables periodically updated and available at a disaggregated level. Comparing the Hungarian rural counties in 2003 and 2007, a divergence between the expected objectives of the EU membership and the actual outcome emerges, with rural areas by far the worse off. Marginalization increased in lagging behind counties, such as Nógrád, confirming the presence of winning and losing regions as a result of the enlargement. Moreover, this study highlights the limits imposed by lacking national statistical sources on the quality of statistical analysis, and on the possibilities to undertake further evaluations of the EU accession experiences.

  13. XRF Analysis of mineralogical matrix effects and differences between pulverized and fused ferromanganese slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA ZIVANOVIC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination and analysis is only as good as the sample preparation that preceded it. Even the most sophisticated analysis is worthless if it follows sloppy sampling and poor preparation. Whether one does plasma emission, infrared or X-ray fluorescence or another spectroscopic technique, it is essential to get reproducible and accurate analysis. This paper shows the effect of mineralogical matrix differences in quantitative measurements by XRF of the main elements (Al, Ca, Mg, Si, Mn and K as oxides of ferromanganese alloy slag. Fused and pulverized slag show a significant difference in XRF microstructure, micro heterogeneity and mineralogy although the results of measurements between pulverized and fused slag, expressed as a percentage of the main elements, is not different. Other analytical techniques such as ICP-OES and classical gravimetric and titrimetric were also used for checking the XRF calibration accuracy

  14. Response matrix method and its application to SCWR single channel stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiyun; Tseng, K.J.; Tso, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    To simulate the reactor system dynamic features during density wave oscillations (DWO), both the non-linear method and the linear method can be used. Although some transient information is lost through model linearization, the high computational efficiency and relatively accurate results make the linear analysis methodology attractive, especially for prediction of the onset of instability. In the linear stability analysis, the system models are simplified through linearization of the complex non-linear differential equations, and then, the linear differential equations are generally solved in the frequency domain through Laplace transformation. In this paper, a system response matrix method was introduced by directly solving the differential equations in the time domain. By using a system response matrix method, the complicated transfer function derivation, which must be done in the frequency domain method, can be avoided. Using the response matrix method, a model was developed and applied to the single channel or parallel channel type instability analyses of the typical proposed SCWR design. The sensitivity of the decay ratio (DR) to the axial mesh size was analyzed and it was found that the DR is not sensitive to mesh size once sufficient number of axial nodes is applied. To demonstrate the effects of the inlet orificing to the stability feature for the supercritical condition, the sensitivity of the stability to inlet orifice coefficient was conducted for hot channel. It is clearly shown that a higher inlet orifice coefficient will make the system more stable. The susceptibility of stability to operating parameters such as mass flow rate, power and system pressure was also performed. And the measure to improve the SCWR stability sensitivity to operating parameters was investigated. It was found that the SCWR stability sensitivity feature can be improved by carefully managing the inlet orifices and choosing proper operating parameters. (author)

  15. An Analysis of States' Policies Regarding Social Media Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Janette K.

    2016-01-01

    This policy analysis project focused on states' policies regarding social media use in education. Currently, policies, practices and laws are not keeping pace with the rapidly changing nature of technology. As a result of the quick advancement of social media practices, the need exists for organic policies and practices within the educational…

  16. Planning, climate change, and transportation : thoughts on policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Ideally, policy should be informed by social welfare analyses that carefully assess costs and benefits. In the context of : GHG policies, such analyses face particular challenges. The decades-long span of GHG policy-making will require introduction :...

  17. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Analysis: Which is More Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Yunanto, Muhamad; Medyawati, Henny

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy is an adjustment in the income and expenditure of government as stipulated inthe state budget in order to achieve better economic stability and pace of development. Themain objective of this study was to measure and analyze Fiscal and Monetary Policy of theGross Domestic Product (GDP). Fiscal Policy Multiplier (FPM) and Monetary PolicyMultiplier (MPM) are used to answer the debate where more effective between fiscal policy andmonetary policy. Short-term models derived through er...

  18. Cost benefit analysis of policy measures in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, N. [COWI (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The Government has introduced a national target for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector, which aims to stabilize emissions at the 1988 level, by the year 2005. This target was first formalized in the Government`s 1990 transport action plan, and later repeated in `Traffic 2005`, published in December 1993. The latter document also makes reference to six strategies, which the Government proposed in order to attain the national target. The majority of the transport policy measures will impact on CO{sub 2} emissions from the sector, even if they are targeted at different objectives, e.g. road safety, air pollution, time savings, etc. A long-list of potential measures, which might be adopted with the primary purpose is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, has been identified from the six overall strategies. The measures identified have been subjected to detailed analyses, to ascertain all the potential impacts. The main emphasis has been on clarifying the potential efficacy of each of the measures in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and the social costs in a wide sense. The analysis assumes that each policy measure is implemented separately. A methodology is developed that presents the respective consequences in commensurate terms. Similar calculations are undertaken for two different combinations of policy measures. (EG)

  19. Policy Adoption of Forest Management Unit: A Knowledge Diffusion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijanti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the policy adoption process of Forest Management Unit (FMU concept, there has been disagreement of stakeholders on FMUs concept. This disagreement is caused by the exchange of knowledge, information, and perception among stakeholders involved. The results of these interactions could speed up, slow down, and prevent the adoption process of FMU policy. The study objective was analyzing process of knowledge diffusion of FMUs development policy and stakeholders interaction in PFMU Batutegi and PFMU Kotaagung Utara, Indonesia. Adoption process was analyzed by the logical diffusion technique based on knowledge time of FMUs concept received and its interaction space. Social interaction among stakeholders was analyzed using method developed by International Development Studies analysis, i.e. interaction among discourse/narrative, actors/networks and politics/interests. The results showed that knowledge diffusion of FMUs concept in both PFMU tends to cascade diffusion. Factors was affecting of it process were network, role of opinion leaders, willingness to know, and understand on FMUs concept. Indicative strategy is needed as anticipating and overcoming an obstacle in its internalization process, i.e. harmonization of legislative and executive relationship, building an opinion the importance of FMU, and optimalizing network for bureaucratic problems.

  20. Detecting seismic activity with a covariance matrix analysis of data recorded on seismic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydoux, L.; Shapiro, N. M.; de Rosny, J.; Brenguier, F.; Landès, M.

    2016-03-01

    Modern seismic networks are recording the ground motion continuously at the Earth's surface, providing dense spatial samples of the seismic wavefield. The aim of our study is to analyse these records with statistical array-based approaches to identify coherent time-series as a function of time and frequency. Using ideas mainly brought from the random matrix theory, we analyse the spatial coherence of the seismic wavefield from the width of the covariance matrix eigenvalue distribution. We propose a robust detection method that could be used for the analysis of weak and emergent signals embedded in background noise, such as the volcanic or tectonic tremors and local microseismicity, without any prior knowledge about the studied wavefields. We apply our algorithm to the records of the seismic monitoring network of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano located at La Réunion Island and composed of 21 receivers with an aperture of ˜15 km. This array recorded many teleseismic earthquakes as well as seismovolcanic events during the year 2010. We show that the analysis of the wavefield at frequencies smaller than ˜0.1 Hz results in detection of the majority of teleseismic events from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor database. The seismic activity related to the Piton de la Fournaise volcano is well detected at frequencies above 1 Hz.

  1. Biological soil crusts from arctic environments: characterization of the prokaryotic community and exopolysaccharidic matrix analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Gianmarco; Ventura, Stefano; Mascalchi, Cristina; Rossi, Federico; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are highly specialized topsoil microbial communities widespread in many ecosystems, from deserts to polar regions. BSCs play an active role in promoting soil fertility and plant growth. In Arctic environments BSCs are involved in promoting primary succession after deglaciation, increasing moisture availability and nutrient immission at the topsoil. The organisms residing on BSCs produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in response to the environmental characteristics, thus contributing to the increase of constraint tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities, together with the analysis of the chemical features of EPS, from BSC samples collected in several sites near Ny-Ǻlesund, Norway. The phylogenetic composition of the prokaryotic community was assessed through a metagenomic approach. Exopolysaccharidic fractions were quantified using ion-exchange chromatography to determine the monosaccharidic composition. Size exclusion chromatography was used to determine the distribution of the EPS fractions. Abundance of phototrophic microorganisms, which are known to contribute to EPS excretion, was also evaluated. Results underlined the complexity of the microbial communities, showing a high level of diversity within the BSC sampled analyzed. The analysis of the polysaccharide composition displayed a high number of constituent sugars; the matrix was found to be constituted by two main fractions, a higher molecular weight (2 10 exp(6) Da) and a lower molecular weight fraction (< 100 10 exp(3) Da). This study presents novel data concerning EPS of BSCs matrix in relationship with the microbial communities in cold environments.

  2. Micromechanics Fatigue Damage Analysis Modeling for Fabric Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, J. B.; Xue, D.; Shi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A micromechanics analysis modeling method was developed to analyze the damage progression and fatigue failure of fabric reinforced composite structures, especially for the brittle ceramic matrix material composites. A repeating unit cell concept of fabric reinforced composites was used to represent the global composite structure. The thermal and mechanical properties of the repeating unit cell were considered as the same as those of the global composite structure. The three-phase micromechanics, the shear-lag, and the continuum fracture mechanics models were integrated with a statistical model in the repeating unit cell to predict the progressive damages and fatigue life of the composite structures. The global structure failure was defined as the loss of loading capability of the repeating unit cell, which depends on the stiffness reduction due to material slice failures and nonlinear material properties in the repeating unit cell. The present methodology is demonstrated with the analysis results evaluated through the experimental test performed with carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix plain weave composite specimens.

  3. Study of complex matrix effect on solid phase microextraction for biological sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruifen; Xu, Jianqiao; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Zeng, Feng; Shen, Yong; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-09-11

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has become a useful tool for in vivo monitoring the behavior of environmental organic pollutants in biological species due to its simplicity, relatively non-invasive, and cost-effective manner. However, the complex matrices in biological samples could significantly influence the extraction kinetic, and bias the quantification result. In this study, we investigated the effect of complex matrix on the extraction kinetic of SPME for biological sample analysis. Two sample matrices, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and agarose gel with BSA were used to simulate the biological fluid and tissue. Results showed that the addition of BSA significantly enhanced the mass transfer of organic compounds onto SPME fiber in both PBS buffer and gel sample. Enhancement factors ranging from 1.3 to 27, and 2.0 to 80 were found for all selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PBS buffer and agarose gel with BSA concentration of 0.1-5%, respectively. Then, an improved theoretical model was applied to quantify the observed enhancement effect, and the result showed that the predicted sampling time constant agreed well with the experimental one in complex matrix. Furthermore, a simplified equation was proposed for the real biological sample analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Resolution about the second strategic analysis on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The French National Assembly has adopted a resolution concerning the European Commission's second strategic analysis on energy policy. The resolution makes acknowledgment of the strategic orientations proposed by the European Commission; however the necessity is emphasized to take into consideration the january 2009 gas crisis experience and therefore to ensure a better diversification of the gas supply to Western Europe. It also considers that a higher impulse (indeed with constraint) is to be given to renewable energy development in order to be able to meet the 2020 target of a 20 percent increase in energy efficiency in the EU

  5. Promotion of physical activity in the European region: content analysis of 27 national policy documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Racioppi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    search methods, 49 national policy documents on physical activity promotion were identified. An analysis grid covering key features was developed for the analysis of the 27 documents published in English. RESULTS: Analysis showed that many general recommendations for policy developments are being...... a noticeable development of national policy documents on physical activity promotion. Following principles for policy development more closely could increase the effectiveness of their preparation and implementation further....

  6. Scattering matrix analysis for evaluating the photocurrent in hydrogenated-amorphous-silicon-based thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myunghun; Lee, Seong Hyun; Lim, Jung Wook; Yun, Sun Jin

    2014-11-01

    A scattering matrix (S-matrix) analysis method was developed for evaluating hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)-based thin film solar cells. In this approach, light wave vectors A and B represent the incoming and outgoing behaviors of the incident solar light, respectively, in terms of coherent wave and incoherent intensity components. The S-matrix determines the relation between A and B according to optical effects such as reflection and transmission, as described by the Fresnel equations, scattering at the boundary surfaces, or scattering within the propagation medium, as described by the Beer-Lambert law and the change in the phase of the propagating light wave. This matrix can be used to evaluate the behavior of angle-incident coherent and incoherent light simultaneously, and takes into account not only the light scattering process at material boundaries (haze effects) but also nonlinear optical processes within the material. The optical parameters in the S-matrix were determined by modeling both a 2%-gallium-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting oxide and germanium-compounded a-Si:H (a-SiGe:H). Using the S-matrix equations, the photocurrent for an a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem cell and the optical loss in semitransparent a-Si:H solar cells for use in building-integrated photovoltaic applications were analyzed. The developed S-matrix method can also be used as a general analysis tool for various thin film solar cells.

  7. Field analysis of TE and TM modes in photonic crystal Bragg fibers by transmission matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hosseini Farzad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we considered the field analysis in photonic crystal Bragg fibers. We apply the method of transmission matrix to calculater the dispersion curves, the longitudinal wave number over wave number versus incident wavelength, and the field distributions of TE and TM modes in the Bragg fiber. Our analysis shows that the field of guided modes is confined in the core and can exist only in particular wavelength bands corresponding to the band-gap of the periodic structure of the clad. From another point of view, light confinement is due to Bragg reflection from high-and low-refractive index layers of the clad. Also, the diagram of average angular frequency with respect to average longitudinal wave number is plotted so that the band gap regions of the clad are clearly observed.

  8. Dynamical Analysis of Stock Market Instability by Cross-correlation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaishi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    We study stock market instability by using cross-correlations constructed from the return time series of 366 stocks traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange from January 5, 1998 to December 30, 2013. To investigate the dynamical evolution of the cross-correlations, crosscorrelation matrices are calculated with a rolling window of 400 days. To quantify the volatile market stages where the potential risk is high, we apply the principal components analysis and measure the cumulative risk fraction (CRF), which is the system variance associated with the first few principal components. From the CRF, we detected three volatile market stages corresponding to the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, the 2011 Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake, and the FRB QE3 reduction observation in the study period. We further apply the random matrix theory for the risk analysis and find that the first eigenvector is more equally de-localized when the market is volatile. (paper)

  9. A Data Matrix Method for Improving the Quantification of Element Percentages of SEM/EDX Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2009-01-01

    A simple 2D M N matrix involving sample preparation enables the microanalyst to peer below the noise floor of element percentages reported by the SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/ energy dispersive x-ray) analysis, thus yielding more meaningful data. Using the example of a 2 3 sample set, there are M = 2 concentration levels of the original mix under test: 10 percent ilmenite (90 percent silica) and 20 percent ilmenite (80 percent silica). For each of these M samples, N = 3 separate SEM/EDX samples were drawn. In this test, ilmenite is the element of interest. By plotting the linear trend of the M sample s known concentration versus the average of the N samples, a much higher resolution of elemental analysis can be performed. The resulting trend also shows how the noise is affecting the data, and at what point (of smaller concentrations) is it impractical to try to extract any further useful data.

  10. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the quantitative analysis of metals in sediments using natural zeolite matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austria, E. S.; Fuentes, E. M.; Nuesca, G. M.; Lamorena, R. B.

    2017-10-01

    The dependence of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the matrix of the sample remains an important consideration in performing quantitative analysis. In this study, a new matrix was introduced in the preparation of solid powder calibration curves. Heat-treated natural zeolite and KBr were mixed separately into high purity metal powders to generate calibration curves using a univariate approach. A LIBS technique was used in the detection and quantitative analysis of Cr, Cu and Pb in river sediment samples. The relative percent difference (RPD) was calculated to describe the variability measurements made using ICP/OES and LIBS as well as to evaluate the accuracy of the method. Calculated limits of detection in the matrices prepared were comparable with literature values and ranged from 0.41 to 6.1 ppm. The resulting metal concentrations indicate that the natural zeolite matrix were closer to the reference values compared to the KBr matrix. By employing principal component analysis (PCA), heat treated zeolite was shown as a potential diluent or binder for generating calibration curves and could provide matrix-matched standards in identification of target metals from unknown sediment samples. The natural zeolite appeared to closely simulate the ablation behavior and property of the samples, and it is found to be a potential suitable matrix for the quantitative LIBS analysis of sediments.

  11. Epidemiology of drug use in Perugia (Italy through the analysis of the Keratin Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Mercurio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Drugs and their metabolites can be incorporated into hair so hair testing has become s an alternative and complementary method to assess the extent of drugs abuse. The aim of our study has been to use hair samples to rebuild the epidemiology of illicit substances use  in Perugia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from May to July 2012 asking hairdressers of Perugia to collect hair samples and to compile a schedule for each one. The samples were analyzed in laboratory: the extraction of basic substances was performed adding methanol; the extraction of acid substances was obtained adding  NAOH.  After derivatization, 1μl of each solution was analyzed through gas chromatography / mass spectrometry The data were  organized in a database and processed using R version 3.2.2. Results We collected 238 samples. The most detected drugs were: THC-TMS identified in 15 samples, MDMA in 9, Beg-TMS in 8. There is a statistically significant difference in drug use between centre (23,36% and periphery (5,34%. Age and sex have not represented influencing factors. The substance with the highest concentration in the keratin matrix is ketamine (9834,86 ng/100 mg of hair. Conclusions The use of keratin matrix offers high advantages in the toxicological analysis compared to conventional biological matrices and let us analyze the situation in Perugia where the increased market of drugs caused constant rise of drug addiction. However, because of the limits of this method, only the simultaneous use of keratin matrix and other traditional indicators, could furnish more precise information.

  12. INITIAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT POWER TIME LAG DUE TO HETEROGENEITY WITHIN THE TREAT FUEL MATRIX.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Wachs; A.X. Zabriskie, W.R. Marcum

    2014-06-01

    The topic Nuclear Safety encompasses a broad spectrum of focal areas within the nuclear industry; one specific aspect centers on the performance and integrity of nuclear fuel during a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). This specific accident has proven to be fundamentally difficult to theoretically characterize due to the numerous empirically driven characteristics that quantify the fuel and reactor performance. The Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility was designed and operated to better understand fuel behavior under extreme (i.e. accident) conditions; it was shutdown in 1994. Recently, efforts have been underway to commission the TREAT facility to continue testing of advanced accident tolerant fuels (i.e. recently developed fuel concepts). To aid in the restart effort, new simulation tools are being used to investigate the behavior of nuclear fuels during facility’s transient events. This study focuses specifically on the characterizing modeled effects of fuel particles within the fuel matrix of the TREAT. The objective of this study was to (1) identify the impact of modeled heterogeneity within the fuel matrix during a transient event, and (2) demonstrate acceptable modeling processes for the purpose of TREAT safety analyses, specific to fuel matrix and particle size. Hypothetically, a fuel that is dominantly heterogeneous will demonstrate a clearly different temporal heating response to that of a modeled homogeneous fuel. This time difference is a result of the uniqueness of the thermal diffusivity within the fuel particle and fuel matrix. Using MOOSE/BISON to simulate the temperature time-lag effect of fuel particle diameter during a transient event, a comparison of the average graphite moderator temperature surrounding a spherical particle of fuel was made for both types of fuel simulations. This comparison showed that at a given time and with a specific fuel particle diameter, the fuel particle (heterogeneous) simulation and the homogeneous simulation

  13. An integrated economic and distributional analysis of energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labandeira, Xavier; Labeaga, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Most public policies, particularly those in the energy sphere, have not only efficiency but also distributional effects. However, there is a trade-off between modelling approaches suitable for calculating those impacts on the economy. For the former most of the studies have been conducted with general equilibrium models, whereas partial equilibrium models represent the main approach for distributional analysis. This paper proposes a methodology to simultaneously carry out an analysis of the distributional and efficiency consequences of changes in energy taxation. In order to do so, we have integrated a microeconomic household demand model and a computable general equilibrium model for the Spanish economy. We illustrate the advantages of this approach by simulating a revenue-neutral reform in Spanish indirect taxation, with a large increase of energy taxes that serve an environmental purpose. The results show that the reforms bring about significant efficiency and distributional effects, in some cases counterintuitive, and demonstrate the academic and social utility of this approximation.

  14. An integrated economic and distributional analysis of energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labandeira, Xavier [Facultade de CC. Economicas, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Labeaga, Jose M. [Instituto de Estudios Fiscales, Avda. Cardenal Herrera Oria 378, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, Miguel [Facultade de CC. Empresariais e Turismo, University of Vigo, 32004 Ourense (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Most public policies, particularly those in the energy sphere, have not only efficiency but also distributional effects. However, there is a trade-off between modelling approaches suitable for calculating those impacts on the economy. For the former most of the studies have been conducted with general equilibrium models, whereas partial equilibrium models represent the main approach for distributional analysis. This paper proposes a methodology to simultaneously carry out an analysis of the distributional and efficiency consequences of changes in energy taxation. In order to do so, we have integrated a microeconomic household demand model and a computable general equilibrium model for the Spanish economy. We illustrate the advantages of this approach by simulating a revenue-neutral reform in Spanish indirect taxation, with a large increase of energy taxes that serve an environmental purpose. The results show that the reforms bring about significant efficiency and distributional effects, in some cases counterintuitive, and demonstrate the academic and social utility of this approximation. (author)

  15. Risk analysis and priority setting for environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    There is a growing realization that the demand for funding to correct our nation's environmental problems will soon outstrip available resources. In the hazardous waste area alone, the estimated cost of remediating Superfund sites ranges from $32 billion to $80 billion. Numerous other areas of competing for these same financial resources. These include ozone depletion, global warming, the protection of endangered species and wetlands, toxic air pollution, carcinogenic pesticides, and urban smog. In response to this imbalance in the supply and demand for national funds, several political constituencies are calling for the use of risk assessment as a tool in the prioritization of research and budget needs. Comparative risk analysis offers a logical framework in which to organize information about complex environmental problems. Risk analysis allows policy analysts to make resource allocation decisions on the basis of scientific judgement rather than political expediency

  16. Choice of forest map has implications for policy analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria; McCallum, Ian; Fritz, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    and harmonised approach at the European level. However, they possess different characteristics in terms of spatial detail or thematic accuracy. Little attention has been paid to the effect of these characteristics on simulation models and the resultant policy implications. In this study we tested whether...... the choice of a forest map has substantial influence on model output, i.e. if output differences can be related to the input differences. A sensitivity analysis of the spatially explicit Global Forest Model (G4M) was performed using four different forest maps: the pan-European high resolution forest...... utilization of forest biomass. The sensitivity analysis showed that the choice of the forest cover map has a major influence on the model outputs in particular at the country-level, while having less influence at the EU27 level. Differences between the input datasets are strongly reflected in the outputs...

  17. THz spectral data analysis and components unmixing based on non-negative matrix factorization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yehao; Li, Xian; Huang, Pingjie; Hou, Dibo; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Guangxin

    2017-04-01

    In many situations the THz spectroscopic data observed from complex samples represent the integrated result of several interrelated variables or feature components acting together. The actual information contained in the original data might be overlapping and there is a necessity to investigate various approaches for model reduction and data unmixing. The development and use of low-rank approximate nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and smooth constraint NMF (CNMF) algorithms for feature components extraction and identification in the fields of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) data analysis are presented. The evolution and convergence properties of NMF and CNMF methods based on sparseness, independence and smoothness constraints for the resulting nonnegative matrix factors are discussed. For general NMF, its cost function is nonconvex and the result is usually susceptible to initialization and noise corruption, and may fall into local minima and lead to unstable decomposition. To reduce these drawbacks, smoothness constraint is introduced to enhance the performance of NMF. The proposed algorithms are evaluated by several THz-TDS data decomposition experiments including a binary system and a ternary system simulating some applications such as medicine tablet inspection. Results show that CNMF is more capable of finding optimal solutions and more robust for random initialization in contrast to NMF. The investigated method is promising for THz data resolution contributing to unknown mixture identification.

  18. THz spectral data analysis and components unmixing based on non-negative matrix factorization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yehao; Li, Xian; Huang, Pingjie; Hou, Dibo; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Guangxin

    2017-04-15

    In many situations the THz spectroscopic data observed from complex samples represent the integrated result of several interrelated variables or feature components acting together. The actual information contained in the original data might be overlapping and there is a necessity to investigate various approaches for model reduction and data unmixing. The development and use of low-rank approximate nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and smooth constraint NMF (CNMF) algorithms for feature components extraction and identification in the fields of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) data analysis are presented. The evolution and convergence properties of NMF and CNMF methods based on sparseness, independence and smoothness constraints for the resulting nonnegative matrix factors are discussed. For general NMF, its cost function is nonconvex and the result is usually susceptible to initialization and noise corruption, and may fall into local minima and lead to unstable decomposition. To reduce these drawbacks, smoothness constraint is introduced to enhance the performance of NMF. The proposed algorithms are evaluated by several THz-TDS data decomposition experiments including a binary system and a ternary system simulating some applications such as medicine tablet inspection. Results show that CNMF is more capable of finding optimal solutions and more robust for random initialization in contrast to NMF. The investigated method is promising for THz data resolution contributing to unknown mixture identification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aiming to complete the matrix: Eye-movement analysis of processing strategies in children's relational thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Honomichl, Ryan; Kennedy, Diane; Tan, Enda

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines 5- to 8-year-old children's relation reasoning in solving matrix completion tasks. This study incorporates a componential analysis, an eye-tracking method, and a microgenetic approach, which together allow an investigation of the cognitive processing strategies involved in the development and learning of children's relational thinking. Developmental differences in problem-solving performance were largely due to deficiencies in engaging the processing strategies that are hypothesized to facilitate problem-solving performance. Feedback designed to highlight the relations between objects within the matrix improved 5- and 6-year-olds' problem-solving performance, as well as their use of appropriate processing strategies. Furthermore, children who engaged the processing strategies early on in the task were more likely to solve subsequent problems in later phases. These findings suggest that encoding relations, integrating rules, completing the model, and generalizing strategies across tasks are critical processing components that underlie relational thinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Characterization of glomerular extracellular matrix by proteomic analysis of laser captured microdissected glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Liliane; Barati, Michelle T.; Caster, Dawn J.; McLeish, Kenneth R.; Merchant, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a prominent feature of many glomerular diseases and is a final common pathway of glomerular injury. However, changes in ECM composition accompanying disease-related remodeling are unknown. The physical properties of ECM create challenges for characterization of composition using standard protein extraction techniques, as the insoluble components of ECM are frequently discarded and many ECM proteins are in low abundance compared to other cell proteins. Prior proteomic studies defining normal ECM composition used a large number of glomeruli isolated from human kidneys retrieved for transplantation or by nephrectomy for cancer. Here we examined the ability to identify ECM proteins by mass spectrometry using glomerular sections compatible with that available from standard renal biopsy specimens. Proteins were classified as ECM by comparison to the Matrisome database and previously identified glomerular ECM proteins. Optimal ECM protein identification resulted from sequential decellularization and protein extraction of 100 human glomerular sections isolated by laser capture microdissection from either frozen or formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue. In total, 147 ECM proteins were identified, including the majority of structural and GBM proteins previously identified along with a number of matrix and glomerular basement membrane proteins not previously associated with glomeruli. Thus, our study demonstrates the feasibility of proteomic analysis of glomerular ECM from retrieved glomerular sections isolated from renal biopsy tissue and expands the list of known ECM proteins in glomeruli. PMID:27988214

  1. Generalized Feature Extraction for Wrist Pulse Analysis: From 1-D Time Series to 2-D Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimin Wang; Zhang, David; Guangming Lu

    2017-07-01

    Traditional Chinese pulse diagnosis, known as an empirical science, depends on the subjective experience. Inconsistent diagnostic results may be obtained among different practitioners. A scientific way of studying the pulse should be to analyze the objectified wrist pulse waveforms. In recent years, many pulse acquisition platforms have been developed with the advances in sensor and computer technology. And the pulse diagnosis using pattern recognition theories is also increasingly attracting attentions. Though many literatures on pulse feature extraction have been published, they just handle the pulse signals as simple 1-D time series and ignore the information within the class. This paper presents a generalized method of pulse feature extraction, extending the feature dimension from 1-D time series to 2-D matrix. The conventional wrist pulse features correspond to a particular case of the generalized models. The proposed method is validated through pattern classification on actual pulse records. Both quantitative and qualitative results relative to the 1-D pulse features are given through diabetes diagnosis. The experimental results show that the generalized 2-D matrix feature is effective in extracting both the periodic and nonperiodic information. And it is practical for wrist pulse analysis.

  2. A matrix lower bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  3. Green electricity policy in the Netherlands. An analysis of policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, Sascha van; Wees, Mark van

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decades, fundamental changes in both market conditions and the national and international policy framework in the Netherlands can be observed. The Dutch Government has intervened in markets regularly, demonstrating fundamental shifts in policy and approach. This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in the Netherlands. It assesses changes in the choice of policy instruments and target groups, the role of stakeholders and offers explanations behind policy successes and failures. The following conclusions can be drawn on the policy choices: First, the objectives and targets of Dutch renewable energy policy were frequently ambiguous. Although the government emphasised the importance of investments in local capacity, imports were always (implicitly) seen as an alternative option in meeting targets. Second, for a long period the government focused on reducing investment costs and dismantling administrative barriers. Only recently has the lack of a stable investment climate been identified as a potential barrier. Third, although many stakeholders have advocated a mandatory approach, Dutch policies stimulating renewable energy have always been voluntary. Finally, the Ministry of Economic Affairs has always played a very dominant role in renewable energy policy formulation and implementation, which may explain the fact that some unfavourable market reactions to policies have not been foreseen. (author)

  4. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  5. Development and Application of Econometric Models for Forecasting and Analysis of Monetary Policy Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Malugin, Vladimir; Demidenko , Mikhail; Kalechits, Dmitry; Miksjuk , Alexei; Tsukarev , Taras

    2009-01-01

    A system of econometric models designed for forecasting target monetary indicators as well as conducting monetary policy scenarios analysis is presented. The econometric models integrated in the system are represented in the error correction form and are interlinked by means of monetary policy instruments variables, common exogenous variables characterizing external shocks, and monetary policy target endogenous variables. Forecast accuracy estimates and monetary policy analysis results are pr...

  6. Matrix effects in the X-ray flourescence analysis of zinc-lead ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmayer, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the present paper several mathematical procedures for overcoming matrix effects in the X-ray flourescence analysis of zinc-lead ores varying widely in composition are examined. Some new intensity correction equations are derived using the theory of X-ray flourescence. Experiments were carried out on a high resolution Si/Li/ spectrometer and also on portable single-channel analyzer with proportional counter, using 238 Pu and 55 Fe radioisotope sources. For separation of overlapping spectral lines recorded with a proportional counter, the single edge filter method and pre-calibration is proposed. Multiple regression is applied for the calculation of influence coefficients and estimation of errors of determinations. The present results show that the equations derived in this paper allow zinc, lead and iron in ores to be determined with relatively high accuracy. (author)

  7. [Matrix analysis of the client's voice: QFD applied to healthcare management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Susana; Mira, José; Olarte, Mayerly; Guerrero, Johana; Guerrero, Johann; Moyano, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    To apply quality function deployment (QFD) methodology to identify clients' needs by relating complaints with perceived quality domains. A hospital within the Public Health Service of Madrid. Matrix analysis based on the QFD model was performed, using the surveys (1998-2002) conducted in the hospital with the Servqhos questionnaire and a sample of 363 complaints made in 2002. The complaints analyzed were selected using a non-probabilistic sampling method. QFD methodology was highly useful, allowing complaints to be related to the results of a perceived quality questionnaire and identification of the attributes with the greatest influence on patient satisfaction. It also allowed us to identify areas for improvement according to clients' needs.

  8. Review of maritime transportation air emission pollution and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Dahai; Dai, Guilin

    2009-09-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the ‘bottom up’ approach, the ‘top down’ approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  9. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy

    sensing satellite industry. In commissioning this study, NOAA's goal was to better understand the role that U.S. Government policies and regulations have in shaping the prospects for emerging commercial remote sensing satellite firms. The study assessed the risks against broader trends in the larger U.S. remote sensing industry and geospatial technology and effective policy implementation. The Department of Commerce is working with NOAA licensees to identify foreign actions which could restrict market access by U.S. firms, and seeking to provide a "level playing field" for U.S. service providers. The Department of Commerce has dedicated new resources to its licensing activities. In Fiscal Year 2002, the Department obtained 1.2 million in funding to support the NOAA program, through staff, equipment, technical support, constituent outreach, and market and policy studies. To better understand the market and make more well-informed licensing decisions, NOAA is participating in a broad-based market study effort under the direction of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) and NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program. This study is providing long-term analysis of the commercial remote sensing industry. It is being supported by interviews with industry and government experts, a web-based survey, and a thorough review and analysis of related literature. The project should more clearly determine future remote sensing needs and requirements, and maximize the industry's baselines, standards, and socio-economic potential. NOAA, through its participation in this study, has gained important new insights into the status and future trends of this industry. The study's initial findings estimate 2001 industry revenue at 2 billion, growing at 13% per year, to an approximate level of 6 billion in 2010 (in constant, calendar year 2000 dollars). Currently, across all sectors, the most active market segments are in nati onal /glo bal security, mapping

  10. A Policy Analysis of Smoke-Free Legislation in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehler, Stephanie; Hahn, Ellen J

    2016-05-01

    This article presents a policy analysis of proposed smoke-free legislation in Kentucky during the 2015 General Assembly. Kingdon's three streams model of agenda setting is used to analyze the failure to pass HB145. Secondhand smoke exposure and related deaths are a significant public health problem in Kentucky, a state with one of the highest smoking rates in the U.S. HB145, a comprehensive smoke-free bill, was designed to protect workers and the general public from secondhand smoke and e-cigarette aerosol in enclosed workplaces and public places, with few exemptions. The bill faced intense criticism from opponents who were concerned about violation of personal and business rights and the belief that the decision should be addressed on a local level. HB145 passed the House with amendments but failed to receive a hearing in the Senate. Failure of the smoke-free legislation was due to partisanship, fragmentation of advocacy groups, lack of political bargaining, and conflict of values. As in past years, the policy window did not open for state smoke-free legislation in 2015. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. A model for policy analysis of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the PAGE model (for Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect), developed by Cambridge Decision Analysts for the Directorate general for Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection of the Commission of the European Communities. The rest of this section describes the motivation for developing PAGE; it is followed by sections outlining the features of PAGE, explaining its structure in more detail, and reporting some of the uses to which it is being put. The current consensus is that unchecked emissions of greenhouse gases will lead to a rise in global mean temperature. The causal chain from emissions to temperature is complex, and current estimates give a range of 2 - 5 deg C for the temperature rise by the year 2100 if no specific actions are taken to control emissions. The damage that a global temperature rise of a few degrees over a century would cause is also not well known. Some influential groups are sufficiently alarmed to have called for global agreements to stabilize or reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Others claim that the costs of doing so would not be justified, and that adapting to a changed climate would be the best policy. Negotiations are further complicated by the global nature of the problem; if a country, or even a major trading block such as the European Community, decided to control emissions of a greenhouse gas, some of the benefit would be gained in other parts of the world that have not shared in the cost of control. 12 refs., 6 figs

  12. A study on the nuclear foreign policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Cho, I. H.; Ko, H. S.

    1996-12-01

    This study aims to analyses recent trends of international situation relating to nuclear non-proliferation and the adverse conditions in Korea's pursuing self-support of such technology, so that it may map out effective strategies for the promotion of nuclear energy. This study analyses developments of international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which plays a main role in preventing the international proliferation of nuclear weapons. This study includes NPT, IAEA safeguards system, international export control regimes, CTBT, and NWFZs as the subjects of analysis. Second theme is international organizations concerning nuclear activities. This study mainly analyses IAEA activities which pursues the promotion of peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation simultaneously as a pivotal body of international nuclear cooperation. Third focus of this study is Northeast Asian circumstances pertaining to nuclear non-proliferation. The study looks into the DPRK nuclear issues, and reviews the developments of the proposed regional body for nuclear cooperation and the discussion on the Northeast Asian NWFZ. Fourth, but the most influential to Korean nuclear activities, is the U. S. nuclear policy, since U. S. takes the overwhelming initiative in the field of international nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, this study gives much weight in analyzing the structure, procedures, recent trend, and pending issues of U. S. nuclear policy. (author). 78 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Green electricity policies in the Netherlands: an analysis of policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, Sascha N.M. van; Wees, Mark T. van

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decades, fundamental changes can be observed in both market conditions and the national policy framework for green electricity in the Netherlands. The Dutch Government has regularly intervened in markets, demonstrating fundamental shifts in policy and approach. This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in the Netherlands. It assesses changes in the choice of policy instruments and target groups, the role of stakeholders, and offers explanations behind policy successes and failures. Dutch green electricity policy over the last decade can be characterised roughly by three phases: in the early 1990s, the government negotiated voluntary agreements with the energy distribution sector on targets for green electricity sales, which were never met. In the second half of the 1990s, a regulatory energy tax was introduced, from which customers of green electricity were exempt. This led to a substantial increase in demand, which was largely met by green electricity imports, and did not lead to additional domestic renewable energy capacity. Finally, a change in policy has taken place recently (2003) shifting the focus from promotion of demand to the promotion of supply through a system of regulated feed-in tariffs. Despite the renewable energy policies, growth of the renewable energy market in the Netherlands has been small and targets have not been fully met. The Dutch government has not yet succeeded in substantially reducing market uncertainties and in building confidence among market parties, because the policies have not been stable and policy objectives have frequently been partly ambiguous. In addition, the influence of stakeholders in renewable energy policy making has been small which has the early acceptance and implementation of alternative policies

  14. N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dinitrate: a new matrix for negative ion MALDI-TOF MS analysis of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Chen, Suming; Xiong, Caiqiao; Ding, Xunlei; Wu, Chih-Che; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Nie, Zongxiu

    2012-09-01

    An organic salt, N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dinitrate (NEDN), with rationally designed properties of a strong UV absorbing chromophore, hydrogen binding and nitrate anion donors, has been employed as a matrix to analyze small molecules (m/z negative ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Compared with conventional matrixes such as α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CCA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), NEDN provides a significant improvement in detection sensitivity and yields very few matrix-associated fragment and cluster ions interfering with MS analysis. For low-molecular-weight saccharides, the lowest detection limit achieved ranges from 500 amol to 5 pmol, depending on the molecular weight and the structure of the analytes. Additionally, the mass spectra in the lower mass range (m/z matrix particularly useful for structural identification of oligosaccharides by post-source decay (PSD) MALDI-MS. Such a characteristic is illustrated by using maltoheptaose as a model system. This work demonstrates that NEDN is a novel negative ion-mode matrix for MALDI-MS analysis of small molecules with nitrate anion attachment.

  15. A two-step approach for the analysis of hybrids in comparative social policy analysis: a nuanced typology of childcare between policies and regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccia, Rossella

    2017-01-01

    Typologies have represented an important tool for the development of comparative social policy research and continue to be widely used in spite of growing criticism of their ability to capture the complexity of welfare states and their internal heterogeneity. In particular, debates have focused on the presence of hybrid cases and the existence of distinct cross-national pattern of variation across areas of social policy. There is growing awareness around these issues, but empirical research often still relies on methodologies aimed at classifying countries in a limited number of unambiguous types. This article proposes a two-step approach based on fuzzy-set ideal type analysis for the systematic analysis of hybrids at the level of both policies (step 1) and policy configurations or combinations of policies (step 2). This approach is demonstrated by using the case of childcare policies in European economies. In the first step, parental leave policies are analysed using three methods-direct, indirect, and combinatory-to identify and describe specific hybrid forms at the level of policy analysis. In the second step, the analysis moves on to investigate the relationship between parental leave and childcare services. Clearly shows that many countries display characteristics normally associated with different types (hybrids and sub-types) . Therefore, this two-step approach demonstrates that disaggregated and aggregated analyses are equally important to account for hybrid welfare forms and make sense of the tensions and incongruences within and between policies.

  16. Employing the Matrix Method as a tool for the analysis of qualitative research data in the business domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, E.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses three issues: 1. It explains the characteristics and the process of the analysis of empirical, qualitative data. 2. It introduces a method for qualitative analysis, as relevant to business research, i.e., the Matrix Method. 3. It presents a coherent approach about structuring

  17. Reverse Transfer: Paving the Pathway. ECS Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lexi

    2015-01-01

    States are taking several distinct approaches to implement reverse transfer policies. Although contextualized by state-specific factors, approaches to policy implementation commonly include determination of a group or regulatory body responsible for policy oversight, technology, funding and identification of students eligible to participate in…

  18. A Theoretical Analysis of Agricultural Policy in Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The colonial and post-colonial Nigerian State inherited agricultural policy antithetical to its development and the realization of domestic objectives. This paper establishes a theoretical nexus between a neo-colonial state, poverty, agricultural practices and policies. It examines the agricultural policies of the Nigerian state ...

  19. Analysis of the agricultural policies in the development of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review work identifies the two main agricultural policies in Nigeria between 1988 and 2000, and 2001 to date, the broad policy objectives and the main features of the agricultural policies. The paper examines the primary role of the agricultural sector in the growth and development of the Nigerian economy. The main ...

  20. Analysis method of beam pointing stability based on optical transmission matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanchuan; Huang, PingXian; Li, Xiaotong; Cen, Zhaofen

    2016-10-01

    Quite a lot of factors will make effects on beam pointing stability of an optical system, Among them, the element tolerance is one of the most important and common factors. In some large laser systems, it will make final micro beams spot on the image plane deviate obviously. So it is essential for us to achieve effective and accurate analysis theoretically on element tolerance. In order to make the analysis of beam pointing stability convenient and theoretical, we consider transmission of a single chief ray rather than beams approximately to stand for the whole spot deviation. According to optical matrix, we also simplify this complex process of light transmission to multiplication of many matrices. So that we can set up element tolerance model, namely having mathematical expression to illustrate spot deviation in an optical system with element tolerance. In this way, we can realize quantitative analysis of beam pointing stability theoretically. In second half of the paper, we design an experiment to get the spot deviation in a multipass optical system caused by element tolerance, then we adjust the tolerance step by step and compare the results with the datum got from tolerance model, finally prove the correction of tolerance model successfully.

  1. Analysis of flow cytometry data by matrix relevance learning vector quantization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Biehl

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is a widely used technique for the analysis of cell populations in the study and diagnosis of human diseases. It yields large amounts of high-dimensional data, the analysis of which would clearly benefit from efficient computational approaches aiming at automated diagnosis and decision support. This article presents our analysis of flow cytometry data in the framework of the DREAM6/FlowCAP2 Molecular Classification of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML Challenge, 2011. In the challenge, example data was provided for a set of 179 subjects, comprising healthy donors and 23 cases of AML. The participants were asked to provide predictions with respect to the condition of 180 patients in a test set. We extracted feature vectors from the data in terms of single marker statistics, including characteristic moments, median and interquartile range of the observed values. Subsequently, we applied Generalized Matrix Relevance Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ, a machine learning technique which extends standard LVQ by an adaptive distance measure. Our method achieved the best possible performance with respect to the diagnoses of test set patients. The extraction of features from the flow cytometry data is outlined in detail, the machine learning approach is discussed and classification results are presented. In addition, we illustrate how GMLVQ can provide deeper insight into the problem by allowing to infer the relevance of specific markers and features for the diagnosis.

  2. Contemporary Federal Education Policy and Rural Schools: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Howley, Craig B.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on contemporary federal education policy as it manifests in rural schools. Rural schools differ appreciably from nonrural schools in terms of organizational systems, structures, and culture. Federal policies that drive school improvement initiatives (e.g., those regulating the functioning of schools and those managing the…

  3. Responses to Including Parents in Teacher Evaluation Policy: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Erica; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2018-01-01

    The intersection of development in family and school settings has been well established and education policies have begun to promote ways to bridge the two contexts (i.e. teacher evaluations). For this manuscript, authors focus on how teachers and principals used a state educator evaluation policy to position parents as authorities on education.…

  4. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  5. Leaders and laggards in environmental policy: a quantitative analysis of domestic policy outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, D.; Arts, B.; Kamstra, J.; Ooijevaar, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the domestic characteristics of 'leaders' and 'laggards' in environmental policy in 21 European countries as well as the USA, Mexico and Japan from 1970. Data with regard to environmental policy strength are related to a set of potentially explanatory domestic factors. By way

  6. Checklist "Open Access Policies": Analysis of the Open Access Policies of Public Universities in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bauer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This checklist provides an overview of the Open Access policies implemented at Austrian universities and extramural research institutions. Furthermore, the polices adopted at nine public universities are analyzed and the respective text modules are categorized thematically. The second part of the checklist presents measures for the promotion of Open Access following the implementation of an Open Access policy.

  7. Stability Analysis of Wireless Measurement and Control System Based on Dynamic Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxian SONG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus on data packet loss and time delay problems in wireless greenhouse measurement and control system, and temperature and humidity were taken as the research objects, the model of temperature and humidity information transmission was set up by decoupling technology according to the characteristics of wireless greenhouse measurement and control system. According to related theory of exponential stability in network control system, the stability conditions judgment of temperature and humidity control model was established, the linear matrix inequality that time delay and packet loss should satisfy was obtained when wireless measurement and control system was stable operation. The feasibility analysis of linear matrix inequality (LMI was implemented Using LMI toolbox in MATLAB, and the critical values of time delay and packet loss rate were obtained when the system was stable operation. The wireless sensor network control system simulation model with time delay and packet loss was set up using TrueTime toolbox. The simulation results have shown that the system was in a stable state when time delay and packet loss rate obtained were less than the critical values in wireless greenhouse sensor network measurement and control system; With the increase of time delay and packet loss rate, and stable performance drops; When time delay and packet loss rate obtained were more than the critical values, the measurement and control system would be in a state of flux, and when it was serious, even can lead to collapse of the whole system. As a result, the critical values determination of time delay and packet loss rate provided a theoretical basis for establishing stable greenhouse wireless sensor network (WSN measurement and control system in practical application.

  8. Delay differential equations via the matrix Lambert W function and bifurcation analysis: application to machine tool chatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sun; Nelson, Patrick W; Ulsoy, A Galip

    2007-04-01

    In a turning process modeled using delay differential equations (DDEs), we investigate the stability of the regenerative machine tool chatter problem. An approach using the matrix Lambert W function for the analytical solution to systems of delay differential equations is applied to this problem and compared with the result obtained using a bifurcation analysis. The Lambert W function, known to be useful for solving scalar first-order DDEs, has recently been extended to a matrix Lambert W function approach to solve systems of DDEs. The essential advantages of the matrix Lambert W approach are not only the similarity to the concept of the state transition matrix in lin ear ordinary differential equations, enabling its use for general classes of linear delay differential equations, but also the observation that we need only the principal branch among an infinite number of roots to determine the stability of a system of DDEs. The bifurcation method combined with Sturm sequences provides an algorithm for determining the stability of DDEs without restrictive geometric analysis. With this approach, one can obtain the critical values of delay, which determine the stability of a system and hence the preferred operating spindle speed without chatter. We apply both the matrix Lambert W function and the bifurcation analysis approach to the problem of chatter stability in turning, and compare the results obtained to existing methods. The two new approaches show excellent accuracy and certain other advantages, when compared to traditional graphical, computational and approximate methods.

  9. Associations between matrix metalloproteinase gene polymorphisms and glaucoma susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Yue; Wu, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Cai-Yun; Deng, Chun-Yan; Peng, Le; Zhou, Lan

    2017-04-21

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) polymorphisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of glaucoma risk. However, the results were controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the precise associations between MMPs polymorphisms and glaucoma risk. Related studies were reviewed by searching electronic databases within four databases. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the association between the most common polymorphisms of MMPs and glaucoma risk. Heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity analysis were conducted to guarantee the statistical power. Overall, 11 selected articles involving 2,388 cases and 2,319 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Significant associations were only found between MMP-9 rs17576 G > A polymorphism (GA vs. GG: OR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.67-0.97, P = 0.02, I 2  = 0%), MMP-9 rs3918249 C > T polymorphism (TT vs. CC + CT: OR = 0.71, 95%CI = 0.51-0.98, P = 0.04, I 2  = 0%) and glaucoma risk in the general population. Subgroup analysis also suggested that MMP-9 rs17576 G > A was related to glaucoma in the Caucasian population (GA vs. GG: OR = 0.67, 95%CI = 0.45-1.00, P = 0.05; GA + AA vs. GG: OR = 0.66, 95%CI = 0.45-0.97, P = 0.03, I 2  = 0%). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that MMP-9 rs17576 G > A polymorphism might be a protective factor against the development of glaucoma in Caucasian population.

  10. Parallel Programming Application to Matrix Algebra in the Spectral Method for Control Systems Analysis, Synthesis and Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Kleshnin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the matrix algebra libraries based on the modern technologies of parallel programming for the Spectrum software, which can use a spectral method (in the spectral form of mathematical description to analyse, synthesise and identify deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems. The developed matrix algebra libraries use the following technologies for the GPUs: OmniThreadLibrary, OpenMP, Intel Threading Building Blocks, Intel Cilk Plus for CPUs nVidia CUDA, OpenCL, and Microsoft Accelerated Massive Parallelism.The developed libraries support matrices with real elements (single and double precision. The matrix dimensions are limited by 32-bit or 64-bit memory model and computer configuration. These libraries are general-purpose and can be used not only for the Spectrum software. They can also find application in the other projects where there is a need to perform operations with large matrices.The article provides a comparative analysis of the libraries developed for various matrix operations (addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, multiplication, powers of matrices, tensor multiplication, transpose, inverse matrix, finding a solution of the system of linear equations through the numerical experiments using different CPU and GPU. The article contains sample programs and performance test results for matrix multiplication, which requires most of all computational resources in regard to the other operations.

  11. Concept for Energy Security Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, Einari; Hamburg, Arvi; Härm, Mihkel; Leppiman, Ando; Ots, Märt

    2016-01-01

    The following paper presents a discussion of short- and long-term energy security assessment methods and indicators. The aim of the current paper is to describe diversity of approaches to energy security, to structure energy security indicators used by different institutions and papers, and to discuss several indicators that also play important role in the design of energy policy of a state. Based on this analysis the paper presents a novel Energy Security Matrix that structures relevant energy security indicators from the aspects of Technical Resilience and Vulnerability, Economic Dependence and Political Affectability for electricity, heat and transport fuel sectors. Earlier publications by different authors have presented energy security assessment methodologies that use publicly available indicators from different databases. Current paper challenges viability of some of these indicators and introduces new indicators that would deliver stronger energy security policy assessments. Energy Security Matrix and its indicators are based on experiences that the authors have gathered as high-level energy policymakers in Estonia, where all different aspects of energy security can be observed. - Highlights: •Energy security should be analysed in technical, economic and political terms; •Energy Security Matrix provides a framework for energy security analyses; •Applicability of Matrix is limited due to the lack of statistical data and sensitivity of output.

  12. Campus Sustainability Governance in Canada: A Content Analysis of Post-Secondary Institutions' Sustainability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughter, Philip; McKenzie, Marcia; Lidstone, Lauri; Wright, Tarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of a content analysis of sustainability policies from Canadian post-secondary education institutions. The paper reports findings on the orientations to sustainability evident in the policies; references to other policies within the documents; and other key themes on how sustainability is engaged in…

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Implant-Assisted Removable Partial Denture Attachment with Different Matrix Designs During Bilateral Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmiri, Reza; Das, Raj

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different matrix designs on resilient attachment on an implant-assisted removable partial denture (IARPD) using finite element analysis (FEA). A laser scanner was used to extract the geometrical data of a human partially edentulous mandible. A 12-mm-long and 4.8-mm-diameter-wide implant was modeled, and two types of intradental attachment of snap fastener principle (elliptical) and resilient attachment (titanium) matrices were modeled along with tooth roots and periodontal ligaments. The modeling was performed with a combination of reverse engineering and solid modeling. The model incorporated a removable partial denture and was loaded with realistic bilateral forces. The FEA was used to analyze the stress and strain distributions in the IARPD and in the metal framework. Stresses and deformations in the metal framework and resin denture base surfaces were analyzed for the elliptical and titanium matrix designs. The maximum von Mises stresses were 605.85 and 614.96 MPa in the metal framework surface and 10.35 and 10.63 MPa in the resin denture base surface, respectively, for the elliptical and titanium matrix designs. The maximum deformations (displacements) were 418.5 and 428.3 μm in the metal framework surface for the elliptical and titanium matrix designs, respectively. The corresponding values of displacements for the resin denture base surface were 325.52 and 249.22 μm for the elliptical and titanium matrix designs, respectively. The maximum displacements in the matrixes were, however, nearly the same (229.51 and 229.47 μm) for both the elliptical and titanium matrixes. The titanium matrix design was a more favorable design compared with the elliptical design, because it had lower lateral deformation as indicated by the maximum displacement.

  14. Health monitoring of Ceramic Matrix Composites from waveform-based analysis of Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maillet Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs are anticipated for use in the hot section of aircraft engines. Their implementation requires the understanding of the various damage modes that are involved and their relation to life expectancy. Acoustic Emission (AE has been shown to be an efficient technique for monitoring damage evolution in CMCs. However, only a waveform-based analysis of AE can offer the possibility to validate and precisely examine the recorded AE data with a view to damage localization and identification. The present work fully integrates wave initiation, propagation and acquisition in the analysis of Acoustic Emission waveforms recorded at various sensors, therefore providing more reliable information to assess the relation between Acoustic Emission and damage modes. The procedure allows selecting AE events originating from damage, accurate determination of their location as well as the characterization of effects of propagation on the recorded waveforms. This approach was developed using AE data recorded during tensile tests on carbon/carbon composites. It was then applied to melt-infiltrated SiC/SiC composites.

  15. BWR core simulator using three-dimensional direct response matrix and analysis of cold critical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Tetsushi; Ishii, Kazuya; Mitsuyasu, Takeshi; Aoyama, Motoo

    2010-01-01

    A new core analysis method has been developed in which neutronic calculations using a three-dimensional direct response matrix (3D-DRM) method are coupled with thermal-hydraulic calculations. As it requires neither a diffusion approximation nor a homogenization process of lattice constants, a precise representation of the neutronic heterogeneity effect in an advanced core design is possible. Moreover, the pin-by-pin power distribution can be directly evaluated, which enables precise evaluations of core thermal margins. Verification of the neutronic calculation using the 3D-DRM method was examined by analyses of cold criticality experiments of commercial power plants. The standard deviations and maximum differences in predicted neutron multiplication factors were 0.07% Δk and 0.19% Δk for a BWR5 plant, and 0.11% Δk and 0.25% Δk for an ABWR plant, respectively. A coupled analysis of the 3D-DRM method and thermal-hydraulic calculations for a quarter ABWR core was done, and it was found that the thermal power and coolant-flow distributions were smoothly converged. (author)

  16. On the Design, Development, and Analysis of Optimized Matrix-Vector Multiplication Routines for Coprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, Khairul [University of Tennessee (UT); Haidar, Azzam [University of Tennessee (UT); Tomov, Stanimire [University of Tennessee (UT); Dongarra, Jack J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The manycore paradigm shift, and the resulting change in modern computer architectures, has made the development of optimal numerical routines extremely challenging. In this work, we target the development of numerical algorithms and implementations for Xeon Phi coprocessor architecture designs. In particular, we examine and optimize the general and symmetric matrix-vector multiplication routines (gemv/symv), which are some of the most heavily used linear algebra kernels in many important engineering and physics applications. We describe a successful approach on how to address the challenges for this problem, starting with our algorithm design, performance analysis and programing model and moving to kernel optimization. Our goal, by targeting low-level and easy to understand fundamental kernels, is to develop new optimization strategies that can be effective elsewhere for use on manycore coprocessors, and to show significant performance improvements compared to existing state-of-the-art implementations. Therefore, in addition to the new optimization strategies, analysis, and optimal performance results, we finally present the significance of using these routines/strategies to accelerate higher-level numerical algorithms for the eigenvalue problem (EVP) and the singular value decomposition (SVD) that by themselves are foundational for many important applications.

  17. Open Access Journal Policies: A Systematic Analysis of Radiology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Anand; Lobner, Katie; Fritz, Jan

    2018-02-01

    The open access movement has pushed for greater access to scientific knowledge by expanding access to scientific journal articles. There is limited information about the extent to which open access policies have been adopted by radiology journals. We performed a systematic analysis to ascertain the proportion of radiology journals with open access options. A search was performed with the assistance of a clinical informationist. Full and mixed English-language diagnostic and interventional radiology Web of Science journals (impact factors > 1.0) were included. Nuclear medicine, radiation oncology, physics, and solicitation-only journals were excluded. Primary outcome was open access option (yes or no) with additional outcomes including presence or absence of embargo, complete or partial copyright transfer, publication fees, and self-archiving policies. Secondary outcomes included journal citations, journal impact factors, immediacy, Eigenfactor, and article influence scores. Independent double readings were performed with differences resolved by consensus, supplemented by contacting editorial staff at each journal. In all, 125 journals were identified; review yielded 49 journals (39%, mean impact factor of 2.61). Thirty-six of the journals had open access options (73.4%), and four journals were exclusively open access (8.2%). Twelve-month embargoes were most commonly cited (90.6%) with 28.6% of journals stating that they did not require a complete transfer of copyright. Prices for open access options ranged from $750 to $4,000 (median $3,000). No statistically significant differences were found in journal impact measures comparing journals with open access options to journals without open access options. Diagnostic and interventional radiology journals have widely adopted open access options with a few radiology journals being exclusively open access. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analyzing Public Discourse: Using Media Content Analysis to Understand the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraisky, Nancy Green

    2016-01-01

    One of the most basic and obvious sources of data for education policy analysis is text. This article discusses content analysis as an important part of the methodological toolbox for elucidating patterns and trends about education policy. Focusing specifically on media, I show how media content analysis can produce nuanced insights about the ways…

  19. Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Beyza

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language…

  20. Full correlation matrix analysis (FCMA): An unbiased method for task-related functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yida; Cohen, Jonathan D; Li, Kai; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of brain imaging data often requires simplifying assumptions because exhaustive analyses are computationally intractable. Standard univariate and multivariate analyses of brain activity ignore interactions between regions and analyses of interactions (functional connectivity) reduce the computational challenge by using seed regions of interest or brain parcellations. To meet this challenge, we developed full correlation matrix analysis (FCMA), which leverages and optimizes algorithms from parallel computing and machine learning to efficiently analyze the pairwise correlations of all voxels in the brain during different cognitive tasks, with the goal of identifying task-related interactions in an unbiased manner. When applied to a localizer dataset on a small compute cluster, FCMA accelerated a naive, serial approach by four orders of magnitude, reducing running time from two years to one hour. In addition to this performance gain, FCMA emphasized different brain areas than existing methods. In particular, beyond replicating known category selectivity in visual cortex, FCMA also revealed a region of medial prefrontal cortex whose selectivity derived from differential patterns of functional connectivity across categories. For benchmarking, we started with a naive approach and progressively built up to the complete FCMA procedure by adding optimized classifier algorithms, multi-threaded parallelism, and multi-node parallelism. To evaluate what can be learned with FCMA, we compared it against multivariate pattern analysis of activity and seed-based analysis of functional connectivity. FCMA demonstrates how advances in computer science can alleviate computational bottlenecks in neuroscience. We have released a software toolbox to help others evaluate FCMA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of tomato matrix effect in pesticide residue quantification through QuEChERS and single quadrupole GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Domínguez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of pesticide in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. matrix using Gas Chromatography hyphenated to Mass Spectrometry detector (GC/MS can affect the sensitivity of the analysis by enhancement or suppression of their chromatography response, the percentages of recoveries and leading to errors in the quantification of the pesticides. In this study, the matrix effect was investigated using nine pesticides, and "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe" (QuEChERS-GC/MS analytical technique was validated for pesticides multiresidue analysis. The matrix effect was determined using not statistical and statistical procedures including ANOVA, with similar results. Strong negative matrix effect was found for the pesticides trifluralin, 4,4'-DDT, and permethrin, resulting in the increment of the chromatogram background and a decrease in their detection responses. Contrary, an enhancement induced by the matrix presence was obtained for carbaryl and azinphos methyl, showing a positive medium matrix effect. While, dimethoate, simazine, 4,4'-DDE, and iprodione did not exhibit matrix effect. The detection limits (LOD obtained, varied from 0.003 to 0.1 mg kg-1. Reproducibility was less than 20% for each pesticide. Recoveries were found to be between 71% and 121%, except for dimethoate, carbaryl, and azinphos methyl which reached values lower than 70%. Recoveries relative standard deviations were less than 22%. QuEChERS-GC/MS technique was used for evaluation of fresh commercial tomatoes samples, detecting carbaryl in all of them, but in concentration levels lower than the maximum residue limits according to regulations of Codex.

  2. A Policy Analysis of the Coast Guard's Existing Patient Satisfaction System and Recommendations for Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coughlin, Kelly A

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper evaluates CG organizational demands, describes CG practice landscape, presents standards, reviews initial clinic process analysis, and evaluates the cost and criteria of proposed policy alternatives...

  3. Matrix Effects in the Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method of Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H-C; Lin, D-L; McCurdy, H H

    2013-03-01

    Matrix effects are dependent on biological fluid, ionization type, and sample preparation method. Although matrix effects are observed for both ionization types, ESI is especially susceptible, while APCI has proved to be less vulnerable. Sample preparation method has a clear influence on matrix effects as does, in particular, the choice of internal standard. When matrix effects result in severe ion suppression or enhancement of the target analyte by co-eluting residual components, they are typically located in isolated regions of the chromatogram. Postcolumn infusion and postextraction addition methods have been developed for the assessments of matrix effects. Approaches used for eliminating, minimizing, or compensating for matrix effects include improved sample preparation and chromatographic separation, sample dilution, and the utilization of internal standards. Matrix effects may not always be fully circumventable because a perfectly consistent matrix does not exist, but they can be significantly minimized and largely compensated for by various approaches, such as standard addition, matrixmatched calibration, and the use of isotopic analogs of the analytes as internal standards. Copyright © 2013 Central Police University.

  4. Descriptive vector, relative error matrix, and interaction analysis of multivariable plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshizadeh-Naini, Nima; Fatehi, Alireza; Kahki-Sedigh, Ali

    In this paper, we introduce a vector which is able to describe the Niederlinski Index (NI), Relative Gain array (RGA), and the characteristic equation of the relative error matrix. The spectral radius and the structured singular value of the relative error matrix are investigated. The cases where

  5. Decomposition cross-correlation for analysis of collagen matrix deformation by single smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Jeroen; Pistea, Adrian; Bakker, Erik N. T. P.; VanBavel, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Microvascular remodeling is known to depend on cellular interactions with matrix tissue. However, it is difficult to study the role of specific cells or matrix elements in an in vivo setting. The aim of this study is to develop an automated technique that can be employed to obtain and analyze local

  6. Integrating agricultural research and policy analysis: analytical framework and policy applications for bio-economic modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Moll, H.; Kuyvenhoven, A.

    1998-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approaches to identify suitable incentives for enhancing sustainable natural resource use require an analytical framework that satisfies both practical purposes of policy support and disciplinary requirements regarding the specification of underlying technical and behavioural

  7. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for intelligent network flow optimization (INFLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The report documents policy considerations for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) connected vehicle applications : bundle. INFLO aims to optimize network flow on freeways and arterials by informing motorists of existing and impen...

  8. Analysis of selected policies towards universal health coverage in Uganda: the policy implementation barometer protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoro, Charles; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Twalo, Thembinkosi; Mwendera, Chikondi; Douglas, Mbuyiselo; Mukuru, Moses; Kasasa, Simon; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2018-01-01

    Policy implementation remains an under researched area in most low and middle income countries and it is not surprising that several policies are implemented without a systematic follow up of why and how they are working or failing. This study is part of a larger project called Supporting Policy Engagement for Evidence-based Decisions (SPEED) for Universal Health Coverage in Uganda. It seeks to support policymakers monitor the implementation of vital programmes for the realisation of policy goals for Universal Health Coverage. A Policy Implementation Barometer (PIB) is proposed as a mechanism to provide feedback to the decision makers about the implementation of a selected set of policy programmes at various implementation levels (macro, meso and micro level). The main objective is to establish the extent of implementation of malaria, family planning and emergency obstetric care policies in Uganda and use these results to support stakeholder engagements for corrective action. This is the first PIB survey of the three planned surveys and its specific objectives include: assessment of the perceived appropriateness of implementation programmes to the identified policy problems; determination of enablers and constraints to implementation of the policies; comparison of on-line and face-to-face administration of the PIB questionnaire among target respondents; and documentation of stakeholder responses to PIB findings with regard to corrective actions for implementation. The PIB will be a descriptive and analytical study employing mixed methods in which both quantitative and qualitative data will be systematically collected and analysed. The first wave will focus on 10 districts and primary data will be collected through interviews. The study seeks to interview 570 respondents of which 120 will be selected at national level with 40 based on each of the three policy domains, 200 from 10 randomly selected districts, and 250 from 50 facilities. Half of the respondents at

  9. A FRAMEWORK ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN LABOUR MARKET POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graţiela Georgiana Carica

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse European labour market policies and their integrated guidelines, by highlighting various measures that need to be adopted in order to increase labour productivity, with positive effects on long-term economic development. The paper methodizes the main conditions complied by structural reforms in order to encourage labour employment and the policies that frame a more efficient unemployment insurance system crucial to increase security while encouraging the unemployed to look for a job and to accept a job offer, respectively on flexicurity policies. We found that employment rates are generally associated with large expenses on labour market policies and with an increased number of participants to programs developed within these types of policies. The degree of influence and strong dependence between outcome and labour market policies are illustrated in various ways and discussed within the paper.

  10. Analysis on policies text of air pollution control in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Yujuan; WANG, Wen; ZHANG, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and it is also the inevitable result of the extensive economic development mode. The matter of air pollution in Beijing is becoming more and more serious since 2010, which has a great impact on the normal social production, living and human health. These hazards have been highly valued by the whole society. More than 30 years have been pasted since controlling the air pollution and the system of policies was relatively complete. These policies have improved the quality of atmospheric and prevented environment further deterioration. The policies performance is not obvious. It is urgent trouble to improve policy performance. This paper analyzes the 103 policies text of air pollution control in Beijing, and researches status, history and problems, and put forward suggestions on policy improvement and innovation at last.

  11. A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BALACEANU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is perceived by the EU as occupying a special place in its economic and social structure, because of its content and its relevance at the level of each individual. Consequently, the EU sustains that the relative poverty of a high proportion of its agricultural and rural population needs a protectionist price policy combined with a long term policy that would aim at its rural development, especially in the peripheral and poorly developed areas. Between EU policies Common Agricultural Policy is regarded as one of the most important. This not only because of the budget for the Union to finance this policy (which is about 50% of the total budget the number of people affected and territory involved, but also the historical importance of delegated sovereign attributes EU Member States to the decision. The importance of the Common Agricultural Policy derives of close links with the single market and economic and monetary union, two key areas of European integration.

  12. Monetary policy implications of financial innovation: In-depth analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bernoth, Kerstin; Gebauer, Stefan; Schäfer, Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    In this policy brief, we argue that the financial innovations triggered by the FinTech industry have the potential to affect the transmission of monetary policy as well as the informational content of important monetary indicators. The growing FinTech industry could contribute substantially to the emergence of nonbank finance as a substitute for traditional commercial bank finance. While the overall effect of nonbank finance on monetary policy transmission is not yet clear, we argue that regu...

  13. Deforestation, Leakage and Avoided Deforestation Policies: A Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Delacote; Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson; Sébastien Roussel

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of several avoided deforestation policies within a patchy forested landscape. Central is the idea that one neighbour's deforestation actions may impact the returns to deforestation in nearby patches. We determine the impact of each policy in terms of avoided deforestation and leakage levels at the landscape scale through modelling and simulations. Avoided deforestation policies at a landscape level are respectively: two Payment for Environmental Services (PES) p...

  14. The economy-wide impact of controlling energy consumption in Indonesia: An analysis using a Social Accounting Matrix framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartono, Djoni; Resosudarmo, Budy P.

    2008-01-01

    Escalating oil prices and the need to control carbon emissions sound the alarm for Indonesia to reduce or be more efficient in its energy use. Instead of eliminating the fuel oil subsidy to promote better and more efficient use of energy, the Indonesian government seems to be more in favour of restricting energy use by, for example, requiring all hotels, restaurants, night clubs and other business activities to close down by 1 am. Societies need to understand the full consequences of adopting restricting energy use and more efficient energy use strategies toward their incomes. This paper aims to analyse the impact on the economy of energy policies aiming to reduce and to improve the efficiency of energy use, particularly on the income of various household groups. This paper will, first, construct a Social Accounting Matrix for Indonesia with detailed energy sectors and, second, utilise various multiplier analyses to observe and understand the impact of these energy policies

  15. Matrix problems in the certification analysis of botanical materials by neutron activation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, E.; Heydorn, K.

    1995-01-01

    residue should not contain the determinand. In BCR certification analysis for As and Se by RNAA the irradiated sample was decomposed with sulphuric and nitric acids, and CRM 279 Sea Lettuce and CRM 402 White Clover left an insoluble residue. Unirradiated material was then digested without carrier addition......, and the insoluble residue separated by filtration. No significant content of Se was found by INAA, but about 5% of the total amount of As was found in CRM 402. The ramifications of making a correction are discussed, and it is concluded that a correction for an insoluble fraction may lead to a positive bias....

  16. Analysis of Implementation The Policy on Malaria Elimination in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Roosihermiatie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropic country Indonesia still faces malaria problems. In Asean, indonesia is one of three countries with the highest malaria morbidity. In 2007, 396 (80% of 495 districts/municipalities in indonesia are malaria. In 2009 the government issued a decree of the minister of health No 293 on malaria elimination. The study aimed to analyze the implementation decree of Ministry of Health No. 293/2009 on malaria elimination. Methods: It was a descriptive study. The study was conducted in 4 provinces, and 4 districts based on malaria elimination stages as in Bali province and Karangasem district, Riau islands province and Bintan district, West Nusa Tenggara province and west Lombok district, and Maluku province and South Halmahera district. The stakeholders were Heads and malaria programmers at province/district Health Offices and the related programs. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data were taken. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data. Analysis for Ministry of Health decree No.293 year 2009 on 1 Comphrehend, 2 Implementation, and, 3 Comittment, 4 Innovation intervension to support malaria elimination, 5 Sustainability of activity community empowerment, 6 Proportion of budget. Results: showed there was district that had not issued local policy on malaria elimination, the implementation with comittment especially that health centers in areas under study corfi rm diagnose by laboratory examination and malaria treatment by Artemisin Combined Therapy (ACT, although there were still treatment to clinical malaria, innovation activities were of bersifat local spesifi c, and reward for Juru Malaria Desa or malaria cadre to increase malaria suspect case detection, and with district budget for malaria program ranged 0,95-5,6% of the total budget. Recomendations: It suggested to advocate all malaria endemic areas to issue local policy on malaria elimination, decide intervension of the

  17. Probabilistic economic analysis of green roof benefits for policy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.; Adriaens, P.; Talbot, B.

    2006-01-01

    The installation costs of green roofs continue to deter widespread use of green roof technology. Analyses of the boundary conditions for the cost differential between a green roof and a conventional roof are usually compared to environmental benefits such as storm water reduction and building energy savings. However, evidence is emerging that green roofs may play a role in urban air quality improvement. This paper discussed a methodology for developing probabilistic ranges of benefits and cost analyses. A probabilistic analysis was conducted to prepare a generalized cost-benefit analysis for application to a range of green roof projects. Environmental benefits of roof greening were quantified on a per unit surface area to assess environmental impact at the building scale. Parameters included conventional and green roof installation costs; storm water fees and fee reductions for green roofs; energy costs due to heat flux and the resultant savings through the installation of a green roof and the additional economic valuation of the public health benefits due to air pollution mitigation. Results were then integrated into an economic model to determine the length of time required for a return on investment in a green roof, assuming that a traditional roof would require replacement after 20 years. A net present value analysis was performed for an average-sized university roof. Results of the study showed that a valuation of environmental benefits can reduce the time required for a return on investment in a moderately priced green roof. While reduced installation costs reduced the time required for a return on investment, optimizing the green roof system for maximum environmental benefit had a greater potential to provide a higher return. It was concluded that the benefit of improved air quality should not be ignored by green roof policy-makers as a valuation tool. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Development of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for plant metabolite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis presents efforts to improve the methodology of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) as a method for analysis of metabolites from plant tissue samples. The first chapter consists of a general introduction to the technique of MALDI-MSI, and the sixth and final chapter provides a brief summary and an outlook on future work.

  19. Analysis of semi-solid processing for metal matrix composite synthesis using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratus Ranieri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal in this work is to conduct a quantitative analysis of the mechanical stir casting process for obtaining particulate metal matrix composites. A combined route of stirring at semi-solid state followed by stirring at liquid state is proposed. A fractional factorial design was developed to investigate the influence and interactions of factors as: time, rotation, initial fraction and particle size, on the incorporated fraction. The best incorporations were obtained with all factors at high levels, as well as that very long stirring periods have no strong influence being particle size and rotation the most important factors on the incorporated fraction. Particle wetting occurs during stirring at semi-solid state, highlighting the importance of the interactions between particles and the alloy globularized phase. The role of the alloying element Mg as a wettability-promoting agent is discussed. The shear forces resulting from the stirring system is emphasized and understood as the effect of rotation itself added to the propeller blade geometry.

  20. Asymptotic Analysis of Large Cooperative Relay Networks Using Random Matrix Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Poor

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative transmission is an emerging communication technology that takes advantage of the broadcast nature of wireless channels. In cooperative transmission, the use of relays can create a virtual antenna array so that multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO techniques can be employed. Most existing work in this area has focused on the situation in which there are a small number of sources and relays and a destination. In this paper, cooperative relay networks with large numbers of nodes are analyzed, and in particular the asymptotic performance improvement of cooperative transmission over direction transmission and relay transmission is analyzed using random matrix theory. The key idea is to investigate the eigenvalue distributions related to channel capacity and to analyze the moments of this distribution in large wireless networks. A performance upper bound is derived, the performance in the low signal-to-noise-ratio regime is analyzed, and two approximations are obtained for high and low relay-to-destination link qualities, respectively. Finally, simulations are provided to validate the accuracy of the analytical results. The analysis in this paper provides important tools for the understanding and the design of large cooperative wireless networks.

  1. Free vibration analysis of open circular cylindrical shells by the method of reverberation-ray matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with free vibration analysis of open circular cylindrical shells with either the two straight edges or the two curved edges simply supported and the remaining two edges supported by arbitrary classical boundary conditions. An analytical solution of the traveling wave form along the simply supported edges and the standing wave form along the remaining two edges is obtained based on the Flügge thin shell theory. With such a unidirectional traveling wave form solution, the method of reverberation-ray matrix is introduced to derive the equation of natural frequencies of the open circular cylindrical shell with various boundary conditions. Then, the golden section search algorithm is employed to obtain the natural frequencies of the open circular cylindrical shell. The calculation results are compared with those obtained by the finite element method and the method in available literature. Finally, the natural frequencies of the open circular cylindrical shell with various boundary conditions are calculated and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies are examined. The calculation results can be used as benchmark values for researchers to check their numerical methods and for engineers to design thin structures with shell components.

  2. GSMA: Gene Set Matrix Analysis, An Automated Method for Rapid Hypothesis Testing of Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cheadle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microarray technology has become highly valuable for identifying complex global changes in gene expression patterns. The assignment of functional information to these complex patterns remains a challenging task in effectively interpreting data and correlating results from across experiments, projects and laboratories. Methods which allow the rapid and robust evaluation of multiple functional hypotheses increase the power of individual researchers to data mine gene expression data more efficiently.Results: We have developed (gene set matrix analysis GSMA as a useful method for the rapid testing of group-wise up- or downregulation of gene expression simultaneously for multiple lists of genes (gene sets against entire distributions of gene expression changes (datasets for single or multiple experiments. The utility of GSMA lies in its flexibility to rapidly poll gene sets related by known biological function or as designated solely by the end-user against large numbers of datasets simultaneously.Conclusions: GSMA provides a simple and straightforward method for hypothesis testing in which genes are tested by groups across multiple datasets for patterns of expression enrichment.

  3. Stealthy false data injection attacks using matrix recovery and independent component analysis in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    JiWei, Tian; BuHong, Wang; FuTe, Shang; Shuaiqi, Liu

    2017-05-01

    Exact state estimation is vital important to maintain common operations of smart grids. Existing researches demonstrate that state estimation output could be compromised by malicious attacks. However, to construct the attack vectors, a usual presumption in most works is that the attacker has perfect information regarding the topology and so on even such information is difficult to acquire in practice. Recent research shows that Independent Component Analysis (ICA) can be used for inferring topology information which can be used to originate undetectable attacks and even to alter the price of electricity for the profits of attackers. However, we found that the above ICA-based blind attack tactics is merely feasible in the environment with Gaussian noises. If there are outliers (device malfunction and communication errors), the Bad Data Detector will easily detect the attack. Hence, we propose a robust ICA based blind attack strategy that one can use matrix recovery to circumvent the outlier problem and construct stealthy attack vectors. The proposed attack strategies are tested with IEEE representative 14-bus system. Simulations verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  4. Responsibility and Sustainability in a Food Chain: A Priority Matrix Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caracciolo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  This paper shows the results of empirical research conducted to assess the sustainability of a typical food supply chain, suggesting feasible solutions to satisfy inter-dimensional requisites of durable development. The analysis was conducted with reference to the supply chain of the San Marzano tomato (SMZ, a typical local food. The product is endowed with an origin certification label (PDO, meeting demand within high-value market niches. The SMZ is a flagship product in the Italian region of Campania and has benefited from several regionally funded interventions, such as genetic research and support for the application for EU certification of origin. Two key findings emerged from the research. First, the results allowed us to define a Stakeholder Priority and Responsibilities’ Matrix (SPRM, and monitor the sustainability trend of SMZ food supply chains. Second, the consistency between the adoption of quality strategy (brand of origin and sustainable development of the sector was evaluated. Despite its intrinsic characteristics and its organized, well-defined structure, the SMZ food supply chain is unable to address sustainable objectives without considerable public intervention and support. In terms of sustainability, to be able to show desirable food chain characteristics, the existence of a fully collaborative relationship between the actors has to be ascertained. Identifying shared goals is essential to assign and implement coordinated actions, pooling responsibility for product quality into social and environmental dimensions.

  5. Investigation of Product Performance of Al-Metal Matrix Composites Brake Disc using Finite Element Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatchurrohman, N; Marini, C D; Suraya, S; Iqbal, AKM Asif

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand of fuel efficiency and light weight components in automobile sectors have led to the development of advanced material parts with improved performance. A specific class of MMCs which has gained a lot of attention due to its potential is aluminium metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs). Product performance investigation of Al- MMCs is presented in this article, where an Al-MMCs brake disc is analyzed using finite element analysis. The objective is to identify the potentiality of replacing the conventional iron brake disc with Al-MMCs brake disc. The simulation results suggested that the MMCs brake disc provided better thermal and mechanical performance as compared to the conventional cast iron brake disc. Although, the Al-MMCs brake disc dissipated higher maximum temperature compared to cast iron brake disc's maximum temperature. The Al-MMCs brake disc showed a well distributed temperature than the cast iron brake disc. The high temperature developed at the ring of the disc and heat was dissipated in circumferential direction. Moreover, better thermal dissipation and conduction at brake disc rotor surface played a major influence on the stress. As a comparison, the maximum stress and strain of Al-MMCs brake disc was lower than that induced on the cast iron brake disc. (paper)

  6. Multi-cultural Wikipedia mining of geopolitics interactions leveraging reduced Google matrix analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; El Zant, Samer; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2017-09-01

    Geopolitics focuses on political power in relation to geographic space. Interactions among world countries have been widely studied at various scales, observing economic exchanges, world history or international politics among others. This work exhibits the potential of Wikipedia mining for such studies. Indeed, Wikipedia stores valuable fine-grained dependencies among countries by linking webpages together for diverse types of interactions (not only related to economical, political or historical facts). We mine herein the Wikipedia networks of several language editions using the recently proposed method of reduced Google matrix analysis. This approach allows to establish direct and hidden links between a subset of nodes that belong to a much larger directed network. Our study concentrates on 40 major countries chosen worldwide. Our aim is to offer a multicultural perspective on their interactions by comparing networks extracted from five different Wikipedia language editions, emphasizing English, Russian and Arabic ones. We demonstrate that this approach allows to recover meaningful direct and hidden links among the 40 countries of interest.

  7. USING MATRIX METHODS OF PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS IN DESIGNING VERTICAL-INTEGRATED BUILDING STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakytska S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ensuring productive functioning of corporations requires assessment and management decisions in terms of choosing effective areas of its activities. Purpose. Investigation of the possibilities of using matrix methods in the formation of a business portfolio in order to create a vertically-integrated structure in the construction complex. Results. Portfolio analysis is an effective tool, first of all, for functionally flexible, “many grocery” companies, who have the opportunity to quickly make changes to their business portfolio. For the production of the final construction product, you need the entire technological chain – from the supplier of primary raw materials, to the implementation and further maintenance of finished products. The strategy of the integrated structure is designed to: coordinate the objectives of the merged enterprises, determine the degree of their interaction, maximize the effect of the integration of business entities, develop ways to react newly formed corporation to changes taking place in the external environment, determine the most effective way of its development time, to ensure the competitive advantages of an integrated structure. The construction of a complex multi-level corporation in a building complex requires the development of a certain algorithm of action, which will ensure the optimality of the newly created structure and effective functioning.

  8. Novel image analysis methods for quantification of in situ 3-D tendon cell and matrix strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ashley K; Paredes, J J; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly

    2018-01-23

    Macroscopic tendon loads modulate the cellular microenvironment leading to biological outcomes such as degeneration or repair. Previous studies have shown that damage accumulation and the phases of tendon healing are marked by significant changes in the extracellular matrix, but it remains unknown how mechanical forces of the extracellular matrix are translated to mechanotransduction pathways that ultimately drive the biological response. Our overarching hypothesis is that the unique relationship between extracellular matrix strain and cell deformation will dictate biological outcomes, prompting the need for quantitative methods to characterize the local strain environment. While 2-D methods have successfully calculated matrix strain and cell deformation, 3-D methods are necessary to capture the increased complexity that can arise due to high levels of anisotropy and out-of-plane motion, particularly in the disorganized, highly cellular, injured state. In this study, we validated the use of digital volume correlation methods to quantify 3-D matrix strain using images of naïve tendon cells, the collagen fiber matrix, and injured tendon cells. Additionally, naïve tendon cell images were used to develop novel methods for 3-D cell deformation and 3-D cell-matrix strain, which is defined as a quantitative measure of the relationship between matrix strain and cell deformation. The results support that these methods can be used to detect strains with high accuracy and can be further extended to an in vivo setting for observing temporal changes in cell and matrix mechanics during degeneration and healing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Institutional Support : Institute for Policy Analysis and Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au départ la division tanzanienne du Réseau d'études sur la politique technologique en Afrique (African Technology Policy Studies Network), et ce, depuis 1984, ATPS-Tanzania est devenu... Voir davantageSoutien institutionnel à African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania (ATPS-Tanzania). Nous finançons des ...

  10. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to enhance understanding of national policy-making process with respect to two critical issues: poultry vaccination and antiviral drugs for humans. Researchers will examine the content, context and process of antiviral drug and poultry vaccination policies in Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam, comparing ...

  11. Empirical Analysis of Fiscal Policy Shocks and Current Account ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the effects of fiscal policy shocks on the current account as well as the dynamic interactions among fiscal policy shocks and current account with the other macroeconomic variables: real output, real interest rate and exchange rate for Nigeria over the periods 1980:1-2010:4. The identification of fiscal ...

  12. Analysis of Spanish Policies for the Integration of Immigrant Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Usarralde, María Jesús; Yanes-Cabrera, Cristina; Llevot-Calvet, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    The Organic Law on the Improvement of the National Education Quality ("Ley Orgánica de Reforma de la Calidad Educativa") readdressed one of the most significant educational issues: educational policies related to immigrant students. Therefore, this is an appropriate moment to evaluate these types of policies in three singular Spanish…

  13. Analysis of Ethiopia's national ICT policy and strategy: insights into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend shows that the national ICT policy need to focus broadly on core and emerging issues that are crucial for ICT ecosystem such as infrastructure, services, applications, universal access, cyber security, social media, and users. Broadband infrastructure development is considered as key intervention in the policy.

  14. Critical analysis of the policy practice of mathematics education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensuring a smooth mathematics education programme requires the formulation and implementation of appropriate instructional policies. This study is a survey of some practices of the instructional policies and their influence on mathematics education. Completed Basic School Annual Census (CBSAC) forms and ...

  15. Analysis of National Policies for Entrepreneurship Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaozhou

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews major national policies and strategies adopted by the Chinese central government to promote entrepreneurship education and also describes the current social and economic background to reveal the motives of entrepreneurship education in mainland China. The core of this article sums up the content of national policies on…

  16. Economic analysis of water conservation policies in the Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer, management policy alternatives for extending the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle are evaluated. The study concludes that water conservation policies for the region significantly impact crop mix, reso...

  17. Policy Analysis on Growth and Employment - PAGE II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project by the Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP) will support quality research, capacity development, and policy engagement, with a focus on inclusive growth in low-income developing countries. It will generate new knowledge and evidence relevant to the creation of jobs, productive employment for young people, ...

  18. Early Educational Provision--Emphasised in Education Policy Reforms in Norway? An Analysis of Education Policy Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnsrud, Halvor; Nilsen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses how the intentions of early provision in Norwegian schools have been expressed in the education policy reforms in Norway from the 1970s to the present day. The first area deals with the intentions that most explicitly cover early provision; prevention, early detection and intervention. The second area of analysis relates to…

  19. Technique for information retrieval using enhanced latent semantic analysis generating rank approximation matrix by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Peter A; Bader, Brett W

    2012-10-16

    A technique for information retrieval includes parsing a corpus to identify a number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. A weighted morpheme-by-document matrix is generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus and based at least in part on a weighting function. The weighted morpheme-by-document matrix separately enumerates instances of stems and affixes. Additionally or alternatively, a term-by-term alignment matrix may be generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. At least one lower rank approximation matrix is generated by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix and/or the term-by-term alignment matrix.

  20. TECHNOLOGY AND ANALYSIS DEVELOPMENT OF STOMATOLOGICAL MATRIX SYSTEM OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACTION DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Marinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Timeliness of double-layer matrix system (of stomatological medicated films with antiinflammatory, local anesthetic, regenerative, anti-edematous action was shown. One layer of the system includes lidocaine hydrochloride and kalanchoe sap, another contains furacilin and urea. The best possible polymer carriers of preparations under study which provide their sufficient release from matrix system. Signified antimicrobic activity of double-layer system and osmotic activity were established. Double-layer matrix systems offered may be used in stomatology with for treatment and preventive measures of different diseases of parodontium tissues

  1. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  2. Analysis of energy end-use efficiency policy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado, Rocío Román; Díaz, María Teresa Sanz

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of saving measures and energy efficiency entails the need to evaluate achievements in terms of energy saving and spending. This paper aims at analysing the effectiveness and economic efficiency of energy saving measures implemented in the Energy Savings and Efficiency Action Plan (2008–2012) (EAP4+) in Spain for 2010. The lack of assessment related to energy savings achieved and public spending allocated by the EAP4+ justifies the need of this analysis. The results show that the transport and building sectors seem to be the most important, from the energy efficiency perspective. Although they did not reach the direct energy savings that were expected, there is scope for reduction with the appropriate energy measures. For the effectiveness indicator, the best performance are achieved by public service, agricultural and fisheries and building sectors, while in terms of energy efficiency per monetary unit, the best results are achieved by transport, industry and agriculture sectors. Authors conclude that it is necessary that central, regional and local administrations will get involved, in order to get better estimates of the energy savings achieved and thus to affect the design of future energy efficiency measures at the lowest possible cost to the citizens. - Highlights: • Energy end-use efficiency policy is analysed in terms of energy savings and spending. • The energy savings achieved by some measures are not always provided. • The total energy savings achieved by transport and building sectors are large. • Different levels of administration should get involved in estimating energy savings.

  3. Analysis of National and EU Policies Supporting CSR and Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke; Anastasiadis, Stephanos

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the place of governmental policies in encouraging and supporting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and their effectiveness therein. By: Moon, Jeremy - Slager, Rieneke - Brunn, Christoph - Hardi, Peter - Steen Knudsen, Jette - 2012 The very...... but it is also increasingly explicit in government policies (Matten and Moon 2008). In other words, it is not simply that government policies structure the environment in which companies choose to behave responsibly or otherwise, but also that policies are precisely designed to encourage such behaviour...... society organizations); to mandate (e.g. for accounting or reporting standards). However, the trajectories between and combinations of these policy types also vary among countries (see below). Collectively they tend to reflect broader trends in new governance which stress participation, networks...

  4. Analysis of nuclear issue and development of policy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Yun, Sungwon; Yun, Keehwan; Ko, Wonil

    2012-08-01

    ? Promoted amicably passing a resolution on a general meeting of Atomic Energy Promotion Commission through the preliminary review and opinion gathering ? Mutual understanding and forming a social consensus on nuclear related issues through R and D reporting about the SMART, Decommission and Dis, Future Nuclear System etc Ο Promoted strengthening the work related to the nuclear policy through discovering the 8 policy initiatives prioritized Ο Analyzed the policy process as well as previous research results related to spent fuel for establishment of spent-fuel policy and presented the methods for legislation Ο Suggested the establishment and multi-step implementation strategies of 'Nuclear educational hurb center' Ο Germany, Switzerland, Belgium returned to their former phase-out strategies, except for these three countries, did not change nuclear promotion policies Ο Democratic United Party is currently taking the opposite stance on NPP but it is necessary to make an effort to analyze current domestic energy circumstances on objective and rational grounds

  5. Association between matrix metalloproteinases polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Ming Zhu

    Full Text Available Published data on the relationship between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk have implicated inconclusive results. To evaluate the role of MMPs polymorphisms in ovarian cancer risk, a meta-analysis and systematic review were performed.MMPs polymorphisms which could be quantitatively synthesized were involved in meta-analysis. Five comparison models (homozygote model, heterozygote model, dominant model, recessive model, additive model were carried out, a subgroup analysis was performed to clarify heterogeneity source. The remaining polymorphisms which could not be quantitatively synthesized were involved in systematic review.10 articles with 20 studies were included in this paper. Among those studies, 8 studies involving MMP1 rs1799750 and MMP3 rs34093618 could be meta-analyzed and 12 studies involving 12 polymorphisms could not. Meta-analysis showed that no associations were found between MMP1 rs1799750 (homozygote model: OR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.70-1.23, POR = 0.60; heterozygote model: OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.78-1.54, POR = 0.61; dominant model: OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.83-1.25, POR = 0.84; recessive model: OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.75-1.21, POR = 0.67; additive model: OR = 1.00, 95%CI = 0.85-1.17, POR = 0.99, MMP3 rs34093618 (homozygote model: OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 0.70-2.24, POR = 0.46; heterozygote model: OR = 1.08, 95%CI = 0.51-2.31, POR = 0.84; dominant model: OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.68-1.38, POR = 0.85; recessive model: OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 0.69-1.80, POR = 0.65; additive model: OR = 1.01, 95%CI = 0.79-1.31, POR = 0.91 and ovarian cancer. Furthermore, similar results were detected in subgroup analysis. The systematic review on 12 polymorphisms suggested that MMP2 C-735T, MMP7 A-181G, MMP8 rs11225395, MMP9 rs6094237, MMP12 rs2276109, MMP20 rs2292730, MMP20 rs12278250, MMP20 rs9787933 might have a potential effect on ovarian cancer risk.In summary, polymorphisms of MMPs might not be associated with ovarian cancer risk. However

  6. Applying Critical Discourse Analysis in Health Policy Research: Case Studies in Regional, Organizational, and Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Johnson, Susan; Liu, Fuqin; Boutain, Doris M

    2016-08-01

    Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a promising methodology for policy research in nursing. As a critical theoretical methodology, researchers use CDA to analyze social practices and language use in policies to examine whether such policies may promote or impede social transformation. Despite the widespread use of CDA in other disciplines such as education and sociology, nursing policy research employing CDA methodology is sparse. To advance CDA use in nursing science, it is important to outline the overall research strategies and describe the steps of CDA in policy research. This article describes, using exemplar case studies, how nursing and health policy researchers can employ CDA as a methodology. Three case studies are provided to discuss the application of CDA research methodologies in nursing policy research: (a) implementation of preconception care policies in the Zhejiang province of China, (b) formation and enactment of statewide asthma policy in Washington state of the United States, and (c) organizational implementation of employee antibullying policies in hospital systems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Each exemplar details how CDA guided the examination of policy within specific contexts and social practices. The variations of the CDA approaches in the three exemplars demonstrated the flexibilities and potentials for conducting policy research grounded in CDA. CDA provides novel insights for nurse researchers examining health policy formation, enactment, and implementation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. From demonstration to deployment: An economic analysis of support policies for carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahé, Max; Heidug, Wolf; Ward, John; Smale, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that an integrated policy architecture consisting of multiple policy phases and economic instruments is needed to support the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) from its present demonstration phase to full-scale deployment. Building on an analysis of the different types of policy instruments to correct market failures specific to CCS in its various stages of development, we suggest a way to combine these into an integrated policy architecture. This policy architecture adapts to the need of a maturing technology, meets the requirement of policymakers to maintain flexibility to respond to changing circumstances while providing investors with the policy certainty that is needed to encourage private sector investment. This combination of flexibility and predictability is achieved through the use of ‘policy gateways’ which explicitly define rules and criteria for when and how policy settings will change. Our findings extend to bioenergy-based CCS applications (BECCS), which could potentially achieve negative emissions. We argue that within a framework of correcting the carbon externality, the added environmental benefits of BECCS should be reflected in an extra incentive. - Highlights: • Sensible aim of current climate policy: secure option of future CCS deployment. • But policy makers require flexibility while private investors require predictability. • Integrating CCS policy into an overall policy architecture can overcome this antinomy. • We describe the key features of a good policy architecture and give an example

  8. Making residential cannabis growing operations actionable: a critical policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Connie

    2009-07-01

    In 2006, the British Columbia (BC) government passed amendments to its Safety Standards Act. These amendments permit the routine disclosure of electrical usage information from electrical producers to BC's municipalities, ostensibly to identify and eradicate residential cannabis growing operations (grow ops). These amendments originated in a pilot project in Surrey, BC, known as the electrical and fire safety inspection initiative (EFSI), which drew together police, firefighters and others, to identify grow ops through the process of municipal electrical inspections. This paper draws on narrative analysis to critically explore how the report of the EFSI Surrey pilot project uses a series of linked claims to generate interpretative change in the definition of the problem of grow ops. This analysis also shows how claims about grow ops are constructed and gain their potency through links with other social problems, persons, and practices. Though the report of the EFSI project is a prohibitionist text replete with stock characters and themes from the history of Canadian drug policy, the problem of residential cannabis cultivation is made actionable by establishing grow operators as "superdeviants" constructed both as dangerous outsiders and as risks to a host of public safety concerns. These claims are then linked to the notion of an overwhelmed criminal justice system that establishes a "crisis" that justifies extraordinary methods of social control outside the due process of the criminal justice system. Construction of all cannabis cultivators as "dangerous" disavows other possibilities and shores up neo-liberal practices of government that draw on multi-partner initiatives to implement extraordinary methods of social control not necessarily subject to public accountability.

  9. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  10. Structure of isolated 1,4-butanediol: combination of MP2 calculations, NBO analysis, and matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, A J Lopes; Rosado, Mário T S; Reva, Igor; Fausto, Rui; Eusébio, M Ermelinda S; Redinha, J S

    2008-05-22

    Theoretical calculations at the MP2 level, NBO and AIM analysis, and matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy have been used to investigate the structure of the isolated molecule of 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BDO). Sixty-five structures were found to be minima on the potential energy surface, and the three most stable forms are characterized by a folded backbone conformation leading to the formation of an intramolecular H-bond. To better characterize the intramolecular interactions and particularly the hydrogen bonds, natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) was performed for the four most stable conformers, and was further complemented with an atoms-in-molecules (AIM) topological analysis. Infrared spectra of 1,4-BDO isolated in low-temperature argon and xenon matrixes show a good agreement with a population-weighted mean theoretical spectrum, and the spectral features of the conformers expected to be trapped in the matrixes were observed experimentally. Annealing the xenon matrix from 20 to 60 K resulted in significant spectral changes, which were interpreted based on the barriers to intramolecular rotation. An estimation of the intramolecular hydrogen bond energy was carried out following three different methodologies.

  11. The South African wildlife ranching sector: A Social Accounting Matrix Leontief multiplier analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippus C. Cloete

    2014-10-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to put into context the relative economic contribution of the wildlife ranching sector, as opposed to other land-use options in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Growth in the wildlife ranching sector at the cost of other traditional farming practices resulted in disagreements amongst various role players about the impact thereof on the national economy. The controversy can most probably be explained by different beliefs, coupled with the lack of a proper understanding and quantification of the wildlife ranching sector’s contribution toward the economy. Research methodology: The study employed a Social Accounting Matrix-based Leontief multiplier analysis for South Africa. Main findings: Results from the multiplier analysis revealed that developments within the wildlife ranching sector are likely to make a relatively more superior contribution towards the economy, especially when compared to similar land-use options such as extensive livestock production. Practical/managerial implications: It has been acknowledged by both academia and private sector that a major need exists for more research on the South African wildlife ranching industry, specifically looking at issues such as the industries, economic and social contributions, potentials and constraints. The research, therefore, contributes toward the depth of economic information and research regarding the South African wildlife sector. Contribution/value added: The research provides valuable information in dealing with the ‘popular belief’, especially amongst some of South Africa’s decision makers, namely, that growth in the wildlife ranching sector is not or does not have the ability to contribute significantly toward economic and socioeconomic factors.

  12. Evaluation of two fast and easy methods for pesticide residue analysis in fatty food matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovská, Katerina; Yun, Seon Jong

    2005-01-01

    Two rapid methods of sample preparation and analysis of fatty foods (e.g., milk, eggs, and avocado) were evaluated and compared for 32 pesticide residues representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. One method, dubbed the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for pesticide residue analysis, entailed extraction of 15 g sample with 15 mL acetonitrile (MeCN) containing 1% acetic acid followed by addition of 6 g anhydrous magnesium sulfate and 1.5 g sodium acetate. After centrifugation, 1 mL of the buffered MeCN extract underwent a cleanup step (in a technique known as dispersive solid-phase extraction) using 50 mg each of C18 and primary secondary amine sorbents plus 150 mg MgSO4. The second method incorporated a form of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), in which 0.5 g sample plus 2 g C18 and 2 g anhydrous sodium sulfate was mixed in a mortar and pestle and added above a 2 g Florisil column on a vacuum manifold. Then, 5 x 2 mL MeCN was used to elute the pesticide analytes from the sample into a collection tube, and the extract was concentrated to 0.5 mL by evaporation. Extracts in both methods were analyzed concurrently by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The recoveries of semi-polar and polar pesticides were typically 100% in both methods (except that basic pesticides, such as thiabendazole and imazalil, were not recovered in the MSPD method), but recovery of nonpolar pesticides decreased as fat content of the sample increased. This trend was more pronounced in the QuEChERS method, in which case the most lipophilic analyte tested, hexachlorobenzene, gave 27 +/- 1% recovery (n=6) in avocado (15% fat) with a<10 ng/g limit of quantitation.

  13. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  14. Analysis of a government policy to address nursing shortage and nursing education quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhicharttibutra, K; Kunaviktikul, W; Turale, S; Wichaikhum, O-A; Srisuphan, W

    2017-03-01

    A well-educated, sufficient nursing workforce improves population health and standards of nursing care. Analysing workforce policies assists nurses to learn from the past and develop better future policies. Describe policy-making processes in the first Thai government plan to increase nursing capacity and improve nursing education quality. A qualitative study employing Longest's model to examine policy-making processes. Data were obtained from 28 in-depth interviews with key informants, who had been committee members and former deans of nursing involved with the policy processes in the 1990s. Both qualitative and quantitative data were extracted from relevant documents, and content analysis employed with all data. Three policy phases were identified. Policy formulation, where three streams of problems, politics and policy resulted in identification of nursing shortage, changes of government incumbents and needing to increase nurse production; Policy implementation included creating methods of implementation, appointing responsible people and committees, creating operational plans, producing more nurses and faculty development projects and Policy modification which incorporated implementing the first Thai international doctoral degree in English, a collaborative programme between universities. Not all key informants could be accessed due to the passage of time. Findings are unique to Thailand but inform internationally of nurses' abilities and need to be involved in policy. Nurses were involved in all policy phases. While the policy produced positive developments in growing nursing capacity and education in the past, nursing shortages remained and are now acute in Thailand. Lessons learned from this policy analysis help explain why the nursing education and nursing shortage policy was legislated through the government agenda, and the active involvement of Thai nurses in this process. Nurses globally need to be at the policy-making table to try to reduce nursing

  15. Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, J; Khalil, D

    2015-12-01

    The question of why most health policies do not achieve their intended results continues to receive a considerable attention in the literature. This is in the light of the recognized gap between policy as intent and policy as practice, which calls for substantial research work to understand the factors that improve policy implementation. Although there is substantial work that explains the reasons why policies achieve or fail to achieve their intended outcomes, there are limited case studies that illustrate how to analyze policies from the methodological perspective. In this article, we report and discuss how a mixed qualitative research method was applied for analyzing maternal and child health policies in Malawi. For the purposes of this article, we do not report research findings; instead we focus our dicussion on the methodology of the study and draw lessons for policy analysis research work. We base our disusssion on our experiences from a study in which we analyzed maternal and child health policies in Malawi over the period from 1964 to 2008. Noting the multifaceted nature of maternal and child health policies, we adopted a mixed qualitative research method, whereby a number of data collection methods were employed. This approach allowed for the capturing of different perspectives of maternal and child health policies in Malawi and for strengthening of the weaknesses of each method, especially in terms of data validity. This research suggested that the multidimensional nature of maternal and child health policies, like other health policies, calls for a combination of research designs as well as a variety of methods of data collection and analysis. In addition, we suggest that, as an emerging research field, health policy analysis will benefit more from case study designs because they provide rich experiences in the actual policy context.

  16. S-matrix analysis of vibrational and alignment effects in intense-field multiphoton ionization of molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Requate, A.

    2007-03-15

    Theoretical analysis of the vibrational excitation of small molecules during multiphoton ionization in intense laser fields of optical and infrared frequencies. Analysis of the alignment dependence of the electron impact ionization of diatomic molecules in the presence of an intense laser field as the final step in the process of Nonsequential Double Ionization. Quantum mechanical description using S-matrix theory in Strong Field Approximation (SFA), i.e. beyond perturbation theory. (orig.)

  17. Matrix permeability of agriculture landscapes: an analysis of movements of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, C.C.; Goedhart, P.W.; Lammertsma, D.R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The implications of habitat fragmentation go beyond changes in the size and composition of suitable habitat patches. In fragmented landscapes, "matrix permeability" influences the dispersal of organisms, thereby affecting the persistence of populations in such landscapes. We investigated the effect

  18. Evaluation of a Solid Phase DNA Binding Matrix for Downstream PCR Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bader, Douglas E; Fisher, Glen R; Stratilo, Chad W

    2005-01-01

    A commercially available solid-phase DNA binding matrix (FTA cards) was evaluated for its ability to capture and release DNA for downstream gene amplification and detection assays using polymerase chain reaction (PCR...

  19. Zymographic techniques for the analysis of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, P.A.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2005-01-01

    The balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), is largely responsible for the remodeling of tissues. Deregulation of this balance is a characteristic of extensive tissue degradation in certain degenerative diseases. To

  20. Analysis of Optical Fiber Complex Propagation Matrix on the Basis of Vortex Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel method for reconstruction of the complex propagation matrix of optical fibers supporting propagation of multiple vortex modes. This method is based on the azimuthal decomposition approach and allows the complex matrix elements to be determined...... by direct calculations. We apply the proposed method to demonstrate the feasibility of optical compensation for coupling between vortex modes in optical fiber....

  1. Locality preserving projection on SPD matrix Lie group: algorithm and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yangyang; Lu, Ruqian

    2017-01-01

    Symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices used as feature descriptors in image recognition are usually high dimensional. Traditional manifold learning is only applicable for reducing the dimension of high-dimensional vector-form data. For high-dimensional SPD matrices, directly using manifold learning algorithms to reduce the dimension of matrix-form data is impossible. The SPD matrix must first be transformed into a long vector, and then the dimension of this vector must be reduced. However...

  2. Spatial moment analysis of colloid facilitated radionuclide transport in a coupled fracture-matrix system

    OpenAIRE

    N. Natarajan, G. Suresh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model is developed for studying the transport of colloid facilitated radionuclide transport in a coupled fracture-matrix system. The radionuclides and the colloids are assumed to decay, sorb on the fracture surface, as well as diffuse into the rock matrix. The sorption of the radionuclides onto the mobile and immobile colloids within the fracture is assumed to be linear. The governing equations describing the radionuclide and colloidal transport along the fracture axis and diffusi...

  3. Analysis of Public Policies for Sexuality Education in Germany and The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronowitz, Teri; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of the philosophical, historical, sociological, political, and economic perspectives reflected in the public policies about lifespan sexuality education of Germany and The Netherlands. A new conceptual framework for analysis and evaluation of sexuality education policies that integrates the…

  4. On-Line Booking Policies and Competitive Analysis of Medical Examination in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From the on-line point, we consider the hospital’s medical examination appointment problem with hierarchical machines. This approach eliminates the need for both demand forecasts and a risk-neutrality assumption. Due to different unit revenue, uncertain demand, and arrival of patients, we design on-line booking policies for two kinds of different situations from the perspective of on-line policy and competitive analysis. After that, we prove the optimal competitive ratios. Through numerical examples, we compare advantages and disadvantages between on-line policies and traditional policies, finding that there is different superiority for these two policies under different arrival sequences.

  5. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yan [International Department, Chinese Business Law Firm, 20E, Building 2, International Friendship Garden, Zuojiazhuang A2, Chaoyang District 100028 (China)]. E-mail: yanjun9@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-07-15

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development.

  6. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [International Department, Chinese Business Law Firm, 20E, Building 2, International Friendship Garden, Zuojiazhuang A2, Chaoyang District 100028 (China)

    2006-07-15

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewables, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development. (author)

  7. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development

  8. Contested Spaces in Policy Enactment: A Bourdieusian Analysis of Language Policy in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy D.; Silver, Rita Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The basic structure and rhetoric of national language policy in multilingual Singapore has remained essentially unchanged since independence with four official languages positioned within the national quadrilingual framework and used in all public spheres, and individual bilingualism encouraged in the private sphere. However, also since…

  9. The Appreciative System of Urban ICT Policies: An Analysis of Perceptions of Urban Policy Makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Blankshtain, G.; Nijkamp, P.

    2004-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become an important tool to promote a variety of public goals and policies. In the past years much attention has been given to the expected social benefits from deploying ICTs in different urban fields (transportation, education, public

  10. Youth policy and participation: An analysis of pedagogical ideals in municipal youth policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Greetje

    Over the past two decades, in several Northern and Western European Union countries responsibility for general youth policy has been transferred from the central government to the local level of municipalities. In this transformation process the local authorities. guided by central government's

  11. Comparative analysis of Canadian multiculturalism policy and the multiculturalism policies of other countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry, John

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiculturalism is an increasingly common characteristic of contemporary societies. In culturally diverse social contexts, virtually every person experiences intercultural contact on a daily basis. It is essential to understand that there must be both cultural diversity and equity in social participation for true multiculturalism to exist in these settings. Beyond its core definition, it is clear that multiculturalism is a complex concept encompassing many dimensions and meanings. First, the term is understood to describe a demographic fact, indicating the existence of cultural diversity in a society. Second, multiculturalism refers to the policies and programs that are in place to manage intercultural relations and acculturation. Third, multiculturalism refers to psychological phenomena, including individual attitudes and ideologies that accept or reject the demographic, civic and policy features of multiculturalism. This chapter considers Canadian multiculturalism policy, examining how the multiple meanings of multiculturalism vary around the world. Within this framework, I highlight the psychological processes and outcomes of multiculturalism, particularly in connection with acculturation, adaptation and intercultural relations and consider whether these processes and outcomes differ for dominant and non-dominant groups. I suggest some ways in which to enhance the positive outcomes of intercultural contact and the resultant acculturation outcomes. Finally, this chapter sets the stage for the presentation of the other chapters in this volume. It elaborates three hypotheses derived from Canadian multiculturalism policy: the multiculturalism, integration and contact hypotheses.

  12. Modeling Security-Enhanced Linux Policy Specifications for Analysis (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archer, Myla; Leonard, Elizabeth; Pradella, Matteo

    2003-01-01

    Security-Enhanced (SE) Linux is a modification of Linux initially released by NSA in January 2001 that provides a language for specifying Linux security policies and, as in the Flask architecture, a security server...

  13. Kosovo: Review and Analysis of Policy Objectives, 1998-June 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Julie

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of U.S. and international policy objectives in Kosovo from 1998 to mid-1999, when NATO ended an 11-week air strike operation against Yugoslavia and began to deploy a U.N...

  14. Non-Dimensional Analysis of a Two-Dimensional Beam Using Linear Stiffness Matrix in Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Woo; Lee, Jae Wook; Jang, Jin Seok; Oh, Joo Young [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Ryul [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ji Heon; Yoo, Wan Suk [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Absolute nodal coordinate formulation was developed in the mid-1990s, and is used in the flexible dynamic analysis. In the process of deriving the equation of motion, if the order of polynomial referring to the displacement field increases, then the degrees of freedom increase, as well as the analysis time increases. Therefore, in this study, the primary objective was to reduce the analysis time by transforming the dimensional equation of motion to a nondimensional equation of motion. After the shape function was rearranged to be non-dimensional and the nodal coordinate was rearranged to be in length dimension, the non-dimensional mass matrix, stiffness matrix, and conservative force was derived from the non-dimensional variables. The verification and efficiency of this nondimensional equation of motion was performed using two examples; cantilever beam which has the exact solution about static deflection and flexible pendulum.

  15. Analysis of the development of land use in the Morava River floodplain, with special emphasis on the landscape matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilianová Helena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of an analysis of land use development in the Morava River floodplain (Czech Republic using GIS from 1836 to the present, are the subject of this article. The results are based on the analysis of historical maps, using the landscape matrix assessment of the Morava River floodplain. The final analyses were processed from land use maps of the floodplain at a scale of 1 : 25,000 in five time horizons. These maps were compared with the present state of landscape by GIS methods. The study area was assessed according to five geomorphological areas from the northern/higher part to the southern/lower part of floodplain. In 1836 the landscape matrix of the floodplain was composed of meadows and forests. Forest components decreased minimally but the changes are more important. The grassland area (meadows and pastures decreased but arable land, as well as settlements, increased very significantly. In the 1950s the landscape matrix was composed of a mosaic of alluvial forests, meadows and arable land. Currently, the predominant landscape matrix consists of arable land and isolated forest complexes.

  16. Matrix effect in guava multiresidue analysis by QuEChERS method and gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Jhonyson Arruda Carvalho; Silva, Renata de Oliveira; Lima, Cleidiane Gomes; Milhome, Maria Aparecida Liberato; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira

    2016-05-15

    "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe" (QuEChERS)-GC/MS analytical technique was used to evaluated matrix effect of twenty-two pesticides in guava. Validation parameters (selectivity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and precision) were determined for multiresidue analysis. Statistical test (t-student) was applied to the coefficients of the curves obtained for the guava matrix. The matrix effect (ME) for each pesticide was evaluated through the study of slope ratios obtained of solvent and guava matrix curves. Most of the compounds had positive ME. The rates of recovery were satisfactory (73.97-119.38%), with a coefficient of variation (CV) less than 20%. Analysis of commercial guava samples showed the presence of 5 types of pesticides residues at levels ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 mg·kg(-1). The results reveal the presence of unauthorized pesticides for cultivation of guava. This data can assist government agencies to ensure food security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Analysis of Cyberbullying Policies In Virginia Public School Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, G. Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Wes Poole Abstract The study examines the acceptable computer system use policies of each of the public school districts in the Commonwealth of Virginia, as well as the Virginia School Boards Association and the National School Boards Association policies as they relate to cyberbullying. Public middle school and public secondary school administrators across the Commonwealth were surveyed to determine to what extent cyberbullying is an issue in their schools, and to d...

  18. YOUTH POLICY IN EUROPE AND RUSSIA (THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Alekseev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Young people are the main engine of the processes taking place in the society of any country. The study of these processes is an important task of modern political science. The youth make up about a third of the population of Russia. The current viability and future of the country depends on how the problems of Russian youth are resolved. The demand for research is also dictated by the fact that from the perspective of the perspective, youth policy should be oriented towards receptivity to innovations and modernization of society, since this state policy in Russia does not have sufficient traditions and experience of effective functioning. The relevance of the topic of the article is determined by the constant problems of youth and the formation and implementation of youth policy. Now it is important to explore the political life of young people in modern conditions, to determine its content and forms, to compare the experience of the political life of the youth of Russia and other countries, to reveal the determinants of political youth activity; To analyze current trends in youth policy, to uncover trends and show perspectives and to suggest ways to improve it. The topic is in demand, and due to the fact that political life presupposes the participation of the population in various mass movements, socio-political organizations, mass actions, elections. This problem is especially acute for young people, who acquire "political maturity" by becoming voters. As youth policy is written a lot of research, which in varying degrees are considered the problems of youth. Experience of formation and development of youth policy in Europe is one of indicative examples for many countries of the world. Now the youth policy is allocated as the separate direction of state policy, and also institutes of civil society. 

  19. Analysis of X-ray Structures of Matrix Metalloproteinases via Chaotic Map Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargano Gianfranco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are well-known biological targets implicated in tumour progression, homeostatic regulation, innate immunity, impaired delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands, and the release and cleavage of cell-surface receptors. With this in mind, the perception of the intimate relationships among diverse MMPs could be a solid basis for accelerated learning in designing new selective MMP inhibitors. In this regard, decrypting the latent molecular reasons in order to elucidate similarity among MMPs is a key challenge. Results We describe a pairwise variant of the non-parametric chaotic map clustering (CMC algorithm and its application to 104 X-ray MMP structures. In this analysis electrostatic potentials are computed and used as input for the CMC algorithm. It was shown that differences between proteins reflect genuine variation of their electrostatic potentials. In addition, the analysis has been also extended to analyze the protein primary structures and the molecular shapes of the MMP co-crystallised ligands. Conclusions The CMC algorithm was shown to be a valuable tool in knowledge acquisition and transfer from MMP structures. Based on the variation of electrostatic potentials, CMC was successful in analysing the MMP target family landscape and different subsites. The first investigation resulted in rational figure interpretation of both domain organization as well as of substrate specificity classifications. The second made it possible to distinguish the MMP classes, demonstrating the high specificity of the S1' pocket, to detect both the occurrence of punctual mutations of ionisable residues and different side-chain conformations that likely account for induced-fit phenomena. In addition, CMC demonstrated a potential comparable to the most popular UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean method that, at present, represents a standard clustering bioinformatics approach. Interestingly, CMC and

  20. Analysis of X-ray structures of matrix metalloproteinases via chaotic map clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangreco, Ilenia; Nicolotti, Orazio; Carotti, Angelo; De Carlo, Francesco; Gargano, Gianfranco; Bellotti, Roberto

    2010-10-08

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are well-known biological targets implicated in tumour progression, homeostatic regulation, innate immunity, impaired delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands, and the release and cleavage of cell-surface receptors. With this in mind, the perception of the intimate relationships among diverse MMPs could be a solid basis for accelerated learning in designing new selective MMP inhibitors. In this regard, decrypting the latent molecular reasons in order to elucidate similarity among MMPs is a key challenge. We describe a pairwise variant of the non-parametric chaotic map clustering (CMC) algorithm and its application to 104 X-ray MMP structures. In this analysis electrostatic potentials are computed and used as input for the CMC algorithm. It was shown that differences between proteins reflect genuine variation of their electrostatic potentials. In addition, the analysis has been also extended to analyze the protein primary structures and the molecular shapes of the MMP co-crystallised ligands. The CMC algorithm was shown to be a valuable tool in knowledge acquisition and transfer from MMP structures. Based on the variation of electrostatic potentials, CMC was successful in analysing the MMP target family landscape and different subsites. The first investigation resulted in rational figure interpretation of both domain organization as well as of substrate specificity classifications. The second made it possible to distinguish the MMP classes, demonstrating the high specificity of the S1' pocket, to detect both the occurrence of punctual mutations of ionisable residues and different side-chain conformations that likely account for induced-fit phenomena. In addition, CMC demonstrated a potential comparable to the most popular UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean) method that, at present, represents a standard clustering bioinformatics approach. Interestingly, CMC and UPGMA resulted in closely comparable outcomes, but often

  1. Energy policy and externalities: the life cycle analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virdis, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    In the energy sector, getting the prices right is a prerequisite for market mechanisms to work effectively towards sustainable development. However, energy production and use creates 'costs' external to traditional accounting practices, such as damages to human health and the environment resulting from residual emissions or risks associated with dependence on foreign suppliers. Energy market prices do not fully reflect those external costs. For example, the costs of climate change are not internalized and, therefore, consumers do not get the right price signals leading them to make choices that are optimised from a societal viewpoint. Economic theory has developed approaches to assessing and internalizing external costs that can be applied to the energy sector and, in principle, provide means to quantify and integrate relevant information in a comprehensive framework. The tools developed for addressing these issues are generally aimed at monetary valuation of impacts and damages and integration of the valued 'external costs' in total cost of the product, e.g. electricity. The approach of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) provides a conceptual framework for a detailed and comprehensive comparative evaluation of energy supply options. This paper offers a summary of the LCA methodology and an overview of some of its limitations. It then illustrates, through a few examples, how the methodology can be used to inform or correct policy making and to orient investment decisions. Difficulties and issues emerging at various stages in the application and use of LCA results are discussed, although in such a short note, it is impossible to address all issues related to LCA. Therefore, as part of the concluding section, some issues are left open - and areas in which further analytical work may be needed are described. (author)

  2. Polyethylene recycling: Waste policy scenario analysis for the EU-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, Valeria; Saveyn, Hans G M; Eder, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This paper quantifies the main impacts that the adoption of the best recycling practices together with a reduction in the consumption of single-use plastic bags and the adoption of a kerbside collection system could have on the 27 Member States of the EU. The main consequences in terms of employment, waste management costs, emissions and energy use have been quantified for two scenarios of polyethylene (PE) waste production and recycling. That is to say, a "business as usual scenario", where the 2012 performances of PE waste production and recycling are extrapolated to 2020, is compared to a "best practice scenario", where the best available recycling practices are modelled together with the possible adoption of the amended Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive related to the consumption of single-use plastic bags and the implementation of a kerbside collection system. The main results show that socio-economic and environmental benefits can be generated across the EU by the implementation of the best practice scenario. In particular, estimations show a possible reduction of 4.4 million tonnes of non-recycled PE waste, together with a reduction of around €90 million in waste management costs in 2020 for the best practice scenario versus the business as usual scenario. An additional 35,622 jobs are also expected to be created. In environmental terms, the quantity of CO2 equivalent emissions could be reduced by around 1.46 million tonnes and the net energy requirements are expected to increase by 16.5 million GJ as a consequence of the reduction in the energy produced from waste. The main analysis provided in this paper, together with the data and the model presented, can be useful to identify the possible costs and benefits that the implementation of PE waste policies and Directives could generate for the EU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of apolipoprotein A-I as a substrate for matrix metalloproteinase-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Hyoung; Park, Sung-Min; Park, Ki-Hoon; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Taek

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → MMP-14 degrades apoA-I more efficiently than other tested MMPs. → Lipid-free apoA-I is more susceptible to MMPs than lipid-bound apoA-I. → MMP-14 cleavage sites on apoA-I have been determined. → Cleavage of apoA-I by MMP-14 impairs its ability to form HDL. -- Abstract: Substrates for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 were previously identified in human plasma using proteomic techniques. One putative MMP-14 substrate was apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), a major component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In vitro cleavage assays showed that lipid-free apoA-I is a more accessible substrate for MMP-14 compared to lipid-bound apoA-I, and that MMP-14 is more prone to digest apoA-I than MMP-3. The 28-kDa apoA-I was cleaved into smaller fragments of 27, 26, 25, 22, and 14-kDa by MMP-14. ApoA-I sites cleaved by MMP-14 were determined by isotope labeling of C-termini derived from the cleavage and analysis of the labeled peptides by mass spectrometry, along with N-terminal sequencing of the fragments. Cleavage of apoA-I by MMP-14 resulted in a loss of ability to form HDL. Our results suggest that cleavage of lipid-free apoA-I by MMP-14 may contribute to reduced HDL formation, and this may be occurring during the development of various vascular diseases as lipid metabolism is disrupted.

  4. The Impact of the Introduction of Web Information Systems (WIS) on Information Policies: An Analysis of the Canadian Federal Government Policies Related to WIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Christine; Bergeron, Pierette

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of an analysis of the Canadian federal government information policies that govern its Web information systems (WIS) that was conducted to better understand how the government has adapted its information policies to the WIS. Discusses results that indicate new policies have been crafted to take into account the WIS context.…

  5. Forest Policy Scenario Analysis: Sensitivity of Songbird Community to Changes in Forest Cover Amount and Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Rempel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration can be of significant consequence to wildlife populations. The response of wildlife to forest patterns is of concern to forest managers because it lies at the heart of such competing approaches to forest planning as aggregated vs. dispersed harvest block layouts. In this study, we developed a species assessment framework to evaluate the outcomes of forest management scenarios on biodiversity conservation objectives. Scenarios were assessed in the context of a broad range of forest structures and patterns that would be expected to occur under natural disturbance and succession processes. Spatial habitat models were used to predict the effects of varying degrees of mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration on habitat occupancy for a set of 13 focal songbird species. We used a spatially explicit harvest scheduling program to model forest management options and simulate future forest conditions resulting from alternative forest management scenarios, and used a process-based fire-simulation model to simulate future forest conditions resulting from natural wildfire disturbance. Spatial pattern signatures were derived for both habitat occupancy and forest conditions, and these were placed in the context of the simulated range of natural variation. Strategic policy analyses were set in the context of current Ontario forest management policies. This included use of sequential time-restricted harvest blocks (created for Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus conservation and delayed harvest areas (created for American marten (Martes americana atrata conservation. This approach increased the realism of the analysis, but reduced the generality of interpretations. We found that forest management options that create linear strips of old forest deviate the most from simulated natural patterns, and had the greatest negative effects on habitat occupancy, whereas policy options

  6. Damage analysis of fiber reinforced resin matrix composites irradiated by CW laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Hong; Hu Kaiwei; Mu Jingyang; Bai Shuxin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the damage modes of the carbon fiber and the glass fiber reinforced epoxy or bakelite resin matrix composites irradiated by CW laser under different power densities were analyzed, and the changes of the microstructure and the tensile strength of the composites were also researched. When the resin matrix composites were radiated at a power density more than 0.1 kW/cm 2 , the matrix would be decomposed and the tensile properties of the radiated samples were lost over 30% while the carbon fiber hardly damaged and the glass fiber melted. When the power density of the laser was raised to 1 kW/cm 2 , the matrix burned violently and the carbon fiber cloth began to split with some carbon fiber being fractured, therefore, the fracture strength of the radiated sample lost over 80%. The higher the power density of radiation was, the more serious the damage of the sample was. It was also found that the difference of the matrixes had little effect on the damage extent of the composites. The influence of the radiation density on the temperature of the radiated surface of the carbon/resin composite was numerically calculated by ANSYS finite element software and the calculation results coincided with the damage mode of the radiated composites. (authors)

  7. Content analysis of euthanasia policies of nursing homes in Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Denier, Yvonne; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2009-08-01

    To describe the form and content of ethics policies on euthanasia in Flemish nursing homes and to determine the possible influence of religious affiliation on policy content. Content analysis of euthanasia policy documents. Of the 737 nursing homes we contacted, 612 (83%) completed and returned the questionnaire. Of 92 (15%) nursing homes that reported to have a euthanasia policy, 85 (92%) provided a copy of their policy. Nursing homes applied the euthanasia law with additional palliative procedures and interdisciplinary deliberations. More Catholic nursing homes compared to non-Catholic nursing homes did not permit euthanasia. Policies described several phases of the euthanasia care process as well as involvement of caregivers, patients, and relatives; ethical issues; support for caregivers; reporting; and procedures for handling advance directives. Our study revealed that euthanasia requests from patients are seriously considered in euthanasia policies of nursing homes, with great attention for palliative care and interdisciplinary cooperation.

  8. Analysis of IFE, EFE and QSPM matrix on business development strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkarnain, A.; Wahyuningtias, D.; Putranto, T. S.

    2018-03-01

    IFE matrix, EFE matrix, and QSPM matrix are business strategy tools that can be used to identify the threat, opportunity, weakness, strength as internal, external business factors. The goal of Danti’s Deli Bakery is to provide pastry product and distribute to other food and beverage outlet all around Jakarta. Thus, Danti’s Deli Bakery requires development strategy in order to win the tight competition. Applied descriptive research and data collected from focus group discussion, questionnaire, interview, observation and literature review. The objectives of this paper are (1) to identify and evaluate internal and external factors, (2) to formulate alternative strategy toward business development program, and (3) to give effective recommendation. The result shows that Danti’s Deli Bakery should apply product differentiation strategy. Implementation of this study is providing the recommendation for pastry and bakery industry to establish a successful business.

  9. Analysis of metal-matrix composite structures. I - Micromechanics constitutive theory. II - Laminate analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenburg, R. T.; Reddy, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    The micromechanical constitutive theory is used to examine the nonlinear behavior of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal-matrix composite structures. Effective lamina constitutive relations based on the Abouli micromechanics theory are presented. The inelastic matrix behavior is modeled by the unified viscoplasticity theory of Bodner and Partom. The laminate constitutive relations are incorporated into a first-order deformation plate theory. The resulting boundary value problem is solved by utilizing the finite element method. Attention is also given to computational aspects of the numerical solution, including the temporal integration of the inelastic strains and the spatial integration of bending moments. Numerical results the nonlinear response of metal matrix composites subjected to extensional and bending loads are presented.

  10. Analysis of α-12C elastic scattering at intermediate energies by the S-matrix model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnoy, Yu. A.; Onyshchenko, G. M.; Pilipenko, V. V.

    The results of calculations of differential cross-sections for α-12C elastic scattering by the S-matrix model are presented for 10 energy values in the energy range 65MeV ≤ Eα ≤ 386MeV in a wide range of scattering angles. The behavior of various scattering characteristics as functions of the projectile energy is analyzed. It is shown that the chosen parametrization of S-matrix allows describing correctly the Fraunhofer oscillations of the cross-sections in the region of small scattering angles and the rainbow scattering pattern in the region of sufficiently large angles.

  11. Quantitative micro-Raman analysis of volcanic glasses: influence and correction of matrix effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muro, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy, even though a very promising micro-analytical technique, is still not used to routinely quantify volatile elements dissolved in glasses. Following an original idea of Galeener and Mikkelsen (1981) for the quantification of hydroxyl (OH) in silica glass, several quantitative procedures have been recently proposed for the analysis of water, sulphur and carbon in natural glasses (obsidians, pumices, melt inclusions). The quantification of a single analyte requires the calibration of the correlation between the intensity I (height or area) of the related Raman band, normalized or not to a reference band RB, and the analyte concentration. For the analysis of alumino-silicate glasses, RB corresponds to one of the two main envelopes (LF and HF) related to the vibration of the glass network. Calibrations are linear, provided the increase in the analyte concentration does not dramatically affect RB intensity. Much attention has been paid to identify the most appropriate spectral treatment (spectra reduction; baseline subtraction; etc) to achieve accurate measurement of band intensities. I here show that the accuracy of Raman procedures for volatile quantification critically depends on the capability in predicting and in taking into account the influence of multiple matrix effects, which are often correlated with the average polymerization degree of the glass network. A general model has been developed to predict matrix effects affecting micro-Raman analysis of natural glasses. The specific and critical influence of iron redox state and pressure are discussed. The approach has been extensively validated for the study of melt inclusions and matrices spanning a broad range of compositions and dissolved volatile contents. References Analytical procedures Mercier, M, Di Muro, A., Métrich, N., Giordano, D., Belhadj, O., Mandeville, C.W. (2010) Spectroscopic analysis (FTIR, Raman) of water in mafic and intermediate glasses and glass inclusions

  12. A Model-Based Exploration and Policy Analysis Related to Prostitution and Human Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    András Kővári; Erik Pruyt

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based exploration and policy analysis related to prostitution and prostitution-related human trafficking. After a brief introduction to prostitution and prostitution-related human trafficking, the paper zooms in on the Dutch situation. A System Dynamics simulation model related to the Dutch situation developed to explore and provide policy insights is subsequently presented. Using the simulation model, policies are first of all tested, and preliminary conclusions a...

  13. An Analysis of Random Student Drug Testing Policies and Patterns of Practice In Virginia Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lineburg, Mark Young

    2005-01-01

    An Analysis of Random Student Drug Testing Policies and Patterns of Practice In Virginia Public Schools Mark Y. Lineburg Abstract There were two purposes to this study. First, the study was designed to determine which Virginia public school districts have articulated policies that govern random drug testing of students and if school districtsâ policies aligned with U.S. Supreme Court standards and Virginia statutes. The second purpose was to ascertain the patterns of pract...

  14. Assimilation of tourism satellite accounts and applied general equilibrium models to inform tourism policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville

    2011-01-01

    Historically, tourism policy analysis in South Africa has posed challenges to accurate measurement. The primary reason for this is that tourism is not designated as an 'industry' in standard economic accounts. This paper therefore demonstrates the relevance and need for applied general equilibrium (AGE) models to be completed and extended through an integration with tourism satellite accounts (TSAs) as a tool for policy makers (especially tourism policy makers) in South Africa. The paper sets...

  15. [Automatic morphometric analysis as a method for determining the level of extracellular matrix components and for quantifying nuclear antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, I S; Chuprinenko, L M; Sotnichenko, A S; Gaivoronskaya, T V; Gumenyuk, S E; Gubareva, E A; Kuevda, E V; Krutova, V A; Alekseenko, S N

    Automated image analysis methods are highly important for biotechnology research. The authors developed and tested a program for the morphometric analysis of photomicrographs of the sections processed using the standard immunohistochemical examination protocols. The color deconvolution method used in the algorithm was proven to be effective in mapping the distribution of DAB chromogen in the sample containing multiple dyes. The experiment demonstrated that the level of extracellular matrix proteins could be comparatively quantified in different groups of samples. The effective methods for the quantitative analysis of the Ki-67 labelling index were also tested using the same algorithms. The developed program was published under free GPL 3.0.

  16. Identification of transcriptional macromolecular associations in human bone using browser based in silico analysis in a giant correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppe, Sjur; Sachse, Daniel; Olstad, Ole K; Gautvik, Vigdis T; Sanderson, Paul; Datta, Harish K; Berg, Jens P; Gautvik, Kaare M

    2013-03-01

    Intracellular signaling is critically dependent on gene regulatory networks comprising physical molecular interactions. Presently, there is a lack of comprehensive databases for most human tissue types to verify such macromolecular interactions. We present a user friendly browser which helps to identify functional macromolecular interactions in human bone as significant correlations at the transcriptional level. The molecular skeletal phenotype has been characterized by transcriptome analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies from 84 postmenopausal women through quantifications of ~23,000 mRNA species. When the signal levels were inter-correlated, an array containing >260 million correlations was generated, thus recognizing the human bone interactome at the RNA level. The matrix correlation and p values were made easily accessible by a freely available online browser. We show that significant correlations within the giant matrix are reproduced in a replica set of 13 male vertebral biopsies. The identified correlations differ somewhat from transcriptional interactions identified in cell culture experiments and transgenic mice, thus demonstrating that care should be taken in extrapolating such results to the in vivo situation in human bone. The current giant matrix and web browser are a valuable tool for easy access to the human bone transcriptome and molecular interactions represented as significant correlations at the RNA-level. The browser and matrix should be a valuable hypothesis generating tool for identification of regulatory mechanisms and serve as a library of transcript relationships in human bone, a relatively inaccessible tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Hinkley Point decision: An analysis of the policy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the British government launched a policy to build nuclear power reactors based on a claim that the power produced would be competitive with fossil fuel and would require no public subsidy. A decade later, it is not clear how many, if any, orders will be placed and the claims on costs and subsidies have proved false. Despite this failure to deliver, the policy is still being pursued with undiminished determination. The finance model that is now proposed is seen as a model other European countries can follow so the success or otherwise of the British nuclear programme will have implications outside the UK. This paper contends that the checks and balances that should weed out misguided policies, have failed. It argues that the most serious failure is with the civil service and its inability to provide politicians with high quality advice – truth to power. It concludes that the failure is likely to be due to the unwillingness of politicians to listen to opinions that conflict with their beliefs. Other weaknesses include the lack of energy expertise in the media, the unwillingness of the public to engage in the policy process and the impotence of Parliamentary Committees. - Highlights: •Britain's nuclear power policy is failing due to high costs and problems of finance. •This has implications for European countries who want to use the same financing model. •The continued pursuit of a failing policy is due to poor advice from civil servants. •Lack of expertise in the media and lack of public engagement have contributed. •Parliamentary processes have not provided proper critical scrutiny.

  18. Child sexual abuse prevention policy: an analysis of Erin's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn D

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse affects thousands of children in the United States and is vastly underreported. Tertiary prevention policies, primarily in the form of sex offender registries and community notification programs, have received the most attention and funding. Few policies have focused on school-based prevention. One recently passed law in Illinois mandates all K-5 public schools to implement sexual abuse prevention programs. The law was championed by a young social worker, Erin Merryn. Through the multiple streams framework, this article examines the unique set of political circumstances, united with Merryn's advocacy, which created the opportunity for the law to pass.

  19. Analysis and Comparison of Carbon Capture & Sequestration Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, E.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Reed, J.; Beyer, J. H.; Wagoner, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Several states and countries have adopted or are in the process of crafting policies to enable geologic carbon sequestration projects. These efforts reflect the recognition that existing statutory and regulatory frameworks leave ambiguities or gaps that elevate project risk for private companies considering carbon sequestration projects, and/or are insufficient to address a government’s mandate to protect the public interest. We have compared the various approaches that United States’ state and federal governments have taken to provide regulatory frameworks to address carbon sequestration. A major purpose of our work is to inform the development of any future legislation in California, should it be deemed necessary to meet the goals of Assembly Bill 1925 (2006) to accelerate the adoption of cost-effective geologic sequestration strategies for the long-term management of industrial carbon dioxide in the state. Our analysis shows a diverse issues are covered by adopted and proposed carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) legislation and that many of the new laws focus on defining regulatory frameworks for underground injection of CO2, ambiguities in property issues, or assigning legal liability. While these approaches may enable the progress of early projects, future legislation requires a longer term and broader view that includes a quantified integration of CCS into a government’s overall climate change mitigation strategy while considering potentially counterproductive impacts on CCS of other climate change mitigation strategies. Furthermore, legislation should be crafted in the context of a vision for CCS as an economically viable and widespread industry. While an important function of new CCS legislation is enabling early projects, it must be kept in mind that applying the same laws or protocols in the future to a widespread CCS industry may result in business disincentives and compromise of the public interest in mitigating GHG emissions. Protection of the

  20. Growth and inequality in India : analysis of an extended social accounting matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Janneke

    Based on an extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for 2002-03. this study shows how sectoral growth in India affects Inequality A breakdown of the wage,account into three educational levels and 10 sectors of employment improves the link between sectoral expansion and household income in the SAM

  1. Evaluation of Extraction Methods for the Analysis of Carotenoids for Different Vegetable Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancuta Scrob

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, different solvents were used to achieve the maximum extractibility of total carotenoids. The extracted total carotenoids were estimated using UV- visible spectrophotometer. Carotenoids from vegetable matrix can be used as a food colorant, food additive, cosmetics, antioxidants and nutraceuticals.

  2. Compilation and R-matrix analysis of Big Bang nuclear reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descouvemont, Pierre; Adahchour, Abderrahim; Angulo, Carmen; Coc, Alain; Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    We use the R-matrix theory to fit low-energy data on nuclear reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Special attention is paid to the rate uncertainties which are evaluated on statistical grounds. We provide S factors and reaction rates in tabular and graphical formats

  3. ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROTHERMALLY CURED HIGH STRENGTH CEMENT MATRIX FOR TEXTILE REINFORCED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Holčapek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to describe the influence of hydrothermal curing conditions in an autoclave device (different pressure and temperature, which took place at various ages of a fresh mixture (cement matrix – CM, and fibre-reinforced cement matrix – FRCM, on textile reinforced concrete production. The positive influence of autoclaving has been evaluated through the results of physical and mechanical testing – compressive strength, flexural strength, bulk density and dynamic modulus of elasticity, which have been measured on specimens with the following dimensions: 40×40×160mm3. In addition, it has been found that increasing the pressure and temperature resulted in higher values of measured characteristics. The results indicate that the most suitable surrounding conditions are 0.6MPa, and 165 °C at the age of 21 hours; the final compressive strength of cement matrix is 134.3MPa and its flexural strength is 25.9MPa (standard cured samples achieve 114.6MPa and 15.7MPa. Hydrothermal curing is even more effective for cement matrix reinforced by steel fibres (for example, the compressive strength can reach 177.5MPa, while laboratory-cured samples achieve a compressive strength of 108.5MPa.

  4. Analysis of Natural Graphite, Synthetic Graphite, and Thermosetting Resin Candidates for Use in Fuel Compact Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trammell, Michael P [ORNL; Pappano, Peter J [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The AGR-1 and AGR-2 compacting process involved overcoating TRISO particles and compacting them in a steel die. The overcoating step is the process of applying matrix to the OPyC layer of TRISO particles in a rotating drum in order to build up an overcoat layer of desired thickness. The matrix used in overcoating is a mixture of natural graphite, synthetic graphite, and thermosetting resin in the ratio, by weight, of 64:16:20. A wet mixing process was used for AGR-1 and AGR-2, in that the graphites and resin were mixed in the presence of ethyl alcohol. The goal of the wet mixing process was to 'resinate' the graphite particles, or coat each individual graphite particle with a thin layer of resin. This matrix production process was similar to the German, Chinese, Japanese, and South African methods, which also use various amount of solvent during mixing. See Appendix 1 for information on these countries matrix production techniques. The resin used for AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by Hexion, specifically Hexion grade Durite SC1008. Durite SC1008 is a solvated (liquid) resole phenolic resin. A resole resin does not typically have a hardening agent added. The major constituent of SC1008 is phenol, with minor amounts of formaldehyde. Durite SC1008 is high viscosity, so additional ethyl alcohol was added during matrix production in order to reduce its viscosity and enhance graphite particle resination. The current compacting scale up plan departs from a wet mixing process. The matrix production method specified in the scale up plan is a co-grinding jet mill process where powdered phenolic resin and graphite are all fed into a jet mill at the same time. Because of the change in matrix production style, SC1008 cannot be used in the jet milling process because it is a liquid. The jet milling/mixing process requires that a suite of solid or powdered resins be investigated. The synthetic graphite used in AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by SGL Carbon, grade KRB2000. KRB

  5. Advancing team-based primary health care: a comparative analysis of policies in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Esther; Mallinson, Sara; Misfeldt, Renee; Boakye, Omenaa; Nasmith, Louise; Wong, Sabrina T

    2017-07-17

    We analyzed and compared primary health care (PHC) policies in British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan to understand how they inform the design and implementation of team-based primary health care service delivery. The goal was to develop policy imperatives that can advance team-based PHC in Canada. We conducted comparative case studies (n = 3). The policy analysis included: Context review: We reviewed relevant information (2007 to 2014) from databases and websites. Policy review and comparative analysis: We compared and contrasted publically available PHC policies. Key informant interviews: Key informants (n = 30) validated narratives prepared from the comparative analysis by offering contextual information on potential policy imperatives. Advisory group and roundtable: An expert advisory group guided this work and a key stakeholder roundtable event guided prioritization of policy imperatives. The concept of team-based PHC varies widely across and within the three provinces. We noted policy gaps related to team configuration, leadership, scope of practice, role clarity and financing of team-based care; few policies speak explicitly to monitoring and evaluation of team-based PHC. We prioritized four policy imperatives: (1) alignment of goals and policies at different system levels; (2) investment of resources for system change; (3) compensation models for all members of the team; and (4) accountability through collaborative practice metrics. Policies supporting team-based PHC have been slow to emerge, lacking a systematic and coordinated approach. Greater alignment with specific consideration of financing, reimbursement, implementation mechanisms and performance monitoring could accelerate systemic transformation by removing some well-known barriers to team-based care.

  6. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.; Doris, E.

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets--like human capital and modern infrastructure--as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  7. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA). State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets—like human capital and modern infrastructure–as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  8. A comparative analysis of sexual harassment policies at selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates sexual harassment issues by means of an in depth literature review and by analyzing and comparing the sexual harassment policies of selected universities in South Africa. Various alternatives that categorize sexual harassment are proposed in order to form a clear perspective on the different ...

  9. Rethinking EU Employment Policy; a legal and economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.S. van Duin (Kees)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Given the central role of the labour market in determining the welfare of citizens it is no wonder that governments aim for influencing the labour market process. The European Union has influenced and facilitated the labour market process by policies ranging from the

  10. Classical Stasis Theory and the Analysis of Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Gary Layne

    In classical Greece, there was a close tie between rhetoric and the practice and theory of public policy. Gradually, however, rhetoric became increasingly concerned with style and literary criticism, while philosophers began to debate political issues apart from the practical affairs of the polis. Because rhetoric provides a model that can still…

  11. Institutional Support : Institute of Policy Analysis and Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant from IDRC's Think Tank Initiative (TTI) will help IPAR address its sustainability issues by offering competitive remuneration packages to reduce staff turnover, recruiting additional staff, training existing staff, improving organizational systems and infrastructure, expanding its policy advocacy work, enhancing the ...

  12. Canadian Offshore Schools in China: A Comparative Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Internationalisation is no longer a well-recognised feature unique to higher education. It has permeated K-12 education. However, little research has been done on internationalisation at the K-12 level, particularly on offshore schools. This study examines how Canadian and Chinese policies regarding offshore schools have developed over the years,…

  13. Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews studies which have addressed agricultural policy research in relation to Tanzania during and after economic structural adjustment, with some cross reference for studies within Africa and globally. The studies are reviewed to cover: factor markets; product markets; and macro-economic management in ...

  14. Comparative analysis of policies to deal with wildfire risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreiras, M.; Ferreira, A.D.J.; Valente, S.; Fleskens, L.; Gonzales-Pelayo, O.; Rubio, J.L.; Stoof, C.R.; Coelho, C.O.A.; Ferreira, C.S.S.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Fires are the main driver of land degradation in forest areas in Mediterranean sub-humid regions and are likely to increase as a result of climate and other global changes. To prevent deleterious processes induced by fire, several policies and strategies have been implemented at national and

  15. Policy Analysis for Growth and Employment | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through the network, research teams from different countries compare and contrast policies and programs, promoting South-South learning. Increasingly, PEP is being called upon by international institutions like the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Development Programme, and the United Nations ...

  16. U.S. immigration reform: policy issues and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Mcdowell, J M

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the US immigration issue which has resurfaced in the last 10 years because the foreign born population grew by 4.5 million between 1970 and 1980. Because immigration accounts for 25% of the US population growth during the 1970s, reconsideration of US immigration policy by the government is underway. The Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy was established in 1979 to evaluate existing laws and policies on admitting immigrants into the US. Presently, these policies focus on family reunification, as opposed to labor considerations. In 1984, the Senate and House passed the Simpson-Mazzoli Bill, but the bill died in the conference committee that was established to reconcile the differences between the 2 versions. 3 provisions of debate surround the proposed act: 1) control of illegal immigration - - the Senate arguing for the requirement of a national identification card to verify an individual is authorized for US employment; 2) legalization of alien status - - the House refusing to confer immediate permanent resident status on any alien; and 3) reform of legal immigration - - a provision that the House altogether ignores. Immigration takes jobs from Americans, depresses domestic wages, and worsens working conditions. On the other hand, immigrants fill the jobs which domestic workers find undesirable. The compromises reached by the conference committee concentrate on employer sanctions and the legalization of illegal aliens; reform of legal immigration failed to gain approval.

  17. Analysis of the Effect of Monetary Policy Development on Equity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ordinary least square regression (OLS) was run using five monetary policy variables including minimum rediscount rate, treasury bill rate, interest rate, exchange rate and consumer price index (proxy for inflation) on the equity prices (proxied by all share price index). The first investigation of this study is that minimum ...

  18. Accountability Policies at Schools: A Study of Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdag, Coskun

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is now on its way to reforming compulsory education and having a more effective and efficient education system by creating more accountable schools. This research has been designed in a causative pattern to discover the effects of external academic performance pressures on school accountability policies and school accountability responses…

  19. Analysis of the Effect of Monetary Policy Development on Equity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... equity prices, except the consumer price index that has insignificant positive relationship with equity prices. The study ... market has not significantly absorbed the monetary policy impulses and therefore cannot be taken as being a good .... operator based on information available to market participants at ...

  20. Investments in technology subject to uncertainty. Analysis and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    1997-01-01

    Investments in technology are today of such a magnitude that it matters. In the paper there are three important questions. First on the question in which sense technological uncertainty can be said to be a problem. Second on strategies for diminishing technological uncertainties. Three on policy...

  1. Nigeria's Foreign policy: A problem analysis | Saliu | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality. 521 African Journals. Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana ...

  2. History: An Analysis of the Former Soviet Union Foreign Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an appraisal of the FSU's foreign policy using Russia and Ukraine as case studies. The international context which Russia and Ukraine have confronted in view of the gravity of change, combined with the unique circumstances of their emergence through a process of the soviet state collapse, has ...

  3. Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-22

    Jul 22, 2005 ... Lindert (1991) defines agricultural policy as “all agricultural initiatives affecting the ... Tanzania during and after economic structural adjustment, with some cross reference for studies within Africa and globally. The studies are reviewed ...... Endogenous Soil Fertility. Statistics Norway,. Research Department.

  4. An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of

  5. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  6. Policy Analysis for Growth and Employment | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project supports work by the Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP) to address labour markets, social protection, and entrepreneurship - three areas that are ... Le programme de recherche Croissance de l'économie et débouchés économiques des femmes (CEDEF) est une initiative de collaboration entre le CRDI, ...

  7. Production functions for climate policy modeling. An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Werf, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative models for climate policy modeling differ in the production structure used and in the sizes of the elasticities of substitution. The empirical foundation for both is generally lacking. This paper estimates the parameters of 2-level CES production functions with capital, labour and energy as inputs, and is the first to systematically compare all nesting structures. Using industry-level data from 12 OECD countries, we find that the nesting structure where capital and labour are combined first, fits the data best, but for most countries and industries we cannot reject that all three inputs can be put into one single nest. These two nesting structures are used by most climate models. However, while several climate policy models use a Cobb-Douglas function for (part of the) production function, we reject elasticities equal to one, in favour of considerably smaller values. Finally we find evidence for factor-specific technological change. With lower elasticities and with factor-specific technological change, some climate policy models may find a bigger effect of endogenous technological change on mitigating the costs of climate policy. (author)

  8. Institutional Support : Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant from IDRC's Think Tank Initiative (TTI) will help IPAR address its sustainability issues by offering competitive remuneration packages to reduce staff turnover, recruiting additional staff, training existing staff, improving organizational systems and infrastructure, expanding its policy advocacy work, enhancing the ...

  9. Institutional Diversity in Ontario's University Sector: A Policy Debate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piché, Pierre G.; Jones, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the demands in a cost-effective manner of an emerging knowledge society that is global in scope, structural higher education policy changes have been introduced in many countries with a focus on systemic and programmatic diversity. There has been an ongoing debate about institutional diversity in Ontario higher education,…

  10. Situation Analysis of Alcohol Control Policy in Five African Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is therefore critical to document and evaluate the nature and impact of alcohol promotion, policy, and legislation in Africa. This research will achieve that goal ... The University of Cape Town (UCT) will host the umbrella project and will provide training, scientific support, and ethical oversight. It will help synthesize the data ...

  11. Environmental Pollution Control Policy-Making: An Analysis of Elite Perceptions and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1974-01-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the perceptions and preferences of elite groups concerning environmental pollution control policy making. Results showed that although the groups agreed that present methods were inadequate, they were, nevertheless, unable to agree upon the nature of a future policy-making system. (MA)

  12. Analysing Complex Policy Change in Hong Kong: What Role for Critical Discourse Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Annie Y. N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Hong Kong government recently reformed pre-primary education with the introduction of a voucher scheme. At the time this policy caused considerable opposition from across Hong Kong Society. This paper seeks to use Fairclough's model of critical discourse analysis to explore a key policy text and seeks to assess to what extent such an…

  13. A Content Analysis of School Anti-Bullying Policies in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Smith, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    This original study presents a content analysis of 100 primary and post-primary school anti-bullying policies in Northern Ireland using a 36-item scoring scheme. Overall schools had 52% of the items in their policies. Most schools included reference to physical, verbal, relational, material and cyberbullying but a minority mentioned racist,…

  14. Using Contribution Analysis to Evaluate the Impacts of Research on Policy: Getting to "Good Enough"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barbara L.; Kernoghan, Alison; Stockton, Lisa; Montague, Steve; Yessis, Jennifer; Willis, Cameron D.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing societal impacts of research is more difficult than assessing advances in knowledge. Methods to evaluate research impact on policy processes and outcomes are especially underdeveloped, and are needed to optimize the influence of research on policy for addressing complex issues such as chronic diseases. Contribution analysis (CA), a…

  15. Uncommon Commonalities: Cosmopolitan Ethics as a Framework for Music Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary American education policy rhetoric is problematic because its authors' assertions, particularly those about the goals of education, frequently conflict with their implied moral and/or ethical commitments. This philosophical policy analysis uses Appiah's cosmopolitan principles to examine the ethical implications of current education…

  16. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  17. Analysis of Student Reflections of Experiential Learning in Nursing Health Policy Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Maureen; Goldstein, Carol; Claywell, Lora; Patton, Ryan

    This is a content analysis of the reflections of 187 nursing students after experiential learning opportunities in both master's and doctoral level health policy courses. Results show that experiential activities in a health policy class for nursing students increased their knowledge of the legislative process and motivated them to identify newfound intent to become more involved in the political process.

  18. Do Farm Advisory Services Improve Adoption of Rural Development Policies? An Empirical Analysis in GI Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Marcello; Bartoli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to evaluate how advisory services stimulate the adoption of rural development policies (RDP) aiming at value creation. Design/methodology/approach: By linking the use of agricultural extension services (AES) to policies for value creation, we will put forward an empirical analysis in Italy, with the aim of…

  19. Historicizing in Critical Policy Analysis: The Production of Cultural Histories and Microhistories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Curtis A.

    2014-01-01

    The practice of critical policy analysis often emphasizes the importance of historicizing the present. However, there is very little guidance for critical policy analysts on the methodical production of histories. In this paper, I meet this need by arguing for the use of methodologies embedded in the production of both cultural histories and…

  20. Canadian energy and climate policies: A SWOT analysis in search of federal/provincial coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertel, Camille; Bahn, Olivier; Vaillancourt, Kathleen; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Canadian energy and climate policies in terms of the coherence between federal and provincial/territorial strategies. After briefly describing the institutional, energy, and climate contexts, we perform a SWOT analysis on the themes of energy security, energy efficiency, and technology and innovation. Within this analytical framework, we discuss the coherence of federal and provincial policies and of energy and climate policies. Our analysis shows that there is a lack of consistency in the Canadian energy and climate strategies beyond the application of market principles. Furthermore, in certain sectors, the Canadian approach amounts to an amalgam of decisions made at a provincial level without cooperation with other provinces or with the federal government. One way to improve policy coherence would be to increase the cooperation between the different jurisdictions by using a combination of policy tools and by relying on existing intergovernmental agencies. - Highlights: • We perform a SWOT analysis of the Canadian energy and climate policies. • We analyse policy coherence between federal and provincial/territorial strategies. • We show that a lack of coordination leads to a weak coherence among policies. • The absence of cooperation results in additional costs for Canada

  1. School Health Promotion Policies and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Israel: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Riki; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health promotion policies targeting risk-taking behaviors are being implemented across schools in Israel. This study identified the most effective components of these policies influencing cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Logistic hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis of data for 5279 students in…

  2. Matrix analysis of the digital divide in eHealth services using awareness, want, and adoption gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2012-02-13

    The digital divide usually refers to access or usage, but some studies have identified two other divides: awareness and demand (want). Given that the hierarchical stages of the innovation adoption process of a customer are interrelated, it is necessary and meaningful to analyze the digital divide in eHealth services through three main stages, namely, awareness, want, and adoption. By following the three main integrated stages of the innovation diffusion theory, from the customer segment viewpoint, this study aimed to propose a new matrix analysis of the digital divide using the awareness, want, and adoption gap ratio (AWAG). I compared the digital divide among different groups. Furthermore, I conducted an empirical study on eHealth services to present the practicability of the proposed methodology. Through a review and discussion of the literature, I proposed hypotheses and a new matrix analysis. To test the proposed method, 3074 Taiwanese respondents, aged 15 years and older, were surveyed by telephone. I used the stratified simple random sampling method, with sample size allocation proportioned by the population distribution of 23 cities and counties (strata). This study proposed the AWAG segment matrix to analyze the digital divide in eHealth services. First, awareness and want rates were divided into two levels at the middle point of 50%, and then the 2-dimensional cross of the awareness and want segment matrix was divided into four categories: opened group, desire-deficiency group, perception-deficiency group, and closed group. Second, according to the degrees of awareness and want, each category was further divided into four subcategories. I also defined four possible strategies, namely, hold, improve, evaluate, and leave, for different regions in the proposed matrix. An empirical test on two recently promoted eHealth services, the digital medical service (DMS) and the digital home care service (DHCS), was conducted. Results showed that for both e

  3. Content analysis of school anti-bullying policies: a comparison between New Zealand and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Louise; McGee, Rob; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Williams, Sheila

    2011-12-01

    To undertake a detailed analysis of the content of anti-bullying policies in schools in New Zealand (NZ) and Victoria, Australia. The content of anti-bullying policies from 253 NZ schools and 93 Victorian schools were analysed in terms of definitions of bullying behaviour; reporting, recording and responding to bullying incidents; communicating and evaluating the policy; and outlining strategies for preventing bullying. There was a wide range in 'policy scores' between schools, and Victorian schools scored higher on nearly every area compared with NZ schools. In both regions, definitions rarely included bullying on the grounds of homophobia, religion or disability; or bullying between adults and students. Policies also lacked detail about the responsibilities of non-teaching staff in dealing with bullying, and rarely described follow-up after a bullying incident. Few policies explained how the policy would be evaluated, and many failed to mention preventive strategies. This study highlights some important areas that are deficient in NZ and Victorian school anti-bullying policies, and emphasises the need for guidance on how schools can develop an effective anti-bullying policy. Having more comprehensive anti-bullying policies will give schools a much better chance of reducing bullying.

  4. Analysis of the interaction of extracellular matrix and phenotype of bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Kyker, Kimberly D; Saban, Ricardo; Knowlton, Nicholas; Dozmorov, Igor; Centola, Michael B; Hurst, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has a major effect upon the malignant properties of bladder cancer cells both in vitro in 3-dimensional culture and in vivo. Comparing gene expression of several bladder cancer cells lines grown under permissive and suppressive conditions in 3-dimensional growth on cancer-derived and normal-derived basement membrane gels respectively and on plastic in conventional tissue culture provides a model system for investigating the interaction of malignancy and extracellular matrix. Understanding how the extracellular matrix affects the phenotype of bladder cancer cells may provide important clues to identify new markers or targets for therapy. Five bladder cancer cell lines and one immortalized, but non-tumorigenic, urothelial line were grown on Matrigel, a cancer-derived ECM, on SISgel, a normal-derived ECM, and on plastic, where the only ECM is derived from the cells themselves. The transcriptomes were analyzed on an array of 1186 well-annotated cancer derived cDNAs containing most of the major pathways for malignancy. Hypervariable genes expressing more variability across cell lines than a set expressing technical variability were analyzed further. Expression values were clustered, and to identify genes most likely to represent biological factors, statistically over-represented ontologies and transcriptional regulatory elements were identified. Approximately 400 of the 1186 total genes were expressed 2 SD above background. Approximately 100 genes were hypervariable in cells grown on each ECM, but the pattern was different in each case. A core of 20 were identified as hypervariable under all 3 growth conditions, and 33 were hypervariable on both SISgel and Matrigel, but not on plastic. Clustering of the hypervariable genes showed very different patterns for the same 6 cell types on the different ECM. Even when loss of cell cycle regulation was identified, different genes were involved, depending on the ECM. Under the most permissive conditions

  5. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  6. Incorporation of Mean Stress Effects into the Micromechanical Analysis of the High Strain Rate Response of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2002-01-01

    The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program, to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. A micromechanics approach is employed in this work, in which state variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified to model the deformation of the polymer matrix, and a strength of materials based micromechanics method is used to predict the effective response of the composite. In the analysis of the inelastic deformation of the polymer matrix, the definitions of the effective stress and effective inelastic strain have been modified in order to account for the effect of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers. Two representative polymers, a toughened epoxy and a brittle epoxy, are characterized through the use of data from tensile and shear tests across a variety of strain rates. Results computed by using the developed constitutive equations correlate well with data generated via experiments. The procedure used to incorporate the constitutive equations within a micromechanics method is presented, and sample calculations of the deformation response of a composite for various fiber orientations and strain rates are discussed.

  7. Metal matrix composites: Testing, analysis, and failure modes; Proceedings of the Symposium, Sparks, NV, Apr. 25, 26, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. S. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The present conference discusses the tension and compression testing of MMCs, the measurement of advanced composites' thermal expansion, plasticity theory for fiber-reinforced composites, a deformation analysis of boron/aluminum specimens by moire interferometry, strength prediction methods for MMCs, and the analysis of notched MMCs under tensile loading. Also discussed are techniques for the mechanical and thermal testing of Ti3Al/SCS-6 MMCs, damage initiation and growth in fiber-reinforced MMCs, the shear testing of MMCs, the crack growth and fracture of continuous fiber-reinforced MMCs in view of analytical and experimental results, and MMC fiber-matrix interface failures.

  8. Monitoring organic loading to swimming pools by fluorescence excitation–emission matrix with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seredynska-Sobecka, Bozena; Stedmon, Colin; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence Excitation–Emission Matrix spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis was employed to monitor water quality and organic contamination in swimming pools. The fluorescence signal of the swimming pool organic matter was low but increased slightly through the day. The analysis...... revealed that the organic matter fluorescence was characterised by five different components, one of which was unique to swimming pool organic matter and one which was specific to organic contamination. The latter component had emission peaks at 420nm and was found to be a sensitive indicator of organic...... loading in swimming pool water. The fluorescence at 420nm gradually increased during opening hours and represented material accumulating through the day....

  9. Cinematographic analysis of vascular smooth muscle cell interactions with extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absher, M; Baldor, L

    1991-01-01

    The interactions of vascular smooth muscle cells with growth modulators and extracellular matrix molecules may play a role in the proliferation and migration of these cells after vascular injury and during the development of atherosclerosis. Time-lapse cinematographic techniques have been used to study cell division and migration of bovine carotid artery smooth muscle cells in response to matrix molecules consisting of solubilized basement membrane (Matrigel) and type I collagen. When cells were grown adjacent to Matrigel, both migration and cell proliferation were increased and interdivision time was shortened. Cells grown in Matrigel or in type I collagen had markedly reduced migration rates but interdivision time was not altered. Further, diffusible components of the Matrigel were found to stimulate proliferation of the smooth muscle cells.

  10. Analysis of a wavelength selectable cascaded DFB laser based on the transfer matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongyun; Chen Liang; Shen Pei; Sun Botao; Wang Renqing; Xiao Ying; You Yunxia; Zhang Wanrong

    2010-01-01

    A novel cascaded DFB laser, which consists of two serial gratings to provide selectable wavelengths, is presented and analyzed by the transfer matrix method. In this method, efficient facet reflectivity is derived from the transfer matrix built for each serial section and is then used to simulate the performance of the novel cascaded DFB laser through self-consistently solving the gain equation, the coupled wave equation and the current continuity equations. The simulations prove the feasibility of this kind of wavelength selectable laser and a corresponding designed device with two selectable wavelengths of 1.51 μm and 1.53 μm is realized by experiments on InP-based multiple quantum well structure. (semiconductor devices)

  11. Analysis of Enzymatic Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) by Collagen Zymography in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Vijay; Samuels, Yardena

    2018-01-01

    Protein zymography is the most commonly used technique to study the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. MMPs are proteolytic enzymes that promote extracellular matrix degradation. MMPs are frequently mutated in malignant melanomas as well as other cancers and are linked to increasing incidence of tumor metastasis. Substrate zymography characterizes MMP activity by their ability to degrade preferred substrates. Here we describe the collagen zymography technique to measure the active or latent form of MMPs using MMP-8 as an example, which is a frequently mutated MMP family member in malignant melanomas. The same technique can be used with the modification of substrate to detect metalloproteinase activity of other MMPs. Both wild-type and mutated forms of MMPs can be analyzed using a single gel using this method.

  12. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for selenium-containing pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Gundorina, S.F.; Oprea, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina Platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina Platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The employed analytical technique allows one to reliably control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina Platensis. Based on this study, a conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals was drawn

  13. The Global Financial Crisis: Analysis and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    encourages terrorist activity. The precipitous drop in the price of oil holds important implications for countries, such as Russia, Mexico, Venezuela ...and Venezuela , all of which share a heavy dependence on commodity exports and weak economic policy frameworks. In each of these countries, bond...particular, including textiles and various machinery exports, raising tensions between the two major trade partners of the regional customs union, Mercosur

  14. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  15. A two-channel R-matrix analysis of magnetic field induced Feshbach resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Nicolai; Schneider, B. I.; Julienne, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    such an effective Feshbach model can be constructed from knowledge of a few key parameters, characterizing the atomic Born-Oppenheimer potentials and the low energy scattering near the resonance. These parameters may be obtained either from experiment or full coupled channels calculations. Using R-matrix theory we...... analyze the bound state spectrum and the scattering properties of the two-channel model, and find it to be in good agreement with exact calculations....

  16. Gender Mainstreaming and Work-Family Reconciliation. An Analysis of Family Policies in Romania and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Crușmac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender Mainstreaming (GM was introduced by the European Union (EU in 1997, as a strategy to achieve gender equality in all policy areas. Yet, European countries greatly diverge in their progress of implementation. We investigate the role GM played in Romanian and German policies aimed at achieving work-family reconciliation, using concepts from feminist policy analysis. Our analysis shows that pre-existing policies and discourse, the economic situation, as well as the relationship with the EU have shaped and impeded the implementation process of GM in both countries. While Germany slowly moves towards more egalitarian policies, GM as label and strategy did not succeed. In Romania, GM has only impacted work and family reconciliation indirectly through EU legislation.

  17. Probabilistic non-negative matrix factorization: theory and application to microarray data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Belhassen; Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Shterenberg, Roman

    2014-02-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has proven to be a useful decomposition technique for multivariate data, where the non-negativity constraint is necessary to have a meaningful physical interpretation. NMF reduces the dimensionality of non-negative data by decomposing it into two smaller non-negative factors with physical interpretation for class discovery. The NMF algorithm, however, assumes a deterministic framework. In particular, the effect of the data noise on the stability of the factorization and the convergence of the algorithm are unknown. Collected data, on the other hand, is stochastic in nature due to measurement noise and sometimes inherent variability in the physical process. This paper presents new theoretical and applied developments to the problem of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). First, we generalize the deterministic NMF algorithm to include a general class of update rules that converges towards an optimal non-negative factorization. Second, we extend the NMF framework to the probabilistic case (PNMF). We show that the Maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the non-negative factors is the solution to a weighted regularized non-negative matrix factorization problem. We subsequently derive update rules that converge towards an optimal solution. Third, we apply the PNMF to cluster and classify DNA microarrays data. The proposed PNMF is shown to outperform the deterministic NMF and the sparse NMF algorithms in clustering stability and classification accuracy.

  18. Analysis of Island Land Use Change Based on Transfer Matrix'a Case Study of Dongtou Island in Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Tao, Kunwang; Qian, Xinlin

    2015-04-01

    With the increasing developments of islands, the protection and management of island's natural resources are imperative. The core of islands' protection and management is to acquire the information of changes of the land use and land cover. What's more, the purpose of the islands' land use change information analysis is to plan the effective protection of land resource, achieve scientific management and sustainable utilization. Based on the improved calculation method of land use change and the computational model of change rate of the land use, an analysis of land use transfer matrix and transfer probability matrix is presented, and the method of land use change analysis based on the transfer matrix is proposed in this paper. And then the comparative analysis of all types of land use transfer is introduced. Taken the island of Dongtou in Zhejiang Province as the case, with the SPOT-5 satellite image in 2005 and the aerial image in 2011 as the data source, the current situation of land utilization of Dongtou Island and its land use change are analyzed. The experiment results show that, from 2005 to 2011, the greatest changes are the structures and water, followed by the forest land, grassland, cultivated land and others. The major change of structure and forest is the net change, while the major change of the water and grassland is the swap change. From the perspective of increment, the conversion from waters to structure has the most advantage, followed by water converted to grassland and road. To see from the loss, structures converted into roads and buildings have the most superiority transformation, followed by structures converted to grassland. The analysis of the case proves that the proposed process and method in this paper could achieve better results in the practical application. The experiment results also demonstrate that the proposed method could effectively obtain the dynamic change information of land use which is much helpful for land management and

  19. Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policies on Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigerian Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    R.O. Kareem; A.J. Afolabi; K.A. Raheem; N.O. Bashir

    2013-01-01

    The research deals with analysis of Nigeria democracy and its impact on fiscal and monetary policies. Secondary data from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) was mainly used for this study. The study adopted descriptive statistics, regression and correlation analysis on fiscal and monetary variables (i.e., inflation, interest rate, narrow money, broad money, government recurrent and capital expenditure). The objectives of the study are to describe the trend of policy variables; examine the impact o...

  20. Use of risk-matrix methods in the radiation safety analysis of PET/CT facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón Marín, Carlos F.; González González, Joaquín J.; Quesada Cepero, Waldo; Sinconegui Gómez, Belkys; Solá Rodríguez, Yeline; Duménigo Ámbar, Cruz; Guerrero Cancio, Mayka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Radiological safety is essential during clinical applications of ionizing radiations. Cuban legislation considers it mandatory to carry out risk analysis during safety assessments of facilities where Nuclear Medicine practices are performed. The Risk Matrix (R-M) method has been used in risk assessments in Radiotherapy and some experiences in Nuclear Medicine have been reported. In the present work the results of the safety evaluation, using the M-R method, of the first PET / CT center constructed at the Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology in Havana, are shown. The facilities will work as a satellite center and the production of radioactive drugs of 68 Ga will be conceived. The images will be acquired with a Philips Gemini TF64 scanner. Several stages and sub-stages were considered, including the design of the facility, quality control programs, review of the relevance of study requests, radiopharmaceutical reception and fractionation, 68 Ga radiopharmaceuticals production, management of Patient during the administration of radiopharmaceuticals and patient positioning. Initiating events (IEs), available barriers, as well as measures for the reduction of frequency (RFMs) of IEs and consequences (RCMs) were identified. In addition, IEs sequences are considered for CT scans. The incidence of risk reduction was assessed by the ratio of the number of times they were used and the total number of IEs. The calculation of the R-M was made by modeling the practice with the SEVRRA code R iskAssessmentSystem . Results. As a result, 76 IEs were identified with a distribution of 72% affecting patients, 7.9% in the Public and 19.7% on Occupationally Exposed Workers (TOEs). 89.5% of IEs are caused by human errors. Barriers and consequences and frequency reducers produced a risk distribution of 2.6% of high risk IEs, 64.5% medium risk and 32.9% low risk. The high-risk IEs are related to errors in the calculation of the shielding requirements of the facility that

  1. Prospective policy analysis: how an epistemic community informed policymaking on intentional self poisoning in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Zwi B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced mortality through restricting access to the most toxic pesticides. Additional means of reducing access are still needed. Methods The prospective policy analysis comprised two stages. The first used a consensus activity within a well defined policy community to generate and frame policy options. The second broadened the analysis to include other stakeholders. We report the consensus activity with seven actors from agriculture, health, and academia. Policy options were identified through two rounds of discussion along with ratings by each participant on their degree of support for each option. Data were analysed quantitatively and discussions analysed with Nvivo 8 to code prominent and recurrent themes. Results The main finding was the strong support and consensus for two proposals: further regulation of pesticides and the novel idea of repackaging pesticides into non-lethal doses. Participants identified several factors that were supportive of future policy change including a strong legislative framework, good links between agriculture, health and academia, and a collaborative relationship with industry. Identified barriers and potential threats to policy change included political interference, difficulties of intersectoral collaboration, acceptability of options to the community, difficulty of implementation in rural communities and the challenge of reducing mortality. Conclusions The development and consideration of policy options within this epistemic community reflected an appreciation and understanding of many of the factors that

  2. How do hospitals deal with euthanasia requests in Flanders (Belgium)? A content analysis of policy documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Denier, Yvonne; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2008-05-01

    To describe the form and content of ethics policies on euthanasia in Flemish hospitals and the possible influence of religious affiliation on policy content. Content analysis of policy documents. Forty-two documents were analyzed. All policies contained procedures; 57% included the position paper on which the hospital's stance on euthanasia was based. All policies described their hospital's stance on euthanasia in competent terminally ill patients (n=42); 10 and 4 policies, respectively, did not describe their stance in incompetent terminally and non-terminally ill patients. Catholic hospitals restrictively applied the euthanasia law with palliative procedures and interdisciplinary deliberations. The policies described several phases of the euthanasia care process--confrontation with euthanasia request (93%), decision-making process (95%), care process in cases of no-euthanasia decision (38%), preparation and performance of euthanasia (79%), and aftercare (81%)--as well as involvement of caregivers, patients, and relatives; ethical issues; support for caregivers; reporting; and practical examples of professional attitudes and communication skills. Euthanasia policies go beyond summarizing the euthanasia law by addressing the importance of the euthanasia care process, in which palliative care and interdisciplinary cooperation are important factors. Euthanasia policies provide tangible guidance for physicians and nurses on handling euthanasia requests.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PRACTICES OF THE STATE YOUTH POLICY IN THE MODERN WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Samohvalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines a number of foreign cases of practical realization of state youth policy for example the USA, Germany and the Republic of Kazakhstan. The choice of these cases is due to the fact that these countries have an extensive practice of state youth policy. The second factor in the choice of case studies is the fundamental difference between the political systems of countries and as a consequence of the institutional arrangements and the technological features of established models of state youth policy. And fi nally, the third factor is that these States represent different political and cultural traditions. These differences between the traditions have an impact on the diversity of the state youth policy (as the US are a classic example of Western «pluralist» system of youth policy; Germany – West European model of youth policy; Kazakhstan is a bright representative of an effective model of youth policy in the former Soviet Union. Special attention is given to General and specifi c features identified on the basis of comparative analysis, the study of foreign models of youth policy, as well as possible their application in the process of realization of the state youth policy of the Russian Federation.

  4. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Gambhir, Ashwin; Phadke, Amol

    2011-08-10

    Although solar costs are dropping rapidly, solar power is still more expensive than conventional and other renewable energy options. The solar sector still needs continuing government policy support. These policies are driven by objectives that go beyond the goal of achieving grid parity. The need to achieve multiple objectives and ensure sufficient political support for solar power makes it diffi cult for policy makers to design the optimal solar power policy. The dynamic and uncertain nature of the solar industry, combined with the constraints offered by broader economic, political and social conditions further complicates the task of policy making. This report presents an analysis of solar promotion policies in seven countries - Germany, Spain, the United States, Japan, China, Taiwan, and India - in terms of their outlook, objectives, policy mechanisms and outcomes. The report presents key insights, primarily in qualitative terms, and recommendations for two distinct audiences. The first audience consists of global policy makers who are exploring various mechanisms to increase the penetration of solar power in markets to mitigate climate change. The second audience consists of key Indian policy makers who are developing a long-term implementation plan under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and various state initiatives.

  5. Towards a more efficient environmental policy. A socio-economic analysis of four persistent environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    For the benefit of the National Environmental Policy Plan that will be published in 2001, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis analysed four persistent environmental problems. These problems are the environmental effects of the manure surplus in the agricultural sector; the climate problem; the acidification by traffic and the air traffic noise around the airport Schiphol. This study not only looks ahead, but also looks back on 30 years of environmental policy. From a welfare economic perspective an analysis is made of the efficiency and effectiveness of that policy. Several questions are answered,e.g.: how could the manure problem of such a small sector as the livestock breeding persist for so many years?; how effective were the agreements with the industry and other sectors on energy efficiency improvement?; what made the acidification policy directed on traffic so successful?; why is the noise production of air traffic still a problem whereas the number of seriously bothered houses is decreased? The answers on these questions provide information which can be useful for the formulation of the future environmental policy. This information refers to the conditions for formulating adequate policy goals, the relation between those goals and policy instruments and the differences between direct versus indirect steering. This report also gives some points of interest for tackling complex international environmental problems. refs

  6. Minerals objectives, policies and strategies in Botswana - analysis and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This article examines the present status of the minerals industry in Botswana and the effectiveness of that country's policies on minerals development and the achievement of national development goals. Botswana's mineral production increased (in constant 1979 dollars) from less than 1 million dollars per year in the late 1960s to 300 million dollars in 1979 and is expected to more than double by the mid-1980s. The author analyses the country's regime of mineral rights, the role of the private sector, negotiation of mining agreements and the implementation of national mineral exploration strategies. Diamonds are most important find. But uranium finds are expected to increase. (Auth.)

  7. PERSONAL INCOME TAX POLICY ANALYSIS: ALBANIA VS. UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Binaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal income tax has become an important part of the Albania’s revenue system. Revenue from personal income tax was more than 27.9 billion ALL for the year of 2011 which makes up a 3% increase when compared to the previous year. This paper compares and contrasts Albanian and American income tax systems by describing many similarities as well as distinctive characteristics that were found. Professor Agim Binaj of Agricultural University of Tirana highlights the need for a fair personal income tax reform in Albania. This paper concludes with recommendations and an agenda for future research on tax policy using lessons from the United States tax system.

  8. Interaction between policy measures. Analysis tool in the MURE database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia and data are available from 1990 on. This report describes how sets of mutually consistent impacts for packages as well as individual policy measures can be determined in the MURE database (MURE is the French abbreviation for Mesures d'Utilisation Rationnelle de l'Energie)

  9. Pre-hospital policies for the care of patients with acute coronary syndromes in India: A policy document analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amisha; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Berendsen, Mark; Mohanan, P P; Huffman, Mark D

    2017-04-01

    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death in India. In high-income countries, pre-hospital systems of care have been developed to manage acute manifestations of ischemic heart disease, such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, it is unknown whether guidelines, policies, regulations, or laws exist to guide pre-hospital ACS care in India. We undertook a nation-wide document analysis to address this gap in knowledge. From November 2014 to May 2016, we searched for publicly available emergency care guidelines and legislation addressing pre-hospital ACS care in all 29 Indian states and 7 Union Territories via Internet search and direct correspondence. We found two documents addressing pre-hospital ACS care. Though India has legislation mandating acute care for emergencies such as trauma, regulations or laws to guide pre-hospital ACS care are largely absent. Policy makers urgently need to develop comprehensive, multi-stakeholder policies for pre-hospital emergency cardiovascular care in India. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Spectral analysis of the UFBG-based acousto—optical modulator in V-I transmission matrix formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang-Ying; Pei, Li; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yi-Qun; Weng, Si-Jun; Wang, Jian-Shuai

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the V-I transmission matrix formalism (V-I method) is proposed to analyze the spectrum characteristics of the uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based acousto—optic modulators (UFBG-AOM). The simulation results demonstrate that both the amplitude of the acoustically induced strain and the frequency of the acoustic wave (AW) have an effect on the spectrum. Additionally, the wavelength spacing between the primary reflectivity peak and the secondary reflectivity peak is proportional to the acoustic frequency with the ratio 0.1425 nm/MHz. Meanwhile, we compare the amount of calculation. For the FBG whose period is M, the calculation of the V-I method is 4 × (2M-1) in addition/subtraction, 8 × (2M - 1) in multiply/division and 2M in exponent arithmetic, which is almost a quarter of the multi-film method and transfer matrix (TM) method. The detailed analysis indicates that, compared with the conventional multi-film method and transfer matrix (TM) method, the V-I method is faster and less complex.

  11. Spectral analysis of the UFBG-based acousto—optical modulator in V–I transmission matrix formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liang-Ying; Pei Li; Liu Chao; Wang Yi-Qun; Weng Si-Jun; Wang Jian-Shuai

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the V–I transmission matrix formalism (V–I method) is proposed to analyze the spectrum characteristics of the uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based acousto—optic modulators (UFBG-AOM). The simulation results demonstrate that both the amplitude of the acoustically induced strain and the frequency of the acoustic wave (AW) have an effect on the spectrum. Additionally, the wavelength spacing between the primary reflectivity peak and the secondary reflectivity peak is proportional to the acoustic frequency with the ratio 0.1425 nm/MHz. Meanwhile, we compare the amount of calculation. For the FBG whose period is M, the calculation of the V–I method is 4 × (2M–1) in addition/subtraction, 8 × (2M – 1) in multiply/division and 2M in exponent arithmetic, which is almost a quarter of the multi-film method and transfer matrix (TM) method. The detailed analysis indicates that, compared with the conventional multi-film method and transfer matrix (TM) method, the V–I method is faster and less complex. (general)

  12. Chemical storage of wind energy by renewable methanol production: Feasibility analysis using a multi-criteria decision matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzen, Michael; Alhajji, Mahdi; Demirel, Yaşar

    2015-01-01

    This study is for the technoeconomic analysis of an integral facility consisting of wind energy-based electrolytic hydrogen production, bioethanol-based carbon dioxide capture and compression, and direct methanol synthesis. ASPEN Plus was used to simulate the facility producing 97.01 mt (metric tons) methanol/day using 138.37 mt CO 2 /day and 18.56 mt H 2 /day. A discounted cash flow diagram for the integral facility is used for the economic analysis at various hydrogen production costs and methanol selling prices. The feasibility analysis is based on a multi-criteria decision matrix consisting of economic and sustainability indicators comparing renewable and non-renewable methanol productions. The overall energy efficiency for the renewable methanol is around 58%. Fixation of carbon reduces the CO 2 equivalent emission by around −1.05 CO 2 e/kg methanol. The electrolytic hydrogen production cost is the largest contributor to the economics of the integral facility. The feasibility analysis based on multi-criteria shows that renewable methanol production may be feasible. - Highlights: • We simulate renewable methanol production from wind-based hydrogen and CO 2. • Methanol production can fix 1.05 kg CO 2 /kg methanol with an energy efficiency of 58%. • Economic and sustainability metrics are estimated for the integral facility. • We introduce a decision matrix with both economic and sustainability indicators. • Renewable methanol may be feasible versus conventional fossil fuel-based methanol.

  13. What Is Public Agency Strategic Analysis (PASA and How Does It Differ from Public Policy Analysis and Firm Strategy Analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan R. Vining

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Public agency strategic analysis (PASA is different from public policy analysis because public agency executives face numerous constraints that those performing “unconstrained” policy analysis do not. It is also different from private sector strategic analysis. But because of similar constraints and realities, some generic and private sector strategic analysis techniques can be useful to those carrying out PASA, if appropriately modified. Analysis of the external agency environment (external forces and internal value creation processes (“value chains”, “modular assembly” processes or “multi-sided intermediation platforms” are the most important components of PASA. Also, agency executives must focus on feasible alternatives. In sum, PASA must be practical. But public executives need to take seriously public value, and specifically social efficiency, when engaging in PASA. Unless they do so, their strategic analyses will not have normative legitimacy because enhancing public value is not the same as in some versions of public value or in agency “profit maximization”. Although similarly constrained, normatively appropriate public agency strategic analysis is not “giving clients what they want” or “making the public sector business case”. PASA must be both practical and principled.

  14. Promotion of physical activity in the European region: content analysis of 27 national policy documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Racioppi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    search methods, 49 national policy documents on physical activity promotion were identified. An analysis grid covering key features was developed for the analysis of the 27 documents published in English. RESULTS: Analysis showed that many general recommendations for policy developments are being......BACKGROUND: Over the past years there has been increasing interest in physical activity promotion and the development of appropriate policy. So far, there has been no comprehensive overview of the activities taking place in Europe in this area of public health policy. METHODS: Using different...... followed, for example: general goals were formulated, an implementation plan was included, a timeframe and a responsible body for the implementation was often specified. However, limited evidence for intersectoral collaboration was found. Quantified goals for physical activity were the exception...

  15. Microstructure Analysis of Neutron Absorber Al/B4C Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of Al/B4C metal matrix composites (MMCs used as neutron absorbers in both dry storage casks and wet storage pools of spent nuclear fuel was analyzed by SEM and TEM. A polishing method of a focused Ga+ ion beam was used to obtain an ideal sample surface with very low roughness, which was used to statistically analyze the distribution characteristics and size factor of B4C particles in the aluminum matrix. The area of B4C particles mainly ranged from 0 to 0.5 μm2, which was the proportion of 64.29%, 86.99% and 76.86% of total statistical results for the Al-15%B4C, Al-25%B4C and Al-30%B4C MMCs, respectively. The average area of B4C particles in the Al-15%B4C, Al-25%B4C and Al-30%B4C MMCs were about 1.396, 0.528 and 1.183 μm2, respectively. The nanoscale precipitates were analyzed by the element mappings in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM mode and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS mode, which included elliptic alloy precipitates with elemental Cu, Cr, Fe and Si, except for Al, and B4C nanoparticles with polygonal shape. The interface characteristics showed that the (021 crystal plane of B4C particle and (111 crystal plane of aluminum matrix grew together. The lattice misfit was about 1.68% for (111Al//(021B4C. The corrosion properties and corresponding mechanism of Al/B4C MMCs were investigated in an aqueous solution with 5000 ppm boric acid at 100 °C and atmospheric pressure, which showed that the mass increment rate was first decreased with increasing corrosion time and then increased.

  16. Evaluation of Solid Modeling Software for Finite Element Analysis of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Mital, Subodh; Lang, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Three computer programs, used for the purpose of generating 3-D finite element models of the Repeating Unit Cell (RUC) of a textile, were examined for suitability to model woven Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). The programs evaluated were the open-source available TexGen, the commercially available WiseTex, and the proprietary Composite Material Evaluator (COMATE). A five-harness-satin (5HS) weave for a melt-infiltrated (MI) silicon carbide matrix and silicon carbide fiber was selected as an example problem and the programs were tested for their ability to generate a finite element model of the RUC. The programs were also evaluated for ease-of-use and capability, particularly for the capability to introduce various defect types such as porosity, ply shifting, and nesting of a laminate. Overall, it was found that TexGen and WiseTex were useful for generating solid models of the tow geometry; however, there was a lack of consistency in generating well-conditioned finite element meshes of the tows and matrix. TexGen and WiseTex were both capable of allowing collective and individual shifting of tows within a ply and WiseTex also had a ply nesting capability. TexGen and WiseTex were sufficiently userfriendly and both included a Graphical User Interface (GUI). COMATE was satisfactory in generating a 5HS finite element mesh of an idealized weave geometry but COMATE lacked a GUI and was limited to only 5HS and 8HS weaves compared to the larger amount of weave selections available with TexGen and WiseTex.

  17. Micro structural analysis of nanocomposite of metallic matrix of aluminum reinforced by 2% of NTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio Saldanha; LavaredaCarlos Romulo; Mendes, Luiz Fernando; Queiroz, Jennyson Luz

    2016-01-01

    The study of based on aluminum materials has a high importance level, mainly when is intense wanted in automobile and aerospace industry to transform in light and high perform parts. Aluminum has low specific weight and easiness to join with other materials and these qualities can supply excellent properties and lots of technological applications. Components based on aluminum represents good examples to develop optimized micro structures during the fabrication process that can be basic on properties mechanical performance. As a result this work analyses the micro structure's composites with metallic matrix reinforced by 2% of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes manufactured by aluminum splinters mixed to CNT (author)

  18. Renewable energy selection Matrix based on multi-attribute analysis for fish preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Clavijo, Lili Tatiana; Prías-Caicedo, Omar Fredy; Sierra-Vargas, Fabio Emiro

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the application of the methodology of multi attribute utility theory validated by a matrix system established by researchers, to identify the best alternative of energy supply to 10 kwe in the generation of ice for preservation of fish in coastal and rural areas of the Chocó. The comparison between the potentials of different renewable energy sources and diesel, natural gas and propane fuels took place, based on economic, technological, environmental and social criteria, being validated by experts and the community on field work. It was concluded that the best alternative is diesel followed by biomass. (author)

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLISH AND CROATIAN MARITIME POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE INTEGRATED MARITIME POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Skrzeszewska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional activities based on sea resources (maritime transport, shipyards, fishery always played the key role in increasing production possibilities of the economies with the access to the sea. The development of technique and technology distinctly contributed to broadening the horizons and diversification of activities based on exploitation of maritime basins. Despite the positive results connected with greater and more intense exploration of seas resources, there also appeared the negative effects. First and foremost, they are connected with degradation of the natural environment and growing conflicts of interests of different groups of the basins users. The issue of split entitlement to use seas resources was brought to the world forum in 1982 by enacting the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS. The European Commission, having contucted consultations on a large scale, accepted the Integrated Maritime Policy of the European Union (IMP EU. It was based on the assumption, that all maritime activities are interconnected and that is why they should be performed in a coordinated manner to achive the established goals. The Integrated Maritime Policy created the framework, in which the member states were to find appropiate solutions to their economy specificity, inter alia – the maritime economy. In the paper, the results of the research of maritime policies of two countries - Poland and Croatia are presented. The goal of the research is to check how far the policies of these two countries are coherent with each other and with the assumptions of the IMP. In the research the deductive method was used - it was based at conclusions from the comparative analysis. The surveys were conducted on the basis of the EU, Polish and Croatian strategic documents.

  20. Climate change policies analysis of sectoral changes in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, C.; Baron, R.; Colombier, M.; Boemare, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses the following question, at the core of Europe's climate policy: Beyond the question of the European Union's ability to meet its emissions commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, are sectoral emissions trends displaying structural changes deemed necessary to reduce emissions, and to attain levels that are consistent with the UNFCCC greenhouse gas concentration stabilisation objectives? What lessons can we draw from emissions trends for the EU future climate policy? Greenhouse gas emissions have been stable for the last decade, but mostly due to events and policy developments unrelated to climate policy, and unlikely to be reproduced in other countries: Germany's reunification, substitution from coal to gas in the United Kingdom driven by power market reform. We should not expect changes of such magnitude in the near future. The issue of our future climate policy hence requires a closer look at underlying trends. Industry's direct emissions decreased thanks to constant improvements in energy efficiency and to the substitution of electricity to direct fossil fuel use. In spite of efficiency gains in the residential sector, increasing floor space and level of equipment entail growing energy consumption. Smaller-size households are now spreading to Southern European countries and should be expected in new Member states as well. Turning to the tertiary/services sector, we find that value added and floor space grew significantly over the decade - 35% and 32% respectively in the EU-15. There again, energy efficiency improvements do not compensate for growing floor spaces. Transport's growth, especially freight, has been significant in all countries. The highest rates of traffic growth per unit of gross domestic product are in Spain and Portugal, two countries where rail infrastructure is fairly limited. CO 2 emissions from transport grew by 18% in the EU between 1990 and 2000. Power generation's CO 2 emissions have decreased slightly in spite of strong