WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy analysis market

  1. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  2. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, Robert F.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Searcy, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO 2 -limiting policy is enacted.

  3. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ''market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate

  4. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  5. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  6. A FRAMEWORK ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN LABOUR MARKET POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graţiela Georgiana Carica

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse European labour market policies and their integrated guidelines, by highlighting various measures that need to be adopted in order to increase labour productivity, with positive effects on long-term economic development. The paper methodizes the main conditions complied by structural reforms in order to encourage labour employment and the policies that frame a more efficient unemployment insurance system crucial to increase security while encouraging the unemployed to look for a job and to accept a job offer, respectively on flexicurity policies. We found that employment rates are generally associated with large expenses on labour market policies and with an increased number of participants to programs developed within these types of policies. The degree of influence and strong dependence between outcome and labour market policies are illustrated in various ways and discussed within the paper.

  7. The role of public policy in emerging green power markets: An analysis of marketer preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.

    1999-08-01

    Green power marketing has been heralded by some as a means to create a private market for renewable energy that is driven by customer demand for green products. This report challenges the premise--sometimes proffered in debates over green markets--that profitable, sizable, credible markets for green products will evolve naturally without supportive public policies. Relying primarily on surveys and interviews of US green power marketers, the article examines the role of specific regulatory and legislative policies in enabling the green market, and searches for those policies that are believed by marketers to be the most conducive or detrimental to the expansion of the green market. The authors find that marketers: (1) believe that profitable green power markets will only develop if a solid foundation of supportive policies exists; (2) believe that establishing overall price competition and encouraging customer switching are the top priorities; (3) are somewhat leery of government-sponsored or mandated public information programs; and (4) oppose three specific renewable energy policies that are frequently advocated by renewable energy enthusiasts, but that may have negative impacts on the green marketers' profitability. The stated preferences of green marketers shed light on ways to foster renewables by means of the green market. Because the interests of marketers do not coincide perfectly with those of society, however, the study also recognizes other normative perspectives and highlights policy tensions at the heart of current debates related to green markets. By examining these conflicts, they identify three key policy questions that should direct future research: (1) to what extent should price competition and customer switching be encouraged at the expense of cost shifting; (2) what requirements should be imposed to ensure credibility in green products and marketing; and (3) how should the green power market and broader renewable energy policies interact?

  8. Implementation lessons for school food policies and marketing restrictions in the Philippines: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Erica; Thow, Anne Marie; Bell, Colin; Engelhardt, Katrin; Gamolo-Naliponguit, Ella Cecilia; Go, John Juliard; Sacks, Gary

    2018-01-23

    The school environment can enhance children's skills, knowledge and behaviours in relation to healthy eating. However, in many countries, unhealthy foods are commonly available in schools, and children can be exposed to aggressive marketing by the food industry. Taking the perspective of policymakers, this study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to effective school food policy development and implementation in the Philippines. In May 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 policymakers and stakeholders involved in school food policymaking and implementation in the Philippines. The Health Policy Analysis Triangle was used to identify interview questions and to guide the thematic analysis. These included the political and socio-environmental context, strengths and limitations of existing policy content, roles and behaviours of actors, implementation processes, policy outcomes, and opportunities to improve policy coherence. The Department of Education's policy 'Orders' represented a relatively strong policy framework for the education sector of the Philippines. However, a lack of human and financial resources for implementation, planning, and policy enforcement limited the impact of the policy on the healthiness of school food provision. Ambiguity in policy wording allowed a wide interpretation of the foods eligible to be provided in schools, and led to difficulties in effective monitoring and enforcement. Food companies used existing relationships with schools to promote their brands and compromise the establishment of a stronger food policy agenda. We found a motivated group of actors engaging in policy-oriented learning and advocating for a stronger policy alternative so as to improve the school food environment. The adoption of policy mechanisms being used to promote healthy dietary practices in the school setting will be strengthened by more robust implementation planning processes, and resources to support implementation and enforcement

  9. The policy analysis of the film and video market in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    菅谷, 実

    2004-01-01

    IntroductionThe Economic Structure of Film and Video MarketVideo Market in the Broadband AgeThe Japanese Video and Film MarketThe Government Policy on the Production and Distribution MarketThe Present Policies on Film in JapanStarting Film Commission: Non-Government OrganizationSummary and Conclusion

  10. Trend Analysis of the Pharmaceutical Market in Iran; 1997–2010; Policy Implications for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Kebriaeezadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:So far, no detailed study of the Iranian pharmaceutical market has been conducted, and only a few studies have analyzed medicine consumption and expenditure in Iran. Pharmaceutical market trend analysis remains one of the most useful instruments to evaluate the pharmaceutical systems efficiency. An increase in imports of medicines, and a simultaneous decrease in domestic production prompted us to investigate the pharmaceutical expenditure structure. On the other hand, analyzing statistics provides a suitable method to assess the outcomes of national pharmaceutical policies and regulations.Methods:This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which investigates the Iranian pharmaceutical market over a 13-year period (1997–2010. This study used the Iranian pharmaceutical statistical datasheet published by the Iranian Ministry of Health. Systematic searches of the relevant Persian and English research literature were made. In addition, official government documents were analyzed as sources of both data and detailed statements of policy.Results:Analysis of the Iranian pharmaceutical market in the 13-year period shows that medicine consumption sales value growth has been 28.38% annually. Determination of domestic production and import reveals that 9.3% and 42.3% annual growth, respectively, have been experienced.Conclusions:The Iranian pharmaceutical market has undergone great growth in comparison with developing countries and the pharmerging group, and the market is expanding quickly while a major share goes to biotechnology drugs, which implies the need to commercialization activities in novel fields like pharmaceutical biotechnology. This market expansion has been in favor of imported medicine in sales terms, caused by the reinforcement of suspicious policies of policy makers that necessitates fundamental rearrangements.

  11. Trend analysis of the pharmaceutical market in Iran; 1997–2010; policy implications for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background So far, no detailed study of the Iranian pharmaceutical market has been conducted, and only a few studies have analyzed medicine consumption and expenditure in Iran. Pharmaceutical market trend analysis remains one of the most useful instruments to evaluate the pharmaceutical systems efficiency. An increase in imports of medicines, and a simultaneous decrease in domestic production prompted us to investigate the pharmaceutical expenditure structure. On the other hand, analyzing statistics provides a suitable method to assess the outcomes of national pharmaceutical policies and regulations. Methods This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which investigates the Iranian pharmaceutical market over a 13-year period (1997–2010). This study used the Iranian pharmaceutical statistical datasheet published by the Iranian Ministry of Health. Systematic searches of the relevant Persian and English research literature were made. In addition, official government documents were analyzed as sources of both data and detailed statements of policy. Results Analysis of the Iranian pharmaceutical market in the 13-year period shows that medicine consumption sales value growth has been 28.38% annually. Determination of domestic production and import reveals that 9.3% and 42.3% annual growth, respectively, have been experienced. Conclusions The Iranian pharmaceutical market has undergone great growth in comparison with developing countries and the pharmerging group, and the market is expanding quickly while a major share goes to biotechnology drugs, which implies the need to commercialization activities in novel fields like pharmaceutical biotechnology. This market expansion has been in favor of imported medicine in sales terms, caused by the reinforcement of suspicious policies of policy makers that necessitates fundamental rearrangements. PMID:23805853

  12. Trend analysis of the pharmaceutical market in Iran; 1997-2010; policy implications for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Koopaei, Nasser Nassiri; Abdollahiasl, Akbar; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Mohamadi, Nafiseh

    2013-06-28

    So far, no detailed study of the Iranian pharmaceutical market has been conducted, and only a few studies have analyzed medicine consumption and expenditure in Iran. Pharmaceutical market trend analysis remains one of the most useful instruments to evaluate the pharmaceutical systems efficiency. An increase in imports of medicines, and a simultaneous decrease in domestic production prompted us to investigate the pharmaceutical expenditure structure. On the other hand, analyzing statistics provides a suitable method to assess the outcomes of national pharmaceutical policies and regulations. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which investigates the Iranian pharmaceutical market over a 13-year period (1997-2010). This study used the Iranian pharmaceutical statistical datasheet published by the Iranian Ministry of Health. Systematic searches of the relevant Persian and English research literature were made. In addition, official government documents were analyzed as sources of both data and detailed statements of policy. Analysis of the Iranian pharmaceutical market in the 13-year period shows that medicine consumption sales value growth has been 28.38% annually. Determination of domestic production and import reveals that 9.3% and 42.3% annual growth, respectively, have been experienced. The Iranian pharmaceutical market has undergone great growth in comparison with developing countries and the pharmerging group, and the market is expanding quickly while a major share goes to biotechnology drugs, which implies the need to commercialization activities in novel fields like pharmaceutical biotechnology. This market expansion has been in favor of imported medicine in sales terms, caused by the reinforcement of suspicious policies of policy makers that necessitates fundamental rearrangements.

  13. LABOR MARKET POLICIES AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRITAN SHORAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.

  14. THE IMPLICATIONS OF MARKETING ACTIVITY IN RISK ANALYSIS, CORE ELEMENT OF LENDING POLICY TO COMMERCIAL BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Florin-Mihai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present financial context first affected by the lack of trust generated by the important bankruptcies in the USA and secondly by the global economic crisis, financial institutions are more than ever focused on applying market research, customer segmentation procedures and based upon them adapted credit strategies. The process is based on the fundaments of the marketing mix, much more carefully than before in order to maximize efficiency and market position or to consolidate, increase market share by taking advantage of opportunities or diminishing the effects of the present unfavorable economic climate. Analysis procedures based on differential risk models can be identified, the starting point being precisely the involvement of marketing by the market segmentation process and the concepts of “customer centricity” and “client relationship management”, specific credit policies being based upon them. The present paper intends to bring forth the client segmentation criteria practiced by top Romanian commercial banks, as the right segmentation process will reflect on the typology of financing over time. Furthermore, client segmentation tends to influence banking management in order to administer the risks arising from the credit activities, as it is in strict connection to the elements and processes involved in determining a correct rating of the applicants for funding.

  15. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  16. Policy design and performance of emissions trading markets: an adaptive agent-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Zhang; Qinqin, Yu; Jun, Bi

    2010-08-01

    Emissions trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the pilot emissions trading programs in China have failed to bring remarkable success in the campaign for pollution control. The policy design of an emissions trading program is found to have a decisive impact on its performance. In this study, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions trading applying the agent-based model was constructed. The performance of the Jiangsu SO2 emissions trading market under different policy design scenario was also examined. Results show that the market efficiency of emissions trading is significantly affected by policy design and existing policies. China's coal-electricity price system is the principal factor influencing the performance of the SO2 emissions trading market. Transaction costs would also reduce market efficiency. In addition, current-level emissions discharge fee/tax and banking mechanisms do not distinctly affect policy performance. Thus, applying emissions trading in emission control in China should consider policy design and interaction with other existing policies.

  17. Danish Labour Market Activation Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Pedersen, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Under the heading of flexicurity, Danish labour market activation policies are receiving international attention because of their perceived ability both to curb unemployment and to boost employment. Indeed, the objectives, target groups and design of activation policy have undergone a remarkable...... not only active labour market policies but also social and integration policies. Despite widespread popularity and belief in the positive effects of activation, little is actually known about its overall impact on the Danish economy....

  18. A market systems analysis of the U.S. Sport Utility Vehicle market considering frontal crash safety technology and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffenson, Steven; Frischknecht, Bart D; Papalambros, Panos Y

    2013-01-01

    Active safety features and adjustments to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) consumer-information crash tests have the potential to decrease the number of serious traffic injuries each year, according to previous studies. However, literature suggests that risk reductions, particularly in the automotive market, are often accompanied by adjusted consumer risk tolerance, and so these potential safety benefits may not be fully realized due to changes in consumer purchasing or driving behavior. This article approaches safety in the new vehicle market, particularly in the Sport Utility Vehicle and Crossover Utility Vehicle segments, from a market systems perspective. Crash statistics and simulations are used to predict the effects of design and policy changes on occupant crash safety, and discrete choice experiments are conducted to estimate the values consumers place on vehicle attributes. These models are combined in a market simulation that forecasts how consumers respond to the available vehicle alternatives, resulting in predictions of the market share of each vehicle and how the change in fleet mixture influences societal outcomes including injuries, fuel consumption, and firm profits. The model is tested for a scenario where active safety features are implemented across the new vehicle fleet and a scenario where the U.S. frontal NCAP test speed is modified. While results exhibit evidence of consumer risk adjustment, they support adding active safety features and lowering the NCAP frontal test speed, as these changes are predicted to improve the welfare of both firms and society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Developments in international solid biofuel trade - an analysis of volumes, policies and market factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, P.; Junginger, H.M.; Hamelinck, C.N.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses international solid biofuel trade and concludes upon interactions with bioenergy policies and market factors. It shows that trade has grown from about 56 to 300 PJ between 2000 and 2010. Wood pellets grew strongest, i.e. from 8.5 to 120 PJ. Other relevant streams by

  20. Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.L.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Boots, M.G.; Kaal, M.B.T.; De Lange, T.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2003-03-01

    Reviews and an analysis of the policy support for the stimulation of renewable electricity in the current energy market are presented, and an overview is given of the main new developments influencing the renewable energy market. The report is part of the analysis phase of the project REMAC 2000, which has led to the publication of a roadmap for the acceleration of the RE market. REMAC 2000 aims to promote a sustainable growth of the renewable energy market. For such a sustainable growth, important success factors are not only effectiveness of policy, but also security for investors, which is essential for building up a sector and developing the renewable energy market. Consistency of regulations and policies at different levels and between policy fields form a condition for security, as does the active involvement of market stakeholders. Further, the increasing role of trade within the energy and renewable energy sector leads to a priority for international coherence of policies and markets. To guarantee a sustainable growth of the renewable energy sector, a broad perspective of policy makers and planners is required- to include a long time frame, a comprehensive view of related policy fields and authorities involved, and an orientation that looks beyond national borders

  1. Micro-Level Analysis of Mexican Retail Markets and Their Response to Changes in Market Structure and Competition Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Bayardo, Luis Fernando; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Iacovone, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops the following price indicators to measure the relative efficiency (functioning) of markets: (a) price dispersion, (b) price volatility, and (c) price transmission (speed, completeness, and symmetry). The paper uses these indicators to study trends and conditions of the outlet level in retail prices for common commodities sold throughout Mexico. The analysis examines pri...

  2. Timing Is everything: quantifying regulatory and market readiness levels for technology transition policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borns, David James [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you’ll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. This notion of steady installation growth over acute installations of technology to meet policy goals is the core topic of discussion for this research. This research operationalizes this notion by developing the theoretical underpinnings of regulatory and market acceptance delays by building upon the common Technology Readiness Level (TRL) framework and offers two new additions to the research community. The new and novel Regulatory Readiness Level (RRL) and Market Readiness Level (MRL) frameworks were developed. These components, collectively called the Technology, Regulatory and Market (TRM) readiness level framework allow one to build new constraints into existing Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) to address research questions such as, ‘To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?’

  3. Renewable energy investment: Policy and market impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Wolf Heinrich; Szolgayová, Jana; Fuss, Sabine; Obersteiner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Feedback of decisions to the market: large companies can have an impact on prices in the market. ► Multiple uncertainties: analysis of uncertainties emanating from both markets and environment. ► Policy analysis: impact of uncertainty about the durability of feed-in tariffs. -- Abstract: The liberalization of electricity markets in recent years has enhanced competition among power-generating firms facing uncertain decisions of competitors and thus uncertain prices. At the same time, promoting renewable energy has been a key ingredient in energy policy seeking to de-carbonize the energy mix. Public incentives for companies to invest in renewable technologies range from feed-in tariffs, to investment subsidies, tax credits, portfolio requirements and certificate systems. We use a real options model in discrete time with lumpy multiple investments to analyze the decisions of an electricity producer to invest into new power generating capacity, to select the type of technology and to optimize its operation under price uncertainty and with market effects. We account for both the specific characteristics of renewables and the market effects of investment decisions. The prices are determined endogenously by the supply of electricity in the market and by exogenous electricity price uncertainty. The framework is used to analyze energy policy, as well as the reaction of producers to uncertainty in the political and regulatory framework. In this way, we are able to compare different policies to foster investment into renewables and analyze their impacts on the market.

  4. 7 CFR 993.41 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 993.41 Section 993.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 993.41 Marketing policy. (a) On or before the first Tuesday...

  5. 7 CFR 989.54 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 989.54 Section 989.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 989.54 Marketing policy. (a) Trade demand. On or...

  6. 7 CFR 983.47 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 983.47 Section 983.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Marketing Policy § 983.47 Marketing policy. Prior to August 1st each year, the...

  7. Monetary policy and bond market development: A case of Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Doojav, Gan-Ochir; Damdinsuren, Batnyam; Baasansuren, Lkhagvajav

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we have three principal objectives. First, we measure the bond market development in Mongolia. Second, we analyse in some detail the stock markets response to monetary policy actions using VAR (vector autoregression) analysis. Third, we study determinants (include monetary policy variables and other macro economic variables) of Mongolian bond market development using VAR analysis. We find that bond market in Mongolia remain underdeveloped compared to markets in Latin America, Ea...

  8. Market analysis. Renewable fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) had on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture created a study on the market development of renewable resources in Germany and published this in the year of 2006. The aim of that study was to identify of actual status and market performance of the individual market segments of the material and energetic use as a basis for policy recommendations for accelerated and long term successful market launch and market share expansion of renewable raw materials. On behalf of the FNR, a market analysis of mid-2011 was carried out until the beginning of 2013, the results of which are hereby resubmitted. This market analysis covers all markets of material and energetic use in the global context, taking account of possible competing uses. A market segmentation, which was based on the product classification of the Federal Statistical Office, formed the basis of the analysis. A total of ten markets have been defined, seven material and three energetic use. [de

  9. Market failures and government policies in gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M; Zwart, G.

    2006-02-01

    This memorandum analyses the fundamental characteristics of the natural gas market and its consequences for government policies. In the past, the European gas market was dominated by state-owned monopolists but since the start of the liberalisation, privatisation and re-regulation in the early 1990s, the market has fundamentally changed. Nevertheless, governments are still involved in the gas industry, not only in gas exporting countries such as Russia, but also in a country like the Netherlands where the government has imposed a cap on production from the main gas field (Groningen) as well as owns shares in the main wholesale trader (Gasunie Trade and Supply) which has the obligation to accept all gas offered by producers on the small fields. In the main report of this project we present a cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch gas-depletion policy. In this memorandum we explore the natural-gas market more broadly, looking for factors why government intervention may be needed using the welfare-economic approach according to which government intervention should be based on the presence of market failures. After a brief description of the main characteristics of the gas industry, we systematically analyse sources of market failures, such as geopolitical factors, economies of scale and externalities, and finally go into the question which policy options may be chosen to address those market failures

  10. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maci, Ilir; Žigić, K.

    -, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf

  11. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maci, I.; Žigić, Krešimir

    -, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf

  12. 7 CFR 947.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 947.50 Section 947.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulation § 947.50 Marketing policy. (a) Preparation. Prior to each marketing season the committee shall...

  13. 7 CFR 946.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 946.50 Section 946.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 946.50 Marketing policy. (a) Prior to each marketing season, the...

  14. Health labour market policies in support of universal health coverage: a comprehensive analysis in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Angelica; Scheffler, Richard M; Koyi, Grayson; Ngah, Symplice Ngah; Abu-Agla, Ayat; M'kiambati, Harrison M; Nyoni, Jennifer

    2014-09-26

    Progress toward universal health coverage in many low- and middle-income countries is hindered by the lack of an adequate health workforce that can deliver quality services accessible to the entire population. We used a health labour market framework to investigate the key indicators of the dynamics of the health labour market in Cameroon, Kenya, Sudan, and Zambia, and identified the main policies implemented in these countries in the past ten years to address shortages and maldistribution of health workers. Despite increased availability of health workers in the four countries, major shortages and maldistribution persist. Several factors aggravate these problems, including migration, an aging workforce, and imbalances in skill mix composition. In this paper, we provide new evidence to inform decision-making for health workforce planning and analysis in low- and middle-income countries. Partial health workforce policies are not sufficient to address these issues. It is crucial to perform a comprehensive analysis in order to understand the dynamics of the health labour market and develop effective polices to address health workforce shortages and maldistribution as part of efforts to attain universal health coverage.

  15. Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Labor Market Outcomes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor market mobility with levels of immigrant participation in labor market training and counseling in 15 European countries. We find that provision with labor market training does not entirely correspond to policy intentions, whereas labor market counseling more closely achieves policies' proclaimed aims. Second, we carry out propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effectiveness of immigrants' integration policies. We find that labor market training and counseling do not improve immigrants' employability or job status in three of the four analyzed countries, which lends weak support to the productivity skills argument, emphasizing instead the validity of the signaling and selection perspectives.

  16. Energy policy and market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    To reduce the dependence on petroleum remains the aim of the energy and economy policy which remains strictly oriented at market economy. Financial incentives granted by the government help to utilize the control function of the prices in energy saving and in the finding of new energy sources. The development of coal refining is continued and the supply with coal guaranteed from the long-term point of view. The structural change in the heat market is to concentrate on the expansion of the district heat supply and the utilization of the heat pump.

  17. Subordinating careers to market forces? A critical analysis of European career guidance policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingela Bergmo-Prvulovic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores language regarding career and career development in European policy documents on career guidance in order to disclose underlying view(s of these phenomena conveyed in the texts. Qualitative content analysis was used to approach the subject in the texts, followed by a sender-oriented interpretation. Sources for interpretation include several sociological and pedagogical approaches based upon social constructionism. These provide a framework for understanding how different views of career phenomena arise. The characterization of career phenomena in the documents falls into four categories: contextual change, environment-person correspondence, competence mobility, and empowerment. An economic perspective on career dominates, followed by learning and political science perspectives. Policy formulations convey contradictory messages and a form of career 'contract' that appears to subordinate individuals' careers to global capitalism, while attributing sole responsibility for career to individuals.

  18. 7 CFR 924.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 924.50 Section 924.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Marketing policy. (a) Each season prior to making any recommendations pursuant to § 924.51, the committee...

  19. 7 CFR 945.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 945.50 Section 945.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Marketing policy. (a) Preparation. Prior to or at the same time as recommendations are made pursuant to...

  20. 7 CFR 920.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 920.50 Section 920.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations § 920.50 Marketing policy. (a) Each season prior to making any recommendations pursuant to § 920...

  1. 7 CFR 915.49 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 915.49 Section 915.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 915.49 Marketing policy. Each season prior to making any...

  2. 7 CFR 906.38 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 906.38 Section 906.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.38 Marketing policy. Prior to or...

  3. 7 CFR 953.40 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 953.40 Section 953.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 953.40 Marketing policy. Prior to or at the same time...

  4. 7 CFR 929.46 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 929.46 Section 929.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.46 Marketing policy...

  5. 7 CFR 923.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 923.50 Section 923.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 923.50 Marketing policy. (a) Each season...

  6. 7 CFR 930.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 930.50 Section 930.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations § 930.50 Marketing policy. (a) Optimum supply. On or about July 1 of each crop year, the Board...

  7. 7 CFR 916.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 916.50 Section 916.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulations § 916.50 Marketing policy. (a) Each season prior to making any...

  8. 7 CFR 959.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 959.50 Section 959.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulations § 959.50 Marketing policy. (a) At the beginning of each season, and as the...

  9. 7 CFR 927.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 927.50 Section 927.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Regulation of Shipments § 927.50 Marketing policy. (a) It shall be the duty of...

  10. 7 CFR 956.60 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 956.60 Section 956.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Regulation § 956.60 Marketing policy. (a) Preparation...

  11. 7 CFR 905.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 905.50 Section 905.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 905.50 Marketing policy. (a) Before...

  12. 7 CFR 922.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 922.50 Section 922.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 922.50 Marketing policy. (a) Each season prior...

  13. 7 CFR 948.20 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 948.20 Section 948.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 948.20 Marketing policy. (a) General cull regulation. (1) It...

  14. 7 CFR 925.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 925.50 Section 925.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Regulations § 925.50 Marketing policy. Each season prior to making any recommendation...

  15. 7 CFR 966.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 966.50 Section 966.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.50 Marketing policy. Prior to or at the same time as initial...

  16. Geothermal power, policy, and design: Using levelized cost of energy and sensitivity analysis to target improved policy incentives for the U.S. geothermal market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Christopher L.

    At the core of the geothermal industry is a need to identify how policy incentives can better be applied for optimal return. Literature from Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011) suggest that a more tailored approach to crafting geothermal policy is warranted. In this research the guiding theory is based on those suggestions and is structured to represent a policy analysis approach using analytical methods. The methods being used are focus on qualitative and quantitative results. To address the qualitative sections of this research an extensive review of contemporary literature is used to identify the frequency of use for specific barriers, and is followed upon with an industry survey to determine existing gaps. As a result there is support for certain barriers and justification for expanding those barriers found within the literature. This method of inquiry is an initial point for structuring modeling tools to further quantify the research results as part of the theoretical framework. Analytical modeling utilizes the levelized cost of energy as a foundation for comparative assessment of policy incentives. Model parameters use assumptions to draw conclusions from literature and survey results to reflect unique attributes held by geothermal power technologies. Further testing by policy option provides an opportunity to assess the sensitivity of each variable with respect to applied policy. Master limited partnerships, feed in tariffs, RD&D, and categorical exclusions all result as viable options for mitigating specific barriers associated to developing geothermal power. The results show reductions of levelized cost based upon the model's exclusive parameters. These results are also compared to contemporary policy options highlighting the need for tailored policy, as discussed by Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011). It is the intent of this research to provide the reader with a descriptive understanding of the role of

  17. Family Grant: social policy or political marketing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gabriel Martins de Moura

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay, a political analysis, criticizes the Family Grant Program, implemented by the Lula government of 2003-2005. It is based on the ongoing analysis methodology originated in U.S. political science. It seeks to establish a parallel of these analyses with criticisms of the Family Grant program presented in the media and made by specialists. They focus on the absence of a conceptual reference for the program (or its practical non-application, supported by accumulated knowledge in the field, that would guide the social policies of the Lula government. Based on secondary sources about official data and on statements from specialists, the analysis identifies an apparent 'schizophrenia' in the 'philosophical' references that orient the government's social policies, suggesting that the solution chosen was a situational response to a demand for government marketing and not oriented to a deliberate public policy pre-conceived as such, which, if it exists, is not evident in the government actions.

  18. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...

  19. 7 CFR 985.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 985.50 Section 985.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE...

  20. 7 CFR 958.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 958.50 Section 958.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 958.50 Marketing...

  1. Analysis of carbon mitigation policies. Feed-in tariffs, energy and carbon price interactions and competitive distortions on carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, Johanna

    2011-07-19

    I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)

  2. Environmental policies in competitive electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langestraat, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we model and analyze several environmental policies in an existing mathematical representation of a perfectly competitive electricity market. We contribute to the literature by theoretically and numerically establishing a number of effects of environmental policies on investment

  3. Energy policy in Germany. An analysis of the eco-political boundary conditions of the electricity market from the view of regulatory policy; Energiepolitik in Deutschland. Eine Analyse der umweltpolitischen Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Strommarkt aus Sicht der Ordnungspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeder, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The publication describes an analysis of the eco-political boundary conditions of the electricity market from the view of regulatory policy. In regulatory policy, the state and private actors have defined roles in the economic process, and criteria are also defined for state interferences in the market. Regulatory policy also offers useful categories for assessing measures in economic policy and their interaction. The study starts with the theoretical framework, i.e. a a short outline of market failure theory and the economic reasons for state interferences in the markets. The analytical tool of a means-end value hierarchy is explained, and the criteria used for assessing economic measures are presented. This is followed by an analysis of the eco-political boundary conditions of the electricity market. To begin with, the relevant eco-political standards are presented in detail, including their goals, instruments, and effects. After this, a means-end value hierarchy is established for this catalogue of standards, and the catalogue of standards is analyzed with a view to consistency. The interdependences between eco-policy and energy policy are discussed from the view of regulatory policy, and the findings are summarized. (orig.)

  4. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  5. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. AREAS OF MARKETING ACTIVITIES AND ESPECIALLY OF COMMUNICATION POLICY ON THE MARKET FLOWER PRODUC-TION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyulnara M. Gasymova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies basic aspects of marketing applying on the Russian flower market. The author has identified the main trends of marketing activities of companies and selected features of marketing mix of the flowers. In addition, the features of the communication policy of flower companies are identified. The author conducted a competitive analysis of companies at the wholesale and retail sectors of the Russian flower market.

  7. Tax policy and labor market performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other

  8. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waning, Brenda; Kyle, Margaret; Diedrichsen, Ellen; Soucy, Lyne; Hochstadt, Jenny; Bärnighausen, Till; Moon, Suerie

    2010-05-25

    Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV) medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC) products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO) HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal) and United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM), US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and UNITAID. WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year) with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year) or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year) regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir) increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Global initiatives facilitated the creation of fairly efficient markets

  9. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochstadt Jenny

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. Methods We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal and United States (US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM, US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR and UNITAID. Results WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Conclusions Global initiatives

  10. Labour market policies, poverty and insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Standing, Guy

    2008-01-01

    The paper sets out to evaluate the performance in terms of poverty alleviation of conventional labour market and social policies and arrangements in the era of globalised labour markets. To this end, it develops a framework based on five policy evaluation principles, centred on the normative notion of social justice, whereby the expansion of full freedom requires basic economic security for all.\\ud \\ud It concludes that most of the labour market interventions reviewed have suffered from commo...

  11. FEATURES OF MARKETING POLICY OF THE COMPANIES IN THE MARKET OF CONSULTING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur A. Tultaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of the market of consulting services against progressing competitive fight promoted strengthening of a role of marketing in the activity of the consultant companies. The given article is devoted to the analysis of marketing policy and features of its application in consulting business.

  12. Consumer preference and willingness to pay for a renewable fuel standard (RFS) policy: Focusing on ex-ante market analysis and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jungwoo; Hwang, Won-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Total energy consumption of oil in 2050 is expected to increase to 1.6 times its level in 2005, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector will be second only to the electricity sector. In order to reduce GHG emissions in transportation, leading countries have started to implement renewable fuel standard (RFS) policies. Other countries such as Korea have recently started implementing RFS policies in order to comply with the proposed global GHG reduction target. However, previous research did not consider the impact of RFS policy on consumer acceptance levels. Therefore, this study analyzes consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for RFS. To provide detailed policy strategies, this study conducts additional analysis using market segmentation and sensitivity analysis. The results indicate that consumers generally accept the cost of implementing an RFS policy if the cost falls between KRW 101.78/liter (USD 0.33/gal) and KRW 187.26/liter (USD 0.60/gal). In addition, consumer WTP for implementing an RFS policy changes when the income exceeds KRW 5 million (USD 4229.1) in driver group, and relatively lower-income groups tend not to support RFS policies. Based on the results of this study, we can suggest proper pricing policies for each income group and a public relations strategy to improve the level of policy acceptance. - Highlights: • We analyze consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay for Korea's RFS policy. • We also conduct market segmentation and sensitivity analysis. • Korean consumers will accept the cost between KRW 101.78/liter and KRW 187.26/liter. • Preference structure for RFS policy is changed when income exceeds KRW 5 million. • Relatively lower-income groups tend not to support RFS policies.

  13. Securities Market Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Securities Market Journal (SMJ) is one of the tools used by the Commission to enlighten and educate the public on transport issues in the capital market. It is also a reference material for students and researchers on the capital market issues as well as providing the general public with more broad based knowledge on ...

  14. Disability pensions and active labour market policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte; Kleif, Helle Bendix

    2013-01-01

    Danish active labor market policy, under the headline of flexicurity, has received international attention due to its claimed ability to curb unemployment while boosting employment. A strong belief in the positive effects of activation, in policy as well as practice, has had consequences for all...... client types, including those who are far from labor market participation due to social, mental, physical, or other problems. We analyze the application of active labor market policy measures used to support clients with substantial problems besides unemployment. This study utilizes Danish register data...

  15. Alternative Fuels Market and Policy Trends (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Market forces and policies are increasing opportunities for alternative fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all, catch-all, silver-bullet fuel. States play a critical role in the alternative fuel market and are taking a leading role.

  16. International Market Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the book International Market Analysis: Theories and Methods, written by John Kuiada, professor at Centre of International Business, Department of Business Studies, Aalborg University. The book is refreshingly new in its way of looking at a classical problem. It looks at market...... analysis from the point of vie of ways of thinking about markets. Furthermore, the book includes the concept of learning in the analysis of markets og how the way we understand business reality influneces our choice of methodology for market analysis....

  17. MONETARY POLICY AND PARALLEL FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela IONESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monetary policy is one of the economic policy "tools" through which it acts on the currency demand and supply in the economy. The importance of monetary policy results from its primary objective - price stability, plus limiting inflation and maintaining internal and external value of the currency. Responsibility for achieving these objectives rests with the Central Bank, which has a monopoly in the formulation and the implementation of monetary policy targets. Price stability is the primary objective of monetary policy and also the central objective of economic policy, alongside with: sustainable economic growth, full employment of labor force, balance of external payments equilibrium. To achieve these overall objectives of economic policy, monetary policy acts through currency as an instrument of action and it represents the overall action exercised by the monetary authority to influence economic development and to ensure price stability. In economic processes numerous factors emerge to the sale or purchase of capital available for a shorter or longer period and to achieving their aspirations of maximize capital gains, they are negotiating, they are confronting and agreeing within specific market relationships. The entirety of relations between various economic issues, enterprises and individuals, between them and the banking intermediaries, as well as the relationship between banks and other credit institutions on the transfer of cash money as specific form of debt and fructification of capital, form capital markets or credit markets. These markets are carved up according to the nature and purposes of the participants.

  18. Social Preferences and Labor Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe

    2006-01-01

    We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....

  19. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Van Marrewijk, Charles

    2007-01-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority - DTe - has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise - Gas Transport Services, or GTS - to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. This policy, in general, is in line with European legislation on the liberalization of the gas market. We model and simulate the (domestic) welfare effects of a 5 percent transport price reduction. From this, we conclude that at least three observations complicate matters substantially. First, GTS is government-owned, and the dominant shipper - Gasunie Trade and Supply (or GasTerra, as it was recoined recently) - is partly so (50%). Second, shippers enter into the competitive game to make profits. Third, not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but also foreign owners have a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other. Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the end-consumers. Third, it is unavoidable that a substantial part of the rents are transferred abroad. A general conclusion for policy-makers is that market liberalization might not bring ex post what they expected ex ante. (author)

  20. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen [University of Antwerpen, Antwerpen (Belgium). Faculty of Applied Economics, Department of Management; Brakman, Steven [University of Groningen (Netherlands); Van Marrewijk, Charles [Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority - DTe - has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise - Gas Transport Services, or GTS - to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. This policy, in general, is in line with European legislation on the liberalization of the gas market. We model and simulate the (domestic) welfare effects of a 5 percent transport price reduction. From this, we conclude that at least three observations complicate matters substantially. First, GTS is government-owned, and the dominant shipper - Gasunie Trade and Supply (or GasTerra, as it was recoined recently) - is partly so (50%). Second, shippers enter into the competitive game to make profits. Third, not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but also foreign owners have a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other. Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the end-consumers. Third, it is unavoidable that a substantial part of the rents are transferred abroad. A general conclusion for policy-makers is that market liberalization might not bring ex post what they expected ex ante. (author)

  1. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witteloostuijn, Arjen van [Faculty of Applied Economics, Department of Management, University of Antwerpen, Prinsstraat 13, 2000 Antwerpen (Belgium)], E-mail: arjen.vanwitteloostuijn@ua.ac.be; Brakman, Steven [University of Groningen (Netherlands); van Marrewijk, Charles [Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority-DTe-has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise-Gas Transport Services, or GTS-to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. This policy, in general, is in line with European legislation on the liberalization of the gas market. We model and simulate the (domestic) welfare effects of a 5 percent transport price reduction. From this, we conclude that at least three observations complicate matters substantially. First, GTS is government-owned, and the dominant shipper-Gasunie Trade and Supply (or GasTerra, as it was recoined recently)-is partly so (50%). Second, shippers enter into the competitive game to make profits. Third, not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but also foreign owners have a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other. Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the end-consumers. Third, it is unavoidable that a substantial part of the rents are transferred abroad. A general conclusion for policy-makers is that market liberalization might not bring ex post what they expected ex ante.

  2. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigić, Krešimir; Maci, Ilir

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2011), s. 1042-1049 ISSN 0264-9993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : competition policy * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2011

  3. Impacts of market liberalisation on the EU gas industry. The Shared Analysis project Energy Policy in Europe and Prospects to 2020. Volume No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Boots, M.G.

    1999-10-01

    This final report presents the results of the analyses at relevant trends and features in the EU gas market enabling or limiting more competition. The study focuses in particular on the possible impacts of the implementation of the EU Gas Directive and subsequently of the expected effects of increasing competition and further integration of gas markets in Europe. The study is conducted in the framework of the Shared Analysis project entitled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy', coordinated by FhG-ISI and prepared for the European Commission Directorate General for Energy. The report contains an analysis of the recent changes in the structure of gas demand and the supply and its consequences for enhancement of competition in the EU gas market. lt discusses the role of growing gas demand, changing structure of the supply industry and access to the network. Next, the implementation of the EU Gas Directive is discussed. In order to deal with the uncertainty in the results of the implementation process, two extreme institutional scenarios for future development of the liberalisation process in the EU gas markets are formulated. Finally, the consequences of these two gas market liberalisation scenarios are analysed. Note that part of the conclusions of the expected effects of the Directive, i.e. the expected changes in gas prices and market structures, are based on a model analysis. However, it should be clear that at this stage our conclusions presented in this report are still of a tentative nature. Note also that the final report is based on an extensive collection of EU gas market data both on country and company level, which was described in the first interim report entitled 'The natural gas market in the European Union'. A second interim report was drafted with an energy policy interpretation of the analyses of data and developments over the past ten years. Furthermore, at this moment, facts, opinions and available data are rapidly changing in the beginning of

  4. Forestry policy and woodfuel markets in Malawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewees, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Forestry and energy policies in Malawi place the blame for the country's high rate of deforestation on the demand for woodfuel. The government has been involved in a range of questionable supply-side initiatives, as well as in a number of interventions in woodfuel markets, with the objective of slowing rates of deforestation. It seeks to encourage farmers to grow woodfuel to meet market demands, and has provided subsidies to do so. The Forest Department has kept prices for firewood from its plantations low, both in order to discourage the market for wood from free resources and because of concerns about the impact of high producer prices on the urban poor. In doing so, the government is less able to rely on the market to provide producers with the incentive to plant trees to meet market demands. In any event, the market accounts for a relatively small proportion of total woodfuel demand. Policies do not distinguish between rural household demands and the specific market demands which are having the greatest impact on deforestation: woodfuel for urban markets, for tobacco curring, and for small industries. These, coupled with the expansion of the estate sector, have had a far greater impact on woodland clearance than rural, subsistence woodfuel demands. Rural household energy demands need to be addressed from a much broader perspective which considers the household's larger needs for tree based products or outputs: income, food, fibre, fodder, soil fertility, as well as for fuel. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Energy policy and the market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, H.; Miegel, M.

    1980-01-01

    The consistent supply of the people with cheap energy is one of the biggest challenges of our time. There is hardly any other sphere where the opinions on the correct means and ways are as different as in energy policy. While some people see only the market as a suitable instrument to solve the energy problems, others are of the opinion that the problems can only be solved by planning by the government, quantitative restrictions, and other directive measures. The answer to this question involves long-term results, not only for our future energy policy. Planned economy in the energy section and marketing in all other sections cannot be continued for ever. The clarification of this question is the goal of these lectures and discussions held on the experts' meeting 'energy policy in marketing'. (orig.) [de

  6. Environmental policy - a diaspora for market economists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, A.

    1987-03-01

    The environmental policy of the Federal Republic of Germany still leaves more than enough room for the implementation of marketing elements. With the help of evaluation processes borrowed from the market mechanism all those in search of appropriate environmental policies are able to better analyse the very priorities they have made their aim. Democratic decision making should make it a point to see to the integration of information gained on the preferences of the citizen. Market-analogous evaluation processes currently seem about to be given a better chance. The vehicles of environmental policy are obviously suffering even more from a suppressed demand for market impulses. In the Federal Republic of Germany environmental vehicles generally tend to be lead and determined by regulations. For the benefit of economy and the environment data and certificates (or compensatory regulations) could be combined much more than before with the traditional regulation-oriented policy. For the time being chances seem to be poor for completions to come in from the market. The revised Clean Air Technical Guide (TA Luft) has wasted a promising chance. (orig./HSCH).

  7. Tax policy, housing and the labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend Erik Hougaard; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Pedersen, Lars Haagen

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing units......, and a public pension system. We simulate the model to illustrate some macroeconomic, allocative and distributional effects of a policy experiment involving a 10% cut in the capital income tax rate...

  8. MARKETING POLICY FORMULATION IN MULTIPLE STRATEGIC CONTEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU N EAMŢU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Strategy, as part adaptation of company’s actions in a particular business area to specific demand and competition or conversely opening new market positions, is the main strategic move that ensures competitiveness in the market and ensuring appreciable profitability of the business. Marketing policies adopted by one firm are fundamental decisions concerning the product and its conditioning elements. Marketing decisions are manifold; the most important for a company is selection of those marketing elements that can support business strategy as defined at the level of a whole company's strategic units. This paper brings to the fore just correlations between marketing actions that are at the reach of the company and strategic business contexts in which it may lie. Thus, according to the four strategic situation of the market, will analyze key sets of strategic action in the field of marketing that companies can use in order to support the business strategy and not undermine the production and marketing efforts with the costs involved.

  9. HOUSING POLICIES AND MARKET FAILURES IN ONDO STATE NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Francis FATUSIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One major factor that account for housing market crises in developing countries is the seeming disconnect between housing policies and housing markets in these countries. This paper examines the links between housing policy and urban housing market dynamics in context of developing world drawing from the housing market situation in selected urban centres in Ondo state of Nigeria. The data utilized were derived from the study of housing situations in the selected urban centres. Thus 180 questionnaires were administered on selected household heads and key officials of major agencies and organizations including government departments involved in housing provision and development in the state. The data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive analysis where appropriate. The study revealed that housing policies introduced over the years have had little impact on housing production and by implication urban housing market in the study cities. The study also revealed a disconnect between these policies and housing provision and trends in terms of quality, quantity, affordability and accessibility to housing. The paper argued that these were so because institutions connected to efficient functioning of these policies were inefficient, ineffective and sometime over ambitious and so more often than not, set goals were not met. The study concluded by suggesting more commitment on the part of Federal and Ondo state governments to ensure these policies dovetail to housing consumers.

  10. Policy interactions and underperforming emission trading markets in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Beibei; Bi, Jun

    2013-07-02

    Emission trading is considered to be cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the ex post analysis of emission trading program found that cost savings have been smaller and the trades fewer than might have been expected at the outset of the program. Besides policy design issues, pre-existing environmental regulations were considered to have a significant impact on the performance of the emission trading market in China. Taking the Jiangsu sulfur dioxide (SO2) market as a case study, this research examined the impact of policy interactions on the performance of the emission trading market. The results showed that cost savings associated with the Jiangsu SO2 emission trading market in the absence of any policy interactions were CNY 549 million or 12.5% of total pollution control costs. However, policy interactions generally had significant impacts on the emission trading system; the lone exception was current pollution levy system. When the model accounted for all four kinds of policy interactions, the total pollution control cost savings from the emission trading market fell to CNY 39.7 million or 1.36% of total pollution control costs. The impact of policy interactions would reduce 92.8% of cost savings brought by emission trading program.

  11. Policy interactions, risk and price formation in carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; Bunn, Derek; Kettunen, Janne; Wilson, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Carbon pricing is an important mechanism for providing companies with incentives to invest in carbon abatement. Price formation in carbon markets involves a complex interplay between policy targets, dynamic technology costs, and market rules. Carbon pricing may under-deliver investment due to R and D externalities, requiring additional policies which themselves affect market prices. Also, abatement costs depend on the extent of technology deployment due to learning-by-doing. This paper introduces an analytical framework based on marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves with the aim of providing an intuitive understanding of the key dynamics and risk factors in carbon markets. The framework extends the usual static MAC representation of the market to incorporate policy interactions and some technology cost dynamics. The analysis indicates that supporting large-scale deployment of mature abatement technologies suppresses the marginal cost of abatement, sometimes to zero, whilst increasing total abatement costs. However, support for early stage R and D may reduce both total abatement cost and carbon price risk. An important aspect of the analysis is in elevating risk management considerations into energy policy formation, as the results of the stochastic modelling indicate wide distributions for the emergence of carbon prices and public costs around the policy expectations. (author)

  12. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  13. Tax policy, housing and the labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend Erik Hougaard; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Pedersen, Lars Haagen

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing unit......, and a public pension system. We simulate the model to illustrate some macroeconomic, allocative and distributional effects of a policy experiment involving a 10% cut in the capital income tax rate......This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing units...

  14. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described

  15. The Play Element and Marketing Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Tãlpãu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available “Play”, “plaything” are words with which our mind fly away to the extraordinary period of our life – the childhood, when all things are perfect. In this paper we analyze the implication of “play” ideea in the labyrinth of marketing strategy, and marketing policy. We will demonstrate that “Play” has a profound influence upon customers, upon their attitudes, their motivations, their perceptions and preferences, and it constitutes “a possible face of marketing”.

  16. What about coal? Interactions between climate policies and the global steam coal market until 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftendorn, C.; Kemfert, C.; Holz, F.

    2012-01-01

    Because of economic growth and a strong increase in global energy demand the demand for fossil fuels and therefore also greenhouse gas emissions are increasing, although climate policy should lead to the opposite effect. The coal market is of special relevance as coal is available in many countries and often the first choice to meet energy demand. In this paper we assess possible interactions between climate policies and the global steam coal market. Possible market adjustments between demand regions through market effects are investigated with a numerical model of the global steam coal market: the “COALMOD-World” model. This equilibrium model computes future trade flows, infrastructure investments and prices until 2030. We investigate three specific designs of climate policy: a unilateral European climate policy, an Indonesian export-limiting policy and a fast-roll out of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the broader context of climate policy and market constraints. We find that market adjustment effects in the coal market can have significant positive and negative impacts on the effectiveness of climate policies. - Highlights: ► Interactions between climate policy and the global coal market until 2030 modeled. ► Analysis with the numerical model: “COALMOD-World”. ► Unilateral European climate policy partly compensated by market adjustment effects. ► A fast roll-out of CCS can lead to positive market adjustment effects. ► An export restricting supply-side policy generates virtuous market adjustments.

  17. Environmental policy when market structure and plant locations are endogenous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markusen, J.R.; Morey, E.R. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Olewiler, N.D. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada))

    1993-01-01

    A two-region, two-firm model is developed in which firms choose the number and the regional locations of their plants. Both firms pollute, and market structure is endogenous to environmental policy. There are increasing returns at the plant level, imperfect competition between the home and the foreign firm, and transport costs between the two markets. At critical levels of environmental policy variables, small policy changes cause large discrete jumps in a region's pollution and welfare as a firm closes or opens a plant, or shifts production to/from a foreign branch plant. The implications for optimal environmental policy differ significantly from those suggested by traditional Pigouvian marginal analysis. 37 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Essays on Environmental Policy in Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Judson Paul

    related to groundwater contamination, also improved sharply. These results suggest that incomplete internalization of environmental and safety costs due to bankruptcy protection is an important determinant of industry structure and safety effort in hazardous industries, with significant welfare consequences. The second chapter focuses on the importance of a regulator's inability to distinguish between households responding to a subsidy, and households doing what they would also have done in the absence of policy. Economists have long argued that many recipients of energy-efficiency subsidies may be "non-additional,'' getting paid to do what they would have done anyway. Demonstrating this empirically has been difficult, however, because of endogeneity concerns and other challenges. In this paper we use a regression discontinuity analysis to examine participation in a large-scale residential energy-efficiency program. Comparing behavior just on either side of several eligibility thresholds, we find that program participation increases with larger subsidy amounts, but that most households would have participated even with much lower subsidy amounts. The large fraction of inframarginal participants means that the larger subsidy amounts are almost certainly not cost-effective. Moreover, the results imply that about half of all participants would have adopted the energy-efficient technology even with no subsidy whatsoever. Finally, the third chapter addresses consequences of renewable energy subsidies in other markets. Electricity generated from logging residues provides a large and growing share of US renewable electricity generation. Much of the low-value wood used by biomass power plants might otherwise be left in the field. This increased harvest can negatively affect forest health. I investigate the supply of woody biomass fuel in Maine using a 15-year panel of prices and quantities for whole tree wood chips. I find that doubling the price of woody biomass increases

  19. International spillovers of labour market policies

    OpenAIRE

    Mai Chi Dao

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a dynamic open-economy model to analyse the domestic and international spillover effects of policies aiming at reducing domestic labour costs, e.g., through cuts in labour taxes and unemployment benefits, when labour markets are unionized. Domestically, unionization dampens the downward wage adjustment due to unions' strategic rent-seeking and leads to a more muted expansion relative to a frictionless setting. Externally, the rent-sharing mechanism ensures that the terms of tr...

  20. Implications of structural policies on the wheat market – comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural policy instruments can directly influence agricultural production, productivity, and other market variables. Using a Cobb-Douglas market model, we quantitatively assess national and global implications of structural policies on the wheat market, determined by technical progress and other structural policy measures ...

  1. 48 CFR 810.001 - Market research policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market research policy... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH 810.001 Market research policy. When conducting market research, VA contracting teams shall use the VIP database, at http://www.VetBiz.gov, in addition to other...

  2. 7 CFR 932.50 - Report of marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of marketing policy. 932.50 Section 932.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Regulations § 932.50 Report of marketing policy. At least 14 days prior to the start of...

  3. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  4. Marketing research cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  5. Determinants of Renewable Energy Innovation: Environmental Policies vs. Market Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nesta, Lionel; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    This paper carries out a comprehensive analysis of renewable energy innovations considering four mechanisms suggested by innovation models: 1. policy-inducement; 2. market structure; 3. demand and social cohesion- mainly proxied by income inequality; 4. characteristics of country knowledge base. For OECD countries and years 1970-2005, we build a unique dataset containing time-varying information on quality-adjusted patent production in renewable energy, the latter being a function of environmental policies, green R and D, entry barriers, knowledge stock, knowledge diversity and income inequality. We develop count data models using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity of policy support. Our synthetic policy index positively affects innovations especially in countries with deregulated energy markets and low entry barriers. The effect of entry barriers and inequality is negative and of similar magnitude as that of policy. Product market liberalization positively affects green patent generation, especially so when ambitious policies are adopted, when the initial level of public R and D expenditures and when the initial share of distributed energy generation is high. Our results are robust to alternative specifications, to the inclusion of technology-specific effects and to the use of quality-adjusted patents as dependent variables. In the latter case, the estimated effect of lowering entry barriers and of knowledge diversity almost double on citation count relatively to patent count. (authors)

  6. International Market Leakage from China’s Forestry Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon leakage can be a problem when seeking to reduce carbon emissions through forest policy. International market leakage is mainly caused by supply and demand imbalances in the timber market. This paper selects China, which is implementing forestry policy changes, as the research object. We begin by offering a brief analysis of China’s forestry policy changes, such as the logging quota and Six Key Forestry Programs to determine whether those policies affect timber supply. Second, through the use of three shock variables, carbon leakage is simulated under different scenarios by the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model. The results reveal that the magnitude of leakage caused by implementing China’s forestry policies is between 79.7% and 88.8% with carbon leakage mainly displaced to Russia, Southeast Asia, and the EU. Two effective scenarios for reducing market leakage are presented: forest tenure reform and fast growing forest projects to improve domestic timber production, and raising tariffs on timber imports to reduce imports.

  7. The market and environmental effects of alternative biofuel policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dusan

    This dissertation analyzes market and environmental effects of alternative U.S. and Brazilian biofuel policies. Although we focus on corn- and sugarcane-ethanol, the advanced analytical framework can easily be extended to other biofuels and biofuel feedstocks, such as biodiesel and soybean. The dissertation consists of three chapters. The first chapter develops an analytical framework to assess the market effects of a set of biofuel policies (including subsidies to feedstocks). U.S. corn-ethanol policies are used as an example to study the effects of biofuel policies on corn prices. We determine the 'no policy' ethanol price, analyze the implications for the 'no policy' corn price and resulting 'water' in the ethanol price premium due to the policy, and generalize the surprising interaction effects between mandates and tax credits to include ethanol and corn production subsidies. The effect of an ethanol price premium depends on the value of the ethanol co-product, the value of production subsidies, and how the world ethanol price is determined. U.S. corn-ethanol policies are shown to be a major reason for recent rises in corn prices. The ethanol policy-induced increase in corn prices is estimated to be 33 -- 46.5 percent in the period 2008 -- 2011. The second chapter seeks to answer the question of what caused the significant increase in ethanol, sugar, and sugarcane prices in Brazil in the period 2010/11 to 2011/12. We develop a general economic model of the Brazilian fuel-ethanol-sugar complex. Unlike biofuel mandates and tax exemptions elsewhere, Brazil's fuel-ethanol-sugar markets and fuel policies are unique in that each policy, in this setting, theoretically has an ambiguous impact on the market price of ethanol and hence on sugarcane and sugar prices. Our empirical analysis shows that there are two policies that seemingly help the ethanol industry but do otherwise in reality: a low gasoline tax and a high anhydrous tax exemption result in lower ethanol

  8. Policies, shocks and the recent food crisis - a market analysis of the maize and poultry sector in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, C.; Heerink, N.; Roy, D.

    2010-01-01

    In Ghana, maize and poultry are essential products for food security as well as for income generation and poverty reduction. The markets of these products are sensitive to various interventions and shocks. In this book we investigate how these market distortions affect different groups of households

  9. Environmental Policy in a Green Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga-Gonzalez, J. Luis; Padron-Fumero, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of some frequently-used environmental policies in a duopolistic market where purchasers are willing to pay more for less polluting goods. When consumers differ in their environmental awareness, a cleaner and a dirtier variant coexist in equilibrium. The higher the average willingness-to-pay for the good, the lower are variants' unit emissions but the higher are industrial aggregate effluents. A maximum unit emission standard reduces unit emissions of both variants, but boosts firms' sales and consequently increases industrial aggregate emissions. As a result, social welfare may be reduced. We also explore the effects of technological subsidies and product charges, including differentiation of charges

  10. TURKISH TRADE POLICY AND THE EFFICIENCY OF TURKISH COTTON MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Troy G.

    1999-01-01

    Turkish cotton markets are affected by import duties, export taxes, and a range of domestic subsidies. The degree of economic inefficiency arising from these government policies is estimated through the use of two partial equilibrium models, one for the Aegean market and another for the non-Aegean market. The welfare implications of these policies are also explored.

  11. Marketization of higher education in Vietnam in the era of neoliberal globalization: policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hien Thi

    2009-01-01

    Using a qualitative research approach, this study investigates how a neoliberal policy agenda and the global trend of marketization in higher education have influenced higher education policies in Vietnam. The major part of this study analyzes national policy documents and related literature to identify policy determinants and policy trends at the national level. The secondary part provides a critically reflective analysis of institutional responses to national policies. This study finds that...

  12. The role of market power in economic growth: an analysis of the differences between EU and US competition policy theory, practice and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Ciriani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has experienced weak economic performance over the past 15 years, compared to the United States. In order to restore investment, innovation, and therefore growth, the European Commission seeks to raise the level of static competition in all markets. The Commission’s economic policy is largely determined by its competition policy. This policy is derived from its doctrine on competition law, which regards the exercise of market power as a source of inefficiency and advocates that its effects should be banned. By contrast, the United States competition authorities, under the influence of the Chicago School, consider that market power is a necessary incentive to invest and a fair return on investment. Recent findings in economic growth theory, which state that increased competition intensity may harm endogenous innovation, provide a theoretical basis to support the United States approach and call for a review of European doctrine.

  13. Market Structure and Innovation Policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2017-01-01

    The Danish media system is a hybrid one where strong public service broadcasters and private print and broadcast media co-exist. This chapter, first, analyzes the market structure, measuring the degree of market concentration in newspapers, television, and radio and mapping state intervention....... The analysis shows that all these media markets are highly concentrated: the four dominant television and radio broadcasters account for 80–90 % of total viewing/listening, the four dominant newspaper publishers for around 75 % of total circulation. The extent of state intervention also is high in Denmark...... for digital publishers and an earmarked pool to stimulate media innovation. However, the fact that not the entire innovation pool has actually been allotted to media innovation questions how appropriate the criteria for eligibility are. Third, the chapter makes recommendations for future revision of the media...

  14. Export Insurance Policy When Exporting to Lesser-Known Markets

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKSEL, Türkmen

    2010-01-01

    There are crucial differences between exporting to a lesser-known market and exporting to a well-known market. I define a well-known (lesser-known) market if exporters have complete (incomplete) information about importers' characteristics such as contract viability. This risk premium between a well-known market and a lesser-known market causes lower export volume to lesser-known markets. I find that government-supported export insurance policies can increase the total volume of exports ...

  15. JSC “ALFA-BANK” marketing policy. problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillov, A.; Kuznetcova, E.; Martirosian, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the results of JSC “Alfa-Bank” consumers’ segmentation and the following complex marketing research. The article suggests the ways of the bank’s marketing policy improvement.

  16. HSAPS market analysis project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloeckner, Ronny; Aaberg, Rolf Jarle

    2006-12-15

    The H-SAPS (Hydrogen Stand-Alone Power System) project, an EU project within the ALTENER programme in the period 2002-2004, was initiated to determine the potential for the introduction of environmentally benign hydrogen technology in what is believed to be a near-term market, namely stand-alone power systems (SAPS). The objective of the project was to examine the technological, political, social and economical factors affecting the emergence of hydrogen technology in the stand-alone power system market today and in the future. The scope of the project was limited to small and medium sized stand-alone power systems, up to a few hundred kilowatts (kW) power rating and based on renewable energy as the primary energy source. The work was divided into five phases: (1) Inception, (2) Data collection and analysis, (3) Market analysis and barrier removal, (4) Dissemination, and (5) Final report. Separate reports were written on these topics, and later summarised this final report. The H-SAPS-project identified the following critical technical barriers (in prioritized order): (1) High costs of both electrolyser and fuel cell solutions, (2) Short lifetime warranties and little lifetime experience for PEM electrolysers and PEM fuel cells, (3) Low energy efficiency of the hydrogen energy system (critical for small systems), and (4) The need to develop easy-to-use and energy efficient gas and electricity control systems. One of the main conclusions from the project is that there is a need to focus on interim solutions, based on conventional energy technologies (e.g., internal combustion engines instead of fuel cells), in order for H-SAPS to compete in the near-term SAPS-market (author) (ml)

  17. HSAPS market analysis project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckner, Ronny; Aaberg, Rolf Jarle

    2006-12-01

    The H-SAPS (Hydrogen Stand-Alone Power System) project, an EU project within the ALTENER programme in the period 2002-2004, was initiated to determine the potential for the introduction of environmentally benign hydrogen technology in what is believed to be a near-term market, namely stand-alone power systems (SAPS). The objective of the project was to examine the technological, political, social and economical factors affecting the emergence of hydrogen technology in the stand-alone power system market today and in the future. The scope of the project was limited to small and medium sized stand-alone power systems, up to a few hundred kilowatts (kW) power rating and based on renewable energy as the primary energy source. The work was divided into five phases: (1) Inception, (2) Data collection and analysis, (3) Market analysis and barrier removal, (4) Dissemination, and (5) Final report. Separate reports were written on these topics, and later summarised this final report. The H-SAPS-project identified the following critical technical barriers (in prioritized order): (1) High costs of both electrolyser and fuel cell solutions, (2) Short lifetime warranties and little lifetime experience for PEM electrolysers and PEM fuel cells, (3) Low energy efficiency of the hydrogen energy system (critical for small systems), and (4) The need to develop easy-to-use and energy efficient gas and electricity control systems. One of the main conclusions from the project is that there is a need to focus on interim solutions, based on conventional energy technologies (e.g., internal combustion engines instead of fuel cells), in order for H-SAPS to compete in the near-term SAPS-market (author) (ml)

  18. Essays on refining markets and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun Akintunde

    This thesis is comprised of three essays. The first two essays examine empirically the relationship between crude oil price and wholesale gasoline prices in the U.S. petroleum refining industry while the third essay determines the optimal combination of emissions tax and environmental research and development (ER&D) subsidy when firms organize ER&D either competitively or as a research joint venture (RJV). In the first essay, we estimate an error correction model to determine the effects of market structure on the speed of adjustment of wholesale gasoline prices, to crude oil price changes. The results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment in the three regional markets examined. In the second essay, we allow for inventories to affect the relationship between crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices by allowing them to affect the probability of regime change in a Markov-switching model of the refining margin. We find that low gasoline inventory increases the probability of switching from the low margin regime to the high margin regime and also increases the probability of staying in the high margin regime. This is consistent with the predictions of the competitive storage theory. In the third essay, we extend the Industrial Organization R&D theory to the determination of optimal environmental policies. We find that RJV is socially desirable. In comparison to competitive ER&D, we suggest that regulators should encourage RJV with a lower emissions tax and higher subsidy as these will lead to the coordination of ER&D activities and eliminate duplication of efforts while firms internalize their technological spillover externality.

  19. Rent distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market. A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Witteloostuijn, A.; Brakman, S.; Van Marrewijk, C.

    2005-09-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise (Gas Transport Services GTS) to lower its prices. In this report, we simulate the welfare effects of a five per cent transport price reduction. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. However, at least three observations complicate matters substantially: Observation 1: government ownership. GTS is government -owned, and the dominant shipper (Gasunie Trade and Supply) is partly so (50 %). Hence, lost revenues from the gas transport business will all emerge at the debit side of the government's budget, and part of the shippers' rent returns in the government's pockets. Observation 2: imperfect competition. Firms enter into the competitive game to make profits. Shippers are not different. So, apart from in the extreme case of perfect competition (or, more generally, perfect contestability), part of the rents will end up in the pockets of the shippers, rather than the endconsumers. Observation 3: rent export. The Netherlands are not an isolated island in the European gas ocean. Not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but apart from that have foreign owners a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, given the fact that the Dutch industry is not autarktic, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will always 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other (Observation 1). Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the endconsumers (Observation 2). Third, it is unavoidable

  20. Rent distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market. A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Witteloostuijn, A.; Brakman, S. [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Marrewijk, C. [Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise (Gas Transport Services GTS) to lower its prices. In this report, we simulate the welfare effects of a five per cent transport price reduction. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. However, at least three observations complicate matters substantially: Observation 1: government ownership. GTS is government -owned, and the dominant shipper (Gasunie Trade and Supply) is partly so (50 %). Hence, lost revenues from the gas transport business will all emerge at the debit side of the government's budget, and part of the shippers' rent returns in the government's pockets. Observation 2: imperfect competition. Firms enter into the competitive game to make profits. Shippers are not different. So, apart from in the extreme case of perfect competition (or, more generally, perfect contestability), part of the rents will end up in the pockets of the shippers, rather than the endconsumers. Observation 3: rent export. The Netherlands are not an isolated island in the European gas ocean. Not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but apart from that have foreign owners a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, given the fact that the Dutch industry is not autarktic, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will always 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other (Observation 1). Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the endconsumers (Observation 2

  1. Book Review: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy / by Thierry Foucault, Marco Pagano and Ailsa Röell. Oxford University Press. April 2013.......Review of: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy / by Thierry Foucault, Marco Pagano and Ailsa Röell. Oxford University Press. April 2013....

  2. Morocco's Job Market Policy Over the Last Fifteen Years: Graduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper's aim is to discuss Morocco's last fifteen years' job market policy and youth recruitment in the public sector. It is a know fact that there are youths who struggled before being recruited in the public sector, this paper will attend to the effects of three successive governments' policies on the Moroccan labour market.

  3. Market, policy and institutional failures in agriculture and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unsustainable and inefficient resource use in developing countries has often been attributed to markets and government decisions or policies not fully reflecting environmental values. This paper discusses various examples of market, policy and institutional failures in agriculture and their environmental impacts. The paper ...

  4. Active Labour Market Policies for Disabled People in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Greve, Jane

    market policy towards disabled people but no vital reforms. Incentives to strengthen (re-)integration of disabled people at the labour market and increasing responsibilities of non-public actors (e.g. employers) are some of the main characteristics of the Danish employment policy. Available evaluative...... studies on active labour market policy in Denmark, is set out in the final section of this paper. In general these studies suggest that active labour market policies facilitate the employment of disabled people but that some of the policies also have negative side effects such as stigmatisation and dead...... measures, job search and voluntary participation of employers through wage subsidies. Legislative policies in the shape of anti-discrimination legislation or legislation imposing obligations on employers are non-existing in Denmark. During the 1990s there has been many minor changes in the Danish labour...

  5. Happiness as a guide to labor market policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Ritzen

    2015-01-01

    Measures of individual happiness, or well-being, can guide labor market policies. Individual unemployment, as well as the rate of unemployment in society, have a negative effect on happiness. In contrast, employment protection and unemployment benefits can contribute to happiness—though when such policies prolong unemployment, the net effect on national happiness is negative. Active labor market policies that create more job opportunities increase happiness, which in turn increases productivi...

  6. Between government policy, clinical autonomy, and market demands: a qualitative study of the impact of the Prescribing Analysis System on behavior of physicians in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sook; Bae, Green; Yoo, Soo Yeon; Kang, Minah

    2015-09-21

    In South Korea, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service manages the Prescribing Analysis System (PAS) to evaluate the appropriate use of medication. To achieve the system's goal of changing prescribing behavior, it is critical to understand how physicians respond to the PAS. This study analyzes the opinions of South Korean physicians about the PAS, the way it is used, and factors affecting prescribing behavior. A qualitative, exploratory approach was used, with four focus groups of physicians from different specialties. A semi-structured guide was used to explore their opinions. Transcripts of the discussions were analyzed by the authors, who independently considered content using uniform categories. Common themes were extracted and used to gather results and draw conclusions. Physicians acknowledged some positive aspects of the PAS but, overall, had mainly negative impressions of the system, and particularly, the evaluation reports that it generates. They reported that their prescribing behavior was affected by predisposing factors, including experiential, environmental and psychological factors. Physicians reported that their negative perceptions regarding the regulations were primarily influenced by concerns about maintaining their autonomy and expertise. However, their strong resistance to these perceived infringements on their independence may be considered inconsistent in relation to their professional autonomy as there was an equally strong concern about market competition. Physicians' objections to the PAS are more likely to have been caused by deeply rooted distrust of the government agency in charge of the system. Interestingly, we found that physicians' strong resistance to perceived violations of their autonomy seems somewhat inconsistent and contradictory. While they are very positive about new information or printed materials provided by pharmaceutical representatives, they are less enthusiastic when it comes to governmental guidelines or

  7. Climate Policy in Terms of Open Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the objectives and approach to the climate policy impact analysis on the development of energy sector. The analysis included the goals for CO2 emission reduction until 2050, by sectors and in total, with reference to last 5-10 years. The analysis of energy market development in terms of CO2 emission reduction is given, and also the analysis of the final consumption for Croatia in period until 2050. The analysis of measures, of the manner in which the measures are carried out and of the potential of measures for CO2 emission reduction is presented. Estimations of economic and financial indicators for measurement implementation are given. Technological, energy, economic, organizational and institutional limitations are specifically analysed as part of objectives realisation of CO2 emission reduction, as is the risk of measurement implementation. The important parts of CO2 emission reduction policy are: technological development, expectations and possible risks of not achieving the set objectives. The important assumption of CO2 emission reduction objective realisation is institutional organisation of creation of energy policy and measurement implementation, in which the important measure is the forming of Ministry of energy, environment protection and climate change. At the end, recommendations are given, based on the performed analysis. (author).

  8. The economic value of fair use in copyright law: counterfactual impact analysis of fair use policy on private copying technology and copyright markets in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafele, Roya; Gibert, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The counterfactual impact analysis of fair use amendments in Singapore undertaken here demonstrates that flexible fair use policy positively influences growth rates in private copying technology industries. In 2010, five years after the policy intervention, Singapore’s fair use amendments are correlated with a 3.33% increase in value-added (as % of GDP) for private copying technology industries. Prior to the amendment of fair use policies, private copying technology industries experienced - 1...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  10. European Market Making and Policy Duplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that private regulation has been essential to the making of the common European market. The distinction between negative and positive integration, usually used to understand the making of the common European market, only gives us part of the picture, as it focuses on public...... regulation in the form of technical standardisation has become essential to European market making....

  11. Will improved access to capital dampen the need for more agricultural land? A CGE analysis of agricultural capital markets and world-wide biofuel policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banse, M.; Rothe, A.; Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the consequences of enhanced biofuel production in regions and countries of the world that have announced plans to implement or expand on biofuel policies. The analysis considers biofuel policies implemented as binding blending targets for transportation fuels. The chosen

  12. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis.......'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  13. Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

  14. Interdependencies Between the Capital Market and the Monetary Policy Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Guni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The declared scope of this work is to highlight the main correlations between the monetary and the capital market, including identifying the adequate objective of monetary policy which might positively influence over the offer on the capital market. The main target of the monetary market consists in the stability of the prices. The link between monetary policy and stock market is extremely important. The stock prices are sensible to economical conditions. Moreover, these prices rapidly change, thus there is a chance for a deviation from the fundamental value, with side-effects for economy.

  15. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  16. Principles Involving Marketing Policies: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong; Randall L. Schultz

    2005-01-01

    We examined nine marketing textbooks, published since 1927, to see if they contained useful marketing principles. Four doctoral students found 566 normative statements about pricing, product, place, or promotion in these texts. None of these stateinents were supported by empirical evidence. Four raters agreed on only twenty of these 566 statements as providing meaningful principles. Twenty marketing professors rated whether the twenty meaningful principles were correct, supported by empirical...

  17. The cocaine and heroin markets in the era of globalisation and drug reduction policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Storti, Cláudia; De Grauwe, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Despite the large volume of public effort devoted to restrain drug supply and the growing attention given to drug demand reduction policies, the use of cocaine and heroin remains steady. Furthermore, retail drug prices have fallen significantly in Europe and the US. This puzzling evidence leads us to develop a model aiming at systematically analysing illicit drug markets. We model the markets of cocaine and heroin from production to the final retail markets. One novelty of the analysis consists in characterising the retail market as a monopolistic competitive one. Then, upper level dealers have some market power in the retail market. This allows them to charge a markup and to earn extra profits. These extra profits attract newcomers so that profits tend to fall over time. Theoretical model was used to analyse the effect of supply containment policies on the retail market, the producer market and the export-import business. This introduces the discussion of the impact of demand reduction policies on the high level traffickers' profit. Finally, globalisation enters in the model. Law enforcement measures increase the risk premia received by the lower and higher level traffickers. Consequently, trafficking intermediation margins tend to increase. However, globalisation has the opposite effect. It lowers intermediation margins and, then, pushes retail prices down, thereby stimulating consumption. In doing so, globalisation offsets the effects of supply containment policies. Finally, we discuss how the effectiveness of supply containment policies can be enhanced by combining them with demand reduction policies.

  18. Elements of stock market analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a starting point in the presentation of the two types of stock/market analysis: the fundamental analysis and the technical analysis. The fundamental analysis consist in the assessment of the financial and economic status of the company together with the context and macroeconomic environment where it activates. The technical analysis deals with the demand and supply of securities and the evolution of their trend on the market, using a range of graphics and charts to illustrate the market tendencies for the quick identification of the best moments to buy or sell.

  19. Did capital market convergence lower the effectiveness of monetary policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    International capital market convergence reduces the ability for monetary authorities to set domestic monetary conditions. Traditionally, monetary policy transmission is channelled through the short-term interest rate. Savings and investment decisions are effected through the response of the bond

  20. Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

    2012-10-01

    State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

  1. Assessment of Alternative Maize Trade and Market Policy Interventions in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Govereh, Jones; Jayne, Thomas S.; Chapoto, Antony

    2008-01-01

    The economic reforms in maize marketing and trade policies implemented during the 1990s have been highly controversial, and there remains a lack of solid empirical investigation on the impacts of these reforms on national food security, price stability and rural income growth. This study aims to provide a detailed evidence-based analysis of the impacts of maize marketing and trade policies on smallholder agricultural production growth, access to food by consumers, and other important national...

  2. Market analysis. Renewable fuels; Marktanalyse. Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) had on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture created a study on the market development of renewable resources in Germany and published this in the year of 2006. The aim of that study was to identify of actual status and market performance of the individual market segments of the material and energetic use as a basis for policy recommendations for accelerated and long term successful market launch and market share expansion of renewable raw materials. On behalf of the FNR, a market analysis of mid-2011 was carried out until the beginning of 2013, the results of which are hereby resubmitted. This market analysis covers all markets of material and energetic use in the global context, taking account of possible competing uses. A market segmentation, which was based on the product classification of the Federal Statistical Office, formed the basis of the analysis. A total of ten markets have been defined, seven material and three energetic use. [German] Die Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR) hatte im Auftrag des BMEL eine Studie zur Marktentwicklung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen in Deutschland erstellen lassen und diese im Jahr 2006 veroeffentlicht. Ziel der damaligen Studie war die Ermittlung von Ist-Zustand und Marktentwicklung der einzelnen Marktsegmente der stofflichen und energetischen Nutzung als Basis fuer Handlungsempfehlungen fuer eine beschleunigte und langfristig erfolgreiche Markteinfuehrung bzw. Marktanteilsausweitung nachwachsender Rohstoffe. Im Auftrag der FNR wurde erneut eine Marktanalyse von Mitte 2011 bis Anfang 2013 durchgefuehrt, deren Ergebnisse hiermit vorgelegt werden. Diese Marktanalyse umfasst alle Maerkte der stofflichen und energetischen Nutzung im globalen Kontext unter Beruecksichtigung moeglicher Nutzungskonkurrenzen. Eine Marktsegmentierung, die sich an der Produktklassifikation des Statistischen Bundesamtes orientierte, bildete die Grundlage der Analyse. Insgesamt

  3. Stock Market Reactions to Fiscal Policy Shocks: Empirical Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sets out to investigate the effect of fiscal policy on stock market performance in Nigeria. Specifically, the study examines if shocks in government expenditure and government debt affects stock market performance. The period of the study is from 1981-2012. Following the VAR estimates, the variance ...

  4. Do economic policy decisions affect stock market development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper finds government revenue and exchange rate reduce stock market development. A policy mix identified was that, the outcomes of government expenditure and government borrowing interest rate exert no influence on stock market development. For equity investors not to easily transfer their investments in ...

  5. Optimal Enforcement Policies (Crackdowns) on a Drug Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, P.M.; Feichtinger, G.; Hartl, R.F.; Haunschmied, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper an optimal control model is presented to design enforcement programs minimizing the social costs from both the market and crackdown.By using the maximum principle we show that performing an enforcement policy that leads to a collapse of the drug market is more likely to be optimal when

  6. Private Forests: Management and Policy in a Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Cubbage; Anthony G. Snider; Karen Lee Abt; Robert L. Moulton

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses privately owned forests and timber management in a market economy, including private property rights and tenure, landowner objectives and characteristics, markets, and government policies. Private forest land ownership and management-whether it be industrial or nonindustrial-is often assumed to represent the classic model of atomistic competition...

  7. Market-Based Policies for Pollution Control in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah West; Ann Wolverton

    2003-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increased industrialization have led to high pollution levels throughout Latin America. Economists tout policies based on market-based economic incentives as the most cost-effective methods for addressing a wide variety of environmental problems. This chapter examines market-based incentives and their applicability to Latin America. We first review the market-based incentives traditionally used to address pollution – emissions taxes, environmental subsidies, tax and sub...

  8. Do Economic Policy Decisions affect Stock Market Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For equity investors not to easily transfer their investments in response to changes in macroeconomic policies among others, the study recommends good macroeconomic management. Keywords: Stock Market Development, Macroeconomic policy, Government spending, ADRL,. Ghana, West Africa. JEL Classification: G2 ...

  9. Policy conflicts : Market-oriented reform in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.; Mcmaster, R.

    From an institutionalist perspective, we identify five sources of policy conflict. Each may explain why policies intended to obtain particular goals for an institutionalized practice may have unintended consequences. We illustrate by analyzing attempts at introducing market-oriented reform in health

  10. Macro policy reform, labour market, poverty and inequality in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This shows the importance of understanding the labour market to understand the policy propagation mechanism through which macro policy is expected to affect poverty. The study has show that although there seem to be limited change in poverty and inequality at aggregate level, there is significant change within and ...

  11. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability: Does Labour Market Policy Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of unemployment insurance generosity and active labour market policy on reemployment stability in Europe. Using EU‐SILC and OECD data, we conduct discrete time survival analyses with shared frailty specification to identify policy effects at the micro and macro level...

  12. ROMANIAN INVESTMENT POLICY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hategan Anca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the year 2009, the European Union, as well as the rest of the world, was affected by the economic and financial crisis, and one of the effects reflected in the decrease of foreign direct investment (FDI projects and also in the reduction of their host locations. Creating a healthy economic environment, that should be efficient for any form of international investment , represents the nowadays challenge of all market economies. This paper concentrates on analyzing our country’s attractiveness from the international investor’s point of view, it also focuses on the Romanian investment policy, its investment climate, as well as on identifying or valuating the strengths and opportunities offered by Romania. The advantages of the foreign direct investments are universally recognized and they basically include the expansion of the production capacity and income, job creation, technologically diffusion and economic development. Creating an appropriate economic environment, that is efficient for any form of international investments represents the nowadays challenge of all market economies. OECD member states experience, for example, outlines the advantages of a functional legal and normative climate, based on the principles of transparency and non discrimination, that are essential for attracting foreign investments. In the actual competition for attracting FDI, every state tries to offer as many incentives to the future foreign investors. The Romanian investment policy sets out incentives in a non-discriminatory and transparent way offering the investors the specific criteria. The Romanian business environment has improved significantly in recent years, driven in particular by EU accession. Major progress has been recorded in areas such as the fiscal environment, rule of law, the fight against corruption and property registration. When considering our country a possible location for the development of their businesses, the foreign

  13. European electricity markets - policy deficiencies, design deficiencies, and opportunities for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettzuge, Marc Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Paraphrasing a well-known dictum, one can say that 'design follows policies'. Therefore, before discussing questions of market design, one has to clarify the policies which the desired market design is supposed to implement. Hence, this paper starts by briefly reviewing the status of current policies for the electricity sector. Specifically, it will discuss political objectives, the choice of the basic regulatory paradigm, and the issue of subsidiarity between the EU and the member states

  14. Impact of competitive electricity market on renewable generation technology choice and policies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Market objectives based on private value judgments will conflict with social policy objectives toward environmental quality in an emerging restructured electricity industry. This might affect the choice of renewables in the future generation mix. The US electricity industry's long-term capacity planning and operations is simulated for alternative market paradigms to study this impact. The analysis indicates that the share of renewable energy generation sources would decrease and emissions would increase considerably in a more competitive industry, with greater impact occurring in a monopoly market. Alternative environmental policy options can overcome market failures and help achieve appropriate levels of renewable generation. An evaluation of these policies indicate their varying cost-effectiveness, with higher levels of intervention necessary if market power exists. (Author)

  15. The Monetary Policy and the Real Estate Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we intend to study the connection between monetary policy measures and the boom and bust cycles of the real estate markets in different countries. Many recent articles consider that central banks had an important contribution in triggering the global crisis and the collapse of the real estate markets during 2007-2009 due to the low monetary policy rates and the inadequate regulation and supervision of the banking system. We consider the generalization of this idea is an error, as certain central banks like the National Bank of Romania (NBR adopted prudent policies in the pre-crisis period.

  16. Market policy as an innovative element of marketing in the Romanian healthcare services - an approach focused on the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, B I; Coculescu, E C; Radu, A; Petrescu, L; Purcărea, V L

    2015-01-01

    The orientation towards one of the marketing policies with a major impact in organizations providing healthcare services, requires a careful analysis of the needs and aspirations of customers, targeting those patients whose needs the service organization can achieve through the existing resources at the respective health facility, finding the most effective way of achieving benefits associated with reduced costs to maximizing profits, placing the offers for medical services required by the patients on the market, as well as promptly reacting and acting to the changes of health services market which is constantly evolving through a flexible organizing and functioning structure, connected to the financial needs of the patients.

  17. Market policy as an innovative element of marketing in the Romanian healthcare services – an approach focused on the patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, BI; Coculescu, EC; Radu, A; Petrescu, L; Purcărea, VL

    2015-01-01

    The orientation towards one of the marketing policies with a major impact in organizations providing healthcare services, requires a careful analysis of the needs and aspirations of customers, targeting those patients whose needs the service organization can achieve through the existing resources at the respective health facility, finding the most effective way of achieving benefits associated with reduced costs to maximizing profits, placing the offers for medical services required by the patients on the market, as well as promptly reacting and acting to the changes of health services market which is constantly evolving through a flexible organizing and functioning structure, connected to the financial needs of the patients. PMID:26664466

  18. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing ant...

  19. Policy Analysis Reaches Midlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl A. Radin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of policy analysis that exists in the 21st century is quite different from that found earlier phases. The world of the 1960s that gave rise to this field in the US often seems unrelated to the world we experience today. These shifts have occurred as a result of a range of developments – technological changes, changes in the structure and processes of government both internally and globally, new expectations about accountability and transparency, economic and fiscal problems, and increased political and ideological conflict.It is clear globalization has had a significant impact on the field. Shifts in the type of decisionmaking also have created challenges for policy analysts since analysts are now clearly in every nook and cranny in the decisionmaking world. Thus it is relevant to look at the work that they do, the skills that they require, and the background experience that is relevant to them.

  20. Stock Market Performance and Pension Fund Investment Policy: Rebalancing, Free Float, or Market Timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Broeders, D.W.G.A; de Dreu, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the first that examines the impact of stock market performance on the investment policy of pension funds. We find that stock market prices influence the asset allocation of Dutch pension funds in two ways. In the short term, outperformance of equities over bonds and other investment

  1. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, Marina

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: → This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. → There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. → It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. → A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. → Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  2. Comparative analysis of crayfish marketing in selected markets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data analyses were carried out with the use of such statistical tools like bivirate analysis, efficiency ratio, marketing margin and regression analysis. The results show that selling and purchasing prices had weak correlation between the markets in Akwa Ibom and Abia states, implying low level of market integration.

  3. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-17

    International Steam Coal Trade. In this paper, we analyse steam coal market equilibria in the years 2006 and 2008 by testing for two possible market structure scenarios: perfect competition and an oligopoly setup with major exporters competing in quantities. The assumed oligopoly scenario cannot explain market equilibria for any year. While we find that the competitive model simulates market equilibria well in 2006, the competitive model is not able to reproduce real market outcomes in 2008. The analysis shows that not all available supply capacity was utilised in 2008. We conclude that either unknown capacity bottlenecks or more sophisticated non-competitive strategies were the cause for the high prices in 2008. Chapter 4 builds upon the findings of the analysis in chapter 3 and adds a more detailed representation of domestic markets. The corresponding essay is titled Nations as Strategic Players in Global Commodity Markets: Evidence from World Coal Trade. In this chapter we explore the hypothesis that export policies and trade patterns of national players in the steam coal market are consistent with non-competitive market behaviour. We test this hypothesis by developing a static equilibrium model which is able to model coal producing nations as strategic players. We explicitly account for integrated seaborne trade and domestic markets. The global steam coal market is simulated under several imperfect market structure setups. We find that trade and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fits the real market outcome best and that real Chinese export quotas in 2008 were consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Chapter 5 looks at the long-term effect of Chinese energy system planning decisions. The time horizon is 2006 to 2030. The analysis in this chapter combines a dynamic equilibrium model with the scenario analysis technique. The corresponding essay is titled Coal Lumps vs. Electrons: How Do Chinese Bulk Energy Transport Decisions Affect the Global

  4. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    International Steam Coal Trade. In this paper, we analyse steam coal market equilibria in the years 2006 and 2008 by testing for two possible market structure scenarios: perfect competition and an oligopoly setup with major exporters competing in quantities. The assumed oligopoly scenario cannot explain market equilibria for any year. While we find that the competitive model simulates market equilibria well in 2006, the competitive model is not able to reproduce real market outcomes in 2008. The analysis shows that not all available supply capacity was utilised in 2008. We conclude that either unknown capacity bottlenecks or more sophisticated non-competitive strategies were the cause for the high prices in 2008. Chapter 4 builds upon the findings of the analysis in chapter 3 and adds a more detailed representation of domestic markets. The corresponding essay is titled Nations as Strategic Players in Global Commodity Markets: Evidence from World Coal Trade. In this chapter we explore the hypothesis that export policies and trade patterns of national players in the steam coal market are consistent with non-competitive market behaviour. We test this hypothesis by developing a static equilibrium model which is able to model coal producing nations as strategic players. We explicitly account for integrated seaborne trade and domestic markets. The global steam coal market is simulated under several imperfect market structure setups. We find that trade and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fits the real market outcome best and that real Chinese export quotas in 2008 were consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Chapter 5 looks at the long-term effect of Chinese energy system planning decisions. The time horizon is 2006 to 2030. The analysis in this chapter combines a dynamic equilibrium model with the scenario analysis technique. The corresponding essay is titled Coal Lumps vs. Electrons: How Do Chinese Bulk Energy Transport Decisions Affect the Global

  5. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  6. A Strategic Market Analysis of the Open Market Corridor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark

    2003-01-01

    ... and an overall marketing strategy for the Open Market Corridor. Through comprehensive literature review and information gathering a focused analysis of a specific potential customer Naval Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP...

  7. The energy supply of China. Markets and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.; Meidan, M.

    2005-07-01

    China is a great part of the energy world economy. In 2003 and 2004, the chinese economic growth had a direct impact on the world energy markets: it is a main factor of the great world economic demand growth and the energy prices increase. In the other hand this growth generates new investment of energy offer in the world. The author details the China energy policy and its efficiency quest, the insertion in the gas markets and the petroleum market facing the chinese energy security. (A.L.B.)

  8. BDI position on energy policy and energy market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreklau, C.

    2003-01-01

    Secure energy supplies are indispensable for our modern way of life and our economy. Energy policy is a part of economic policy and must be shaped within the magic triangle of objectives, i.e. security, competitiveness, environmental compatibility. As a result of their outstanding role, electricity and natural gas, with respective shares of 70% in industrial energy use and 85% in energy costs, are in the focus of energy policy interest of the Federation of German Industries (BDI). One important development over the past few years has been the deregulation of the markets for electricity and gas. However, the markedly lower electricity rates to be paid by industry, commercial tariff consumers, and private customers are being offset by new burdens arising from government intervention and taxes. Other dirigistic interventions into the energy market by the red-green federal government since 1998, referred to as 'turning point of energy policy', are invalidating what market opening had been achieved. With a view to a sustainable energy policy for the future, BDI pleads in favor of a broad energy mix. In a mix neutral with respect to competition, this includes the classical energy sources, the renewables, and low-cost, environmentally friendly nuclear power. In principle, it is the forces of the market, coupled with responsible action, which are to steer further developments. On a European level, speedy implementation of the opening of the electricity and gas markets, as decided, should be urged. It is important that the leeway won as a result of deregulation not be constrained again by new regulations. More market, less regulation, and more direct responsibility must provide room for a powerful energy supply system under the premises of the triangle of objectives referred to above. (orig.) [de

  9. Forex markets: technical analysis and algorithmic trading

    OpenAIRE

    Klepić, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Technical analysis is an efficient way for analysing financial markets such as forex where currencies are being traded. Forex market is the biggest market among all of them which is closed only during weekends. Analysis uses past behaviour of the market and with different mathematical methods tries to predict the future movement of the market. With the help of technical analysis forex market allows individuals as well as large financial corporations to efficiently manage their wealth while th...

  10. Relating R and D and investment policies to CCS market diffusion through two-factor learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohwasser, Richard; Madlener, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to play a major role in the stabilization of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. To develop the capture technology from its current demonstration phase towards commercial maturity, significant funding is directed to CCS, such as the EU’s €4.5 bn NER300 fund. However, we know little about how this funding relates to market diffusion of CCS. This paper addresses that question. We initially review past learning effects from both capacity installations and R and D efforts for a similar technology using the concept of two-factor learning. We apply the obtained learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching rates to CCS in the electricity market model HECTOR, which simulates 19 European countries hourly until 2040, to understand the impact of learning and associated policies on CCS market diffusion. We evaluate the effectiveness of policies addressing learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching by relating the policy budget to the realized CCS capacity and find that, at lower policy cost, both methods are about equally effective. At higher spending levels, policies promoting learning-by-doing are more effective. Overall, policy effectiveness increases in low CO 2 price scenarios, but the CO 2 price still remains the key prerequisite for the economic competitiveness, even with major policy support. - Highlights: ► Identified two-factor learning rates for CCS through empirical data from flue gas desulphurization. ► Evaluated effectiveness of CCS stimulation policies addressing learning-by-doing and learning-by-researching. ► Both policy types are about equally effective with small policy budgets. ► Policies addressing learning-by-doing, e.g., subsidies to CCS projects, are more effective with large policy budgets. ► Analysis deployed HECTOR power market model that simulates 19 European countries on hourly granularity until 2040.

  11. Policy and Statutory Responses to Advertising and Marketing in Schools. Legislation Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Koski, William S.; Boninger, Faith

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief describes the growth of schoolhouse advertising and marketing activities in the last few decades, assesses the harms associated with commercial activities in schools, and provides advocates, policymakers, and educators with a policy framework and model legislative language designed to protect children and the integrity of…

  12. Carbon auctions, energy markets and market power: An experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormady, Noah C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an experimental analysis of a simultaneous energy-emissions market under conditions of market power. The experimental design employs real-world institutional features; including stochastic demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. The results suggest that dominant firms can utilize energy-emissions market linkages to simultaneously inflate the price of energy and suppress the price of emissions allowances. Whereas under prior market designs, regulators were concerned with dominant firms exercising their market power over the emissions market to exclude rivals and manipulate the permit market by hoarding permits; the results of this paper suggest that this strategy is less profitable to dominant firms in contemporary auction-based markets than strategic capacity withholding in the energy market and associated demand reduction in the emissions market. - Highlights: • Laboratory simulation of joint energy-emissions market. • Evaluates market power under collusion and real-world institutional features. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to inflate energy prices. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to suppress emissions prices. • Supply withholding is an implicit demand reduction in the emissions market

  13. Market failure, policy failure and other distortions in chronic disease markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segal Leonie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of chronic disease represents a significant burden on most health systems. This paper explores the market failures and policy failures that exist in the management of chronic diseases. Discussion There are many sources of market failure in health care that undermine the efficiency of chronic disease management. These include incomplete information as well as information asymmetry between providers and consumers, the effect of externalities on consumer behaviour, and the divergence between social and private time preference rates. This has seen government and policy interventions to address both market failures and distributional issues resulting from the inability of private markets to reach an efficient and equitable distribution of resources. However, these have introduced a series of policy failures such as distorted re-imbursement arrangements across modalities and delivery settings. Summary The paper concludes that market failure resulting from a preference of individuals for 'immediate gratification' in the form of health care and disease management, rather than preventative services, where the benefits are delayed, has a major impact on achieving an efficient allocation of resources in markets for the management of chronic diseases. This distortion is compounded by government health policy that tends to favour medical and pharmaceutical interventions further contributing to distortions in the allocation of resources and inefficiencies in the management of chronic disease.

  14. Labour Market Policy under Conditions of Permanent Austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Mattias; de la Porte, Caroline; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    to the financial and Eurozone crises, this article investigates whether reforms and expenditure patterns in labour market policy (LMP) have moved more towards or away from SI following the 2008 financial crisis. We use quantitative and qualitative data to investigate the degree to which there have been shifts...

  15. Interactions between Monetary and Fiscal Policy via Open Market Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabert, A.

    2004-01-01

    We examine interactions of monetary and fiscal policy in a sticky price model where public debt is non-neutral, as it provides transaction services. This property is brought about by a legal restriction on open market operations by which only government bonds are eligible. Debt creation eases access

  16. Distribution of Responsibility for Social Security and Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    assistance for non-members. The first tier is basically state-run system, while the second tier is administered by the municipalities. As for the performance of the Danish labour market, participation rates are quite high and although unemployment rates are relatively high and differentiated across groups......It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...... of national law, while the rules for blue-collar workers are defined as part of the negotiations between the social partners. The Danish system of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is a two-tier system: unemployment insurance for members of unemployment insurance funds and social...

  17. Labour market transitions in policy and in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie; Cort, Pia

    the 1990s focus in the employment policy has shifted gradually and introduced the ideas of activation and the duty of the unemployed to pursue employment. Unemployment has been individualized as a problem and focus has moved from upskilling to rapid re-integration into the labour market, hereby......In a time where transitions between jobs and in and out of the labour market are likely to become more frequent the way we conceptualise and experience ‘ transitions’ becomes equally important. In EU policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of the flexicurity model and its...... aim of securing unemployed people through financial support and access to training and competence development during redundancies i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. Hereby the flexicurity model ensures both a flexible labour market and a flexible and adaptable workforce. However, since...

  18. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  19. The Role of the OECD and the EU in the Development of Labour Market Policy in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Caroline de la

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the role of the OECD through its "Jobs Strategy" and the European Union (EU) through the "European Employment Strategy" in the development of macro-economic, employment and labour market policy in the Czech Republic. As a full member of the two organisations, the Czech...... Republic has been subject to their soft non-binding policy advice in the area of labour market reform. The OECD and EU policy models are similar, both insisting on growth-oriented macro-economic policy, supported by active labour market policies, an active and effective public employment service (PES......) and the de-regulation of labour markets. However, the OECD actively advocates private actor involvement in labour markets, while the EU insists on the role of the public sector. The inquisitive styles of the two organisations differ: the OECD has a decontextualised and quantified analysis of performance...

  20. The Influence of Dividend Policy on Market Value: Evidence in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Baiardo Cavalcante Viana Junior

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Dividend Relevance Theory, this study investigated the relationship between the dividend policy and the market value of the companies listed on the BM&F Bovespa. We performed correlation tests between the variables analyzed and multiple regression with data in a balanced panel.  Data from 189 companies were analyzed referring to the period from 2009 to 2014. As a proxy for the market value dependent variable, we considered the logarithm of the market value available in Economática®. As an independent variable, a dividend policy was used, with the Payout Index as a proxy. In the proposed econometric model, two control variables were identified as significant in explaining the market value of firms: size and debt. The results indicate that, in general, the Payout does not prove significant vis `a vis firms’ market value. However, in an additional analysis, by segregating the sample according to economic sectors, it was found that in the Public Utilities and Non-Cyclical Consumption sectors, Payout presents a positive and significant relation in accounting for firms’ market value.  Thus, the present study shows indicators that the profit distribution policy is relevant in explaining the market value of firms, based upon specific characteristics in some sectors of the economy.

  1. Denmark a Nordic Welfare State - Are the Active Labour Market Policy Withering Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2012-01-01

    concludes, based on a detailed case-analysis of Denmark, that profound changes has taken place over the last 10-15 years implying that the active labour market policy has strengthened its focus on work-first. Access to benefits has moved in a less citizen based direction, and the principles of universality......Denmark has been portrayed as a country with a focus on full employment, gender equality and high level of participation on the labour market. It has historically further been built upon consensus and class-compromises and known for flexi-curity. The active labour market policy has focused on how...... to ensure not only a work-first approach, but that a constant upgrading of qualifications would guarantee that the individual citizen could have the qualification to enter and to stay on the labour market. A core question is whether the focus on flexi-curity including upgrading of skills and integration...

  2. A Business Ecosystem Driven Market Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Due to the huge globally emerging market of the bright green buildings, this paper aims to develop a business-ecosystem driven market analysis approach for the investigation of the bright green building market. This paper develops a five-steps business-ecosystem driven market analysis (definition...

  3. State policy change: Revenue decoupling in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Kytson L.

    The study seeks to answer the question, why are states adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market, by investigating the relationship between policy adoption and attributes of the electricity market, the structure of the state utility commissions, and the political climate of the state. The study examines the period 1978-2008. Two econometric models, the marginal risk set model and the conditional risk set model, are estimated to predict the influence of covariates on the probability of the state adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market. The models are both variants of the Cox proportional hazard model and use different underlying assumptions about the nature of adoption of revenue decoupling and when the states are considered to be at risk of adoption. Results suggest that market attributes, such as the source of electricity generation in the state, state energy intensity, and the distribution of non-public and public utilities, significantly influence the adoption of the policy. Also, the method of selecting commissioners and the party affiliation of elected officials in the state are important factors. The study concludes by suggestions to improve the implementation and evaluation of revenue decoupling in the electricity markets.

  4. Meta-Analysis in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Andrade Brei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis is a method that seeks to aggregate, integrate, and adjust results from previous studies, while considering the different conditions in which the original studies were investigated. The expected benefit is demonstration of the association between one or more variables, and generation of a systematic review and integration of studies. Hence, in the meta-analysis, the researcher can present broad evidence for or against a given theory. This study discusses the methodological and structural aspects of the organization of meta-analytical investigations in marketing. In addition, this paper suggests eight steps to organize the data and interpret the results. Lastly, we discuss the implications of the formulas and the corrections of the effects, as well as proposing paths for investigations that use meta-analysis in marketing

  5. Energy Policy Case Study - Texas: Wind, Markets, and Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    This document presents a case study of energy policies in Texas related to power system transformation, renewable energy and distributed energy resources (DERs). Texas has experienced a dramatic increase in installed wind capacity, from 116 MW in 2000 to over 15,000 MW in 2015. This achievement was enabled by the designation of Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZs) and new transmission lines that transmit wind to load centers. This report highlights nascent efforts to include DERs in the ERCOT market. As costs decline and adoption rates increase, ERCOT expects distributed generation to have an increasing effect on grid operations, while bringing potentially valuable new resources to the wholesale markets.

  6. Cereals Market in Romania under the Impact of the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina CONSTANTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyses the cereals market after Romania accession to European Union. Thus, I considered necessary and appropriate to achieve the dynamic analysis of production, prices, trade, consumption, and self-sufficiency that provides an overview on the evolution of the cereals market in Romania, in the European context, starting from resources representing the demand, to the uses that represent the supply. I also point out the main mechanisms and support instruments for the cereals market under the Common Agriculture Policy, in the period 2007-2013 and towards 2014-2020.

  7. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  8. Market Liberalization Policies in a Reforming Socialist Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Dinopoulos; Timothy D. Lane

    1991-01-01

    A model of a socialist economy is presented, incorporating bargaining over wages and employment in the socialized sector and shortages that are reflected in the black market. The model is used to analyze the implications of liberalization policies, including trade liberalization, an administered price increase, and provisions allowing for increased direct foreign investment. The results suggest that reforms may have different effects under different trade regimes, that small price reforms may...

  9. Scaling analysis of stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis.

  10. Policy changes and the dynamics of capacity expansion in the Swiss electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, Patricia; Van Ackere, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Capacity of supply is a crucial matter in electricity markets as it directly influences reliability of supply, price volatility and blackout risk. In this paper, we analyse the dynamics of capacity expansion in the Swiss electricity market and the impact of different policies such as nuclear phaseout and management of electricity exchanges - imports and exports - policies. This article develops the conceptualization model presented in [Ochoa, P., 2007b. Policy changes in the Swiss electricity market: a system dynamics analysis of likely market responses. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 41 (4):336-349.]. We build a system dynamics model based on the dynamics of capacity expansion explained in the latter paper and present and analyse different scenarios. We conclude that international electricity exchanges are important for the Swiss market as they help to lower costs and to increase the income of the utility companies; however, we illustrate the need for explicit policies for managing imports and exports of electricity to avoid import dependence from neighbouring countries. (author)

  11. Market Value Analysis - Urban Redevelopment Authority

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — In late 2016, the URA, in conjunction with Reinvestment Fund, completed the 2016 Market Value Analysis (MVA) for the City of Pittsburgh. The Market Value Analysis...

  12. Bioenergy market competition for biomass: A system dynamics review of current policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in the United States and abroad to increase the use of biomass as an energy source due to environmental and energy security benefits. In the United States, the biofuel and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and different agencies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets based on varying policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand for biomass in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance.

  13. Impact of Monetary Policy and Fiscal Policy on Indonesian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossanto Dwi HANDOYO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the effect of fiscal and monetary policy on Indonesian Stock price as well as main sectors stock price such as agricultural, mining, manufacture, and financial sector indexes. We consider the world oil price as a foreign variable that will influence domestic economy as in regular small open economy model. In this paper, we employ the Monte Carlo algorithm to Near-SVAR models (If some of the VAR equations have regressors not included in the others. We find that there is a positive stock price response to monetary policy shock both aggregated and sectoral stock price. In term of interaction between fiscal policy shock and stock market, we find that all sectors respond negative relationship. From this empirical finding, fiscal policy crowd out private sector activity in market, thus, its effect will be impotent in economy. We also provide the evidence that not only both policies are able to influence the stock price individually, but also the interaction between monetary and fiscal policy is important in explaining stock market performance.

  14. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ON MARKET POTENTIAL OF ETHIOPIAN RURAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiferaw-Mitiku T.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has taken great strides to reduce poverty and increase the welfare of its largely rural, agricultural-based population. Ethiopia, a country with rural based economy mainly from Agriculture sector which contributed with the range of 42.5 percent to 67.25 percent of the GDP for the past two decades (1990-2012. Similarly, the percentage of Rural population against the total population of the country accounts a larger coverage; with 87.38 percent for the year 1990, 85.26percent during 2000 and 82.46 percent for the year 2013. There is a steadfast growth in the total rural population from 41 million in 1990 and reached to 77.59 million in 2013 with average annual percentage growth rate of 2.8 for the past twenty three years. Very importantly, the major exportable products of the country is generated from the marketing of Agricultural produce such as coffee, khat, live animals, oilseeds, flowers, sesame, and also leather products. Above all, the consumption pattern and preference of rural consumer is changing due to the dynamic nature of marketing. However, marketers are failing to reach this largest target market of the population. This is mainly because, marketers are focusing on designing a product for urban market and when it becomes obsolete, it moves to the rural market. Indeed, it is unethical to override the marketing preference of the rural consumer. Recognizing the marketing requirements of the majority of the population would helps to bring a vibrant economic impact in the development of the nation. The present paper highlighted the major challenges and opportunities of Rural Marketing in Ethiopia, identified ways to explore the untapped Ethiopian Rural Market and identified possible recommendations and policy implications that would help to bring an improved development in the rural Ethiopia. Accordingly, the present article seeks the attention of Policy makers, Investors, Higher education curriculum developers and marketers to

  15. Renewable energy policy and electricity market reforms in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judith A.; Kentish, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the potential effectiveness of the renewable energy policy in China and its regulatory Law framework. It frames the option of renewable energy technology within the background of the long-lasting electricity problems that China has faced including serious supply shortages, reliance on coal, and severe environmental contamination. Its dual administrative and ownership system based on state and privately owned industry is discussed together with the market reform measures adopted in the sector. Current renewable energy policy is analysed, and the scope of the 2005 Renewable Energy Promotion Law is investigated. This is conducted within the context of the electricity sector reform that China adopted, and its effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy. This study draws upon primary information collected from interviews with stakeholders on the policy adequacy, and identifies three main types of shortcomings that have interfered with a more successful expansion of renewable energy in China

  16. Municipal energy and climate policy in a liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, H.

    2001-05-01

    Due to the ongoing process of liberalisation, Dutch municipal energy policy is undergoing significant changes. The probable privatisation of energy companies, the change from what used to be 'their' local energy company to what will become an energy company, results in a need for local administrations to build up energy knowledge, end-use information and financial resources that 'their' energy companies used to share but, because of operating in a competitive market, are now more reluctant to do so. On the other hand offers privatisation and the selling of shares the possibility for some local governments to collect a significant sum of money which can be addressed to energy policy. This process of growing responsibility of local administrations for their own energy policy coincides with the structural change of the nature of the energy supply in the Netherlands. The change towards a more decentralised energy supply results in more energy systems (e.g. PV and wind) coming under the influence of local regulations. Municipal governments will have to act more like actors in a complex policy network, playing different roles at different times in different situations, often stimulating and regulating at the same time. The growing popularity of platforms like energy agencies, bringing together parties like the local government, energy companies and commercial- and housing associations are examples hereof. In this report, another new role for local governments resulting from the liberalisation process is highlighted: the role of energy consumer. It is estimated that the aggregated electricity demand resulting from activities under direct municipal responsibility (e.g. municipal dwellings, traffic lights, public lighting) amounts to a fairly large share of the market. Due to the public interests vested in the local administrations, it is expected that an important part of this demand is demand for green electricity. Also, local governments can use the energy markets to act

  17. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  18. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [de

  19. Problems in the regulatory policy of the drug market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziara, Nathália Molleis; Coutinho, Diogo Rosenthal

    2015-01-01

    Analyze the implementation of drug price regulation policy by the Drug Market Regulation Chamber. This is an interview-based study, which was undertaken in 2012, using semi-structured questionnaires with social actors from the pharmaceutical market, the pharmaceuticals industry, consumers and the regulatory agency. In addition, drug prices were compiled based on surveys conducted in the state of Sao Paulo, at the point of sale, between February 2009 and May 2012. The mean drug prices charged at the point of sale (pharmacies) were well below the maximum price to the consumer, compared with many drugs sold in Brazil. Between 2009 and 2012, 44 of the 129 prices, corresponding to 99 drugs listed in the database of compiled prices, showed a variation of more than 20.0% in the mean prices at the point of sale and the maximum price to the consumer. In addition, many laboratories have refused to apply the price adequacy coefficient in their sales to government agencies. The regulation implemented by the pharmaceutical market regulator was unable to significantly control prices of marketed drugs, without succeeding to push them to levels lower than those determined by the pharmaceutical industry and failing, therefore, in its objective to promote pharmaceutical support for the public. It is necessary reconstruct the regulatory law to allow market prices to be reduced by the regulator as well as institutional strengthen this government body.

  20. Problems in the regulatory policy of the drug market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziara, Nathália Molleis; Coutinho, Diogo Rosenthal

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the implementation of drug price regulation policy by the Drug Market Regulation Chamber. METHODS This is an interview-based study, which was undertaken in 2012, using semi-structured questionnaires with social actors from the pharmaceutical market, the pharmaceuticals industry, consumers and the regulatory agency. In addition, drug prices were compiled based on surveys conducted in the state of Sao Paulo, at the point of sale, between February 2009 and May 2012. RESULTS The mean drug prices charged at the point of sale (pharmacies) were well below the maximum price to the consumer, compared with many drugs sold in Brazil. Between 2009 and 2012, 44 of the 129 prices, corresponding to 99 drugs listed in the database of compiled prices, showed a variation of more than 20.0% in the mean prices at the point of sale and the maximum price to the consumer. In addition, many laboratories have refused to apply the price adequacy coefficient in their sales to government agencies. CONCLUSIONS The regulation implemented by the pharmaceutical market regulator was unable to significantly control prices of marketed drugs, without succeeding to push them to levels lower than those determined by the pharmaceutical industry and failing, therefore, in its objective to promote pharmaceutical support for the public. It is necessary reconstruct the regulatory law to allow market prices to be reduced by the regulator as well as institutional strengthen this government body. PMID:26083945

  1. Problems in the regulatory policy of the drug market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Molleis Miziara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Analyze the implementation of drug price regulation policy by the Drug Market Regulation Chamber. METHODS This is an interview-based study, which was undertaken in 2012, using semi-structured questionnaires with social actors from the pharmaceutical market, the pharmaceuticals industry, consumers and the regulatory agency. In addition, drug prices were compiled based on surveys conducted in the state of Sao Paulo, at the point of sale, between February 2009 and May 2012. RESULTS The mean drug prices charged at the point of sale (pharmacies were well below the maximum price to the consumer, compared with many drugs sold in Brazil. Between 2009 and 2012, 44 of the 129 prices, corresponding to 99 drugs listed in the database of compiled prices, showed a variation of more than 20.0% in the mean prices at the point of sale and the maximum price to the consumer. In addition, many laboratories have refused to apply the price adequacy coefficient in their sales to government agencies. CONCLUSIONS The regulation implemented by the pharmaceutical market regulator was unable to significantly control prices of marketed drugs, without succeeding to push them to levels lower than those determined by the pharmaceutical industry and failing, therefore, in its objective to promote pharmaceutical support for the public. It is necessary reconstruct the regulatory law to allow market prices to be reduced by the regulator as well as institutional strengthen this government body.

  2. Integration of Government Bond Market in the Euro Area and Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Velimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines analysis of evolution in euro area government bond market integration and interference of European Central Bank with functioning of respective market recently. Since the introduction of euro, government bond yields converged in the euro area, bonds of different countries have become close substitutes in the perception of investors, and overall integration of the market was rather high. At the end of 2008, dramatic shift occurred and ever since disintegrative forces were set in motion. The paper presents the following measures of integration of the government bond markets: yield spreads, dispersion in yield spreads and beta coefficient. All three measures suggest unprecedented market disintegration as of 2010. The paper highlighted relevance of sovereign bond market for the smooth functioning of the monetary policy transmission mechanism in a monetary union context. Three ECB’s programmes aimed at sovereign debt crisis resolution were analysed in details. They proved successful in lowering peripheral countries’ yields and spreads, and calming the markets. If one takes central bank function of the lender of last resort for banks, then these programmes may be viewed as the “buyer of last resort” device for government bonds. Although warranted by exceptional circumstances and need for swift response, a due caution should be paid to these programmes since they pose certain challenges for conduct of monetary policy and might even have unintended consequences.

  3. An Analysis of Reconstituted Fluid Milk Pricing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Glen D. Whipple

    1983-01-01

    This analysis suggests that alteration of the reconstituted fluid milk pricing provisions of federal and state milk market orders would have a substantial impact on market equilibrium. A reactive programming model of the U.S. milk market was used to simulate the effects of altered reconstituted fluid milk pricing policy. The solutions indicate that reconstituted fluid milk, as a lower cost alternative to fresh fluid milk, would make up a substantial portion of the fluid milk consumption in so...

  4. Monetary Policy Analysis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysing monetary policy in Serbia. The National Bank of Serbia chose inflation targeting, which sets price stability as the main objective of monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the central bank uses different monetary policy instruments which analysis can provide us with the understanding of the main directions of their actions but also of the limitations of its application. Only through improvement of both instruments and monetary policy the central bank will create a better foundation for achieving monetary stability. In addition, the implementation of exchange rate policy is entrusted to the National Bank of Serbia, as the main regulator of the financial system. A mere use of managed floating exchange rate, as the chosen exchange rate regime, is an appropriate solution in the current economic circumstances and in accordance with the desired objective of monetary policy.

  5. District heating marketing. Strategies in the heating market. 2. ed.; Fernwaerme-Marketing. Strategien im Waermemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschalleck, Helmut [MVV Energie AG, Mannheim (Germany); Arndt, Andreas [EnBW Vertriebs- und Servicegesellschaft, Karlsruhe (Germany); Behm, Norman [Stadtwerke Rostock AG (Germany)] [and others

    2012-07-01

    The assistance in the strategic and operational planning of an individual marketing strategy in the district heating market is the focus of the book under consideration. Starting from the definition of the actual situation (market analysis and marketing potential) and the strategic goal, a marketing concept and a marketing mix (product policy, pricing policy, distribution policy as well as communication policy) is established. Subsequently, the tools of the marketing controlling (incoming orders and turnover, marketing key performance indicators, reporting, marketing audit) are described.

  6. Redistribution effects of energy and climate policy: The electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, Lion; Ueckerdt, Falko

    2013-01-01

    Energy and climate policies are usually seen as measures to internalize externalities. However, as a side effect, the introduction of these policies redistributes wealth between consumers and producers, and within these groups. While redistribution is seldom the focus of the academic literature in energy economics, it plays a central role in public debates and policy decisions. This paper compares the distributional effects of two major electricity policies: support schemes for renewable energy sources, and CO 2 pricing. We find that the redistribution effects of both policies are large, and they work in opposed directions. While renewables support transfers wealth from producers to consumers, carbon pricing does the opposite. More specifically, we show that moderate amounts of wind subsidies can increase consumer surplus, even if consumers bear the subsidy costs. CO 2 pricing, in contrast, increases aggregated producer surplus, even without free allocation of emission allowances; however, not all types of producers benefit. These findings are derived from an analytical model of electricity markets, and a calibrated numerical model of Northwestern Europe. Our findings imply that if policy makers want to avoid large redistribution they might prefer a mix of policies, even if CO 2 pricing alone is the first-best climate policy in terms of allocative efficiency. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •CO 2 pricing and renewables support have strikingly different impacts on rents. •Carbon pricing increases producer surplus and decreases consumer surplus. •Renewable support schemes (portfolio standards, feed-in tariffs) do the opposite. •We model these impacts theoretically and quantify them for Europe. •Redistribution of wealth is found to be significant in size

  7. Information security policy: contributions from internal marketing for its effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ellwanger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protecting sources of information has become a great challenge to the organizations, due to the advance of the information technologies, the integration between them and the constant stream of information that flows through the communication networks. The establishment of an Information Security Policy – PSI may resolve a part of the problems related to security, but it cannot totally solve them, since the human resources present in the internal environment of the organizations may spoil the effectiveness of the PSI. Given the importance of the human aspects in the context of the information security, the present work discusses the use of internal marketing as a management strategy in order to obtain or reestablish the commitment of the users to the principles defined in the PSI, and demonstrates, through an experimental research, the impact of using internal marketing techniques to the effectiveness of that policy. The results of this experiment make quantitatively evident how relevant the use of these techniques may be in order to have the procedures described in the PSI actually carried out by the users, and demonstrates a 402,4% increase in the support to the information security policy, considering the procedures indicated in the PSI that were totally executed.

  8. Conflict between Supermarkets and Wet-Markets in Ghana: Early Warning Signals and Preventive Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etornam Kosi Anku

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The source of conflict between Supermarkets and Wet-markets arise from the use of market power and economies of scale by one group against the other. This study explores the tensions that exist between modern retailers and their traditional counterparts as a result of the influx of supermarkets in Ghana. The main objective of the study is to compare attributes related to the control of access to consumers by the Supermarket and the Wet-market. In this study, the dot-survey approach of Rapid Market Assessment Technique was used to elicit information from 438 respondents at the Madina market (wet-market and Melcom (supermarket over a period of two weeks and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW comparison test and descriptive statistics were employed for the analysis. The results revealed that consumers patronise the supermarkets for convenience and the wet-market for freshness of product. Their purchasing decisions were affected by their level of education and product selections of the retailer. The highly educated preferred to shop at the Supermarket instead of the Wet-market; however, over 50% of respondents preferred the wet-market for fresh food products and the supermarket for non-food items. Each retailer receives its fair share of purchases from its loyal customers, therefore the revolution arising from the supermarket influx in Ghana has not yet resulted into conflict between supermarkets and their traditional counterparts, though it is inevitable if nothing is done to prevent it from happening. To avoid the conflict, it is recommended that policies should be instituted to (i improve the market infrastructures and shopping environment in the Wet-markets, (ii give tax concession to modern retailers who source products from local farmers and small-scale processors, (iii enable traditional retailers position themselves on the fringe and co-exist with modern retailers and (iv enforce public standards with regards to food safety laws in the traditional

  9. The analysis of market knowledge competence effect and research & development (R&D) toward the policy making of new product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanggono, Bambang; Sesuko, Agung; Budiawan, Wiwik

    2017-11-01

    The increasing mobility of people without adequate provision of mass transportation infrastructures makes people choose private transportation like motorcycles. Such circumstances lead the motorcycle manufacturers in Indonesia competing to develop their products to meet the needs of customers. In addition, the new regulation of Central Bank of Indonesia dealing with the credit advances has raised the intense competition of motorcycles industries in Indonesia. One of the ways to win the competition is by developing new and improved products. In developing and improving the products, companies need to consider resource utilization. In this research, researcher utilizes the resources that exist both inside and outside the enterprise such as customer demands, intensity of competition, perception of the importance of market knowledge, importance of market competence, and internal R&D as well as external R&D is expected to develop new products that are superior. The study involved 150 employees as respondents. The method used in the study is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with AMOS 20.0 statistical software. The result shows that the demands of the customers and the intensity of competition lead to a positive effect on market knowledge competence, while the perception of the market knowledge importance does not influence the development of new products, and market knowledge competence, internal R&D and external R&D have positive effect on the development of new products.

  10. Networks and Bargaining in Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogason, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A duscussion of the fight between proponents of rationalistic policy analysis and more political interaction models for policy analysis. The latter group is the foundation for the many network models of policy analysis of today.......A duscussion of the fight between proponents of rationalistic policy analysis and more political interaction models for policy analysis. The latter group is the foundation for the many network models of policy analysis of today....

  11. Employers and the Implementation of Active Labor Market Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bredgaard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Active labor market policies (ALMPs are an important instrument for governments in dealing with the new challenges of globalization, flexibilization, and individualization of labor markets. Politics and research has focused on the supply-side of the labor market, that is, regulating the rights and obligations of the target groups of ALMPs (mainly unemployed and inactive persons. The role and behavior of employers is under-researched and under-theorized in the vast literature on ALMPs and industrial relations. In this article, we analyze ALMPs from the employers’ perspective by examining the determinants of firms’ participation in providing wage subsidy jobs for the unemployed. First, we examine the historical background to the introduction and development of wage subsidy schemes as an important ALMP instrument in Denmark. Second, we derive theoretical arguments and hypotheses about employers’ participation in ALMPs from selected theories. Third, we use data from a survey of Danish firms conducted in 2013 to characterize the firms that are engaged in implementing wage subsidy jobs and hypotheses are tested using a binary logistical regression to establish why firms voluntarily engage in reintegrating unemployed back into the labor market. We find that the firms which are most likely to participate in the wage subsidy scheme are characterized by many unskilled workers, a higher coverage of collective agreements, a deteriorating economic situation, a Danish ownership structure, and are especially found in the public sector. This shows that the preference formation of firms is more complex than scholars often assume.

  12. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  13. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  14. THE WORLDS OF FLEXICURITY-LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionete Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past, European integration has concentrated first of all on profound economic integration, creating the Single Market with common rules and regulations throughout the European Union. European integration has been more limited in the labour market and social field, where the national state remains the dominant level of regulation. Although linguistically somewhat strange, “flexicurity”, the combination of labour market flexibility and security for employees, has become recently a much praised cornerstone of European labour market policies. Obviously, in an environment with rapid technical progress and frequently changing market conditions, employers need to manage their labour force flexibly. In order to achieve this flexibility without creating an unbearable situation for employees, security is the second pillar of the concept. As such, the concept looks like an innovative European way of consolidating economic and social interests, although some argue that much flexibility is gained while the security aspect is being neglected. Flexicurity forms a part of efforts to experiment with new forms of governance in the social and employment law of the European Union. It is compatible with attempts to introduce policies at supranational level that can influence self-transformation processes at the level of Member States in order to reach overarching economic goals defined by the Lisbon agenda. It is central in the debate over the reform of labour law systems since it is a key, if not the key concept in the 2006 Green Paper on modernising labour law in the European Union. The concept has been successfully adopted in some European countries, notably Denmark and the Netherlands. The experience in these two countries will thus be described in some detail, followed by a review of flexicurity-type policies in other European countries. The current paper is realized in the doctoral programme entitled “PhD in economics at the standards

  15. Energy investments facing market risk and public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobtcheff, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual meeting of the Energy Economist Association, held on June 15, 2005, was about the issue of investments in the energy sector. How can companies decide to invest in a project when there are increasing uncertainties, including as to future public policies and to energy market trends? The various speakers at the meeting stressed the significance of describing and gauging the risks specific to each industry as well as the assumptions that decision-making tools available to companies rely on (net value theory updated and actual option theory, inter alia). (author)

  16. Monetary Policy Shocks and Risk Premia in the Interbank Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingender, Asger Moll

    2011-01-01

    futures. However, rate cuts taking place at unscheduled FOMC meetings can increase risk premia during periods of financial distress, consistent with the view that central bank actions under such circumstances are perceived as signals that policy makers have private information of further unfavorable......Unexpected changes in the federal funds rate are shown to have significant effects on risk premia in the money market. The spread between interbank lending rates and U.S. Treasury bills tends to narrow when the FOMC decides to cut interest rates by more than the expectation implied by federal funds...

  17. The Relative Efficiency of Active Labour Market Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikström, Johan; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment, that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. We apply newly developed non......-parametric methods to determine which of the individual policies that explains the positive effect. The use of non-parametric methods to separate sub-treatment effects is important from a methodological point of view, since the alternative, namely parametric/distributional assumptions, is in conflict...

  18. Will EU Biofuel Policies affect Global Agricultural Markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banse, M.; Vvan Meijl, H.; Tabeau, A.; Woltjer, G.

    2008-04-01

    This paper assesses the global and sectoral implications of the European Union Biofuels Directive (BFD) in a multi-region computable general equilibrium framework with endogenous determination of land supply. The results show that, without mandatory blending policies or subsidies to stimulate the use of biofuel crops in the petroleum sector, the targets of the BFD will not be met in 2010 and 2020. With a mandatory blending policy, the enhanced demand for biofuel crops has a strong impact on agriculture at the global and European levels. The additional demand from the energy sector leads to an increase in global land use and, ultimately, a decrease in biodiversity. The development, on the other hand, might slow or reverse the long-term process of declining real agricultural prices. Moreover, assuming a further liberalization of the European agricultural market imports of biofuels are expected to increase to more than 50% of the total biofuel demand in Europe

  19. Project-Based Market Competition and Policy Implications for Sustainable Developments in Building and Construction Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building and construction sectors are significant contributors to the global economy, but their energy consumption necessitates greater commitment to sustainable developments. There is therefore a growing demand for green innovation in the form of cleaner production and policies to meet the modern requirements of sustainability. However, the nature in which public work is undertaken is in an environment of project-based market competition, whereby contractors routinely bid for contracts under specific project awarding systems, and variations are accompanied with the unique scope of individual projects before the final goods or services are delivered. A comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and contractors’ behavior in systems could help to identify the leverage points of policies. This paper proposes a system dynamics model, with quantitative analysis and simulations, to demonstrate the problems of a system with different project awarding systems and ineffective market performance. The framework of market efficiency and performance measures has been proposed to evaluate the project-based competition mechanism. Managerial policy implications for market efficiency and sustainable developments can thus be systematically discussed and compared through iterative computer simulations and scenario analysis.

  20. Network externalities in telecommunication industry: An analysis of Serbian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with network competition and provides empirical analysis of market concentration, network and call externalities, access pricing, price discrimination and switching costs in Serbian mobile phone telecommunications market. It is shown that network externalities governed the expansion of this market until 2008. Upon entry of VIP incumbents didn't engage in predatory behaviour towards entrant aiming to benefit from locked- in users. The policy of mobile phone number portability reduced on-net prices and substantially increased consumer's surplus. In contrast to some previous research, this policy was pro-competitive in Serbia. We have also determined that users of the network with the largest market share benefit the most from call externalities. Finally, one network does not price discriminate between outgoing and incoming roaming calls, which implies that users of this network have higher level pecuniary externalities in roaming compared to users of price discriminating networks.

  1. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  2. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  3. 75 FR 30029 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 27 and 28, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 27 and 28, 2010 In accordance with Sec... the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on April 27 and 28, 2010.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting...

  4. 75 FR 56110 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of August 10, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of August 10, 2010 In accordance with Sec. 271.25... domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on August 10... maintain the total face value of domestic securities held in the System Open Market Account at...

  5. 76 FR 67731 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of September 20 and 21, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of September 20 and 21, 2011 In accordance with... below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on September 20 and 21, 2011.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting...

  6. 78 FR 70945 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of October 29-30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of October 29-30, 2013 In accordance with Section... the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on October 29-30, 2013.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held...

  7. 76 FR 76162 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of November 1-2, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of November 1-2, 2011 In accordance with Section... below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on November 1-2, 2011.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held...

  8. 77 FR 42730 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 19-20, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 19-20, 2012 In accordance with Section... below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on June 19-20, 2012.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held...

  9. 76 FR 37114 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 26-27, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 26-27, 2011 In accordance with Section... the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on April... value of domestic securities held in the System Open Market Account to approximately $2.6 trillion by...

  10. 77 FR 2293 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 13, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 13, 2011 In accordance with Section... below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on December 13, 2011.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on...

  11. 77 FR 70439 - Federal Open Market Committee Domestic Policy Directive of October 23-24, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Federal Open Market Committee Domestic Policy Directive of October 23-24, 2012 In accordance with Section... the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on October 23-24, 2012.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held...

  12. 76 FR 43687 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 21-22, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 21-22, 2011 In accordance with Section... the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on June... payments on all domestic securities in the System Open Market Account in Treasury securities in order to...

  13. 78 FR 2996 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 11-12, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 11-12, 2012 In accordance with... below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on December 11-12, 2012.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held...

  14. 75 FR 65484 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of September 21, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of September 21, 2010 In accordance with Section... the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on... maintain the total face value of domestic securities held in the System Open Market Account at...

  15. 77 FR 62513 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of September 12-13, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of September 12-13, 2012 In accordance with... below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on September 12-13, 2012.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held...

  16. 76 FR 1616 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 14, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 14, 2010 In accordance with Section... the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on December 14, 2010.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on...

  17. 75 FR 76733 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of November 2 and 3, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of November 2 and 3, 2010 In accordance with... below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on... increase the total face value of domestic securities held in the System Open Market Account to...

  18. 78 FR 13673 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 29-30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 29-30, 2013 In accordance with Section... the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on January 29-30, 2013.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held...

  19. 78 FR 43883 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 18-19, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 18-19, 2013 In accordance with Section... the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on June 18-19, 2013.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on...

  20. 77 FR 53201 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of July 31-August 1, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of July 31-August 1, 2012 In accordance with... below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on July 31-August 1, 2012.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its...

  1. 75 FR 2544 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 15 and 16, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 15 and 16, 2009 In accordance with... below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on December 15 and 16, 2009.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting...

  2. 76 FR 10364 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 25-26, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 25-26, 2011 In accordance with Section... the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on... value of domestic securities held in the System Open Market Account to approximately $2.6 trillion by...

  3. 78 FR 63978 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of September 17-18, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of September 17-18, 2013 In accordance with... below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on September 17-18, 2013.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held...

  4. 76 FR 55677 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of August 9, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of August 9, 2011 In accordance with Section 271... domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on August 9, 2011... System Open Market Account in Treasury securities in order to maintain the total face value of domestic...

  5. 78 FR 54466 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of July 30-31, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of July 30-31, 2013 In accordance with Section... the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on July 30-31, 2013.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on...

  6. 75 FR 42444 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 22 and 23, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 22 and 23, 2010 In accordance with Sec... the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on June 22 and 23, 2010.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting...

  7. Mexico´s Energy Reform : an analysis of the market, new policy and integration of renewable energy for economic and sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Favela, Alfredo Rojas

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the approved Energy Reform in 2013, Mexico puts an end to seven decades of centralized control of the energy and electricity markets within the government through the State governed companies CFE (Federal Electricity Commission) and PEMEX (Mexican Oil). During the largest part of last century and the beginning of the current, the Mexican government relied heavily on the revenues generated by PEMEX through the sale of oil to foreign countries and tax revenues...

  8. MARKETING MIX: AN ATTEMPT AT CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kotliarov I.D.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper contains an analysis of main directions of evolution of marketing mix concept. Typical problems of each approach are demonstrated. Classical form of marketing mix (4Ps) is recommended as the basic form of marketing mix, which, however, may be adapted to specific characteristics of the firm and its industry

  9. 77 FR 31015 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 24-25, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-12561] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy... Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on April 24-25, 2012, which includes the domestic policy... information (12 CFR part 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal...

  10. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  11. MARKET ANALYSIS OF HOTEL SERVICES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Antonova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research is the market of hotel services in Ukraine in recent years, since the market for the hotel services in Ukraine emerged in the first half of the 2000s. Initially, the focus of both local and foreign investors was on the development of the hotel market in Kyiv. Gradually, with the development of hotel business in Ukraine, investors’ interest began to shift in the direction of populated cities, primarily large business centers of the country (with a population of about 1 million people such as Kharkiv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Lviv and in the direction of resort areas – Crimea, Carpathians, Odessa. According to the World Tourism Organization during the past 24 years the income from international tourism has increased by 9%. The number of international tourists every year is growing at a rate of 4%. Active development of hotel real estate segment was highly influenced by the European football championship held in 2011 due to the requirements of the cities-organizers which hosted matches (Kyiv, Kharkiv, Donetsk, Lviv to have certain number of hotel rooms of different categories. Purpose. The study is an analysis of the problems in the market of hotel services and prospects for their solution. Hospitality industry in Ukraine is one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy. It is pleasant to note that new hotels, rest houses and resorts are being opened while the existing hotels are being reconstructed to meet higher levels of services. Unsaturated market of hotel services of different levels creates a great opportunity for international hotel operators to enter Ukrainian market with confidence and expand its influence in the industry by the means of its internal policies. Therefore, this study is very relevant in the modern realms. The methodological base of research were works of domestic and foreign authors dedicated to the problems of the hotel industry development. Existing problems in the hospitality industry

  12. Policy Analysis and Decisionmaking,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    on "PoI icy Analysis as appl ied to Hiqh-Level Decision-Makinq,’ orciani,’t, ard ,ponsored by Orinoquia Asociacion Civil , in Caracas. Vvelc/t l...substantive and tactical c. Rand’s experience (the new Institute for Civil Justice as a change) i

  13. Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-09-25

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  14. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Barnoya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  15. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control. PMID:24071922

  16. Influence of Monetary Policy Announcements on Ukraine’s Stock Market Return and Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Roman A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the influence of decisions on the monetary policy on return and volatility of the Ukrainian stock market (on the basis of the representative stock index PFTS with consideration to the phase of the financial cycle. Daily opening prices for the period of 2000-2015 are used as the initial data, on the basis of which the return of the stock index in the trading day format is calculated. Using the news about the monetary policy, the «expected» component and the component of «unexpectedness» of the announcement information context are distinguished. The analysis of the reaction of the Ukrainian stock market to the macroeconomic news about the monetary policy of the Federal Reserve System and the European Central Bank with regard to the phases of upturns and downturns of the financial cycle has been carried out. The study allows to draw conclusions about the impact of announcements about the dealing rate on the return and volatility of the domestic stock market: first, in the Ukrainian stock market the return reacts much more strongly to the announcements of the Federal Reserve System than those of the European Central Bank; second, the impact of decisions of the Federal Reserve System, being in line with the logic of risk management, is more pronounced during the downturn phase of the financial cycle.

  17. THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN CORPORATE COMPETITIVENESS: MARKETING PRACTICE ANALYSIS OF HUNGARIAN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Zsófia KENESEI; Tamás GYULAVÁRI; László SEER

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the marketing practice of Hungarian companies. On the one hand, the role of marketing function in the company has been revealed, and on the other hand the relationship between marketing efforts and market performance has been investigated. In frame of the Hungarian Competitiveness Studies, 300 marketing executives were surveyed to rate the marketing practice of their companies, concentrating on branding, pricing policy, applied marketing channels an...

  18. [Marketing approval and market surveillance of medical devices in Germany: Where does policy integration take place?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Since 2011 new regulatory measures regarding medical devices have been set up with the aim to eliminate obstacles to innovations and to find more coordinated ways to marketing authorisation and market surveillance. This essay investigates whether these new and existing coordination mechanisms build up to a Joined-up Government approach. The analysis shows that the regulatory process should be adjusted along several dimensions. First, many organisations lack awareness regarding their stakeholders and focus solely on their immediate organisational activities. Second, the regulatory process (marketing authorisation and market surveillance) is too fragmented for an effective communication to take place. Finally, the underlying strategy process is an ad-hoc approach lacking continuity and continued involvement of, in particular, the responsible federal ministries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Analysis of competition and market power in the wholesale electricity market in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Umesh Kumar; Thampy, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The electricity reforms were initiated in India with the objective of promoting competition in the electricity market. In order to promote competition, the Electricity Act 2003 was enacted and various policy initiatives were taken by the Government of India. Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) also facilitated competition through the regulatory framework of availability based tariff, Indian Electricity Grid Code, open access in inter-state transmission, inter-state trading and power exchanges. Despite these initiatives, electricity prices increased in the Wholesale Electricity Market in India (WEMI). This paper analyses the market structure and competitiveness in the WEMI. There are, of course, various potential reasons for the rise in the electricity price. This paper seeks to investigate, if market power was one of the reasons for increase in market prices. Concentration ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman index, Supply Margin Assessment, and Residual Supply Index have been used to measure market power. This paper also uses the price-cost mark-up to examine, if exercise of market power led to higher margins. The analysis suggests that market power of firms may be part of the reason for the increase in electricity prices in WEMI. The study suggests various measures to increase competition in the WEMI.

  20. Youth Unemployment, Ageing and Regional Welfare: The Regional Labour Market Policy Response to Ageing in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Rauhut, Daniel; Kahila, Petri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the regional labour market policy response to demographic ageing in Sweden and its consequences on the labour supply of young adults. Regions with ageing problems already experience significant problems at the labour market. The overall conclusion is that labour market policies in Sweden addressing the consequences of ageing fail to include young adults and the policies do not address regional heterogeneity regarding e.g. ageing and youth unemployment.

  1. The Design of Active Labour Market Policies. What Matters and What Doesn't ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cockx, Bart

    1999-01-01

    A first objective of this paper is to emphasise the role of a correct diagnosis of unemployment persistence for the design of effective active labour market policies. A second is to stress the importance of adequate incentives for programme administrators of active labour market policies, and that this may well be more important than providing adequate incentives to the unemployed. To illustrate this, we summarise two case studies evaluating active labour market policies in Belgium. The first...

  2. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard

    2014-05-20

    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  3. Efficiency versus fairness : The evaluation of labor market policies by economists and laypeople

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haferkamp, Alexandra; Fetchenhauer, Detelf; Belschak, Frank; Enste, Dominik

    The present study examines the criteria used by economic laypeople (N = 380 German citizens) and economists (N = 80 professors or postgraduates in economics) in judging reform measures as illustrated by policies of governmental labor market intervention policies. Results reveal substantial

  4. Transformation of Croatian Disabled Policy: Analysis of Policy Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the idea of transformation of the policy-making mode of Croatian disabled policy, from the medical model, through the social model to the human rights model. The paper highlights 7 elements according to which these models differ, and which are structured into categories of problem-definition, goal-determination and then implementation of disabled policy. The analysis is focused on the goals of Croatian disabled policy, and is based on an interdisciplinary research project of political science, special education and social work. Empirical data were collected by document analysis, by interviewing relevant policy actors and by a survey with the members of representative bodies on all government levels. With the discourse analysis of documents, open coding of interviews and statistical analysis of data collected in the survey, the paper attempts, through the indicator of activity of persons with disability, to answer to what extent Croatian disabled policy is transformed into human rights policy.

  5. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Li, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  6. CO2 abatement policies in the power sector under an oligopolistic gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecking, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The paper at hand examines the power system costs when a coal tax or a fixed bonus for renewables is combined with CO 2 emissions trading. It explicitly accounts for the interaction between the power and the gas market and identifies three cost effects: First, a tax and a subsidy both cause deviations from the cost-efficient power market equilibrium. Second, these policies also impact the power sector's gas demand function as well as the gas market equilibrium and therefore have a feedback effect on power generation quantities indirectly via the gas price. Thirdly, by altering gas prices, a tax or a subsidy also indirectly affects the total costs of gas purchase by the power sector. However, the direction of the change in the gas price, and therefore the overall effect on power system costs, remains ambiguous. In a numerical analysis of the European power and gas market, I find using a simulation model integrating both markets that a coal tax affects gas prices ambiguously whereas a fixed bonus for renewables decreases gas prices. Furthermore, a coal tax increases power system costs, whereas a fixed bonus can decrease these costs because of the negative effect on the gas price. Lastly, the more market power that gas suppliers have, the stronger the outlined effects will be.

  7. The institutional economics of market-based climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerdman, E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the institutional barriers to implementing market-based climate policy, as well as to provide some opportunities to overcome them. The approach is that of institutional economics, with special emphasis on political transaction costs and path dependence. Instead of rejecting the neoclassical approach, this book uses it where fruitful and shows when and why it is necessary to employ a new or neo-institutionalist approach. The result is that equity is considered next to efficiency, that the evolution and possible lock-in of both formal and informal climate institutions are studied, and that attention is paid to the politics and law of economic instruments for climate policy, including some new empirical analyses. The research topics of this book include the set-up costs of a permit trading system, the risk that credit trading becomes locked-in, the potential legal problem of grandfathering in terms of actional subsidies under WTO law or state aid under EC law, and the changing attitudes of various European officials towards restricting the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms

  8. German nuclear policy reconsidered. Implications for the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuersch, Michaela; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Malischek, Raimund; Nagl, Stephan; Panke, Timo; Trueby, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima, German nuclear policy has been reconsidered. This paper demonstrates the economic effects of an accelerated nuclear phase-out on the German electricity generation sector. A detailed optimization model for European electricity markets is used to analyze two scenarios with different lifetimes for nuclear plants (phase-out vs. prolongation). Based on political targets, both scenarios assume significant electricity demand reductions and a high share of generation from renewable energy sources in Germany. Our principal findings are: First, nuclear capacities are mainly replaced by longer lifetimes of existing coal-fired plants and the construction of new gas-fired plants. Second, fossil fuel-based generation and power imports increase, while power exports are reduced in response to the lower nuclear generation. Third, despite the increased fossil generation, challenging climate protection goals can still be achieved within the framework of the considered scenarios. Finally, system costs and electricity prices are clearly higher. We conclude that the generation sector can generally cope with an accelerated nuclear phase-out under the given assumptions. Yet, we emphasize that such a policy requires a substantial and costly transformation of the supply and the demand side.

  9. Higher speed freight truck market analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A market analysis was conducted on behalf of FRA to determine the viability for implementation of higher speed freight rail service in anticipation of high-speed passenger rail service on upgraded freight rail corridors. : The analysis focused on the...

  10. The Influence of Entry Mode Decisions on International Marketing Policies. A Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Musso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on firms' marketing strategy in foreign markets revealed inconsistent resultsregarding the relationship between entry mode strategies and the adoption of marketing policies. Thisinconsistency was due to the diversity of assumptions used for the conceptualization of the influence of entrymodes on marketing strategies. The purpose of this paper is to offer a conceptual model that can support theanalysis of how the firm’s choice of entry mode may influence the adoption of marketing tools in the selectedmarket.

  11. The wood pellet market in Austria: A structural market model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristöfel, Christa; Strasser, Christoph; Schmid, Erwin; Morawetz, Ulrich B.

    2016-01-01

    EU bioenergy policies and oil price hikes have resulted in a significant increase of installed pellet boilers for residential heating. Hence, European demand for wood pellets has been growing faster and more steadily than supply leading to rising market prices in recent years. This article presents an econometric analysis of demand and supply of wood pellets in the residential heating sector in Austria, one of the most dynamic markets for residential pellets. Annual and monthly time series data between 2000 and 2014 are used in a two-stage least-squares (2SLS) regression to estimate supply and demand elasticities of wood pellets. In all model specifications, pellets demand is found to be inelastic (from −0.66 to −0.76) and pellets supply unit-elastic (from 1.03 to 1.18). Thus, consumers are highly exposed to price changes resulting from supply shocks. Policies which support investments in pellet boilers will shift the demand of wood pellets and likely leading to higher prices for consumers. - Highlights: • Characterisation of the European pellet market. • A structural market model for wood pellets in Austria. • Estimation of supply and demand price elasticities using a two-stage least-squares (2SLS) regression. • Pellets demand is found to be inelastic and pellets supply unit-elastic in the short run. • Policies stimulating demand will likely increase pellet and sawmill by-product prices.

  12. Impact of monetary policy changes on the Chinese monetary and stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Luo, Yong; Xiong, Jie; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    The impact of monetary policy changes on the monetary market and stock market in China is investigated in this study. The changes of two major monetary policies, the interest rate and required reserve ratio, are analyzed in a study period covering seven years on the interbank monetary market and Shanghai stock market. We find that the monetary market is related to the macro economy trend and we also find that the monetary change surprises both of lowering and raising bring significant impacts to the two markets and the two markets respond to the changes differently. The results suggest that the impact of fluctuations is much larger for raising policy changes than lowering changes in the monetary market on policy announcing and effective dates. This is consistent with the “sign effect”, i.e. bad news brings a greater impact than good news. By studying the event window of each policy change, we also find that the “sign effect” still exists before and after each change in the monetary market. A relatively larger fluctuation is observed before the event date, which indicates that the monetary market might have a certain ability to predict a potential monetary change, while it is kept secret by the central bank before official announcement. In the stock market, we investigate how the returns and spreads of the Shanghai stock market index respond to the monetary changes. Evidences suggest the stock market is influenced but in a different way than the monetary market. The climbing of returns after the event dates for the lowering policy agrees with the theory that lowering changes can provide a monetary supply to boost the market and drive the stock returns higher but with a delay of 2 to 3 trading days on average. While in the bear market, the lowering policy brings larger volatility to the market on average than the raising ones. These empirical findings are useful for policymakers to understand how monetary policy changes impact the monetary and stock markets

  13. A role for market analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Essex

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Securing refugees’ access to work opportunities would help to ameliorate the problems associated with a primarily humanitarian response. Market analyses can match gaps in the economy with refugees’ skills.

  14. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority.ii The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey. We highlight the experience in each area as it relates to the identified barriers.

  15. Economic and institutional dynamics of electricity markets deregulation: the interaction between sectoral regulation and antitrust policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanel, B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define regulatory intervention as a part of a global monitoring procedure allowing the definition and adaptation of market structures and rules, given the observed behavior of market participants. Nevertheless, the possible inefficiency in its (decisional) coordination with competition authorities implies further analysis. We thus adopt a comparative methodology based on the studying PJM and NETA wholesale markets. This analysis enables us to stress two possible 'models' in the distribution and coordination of monitoring powers. The first one privileges a strong 'informational coordination' between the sectoral regulator and the Transmission System Operator. By contrast, the second model is characterized by a constrained informational coordination, leading to a greater 'decisional convergence' between regulatory intervention and antitrust policy. Lastly, we put these conclusions into perspective with the specific issue of the achievement of an efficient and integrated European market for electricity. In particular, we stress the need for a single regulatory agency, which should be given autonomous decisional powers in the adoption of regional markets reform initiatives (author)

  16. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  17. The Analysis of the Dynamics of the Marketing Services Market in Terms of Strategic Management of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Natalya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the basic modern marketing services according to the dynamics data of the media market of Ukraine. Thus, marketing services are considered as tools that provide crisis man-agement in strategic business development perspective. Scientific and practical significance of the study lies in the results of trend analysis of the dynamics of the media market of Ukraine and its components, the results of which led to the conclusion about the importance of Internet advertising as a modern marketing tool in terms of anti-crisis policy. The study predicted the values of the obtained volumes and market share of Internet advertising in the media market structure in Ukraine for the next period.

  18. 75 FR 19647 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 16, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 16, 2010... its meeting held on March 16, 2010.\\1\\ \\1\\[thinsp]Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on March 16, 2010, which includes the domestic policy directive issued at the...

  19. 77 FR 22577 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 13, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 13, 2012... Committee at its meeting held on March 13, 2012.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on March 13, 2012, which includes the domestic policy directive issued at the...

  20. 78 FR 22880 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 19-20, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 19-20... Committee at its meeting held on March 19-20, 2013.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on March 19-20, 2013, which includes the domestic policy directive issued at...

  1. 76 FR 21894 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 15, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 15, 2011... its meeting held on March 15, 2011.\\1\\ \\1\\ Copies of the Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on March 15, 2011, which includes the domestic policy directive issued at the...

  2. Convergence and Europeanisation : the political economy of social and labour market policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Olaf Peter van

    2011-01-01

    Social convergence has been an objective since the Treaty of Rome in 1957, but it was only in 1997 and 2000 that social and labour market policies were formulated at the European Union level. To what extent have national social and labour market policies in EU member states converged over time? What

  3. 78 FR 33841 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 30-May 1, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... No: 2013-13271] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of... Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on April 30-May 1, 2013, which includes the domestic... information (12 CFR part 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal...

  4. 75 FR 10267 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 26 and 27, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...: 2010-4690] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January... CFR part 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on January 26 and 27, 2010.\\1\\ \\1\\[thinsp]Copies of the Minutes of...

  5. Rhetorical Analysis in Critical Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Rhetorical analysis, an approach to critical discourse analysis, is presented as a useful method for critical policy analysis and its effort to understand the role policies play in perpetuating inequality. A rhetorical analysis of Character "Matters!", the character education policy of a school board in Ontario, Canada, provides an…

  6. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krasko, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  7. Start-up analysis for marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M J; Baloff, N

    1984-01-01

    The complex start-up effect on utilization of health care services is too often overlooked or underestimated by marketing planners, leading to a range of negative consequences for both the users of services and the provider organization. Start-up analysis allows accurate estimation of these utilization effects for coordinated strategic planning among marketing finance, and operations.

  8. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-01-01

    The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor ...

  9. The Impact of the Great Recession on Monetary and Fiscal Policy in Developed Market Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šehović Damir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the occurrence of the crisis in 2007, which caused the largest economic contraction since the Great Depression in the thirties, it has become evident that the previous understanding of strategies, effects and roles of monetary and fiscal policy should be redefined. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to illustrate a possible expected change in monetary and fiscal policy in developed market economies that could occur as a consequence of the Great Recession. Methods/Approach: The paper provides a comparative analysis of various primary economic variables related to the developed OECD countries, as well as the empirical testing of the selected theoretical assumptions. Results: The changes in monetary policy refer to the question of raising target inflation, considering a possible use of aggregate price level targeting and paying attention to the role of central banks in suppressing the formation of an asset bubble. The success of fiscal policy in attaining stabilization depends on the size of possible fiscal measures and creation of automatic stabilizers. Conclusions: For the most part, monetary and fiscal policies will still stay unchanged, although some segments of these policies need to be improved.

  10. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  11. Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Market Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Frank A.

    1999-01-01

    The RLV Market Analysis model is at best a rough order approximation of actual market behavior. However, it does give a quick indication if the flights exists to enable an economically viable RLV, and the assumptions necessary for the vehicle to capture those flights. Additional analysis, market research, and updating with the latest information on payloads and launches would improve the model. Plans are to update the model as new information becomes available and new requirements are levied. This tool will continue to be a vital part of NASA's RLV business analysis capability for the foreseeable future.

  12. Effect of State Policy Suites on the Development of Solar Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Doris, E.

    2014-11-01

    There are an increasing number of state and local policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building robust solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. While some states have seen many-fold increases in solar PV installations over the last decade, many other states, some with very similar policies, have been less successful. The lack of a clear relationship between implementation of specific policies and increases in solar installations has been challenging to policymakers seeking to support such markets within their jurisdictions. This paper builds on recent work that has aimed at clarifying the relationships between policy implementation and successful solar PV markets.

  13. Revisiting support policies for RES-E adulthood: Towards market compatible schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, Samuel C.; Rodilla, Pablo; Herrero, Ignacio; Batlle, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The past two decades of growth in renewable energy sources of electricity (RES-E) have been largely driven by out-of-market support policies. These schemes were designed to drive deployment on the basis of specific subsidies sustained in time to allow for the larger costs as well as to limit investor risk. While these policies have proven to be effective, the way they have been designed to date has led to costly market distortions that are becoming more difficult to ignore as penetrations reach unpreceded levels. In the context of this growing concern, we provide a critical analysis of the design elements of RES-E support schemes, focusing on how they affect this trade-off between promoting and efficiently integrating RES-E. The emphasis is on the structure of the incentive payment, which in the end turns to be the cornerstone for an efficient integration. We conclude that, while needed, a well-designed and further developed capacity-based support mechanism complemented with ex-post compensations defined for reference benchmark plants, such as the mechanism currently implemented in Spain, is an alternative with good properties if the major goal is truly market integration. The approach is robust to future developments in technology cost, performance and market penetration of RES-E. - Highlights: • Market distortions due to RES support mechanisms are becoming difficult to ignore. • This paper provides a critical analysis of the design elements of RES support schemes. • The emphasis is on the structure of the incentive, key for an efficient integration. • We argue in favor of a further developed capacity-based support mechanism. • The incentive should be combined with the design of a set of reference plants.

  14. Market analysis baby food Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Voronina; I.Z. Dolzhanskiy

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the development of baby food industry in Ukraine and abroad due the increased level of fertility, unmet needs of baby food products in the growing demand for intervention and strengthening foreign manufacturers. Special attention is paid to government regulation and legislation of the relevant Ukrainian market of baby food.

  15. Financial Policies and the Prevention of Financial Crises in Emerging Market Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic S. Mishkin

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a set of financial policies that can help make financial crises less likely in emerging market countries. To justify these policies, the paper first explains what a financial crisis is, the factors that promote a financial crisis and the dynamics of a financial crisis. It then examines twelve basic areas of financial policies to prevent financial crises: 1) prudential supervision, 2) accounting and disclosure requirements, 3) legal and judicial systems, 4) market-based dis...

  16. Rules and Discretion in Monetary Policy: Is the Response of the Stock Market Rational?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Iulian MARINESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of the monetary policy conduct on the domestic capital market for a sample of developed countries where the capital market plays a significant role in the economy. We break down the policy rate innovations in rules-based and discretionary components in order to determine the degree of prudentiality in the monetary policy conduct and we study their accounts with respect to capital market rationality. The rules-based component is determined using an interpolated vanilla Taylor-rule policy rate at the event date and the discretionary component is obtained by subtracting the rules-based rate from the target monetary policy rate innovation. Using an event study approach, we analyze the impact of monetary policy components on the returns of the stock market and we determine that the conduct of the monetary policy can cause irrational responses of the capital market. More than that, we show, for the analyzed countries, that if the general level of discretion in the monetary policy is high the response of the stock market becomes increasingly erratic, indicating that forward guidance may help reduce uncertainty on capital markets.

  17. From Market Uncertainty to Policy Uncertainty for Investment in Power Generation: Real Options for NPP on Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    In the electricity sector, market participants must make decisions about capacity choice in a situation of radical uncertainty about future market conditions. Sector is normally characterised by non-storability and periodic and stochastic demand fluctuations. In these cases capacity determination is a decision for the long term, whereas production is adjusted in the short run. Capacities need to be installed well in advance (decision for investment even earlier because of long construction time and even longer in case of NPP to prepare all needed legal, financial and physical infrastructure), at times when firms face considerable demand and cost uncertainty when choosing their capacity. Paper looks on the main contributions in investment planning under uncertainty, in particular in the electricity market for capital intensive investments like NPP. The relationship between market and non-market factors (recent UK policy example) in determining investment signals in competitive electricity markets was analysed. Paper analyse the ability of competitive electricity markets to deliver the desired quantity and type of generation capacity and also investigates the variety of market imperfections operating in electricity generation and their impact on long-term dynamics for generation capacity, the most capital-intensive of the liberalised functions in the electricity supply industry. Paper analyses how price formation influences investment signals. Today, investment decisions are made by several operators that act independently. Number of factors (including market power, wholesale price volatility, lack of liquidity in the wholesale and financial market, policy and regulatory risks etc.) contribute to polluting the price signal and generating sub-optimal behaviour. Climate change policies can easily distort market signals, insulating renewables generation from market dynamics. This in turn reduces the proportion of the market that is effectively opened to competitive

  18. Market vs. policy failures. How governments affect electricity markets and what they should do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jus, Darko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes four key aspects related to the development of renewable energy. Firstly, in the presence of a climate change externality, a first-best allocation on the electricity market generally cannot be achieved with a renewable energy subsidy, thus highlighting its imperfectness in replacing a correct pricing of carbon dioxide emissions (Chapter 2). Secondly, supposing the existence of an emission trading system, this dissertation investigates the effects of additionally supporting renewable energy. Surprisingly, when considering a one-country model, the market participant who loses rents due to the introduction of a levy-financing subsidy scheme, such as the case of Germany, proves to be the fossil electricity producers rather than the electricity consumers (Chapter 3). Thirdly, considering a more realistic two-country framework, it becomes more likely that domestic electricity consumers have to accept a higher electricity price, while rents are shifted to foreign electricity consumers as a consequence of unilateral renewable energy support (Chapter 4). Fourthly, this dissertation studies reasons for employing technology-specific feed-in tariffs, and in contrast to usual intuition, finds them to be (static) efficiency improving when policy has committed to achieving a strong renewable energy target (Chapter 5).

  19. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, Nikolay; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. However, as it regards fertilizers, a clear attribution of market drivers explaining the emergence of extreme price events is still missing. In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the price spike of the global phosphorus fertilizer market in 2008 focusing on diammonium phosphate (DAP). We find that fertilizer market policies in India, the largest global importer of phosphorus fertilizers and phosphate rock, turned out to be a major contributor to the global price spike. India doubled its import of P-fertilizer in 2008 at a time when prices doubled. The analysis of a wide set of factors pertinent to the 2008 price spike in phosphorus fertilizer market leads us to the discovery of a price spike magnification and triggering mechanisms. We find that the price spike was magnified on the one hand by protective trade measures of fertilizer suppliers leading to a 19% drop in global phosphate fertilizer export. On the other hand, the Indian fertilizer subsidy scheme led to farmers not adjusting their demand for fertilizer. The triggering mechanism appeared to be the Indian production outage of P-fertilizer resulting in the additional import demand for DAP in size of about 20% of annual global supply. The main conclusion is that these three factors have jointly caused the spike, underscoring the need for ex ante improvements in fertilizer market regulation on both national and international levels.

  20. Disciplining Disability under Danish Active Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stone, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how caseworkers are re-constructing disability in the Danish welfare system and disciplining themselves and clients according to the active labour policy paradigm. Combining Foucault’s ideas about discipline with Maynard-Moody and Musheno’s method of interpreting street...... administer social welfare and sick leave benefits based on disability as the primary eligibility criterion. We selected stories told by caseworkers that exemplify archetypes of good and bad citizens, good and bad clients, and good and bad caseworkers. Through interpretative analysis, we elucidate how...

  1. Current status of alcohol marketing policy--an urgent challenge for global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2012-03-01

    To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Market Failure In African Agricultural Marketing Systems: An Econometric Testing And Analysis Of Market Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Gbolahan S. Osho

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen substantial revivals of interest in the determinants of economic growth in Africa, especially in the Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper provides an econometric model that help to examine the impact of market share, interest rate and non-economic factors such as external shocks, structural adjustment policies on the GDP of Sub-Saharan Africa. Economic development data covering the period of 1970 to 2004 was used in estimation with ordinary least square (OLS). The resul...

  3. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  4. U.S.Stock Market Crashes and Their Aftermath: Implications for Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene White; Frederic Mishkin

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines fifteen historical episodes of stock market crashes and their aftermath in the United States over the last one hundred years. Our basic conclusion from studying these episodes is that financial instability is the key problem facing monetary policy makers and not stock market crashes, even if they reflect the possible bursting of a bubble. With a focus on financial stability rather than the stock market, the response of central banks to stock market fluctuations is more lik...

  5. US stock market crashes and their aftermath: Implications for monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mishkin, Frederic S.; White, Eugene N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines fifteen historical episodes of stock market crashes and their aftermath in the United States over the last one hundred years. Our basic conclusion from studying these episodes is that financial instability is the key problem facing monetary policy makers and not stock market crashes, even if they reflect the possible bursting of a bubble. With a focus on financial stability rather than the stock market, the response of central banks to stock market fluctuations is more lik...

  6. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  7. Internet marketing directed at children on food and restaurant websites in two policy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M Potvin; Dubois, L; Kent, E A; Wanless, A J

    2013-04-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been associated with childhood obesity yet little research has examined the influence of advertising policy on children's exposure to food/beverage marketing on the Internet. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of Quebec's Consumer Protection Act and the self-regulatory Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) on food manufacturer and restaurant websites in Canada. A content analysis of 147 French and English language food and restaurant websites was undertaken. The presence of child-directed content was assessed and an analysis of marketing features, games and activities, child protection features, and the promotion of healthy lifestyle messages was then examined on those sites with child-directed content. There were statistically no fewer French language websites (n = 22) with child-directed content compared to English language websites (n = 27). There were no statistically significant differences in the number of the various marketing features, or in the average number of marketing features between the English and French websites. There were no fewer CAI websites (n = 14) with child-directed content compared to non-CAI websites (n = 13). The CAI sites had more healthy lifestyle messages and child protection features compared to the non-CAI sites. Systematic surveillance of the Consumer Protection Act in Quebec is recommended. In the rest of Canada, the CAI needs to be significantly expanded or replaced by regulatory measures to adequately protect children from the marketing of foods/beverages high in fat, sugar, and sodium on the Internet. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  8. Stock Market Reactions To Fiscal Policy Shocks: Empirical Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This suggests that there is the need for effective fiscal policy coordination and increased efficiency of institutions that are expected to facilitate the fiscal policy execution. In addition, policy coordination between the central bank and the government is still relatively nascent. Consequently, the gains from policy coordination in ...

  9. Economic Policy Uncertainty and Long-Run Stock Market Volatility and Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Hou, Ai Jun

    We use Baker, Bloom, and Davis’s (2016) economic policy uncertainty indices in combination with the mixed data sampling (MIDAS) approach to investigate long-run stock market volatility and correlation, primarily for the US and UK. Long-run US–UK stock market correlation depends positively on US...... economic policy uncertainty shocks. The dependence is asymmetric, with only positive shocks - increasing uncertainty - being of importance. The US long-run stock market volatility depends significantly on US economic policy uncertainty shocks but not on UK shocks, while the UK long-run stock market...... volatility depends significantly on both. Allowing for US economic policy uncertainty shocks improves the out-of-sample forecasting of US–UK stock market correlation and enhances portfolio performance. Similar results apply to the long-run correlation between the US and Canada, China, and Germany....

  10. Increasing electric vehicle policy efficiency and effectiveness by reducing mainstream market bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Erin H.; Skerlos, Steven J.; Winebrake, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an opportunity for reducing energy use and emissions in the transportation sector. Currently, a number of federal policies are in place to incentivize deployment of PEVs to mainstream consumers with demographics and vehicle attribute preferences most common to today's new vehicle purchasers. This article argues that policies intending to give PEVs a foothold in the market should not focus on mainstream consumers and should instead focus on niche markets—specifically carsharing and postal fleets—and early adopters including green consumers. Two arguments can be made in support of eliminating the mainstream market bias of current policies toward a policy of cultivating niche markets. The first is efficiency: so far PEV policies featuring a mainstream market bias have proven to be inefficient and costly. The second is effectiveness: it is becoming increasingly evident that PEV policies would be more effective in achieving potential societal benefits if they focused on early adopters and niche markets using such approaches as strategic niche management, accessible loans and financing, and appropriately targeted incentives. PEV policies focused on early adopters and niche markets would create complementary system effects that will lead to increased PEV market penetration and realization of intended societal benefits. - Highlights: • We argue that U.S. electric vehicle policies are inefficient and ineffective. • We introduce “mainstream consumer bias” as an explanation for policy deficiencies. • We propose an alternative policy agenda to address some of these policy problems. • Proposed policy options include strategic niche management, targeted R and D and incentives, and loans

  11. Integrating rather than juxtaposing environmental policy and the internal market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Hans; Koutrakos, Panos; Snell, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to the research handbook on the internal market describes and analyses the case law on environmental measures that impact the internal market and notably the free movement of goods. It argues that an integration may be better for both environmental protection and market

  12. Asymmetric Effect of Monetary Policy on Stock Market Volatility in ASEAN5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Thanh BUI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among many channels, stock market directly transmits the effect of monetary policy decisions because it quickly responds to policy news. The primary objective of this paper is to clarify the asymmetric effect of monetary policy on stock market volatility, which is believed to have adverse effects on the economy recovery, over its bull and bear period. We performed empirical research in a panel setting in which monthly data of ASEAN5 (Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia was collected from January 2006 to June 2013. To reduce identification and endogeneity problem, we used short-term interest rate as a proxy for the stance of monetary policy. The Markov switching model was used to identify the bull and bear periods of stock market. We employed feasible GLS estimator to examine the possible asymmetry. The empirical results have demonstrated the existence of the asymmetry in the monetary policy effect on the stock market volatility over stock market cycle in ASEAN5. The findings have suggested that monetary policy is more effective in bear market and that a tight monetary policy increases the probability of shifting stock market from bullish to bearish state.

  13. Recurrence quantification analysis of global stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João A.; Caiado, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the presence of deterministic dependencies in international stock markets using recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). The results are based on a large set of free float-adjusted market capitalization stock indices, covering a period of 15 years. The statistical tests suggest that the dynamics of stock prices in emerging markets is characterized by higher values of RQA measures when compared to their developed counterparts. The behavior of stock markets during critical financial events, such as the burst of the technology bubble, the Asian currency crisis, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis, is analyzed by performing RQA in sliding windows. It is shown that during these events stock markets exhibit a distinctive behavior that is characterized by temporary decreases in the fraction of recurrence points contained in diagonal and vertical structures.

  14. Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Bilharz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of renewable energy in Germany from 1973 to 2003. It investigates the relative importance of energy policy and green power marketing in shaping the renewable energy market. More than a decade of consistent policy support for renewables under the feed-in law (StrEG) and its successor (EEG) has been an important driver for increasing renewable electricity generation to date, putting the country in a better position than most of its peers when it comes to achieving European Union targets for renewable energy. Green power marketing driven by customer demand, on the other hand, is growing, but has had limited measurable impact so far. We discuss potential intangible benefits of green power marketing and scenarios for future market development. The paper concludes with lessons that can be learned from the German case for policy design and market development in other countries

  15. Multivariate analysis of marketing data - applications for bricolage market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANARU Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By using concepts and analytical tools for computing, marketing is directly related to the quantitative methods of economic research and other areas where the efficiency of systems performances are studied. Any activity of the company must be programmed and carried out taking into account the consumer. Providing a complete success in business requires the entrepreneur to see the company and its products through the consumers eyes, to act as representative of its clients in order to acquire and satisfy their desires. Through its complex specific activities, marketing aims to provide goods and services the consumers require or right merchandise in the right quantity at the right price at the right time and place. An important consideration in capturing the link between marketing and multivariate statistical analysis is that it provides more powerful instruments that allow researchers to discover relationships between multiple configurations of the relationship between variables, configurations that would otherwise remain hidden or barely visible. In addition, most methods can do this with good accuracy, with the possibility of testing the statistical significance by calculating the level of confidence associated with the link validation to the entire population and not just the investigated sample.

  16. The climate impacts of bioenergy systems depend on market and regulatory policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Derek M; Plevin, Richard J; Cohn, Avery S; Jones, Andrew D; Brandt, Adam R; Vergara, Sintana E; Kammen, Daniel M

    2010-10-01

    Biomass can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by displacing petroleum in the transportation sector, by displacing fossil-based electricity, and by sequestering atmospheric carbon. Which use mitigates the most emissions depends on market and regulatory contexts outside the scope of attributional life cycle assessments. We show that bioelectricity's advantage over liquid biofuels depends on the GHG intensity of the electricity displaced. Bioelectricity that displaces coal-fired electricity could reduce GHG emissions, but bioelectricity that displaces wind electricity could increase GHG emissions. The electricity displaced depends upon existing infrastructure and policies affecting the electric grid. These findings demonstrate how model assumptions about whether the vehicle fleet and bioenergy use are fixed or free parameters constrain the policy questions an analysis can inform. Our bioenergy life cycle assessment can inform questions about a bioenergy mandate's optimal allocation between liquid fuels and electricity generation, but questions about the optimal level of bioenergy use require analyses with different assumptions about fixed and free parameters.

  17. Rehabilitation centers: marketing analysis and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ashish; Stroube, William B; Willis, William K

    2014-01-01

    A rehabilitation center is another form of health care organization that specializes in providing care for particular conditions of patients. Patients admitted in rehab centers range from being accident victims to those suffering with a specific illness. These organizations are becoming extremely valuable in providing patient care services. However, they have not marketed themselves as aggressively as other health care organizations. This article provides an insight regarding rehab centers and examines marketing issues using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis. It further provides some future prospects and challenges for marketers of these organizations.

  18. Economic analysis of labour market disrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Brčák, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this academic paper is to analyse the possible presence of discrimination against women in the job market. The analysis attempts to endogenous the discrimation section within the model. That is the essential difference in regard to other papers on this topic as these ascribe the influence of discrimination to the unexplained gender wage gap. The basic thought of this model is the idea, that if dicrimination against women is present in the job market, then it must exhibit the signs ...

  19. REDD+ policy making in Nepal: toward state-centric, polycentric, or market-oriented governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Bushley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 40 years, Nepal has become renowned for its community-based forestry policies, initiatives, and institutions, characterized by local autonomy in decisions about forest management and use and a gradual shift toward more inclusive national policy processes. In recent years, the government, international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs, donors, and some civil society organizations have instigated policy and piloting initiatives for an international climate change mitigation scheme known as "reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries" (REDD+. Although many people see REDD+ as a means of bolstering forest conservation efforts and enhancing rural livelihoods, its broader implications for decentralized forest governance in Nepal and elsewhere remain uncertain and contested. Using policy network analysis and theories of polycentric and network governance, I examined influence, inclusiveness, and deliberation among actors involved in REDD+ policy making in Nepal. Data were collected between June and December 2011 through a survey of 34 organizations from government, civil society, educational and research institutions, international NGOs and donors, and the private sector. I investigated whether policy processes and the configurations of actors involved reflect state-centric, market-oriented, or polycentric governance, and I discuss the implications for decentralized forest governance in general and for the implementation of REDD+ in particular. Results indicate that REDD+ policy making is dominated by a "development triangle", a tripartite coalition of key government actors, external organizations (international NGOs and donors, and select civil society organizations. As a result, the views and interests of other important stakeholders have been marginalized, threatening recentralized forest governance and hampering the effective implementation of REDD

  20. Forensic analysis of online marketing for electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K; Brookover, Jody; Cobb, Caroline O

    2015-03-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are growing in awareness and use in the USA. They are currently unregulated as the Food and Drug Administration has yet to assert jurisdiction under its tobacco authority over these products, and a US Court of Appeals held they cannot be regulated as drugs/delivery devices if they are not marketed for a therapeutic purpose. Observation of the current online marketplace suggests ENDS, like some nutraceutical products, are being promoted using affiliate marketing techniques using claims concerning purported health benefits. This study performed a forensic analysis to characterise the relationships between online ENDS affiliate advertisements and ENDS sellers, and evaluated descriptive content on advertisements and websites to inform future policy and regulatory efforts. A purposive sampling strategy was used to identify three forms of ENDS advertising. Web proxy software recorded identifiable objects and their ties to each other. Network analysis of these ties followed, as well as analysis of descriptive content on advertisements and websites identified. The forensic analysis included four ENDS advertisements, two linked affiliate websites, and two linked seller websites, and demonstrated a multilevel relationship between advertisements and sellers with multiple layers of redirection. Descriptive analysis indicated that advertisements and affiliates, but not linked sellers, included smoking cessation claims. Results suggest that ENDS sellers may be trying to distance marketing efforts containing unsubstantiated claims from sales. A separate descriptive analysis of 20 ENDS seller web pages indicated that the use of affiliate marketing by sellers may be widespread. These findings support increased monitoring and regulation of ENDS marketing to prevent deceptive marketing tactics and ensure consumer safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  1. H2@Scale Resource and Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-07-12

    This presentation overviews progress to date on the H2@Scale resource and market analysis work. The work finds, for example, that hydrogen demand of 60 MMT/yr is possible when transportation and industry are considered; resources are available to meet that demand; using renewable resources would reduce emissions and fossil use by over 15%; further impacts are possible when considering synergistic benefits; additional analysis is underway to improve understanding of potential markets and synergistic impacts; and further analysis will be necessary to estimate impacts due to spatial characteristics, feedback effects in the economy, and inertia characteristics.

  2. Conjoint Analysis for Marketing Research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithala R. Rao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a review from 1971 to the present, methods of conjoint analysis approaches that are data collection based on stated preferences or choices by consumers. Thousands of studies have been performed using conjoint analysis, since the introduction of the method in the early 70's This set of methods allows market researchers to study trade-off between the attributes of new products, and is useful for various decisions marketing to product design, pricing and market segmentation. The current set of options conjoint analysis is made by the traditional approach stated preference, the discrete choices techniques (or CBCA choice based conjoint analysis which are based on choices declared by self-explanatory approach which uses direct elicitation of importance attributes and evaluation levels of the attributes and the adaptive approach (ACA or adaptive conjoint analysis that involves data collection in stages and adaptive. This article summarizes these methods and their recent developments and presents an application in the Brazilian Market. Given the versatility of the method, there is huge potential for marketing research in Brazil. Essentially, this methodology is alive and growing. 

  3. MARKETING RESEARCH: THE ROLE OF SENTIMENT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Meena Rambocas; João Gama

    2013-01-01

    This article promotes sentiment analysis as an alternative research technique for collecting and analyzing textual data on the internet. Sentiment analysis is a data mining technique that systematically evaluates textual content using machine learning techniques. As a research method in marketing, sentiment analysis presents an efficient and effective evaluation of consumer opinions in real time. It allows data collection and analysis from a very large sample without hindrances, obstructions ...

  4. SURVEY ON SENTIMENT ANALYSIS OF STOCK MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Nausheen S; Anil Kumar M; Amrutha K K

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment analysis has seen a tremendous growth in the past few years. Sentiment analysis or opinion mining is a process of collecting users’ opinion from user generated content. It has various applications, such as stock market prediction, products’ review collection, etc. a large amount of work has been done in this field by applying sentiment analysis to various applications. The main goal of this paper is to study the various methods used for sentiment analysis. Further we explain the ove...

  5. Did capital market convergence lower the effectiveness of the interest rate as a monetary policy tool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Pieter W.

    2006-01-01

    International capital market convergence reduces the ability for monetary authorities to set domestic monetary conditions. Traditionally, monetary policy transmission is channelled through the short-term interest rate. Savings and investment decisions are effected through the response of the bond

  6. INTERNAL MARKET GOVERNMENT SECURITIES IN PROMOTING THE EFFICIENCY OF DEBT POLICY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kuryshchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the effectiveness of debt policy of Ukraine, to its shortcomings and implications for the economy. The evaluation of the domestic government securities market and its impact on the efficiency of debt management.

  7. The Vegetable industry in China; Developments in policies, production, marketing and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.M.; Jinsong, C.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Kamphuis, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of Chinese vegetable industry over the past three decades. The changes of governmental vegetable policy and the major institutions involved. The major production regions in China, their leading vegetable varieties and cultivation technology. The reform of vegetable marketing structure

  8. DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS IN MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper classifies among marketing researches aiming to study the influence that the following independent variables (explanatory have: "Estimating the expenses incurred in Centre Development Region, including country of residence" and the variable "How many days have you planned to stay in this region?" on the construction of separate groups which form the dependent variables - the type of tourist (foreign, Romanian. Thus I shall analyse the explication of the different characteristics of the groups in terms of different attributes that members of these groups have with respect to the independent variables (explanatory. Questionnaires have been distributed to hotels in Braşov, Predeal, Poiana-Braşov, Sfântu Gheorghe, Covasna, Miercurea-Ciuc, Gheorgheni, Tuşnad, Târgu-Mureş, Sighişoara, Sibiu, Alba – Iulia and other localities that have linked this route. More than 2,000 questionnaires have been distributed. The quantitative research was conducted between 15.05.2009-17.10.2009.

  9. Critical analysis of marketing in Croatian publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Gašparić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is an inevitable part of today's modern lifestyle. The role that marketing plays is so big that it has become the most important part of business. Due to crisis that is still affecting publishers in Croatia, this paper emphasizes the power of advertising as a key ingredient in how to overcome this situation and upgrade the system of publishing in Croatia. The framework of the paper is based on marketing as a tool that leads to popularization of books and sales increase. Beside the experimental part which gives an insight into public's opinion about books, publishing and marketing, the first chapter gives the literature review and analysis conducted on the whole process of book publishing in Croatia with pointing out mistakes that Croatian publishers make. Also, benefits of foreign publishing will be mentioned and used for comparison and projection on to the problems of the native market. The aim of this analysis and this viewpoint paper is to contribute the comprehension of marketing strategies and activities and its use and gains in Croatian publishing.

  10. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, A.; Marra, M.; Ciuffo, B.

    2011-01-01

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: → Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. → How to combine ambitious CO 2 reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. → Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. → Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  11. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  12. Market power analysis for the Iranian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgari, Mohammad Hossein; Monsef, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    The market power problem in Iranian electricity market is addressed in this study. This paper by using various structural indices of market power and reviewing market results analyzes the intensity of competition in Iran's electricity market and examines whether this market is functioning at an appropriate level of efficiency. In this article the most well-known indices of market power are calculated in two approaches for two different scenarios (current situation and future outlook of generation sector's ownership in Iran's power industry). Comparing the results of these scenarios promises more competitive market for the second scenario. Calculating Residual Supply Index for Iran's power market shows despite admissible values of concentration ratios, due to supply scarcity during periods when the demand is close to the total available capacity, some suppliers can exercise market power even with a relatively small market share. The most important price and load indices like weighted average prices and load/price duration curves of Iranian electricity market during March 2007-March 2008 are also analyzed in this paper. These results imply the existence of economic withholding. The main limiting factors of competition and significant implemented countermeasures for market power mitigation in Iran's electricity market are also mentioned.

  13. Educational Marketing and the Public Schools: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. Mark

    Public schools face many of the same marketing problems found in private-sector organizations. These include reputation building, resource mobilization, personnel employment, program development, client satisfaction, community good will, and public political support. This paper analyzes the marketing concept and illustrates its application to…

  14. Policies for technical innovations to promote natural gas market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Short-term and long-term perspectives of the natural gas market worldwide are discussed, covering demand and supply trends. Technologies determining the future of the natural gas market, and R and D needs for implementing future technological challenges are considered. (R.P.)

  15. Market Valuation, Pension Fund Policy and Contribution Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, M.C.J.; Siegmann, A.H.; Vlaar, P.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Market valuation is becoming more and more popular, both in accounting and regulation, as well as in academic circles. For pension funds and their participants, the knowledge that market-valued pension liabilities can indeed be transferred to a third party, if necessary, is a great virtue. Using a

  16. De-Professionalization through managerialization in labour market policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Nørup, Iben

    2015-01-01

    Professionals under pressure in administration of labour market measures with re-organization of work and lack of appropriate qualifications......Professionals under pressure in administration of labour market measures with re-organization of work and lack of appropriate qualifications...

  17. Examining Policies to Reduce Homelessness Using a General Equilibrium Model of the Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur, Erin; Quigley, John M.; Raphael, Steven; Smolensky, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we use a general equilibrium simulation model to assess the potential impacts on homelessness of various housing-market policy interventions. We calibrate the model to the four largest metropolitan areas in California. We explore the welfare con- sequences and the effects on homelessness of three housing-market policy interventions: extending housing vouchers to all low-income households, subsidizing all landlords, and subsidizing those landlords who supply low-income housing. ...

  18. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Qing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-20

    China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components

  19. Biodiversity and Habitat Markets—Policy, Economic, and Ecological implications of Market-Based Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindilli, Emily; Casey, Frank

    2015-10-26

    This report is a primer on market-like and market-based mechanisms designed to conserve biodiversity and habitat. The types of markets and market-based approaches that were implemented or are emerging to benefit biodiversity and habitat in the United States are examined. The central approaches considered in this report include payments for ecosystem services, conservation banks, habitat exchanges, and eco-labels. Based on literature reviews and input from experts and practitioners, the report characterizes each market-based approach including policy context and structure; the theoretical basis for applying market-based approaches; the ecological effectiveness of practices and tools for measuring performance; and the future outlook for biodiversity and habitat markets. This report draws from previous research and serves as a summary of pertinent information associated with biodiversity and habitat markets while providing references to materials that go into greater detail on specific topics.

  20. The Growth Challenge of Western SMES in Emerging Markets: An Exploratory Framework and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Ruzzier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the main inhibiting factors associated with the process of entry and escalation of SMES in international markets, with a focus on Emerging Markets. We identify and propose seven main categories of Institutional Voids and three main types of resources that may critically determine SMES’ performances on EMS, namely, internationalization knowledge, social capital resources and marketing capabilities. Institutional Voids and resources are brought together within a conceptual framework suggesting that resource-scarce SMES will hold back in their attempts to commit further to Emerging Markets and will be further dissuaded the higher the Institutional Voids in the market. The paper contributes to the policy literature on SME internationalization by focusing on two areas of public policy action that could have a clear and manifest impact on SMES conduct in Emerging Markets, the first related to the resources available to and exploitable by SMES and the latter associated with Institutional Voids.

  1. The Intellectual Landscape of Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Sarah; Young, Michelle D.; Welton, Anjalé D.; Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Lee, Pei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    What counts as critical policy analysis in education? Over the past 30 years, a tightening of national educational policies can be seen in the USA and across the globe. Over this same period of time, a growing number of educational policy scholars, dissatisfied with traditional frameworks, have used critical frameworks in their analyses. Their…

  2. Evaluation and Policy Analysis: A Communicative Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Wallat

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for the next generation of students of human development is to help shape the paradigms by which we analyze and evaluate public policies for children and families. Advocates of building research and policy connections point to health care and stress experiences across home, school, and community as critical policy issues that expand the scope of contexts and outcomes studied. At a minimum, development researchers and practitioners will need to be well versed in available methods of inquiry; they will need to be "methodologically multilingual" when conducting evaluation and policy analysis, producing reports, and reporting their interpretations to consumer and policy audiences. This article suggests how traditional approaches to policy inquiry can be reconsidered in light of these research inquiry and communicative skills needed by all policy researchers. A fifteen year review of both policy and discourse processes research is presented to suggest ways to conduct policy studies within a communicative framework.

  3. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F.; Prieur, A.

    2006-10-01

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  4. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  5. Recent Trends in Youth Labour Markets and Youth Employment Policy in Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Niall O’Higgins

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature and characteristics of the youth labour market in Europe and Central Asia. The central concern is with the policy response to the substantial youth unemploymen problem emerging with the transition to the market in Central & Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA). After looking at general trends in youth labour markets, in particular the impact of the recessions and the rapid industrial restructuring which accompanied transition, the paper outlines recent devel...

  6. Analysis of Alcohol Industry Submissions against Marketing Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Florentine Petronella; Miller, Peter Graeme; Coomber, Kerri; Hancock, Linda; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of literature points to the role of vested interests as a barrier to the implementation of effective public health policies. Corporate political activity by the alcohol industry is commonly used to influence policy and regulation. It is important for policy makers to be able to critique alcohol industry claims opposed to improved alcohol marketing regulation. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency reviewed alcohol marketing regulations in 2012 and stakeholders were invited to comment on them. In this study we used thematic analysis to examine submissions from the Australian alcohol industry, based on a system previously developed in relation to tobacco industry corporate political activity. The results show that submissions were a direct lobbying tactic, making claims to government that were contrary to the evidence-base. Five main frames were identified, in which the alcohol industry claimed that increased regulation: (1) is unnecessary; (2) is not backed up by sufficient evidence; (3) will lead to unintended negative consequences; and (4) faces legal barriers to implementation; underpinned by the view (5) that the industry consists of socially responsible companies working toward reducing harmful drinking. In contrast with tobacco industry submissions on public policy, which often focused on legal and economic barriers, the Australian alcohol industry placed a heavier emphasis on notions of regulatory redundancy and insufficient evidence. This may reflect differences in where these industries sit on the ‘regulatory pyramid’, alcohol being less regulated than tobacco. PMID:28118411

  7. Analysis of Alcohol Industry Submissions against Marketing Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Florentine Petronella; Miller, Peter Graeme; Coomber, Kerri; Hancock, Linda; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of literature points to the role of vested interests as a barrier to the implementation of effective public health policies. Corporate political activity by the alcohol industry is commonly used to influence policy and regulation. It is important for policy makers to be able to critique alcohol industry claims opposed to improved alcohol marketing regulation. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency reviewed alcohol marketing regulations in 2012 and stakeholders were invited to comment on them. In this study we used thematic analysis to examine submissions from the Australian alcohol industry, based on a system previously developed in relation to tobacco industry corporate political activity. The results show that submissions were a direct lobbying tactic, making claims to government that were contrary to the evidence-base. Five main frames were identified, in which the alcohol industry claimed that increased regulation: (1) is unnecessary; (2) is not backed up by sufficient evidence; (3) will lead to unintended negative consequences; and (4) faces legal barriers to implementation; underpinned by the view (5) that the industry consists of socially responsible companies working toward reducing harmful drinking. In contrast with tobacco industry submissions on public policy, which often focused on legal and economic barriers, the Australian alcohol industry placed a heavier emphasis on notions of regulatory redundancy and insufficient evidence. This may reflect differences in where these industries sit on the 'regulatory pyramid', alcohol being less regulated than tobacco.

  8. Financing unemployment benefits by goods market competition: fiscal policy and deregulation with market imperfections

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Scial…; Riccardo Tilli

    2007-01-01

    We consider a model in which the labor market is characterized by search frictions and there is monopolistic competition in the goods market. We introduce proportional income taxation and unemployment benefits with Government balanced budget constraint. Then, we evaluate the effects of both more competition in the goods market and higher unemployment benefits on labor market equilibrium and equilibrium tax rate. We show that more competition has a positive effect on equilibrium unemployment a...

  9. Policies and their implementation tools enhancing the energy wood market. A comparative case study of Finland and Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halaj, D.; Ilavsky, J. email: jan.ilavsky@metla.fi

    2009-07-01

    The aims of the study are to conduct comparative analyses of the forest policies and their provisions supporting the use of forest resources in bioenergy generation, to look into the governments' energy policies and their provisions supporting the use of renewable energy, to analyse the market for energy wood and the barriers hindering its use for energy generation in two selected countries. Finland and Slovakia were chosen for the analysis. The aims of the study also include outlining the specific policy tools and the marketing tools with their activities, which could improve the conditions in the energy wood market. The comparative case study also includes analyses of the barriers and a SWOT analysis of the energy wood market. The results of the study point out the high indicative targets set by the European Commission for the share of renewable energy sources in the total energy consumption in the studied countries. On the other hand, the National Forest Programmes and the national energy policies in both countries include a number of indicative priorities supporting the utilization of forest biomass. Both countries have adopted several legislative, financial, and other measures supporting the use of biomass for energy generation. Nevertheless, they differ substantially in regard to the level of use of forest-based resources as renewable energy sources. The current share of renewable energy sources in the total energy consumption of Finland is 28%, while in Slovakia it is less than 7%. The results of the SWOT analyses based on the outcomes of several national and international projects point especially to the threat of the global financial crisis and global warming. Moreover, the activities of six marketing tools, specifically of product, price, place, promotion, people and process, were outlined to enhance the energy wood market for three groups of beneficiaries: enterprises, population, and municipalities and institutions. (orig.)

  10. Effect of floating pricing policy: An application of system dynamics on oil market after liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jung-Hua; Huang, Yi-Lung; Liu, Chang-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Upon the implementation of the floating price mechanism, Taiwan's gasoline and diesel prices returned to market mechanism, which terminated the phenomenon of the public paying for the losses of the state-owned oil company-Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (CPC). Furthermore, the relatively low production costs of the privately owned Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC) disclosed the pricing mechanism of CPC, which inspired FPCC to adopt pricing strategy in order to increase the market share. This study aims to establish a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of the floating price mechanism on Taiwan's gasoline and diesel markets. This Model is divided into four sub-systems. The model of this study passed several validation tests, and hence, is able to provide a 'virtual laboratory' for policy-makers to conduct simulation and scenario analysis. The simulation results indicate (a) feedback mechanism of expected revenues and pricing strategy could efficiently simulate the FPCC pricing mechanism, (b) price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues, although the effect on market share is not remarkable, and (c) FPCC has a higher gas-station growth rate. Scenario analyses found (a) lowering oil security stockpile would not change FPCC's pricing strategy and (b) FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations. - Highlights: → System dynamics model analyzes the effects of oil markets' floating price mechanism. → Feedback mechanism of expected revenues could efficiently simulate pricing mechanism. → Price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues. → Lowering oil security stockpile, FPCC's pricing strategy would not change. → FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations.

  11. Economic and financial integration in emerging markets: A European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoropoulos Theodore E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends to test if the same short-run increase in cyclical volatility arising from financial integration is observed in this specific sample of "emerging markets". This work finds signs that, contrary to other emerging markets, this does not happen: for the future member states financial integration, similarly to the outcome observed in mature market economies, reduces cyclical volatility both in the short and in the long run. Weak indications are found that this may happen partially due to the anchoring of expectations provided by the EU Accession, and to the more robust institutional framework imposed by this process onto the countries in question.

  12. Innovative market-based policy instruments for waste management: A case study on shredder residues in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten; Hoogmartens, Rob; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel; Vanderreydt, Ive

    2015-10-01

    In an increasingly complex waste market, market-based policy instruments, such as disposal taxes, can give incentives for sustainable progress while leaving flexibility for innovation. However, implementation of disposal taxes is often criticised by domestic waste handlers that fear to be outcompeted by competitors in other countries. The article discusses three innovative market-based instruments that limit the impact on international competitiveness: Tradable recycling credits, refunded disposal taxes and differentiated disposal taxes. All three instruments have already been implemented for distinct environmental policies in Europe. In order to illustrate how these instruments can be used for waste policy, the literature review is complemented with a case study on shredder residues from metal-containing waste streams in Belgium. The analysis shows that a conventional disposal tax remains the most efficient, simple and transparent instrument. However, if international competition is a significant issue or if political support is weak, refunded and differentiated disposal taxes can have an added value as second-best instruments. Tradable recycling credits are not an appropriate instrument for use in small waste markets with market power. In addition, refunded taxes create similar incentives, but induce lower transactions costs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Stock Market Liquidity: Comparative Analysis of Croatian and Regional Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Benić; Ivna Franić

    2008-01-01

    On the Croatian stock market liquidity has never been in the focus of academic research, thus we find it necessary to observe liquidity at the aggregate level. This paper observes multi-dimensional liquidity through the impact of turnover on price change together with several one-dimensional measures. In our empirical research we applythe illiquidity measureto seven different stock markets. We focus on the Croatian stock market as compared to other markets in the Central and Eastern Europe an...

  14. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination

  15. Physician shortages in rural Vietnam: using a labor market approach to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko; Shengelia, Bakhuti; Alfano, Marco; Thu, Ha Bui

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates labor market dynamics for physicians in Vietnam, paying particular attention to geographic distribution and dual job holding. The analysis is based on a survey of a random sample of physicians in 3 regions in 2009-10. We found that the labor market for physicians in Vietnam is characterized by very little movement among both facility levels and geographic areas. Dual practice is also prominent, with over one-third of physicians holding a second job. After taking account of the various sources of income for physicians and controlling for key factors, there is a significant wage premium associated with locating in an urban area. This premium is driven by much higher earnings from dual job holding rather than official earnings in the primary job. There are important policy implications that emerge. With such low job turnover rates, policies to increase the number of physicians in rural areas could focus on initial recruitment. Once in place, physicians tend to remain in their jobs for a very long time. Lastly, findings from an innovative discrete choice experiment suggest that providing long-term education and improving equipment are the most effective instruments to recruit physicians to work in rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 24 CFR 91.410 - Housing market analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing market analysis. 91.410... Consolidated Plan § 91.410 Housing market analysis. Housing market analysis must be described in the... describing market conditions for the entire consortium, the consolidated plan may also describe these...

  17. Stock market prediction using technical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradić-Martinović Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical analysis (TA is a form of analyzing market encompassing supply and demand of securities according to the study of their prices and trading volume. Using the appropriate methods, TA aims to identify price movements in the stock market, futures or currencies. In short, TA analysis is the process by which "future price movements are formulated according to the price history". TA originates from the work of Charles Dow and his conclusions about the global behavior of the market, as well as from Elliot Wave Theory. Dow did not regard its theory as a tool for stock market movement prediction, nor as a guide for investors, but as a kind of barometer of general market movements. The term TA methods encompasses all the methods used in tracking prices aiming to clearly predict future events. Many different methods, mainly statistical, are used in technical analysis, the most popular ones being: establishing and following trends using moving average, recognizing price momentum, calculating indicators and oscillators, as well as cycle analysis (structure indicators. It is also necessary to point out that TA is not a science in the true meaning of the term, and that methods it uses frequently deviate from the conventional manner of their use. The main advantage of these methods is their relative ease of use, aiming to give as clear picture as possible of price movements, while at the same time avoiding the use of complicated and complex mathematical methods. The reason for this is simple and is reflected in the dynamics of financial markets, where changes occur during short periods of time and where prompt decision-making is of vital importance.

  18. Life Satisfaction Effects of Unemployment in Europe: The Moderating Influence of Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike

    2014-01-01

    policy on life satisfaction of the unemployed. While unemployment has strong negative life satisfaction effects in all 21 European countries under study, the generosity of passive labour market policy moderates this effect to a surprisingly large extent: the adverse effect of unemployment is almost...

  19. How Parental and School Responses to Choice Policies Reconfigure a Rural Education Market in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rosemary; Blackmore, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Market principles now dominate the education and social policies of many Anglophone countries, including Australia, but articulate differentially within specific contexts. Existing historical legacies, local economic and social conditions, and geographical settings interact with federal and state funding and transport policies to shape the nature…

  20. Patterns of Changing Knowledge Orders: Insights from German and British Labour Market Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Max-Christopher; Pannowitsch, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Following an interpretative approach this paper investigates the role of knowledge orders, understood as settings which attribute relevance to specific expertise. The changing patterns of incorporation of expertise in policy formulation as well as public justification are analysed for German and British labour market policy. From a comparative…

  1. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  2. Accelerating residential PV expansion: demand analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, Richard; Williams, Robert; Payne, Adam

    2005-01-01

    This article quantifies the potential market for grid-connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) electricity integrated into new homes built in the US. It complements an earlier supply-side analysis by the authors that demonstrates the potential to reduce PV module prices below $1.5/W p by scaling up existing thin-film technology in 100 MW p /yr manufacturing facilities. The present article demonstrates that, at that price, PV modules may be cost effective in 125,000 new home installations per year (0.5 GW p /yr). While this market is large enough to support multiple scaled up thin-film PV factories, inefficient energy pricing and demand-side market failures will inhibit prospective PV consumers without strong public policy support. Net metering rules, already implemented in many states to encourage PV market launch, represent a crude but reasonable surrogate for efficient electricity pricing mechanisms that may ultimately emerge to internalize the externality benefits of PV. These public benefits include reduced air pollution damages (estimated costs of damage to human health from fossil fuel power plants are presented in Appendix A), deferral of transmission and distribution capital expenditures, reduced exposure to fossil fuel price risks, and increased electricity system reliability for end users. Thus, net metering for PV ought to be implemented as broadly as possible and sustained until efficient pricing is in place. Complementary PV 'buydowns' (e.g., a renewable portfolio standard with a specific PV requirement) are needed to jumpstart regional PV markets

  3. Proposed Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina system power marketing policy and subsequent contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-04

    This is an Environmental Assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0935) evaluating the Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts between Southeastern and its customers. The Assessment evaluates two alternatives and the no action alternative. The proposed action is to market the power and energy available in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System during the next ten years, with new power sales contracts of ten-year durations, to the customers set forth in Appendix A of the Assessment. In addition to the proposed alternative, the Assessment evaluates the alternative of extending existing contracts under the current marketing policy.

  4. Proposed Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina system power marketing policy and subsequent contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an Environmental Assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0935) evaluating the Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts between Southeastern and its customers. The Assessment evaluates two alternatives and the no action alternative. The proposed action is to market the power and energy available in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System during the next ten years, with new power sales contracts of ten-year durations, to the customers set forth in Appendix A of the Assessment. In addition to the proposed alternative, the Assessment evaluates the alternative of extending existing contracts under the current marketing policy

  5. Analysis and Modeling of U.S. Army Recruiting Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Share (Source: DMDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 xi List of Tables Table Page 1 Recruiting Market Segmentation ...collectively called Market and Mission Analysis (MMA). To conduct MMA, USAREC defines each recruiting market in terms of elements and segments . The...enlisted and are awaiting basic combat training; In addition to the market elements, USAREC uses market segments —individuals grouped by like

  6. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C.K. Lam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type. Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts (reduce free cash flow or may be used to extract cash from firms (tunneling effect – which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy (China, we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public (individual ownership. Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  7. Marketing Analysis of a chosen Company

    OpenAIRE

    Slabá, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is a proposal for improvement current situation in the company, which is engaged in manufacturing machinery for the food industry. The theoretical part includes the definition of market of organizations, marketing environment, marketing mix and marketing situation analysis. The practical part describes the company NATE - Marketing, Inc. and marketing mix of the company. The thesis also includes a proposal to improve current situation based on an analysis of t...

  8. Coal transport demand in Western Europe and Japan: Impacts of energy market liberalisation and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Maestad, Ottar

    2005-12-01

    Western Europe and Japan are among the main importers of coal. Climate policies following the Kyoto agreement are creating pressure to substitute away from coal and turn to less emission intensive energy sources. At the same time, liberalizations of energy markets in Europe and Japan are likely to cause reduced electricity prices, which will boost the overall demand for electricity. This paper analyses the combined effect of electricity market liberalization and climate policies on the international coal trade. Using the numerical equilibrium model LIBEMOD, we find that while liberalization of electricity markets will imply a large increase in aggregate coal transport demand, the negative impact of climate policies may be even larger, in particular if Russia and Ukraine utilise their market power in the market for emission permits. If this market power is exploited, the total effect of liberalisation and climate policy - when including the impact of general economic growth - is a 20% reduction in aggregate coal transport between 2000 and 2010. Further, impacts differ markedly between Western Europe and Japan. A main difference is that liberalisation has a much more positive - and climate policies have a much stronger negative - impact on steam coal demand in Western Europe than in Japan

  9. MARKETING POLICIES THROUGH THE INTERNET: THE CASE OF SKIING CENTERS IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis LEFAKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lately, Internet constitutes a major tool for transactions in every aspect and supports innovative marketing policies. Broadband Internet has become “the key to success” for businesses, as it offers various advantages and benefits through Internet marketing (e-marketing policies. In Greece, mountainous areas are usually covered with snow during winter months; so, skiing centers have become an important asset for winter tourism. The Internet evolution and the development of network infrastructure enhance marketing policies for winter tourism activities. This paper studies the use of marketing policies in Greek skiing centers through the Internet, such as promotional activities, website interactivity, accommodation & entertainment information, online weather forecast, guest book, etc Therefore, the paper aims to optimize and evaluate skiing centers in Greece, qualitatively and quantitatively according to e-marketing policies used as criteria, based on the multicriteria method of PROMETHEE II and further to classify them in groups. Finally we identify and describe the optimum group of skiing centers to be used as a model with enhanced customer communication services.

  10. A Computable OLG Model for Gender and Growth Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agénor

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a computable Overlapping Generations (OLG) model for gender and growth policy analysis. The model accounts for human and physical capital accumulation (both public and private), intra- and inter-generational health persistence, fertility choices, and women's time allocation between market work, child rearing, and home production. Bargaining between spouses and gender bias, in the form of discrimination in the work place and mothers' time allocation between daughters and so...

  11. Research on the Dividend Policy of Listed Company and Fluctuation Effect of Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the dividend policy and theory, this article takes the events that A stock of all the listed banking companies (16 in total issued dividend in the CSI stock market for 5 years from 2008 to 2012 as the investigation samples to inspect the relevance of dividend policy with the fluctuation of stock price and transaction volume, thus to prove the dividend policy is an efficient mechanism for information transmission.

  12. EU Energy Policy and Future European Energy Markets: Consequences for the Central and East European States

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita M. Balmaceda

    2002-01-01

    This working paper explores the European Union vector in the Central and East European (CEE) energy situation, in particular in terms of the CEE countries' energy relationship with Russia. Attention is paid not only to concrete EU energy policies but also to the larger question of European energy markets. EU policies impact the CEE states' energy relationship with Russia through specific EU requirements vis-à-vis the candidate countries, through the side-effects of other EU policies, through ...

  13. MARKETING MIX POLICIES IN FMCG CASE-STUDY: THE ADVERTISING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA BOBEICA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between selected marketing mix elements in the area of FMCG. It discusses the nature and sometimes negative consequences of the dominating marketing paradigm of today, marketing mix management, and furthermore discusses how modern research into, for example in the case of FMCG Companies, the marketing policies as well as customer relationship tactics shows that another approach to marketing is required. It proposes a conceptual framework in which marketing elements are related to the dimensions of brand equity and brand awareness. It also presents a case study deriving from advertising strategies of FMCG Companies showing that the change in advertising spending is related to changes in market share, changes in product plans and changes in the number of competitors modified by the number of customers, their concentration and the size of the advertising budget.

  14. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence. PMID:20182647

  15. Policies of industrial market and science and technology: the case of Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.G. de.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between policies and the definition of a national program of nuclear energy, is considered. The case under study is the Brazilian one. It is shown that an overall evaluation of market, industry and science and technology is mandatory for the definition of a nuclear energy program, and serious fault and hesitation, leading to contradiction and failure, have their roots in a basic lack of definition in policies. The evolution of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program will probably remain at a mediocre level until a definition at the level of policy-making in marketing, industry and science and technology is firmly pursued and maintained. (Author) [pt

  16. Get a Job! Active Labour Market Policies and Persons with Disabilities in Danish and European Union Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, Lisa; Pedersen, Mads; Ventegodt Liisberg, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the overall level of employment is a goal of the Europe 2020 strategy and Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) have become a key tool used by the European Union and its Member States with a view to increasing employment. This article examines the use of ALMPs, with a special focus on

  17. USING DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS IN RELATIONSHIP MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Iacob Catoiu; Mihai Èšichindelean; Simona Vinerean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to describe and apply discriminant analysis withina relationship marketing context. The paper is structured into two parts; the first part contains aliterature review regarding the value chain concept and the dimensions it is built on, while thesecond part includes the results of applying discriminant analysis on several value chaindimensions. The authors have considered the client-company relationships of the gas-station marketas proper for studying the di...

  18. Analysis of IaaS market

    OpenAIRE

    Dušek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on cloud computing which has become technological trend in the last years and possibilities how to use IT services. Still more expanding offer of cloud services brings new ways for organizations how to efficiently utilize capabilities. The main objective of thesis is the Infrastructure as a service market's analysis carried out in the form of comparison between chosen IaaS public cloud providers, based on multicriterial decision making. For purposes of the analysis are set ...

  19. Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices And Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfajfar, Damjan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of pass-through of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong cost......-side effects limit the size of the policy rate response to inflation that is consistent with determinacy, so that inflation-targeting policies may not be capable of ensuring REE uniqueness. In this case it is advisable to combine policy rate responses to inflation with an appropriate reaction to the output gap...... and/or firm profitability. The negative reaction of real activity and asset prices to inflationary shocks adds a negative force to inflation responses that counteracts the borrowing cost effect and prevents expectations of higher inflation from becoming self-fulfilling...

  20. Data Analysis Methods for Library Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Toshiro; Kim, Eunja

    Our society is rapidly changing to information society, where the needs and requests of the people on information access are different widely from person to person. Library's mission is to provide its users, or patrons, with the most appropriate information. Libraries have to know the profiles of their patrons, in order to achieve such a role. The aim of library marketing is to develop methods based on the library data, such as circulation records, book catalogs, book-usage data, and others. In this paper we discuss the methodology and imporatnce of library marketing at the beginning. Then we demonstrate its usefulness through some examples of analysis methods applied to the circulation records in Kyushu University and Guacheon Library, and some implication that obtained as the results of these methods. Our research is a big beginning towards the future when library marketing is an unavoidable tool.

  1. What Can Policy Analysis Add to Evaluation Research?: Predictive Modeling and Policy Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Policy analysis, or policy study, is defined as the study of the nature, causes, and effects of alternative public policies; sometimes policy analysis refers to specific methods used. Two new developments associated with policy analysis are discussed. One is the concern for deducing the effects of alternative policies before they are adopted, as…

  2. Privatizing policy: Market solutions to energy and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroup, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses how and why privatization can improve policy, not only in terms of managing production, but also in terms of regulation. Three major aspects of privatization are discussed. The importance for the environment of economic efficiency and prosperity is examined. The role of private law and a rights-based policy for controlling pollution is considered. Finally the claim that privatization would replace farsighted government decisions with shortsighted decisions by owners is examined. 83 refs., 2 figs

  3. Price and distribution policies in healthcare marketing in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, BI; Coculescu, EC; Purcărea, VL

    2017-01-01

    There is a principle similar to the theory of exchange in the marketing of health services, meaning that what is delivered to the target market (i.e. the beneficiaries) must be equal to or greater than what is to be received (i.e. the price). The price level in the marketing mix is influenced by how the consumer perceives the respective medical service and is quantified in the profit and the turnover of the organization respectively. The cost of the medical act as a whole is the value of all the tangible and intangible variables associated with it, and the planning, distribution and promotion of the product must be taken into account in the price setting. PMID:28616091

  4. Price and distribution policies in healthcare marketing in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, B I; Coculescu, E C; Purcărea, V L

    2017-01-01

    There is a principle similar to the theory of exchange in the marketing of health services, meaning that what is delivered to the target market (i.e. the beneficiaries) must be equal to or greater than what is to be received (i.e. the price). The price level in the marketing mix is influenced by how the consumer perceives the respective medical service and is quantified in the profit and the turnover of the organization respectively. The cost of the medical act as a whole is the value of all the tangible and intangible variables associated with it, and the planning, distribution and promotion of the product must be taken into account in the price setting.

  5. Italian energy policy in light of European common market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca, S.

    1993-01-01

    Increased levels of competition and cooperation among national and international energy oriented industries in the proposed European common market are expected to improve the efficiency and dynamism of Italian industrial firms and produce a positive effect on the sluggish Italian economy. However, until such time as the market functions properly, the option for public intervention should still be kept available in order to safeguard the free enterprise system. In addition to promoting overall improvements in the use of energy, free enterprise in the energy markets should also benefit national and international environmental protection programs in that increased competition, as well as, the enforcement of European-wide pollution abatement regulations are expected to stimulate the reconversion and transformation of production processes and products in the energy sector

  6. The Analysis of Research on Internet Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Davidavičienė

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The targeted development of internet marketing faces the dynamic environment and its alterations that occur both – in business terms and conditions and in the use of e­tools and applicable concepts. The growing importance of internet marketing is indicated by a growth in e­markets, an increasing number of new generation consumers, investments of organizations in e­based decisions, a strong interest of scientists representing different fields as well as by widening the base of knowledge related to the above introduced phenomenon. Despite a continuously increasing amount of scientific literature on Internet marketing, this area of research is still at the initial stage. The article is aimed at analysing the fields of ongoing researches into Internet marketing and at identifying the areas required for deeper examination. The article has applied for the methods such as a comparative analysis and summary of scientific literature, information comparison and techniques for grouping and the graphical visualization of information.

  7. Textbooks for Content and Language Integrated Learning: policy, market and appropriate didactics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Martín del Pozo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by approaching the concept of CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning providing a brief overview of the history of bilingual education. The influence of the linguistic policies of the European Union is discussed along with some beliefs about language teaching and how both have influenced the celerity of CLIL implementation, momentum and expansion. There are some indicators of the lack of a theoretical framework for CLIL, of insufficient teacher education and or inadequacy of materials. It is necessary to reflect systematically on to what extent commercially published textbooks match the demands of bilingual education. The second section centers on CLIL textbooks, mainly those commercialized by publishers, by referring to some recent studies which attempt to approach systematically their design and use. Since, by definition CLIL includes both content and language, our research question is if content books (in English also include content and language objectives. A corpus of 25 books from different subjects, years, and publishers is analyzed. The analysis shows an insufficient presence of linguistic objectives. Some reflections are made about this scarcity with the warning that this lack could hindrance an efficient implementation of CLIL. Thus, it could be said that these textbooks are not the product of discipline or didactic considerations but the result of the logic of market, publishers and linguistic policy.How to reference this articleMartín del Pozo, M. A., Rascón Estébanez, D. (2015. Textbooks for Content and Language Integrated Learning: policy, market and appropriate didactics?. Foro de Educación, 13(18, pp. 123-141. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.018.007 

  8. A Strategic Market Analysis of the Open Market Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    focused marketing plans must be tailored for the different segments . Opportunities for detailed examination of the different elements are certainly...expansive customer pool) is realized, competitive systems will attempt to capture segments of this market . • There is no doubt that by increasing the...company capitalized upon the market psychographics . And, though the dynamics of the Internet marketplace can seem daunting, there are a small number

  9. Policies to support renewable energies in the heat market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, Veit; Klinski, Stefan; Lehr, Ulrike; Leprich, Uwe; Nast, Michael; Ragwitz, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the contribution from renewable energies in the electrical power market is increasing rapidly, similar progress in the heat market is yet to be made. A prerequisite for progress is the development of innovative support instruments that transcend the usual support through public subsidies or tax reductions. We present an overview of the various classes of possible instruments. Some particularly interesting instruments will be selected and evaluated, comparing them qualitatively and quantitatively for the case of Germany. The most favourable model is found to be a new, allocation-financed model known as the Bonus Model. This model will be described in more detail

  10. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, Ookie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Kirby, Brendan [Consultant

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  11. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, P

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the \\'policy analysis triangle\\' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation.

  12. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  13. The Remittance Market in India : Opportunities, Challenges, and Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Afram, Gabi G.

    2012-01-01

    In chapter one, this report maps the patterns and characteristics of migration flows from India; in chapter two, it provides a detailed discussion of remittance flows to India in terms of their importance, sources, uses, trends, costs, and links to financial access. In chapter three, the report describes the remittance market (the players, the regulatory framework, as well as the existing ...

  14. Policy-based Contracting in Semantic Web Service Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Lamparter, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    This book presents an interdisciplinary approach drawing from the fields of computer science, economics, and law to realize dynamic and flexible Web service markets. It thereby addresses technical issues such as the functional and non-functional description of Web services, economic questions like selecting the right service at an acceptable price, and legal problems dealing with automated contract conclusion and interpretation.

  15. Heat exchangers. Key factors, markets, technology and innovation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkbeiner, F.; Gonard, T.; Filiol, B.

    1993-01-01

    This book gives a diagnosis, at the european scale, of the heat exchanger industry, which plays a very important role in many systems and processes, and in most of the economical sectors. The various applicative markets involved are industry, transportation, and residential-tertiary sector. The recent technological developments are reviewed. 53 figs., 23 refs.

  16. Determinacy, Stock Market Dynamics and Monetary Policy Inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfajfar, Damjan; Santoro, Emiliano

    This note deals with the stability properties of an economy where the central bank is concerned with stock market developments. We introduce a Taylor rule reacting to stock price growth rates along with inflation and output gap in a New-Keynesian setup. We explore the performance of this rule from...

  17. Trade policy, market leaders and endogenous competition intensity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boone, J.; Ionascu, D.; Žigić, Krešimir

    -, č. 311 (2006), s. 1-25 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : tariff protection * market conduct * consumer welfare Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp311.pdf

  18. Technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries: policy and market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D; Werner, Roye

    2014-09-01

    The competitive market advantages of industry and the balancing force of international governmental organizations (IGOs) are examined to identify market and policy in support of sustainable technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries. A second purpose is to examine the usefulness of findings for other assistive technologies (AT). Searches of electronic databases, IGO documents, industry reports and journals were supplemented by informal discussions with industry and IGO staff and audiologists. The value chain is used to examine the competitive advantage of industry and the balancing tools of certain IGOs. Both industry and IGOs engage in intellectual property (IP) and competition activities and are active in each segment of the hearing aid value chain. Their market and policy objectives and strategies are different. IGOs serve as balancing forces for the competitive advantages of industry. The hearing aid market configuration and hearing aid fitting process are not representative of other AT products but IP, trade and competition policy tools used by IGOs and governments are relevant to other AT. The value chain is a useful tool to identify the location of price mark-ups and the influence of actors. Market factors and reimbursement and subsidization policies drive hearing aid innovation. UN-related international government organization activities are responsive to the needs of disability populations who cannot afford assistive technology. Policy tools used by international governmental organizations are applicable across assistive technology. A partnership model is important to distribution of hearing aids to low and middle income countries.

  19. Energy Market Liberalisation and Renewable Energy Policies in OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the effect of energy liberalizations on policies that support renewable energy in a long panel of OECD countries. We estimate this effect accounting for the endogeneity of liberalisation related to joint decisions within a country's energy strategy. Using regulation in other industries as instruments, we find that energy liberalisation increases the public support to renewable energy. The effect of liberalisation is the second largest after the effect of per-capita income and is fully driven by reductions in entry barriers, while the effect of privatisation is negative. Finally, our results are robust to dynamic specifications and various policy indicators. (authors)

  20. A new approach to measure speculation in the oil futures market and some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Leo H.; Nguyen, Chi M.; Chan, Kam C.

    2015-01-01

    We propose using a new relative measure, the speculative ratio, defined as trading volume divided by open interest, to gauge speculative activity in the oil futures market. We apply the speculative ratio to examine the relation between basis and speculative activity in the oil futures market before and after the financialization of the oil market in 2003. Our finding suggests that the oil futures market is dominated by uninformed speculators in the post-financialization period. Our finding carries several practical policy implications, as follows: (1) both the commodity exchange and the regulator should design regulations and trading policies that improve basis risk; (2) on the commodity exchange side, new policies on margin requirements and position limits for speculators should be implemented; (3) margin requirements should be based on the level of basis risk; (4) regulators should speed up implementation of the position limit rule in the Dodd–Frank Act; and (5) stronger and more meaningful enforcement actions by regulators are required to punish and deter market manipulators. - Highlights: • Use a new speculative ratio to gauge speculative activities in oil futures market. • Examine the relation between basis and speculative activities. • The new speculative ratio also works well in the post-2008 oil bubble period. • Oil futures market is dominated by uninformed speculators in post-financialization in 2003.

  1. Looking into the glass: glassware as an alcohol marketing tool, and the implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Macdonald, Laura; Bauld, Linda

    2014-01-01

    To examine how glassware functions as a marketing tool. Content analysis of trade journals. Glassware is used as an integral part of marketing activity to recruit customers, revive brands, build profits and increase consumption. Glassware should be subject to the same control as other forms of marketing. Glasses could be re-engineered to promote safer drinking.

  2. Optimal pricing and promotional effort control policies for a new product growth in segmented market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation enables the marketers to understand and serve the customers more effectively thereby improving company’s competitive position. In this paper, we study the impact of price and promotion efforts on evolution of sales intensity in segmented market to obtain the optimal price and promotion effort policies. Evolution of sales rate for each segment is developed under the assumption that marketer may choose both differentiated as well as mass market promotion effort to influence the uncaptured market potential. An optimal control model is formulated and a solution method using Maximum Principle has been discussed. The model is extended to incorporate budget constraint. Model applicability is illustrated by a numerical example. P.C. Jha, P. Manik, K. Chaudhary, R. Cambini / Optimal Pricing and Promotional 2 Since the discrete time data is available, the formulated model is discretized. For solving the discrete model, differential evolution algorithm is used.

  3. Assessing long-term effects of demand response policies in wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Saguan, Marcelo

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term issues in electricity markets in the presence of demand response development. Different policies have been implemented around the world aiming to develop demand response potential. Externalities, in particular the CO 2 externality, have been one of the key elements in the debate on the effectiveness of different policies regarding demand response development. Policy makers have several options to deal with this externality. The most direct one is to correct the externality by setting a CO 2 price at a level that corresponds to the cost to society of the corresponding CO 2 emissions. One alternative solution could be to subsidize carbon-free technologies as demand response. In this paper we examine potential long-term impacts of these two policies. We rely on a long-term market simulation model that characterizes expansion decisions in a competitive regime. We test for each policy two different scenarios regarding the possibility of internalization of the CO 2 externality. The results show that differences in development policies affect both investments and social costs in the wholesale electricity market and confirm previous findings that a market-driven development of demand response with the internalization of the CO 2 externality is the most efficient approach. (authors)

  4. Optimal operation and forecasting policy for pump storage plants in day-ahead markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muche, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate unit commitment deploying stochastic and deterministic approaches. • We consider day-ahead markets, its forecast and weekly price based unit commitment. • Stochastic and deterministic unit commitment are identical for the first planning day. • Unit commitment and bidding policy can be based on the deterministic approach. • Robust forecasting models should be estimated based on the whole planning horizon. - Abstract: Pump storage plants are an important electricity storage technology at present. Investments in this technology are expected to increase. The necessary investment valuation often includes expected cash flows from future price-based unit commitment policies. A price-based unit commitment policy has to consider market price uncertainty and the information revealing nature of electricity markets. For this environment stochastic programming models are suggested to derive the optimal unit commitment policy. For the considered day-ahead price electricity market stochastic and deterministic unit commitment policies are comparable suggesting an application of easier implementable deterministic models. In order to identify suitable unit commitment and forecasting policies, deterministic unit commitment models are applied to actual day-ahead electricity prices of a whole year. As a result, a robust forecasting model should consider the unit commitment planning period. This robust forecasting models result in expected cash flows similar to realized ones allowing a reliable investment valuation

  5. Using the Boxplot analysis in marketing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Cristinel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the needs of decision makers inside the companies, marketing research is meant to provide the best information that really can to help the adoption of thebest decisions. In this respect a lot of methods of data analysis can be used but the researcher has to choose those results that minimize the errors. This paper proposes an instrumental research regarding the using of Boxplot analysis to identify certain outliers that can alter the information. In order to attain the objective of this research, we exemplified the Boxplot analysis on data related to the GDP recorded in 2014 by Romanian counties.

  6. Activation and active labour market policies in OECD countries: stylized facts and evidence on their effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Activation policies aimed at getting working-age people off benefits and into work have become a buzzword in labour market policies. Yet they are defined and implemented differently across OECD countries and their success rates vary too. The Great Recession has posed a severe stress test for these policies with some commentators arguing that they are at best 'fair weather' policies.  This paper sheds light on these issues mainly via the lens of recent OECD research.  It presents the stylized ...

  7. Immigration and integration policy and labour market attainment among Scandinavian immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Korpi, Tomas; Lorentzen, Thomas

    Comparing immigrant labour market integration, the OECD ranked the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden at the bottom. Integration depends on immigration and integration policy, and the countries’ policies have traditionally here been very similar. However, in the early 2000s Denmark...... increasingly deviated, introducing stricter immigration and harsher integration policies. Using Norway and Sweden as benchmarks, we assess the wider impact of this comprehensive policy reversal tracking the evolution of national employment and earnings gaps between 1993 and 2006. We use large data sets......, employment trends in Norway and Sweden were almost as positive without similar earnings penalties, questioning the aptness of the Danish reforms....

  8. Labour Market Regulations in China: Minimum Wage Policy | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Institute of Income Distribution is a recently established policy research group within the School of Economics and Business Administration at Beijing Normal University. It will partner with researchers from the University of Western Ontario (Canada), the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Nanjing University of ...

  9. Minorities and the Labor Market: Twenty Years of Misguided Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGahey, Richard; Jeffries, John

    1987-01-01

    The failure of industrial policy advocates to discuss Black problems reflects the unconscious influence of the mismatch idea, which asserts that individuals are out of work because they lack skills or education. Blacks suffer disproportionately from America's economic problems and are concentrated in industries which have declined in recent years.…

  10. The power and pain of market-based carbon policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Golub, A.; Pambudi, D.; Hertel, T.; Godde, C.; Herrero, M.; Cacho, O.; Gerber, P.

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to assess the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of carbon policies applied to the ruminant livestock sector [inclusive of the major ruminant species—cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus)]—with particular emphasis on

  11. Monetary Policy Shocks and Risk Premia in the Interbank Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingender, Asger Moll

    2011-01-01

    futures. However, rate cuts taking place at unscheduled FOMC meetings can increase risk premia during periods of financial distress, consistent with the view that central bank actions under such circumstances are perceived as signals that policy makers have private information of further unfavorable...

  12. Labour Market Regulations in China: Minimum Wage Policy | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research led by the China Institute of Income Distribution aims to investigate policy issues around minimum wage regulation in China. It will focus on the political economy aspects of how minimum wages are set, and the wages' effects on employment and inequality. An expected outcome is the development of guidelines ...

  13. Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices and Monetary Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of pass-through of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong

  14. Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices and Monetary Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of passthrough of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong

  15. Credit market distortions, asset prices and monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.

    We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of pass-through of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong cost-side

  16. Credit markets and the propagation of monetary policy shocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim; Mendizábal, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2007), s. 1429-1455 ISSN 0022-2879 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : credit * monetary policy shock * heterogeneous agents Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.947, year: 2007

  17. H2@Scale Resource and Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-05-04

    The 'H2@Scale' concept is based on the potential for wide-scale utilization of hydrogen as an energy intermediate where the hydrogen is produced from low cost energy resources and it is used in both the transportation and industrial sectors. H2@Scale has the potential to address grid resiliency, energy security, and cross-sectoral emissions reductions. This presentation summarizes the status of an ongoing analysis effort to quantify the benefits of H2@Scale. It includes initial results regarding market potential, resource potential, and impacts of when electrolytic hydrogen is produced with renewable electricity to meet the potential market demands. It also proposes additional analysis efforts to better quantify each of the factors.

  18. The Labor Market Policy Reform Agenda in MENA

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Despite positive economic growth in recent years, basic labor market outcomes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) remained stagnant and have only improved slightly in the past 10 years. A number of recent and ongoing analyses have stressed the pressing need for many economies in the region to identify new and sustainable sources of growth, create more and higher value-added employme...

  19. Markets, Government Policy, and China’s Timber Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Zhang; Joseph Buongiorno

    2012-01-01

    China’s domestic demand and exports of wood products are rising rapidly compared to domestic supply. The determinants of timber supply in China were investigated with panel data from 25 provinces from 1999 to 2009. The results indicated that China’s timber supply had responded to both market forces, reflected by timber prices largely determined by world demand and...

  20. Market-based instruments for water policy: the market for water rights in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Market instruments have been often proposed with the aim of improving the efficient allocation of use rights over natural resources. This article analyzes the potential of market mechanisms in the field of water resources and focuses attention on the experience of Chile, one of the few cases in which water markets have been implemented on a wide scale. Evidence from the Chilean case is discussed in order to verify theoretical hypotheses and to outline the potential benefits but also the many drawbacks of these instruments. [it

  1. Measuring the competitiveness benefits of a transmission investment policy: The case of the Alberta electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolak, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Transmission expansions can increase the extent of competition faced by wholesale electricity suppliers with the ability to exercise unilateral market power. This can cause them to submit offer curves closer to their marginal cost curves, which sets market-clearing prices closer to competitive benchmark price levels. These lower wholesale market-clearing prices are the competitiveness benefit consumers realize from the transmission expansion. This paper quantifies empirically the competitiveness benefits of a transmission expansion policy that causes strategic suppliers to expect no transmission congestion. Using hourly generation-unit level offer, output, market-clearing price and congestion data from the Alberta wholesale electricity market from January 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013, an upper and lower bound on the hourly consumer competitiveness benefits of this transmission policy is computed. Both of these competitiveness benefits measures are economically significant, which argues for including them in transmission planning processes for wholesale electricity markets to ensure that all transmission expansions with positive net benefits to electricity consumers are undertaken. -- Highlights: •Define competitiveness benefits to consumers from transmission expansions in wholesale market. •Compute upper and lower bounds on competitiveness benefits for Alberta market. •Compare no-perceived congestion prices to actual prices to measure competitiveness benefits. •Economically substantial competitiveness benefits found for sample period studied. •To ensure adequate transmission, planning processes should account for these benefits

  2. Effects of Economic Policy Uncertainty Shocks on the Long-Run US-UK Stock Market Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Gupta, Rangan

    We use the economic policy uncertainty indices of Baker, Bloom, and Davis (2016) in combination with the mixed data sampling (MIDAS) approach to investigate the US and UK stock market movements. The long-run US-UK stock market correlation depends positively on US economic policy uncertainty shocks....... The US long-run stock market volatility depends significantly on the US economic policy uncertainty shocks but not on UK shocks while the UK depends significantly on both....

  3. Marketing analysis of a maternity service by a consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley-Murphy, M

    1996-07-01

    Marketing analysis is a means of identifying consumer satisfaction, thus providing a means of exploiting weaknesses in competitors. As part of a graduate midwifery programme a small study was undertaken analysing marketing activities used by one competitor provider of maternity care services. The Marketing mix, Ansoff matrix and Gap analysis were the marketing tools used. Recommendations to midwifery service providers suggest using market research to identify consumer expectations and explore areas of both satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

  4. Market and Policy in Argentina: Exploring the Non- Market Strategies and Government in A Hybrid Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Simone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nature of non-market strategies in the case of expanding business in Argentinian.  Result of the enquiry presents a new conceptual framework that allow us to understand the Argentine reality in a proper manner. The full investigation suggests that in other countries the non-market strategies are being studied, without establishing a discipline. Academic material and specific courses have been developed in the business schools of the universities, but, except in specific and small cases, there is no research field and cases developed in Argentina. The expanded research hypothesis argues that companies in Argentina do not understand how to approach the political decisions of the State of hybrid political regimes in matters that concern them. Companies focus on market logic without understanding the logic of "non-market" environments.

  5. The Outsourcing as a Means to Organize the Marketing Analysi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanenko Valentyna O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating expediency of the use of outsourcing as a means to organize the marketing analysis. The article is concerned with the theoretical-methodical foundations of using the outsourcing marketing analysis, in particular: approaches to interpretation of outsourcing have been considered and the key aspects that characterize it have been allocated; benefits of using the outsourcing marketing analysis have been proven; the main tasks of marketing analysis, which would be expedient to use for outsourcing, have been allocated; the basic criteria for choosing the external professionals when using the outsourcing of marketing analysis have been defined; stages of marketing analysis in terms of using the outsourcing have been proposed, as well as indicators for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the efficiency of outsourcing of marketing analysis; a scale for the proposed coefficient of efficiency of the outsourcing of marketing analysis has been substantiated.

  6. Coevolution of policy, market and technical price risks in the EU ETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; Bunn, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU, there have been calls for governments to provide greater certainty over carbon prices, even though it is evident that their price risk is not entirely due to policy uncertainty. We develop a stochastic simulation model of price formation in the EU ETS to analyse the coevolution of policy, market and technology risks under different initiatives. The current situation of a weak (20%) overall abatement target motivates various technology-support interventions, elevating policy uncertainty as the major source of carbon price risk. In contrast, taking a firm decision to move to a more stringent 30% cap would leave the EU-ETS price formation driven much more by market forces than by policy risks. This leads to considerations of how much risk mitigation by governments would be appropriate, and how much should be taken as business risk by the market participants. - Highlights: → Methodology is developed to track EU-ETS risk factors and their interactions. → Policy risks are found to be the most significant when carbon prices are low. → Robust carbon signals in a cap-and-trade require stringent targets. → Multiple policies create downward price pressure, increasing policy risk exposure. → Fuel prices also are important, whilst technology risk plays a small part until later.

  7. Policy insights from the nutritional food market transformation model: the case of obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struben, Jeroen; Chan, Derek; Dubé, Laurette

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics policy model of nutritional food market transformation, tracing over-time interactions between the nutritional quality of supply, consumer food choice, population health, and governmental policy. Applied to the Canadian context and with body mass index as the primary outcome, we examine policy portfolios for obesity prevention, including (1) industry self-regulation efforts, (2) health- and nutrition-sensitive governmental policy, and (3) efforts to foster health- and nutrition-sensitive innovation. This work provides novel theoretical and practical insights on drivers of nutritional market transformations, highlighting the importance of integrative policy portfolios to simultaneously shift food demand and supply for successful and self-sustaining nutrition and health sensitivity. We discuss model extensions for deeper and more comprehensive linkages of nutritional food market transformation with supply, demand, and policy in agrifood and health/health care. These aim toward system design and policy that can proactively, and with greater impact, scale, and resilience, address single as well as double malnutrition in varying country settings. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Attitudes Towards Immigrants, Immigration Policies and Labour Market Outcomes: Comparing Croatia with Hungary and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botrić Valerija

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides comparative evidence on attitudes towards immigrants, their labour market outcomes and policies in Croatia and two neighbouring countries – Slovenia and Hungary. Three different data sources have been used: the European Social Survey, an ad-hoc Labour Force Survey module for the year 2014, and the MIPEX index. Although immigrants have a disadvantaged position on the Croatian labour market, most analysed indicators do not imply that they are in a worse position than in other European economies. Migrant integration policies related to the labour market are assessed as being relatively favourable for Croatia. Judging by the comparable indicators for the native population in Croatia, immigrants’ adverse labour market outcomes seem to be more related to the unfavourable general economic situation, and particularly by the deep and long recession.

  9. Policy Analysis and the Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Describes the need for reason, analysis, and experimentation in the provision of health services, and proposes that the institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences establish a center for policy studies to complement and interact with government policy formulation. (AL)

  10. Before and after the Hartz reforms: the performance of active labour market policy in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobi, Lena; Kluve, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    "Having faced high unemployment rates for more than a decade, the German government implemented a comprehensive set of labour market reforms during the period 2003-2005. This paper describes the economic and institutional context of the German labour market before and after these so-called Hartz reforms. Focussing on active policy measures, we delineate the rationale for reform and its main principles. As preliminary results of programme evaluation studies post-reform have become available ju...

  11. Incorporating Labour Market Frictions into an Optimising-Based Monetary Policy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Moyen, S.; Sahuc, J-G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of introducing a non Walrasian labour market into the "New Neoclassical Synthesis'' framework. A dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model is formulated, solved, and calibrated in order to evaluate its ability to replicate the main features of the Euro area economy. This framework allows us to study the effects of labour market rigidities, nominal rigidities, and other frictions to give account of the impact of monetary policy, technology, public spending, a...

  12. The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa

    2003-01-01

    Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission......Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission...

  13. Regulatory Policy and Markets for Energy Storage in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-05-14

    The last 5 years have been one of the most exciting times for the energy storage industry. We have seen significant advancements in the regulatory process to make accommodations for valuing and monetizing energy storage for what it provides to the grid. The most impactful regulatory decision for the energy storage industry has come from California, where the California Public Utilities Commission issued a decision that mandates procurement requirements of 1.325 GW for energy storage to 3 investor-own utilities in 4 stages: in 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020. Furthermore, at the Federal level, FERC’s Order 755, requires the transmission operators to develop pay for performance tariffs for ancillary services. This has had direct impact on the market design of US competitive wholesale markets and the monetization of fast responding grid assets. While this order is technology neutral, it clearly plays into the fast-responding capability of energy storage technologies. Today PJM, CAISO, MISO, NYISO, and NE-ISO have implemented Order 755 and offer new tariff for regulation services based on pay-for-performance principles. Furthermore, FERC Order 784, issued in July 2013 requires transmission providers to consider speed and accuracy in determining the requirements for ancillary services. In November 2013, FERC issued Order 972, which revises the small generator interconnection agreement which declares energy storage as a power source. This order puts energy storage on par with existing generators. This paper will discuss the implementation of FERC’s Pay for Performance Regulation order at all ISOs in the U.S. under FERC regulatory authority (this excludes ERCOT). Also discussed will be the market impacts and overall impacts on the NERC regulation performance indexes. The paper will end with a discussion on the California and Ontario, Canada procurement mandates and the opportunity that it may present to the energy storage industry.

  14. Markets and policy measures in the evolution of electric mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Hülsmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph collects theoretical, empirical and political contributions from different fields, focusing on the commercial launch of electric mobility, and intending to shed more light on the complexity of supply and demand. It is an ongoing discussion, both in the public as well as in academia, whether or not electric mobility is capable of gaining a considerable market share in the near future. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and practitioners in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  15. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described

  16. Advancing Health Marketing Research and Policy Recommendations by Incorporating Source Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Guadagno, Marie; Champlin, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Communication researchers, recognizing the message sent is not necessarily the same as the message received, have incorporated the perspective of advertising professionals into the study of advertising effects. Health marketing research could similarly benefit from incorporating this largely absent perspective into the academic and policy debate surrounding the impact of advertising on health issues ranging from obesity to alcohol use. This commentary serves as a call to action to stakeholders in this academic and policy debate: focus on the perspective of advertising professionals to enrich health marketing and public health research in which advertising is the delivery vehicle for health messages.

  17. Content Analysis of Assessment Data in Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowles, Nicole; Hutto, Alexandra; Miller, Peter Max M.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes a sample of students' writing to assess their understanding of marketing concepts in the context of a Principles of Marketing course. Content analysis of pre- and post-essays was used to assess student knowledge of marketing concepts. The data was collected in Principles of Marketing classes. and highlight that many students…

  18. 41 CFR 101-29.220 - Market research and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Market research and... PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.220 Market research and analysis. Market research and... to determine whether they meet user needs and to identify the market practices of firms engaged in...

  19. analysis of edible mushroom marketing in three villages in central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    annual respectively. This suggests that edible mushroom marketing business was lucrative. The concentration of sellers is low while entry is free. The markets are thus prefect competitive markets. The regression analysis, however, revealed that of all the marketing costs, transportation had the most significant impact on the ...

  20. [Market and public policy network failures: challenges and possibilities for the Brazilian Unified Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Filho, Francisco Percival; Sarti, Flávia Mori

    2012-11-01

    The principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) impose a healthcare service structure based on public policy networks which, combined with the financing model adopted, leads to market failings. This imposes barriers to the management of the public health system and the enactment of SUS objectives. The institutional characteristics and the heterogeneity of players, allied to the existence of different healthcare approaches, generate analytical complexity in the study of the global dynamics of the SUS network. There are limitations in the use of quantitative methods based on static analysis of retrospective SUS data. Thus, an approach taking SUS as a complex system using innovative quantitative methodology based on computational simulation is proposed. This paper sought to analyze challenges and possibilities of the combined application of cellular automata modeling and agent-based modeling for simulation of the evolution of the SUS healthcare service network. This approach should permit better understanding of the organization, heterogeneity and structural dynamics of the SUS service network and a minimization of the effects of market failings on the Brazilian health system.

  1. Public Policies Analysis and the Prince System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behxhet Brajshori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Public Policies present governmental sectorial policies and according to several scholars those are defined based on "what does the Government do". In fact, those are mandatory state's principles for the Government that aims the implementation of the strategy, objectives and Government's goals in the function of its promises' fulfilment towards the electors and all of the country's citizens. Public Policies Analysis has to do with the monitoring of government's agenda which directly can influence on a specific community. The idea of public policies analysis in linked with the need that the Government through statistical data has to prove what is being worked. Public Policies Analysis evolves in terms of design, implementation and public policies' effects. One of the methods for predicting the probability that a specifi c public policy will be implemented or not, is the Prince System. The Prince System, actually, presents a technique for assessing the relative support or opposition to a particular policy from individuals, groups or organizations.

  2. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  3. Introduction: Discourse Analysis and Policy Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); R.J. Apthorpe (Raymond)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: As introduction to a collection on policy discourses and patterns of argumentation in international development, this paper clarifies different meanings of `discourse' and 'discourse analysis', including as applied in development studies, and explains why effective

  4. Evaluating the Impact of an Active Labour Market Policy on Employment: Short- and Long-Term Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Cansino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Labour Market Insertion Contract was an Active Labour Market Policy introduced in Spain. It was aimed at individuals who had difficulties entering the labour market, and it was introduced with the purpose of reducing the rate of unemployment. This article provides an estimation of the average impact that this contract had on the employability of individuals in the short and long term. A microeconomic analysis was carried out based on causal statistical inference by using propensity score matching and kernel and radial estimators. Data was taken from the most comprehensive database available, which is the Continuous Sample of Work Histories. Results are consistent with literature reports and show that the employability of participants was inferior to that of individuals with similar, temporary-type contracts. This research contributes to the literature by evaluating whether there was empirical evidence to support the political decision to revoke or replace this kind of direct employment programme.

  5. Monetary policy options for mitigating the impact of the global financial crisis on emerging market economies.

    OpenAIRE

    Dąbrowski, Marek A.; Śmiech, Sławomir; Papież, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Though the hypothesis that exchange rate regimes fully predetermine monetary policy in the face of external shocks hardly finds any advocates on theoretical ground it has crept in the most of empirical research. This study adopts a more discerning empirical approach that looks at monetary policy tools used in order to accommodate the recent financial crisis. We investigated the GDP growth in 45 emerging market economies in the most intense phase of the crisis and found out that there is no cl...

  6. Equal Opportunities and Ethnic Inequality in European Labour Markets : Discrimination, Gender and Policies of Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The need to analyse labour market mechanisms in post-industrial Western societies is urgent. Despite laws and policy measures being developed at the European, national and local levels, job-seeking immigrants and ethnic minorities still suffer unequal access and ethnic discrimination. This volume endeavours to understand why. Four chapters dealing with discrimination, gender, equity policies and diversity management present a lively discussion of the current scientific debate. Besides providi...

  7. ADAPT: a price-stabilizing compliance policy for renewable energy certificates: the case of SREC markets

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaei, Javad; Coulon, Michael; Powell, Warren B.

    2017-01-01

    Currently most Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) markets are defined based on targets which create an artificial step demand function resembling a cliff. This target policy produces volatile prices which can make investing in renewables a risky proposition. In this paper, we propose an alternative policy called Adjustable Dynamic Assignment of Penalties and Targets (ADAPT) which uses a sloped compliance penalty and a self-regulating requirement schedule, both designed to stabilize REC prices...

  8. Impact of Energy Market Liberalisation of Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerovac, K.

    2001-01-01

    Evolving liberalisation and market forces transform the mindset of energy industry as well as energy consumers. Within the new environment, energy will be generated, traded and consumed like other commodities. Competition and new incentives have a profound influence on energy efficiency incentives and policies. This report aims at identifying the effects of liberalisation on energy efficiency and potential energy policy implications. The report addresses energy efficiency issues throughout the energy cycle from generation, transmission to consumption.(author)

  9. Commodity Market Inefficiencies and Inflationary Pressures - India’s Economic Policy Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar GUPTA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the current pace of growth, India would emerge as a major player in the international market in terms of commodity consumption, production and trade. Going by trade volume and also the possibly as an identifiable influence on the price making process on the essential commodities, the futures and spot markets have shown major variations. Increased volatility in asset prices has been a major reason behind the integration of domestic financial markets with the international financial sector accentuating the demand for the trading in the derivative market. Though organized commodity trading has been in from the nineteenth century in India, the commodity derivative markets in the new form with nationwide electronic trading and access have opened the gates for speculators, hedgers and other market participants to capitalize on the development. The robust growth of the commodity markets can be observed in terms of number of commodities trade volumes and growing number of both the market participants and the commodity exchanges. Liquidity booms reflected by loose monetary policy are responsible for major surge in commodity prices globally in addition to direct tangible impacts of oil prices especially in developing countries with heavy oil imports like India. Futures markets are created to fulfill genuine desires economic functions of hedging and price discovery. But, enormous futures trading observed on the commodity exchanges have raised a host of issues like inflation guided by the fuelling principle implying the direct relationship between volatility and inflation. Huge price volatility in futures segment on the commodity exchanges has therefore raised concerns relating to the market efficiencies, infrastructure and knowledge and also their consequential impact on cash markets. The demand and supply side of the commodity price mechanism is traditionally governed by numerous factors including the climatic conditions, availability of critical

  10. Integrated Analysis of Market Transformation Scenarios with HyTrans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL; Bowman, David Charles [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    This report presents alternative visions of the transition of light-duty vehicle transportation in the United States from petroleum to hydrogen power. It is a supporting document to the U.S. Department of Energy's Summary Report, "Analysis of the Transition to a Hydrogen Economy and the Potential Hydrogen Infrastructure Requirements" (U.S. DOE, 2007). Three alternative early transition scenarios were analyzed using a market simulation model called HyTrans. The HyTrans model simultaneously represents the behavior of fuel suppliers, vehicle manufacturers and consumers, explicitly recognizing the importance of fuel availability and the diversity of vehicle choices to consumers, and dependence of fuel supply on the existence of market demand. Competitive market outcomes are simulated by means of non-linear optimization of social surplus through the year 2050. The three scenarios specify different rates and geographical distributions of market penetration for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles from 2012 through 2025. Scenario 1 leads to 2 million vehicles on U.S. roads by 2025, while Scenarios 2 and 3 result in 5 million and 10 million FCVs in use by 2025, respectively. The HyTrans model "costs out" the transition scenarios and alternative policies for achieving them. It then tests whether the scenarios, together with the achievement of the DOE's technology goals for fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen infrastructure technologies could lead to a sustainable transition to hydrogen powered transportation. Given the achievement of DOE's ambitious technology goals, all three scenarios appear to lead to a sustainable transition to hydrogen. In the absence of early transition deployment effort, no transition is likely to begin before 2045. The cumulative costs of the transition scenarios to the government range from $8 billion to $45 billion, depending on the scenario, the policies adopted and the degree of cost-sharing with industry. In the absence of carbon constraining

  11. The Interdependence of Competition Policy, Consumer Policy and Regulation in Introducing and Safeguarding Effective Competition in the EU Telecommunications Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bartels

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the European Union finds itself in troubled waters. It has to prove that its benefits outweigh the costs of its endeavour. In this respect, an EU competition policy that focuses on consumer welfare is one way to gain support by the citizens of its member states. The Roaming Regulation that has reduced the mobile communications costs while travelling abroad serves as a good example for this approach. The EU Commission views consumer policy as another important factor to protect and benefit customers. In markets with natural monopolies, the two policies require the support of an effective regulatory policy. The research demonstrates that these three policies – if harmonised – are able to lead to an increase in consumer welfare (primarily by reducing prices and that they protect the rights and interests of consumers. In the case of telecommunications, several initiatives of the European Commission and of national regulatory authorities to falls in prices and forced operators to implement customer friendly rules and to protect customer data and privacy. The authors consider that the European Commission has tried to establish and harmonise rules across all member states in order to protect the interests and rights of consumers on the telecommunication market. The enforcement of competition and consumer policy within institutions from the telecom field certainly could promote the focus on consumers and the possibility to use a large “toolbox”. Harmonising and adjusting the policies across different countries and institutions and minimising any possible side effects is nevertheless a challenging task for the EU Commission in the future.

  12. The transformation of morals in markets: death, benefits, and the exchange of life insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sarah

    2008-11-01

    This article adopts an institutional approach to describe the changing secondary market for life insurance in the United States. Since the 1990s, this market, in which investors buy strangers' life insurance policies, has grown in the face of considerable moral ambivalence. The author uses news reports and interviews to identify and describe three conceptions of this market: sacred revulsion, consumerist consolation, and rationalized reconciliation. Differences among the conceptions are considered in view of the institutional legacy of life insurance and its success in organizing practices, perceptions, and understandings about markets and death. From this case, the author draws implications for analyses of morals in markets, an important and emergent topic within economic sociology.

  13. Is the Incidence of the Monetary Policy on the Mortgage Market Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Barbu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article sets out to approach mortgage markets and their impact on the financial structure and on the financial stability. The synthesizing of studies done lead to the conclusion that the institutional characteristics of the mortgage market influence the monetary policy shocks on the prices of housing and consumption. In developed countries, transmission of such shocks is stronger because of mortgage markets mature and flexible. Regarding this aspect, there are significant divergences in the structure of the mortgage market between the main industrialized countries. Also, the reaction of central banks to the speculative bubbles on the mortgage markets is extremely reduced, thus formulating a series of interrogations related to the lack of concern of monetary authorities regarding the price of real assets.

  14. Shortages in the labour market: an analysis of employers' behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Remery, C.; Schippers, J.

    2008-01-01

    Different policies are being promoted to increase the labour supply in ageing labour markets. This article presents the results of a large-scale survey carried out among Dutch employers into their management of the constraints presented by a tight labour market. Organizations take different measures

  15. Energy Market Impacts of Nuclear Power Phase-Out Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)

  16. Pulses production in Italy: trade, marketing and policy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Ghelfi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Italian pulses production has sharply fallen since the middle of the last century and the role that pulses played has diminished at both the agricultural and food levels. This is the result of several factors that are analysed in this article, among which the most important can be identified in the low profitability compared to other crops, mainly cereals, the historic collapse of domestic consumption and a strong competition from foreign producers. Conversely, in recent years, different signals appear to delineate a possible framework for recovery for legumes: the first of these is represented by the recent reversal trend in domestic consumption, due to healthy reasons and a fall in meat consumption. The favourable trend of organic consumption can also be considered as a positive factor for pulses. However, the focus point for pulses future perspective is the recent development of the European policy (2014-2020 that planned several actions in support of them, such as coupled payments and the provisions of greening rules. These policies aim to support the training effort needed to bring home to producers the importance of legumes in a proper crop rotation that maintains soil fertility and therefore better yields and profitability. In light of this and based on the general crisis in cereals prices, it is possible to be reasonably optimistic regarding the future of the legumes sector in Italy.

  17. Energy market impacts of nuclear power phase-out policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.

    2013-03-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)

  18. Policy-induced market introduction of Generation IV reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, Aliki Irina van; Roelofs, Ferry

    2011-01-01

    Almost 10 years ago the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) started the Generation IV Initiative (GenIV) with 9 other national governments with a positive ground attitude towards nuclear energy. Some of these Generation IV systems, like the fast reactors, are nearing the demonstration stage. The question on how their market introduction will be implemented becomes increasingly urgent. One main topic for future reactor technologies is the treatment of radioactive waste products. Technological solutions to this issue are being developed. One possible process is the transformation of long-living radioactive nuclides into short living ones; a process known as transmutation, which can be done in a nuclear reactor only. Various Generation IV reactor concepts are suitable for this process, and of these systems most experience has been gained with the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). However, both these first generation SFR plants and their Generation IV successors are designed as electricity generating plants, and therefore supposed to be commercially viable in the electricity markets. Various studies indicate that the generation costs of a combined LWR-(S)FR nuclear generating park (LWR: light water reactor) will be higher than that of an LWR-only park. To investigate the effects of the deployment of the different reactors and fuel cycles on the waste produced, resources used and costs incurred as a function of time, a dynamic fuel cycle assessment is performed. This study will focus on the waste impact of the introduction of a fraction of fast reactors in the European nuclear reactor park with a cost increase as described in the previous paragraph. The nuclear fuel cycle scenario code DANESS is used for this, as well as the nuclear park model of the EU-27 used for the previous study. (orig.)

  19. An empirical analysis on the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Hozouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been growing competition between two primary sources of mobile service providers including Hamrah Aval and Irancell in Iran. The competition is so tight that both service providers have spent significant amount of money on marketing planning. Therefore, it is necessary to find important factors influencing on better marketing planning. This paper presents an investigation to analyze the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment. The proposed study of this paper has used principle component analysis and it has detected four factors environment issues, marketing organization, market development and relationship oriented.

  20. A comparative analysis of capacity adequacy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Botterud, Audun; Wolfgang, Ove

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a stochastic dynamic optimization model is used to analyze the effect of different generation adequacy policies in restructured power systems. The expansion decisions of profit-maximizing investors are simulated under a number of different market designs: Energy Only with and without a price cap, Capacity Payment, Capacity Obligation, Capacity Subscription, and Demand Elasticity. The results show that the overall social welfare is reduced compared to a centralized social welfare optimization for all policies except Capacity Subscription and Demand Elasticity. In particular, an energy only market with a low price cap leads to a significant increase in involuntary load shedding. Capacity payments and obligations give additional investment incentives and more generating capacity, but also result in a considerable transfer of wealth from consumers to producers due to the capacity payments. Increased demand elasticity increases social welfare, but also results in a transfer from producers to consumers, compared to the theoretical social welfare optimum. In contrast, the capacity subscription policy increases the social welfare, and both producers and consumers benefit. This is possible because capacity subscription explicitly utilizes differences in consumers' preferences for uninterrupted supply. This advantage must be weighed against the cost of implementation, which is not included in the model.

  1. An analysis of stock market efficiency: Developed vs Islamic stock markets using MF-DFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Aun R.; Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Bacha, Obiyathulla I.; Masih, Mansur

    An efficient market has been theoretically proven to be a key component for effective and efficient resource allocation in an economy. This paper incorporates econophysics with Efficient Market Hypothesis to undertake a comparative analysis of Islamic and developed countries’ markets by extending the understanding of their multifractal nature. By applying the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) we calculated the generalized Hurst exponents, multifractal scaling exponents and generalized multifractal dimensions for 22 broad market indices. The findings provide a deeper understanding of the markets in Islamic countries, where they have traces of highly efficient performance particularly in crisis periods. A key finding is the empirical evidence of the impact of the ‘stage of market development’ on the efficiency of the market. If Islamic countries aim to improve the efficiency of resource allocation, an important area to address is to focus, among others, on enhancing the stage of market development.

  2. Rethinking EU Employment Policy; a legal and economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.S. van Duin (Kees)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Given the central role of the labour market in determining the welfare of citizens it is no wonder that governments aim for influencing the labour market process. The European Union has influenced and facilitated the labour market process by policies ranging from the

  3. Quantifying the Effects of Biomass Market Conditions and Policy Incentives on Economically Feasible Sites to Establish Dedicated Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Nepal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used a spatially-explicit model to identify the amount and spatial distribution of economically feasible sites for establishing dedicated energy crops under various market and policy scenarios. A sensitivity analysis was performed for a biomass market with different discount rates and biomass prices as well as policy scenarios including propriety tax exemption, carbon offset payments, and the inclusion of farmland for biomass production. The model was applied to a four-county study area in Kentucky representing conditions commonly found in the Ohio River Valley. Results showed that both biomass price and discount rate have a can strongly influence the amount of economically efficient sites. Rising the biomass price by 5 $·t−1 and lowering discount rate by 1% from the baseline scenario (40 $·t−1 and 5% resulted in an over fourteen fold increment. Property tax exemption resulted in a fourfold increase, a carbon payment on only 1 $·t−1 caused a twelve fold increase and extending the landbase from marginal land to farmland only slightly increase the economically efficient sites. These results provide an objective evaluation of market and policy scenarios in terms of their potential to increase land availability for establishing dedicated energy crops and to promote the bioenergy industry.

  4. Tweak, Adapt, or Transform: Policy Scenarios in Response to Emerging Bioenergy Markets in the U.S. Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Atwell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging bioenergy markets portend both boon and bane for regions of intensive agricultural production worldwide. To understand and guide the effects of bioenergy markets on agricultural landscapes, communities, and economies, we engaged leaders in the Corn Belt state of Iowa in a participatory workshop and follow-up interviews to develop future policy scenarios. Analysis of workshop and interview data, in conjunction with the results of regional social and ecological research, was used to develop a heuristic model outlining interactions between key drivers and outcomes of regional landscape change. Three policy scenarios were built on this framework and included the following approaches: tweak, adapt, and transform. Our results suggest that if macroscale markets, technologies, and federal farm policies are allowed to be the overriding drivers of farm owner and operator decision making, Iowa's agricultural landscapes will likely become highly efficient at row crop production at the cost of other desired outcomes. However, the perspectives of Iowa leaders demonstrate how multifunctional agricultural landscapes can be achieved through a concerted portfolio of change coordinated across local, regional, and national scales.

  5. Proposed revision of the Cumberland System Power Marketing Policy and subsequent contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Southeastern Power Administration has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-0811) evaluating the proposed revision of the Cumberland System Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts. The findings of the Environmental Assessment (EA) are: the only significant change from the existing policy will be the term of the contracts executed under the revised policy; and there will be no addition of major new generation resources; there will be no new loads; there will be no major changes in the operating parameters of power generation resources. This paper discusses the need for action, the alternative and the environmental impacts

  6. Youths on labour market.Features. Particularities. Pro-mobility factors for graduates. Elements of a balanced policy for labour migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The youths’ labour market, and especially insertion employment has a series of particularities defined by aspects such as: flexibility, efficient employment, interest for career but also informal employment, external mobility, including brain drain, segmentation, employment precariousness, income disadvantages, etc. Therefore, also the labour market policy and particularly managing labour mobility especially through the economic and social effects that might be triggered on the local labour market in the origin country, presents a special importance under the conditions of the economic turnaround stage, by promoting new and sustainable jobs, based on knowledge and competences. In the present paper an analysis is made about the youths’ labour market features, and the outcomes of an empirical analysis about graduates’ migration propensity are presented. Suggestions are made for developing a balanced policy for youths’ labour mobility to the benefit of the country of origin.

  7. Information Acquisition and Excessive Risk: Impact of Policy Rate and Market Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volha Audzei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive risk-taking of financial agents drew a lot of attention in the aftermath of the financial crisis. Low interest rates and subdued market volatility during the Great Moderation are sometimes blamed for stimulating risk-taking and leading to the recent financial crisis. In recent years, with many central banks around the world conducting the policy of low interest rates and mitigating market risks, it has been debatable whether this policy contributes to the building up of another credit boom. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on information acquisition by the financial agents. We build a theoretical model which captures excessive risk taking in response to changes in policy rate and market volatility. This excessive risk takes the form of an increased risk appetite of the agents, but also of decreased incentives to acquire information about risky assets. As a result, with market risk being reduced, agents tend to acquire more risk in their portfolios then they would with the higher market risk. The same forces increase portfolio risk when the safe interest rate is falling. The robustness of the results is considered with different learning rules.

  8. The credit crunch : Impacts on the housing market and policy responses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priemus, H.

    2009-01-01

    This contribution deals with the impact of the credit crunch on the Dutch housing market and the policy responses of the Dutch government so far. Reinhart and Rogoff have presented an overview of credit crises after WW II: what are the general characteristics and impacts? Also in the Netherlands,

  9. Racial Discrimination in Urban Housing Markets and Goals for Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, John F.

    The diverse effects of racial discrimination in urban housing markets are discussed in this paper. It also outlines a number of programs and policies that would ameliorate these effects in the short run and would help eradicate racial discrimination and segregation in the long run. The paper's emphasis reflects the opinion that housing market…

  10. The impact of European antitrust policy : Evidence from the stock market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Günster (Andrea); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractWe evaluate the impact of European antitrust policy by analyzing the stock market response to investiga-tion announcements, infringement decisions, and appeals for 253 companies involved in 118 Europeanantitrust cases over 1974–2004. We find significantly negative stock price

  11. An Economic Model of Brazil’s Ethanol-Sugar Markets and Impacts of Fuel Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Just, D.R.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    We develop an economic model of flex plants, export demands and two domestic fuel demand curves: E25, a 25 percent blend of ethanol with gasoline consumed by conventional cars, and E100, ethanol consumed only by flex cars. This allows us to analyze the market impacts of specific policies, namely the

  12. Market-oriented institutions and policies and economic growth : A critical survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J; Lundstrom, S; Sturm, JE

    This paper surveys recent evidence suggesting that market-oriented institutions and policies are strongly related to economic growth, focusing on studies using the economic freedom (EF) indicator of the Fraser Institute. This index is critically discussed. Also various serious shortcomings of

  13. STEM Education Policies and Their Impact on the Labour Market in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselova, Rita; Gravite, Aija

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the results of implementing the state education policy aimed at satisfying the labour market demand for engineering and medicine specialists via strengthening STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) education both in schools and higher education. [For the complete Volume 15 proceedings, see ED574185.

  14. Policies and Market Factors Driving Wind Power Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Parsons, B.; Gagliano, T.; Brown, M.; Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2003-07-01

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24% annually during the past five years. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the policies and market factors that have been driving utility-scale wind energy development in the United States, particularly in the states that have achieved a substantial amount of wind energy investment in recent years. Although there are federal policies and overarching market issues that are encouraging investment nationally, much of the recent activity has resulted from state-level policies or localized market drivers. In this paper, we identify the key policies, incentives, regulations, and markets affecting development, and draw lessons from the experience of leading states that may be transferable to other states or regions. We provide detailed discussions of the drivers for wind development in a dozen leading states-California, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming.

  15. Policy Responses to the Recent Poor Performance of the U.S. Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Since the onset of the Great Recession, the U.S. labor market has been reeling. Public concern has largely focused on the unemployment rate, which rose to double digits and has since been stalled at just over 9 percent. This rate is unacceptably high, and macroeconomic policy efforts have been unsuccessful in bringing it down. The overall…

  16. Debtor States and the World Market: Explaining Mexican and Brazilian Foreign Economic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Dennis John

    The ways in which world market instabilities affect indebted developing countries and explanations of their differential policy responses are the central issues addressed in this paper. The development of Brazil and Mexico is examined as examples of middle-income developing nations whose economies have assumed dependent development. Dependent…

  17. The Impact of Active Labour Market Policy on Post-Unemployment Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Sylvie; Rosholm, Michael

    While job search theory predicts that active labour market policies (ALMPs) can affect post-unemployment outcomes, empirical evaluations investigating transition rates have mostly focused on the impact of ALMPs on exit rates from the current unemployment spell. We use a social experiment, which...

  18. Anti-Monopoly Law And Free Market Economy: Policy And Basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The United Republic of Tanzania joined other developed and developing countries in dealing with monopoly problem by enacting the Fair Trade Practices Act of 1994. This was part of implementing the economic liberation policy of adopting a free market economy introduced in 1991 to replace State monopolies established ...

  19. How do we know what works in active labour market policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Active labour market policies (ALMPs) continue to be a hot topic in Danish politics, as well as in many other countries. Despite a substantial amount of resources spent on ALMPs there is still a lack of results, especially when it comes to the disadvantaged unemployed. The disadvantaged unemployed...

  20. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  1. Transport Modeling Analysis to Test the Efficiency of Fish Markets in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis S. Al-Abri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oman’s fish exports have shown an increasing trend while supplies to the domestic market have declined, despite increased domestic demand caused by population growth and income. This study hypothesized that declining fish supplies to domestic markets were due to inefficiency of the transport function of the fish marketing system in Oman. The hypothesis was tested by comparing the observed prices of several fish species at several markets with optimal prices. The optimal prices were estimated by the dual of a fish transport cost- minimizing linear programming model. Primary data on market prices and transportation costs and quantities transported were gathered through a survey of a sample of fish transporters. The quantity demanded at market sites was estimated using secondary data. The analysis indicated that the differences between the observed prices and the estimated optimal prices were not significantly different showing that the transport function of fish markets in Oman is efficient. This implies that the increasing trend of fish exports vis-à-vis the decreasing trend of supplies to domestic markets is rational and will continue. This may not be considered to be equitable but it is efficient and may have long-term implications for national food security and have an adverse impact on the nutritional and health status of the rural poor population. Policy makers may have to recognize the trade off between the efficiency and equity implications of the fish markets in Oman and make policy decisions accordingly in order to ensure national food security.

  2. The impact of housing policies and housing markets on ethnic spatial segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how ethnic segregation is connected to an ethnic division of the housing market and a spatial separation of different housing tenures in four Nordic cities. Explanations for the differences across the cities are found by comparing housing markets and housing policies....... The housing markets are in all four cities ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. We further discuss the reasons for the observed pattern. The paper shows that the spatial distribution...... housing, while co-operative housing is crucial in the fourth. It is also shown that a policy of neighbourhood tenure mix in one of the cities has resulted in a relatively low degree of segregation in spite of high concentrations of immigrants in social/public housing....

  3. Restricting marketing to children: Consensus on policy interventions to address obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Lobstein, Tim; Landon, Jane; Kent, Monique Potvin; Pellerin, Suzie; Caulfield, Timothy; Finegood, Diane; Mongeau, Lyne; Neary, Neil; Spence, John C

    2013-01-01

    Obesity presents major challenges for public health and the evidence is strong. Lessons from tobacco control indicate a need for changing the policy and environments to make healthy choices easier and to create more opportunities for children to achieve healthy weights. In April 2011, the Alberta Policy Coalition for Chronic Disease Prevention convened a consensus conference on environmental determinants of obesity such as marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children. We examine the political environment, evidence, issues, and challenges of placing restrictions on marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages within Canada. We recommend a national regulatory system prohibiting commercial marketing of foods and beverages to children and suggest that effective regulations must set minimum standards, monitor compliance, and enact penalties for non-compliance. PMID:23447026

  4. Analysis of product efficiency of hybrid vehicles and promotion policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyundo; Oh, Inha

    2010-01-01

    The key aim of this study is to evaluate the product efficiency of current hybrid vehicles and suggest effective policies to promote hybrid vehicles in the Korean automobile market and development trends of hybrid vehicles. The efficiency levels for car models sold in Korea, including hybrid ones, were measured using the recently developed discrete additive data envelopment analysis (DEA) model that reflects consumer preference. The result of the analysis shows that current hybrid vehicles on the market are still at lower competitive advantage than traditional car models with conventional combustion engines and we can suggest a mix of incentive policies to promote the competitiveness of hybrid vehicles. In addition, we also identify two distinctive trends of hybrid vehicle development: environment-oriented hybrid vehicles and performance-oriented hybrid vehicles. It implies that the government should take account of development trends of hybrid vehicles to achieve the policy goals in designing support schemes and automobile companies that are willing to develop hybrid vehicles can also gain some insights for making strategic decisions. (author)

  5. Russian natural gas policy and its possible effects on European gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, O.; Locatelli, C.

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing perception among Western European gas experts that Russia has developed a considerable gas surplus - the Russian gas bubble. Thus, the question clearly arises how much gas is available for export and how much gas, over the next 15 to 20 years, can the Russian quasi-monopolist Gazprom market in Western Europe. We consider that Gazprom's export strategy mirrors the approach of Russia's natural gas policy towards the Western European market. In this paper, we will focus on the characteristics of Gazprom's export strategy, its underlying logic, and its impact on Western European gas markets. As a consequence of Gazprom's export strategy, the Russian gas company faces today a price quantity dilemma. Gazprom's problem is to place as much gas as possible in the growing Western European gas market, without destroying downstream gas prices. We argue that Gazprom has adopted a market share expansion and downstream vertical integration strategy, aimed at capturing a part of the downstream gas rent. Although this strategy appears to have initiated a form of gas to gas competition in a number of European consumer markets, this strategy is not based on an aggressive price policy. However, in order to live up to its ambitions, there is a chance that Gazprom will have to somewhat relax traditional contract clauses, such as contract length, indexation terms and take or pay conditions. (author)

  6. An Overview and Analysis of Marketing Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Caner Dincer; Banu Dincer

    2014-01-01

    In todays business world, in addition to general decisions, managers must also make judgments concerning what is ethical to do. This is not an easy task especially for marketing professionals as marketing is the visible interface with not only customers, but with all other stakeholders, it is important for marketers to take into consideration the marketing ethics. Marketing ethics should be examined from an individual, organizational, and societal perspective.

  7. Comparative analysis of features of Polish and Lithuanian Day-ahead electricity market prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobinaite, Viktorija; Juozapaviciene, Aldona; Staniewski, Marcin; Szczepankowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to better understand the processes of electricity market price formation in Poland and Lithuania through an analysis of the features (volatility and spikes) of Lithuanian and Polish day-ahead electricity market prices and to assess how acquired electricity price features could affect the achievement of the main goals of the national energy policy. The following indicators have been calculated to determine electricity market price volatility: the oscillation coefficient, the coefficient of variation, an adjusted coefficient of variation, the standard deviation indicator, the daily velocity indicator (based on the overall average price) and the daily velocity indicator (based on the daily average price). Critical values for electricity market price have been calculated to evaluate price spikes. This analysis reveals that electricity market-price volatility is moderate in Poland and high in Lithuania. Electricity price spikes have been an observable phenomenon both in Lithuanian and in Polish day-ahead electricity markets, but they are more common in Lithuania, encompassing 3.15% of the time period analysed in Poland and 4.68% of the time period analysed in Lithuania. Volatile, spiking and increasing electricity prices in day-ahead electricity markets in Lithuania and Poland create preconditions and substantiate the relevance of implementation of the national energy policies and measures. - Highlights: • Moderate and seasonal volatility. • spiking market price and. • stable average price

  8. The analysis of marketing concept implementation in domestic enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global markets and modern business conditions require from enterprises to change their business philosophy and ways of behaviour in their business practice. Nowadays, in IT society, knowledge has become the basic resource. Marketing enables knowledge management by making possibilities for increasing knowledge productivity of other business functions in enterprises. Relationship marketing signifies a considerable advance in marketing approach, going from thinking exclusively about competition and conflict categories towards the categories of collaboration and interdependence. Domestic enterprises are facing problems with achieving competitive abilities on global markets and one of significant causes of this phenomenon is inappropriate implementation of marketing concept and modern methods and techniques of marketing management. This paper presents current global trends in theory and practice of marketing and marketing management along with critical analysis and recommendations for improving marketing practice in domestic enterprises.

  9. On the battleground of environmental and competition policy: The renewable electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Matyas Tamas

    Renewable energy sources have become increasingly important in the efforts to provide energy security and to fight global warming. In the last decade environmental policy has increased the support for renewable electricity. At the same time the electricity sector was often subject of antitrust investigation because of relevant market concentration, and market power. This dissertation looks at the renewable electricity market to analyze the effect of environmental policy on competition. The first chapter provides a short introduction into the regulatory schemes of electricity markets. The second chapter analyzes the demand side of the electricity market. The estimations show that there was no significant change in the income and price elasticity in the electricity consumption of the US households between 1993 an 2001, although there was several policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency and decrease consumption. The third chapter derives a theoretical model where the feed-in tariff and the tradable green certificate system can be analyzed under oligopolistic market structure. The results of the model suggest that the introduction of the environmentally friendly regulatory schemes can decrease the electricity prices compared to the case when there is no support for renewable energy. The other findings of this model is that the price of electricity rises when the requirement for renewable energy increases. In the fourth chapter a simulation model of the UK electricity market is used to test the effect of mergers and acquisitions under the environmental support scheme. The results emphasize the importance of the capacity limit, because it can constrain the strategic action of the electricity producers. The results of the simulation also suggest that the increasing concentration can increase the production and lower the price of electricity and renewable energy certificates in the British Renewable Obligation system.

  10. Essays in energy policy and planning modeling under uncertainty: Value of information, optimistic biases, and simulation of capacity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Che

    Optimization and simulation are popular operations research and systems analysis tools for energy policy modeling. This dissertation addresses three important questions concerning the use of these tools for energy market (and electricity market) modeling and planning under uncertainty. (1) What is the value of information and cost of disregarding different sources of uncertainty for the U.S. energy economy? (2) Could model-based calculations of the performance (social welfare) of competitive and oligopolistic market equilibria be optimistically biased due to uncertainties in objective function coefficients? (3) How do alternative sloped demand curves perform in the PJM capacity market under economic and weather uncertainty? How does curve adjustment and cost dynamics affect the capacity market outcomes? To address the first question, two-stage stochastic optimization is utilized in the U.S. national MARKAL energy model; then the value of information and cost of ignoring uncertainty are estimated for three uncertainties: carbon cap policy, load growth and natural gas prices. When an uncertainty is important, then explicitly considering those risks when making investments will result in better performance in expectation (positive expected cost of ignoring uncertainty). Furthermore, eliminating the uncertainty would improve strategies even further, meaning that improved forecasts of future conditions are valuable ( i.e., a positive expected value of information). Also, the value of policy coordination shows the difference between a strategy developed under the incorrect assumption of no carbon cap and a strategy correctly anticipating imposition of such a cap. For the second question, game theory models are formulated and the existence of optimistic (positive) biases in market equilibria (both competitive and oligopoly markets) are proved, in that calculated social welfare and producer profits will, in expectation, exceed the values that will actually be received

  11. Policy Impact on the Chinese Stock Market: From the 1994 Bailout Policies to the 2015 Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Chao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the 1994 bailout policies to the 2015 Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect, the policy impact on the Chinese stock market has changed over time. By May 2015, global investors can directly invest in a more legalized and normalized Chinese stock market, whereas they are still concerned about the policy-oriented market and its attendant risks. In this study, we employ the family of GARCH models to investigate the structural changes in risks with the implementation of a series of policies. Our results show that although many policies improve or stabilize the stock market, certain policies lead to substantial volatility. Among them, macro-control policies and transaction cost adjustments are a double-edged sword, which should be used with caution. Furthermore, with opening-up policies being launched recently, the Chinese stock market has entered a new stage in which it affects international capital markets. However, the increased risks, which may result in a sharp turnaround, cause worry.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF MARKET TO BOOK VALUE, ANNUAL TAX, AND RISK TOWARDS DIVIDEND POLICY IN BANKING COMPANY LISTED IN INDONESIA STOCK EEXCHANGE (IDX PERIOD 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Nazir Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects Market to Book Ratio, Risk and Annual Tax toward Dividend Policy in Banking companies listed of Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period of 2010-2014. This study use Market to Book Value, Annual Tax and Risk as independent variable. As for the dependent variable is a dummy variable with categories of company gives dividend and companies not give dividend. The sample used in this study is 24 banking companies listed of Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period of 2011-2014.The method in this study is analysis logistic regression. Research shows that Market to Book Value and Annual Tax has positive but not significant to Dividend policy, whereas Risk has positive and significant effect to Dividend policy.

  13. Policy analysis of electricity demand flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas

    The large-scale development of variable renewable energy sources, like wind and solar power, increases the demand for flexibility in power systems. At the same time, their electricity production replaces that of conventional power plants – the traditional suppliers of flexibility, and consequently...... include a clear commitment to develop an "intelligent" energy system that utilises the flexibility potential of the demand side, a coherent policy strategy covering all aspects of the flexibility challenge has not yet been defined. By use of economic models and concepts of policy analysis, this thesis...... flexibility on the demand side. Its potential could be substantial and technical solutions are available. Still, demand flexibility is largely unutilised and establishing an enabling policy and regulatory framework has been identified as one of the major challenges. While the latest Danish energy policies...

  14. Market analysis: renewable fuels; Marktanalyse - Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This new publication of Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) e.V. presents an analysis of markets and potentials. The Meo Consulting Team of Cologne analyzed the importance of various products in Germany, as well as electric power, heat, and fuels. The ''Marktanalyse Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'' is available for free at FNR. It contains a detailed survey, with many figures and graphs. It is shown that oils, fats, sugar, starch and fibres of renewable materials have become established products in the market. Political boundary conditions have great importance, as is shown in the data for bioenergy, where dynamic growth is expected both for electric power from biogas and for biofuels. The study is in two parts. The first part analyzes electrical and thermal energy as well as biofuels. The second part goes into lubricants, chemical feedstocks, varnishes and lacquers, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There are also sections on paper, cardboard and carton, packaging products, fibre-reinforced materials and formed parts, textiles, construction materials, insulating materials and furniture. (orig.)

  15. Malaria healthcare policy change in Kenya: implications on sales and marketing of antimalarials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Peter K; Nyaoke, Lorraine; Minja, David

    2012-03-01

    Malaria healthcare policy change in Kenya aimed at improving the control of malaria but faced a number of challenges in implementation related to marketing of the drugs. This research investigated the effect of the change of the national malaria policy on drug sales and strategic marketing responses of antimalarial pharmaceutical companies in Kenya. A descriptive cross-sectional design was employed to describe the existing state of antimalarials market in Kenya after the change of the malaria healthcare policy. Policy change did result in an increase in the sales of Coartem®. Novartis Pharma recorded a 97% growth in sales of Coartem® between 2003 and 2004. However, this increase was not experienced by all the companies. Further, SPs (which had been replaced as first-line therapy for malaria) registered good sales. In most cases, these sales were higher than the sales of Coartem®. Generally, the sales contribution of SPs and generic antimalarial medicines exceeded that of Coartem® for most distributors. The most common change made to marketing strategies by distributors (62.5%) was to increase imports of antimalarials. A total of 40% of the manufacturers preferred to increase their budgetary allocation for marketing activities. In view of the fact that continued sale of SP drugs and limited availability of AL poses the risk of increasing the incidence of malaria in Kenya, it is therefore, recommended that pharmacy surveillance systems be strengthened to ensure drugs that have been rendered non-viable or that prescription-only medicines are not sold contrary to the national guidelines.

  16. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronero-Saiz, Belén

    2013-06-26

    The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on peoples' health, with a particular focus on women. To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male-female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens' health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the target group of institutional gender awareness campaigns

  17. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronero-Saiz, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Background The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the

  18. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén C. Saiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective: To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1 political debates about abortion, (2 gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3 pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design: Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1 gender is the basis of social norms and (2 gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results: Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions: Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance

  19. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    This dissertation presents an equilibrium framework for analyzing the impact of cap-and-trade regulation on transmission-constrained electricity market. The cap-and-trade regulation of greenhouse gas emissions has gained momentum in the past decade. The impact of the regulation and its efficacy in the electric power industry depend on interactions of demand elasticity, transmission network, market structure, and strategic behavior of firms. I develop an equilibrium model of an oligopoly electricity market in conjunction with a market for tradable emissions permits to study the implications of such interactions. My goal is to identify inefficiencies that may arise from policy design elements and to avoid any unintended adverse consequences on the electric power sector. I demonstrate this modeling framework with three case studies examining the impact of carbon cap-and-trade regulation. In the first case study, I study equilibrium results under various scenarios of resource ownership and emission targets using a 24-bus IEEE electric transmission system. The second and third case studies apply the equilibrium model to a realistic electricity market, Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) 225-bus system with a detailed representation of the California market. In the first and second case studies, I examine oligopoly in electricity with perfect competition in the permit market. I find that under a stringent emission cap and a high degree of concentration of non-polluting firms, the electricity market is subject to potential abuses of market power. Also, market power can occur in the procurement of non-polluting energy through the permit market when non-polluting resources are geographically concentrated in a transmission-constrained market. In the third case study, I relax the competitive market structure assumption of the permit market by allowing oligopolistic competition in the market through a conjectural variation approach. A short-term equilibrium

  20. Complementarities or contradictions? Scoping the health dimensions of "flexicurity" labor market policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Zabia; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Mahmood, Qamar; Ng, Edwin; Schrecker, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Flexicurity, or the integration of labor market flexibility with social security and active labor market policies, has figured prominently in economic and social policy discussions in Europe since the mid-1990s. Such policies are designed to transcend traditional labor-capital conflicts and to form a mutually supportive nexus of flexibility and security within a climate of intensified competition and rapid technological change. International bodies have marketed flexicurity as an innovative win-win strategy for employers and workers alike, commonly citing Denmark and The Netherlands as exemplars of best practice. In this article, we apply a social determinants of health framework to conduct a scoping review of the academic and gray literature to: (a) better understand the empirical associations between flexicurity practices and population health in Denmark and (b) assess the relevance and feasibility of implementing such policies to improve health and reduce health inequalities in Ontario, Canada. Based on 39 studies meeting our full inclusion criteria, preliminary findings suggest that flexicurity is limited as a potential health promotion strategy in Ontario, offers more risks to workers' health than benefits, and requires the strengthening of other social protections before it could be realistically implemented within a Canadian context.