WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy actions aimed

  1. Municipal policies and plans of action aiming to promote physical activity and healthy eating habits among schoolchildren in Stockholm, Sweden: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrandsson, Karin; Wennerstad, Karin Modig; Rasmussen, Finn

    2009-08-03

    Promoting physical activity and healthy eating habits by structural measures that reach most children in a society is presumably the most sustainable way of preventing development of overweight and obesity in childhood. The main purpose of the present study was to analyse whether policies and plans of action at the central level in municipalities increased the number of measures that aim to promote physical activity and healthy eating habits among schoolchildren aged six to 16. Another purpose was to analyse whether demographic and socio-economic characteristics were associated with the level of such measures. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 25 municipalities and 18 town districts in Stockholm County, Sweden. The questions were developed to capture municipal structural work and factors facilitating physical activity and the development of healthy eating habits for children. Local policy documents and plans of action were gathered. Information regarding municipal demographic and socio-economic characteristics was collected from public statistics. Policy documents and plans of action in municipalities and town districts did not seem to influence the number of measures aiming to promote physical activity and healthy eating habits among schoolchildren in Stockholm County. Municipal demographic and socio-economic characteristics were, however, shown to influence the number of measures. In town districts with a high total population size, and in municipalities and town districts with a high proportion of adults with more than 12 years of education, a higher level of health-promoting measures was found. In municipalities with a high annual population growth, the number of measures was lower than in municipalities with a lower annual population growth. Another key finding was the lack of agreement between what was reported in the questionnaires regarding existence and contents of local policies and plans of action and what was actually found when these

  2. Determination of aims military-technical policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Salnikova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the aims of military-technical policy are considered. Determination of aims (tasks of military-technical policy, its maintenance, requirements to it and directions of its further development it must come true by the analysis of different factors of external and internal environment. Among such factors: geopolitical and military-political position of Ukraine and its military doctrine; realized and operating programs of development (reformation of the soldiery forming and them technical rigging; terms of future military operations and progress of their maintenance, forms, methods and characteristic signs of battle actions trend; substantive provisions of art of war; conceptions, theories and doctrines of battle application of the soldiery forming of the different states; resources dedicated by the state on development of military-technical sphere and others like that. The fundamental chart of sequence of forming of public military-technical policy is presented in the article.

  3. Counterterrorism: Policy of Preemptive Action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westphal, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    ... our counterterrorism policy and it's ability to prevent future acts of terrorism. The specific focus during this counterterrorism policy review is the terrorism prevention concept of preemptive action...

  4. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  5. European Commission action aimed at constructing a European regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristori, D.

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of a low-carbon economy provides a new incentive for the development of renewable energies as well as of nuclear energy. The latter calls for a high level of safety and security. The EU has a role in providing a legal framework for this purpose as well as ensuring that these standards are respected internationally. For over 50 years the EURATOM Treaty has offered the legal basis for a wide range of initiatives supporting this policy. The EU has competences under chapter 3, 'Health and Safety', for the establishment of basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation. These have extended beyond the scope of nuclear energy and now include medical exposures as well as natural radiation sources. The latest revision of the BSS-Directive, to be proposed in 2011, was an opportunity for the consolidation of all Community legislation. A ruling of the Court of Justice in 1999 paved the way for the establishment of standards on the safety of nuclear installations. A common vision on this matter was achieved through the creation of a body of European Safety Regulators (ENSREG) and the adoption of a specific Safety Directive in 2009. This new Directive translates internationally agreed safety standards into legally binding EU legislation and strengthens the position of national Regulators. (author)

  6. The orientation, principles, priorities and aims of the state environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This chapter contains: (A) The orientation and priorities of state environmental policy of the government of the Slovak Republic which were approved 18 November 1993 by the resolution No 339. On the basis of the Strategy, principles and priorities of state environmental policy 70 short-terminable aims up to 1996, next 59 middle-terminable of aims up to years 2000 - 2010 and 33 general and partial long-terminable aims up to 2030 and longer were formulated. The Strategy is determined by next 5 branches oriented priorities: (1) air protection before pollutants and the global environmental safety; (2) organization of sufficiency of drinking water and decreasing of pollution of other waters under permissible limits; (3) soil protection before degeneration and organization of non-defected food-stuffs and other wares; (4) minimization of formation, use and good waste liquidate; (5) preservation of bio-diversity, preservation and rational use of natural reserves and optimization of place structure and use of the country. (B) The principles and priorities of state environmental policy determinate implementation and observance of then principles of the state environmental policy. (C) Total 162 aims of the Strategy of the state environmental policy and next followed programs, projects and measures of the environmental policy of the Slovak Republic can be grouped into 4 blocks: (1) the environmental policy in the protection of air, water and before of risk factors, in the nuclear safety and waste economy (environmental safety; (2) the environmental policy in protection of the nature and the country, protection and use of mineral surroundings, soils and forest;; (3) the environmental policy in the economy; (4) the environmental policy in the guidance, education, public information, organization, control and coordination of the ministration on the environment. These aims are grouped into 10 sectors. (D) The government of the Slovak republic has first National environmental

  7. Counterterrorism: Policy of Preemptive Action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westphal, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The tragic events of September 11, 2001(911), and the devastating effects that those cowardly acts of terrorism had on our nation and the world, have forced us to review and reevaluate our country's counterterrorism policy...

  8. Effects of Economic Policies Aimed at Encouraging a Healthier Grain Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nordstrom, Jonas; Thunstrom, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the effects of policy reforms aimed at achieving two policy objectives for grain consumption; (a) to double the intake of bread and breakfast cereals and (b) to ensure that half of the bread and breakfast cereals consumed are whole grain products. The overall aim of these policy objectives are to increase the dietary fibre intake from grain consumption so as to significantly contribute to the general recommended (minimum) increase of the fibre intake. Based on param...

  9. Armed To Learn: Aiming At California K 12 School Gun Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    AIMING AT CALIFORNIA K-12 SCHOOL GUN POLICY by Catherine Wilson Jones March 2016 Thesis Co-Advisors: Kathleen Kiernan John Rollins...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ARMED TO LEARN: AIMING AT CALIFORNIA K-12 SCHOOL GUN POLICY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Catherine...gap in viewpoints between gun control advocates who want tighter gun control and constitutionalists who believe as strongly in the Second Amendment

  10. Development of AIM for analysing policy options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    1999-01-01

    AIM (Asian-Pacific Integrated Model) has been developed for predicting greenhouse gas emissions and evaluating policy measures to reduce them. Two socio-economic scenarios were assumed and CO 2 emissions were predicted based on these scenarios and policy intervention assumptions. It is found that mitigating CO 2 emissions without scaling back productive activities or standards of living in Japan is possible. However, if one relies on the market mechanism alone, it cannot be done. The analysis has shown that it is essential to introduce new policies and measures such as carbon tax and subsidies. (author)

  11. Integrated assessment of biodiesel policies aimed at family farms in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    With many of the poor people in Brazil living in rural areas, local governments have intensified their efforts to design and implement effective policies that boost rural development. In 2004, a national program for production and use of biodiesel was launched aiming at increasing income among less

  12. Cost-effectiveness of policies aimed at increasing organ donation: the case of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, J; Harrison, R; Atal, R; Larraín, L

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present an economic evaluation of policies aimed at increasing deceased organ donation in Chile, a developing country that has low donation rates; it had 5.4 donors per million people (pmp) in 2010. Expert opinions of leading participants in donation and transplantation were analyzed, resulting in a set of local policies aimed at increasing donation rates. Using previous results of reported cost savings of increasing kidney transplantation in Chile, we estimated the net benefits of these policies, as a function of additional donors. The main problem of the Chilean system seems to be the low capability to identify potential donors and a deficit in intensive care unit (ICU) beds. Among considered policies central to increase donation are the following: increasing human and capital resources dedicated to identifying potential donors, providing ICU beds from private centers, and developing an online information system that facilitates procurement coordination and the evaluation of performance at each hospital. Our results show that there is a linear relationship between cost savings and incremental donors pmp. For example, if these policies are capable of elevating donation rates in Chile by 6 donors pmp net estimated cost savings are approximately US $1.9 million. Likewise, considering the effect on patients' quality of life, savings would amount to around $15.0 million dollars per year. Our estimates suggest that these policies have a large cost-saving potential. In fact, considering implementation costs, cost reduction is positive after 4 additional donors pmp, and increasing afterward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Institutional policy changes aimed at addressing obesity among mental health clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Linda L; Pritchett, Kelly; Dunkin, Jeri

    2010-05-01

    People with mental illness often experience unique barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. For these clients, interventions should focus on changes in the immediate environment to change behaviors. The purpose of this project was to implement and evaluate policy changes that would limit calorie intake and increase calorie expenditure of clients receiving mental health services. This intervention was implemented in a rural mental health system in the southeastern United States. Clients live in small group homes, where they are served breakfast, dinner, and a snack, and attend outpatient day treatment programs, where they are served lunch and can purchase snacks from vending machines. This intervention included institutional policy changes that altered menus and vending machine options and implemented group walking programs. Primary outcome measures were changes in clients' weight at 3 and 6 months after policy implementation. At the 3-month follow-up, the median weight loss for overweight/obese clients (n = 45) was 1.4 kg. The 33 overweight/obese clients who were still in the group homes at the 6-month follow-up either maintained or continued to lose weight. Institutional policy changes aimed at improving dietary intake and physical activity levels among clients receiving mental health services can promote weight loss in overweight clients.

  14. Madagascar's future climate change intensified actions and policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... actions and policy reforms: fostering local initiatives or business as usual? ... policies in Madagascar, and suggest that there may be fundamental flaws in ... However, World Bank statistics show that, in current terms, Madagascar was ...

  15. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union-level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Saborido, Carlos; Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia; Caldeira, Sandra; Wollgast, Jan

    2016-11-01

    The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy.

  16. Energy efficiency action plan. Policy action plan for promotion of energy efficiency in the Czech Republic to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Energy efficiency and renewable energy production contribute to the three major goals of the national energy policy of the Czech Republic: overall competitiveness, security of supply and environmental protection. Therefore, the Czech government aims to promote these two sustainable options. The Energy Policy White Paper, which is being developed at the time of writing (June 1999), will provide the general framework for the future role of energy efficiency and renewable energy in the Czech Republic. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific policies. The National Energy Efficiency Study aimed to support the Czech government in the formulation of energy efficiency and renewable energy policy. The National Energy Efficiency Study has resulted in the following documents: (1) The Energy Efficiency Action Plan focuses on promotion of energy efficiency in end-use (this report); The Renewable Energy Action Plan (separate report; ECN-C--99-064) deals with policy on promotion of renewable energy production. These two Action Plans provide policy makers in the Czech government with essential information on potentials, targets, budgets and recommended policy instruments. The core of the Action Plans is the list of concrete policy actions, ready for implementation; and (2) The National Energy Efficiency Study NEES (separate report; ECN-C--99-063). This report is the background document to the two Action Plans. It contains detailed information on options and measures, potentials, barriers and policy instruments for energy efficiency and renewables. The main part is a detailed outline for a new energy efficiency and renewable policy. Also, it includes recommendations for financing schemes to overcome the investment constraints in the Czech Republic. Finally, a list of concrete projects is included to support project identification

  17. Intersectoral action on SDH and equity in Australian health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew; Baum, Frances E; MacDougall, Colin; Newman, Lareen; McDermott, Dennis; Phillips, Clare

    2017-12-01

    Intersectoral action between public agencies across policy sectors, and between levels of government, is seen as essential for effective action by governments to address social determinants of health (SDH) and to reduce health inequities. The health sector has been identified as having a crucial stewardship role, to engage other policy sectors in action to address the impacts of their policies on health. This article reports on research to investigate intersectoral action on SDH and health inequities in Australian health policy. We gathered and individually analysed 266 policy documents, being all of the published, strategic health policies of the national Australian government and eight State/Territory governments, current at the time of sampling in late 2012-early 2013. Our analysis showed that strategies for intersectoral action were common in Australian health policy, but predominantly concerned with extending access to individualized medical or behavioural interventions to client groups in other policy sectors. Where intersectoral strategies did propose action on SDH (other than access to health-care), they were mostly limited to addressing proximal factors, rather than policy settings affecting the distribution of socioeconomic resources. There was little evidence of engagement between the health sector and those policy sectors most able to influence systemic socioeconomic inequalities in Australia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Six policy actions for accelerated deployment of renewable energy. READy Renewable Energy Action on Deployment. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    The READy book presents a kaleidoscope of policy options that have proven to accelerate the deployment of renewable energy technologies, based on experiences around the world at the local and national levels. Lessons learned from successful cases are distilled into six essential action points. Together these categories of policy actions compose the ACTION Star, a guide for taking action now while preparing for growth over the long term.

  19. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s or Commission`s) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC`s policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees` health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment.

  20. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's or Commission's) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC's policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees' health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment

  1. Aiming for outstanding: Action research from students of the MSc in the Teaching of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Lintern, Fiona; Davies, Jamie; McGinty, Andrew; Fisher, Jeannine

    2014-01-01

    The first cohort of a new MSc programme is due to complete the course in August 2014. During the three-year online course students conduct several pieces of action research in their classrooms. There is little research specifically related classroom practice in the pre-tertiary psychology classroom. The following describes the rationale and context of the MSc in the Teaching of Psychology and reports on three students’ final year research. The first considers the benefits of Psychology Applie...

  2. Renewable energy action plan. Policy action plan for promotion of renewable energy in the Czech Republic to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Energy efficiency and renewable energy production contribute to the three major goals of the national energy policy of the Czech Republic: overall competitiveness, security of supply; and environmental protection. Therefore, the Czech government promotes these two sustainable options. The Energy Policy White Paper, which is being developed at the time of writing (June 1999), will provide the general framework for the future role of energy efficiency and renewable energy in the Czech Republic. However, in addition, it is necessary to develop specific policies. The National Energy Efficiency Study aimed to support the Czech government in the formula tion of energy efficiency and renewable energy policy. The National Energy Efficiency Study has resulted in the following documents: (1) The Renewable Energy Action Plan (this report) addresses renewable energy production. The Energy Efficiency Action Plan focuses on the promotion of energy efficiency in end use (separate report; ECN-C--99-065). These two Action Plans provide policy makers in the Czech government with information on potentials, targets, budgets and recommended policy instruments. The core of the Action Plans is the list of concrete policy actions, ready for implementation; (2) The National Energy Efficiency Study NEES (separate report; ECN-C--99-063). This report is the background document to the two Action Plans. It contains detailed information on options and measures, potentials, barriers and policy instruments for energy efficiency and renewables. The main part is a detailed outline for a new energy efficiency and renewable policy. Also, it includes recommendations for financing schemes to overcome the invest ment constraints in the Czech Republic. Finally, a list of concrete projects is included to support project identification

  3. Midline body actions and leftward spatial Aiming in patients with spatial neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eChaudhari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial motor-intentional Aiming bias is a dysfunction in initiation/execution of motor intentional behavior, resulting in hypokinetic and hypometric leftward movements. Aiming bias may contribute to posture, balance and movement problems and uniquely account for disability in post-stroke spatial neglect. Body movement may modify and even worsen Aiming errors, but therapy techniques such as visual scanning training do not take this into account. Here, we evaluated 1 whether instructing neglect patients to move midline body parts improves their ability to explore left space, and 2 whether this has a different impact on different patients. A 68-year-old woman with spatial neglect after a right basal ganglia infarct had difficulty orienting to and identifying left-sided objects. She was prompted with four instructions: look to the left, point with your nose to the left, point with your [right] hand to the left, and stick out your tongue and point it to the left. She oriented leftward dramatically better when pointing with the tongue/nose, than she did when pointing with the hand. We then tested 9 more consecutive patients with spatial neglect using the same instructions. Only four of them made any orienting errors. Only one patient made >50% errors when pointing with the hand, and she did not benefit from pointing with the tongue/nose. We observed that pointing with the tongue could facilitate left-sided orientation in a stroke survivor with spatial neglect. If midline structures are represented more bilaterally, they may be less affected by Aiming bias. Alternatively, moving the body midline may be more permissive for leftward orienting than moving right body parts. We were not able to replicate this effect in another patient; we suspect that the magnitude of this effect may depend upon the degree to which patients have directional akinesia, spatial Where deficits, or cerebellar/frontal cortical lesions. Future research could examine these

  4. Macroeconomic Activity and Monetary Policy Actions: Some Preliminary Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Haslag, Joseph H; Hein, Scott E

    1992-01-01

    Monetary policy is conducted through open market operations, loans at the discount window, and changes in the reserve requirement structure. The purpose of this paper is to formally investigate the notion that the effect of changes in reserve requirement ratios is different from the effect of other policy tools. This is accomplished by decomposing the monetary base into those changes caused by changes in reserve requirement ratios and those caused by other monetary policy actions. Some prelim...

  5. The Conflicting Aims of the European Neighborhood Policy and its Secondary Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castan Pinos, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    to guarantee the security of Europe’s borders. The European Neighborhood Policy has played a pivotal role in ensuring that the neighbors complied with the EU’s interest by offering political and economic rewards. Compliance is also enhanced through the “Seville Doctrine.” The paper challenges the idea...... that the “war on migrants” is a common shared interest for the EU and North African states, arguing that it is rather an EU security interest which does not necessarily correspond with the neighbors priorities. Finally, the paper focuses on the implementation of externalization in Morocco and critically...... analyzes the non-desired secondary effects generated by the adoption of EU-made migration policies....

  6. Institutional Policy Changes Aimed at Addressing Obesity Among Mental Health Clients

    OpenAIRE

    Knol, Linda L.; Pritchett, Kelly; Dunkin, Jeri

    2010-01-01

    Background People with mental illness often experience unique barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. For these clients, interventions should focus on changes in the immediate environment to change behaviors. The purpose of this project was to implement and evaluate policy changes that would limit calorie intake and increase calorie expenditure of clients receiving mental health services. Context This intervention was implemented in a rural mental health system in the southeastern U...

  7. Educational Democracy in Graduate Education: Public Policies and Affirmative Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos Medeiros, Hugo Augusto; Mello Neto, Ruy de Deus e; Mendes Catani, Afrânio

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a discussion on the possibilities of educational democracy in Brazilian Graduate Education, with a focus on the current Graduate Education Field regulations and the recent affirmative actions and public policies of access. We analyzed laws, decrees, government plans and selections edicts, through categories derived from historical…

  8. After the Conference of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. The aims of the state environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Total 162 aims of the Strategy of the state environmental policy and next followed programs, projects and measures of the environmental policy of the Slovak Republic can be grouped into 4 blocks: (1) the environmental policy in the protection of air, water and before of risk factors, in the nuclear safety and waste economy (environmental safety; (2) the environmental policy in protection of the nature and the country, protection and use of mineral surroundings, soils and forest;; (3) the environmental policy in the economy; (4) the environmental policy in the guidance, education, public information, organization, control and coordination of the ministration on the environment. These aims are grouped into 10 sectors: Sector A - Protection of the air and ozone layer; Sector B - Protection and rationalize waters use; Sector C - Waste economy; Sector D - Risk factors and nuclear safety; Sector E - The ministration on the nature and the country and land development; Sector F - The protection and using of mineral surroundings, soils and forest; Sector G - The economy of the environment; Sector H - Environmental information science and monitoring; Sector I - Environmental guidance, education, and promotion; Sector J - Organization and control of the ministration on the environment

  9. Changing the Future of Obesity: Science, Policy and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortmaker, Steven L; Swinburn, Boyd; Levy, David; Carter, Rob; Mabry, Patricia L.; Finegood, Diane; Huang, Terry; Marsh, Tim; Moodie, Marj

    2011-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic has been on the rise for four decades, yet sustained prevention efforts have barely begun. An emerging science using quantitative models has provided key insights into the dynamics of this epidemic, and made it possible to combine different pieces of evidence and calculate the impact of behaviors, interventions and policies at multiple levels – from person to population. Forecasts indicate large effects of high levels of obesity on future population health and economic outcomes. Energy gap models have quantified the relationships of changes in energy intake and expenditure to weight change, and documented the dominant role of increasing intake on obesity prevalence. The empirical evidence base for effective interventions is limited but growing. Several cost-effective policies are identified that governments should prioritize for implementation. Systems science provides a framework for organizing the complexity of forces driving the obesity epidemic and has important implications for policy-makers. Multiple players (including governments, international organizations, the private sector, and civil society) need to contribute complementary actions in a coordinated approach. Priority actions include policies to improve the food and built environments, cross-cutting actions (such as leadership, health-in-all policies, and monitoring), and much greater funding for prevention programs. Increased investment in population obesity monitoring would improve the accuracy of forecasts and evaluations. Embedding actions within existing systems in both health and non-health sectors (trade, agriculture, transport, urban planning, development) can greatly increase impact and sustainability. We call for a sustained worldwide effort to monitor, prevent and control obesity. PMID:21872752

  10. Public social monitoring reports and their effect on a policy programme aimed at addressing the social determinants of health to improve health equity in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, Frank; Valentine, Nicole B; Matheson, Don; Rasanathan, Kumanan

    2014-01-01

    The important role that monitoring plays in advancing global health is well established. However, the role of social monitoring as a tool for addressing social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity-focused policies remains under-researched. This paper assesses the extent and ways in which New Zealand's (NZ) Social Reports (SRs) supported a SDH- and health equity-oriented policy programme nationally over the 2000-2008 period by documenting the SRs' history and assessing its impact on policies across sectors in government and civil society. We conducted key-informant interviews with five senior policy-makers and an e-mail survey with 24 government and civil society representatives on SRs' history and policy impact. We identified common themes across these data and classified them accordingly to assess the intensity of the reports' use and their impact on SDH- and health equity-focused policies. Bibliometric analyses of government publications and media items were undertaken to empirically assess SRs' impact on government and civil society. SRs in NZ arose out of the role played by government as the "benevolent social welfare planner" and an understanding of the necessity of economic and social security for "progress". The SRs were linked to establishing a government-wide programme aimed at reducing inequalities. They have been used moderately to highly in central and local government and in civil society, both within and outside the health sector, but have neither entered public treasury and economic development departments nor the commercial sector. The SRs have not reached the more universal status of economic indicators. However, they have had some success at raising awareness of, and have stimulated isolated action on, SDH. The NZ case suggests that national-level social monitoring provides a valuable tool for raising awareness of SDH across government and civil society. A number of strategies could improve social reports' effectiveness in stimulating

  11. Women and tobacco: moving from policy to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernster, V; Kaufman, N; Nichter, M; Samet, J; Yoon, S Y

    2000-01-01

    A gender perspective contributes to a better understanding of the epidemiological trends, social marketing strategies, economic policies, and international actions relating to women and the tobacco epidemic. Evidence is provided in this article for the negative impact of tobacco use by women and of passive smoking on the health of women and children. Use of tobacco by women is increasing and this is related to the tobacco industry's aggressive advertising, sponsorship and promotion strategies. Policy directions are proposed in this article. At all levels, a multi-pronged strategy--including changes in legislation and fiscal policies, improvements in gender-sensitive health services, and cessation programmes--should be considered. Much more gender-specific research on tobacco use is needed, particularly in developing countries. Women's empowerment and leadership should be at the centre of all tobacco control efforts and are essential for the success of national programmes and the recently introduced Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  12. Efficiency of environmental policies aiming at fostering the adoption of new technologies: the case of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, M.L.

    2004-10-01

    This thesis aims to study the efficiency of promotion policies of renewable energies in electric power production taking into account the environment economy problems. The techniques at a commercial scale are particularly discussed. The first part deals with the incitement to technical progress in favor of the environmental protection. The second part proposes an empirical analysis based on the efficiency economical parameters and the last part analyses theoretically the efficiency of promotion tools of renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  13. The feasibility of multisectoral policy options aimed at reducing trans fats and encouraging its replacement with healthier oils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne-Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends replacement of trans fat with polyunsaturated fat to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Although several high-income countries have been successful in reducing trans fat in the food supply, low- and middle-income countries such as India may face additional contextual challenges such as the large informal sector, lack of consumer awareness, less enforcement capacity and low availability and affordability of healthier unsaturated fats. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of multisectoral policy options aimed at supporting trans fat reduction and its replacement with polyunsaturated fats in India. Multisectoral policy options examined in this study were identified using food supply chain analysis. Semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with key informants from agriculture, trade, finance, retail, industry, food standards, non-governmental organizations and the health professions to gain their views on the feasibility and acceptability of the policy options. Purposive sampling was used to identify key informants. Data were coded and organized based on key themes. There was support for policies aimed at improving the quality of seeds, supporting farmer co-operatives and developing affordable farming equipment suited to smallholders to improve the production of healthier oils. Increasing the role of the private sector to improve links among producers, processors and retailers may help to streamline the fats supply chain in India. Blending healthier oils with oils high in saturated fat, which are currently readily available, could help to improve the quality of fat in the short term. Improving consumer awareness through mass media campaigns and improved labelling may help increase consumer demand for healthier products. Reorienting agricultural policies to support production of healthier oils will help increase their uptake by industry. Policy coherence across sectors will be

  14. An implementation evaluation of a policy aiming to improve financial access to maternal health care in Djibo district, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belaid Loubna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To bring down its high maternal mortality ratio, Burkina Faso adopted a national health policy in 2007 that designed to boost the assisted delivery rate and improving quality of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care. The cost of transportation from health centres to district hospitals is paid by the policy. The worst-off are exempted from all fees. Methods The objectives of this paper are to analyze perceptions of this policy by health workers, assess how this health policy was implemented at the district level, identify difficulties faced during implementation, and highlight interactional factors that have an influence on the implementation process. A multiple site case study was conducted at 6 health centres in the district of Djibo in Burkina Faso. The following sources of data were used: 1 district documents (n = 23; 2 key interviews with district health managers (n = 10, health workers (n = 16, traditional birth attendants (n = 7, and community management committees (n = 11; 3 non-participant observations in health centres; 4 focus groups in communities (n = 62; 5 a feedback session on the findings with 20 health staff members. Results All the activities were implemented as planned except for completely subsidizing the worst-off, and some activities such as surveys for patients and the quality assurance service team aiming to improve quality of care. District health managers and health workers perceived difficulties in implementing this policy because of the lack of clarity on some topics in the guidelines. Entering the data into an electronic database and the long delay in reimbursing transportation costs were the principal challenges perceived by implementers. Interactional factors such as relations between providers and patients and between health workers and communities were raised. These factors have an influence on the implementation process. Strained relations between the groups involved

  15. An implementation evaluation of a policy aiming to improve financial access to maternal health care in Djibo district, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaid, Loubna; Ridde, Valéry

    2012-12-08

    To bring down its high maternal mortality ratio, Burkina Faso adopted a national health policy in 2007 that designed to boost the assisted delivery rate and improving quality of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care. The cost of transportation from health centres to district hospitals is paid by the policy. The worst-off are exempted from all fees. The objectives of this paper are to analyze perceptions of this policy by health workers, assess how this health policy was implemented at the district level, identify difficulties faced during implementation, and highlight interactional factors that have an influence on the implementation process. A multiple site case study was conducted at 6 health centres in the district of Djibo in Burkina Faso. The following sources of data were used: 1) district documents (n = 23); 2) key interviews with district health managers (n = 10), health workers (n = 16), traditional birth attendants (n = 7), and community management committees (n = 11); 3) non-participant observations in health centres; 4) focus groups in communities (n = 62); 5) a feedback session on the findings with 20 health staff members. All the activities were implemented as planned except for completely subsidizing the worst-off, and some activities such as surveys for patients and the quality assurance service team aiming to improve quality of care. District health managers and health workers perceived difficulties in implementing this policy because of the lack of clarity on some topics in the guidelines. Entering the data into an electronic database and the long delay in reimbursing transportation costs were the principal challenges perceived by implementers. Interactional factors such as relations between providers and patients and between health workers and communities were raised. These factors have an influence on the implementation process. Strained relations between the groups involved may reduce the effectiveness of the policy

  16. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union–level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). Design: We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. Results: The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. Conclusions: The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy. PMID:27680991

  17. Actions aimed at reducing the vulnerability of a mangrove sector south of the province of Artemisa, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis López Pérez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For the geographical location of the area under study, Playa Cajío, Güira de Melena municipality, Artemisa province; The mangroves have suffered serious alterations, mainly due to global climate changes, especially sea level rise, hurricanes and storms, which have caused severe sea penetrations, as well as prolonged droughts. The present investigation had as starting point four fundamental studies carried out, as main antecedents, following as a general objective, proposing actions aimed at the restoration of the mangrove of the "El Cajío" sector, based on an integral program (water rehabilitation project, reforestation, monitoring and control, vulnerability. To do this, theoretical methods of documentary research were used, as well as in situ diagnosis, as the first descriptive stage that demonstrated the state of deterioration of the forest, in a second stage or integral management, the water rehabilitation and mitigation projects were elaborated. sources that affect the good development of the mangrove, reforestation and monitoring and control, all with community participation and involved organisms, culminating with the reforestation and the success of it. In addition, vulnerability studies were carried out in the area, which places it in a medium to high position.

  18. Realist review of policy intervention studies aimed at reducing exposures to environmental hazards in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorie E. Apollonio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to pollution is a significant risk to human health. However few studies have attempted to identify the types of policy interventions that can reduce the health risks of pollution exposure in the United States. The study objective was to conduct a realist review of policy interventions conducted or aimed at reducing chemical exposures in humans or the environment where exposure was measured. Methods A systematic literature search identified published articles that assessed policy interventions using exposure data. Two coders independently extracted data from the studies, assessing methods, context, details of interventions, outcomes, and risks of bias. Data were analyzed iteratively and manually to identify the most effective and transferrable types of interventions. The reasons for variability in the success of different interventions were explored. Results The review found that regulatory interventions that eliminate point sources of pollution appeared to reduce exposure to environmental hazards. Regular monitoring to provide environmental and human exposure data helped assess compliance with the regulatory standards. Educational and economic interventions were less successful. Conclusions Although some types of regulatory interventions appear to reduce exposures, our findings are limited by the nature of existing interventions, the weaknesses of the study designs used in the literature, and the lack of details on implementation. Information on contextual factors that influence implementation would assist with future reviews and could help identify effective interventions.

  19. Leadership for ethical policy and practice (LEPP): participatory action project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Janet; Rodney, Patricia; Varcoe, Colleen; Pauly, Bernadette; Starzomski, Rosalie; Stevenson, Lynne; Best, Lynette; Mass, Heather; Fulton, Thomas Reilly; Mildon, Barbara; Bees, Fiona; Chisholm, Anne; MacDonald-Rencz, Sandra; McCutcheon, Amy Sanchez; Shamian, Judith; Thompson, Charlotte; Makaroff, Kara Schick; Newton, Lorelei

    2009-01-01

    Within Canada's fast-paced, ever-changing healthcare environment, providers are experiencing difficulty practising according to their professional ethical standards, leading many to experience moral or ethical distress. Limited attention has been paid to improvements in the ethical climate in healthcare settings in research focusing on nurses' workplaces. In this three-year study, we focused on how the ethical climate in healthcare delivery can be improved and how the use of participatory action research methods can lead to continued enhancements and lasting changes in services delivery. Together, we developed strategies for taking action, aimed at improving the quality of the work environment. This action involved both nurses in direct care and those in key leadership positions (CNOs or their equivalents). Through the active participation of those for whom the research-based change was intended, these strategies were tested in various sites across British Columbia and can be used as templates or designs for use in other settings. A key component of the success of the projects and action plans that were created was the integral involvement of nurse leaders through all phases.

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processes or institutions; committed human rights abuses related to political repression, including..., including the release of internationally recognized political prisoners, the actions and policies of certain...

  1. An action research project aimed at raising social consciousness amongst women attending transactional analysis group psychotherapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Pancinha Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on awareness of material by Gramsci (1978, 1982 on hegemony, Freire (1979a, 1979b on cooperative contact, and Steiner (1975 on radical psychiatry, action research methodology was used by the researcher, who was also a psychotherapist, with 12 women attending two ongoing weekly psychotherapy groups in Brazil in order to raise their social consciousness of culturally-based oppression of women, particularly relating to work; to apply life script analysis as a therapeutic intervention within the groups; and to facilitate recognition by the women of the benefits of cooperative contact when seeking to liberate themselves from oppression.  Individual structured interviews were conducted and the data from these was discussed within the groups, leading to the development of a model containing 6 levels of consciousness of oppression.  Examples of oppression identified by the women are provided, with only 17% relating directly to sexual discrim-ination at work.  Although the research was conducted many years ago (1987-1989, it is shown that problems still exist and the research method-ology could usefully be applied elsewhere.

  2. Actions for the Construction of a University Policy in Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Yaneth González Pinzón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios143.155 This article aims at reporting some of the findings of a research study conducted at Pontificia Universidad Javeriana-Bogotá (PUJ-Bogotá, as part of a multi-case study carried out by thirteen universities in Colombia which belong to the academic group Red de Lectura y Escritura en Educación Superior (REDLESS. In this study, students’ initial preparation in reading and writing is characterized in order to identify its impact on their subsequent academic development. To do so, student’s development during the final two years at high school (Educación Media was first analyzed along with their preparation during the first year at university and its possible impact on their academic development during their majors. In addition to these data, the contents of a university course designed to prepare students in literacy was analyzed along with the perceptions of the teachers in charge of it and those of disciplinary courses. The results offered by the intersection of such diverse sources of information are used to make some proposals aimed at consolidating an institutional policy for literacy and other derived factors such as orality and the transformation and construction of knowledge.

  3. Guns on Campus: The Architecture and Momentum of State Policy Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Andrew; Sisneros, Lauren; Perez, Zeke; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    "Guns on Campus: The Architecture and Momentum of State Policy Action" offers a detailed summary of state legislative action and higher education system policy decisions that have occurred in two specific categories: (1) States that have permitted or are seeking to permit guns on campus; and (2) States that have prohibited or are seeking…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Affirmative Action Policies for Asian Americans in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined white undergraduate students' (a) racial attitudes towards Asian Americans, (b) principled policy attitudes toward affirmative action, and (c) self-interest in relation to their support for college-based affirmative action policies for Asian Americans at a Midwestern university. A sample (n = 264, 28% male, 72%…

  5. European food and nutrition policies in action. Finland's food and nutrition policy: progress, problems and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milio, N

    1998-01-01

    Some progress has clearly been made in several aspects of Finland's food and nutrition policy: access to nutrition information and education, improvements in mass catering, increased availability of healthier food products, and pricing and quality requirements favourable to a healthy diet. Finnish eating patterns have improved in relation to some recommended foods and macronutrients. The structural changes in farm and food production are largely the result of new political and economic realities both in Finland and internationally, resulting in the Government focusing on fiscal efficiency, decentralization and a more competitive, consumer-oriented market. This new environment is creating pressures to reduce surplus animal fat production and to expand markets in new foods for Finns and other Europeans who, for reasons of demography, health or working or living arrangements, demand new and sometimes healthier foods. Within this context, some health leaders have been able to make and work for proposals that are consistent both with political and economic imperatives and with health needs. Although the populations health status is improving and in some respects is exemplary, diet-related death and illness rates and risk factors (such as serum cholesterol and obesity) are high and their decline, along with some healthy changes in eating patterns, has slowed since the mid-1980s (ironically, since the adoption of the nutrition policy). The more slowly improvements occur, the higher will be the social and economic costs. Major problems in policy implementation exist. Although much has been done in research and demonstration and in the development of national guidelines (in public catering and labeling, for example) there is an apparent lag in translating such soft technology into action and monitoring its implementation in order to develop corrective measures at the operational level. This problem may increase with decentralized budget control and a less regulated market

  6. Analysis on logistic company action toward the access restriction policy on freight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Muhammad; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit P.; Nahry, Nahdalina

    2017-06-01

    The high volume of freight vehicles that enters, leaves or passes through the urban areas, especially Jakarta, has caused traffic congestion. Local authority plans to perform the access restriction on freight vehicles on the Jakarta Outer Ring Road (JORR) to reduce the congestion on that toll road. The study aims to analyze the alternative solutions of the logistics companies to overcome the impact of such policy. The data collection is done by interviewing 102 truck drivers and 7 staffs of logistic companies that use JORR. The results show that the most preferred action is shifting the operating time. Based on the open test, access restriction policy on JORR may cause a significant impact on the operational costs of delivery. Shifting the operational time will increase the operating cost by 1.71%, while turning the route will increase the operating costs by 4.35%. Moreover, changing the mode will reduce the operating expenses by 50%, and the combination action of shifting the route and the time will increase the operating costs by 5.39%.

  7. Development Trajectories, Emission Profile, and Policy Actions: Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Doshi, Tilak K.; D’Souza, Neil Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Singapore is the most industrialized and urbanized country in Southeast Asia and is totally dependent on oil and natural gas imports to satisfy its energy needs. Its national energy policy framework seeks to find a balance between maintaining Singapore's competitiveness, improving energy security, and enhancing environmental sustainability. In this paper, we discuss where Singapore stands with regard to its energy consumption and CO2 emissions, its energy policies to date, and those that will...

  8. Adaptation to Climatic Hazards in the Savannah Ecosystem: Improving Adaptation Policy and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiran, Gerald A. B.; Stringer, Lindsay C.

    2017-10-01

    People in Ghana's savannah ecosystem have historically experienced a range of climatic hazards that have affected their livelihoods. In view of current climate variability and change, and projected increases in extreme events, adaptation to climate risks is vital. Policies have been put in place to enhance adaptation across sub-Saharan Africa in accordance with international agreements. At the same time, local people, through experience, have learned to adapt. This paper examines current policy actions and their implementation alongside an assessment of barriers to local adaptation. In doing so it links adaptation policy and practice. Policy documents were analysed that covered key livelihood sectors, which were identified as climate sensitive. These included agriculture, water, housing and health policies, as well as the National Climate Change Policy. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were also held with key stakeholders in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Analyses were carried using thematic content analysis. Although policies and actions complement each other, their integration is weak. Financial, institutional, social, and technological barriers hinder successful local implementation of some policy actions, while lack of local involvement in policy formulation also hinders adaptation practice. Integration of local perspectives into policy needs to be strengthened in order to enhance adaptation. Coupled with this is a need to consider adaptation to climate change in development policies and to pursue efforts to reduce or remove the key barriers to implementation at the local level.

  9. The Desegregation Aims and Demographic Contexts of Magnet Schools: How Parents Choose and Why Siting Policies Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Claire; Honey, Ngaire

    2015-01-01

    This paper is designed to specify a set of new opportunities for educators, school administrators, and scholars to realize the practical aims and strategic advantages envisioned in magnet schools. The paper is divided into three distinct sections. In Section I, we examine the extensive research literature on parents' choice patterns and…

  10. Engagement of Sectors Other than Health in Integrated Health Governance, Policy, and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne

    2017-03-20

    Health is created largely outside the health sector. Engagement in health governance, policy, and intervention development and implementation by sectors other than health is therefore important. Recent calls for building and implementing Health in All Policies, and continued arguments for intersectoral action, may strengthen the potential that other sectors have for health. This review clarifies the conceptual foundations for integral health governance, policy, and action, delineates the different sectors and their possible engagement, and provides an overview of a continuum of methods of engagement with other sectors to secure integration. This continuum ranges from institutional (re)design to value-based narratives. Depending on the lens applied, different elements can be identified within the continuum. This review is built on insights from political science, leadership studies, public health, empirical Health in All Policy research, knowledge and evidence nexus approaches, and community perspectives. Successful integration of health governance, policy, and action depends on integration of the elements on the continuum.

  11. Assessing the impact of information and framing on support for climate policy action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A significant share of the public appears mislead by the way the economic impacts of emissions reductions are traditionally communicated. This misunderstanding is associated with reduced support for policy action, and risks long term climate impacts that would be avoided if results were communicated properly. Correct this basis appears likely to have a larger effect on attitudes than new research and information on the impacts of climate change. Government action to achieve deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions - like other major policy changes -depends on public support, which in turn depends on perceptions of policy impacts. This paper reports research exploring the effect of three factors on support for policy action: the way that policy impacts are described; the magnitude of these impacts, and additional information on climate change impacts, provided internally through the surveys and externally through the release of An Inconvenient Truth and media coverage of the Stern Report (2006). The research used split sample phone and internet surveys (n = 4264) conducted in Australia and New Zealand in four waves from April to December 2006. The study gives rise to four major findings: Support for policy action is sensitive to the magnitude of expected economic impacts, with predicted support varying from 27% to 84% across the different levels of policy impact presented; Current approaches to communicating policy impacts are associated with public support for policy action being 8-10% lower than it would be if policy impacts were well communicated. This bias may be corrected by describing policy impacts in terms of changes relative to current levels - stating that incomes continue to rise - as well as describing impacts relative to the base case; The reduction in support associated with these biases is much larger than the increase in support associated with providing credible additional information on the impacts of climate change; Significantly more than

  12. Policy efforts used to develop awareness aimed at increased students' scientific literacy and career choices in mathematics, science and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Frank Albert

    The lack of an adequate supply of human resources in science and engineering has been well documented. Efforts from a number of agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, have been implemented to alleviate this national problem. However, it is unclear what concerted efforts state agencies are taking to increase the number of African American students' scientific literacy, and career choices in science and engineering. The purpose of this study was to select a talent pool of African American students who are academically able to pursue a career in a math-based major. The selection of this talent pool lead to the recommendation of an encouragement process model to be used by the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) system to encourage the selectees of this talent pool to enter math-based programs at TBR universities. An integrated literature review was conducted. This review includes perspectives on national, state, and local educational policy decisions which affect educational purposes, institutional governance and secondary-postsecondary linkages. Existing TBR system data were analyzed and tabulated. This tabulated data along with the recommended model will be offered to the TBR system for possible adoption. The results of these data support the methodological notion that there are an appreciable number of potential TBR system African American students academically able to enter math related majors who, however, may be reluctant to choose a career direction in a math-based career field. Implications of this study and suggestions for further research are discussed. On an applied level, the study might suggest to other states ways in which to deal with similar problems.

  13. Impacts of Affirmative Action: Policies and Consequences in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paul, Ed.

    Most U.S. citizens support the elimination of race and gender prejudice and inequality, yet attitudes toward solutions have fluctuated in the years since the civil rights movement began. California, a state that has set precedent for antidiscrimination initiatives since 1934, is now at the center of struggles over affirmative action. The authors…

  14. Citizenship and Nationality in Changing Europe: A Comparative Study of the Aims of Citizenship Education in Russian and Finnish National Education Policy Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piattoeva, Nelli

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses how the formal aims of citizenship education, as declared in legislation and policy documents, have changed since the end of the 1980s in response to the transformation of the political scenery in Finland and the Russian Federation. One central question framing the analysis of Finnish citizenship education is whether…

  15. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involves an analysis of the extent to which the product and other factors such as consumer behavior are... Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL... action. (a) This document states the Consumer Product Safety Commission's policy on establishing...

  16. Applying the World Health Organization Mental Health Action Plan to evaluate policy on addressing co-occurrence of physical and mental illnesses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Webster, Stephanie; McKenna, Brian; Millar, Freyja; Stanton, Robert; Galletly, Cherrie; Castle, David; Furness, Trentham; Liu, Dennis; Scott, David

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to document Australian policies on the physical health of people with mental illness and evaluate the capacity of policy to support health needs. A search of state and federal policies on mental and physical illness was conducted, as well as detailed analysis of policy content and the relationships between policies, by applying the World Health Organization Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 as an evaluative framework. National policy attention to the physical health of people with mental illness has grown, but there is little interconnection at the national and state levels. State policies across the country are inconsistent, and there is little evidence of consistent policy implementation. A coherent national health policy framework on addressing co-occurring physical and mental illnesses that includes healthcare system reforms and ensuring the interconnectedness of other relevant services should be prioritised.

  17. The Impact of the FOMC's Monetary Policy Actions on the growth of Credit Risk: the Monetary Policy - Liquidity Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Kwamie Dunbar

    2008-01-01

    Credit risk is influenced by interest rates and market liquidity. This paper examines the direct and indirect impacts of unexpected monetary policy shifts on the growth of corporate credit risk, with the aim of quantifying the size and direction of the response. The results surprisingly indicate that monetary policy and liquidity impulses move counter to each other in their effects on credit risk ("The monetary policy-liquidity paradox"). The analysis indicates that while contractionary monet...

  18. Climate change: lived experience, policy and public action

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Dina; Wilson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the importance of lived experiences, as complementary knowledge to that provided by the sciences, for policy and intervention on climate change.\\ud Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual paper draws on several strands within the context of climate change: knowledge and power; human engagement; the meaning of “lived experience” (and its association with “local/indigenous knowledge”); its capture through interdisciplinary and transdiscipl...

  19. Supportive Environments for Physical Activity, Community Action and Policy in Eight EU Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruetten, Alfred; Frahsa, Annika; Engbers, Luuk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A multi-level theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study. METHODS: Most-different and most...... on the interplay of environment, PA behavior, community action and policies appears to be working across most different countries. Comprehensive systems of PA infrastructures are interlinked with relatively high levels of PA prevalence. These countries implement comprehensive national policies on PA promotion...... and show a positive perception of related local governments' engagement. Less comprehensive systems of infrastructures interplay with lower levels of PA prevalence, less community action and fewer policies. Differences between similar cases are linked to country-specific contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Framework...

  20. Nuclear protective action advisories: A policy analysis and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.H. Jr.; Zeigler, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Widespread spontaneous evacuation, the tendency for people to evacuate even when not advised to do so, has been highlighted as one of the likely behavior responses to a nuclear power plant emergency. Utility company representatives contend that protective action advisories can be structured so as to stifle the magnitude and geographic extent of spontaneous evacuation. Data from a utility-company-sponsored telephone survey of households on Long Island, New York, where the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station is located, are used in this paper to test this proposition. Analyses of responses given to three sets of increasingly serious reactor accident scenarios, with and without information instructing people what protective actions to take, raise serious questions about the ability of emergency notification messages to affect human behavior in a radiological emergency. The results suggest firstly, that even if people are specifically advised not to evacuate, most would be inclined to do so; and secondly, that attempts to stifle the propensity to evacuate among those who are not at risk are likely to increase the propensity to stay behind among those who are at risk and should evacuate

  1. PV-DSM: Policy actions to speed commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, T.; Wenger, H.J.; Keane, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG ampersand E) recently applied Demand-Side Management (DSM) evaluation techniques to photovoltaic (PV) technology to develop the concept of photovoltaics as a Demand-Side Management option (PV-DSM). The analysis demonstrated that PV-DSM has the potential to be economically attractive. Two criticisms in response to that analysis are that the assumptions of 25 year financing and a 25 year evaluation period are unrealistic. This paper responds to those criticisms and documents the mathematical relationships to calculate the value of PV-DSM from a customer's perspective. It demonstrates how regulatory and government agencies could implement policies to resolve both issues and speed PV commercialization

  2. [Policy, management and participation in health: a reflection based on Habermas' theory of communicative action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Neto, Júlio Strubing; Artmann, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses the appropriation of the theory developed by Habermas to analyze health policies and management. The fundamental concepts of the discursive theory of democracy as a deliberative policy, procedural democracy, the public sphere and civil society are analyzed. An attempt is made to demonstrate that the concepts of deliberative policies are grounded on basic theoretical categories of Habermas's conception of language, namely the theory of communicative action (TCA): lifeworld and system; communicative action and discourse; the ideal speech situation. The possibility of translating the categories presented in analytical categories, such as the experiences of social participation in deliberative forums and the results for the formulation and implementation of policies and health management is discussed. The conclusion drawn is that the theoretical categories reveal great explanatory potential and analytical categories are important provided that they are mediated and contextualized.

  3. Aspirations and Actions: Early Childhood from Policy to Practice in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores early childhood experience in Scotland in terms of how readily the aspirations of policy convert to day-to-day practices. Ambitions to improve the lives of children and families have been high on the political agenda. Policy may be understood as a tool that aims to influence childhood experience in positive ways. If this is to…

  4. Academics and Advocates: Using Participatory Action Research To Influence Welfare Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoss, Bernita; Cooney, Margaret; Longhurst, Terri

    2000-01-01

    Participatory action research is a useful technique for helping low income groups access postsecondary education. Conducting research involving analysis of the use of surplus welfare funds and federal regulations and advocating policy changes by explaining the benefits of public investment in postsecondary education are two roles for consumer…

  5. Policies on documentation and disciplinary action in hospital pharmacies after a medication error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, A N; Pedersen, C A; Schommer, J C; Griffith, N L

    2001-06-15

    Hospital pharmacies were surveyed about policies on medication error documentation and actions taken against pharmacists involved in an error. The survey was mailed to 500 randomly selected hospital pharmacy directors in the United States. Data were collected on the existence of medication error reporting policies, what types of errors were documented and how, and hospital demographics. The response rate was 28%. Virtually all of the hospitals had policies and procedures for medication error reporting. Most commonly, documentation of oral and written reprimand was placed in the personnel file of a pharmacist involved in an error. One sixth of respondents had no policy on documentation or disciplinary action in the event of an error. Approximately one fourth of respondents reported that suspension or termination had been used as a form of disciplinary action; legal action was rarely used. Many respondents said errors that caused harm (42%) or death (40%) to the patient were documented in the personnel file, but 34% of hospitals did not document errors in the personnel file regardless of error type. Nearly three fourths of respondents differentiated between errors caught and not caught before a medication leaves the pharmacy and between errors caught and not caught before administration to the patient. More emphasis is needed on documentation of medication errors in hospital pharmacies.

  6. Accelerating Change for Women Faculty of Color in STEM: Policy, Action, and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Cynthia; Gault, Barbara; Yi, Youngmin

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes findings and recommendations from a convening, "Accelerating Change for Women Faculty of Color in STEM: Policy, Action, and Collaboration," that was designed to address the underrepresentation of women of color in STEM academic careers. The convening provided an opportunity for individuals who work in various…

  7. Some comments of the parlamentary actions about the province of Cordoba's nuclear policy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.R.; Muller, E.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the actual status of the Cordoba Province's Nuclear Policy Law in Argentine Republic is presented. The different actions made in the parlamentary treatment of the law are described in detail, with mention of the more important subjects from each political force. The contents of the law are described in detail with special emphasis on the historical development of them. (Author) [es

  8. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Guide Focus Group Development of Messages Aimed at Increasing Compliance With a Tobacco-Free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Harrington, Nancy G; Helme, Donald W; Savage, Matthew W

    2018-01-01

    This study details the persuasive message development for a theory-based campaign designed to increase compliance with a university's tobacco-free policy. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) guided message design and evaluation for focus group-tested messages that were adapted to the context of complying with a tobacco-free policy. The study was conducted at a university located in the tobacco belt. Undergraduate focus group participants (n = 65) were mostly male (69%), white (82%), and freshman (62%) who smoked at least 1 cigarette in the last 30 days; on-campus smoking percentages were never/rare (60%), occasionally (23%), and often/frequently (16%). Data analysis used a theoretical thematic approach to identify how the TPB constructs related to perceptions of message effectiveness. Participants responded favorably to attitudinal strategies about health, respect, and university figures; they rejected approaches they considered juvenile and offensive. They also discussed the impact of noncompliance and avoiding overgeneralized statements for addressing subjective norms, suggesting shortening text, adjusting picture location, and emphasizing the importance of compliance to increase perceptions of behavioral control. Applying theory to preexisting messages is challenging. The design approach in this study is an evidence-based strategy that can be used as a universal process for message adaptation. Results offer health promotion suggestions for designing messages aimed at improving undergraduate smokers' willingness to comply with tobacco-free campus policies.

  9. The evolution of policy and actions to tackle obesity in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebb, S A; Aveyard, P N; Hawkes, C

    2013-11-01

    Tackling obesity has been a policy priority in England for more than 20 years. Two formal government strategies on obesity in 2008 and 2011 drew together a range of actions and developed new initiatives to fill perceived gaps. Today, a wide range of policies are in place, including support for breastfeeding and healthy weaning practices, nutritional standards in schools, restrictions on marketing foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children, schemes to boost participation in sport, active travel plans, and weight management services. Data from annual surveys show that the rate of increase in obesity has attenuated in recent years, but has not yet been reversed. This paper considers the actions taken and what is known about the impact of individual policies and the overarching strategy to tackle obesity in England. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. A qualitative study exploring how the aims, language and actions of yoga for pregnancy teachers may impact upon women's self-efficacy for labour and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Virginia R; Nolan, Mary

    2016-02-01

    As women's anxiety and the rate of medical intervention in labour and birth continue to increase, it is important to identify how antenatal education can increase women's confidence and their ability to manage the intense sensations of labour. To report a grounded theory study of how the aims, language and actions of yoga for pregnancy teachers may impact upon women's self-efficacy for labour and birth. Yoga for pregnancy classes in three locations were filmed. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with the teachers to explore what they were trying to achieve in their classes, and how. Interviews and classes were transcribed and analysed using grounded theory. There was considerable consistency in the teachers' aims, the language they used in classes and in their thinking about class structure. Four main themes emerged: creating a sisterhood, modelling labour, building confidence and enhancing learning. Teachers see yoga for pregnancy as a multi-faceted, non-prescriptive intervention that enhances women's physical, emotional and social readiness for labour and birth, and supports women to make their own decisions across the transition to parenthood. Women's self-efficacy for labour is complex and multi-factorial. This study offers insights into the factors which may be involved in increasing it. These include not only traditional elements of yoga such as postures, breathing and meditation, but also the creation of safe, women-only groups where anxieties, experiences and stories can be shared, and pain-coping techniques for labour learned and practised. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Building policy capacities: an interactive approach for linking knowledge to action in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Gelius, Peter

    2014-09-01

    This article outlines a theoretical framework for an interactive, research-driven approach to building policy capacities in health promotion. First, it illustrates how two important issues in the recent public health debate, capacity building and linking scientific knowledge to policy action, are connected to each other theoretically. It then introduces an international study on an interactive approach to capacity building in health promotion policy. The approach combines the ADEPT model of policy capacities with a co-operative planning process to foster the exchange of knowledge between policy-makers and researchers, thus improving intra- and inter-organizational capacities. A regional-level physical activity promotion project involving governmental and public-law institutions, NGOs and university researchers serves as a case study to illustrate the potential of the approach for capacity building. Analysis and comparison with a similar local-level project indicate that the approach provides an effective means of linking scientific knowledge to policy action and to planning concrete measures for capacity building in health promotion, but that it requires sufficiently long timelines and adequate resources to achieve adequate implementation and sustainability. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Is India's policy framework geared for effective action on avoidable blindness from diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani M Gaiha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growing burden of avoidable blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy (DR needs an effective and holistic policy that reflects mechanisms for early detection and treatment of DR to reduce the risk of blindness. Materials and Methods: We performed a comprehensive health policy review to highlight the existing systemic issues that enable policy translation and to assess whether India's policy architecture is geared to address the mounting challenge of DR. We used a keyword-based Internet search for documents available in the last 15 years. Two reviewers independently assessed retrieved policies and extracted contextual and program-oriented information and components delineated in national policy documents. Using a “descriptive analytical” method, the results were collated and summarized as per themes to present status quo, gaps, and recommendations for the future. Results: Lack of focus on building sustainable synergies that require well laid out mechanisms for collaboration within and outside the health sector and poor convergence between national health programs appears to be the weakest links across policy documents. Conclusions: To reasonably address the issues of consistency, comprehensiveness, clarity, context, connectedness, and sustainability, policies will have to rely more strongly on evidence from operational research to support decisions. There is a need to involve multiple stakeholders from multiple sectors, recognize contributions from not-for-profit sector and private health service providers, and finally bring about a nuanced holistic perspective that has a voice with implementable multiple sector actions.

  13. 21 CFR 1404.635 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a debarment or suspension action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a debarment or suspension action? 1404.635 Section 1404.635 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1404.635...

  14. A rethink of how policy and social science approach changing individuals' actions on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, William; Middlemiss, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Social scientists from all areas are developing theories and testing practical approaches to change individuals' actions to lower greenhouse gas emissions. In the UK context, policy-makers, local authorities, companies and organisations are using these theories to invest resources to change individual's actions. The problem is that social scientists are delivering fragmented science based on narrow disciplinary views and those using this science are cherry picking whatever theory suits their agenda. We argue that with substantial GHG emission reduction targets to be achieved, a multidisciplinary application and view of social science are urgently needed.

  15. Affirmative Action in Education and Black Economic Empowerment in the Workplace in South Africa since 1994: Policies, Strengths and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Harold D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains the concepts of Affirmative Action (AA) and Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) and the policies developed in post-Apartheid South Africa. It compares it to similar policies adopted in different contexts in Malaysia, India and the U.S.A. It explains and critiques the South African policies on AA and BEE, its history since 1994 and…

  16. An Introduction to Affirmative Action Policies in Korea: Consequences and implications for Japan (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    OSAWA Machiko; KIM Myoung Jung

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Korean government introduced affirmative action (AA) policies in the private sector in order to promote women's entry into the labor force and also to better utilize their talents. Through this effort, women's employment rates as well as the proportion of women in managerial positions have risen. Based on the Workplace Panel Survey collected by the Korea Labor Institute, we analyze the effects of AA on women's employment and the share of women in managerial positions and return o...

  17. Open Education and OER - A guide and call to action for policy makers

    OpenAIRE

    Deepwell, Maren; Weller, Martin; Campbell, Lorna; Wilson, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Executive Summary ALT has produced this call to action to highlight to education policy makers and professionals how Open Education and OER can expand inclusive and equitable access to education and lifelong learning, widen participation, and create new opportunities for the next generation of teachers and learners, preparing them to become fully engaged digital citizens. Open Education can also promote knowledge transfer while enhancing quality and sustainability, supporting social inclu...

  18. THE ACTIONS PROGRAMMES IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENT AND THE INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duduială Popescu Lorena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important strategies to achieve the objectives of sustainable development is to promote a coherent legal system in the European Union. The trends and priorities are mapped and monitored under the Programme of Action on the environment. The environmental Action Programmes are documents underpinning EU environmental policy. The first of these programs was adopted by the European Council in 1972 and was followed by five others. These action programs are actually a combination of medium-term programs, coupled with a strategic approach and is characterized by a vertical and sectoral environmental problems. Since 1973, the European Community action program in the field of environment have become an increasingly important role. The European Community Treaty of 1986 is the legal basis of EU environmental policy. The Article 174 outlines environmental policy objectives and defines its purpose - ensuring a high level of environmental protection taking into account the diversity of situations in different regions of the European Union. The underlying objectives of EU environmental policy, under Article 174, are: • the preserve, protect and improve the environment; • the protection of human health; •the rational use of natural resources; •a promoting measures at international level to treat regional environmental issues. The Article 175 identifies the appropriate legislative procedures to this end and establishes the decisionmaking in environmental policy. The Article 176 allows Member States to adopt and stricter standards if it is deemed important and if it is justified. The "Sustainable development" is mentioned early in Art. 2 of the Treaty of Amsterdam Treaty which underlies the formation of the European Community. The Article 6 promotes sustainable development as a cross-cutting policy of the European Union, highlighting the need to integrate environmental protection requirements into the definition and implementation of EU

  19. Multisectoral Actions for Health: Challenges and Opportunities in Complex Policy Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Tangcharoensathien

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multisectoral actions for health, defined as actions undertaken by non-health sectors to protect the health of the population, are essential in the context of inter-linkages between three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental. These multisectoral actions can address the social and economic factors that influence the health of a population at the local, national, and global levels. This editorial identifies the challenges, opportunities and capacity development for effective multisectoral actions for health in a complex policy environment. The root causes of the challenges lie in poor governance such as entrenched political and administrative corruption, widespread clientelism, lack of citizen voice, weak social capital, lack of trust and lack of respect for human rights. This is further complicated by the lack of government effectiveness caused by poor capacity for strong public financial management and low levels of transparency and accountability which leads to corruption. The absence of or rapid changes in government policies, and low salary in relation to living standards result in migration out of qualified staff. Tobacco, alcohol and sugary drink industries are major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs and had interfered with health policy through regulatory capture and potential law suits against the government. Opportunities still exist. Some World Health Assembly (WHA and United Nations General Assembly (UNGA resolutions are both considered as external driving forces for intersectoral actions for health. In addition, Thailand National Health Assembly under the National Health Act is another tool providing opportunity to form trust among stakeholders from different sectors.

  20. The history of the IEA volume II: major policies and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.

    1995-01-01

    Volume II of the History of the International Energy Agency (IEA) continues the story which began with the Origins and Structure of the Agency in Volume I. After examining the industrial countries'energy policies leading up to the 1973-1974 crisis, the current Volume focuses on the new policies adopted in the IEA during its first twenty years.The first part of this book deals with a section on 'Energy Policy Origins of the 1973-1974 Oil Supply Vulnerability : The Optimistic-Passive Approach to Oil Policy'. The main events and developments leading up to the crisis are briefly outlined together with a short presentation of the policy views and critical conclusions that were made on that situation by some of the most knowledgeable oil specialists of the period. The second part surveys IEA oil security, beginning with the oil Emergency Sharing System. The IAE's long-term policies for reducing its Members'dependence on imported oil are the subject of the third part. In this part is described the development of some of the leading IEA work in the field of energy and the environment, the Agency's far-reaching reviews of Members'policies in this sector and a discussion of the 'free markets' policy and of the IEA Shared Goals of 1993. The fourth part deals with the still longer-term Energy Research and Development in the IEA and is a review of the internal organization of IEA work in the R and D field. The fifth part follows with a discussion of the Oil Market policies and practices of the Agency, where the main and durable goals are 'transparency and information dissemination'. The last part addresses the Agency's policies and actions with respect to Co-operation with Non-Member Countries. Then, it takes up Members'policies and activities in connection with the oil producer and consumer country dialogue of 1976-1977 and outlines its disappointing outcome. (O.L.). 2 figs., 13 tabs

  1. Territory and energy: policies, scales and tools for mobilization, knowledge and local action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, Camille

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is about French local authorities' energy policies, and more particularly about regional policies. In a context of reassessment of fossil fuel-based energy systems, local authorities have a key role to play. Indeed, energy systems are complex and require to act locally, in order to keep fair access for consumers and to adapt supply to needs and uses. In the same way, environmental constraints and sustainable exploitation of local resources involve to have a good knowledge of territory and of local energy potential. But, local authorities do not know much about boundaries and about components of territorial energy systems. The main purpose of the thesis is to determine structure and behaviour of these energy systems in order to identify public policy incentive levers at local scale. The first part of the thesis deals with the links between land uses, actors' behaviours, political choices and energy consumptions. Here, we point out the specific interest of geography and territorial approach to treat energy issue, both for land planning and for actors' mobilization. In the second part, we identify policy instruments which local authorities should dispose and actions they should implement in order to develop energy saving and renewables. Then, the third part is more specific to regional level. The analysis of two French planning instruments (Regional Plans for Climate, Air and Energy and Regional Energy Observatories), shows the interest of this scale which could, with its position between national and local levels, contribute to improve knowledge of territories, to coordinate local actions and to develop energy policies adapted to local specificities [fr

  2. Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

  3. Taking action against ocean acidification: a review of management and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

  4. STRATEGIES FOR ACTION AND PUBLIC POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF THE THIRD DEGREE COOPERATIVES IN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches the impact of the Argentine cooperative entities representing the contemporary public policy. We present a case study of the two largest third-degree cooperatives in the country, discuss the goals and strategies in interactions with State agencies. The results of the actions of actors define goals and strategies that can be convergent and / or divergent. We conclude that the links have been built with the State federations selected characteristics of complementarily and cooperation in general. Also, the power to influence the organizations surveyed in the definition of public policies is not only equity, but mainly the political opportunities and the ability to inter-stakeholder alliances through collective strategies.

  5. Strategic Action in Institutional Change: Layering, Conversion and Architectural Policy Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pechmann, Philipp

    This paper theorizes different types of strategic action in order to better understand and explain how institutional and policy change comes about and how single events in gradual change processes are causally connected. It conceptualizes situational change strategies which are favored in contexts...... configured along two dimensions identified in the literature: the level of veto barriers in the political environment, and the level of institutional discretion in rule interpretation and enforcement. More specifically, it suggests a conceptual merging of modes of institutional change like layering...... and conversion with elements of architectural policy design such as the compartmentalization of resource flows, the creation of reporting mechanisms, or the judicialization and professionalization of institutions. The benefits of this approach are threefold: First, it advances the gradual change literature...

  6. An introduction to the HighARCS Integrated Action Plans, with an institutions, policies and conflicts perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren

    This report is an introduction focused on institutions, policies and conflicts aspects, for the Integrated Action Plans (IAPs) produced by the HighARCS project for the 5 sites in China, India and Vietnam......This report is an introduction focused on institutions, policies and conflicts aspects, for the Integrated Action Plans (IAPs) produced by the HighARCS project for the 5 sites in China, India and Vietnam...

  7. Taking Action against Global Warming - An Overview of the German Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The climatic change is a reality. The Germany objective is to limit the increase of the earth temperature to 2 degree. The climatology studies show that this represents a limit level to stay in a controlled situation. This paper presents the international and european response to the climatic change and more especially the german approach. It details the revolution of the energy production, the energy efficiency, the problem of the transports and the new energy policy. The legislative framework, the actions of the regions and the financial program are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  8. Multisectoral Actions for Health: Challenges and Opportunities in Complex Policy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Srisookwatana, Orapan; Pinprateep, Poldej; Posayanonda, Tipicha; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn

    2017-05-16

    Multisectoral actions for health, defined as actions undertaken by non-health sectors to protect the health of the population, are essential in the context of inter-linkages between three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental. These multisectoral actions can address the social and economic factors that influence the health of a population at the local, national, and global levels. This editorial identifies the challenges, opportunities and capacity development for effective multisectoral actions for health in a complex policy environment. The root causes of the challenges lie in poor governance such as entrenched political and administrative corruption, widespread clientelism, lack of citizen voice, weak social capital, lack of trust and lack of respect for human rights. This is further complicated by the lack of government effectiveness caused by poor capacity for strong public financial management and low levels of transparency and accountability which leads to corruption. The absence of or rapid changes in government policies, and low salary in relation to living standards result in migration out of qualified staff. Tobacco, alcohol and sugary drink industries are major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and had interfered with health policy through regulatory capture and potential law suits against the government. Opportunities still exist. Some World Health Assembly (WHA) and United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions are both considered as external driving forces for intersectoral actions for health. In addition, Thailand National Health Assembly under the National Health Act is another tool providing opportunity to form trust among stakeholders from different sectors. Capacity development at individual, institutional and system level to generate evidence and ensure it is used by multisectoral agencies is as critical as strengthening the health literacy of people and the overall good governance of a

  9. Taking aim at Müller-Lyer goalkeeper illusion: An illusion bias in action that originates from the target not being optically specified.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, J.; van der Kamp, J.; Rigby, B.R.; Lutz, R.; Poolton, J.M.; Masters, R.S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Van der Kamp and Masters (2008) reported that goalkeeper postures that mimic the Müller-Lyer (1889) illusion affect the location of handball penalty throws. In four experiments, we aimed to verify that the effects on throwing are consistent with an illusorybias(Experiments 1 and 2), and to examine

  10. White paper: China's policies and actions for addressing climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    The document contains the following sections: Foreword; I. Climate Change and China's Situation; II. Impact of Climate Change on China; III. Strategies and Objectives for Addressing Climate Change; IV. Policies and Actions to Decelerate Climate Change; V. Policies and Actions to Adapt to Climate Change; VI. Enhancing Public Awareness in Addressing Climate Change; VII. Enhancing International Cooperation on Climate Change; VIII. Institution and Mechanism Building for Coping with Climate Change; and Conclusion. Measures for control of greenhouse gas emissions include optimizing the energy consumption structure through developing renewable energy, boosting nuclear power plant construction and speeding up the development and utilization of coal-bed gas. The target by 2010 is to raise the proportion of renewable energy (including large-scale hydropower) in the primary energy supply by up to 10 percent, and the extraction of coal-bed gas up to 10 billion cu m. China will push forward the use of clean coal and develop efficient and clean power generating technology, such as large-scale combined cycle units and poly-generation, and promote technology for carbon dioxide sequestration. China has decided to place the emphasis of its research on technologies which include technologies for the clean and efficient exploitation and utilization of coal, petroleum and natural gas; technologies for manufacturing advanced equipment for coal- and nuclear-generated power; technologies for capturing, utilizing and storing carbon dioxide; and technologies that control greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture and how land is used.

  11. Major alternatives for government policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and assess major alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States. The National Academy of Public Administration agreed to identify and evaluate alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management. It agreed to review present policies and practices in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management, to review selected experiences and practices of governmental agencies other than the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and industries other than the nuclear power industry, and to identify alternatives to the present nuclear emergency system

  12. Health in All Policies (HiAP) framework for country action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This document serves as a 'starter's kit' for applying Health in All Policies (HiAP) in decision-making and implementation at national and subnational levels. It can be easily adapted for use in different country contexts and at the regional and global levels. WHAT IS HIAP?: HiAP is an approach to public policies across sectors that systematically takes into account the health implications of decisions, seeks synergies and avoids harmful health impacts in order to improve population health and health equity. As a concept, it reflects the principles of: legitimacy, accountability, transparency and access to information, participation, sustainability and collaboration across sectors and levels of government. Health and health equity are values in their own right and are also important prerequisites for achieving many other societal goals. Many of the determinants of health and health inequities in populations have social, environmental and economic origins that extend beyond the direct influence of the health sector and health policies. Thus, public policies in all sectors and at different levels of governance can have a significant impact on population health and health equity. The Framework sets out six key components that should be addressed in order to put the HiAP approach into action: (1) establish the need and priorities for HiAP, (2) frame planned action, (3) identify supportive structures and processes, (4) facilitate assessment and engagement, (5) ensure monitoring, evaluation and reporting, (6) build capacity. These components are not fixed in order or priority. Rather, individual countries will adopt and adjust the components in ways that are most relevant for their specific governance, economic and social contexts. Although governments as a whole bear the ultimate responsibility for the health of their citizens, health authorities at all levels are key actors in promoting HiAP. They should therefore actively seek opportunities to collaborate with and

  13. Moving from the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act to HIV Organ Policy Equity in action: changing practice and challenging stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doby, Brianna L; Tobian, Aaron A R; Segev, Dorry L; Durand, Christine M

    2018-04-01

    The HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act, signed in 2013, reversed the federal ban on HIV-to-HIV transplantation. In this review, we examine the progress in HOPE implementation, the current status of HIV-to-HIV transplantation, and remaining challenges. Pursuant to the HOPE Act, the Department of Health and Human Services revised federal regulations to allow HIV-to-HIV transplants under research protocols adherent to criteria published by the National Institutes of Health. The first HIV-to-HIV kidney and liver transplants were performed at Johns Hopkins in March of 2016. Legal and practical challenges remain. Further efforts are needed to educate potential HIV+ donors and to support Organ Procurement Organizations. As of November 2017, there are 22 transplant centers approved to perform HIV-to-HIV transplants in 10 United Network for Organ Sharing regions. To date, 16 Organ Procurement Organizations in 22 states have evaluated HIV+ donors. The National Institutes of Health-funded HOPE in Action: A Multicenter Clinical Trial of HIV-to-HIV Deceased Donor (HIVDD) Kidney Transplantation Kidney Trial will launch at 19 transplant centers in December of 2017. A HOPE in Action Multicenter HIVDD Liver Trial is in development. Significant progress toward full HOPE implementation has been made though barriers remain. Some challenges are unique to HIV-HIV transplantation, whereas others are amplifications of issues across the current transplant system. In addition to a public health benefit for all transplant candidates in the United States, partnership on the HOPE Act has the potential to address systemic challenges to national donation and transplantation.

  14. Living with a carbon allowance: The experiences of Carbon Rationing Action Groups and implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Rachel A.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs) are grassroots voluntary groups of citizens concerned about climate change, who set themselves a carbon allowance each year and provide support to members seeking to reduce their direct carbon emissions from household energy use and personal transport. Some groups have a financial penalty for carbon emitted in excess of the ration, and systems whereby under-emitters are rewarded using the monies collected from over-emitters. CRAGs therefore operate the nearest scheme in existence to the proposed policy of Personal Carbon Trading (PCT). This paper reports the findings of a study of the opinions and experiences of individuals involved in CRAGs (‘CRAGgers’). In general, interviewees have made significant behavioural changes and emissions reductions, but many would be unwilling to sell spare carbon allowances within a national PCT system. The choices made by CRAGgers with respect to the design and operation of their ‘carbon accounting’, their experiences of reducing fossil fuel energy use, and their views on personal carbon trading at CRAG and national level are discussed. Some possible implications for PCT and other policies are considered, as well as the limitations of CRAGs in informing an understanding of the potential impacts and operation of PCT. - Highlights: ► Reports opinions and experiences of members of Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs). ► Many interviewees have made significant reductions to their carbon footprint. ► CRAGs offer insights into individuals' experiences of living with a carbon allowance. ► Most CRAGs involve highly motivated individuals and avoid trading. ► They nonetheless offer some insights into Personal Carbon Trading and other policies.

  15. The SPIRIT Action Framework: A structured approach to selecting and testing strategies to increase the use of research in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Davies, Huw; Williamson, Anna; Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Milat, Andrew; O'Connor, Denise; Blyth, Fiona; Jorm, Louisa; Green, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The recent proliferation of strategies designed to increase the use of research in health policy (knowledge exchange) demands better application of contemporary conceptual understandings of how research shapes policy. Predictive models, or action frameworks, are needed to organise existing knowledge and enable a more systematic approach to the selection and testing of intervention strategies. Useful action frameworks need to meet four criteria: have a clearly articulated purpose; be informed by existing knowledge; provide an organising structure to build new knowledge; and be capable of guiding the development and testing of interventions. This paper describes the development of the SPIRIT Action Framework. A literature search and interviews with policy makers identified modifiable factors likely to influence the use of research in policy. An iterative process was used to combine these factors into a pragmatic tool which meets the four criteria. The SPIRIT Action Framework can guide conceptually-informed practical decisions in the selection and testing of interventions to increase the use of research in policy. The SPIRIT Action Framework hypothesises that a catalyst is required for the use of research, the response to which is determined by the capacity of the organisation to engage with research. Where there is sufficient capacity, a series of research engagement actions might occur that facilitate research use. These hypotheses are being tested in ongoing empirical work. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Presenting a Framework to Analyze Local Climate Policy and Action in Small and Medium-Sized Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoppe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local climate actions in SMCs? In this article we present an analytical framework to analyze climate change policy and local climate actions of SMCs. The framework addresses different aspects: policy-input, -throughput, -output, -outcome, characteristics of the local environment, local action arenas, influence by higher government levels, and interaction with climate change issue networks. The framework is used to analyze and compare four case studies of SMCs in the Dutch region of Twente (two urban and two rural municipalities, and addresses both adaptation and mitigation. Results show that both ‘localist’, ‘multi-level’ and issue network membership factors influence local climate policy action. Governance modes discerned concern mostly ‘governing by authority’ and ‘self-governing’. When reflecting on the role of SMCs in climate action the study revealed the importance of local capacity building schemes issued by provincial government, inter-municipal network collaboration, and the potential for local governments to mobilize and organize citizen action.

  17. Displacement policy favoring the walk in the towns. Actions of european towns; Politiques de deplacement favorisant la marche a pied en ville. Actions de villes europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallar, J.P.; Wagenaar, D.

    2003-07-01

    Many towns in Europe began policies favoring the walk. By an evaluation of the actions realized, this study presents the results in four main topics: the planning, the organization, the communication and public information, the evaluation of the initiatives and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  18. Current Government Actions and Potential Policy Options for Reducing Obesity in Queensland Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser A. Alsharairi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available School nutrition policies provide promising avenues towards the improvement of children’s eating habits and the prevention of obesity. Childhood obesity rates and related chronic diseases are increasing in Queensland, in part as a result of unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity. There is a very high investment by the Queensland government in maintaining healthy weight and promoting nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren through delivering a range of initiatives across the state. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning the effectiveness of nutrition/physical education and parental involvement programs addressing obesity delivered in Queensland schools. This paper can be used to guide government and policy-makers regarding the most effective policy options that will promote healthy eating and physical activity among Queensland schoolchildren. The aim of this paper is to: (i summarize current evidence on Queensland government responses to obesity; and (ii discuss potential policy options that could support healthy eating and regular physical activity, and examine the evidence base for each option and suggest new areas for future research.

  19. Comparing the sustainability of different action policy possibilities: application to the issue of both household survival and forest preservation in the corridor of Fianarantsoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C; Martin, S

    2013-10-01

    A sustainability issue for the rain forest in the corridor of Fianarantsoa (Madagascar) is to preserve the forest while ensuring the development of the local population. The aim of this paper is to determine whether the current situation is sustainable or not according to different action policy possibilities. We propose a general procedure based on viability analysis: Translation of sustainability issues into constraints on the system state; elaboration of a mathematical model of system evolution rules in the form of controlled dynamical system; computations of the viability kernels according to different action policy possibilities. Among control variables, we focus on monetary transfer. Without monetary transfer, we show that the current situation of the rain forest corridor is not sustainable in our mathematical modeling framework. We then estimate the minimal maximal amount per year necessary to make the current situation sustainable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [European innovation partnership on active and healthy aging: moving from policy to action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Lizana, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    Demographic change and aging are a common challenge in Europe. The rising number of elderly people will need support at home, and will consume more healthcare services, putting further pressure on the welfare system. Collaborative, integrated and people-centered care provision, whether in hospitals, homes or in the community, is a way forward to sustainable and efficient care systems. Innovative treatments to address chronic diseases and the functional decline of older people will enable them to live longer in better health and with a better quality of life. To fully unleash the potential of aging in the European Union, the European Commission -within its Innovation Union policy- launched the first European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP AHA). Promoting engagement and partnerships among all stakeholders in the healthcare chain is essential. This article describes the theoretical foundations, the development and expectations of the initiative, and its first actions. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Judicial Review on Administrative Action: Reflection on the Bank Century Bailout Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Evelina Sitorus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accountability is the key to good governance. In the global administrative law, every policy made should be accountable. The given law should be accessible for public. When global financial crisis happened, many countries didn't have the necessary rules to solve the problem arised. In Indonesia, the decision from government to bailout century bank is controversial as of right now. The need of comprehensive law in related to economic, political and social factor should be considered. The law of Administrative Governance of Indonesia (UU No 30/2014 had provided the code of conduct for government action. The placement of discretion in one whole chapter can be seen in two ways side-the restriction of government action and protection for public rights. In practice, the implementation of such rule is not accessible as the formulation intended. Harmonization with the law of Administrative Courts in Indonesia (UU No 5/1986 jo UU No 9/2004 jo UU 51/2009 is still needed.

  2. Analysis of the French system for persons in complex situation in regard of the implementation of a public policy aiming to integrate health and social services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somme, Dominique; de Stampa, Matthieu; Périsset, Catherine; Dupont, Olivier; Ankri, Joël; Saint-Jean, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The French Alzheimer plan, states that one of its principle orientations is the implementation of ‘Homes for Integration and Autonomy for Alzheimer patients’. Alzheimer disease is taken as a model to implement integration for all persons in complex situation (handicap…). Method Seventeen experimental sites were selected in January 2009 for the first two years. They were selected by policy-makers taking into account the readiness of the local policy-makers to implement the program, the diversity of sizes of sites, the diversity of the experimentation leaders' organizational link (public administrations, not for profit organizations, private organizations) and the diversity of societal structure (rural, urban and mega-urban). The experimental sites were analyzed considering six components of integration: coordination boards, unique point of access, case-management, standardized assessment tool, individualized services plan and information system. A complete and computerized tool was specifically developed for the organizational diagnosis. Results During the session, results will be exposed. These results will give a contrasted image of the French system for persons in complex situation. The tool will be also exposed and the receptivity will be discussed. Conclusion The French Alzheimer plan gives a unique opportunity to have a portrait of the French system in regard of integration challenges.

  3. The role of civil society in health policy making in South Africa: a review of the strategies adopted by the Treatment Action Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabi, Stella C; Rieker, Mark

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of AIDS in 1982 in South Africa was followed by a rapid rise in the number of people living with the virus and dying from AIDS-related illnesses. The 2016 report by the Statistics South Africa indicated that about 7.03 million South Africans were infected with HIV/AIDS - the highest rate in the world. Despite the emergence of effective drugs in the mid-1990s, medical treatment remained unavailable in South Africa, particularly in public hospitals. This prompted civil society groups to establish platforms to discuss health policy change in South Africa. Prominent among these was the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), formed in 1998, which aimed to advocate for improved HIV/AIDS health service delivery. The efforts succeeded in shaping the current HIV/AIDS policy through various initiatives such as the use of constitutional law in legal action against profiteering drug companies. This paper examines the role of civil society, and particularly the TAC engagement with the state in health policy making, and the subsequent implementation of health policy on HIV/AIDS in post-apartheid South Africa.

  4. Insights into Attempts at Using Action Research in a Collaborative Work in a Policy Review Exercise in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosimile, Anthony Tsatsing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I embrace the thinking that writing on one's experiences in the use of qualitative educational research strategies and principles could potentially contribute to furthering knowledge in the field. In adopting an action research framework to guide collaborative work in a policy review exercise in Botswana, I found that collaborative…

  5. 75 FR 32841 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... or institutions, to commit human rights abuses related to political repression, including detentions... political prisoners in the fall of 2008 and our continuing efforts to press for further reforms related to democracy, human rights, and the rule of law in Belarus, serious challenges remain. The actions and policies...

  6. Differences in school environment, school policy and actions regarding overweight prevention between Dutch schools. A nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buijs Goof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. Methods In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years. Prevalences of the outcome variables were calculated for the schools in total and by school level. The association between school level and outcome variables were analysed by a log linear regression. Results Unhealthy foods and drinks are widely available at secondary schools. One third of the schools indicated that overweight has increased among students and half of the schools agreed that schools were (coresponsible for the prevention of overweight. Only 3% of the schools have a policy on overweight prevention. Small differences were observed between vocational education schools and higher education schools. The presence of vending machines did not differ by school level, but at vocational education schools, the content of the vending machines was less healthy. Conclusion This study describes the current situation at schools which is essential for the development and evaluation of future overweight prevention policies and interventions. In general, secondary schools are not actively involved in overweight prevention and the nutritional environment at most schools could be improved. The small differences between school levels do not give reason for a differential approach for a certain school level for overweight prevention.

  7. Energy policy and the scope of action of the EC; Die energiepolitischen Handlungsmoeglichkeiten der EG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, E. [Universitaet Lueneburg, Lueneburg (Germany); Witthohn, A. [IHK Hannover (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    This contribution examines the legal basis of authorization and the scope of action of the European legislator with respect to legislation on the energy policy of the EC. The analysis starts with summarising the evolution of the primary law, looking inter alia at the constitutent treaties of the ECSC, EURATOM, and the EEC, and discusses further developments and treaties, as there is no specific, uniform basis of legislative power of the EC in the energy sector of EC. Subsequently, the basis for and secondary law making is discussed, the concluding part of the article giving an outlook on the future. (orig./CB) [German] Zentrale Frage des folgenden Beitrags ist, woraus der europaeische Gesetzgeber seine Kompetenz im Energiebereich ableitet und wie weit seine Regelungen in dem Bereich gehen duerfen. Um diese Fragen zu beantworten, wird zunaechst die Entwicklung des europaeischen Primaerrechts bzw. der Gruendungsvertraege im Energiebereich beleuchtet und werden die einschlaegigen Ermaechtigungsgrundlagen dargestellt. Im Anschluss daran stehen dann die wichtigsten sekundaerrechtlichen Regelungen im Mittelpunkt. Abschliessend wird ein Ausblick auf die weitere Entwicklung gegeben. (orig./CB)

  8. A survey of the effective factors in students’ adherence to university dress code policy, using the theory of reasoned action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN KAVEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recognizing the determinants of behavior plays a major role in identification and application of effective strategies for encouraging individuals to follow the intended pattern of behavior. The present study aimed to analyze the university students’ behaviors regarding the amenability to dress code, using the theory of reasoned action (TRA. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 472 students were selected through multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by specialists. Besides, its reliability was confirmed by conducting a pilot study revealing Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.93 for attitude, 0.83 for subjective norms, 0.94 for behavioral intention and 0.77 for behavior. The data were entered into the SPSS statistical software and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney, correlation and regression analysis. Results: Based on the students’ self-reports, conformity of clothes to the university’s dress code was below the expected level in 28.87% of the female students and 28.55% of the male ones. The mean scores of attitude, subjective norms, and behavioral intention to comply with dress code policy were 28.78±10.08, 28.51±8.25 and 11.12±3.84, respectively. The students of different colleges were different from each other concerning TRA constructs. Yet, subjective norms played a more critical role in explaining the variance of dress code behavior among the students. Conclusion: Theory of reasoned action explained the students’ dress code behaviors relatively well. The study results suggest paying attention to appropriate approaches in educational, cultural activities, including promotion of student-teacher communication.

  9. A survey of the effective factors in students' adherence to university dress code policy, using the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi, Leila; Hesampour, Maryam; Hasan Zadeh, Jafar

    2015-07-01

    Recognizing the determinants of behavior plays a major role in identification and application of effective strategies for encouraging individuals to follow the intended pattern of behavior. The present study aimed to analyze the university students' behaviors regarding the amenability to dress code, using the theory of reasoned action (TRA). In this cross sectional study, 472 students were selected through multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by specialists. Besides, its reliability was confirmed by conducting a pilot study revealing Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.93 for attitude, 0.83 for subjective norms, 0.94 for behavioral intention and 0.77 for behavior. The data were entered into the SPSS statistical software and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney, correlation and regression analysis). Based on the students' self-reports, conformity of clothes to the university's dress code was below the expected level in 28.87% of the female students and 28.55% of the male ones. The mean scores of attitude, subjective norms, and behavioral intention to comply with dress code policy were 28.78±10.08, 28.51±8.25 and 11.12±3.84, respectively. The students of different colleges were different from each other concerning TRA constructs. Yet, subjective norms played a more critical role in explaining the variance of dress code behavior among the students. Theory of reasoned action explained the students' dress code behaviors relatively well. The study results suggest paying attention to appropriate approaches in educational, cultural activities, including promotion of student-teacher communication.

  10. The priority order of actions for energy efficiency. A key steering instrument for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    As energy efficiency has become a major stake in France and in Europe, this study aims at identifying the actual current possibilities of energy efficiency from a technical as well as economic and financial point of view, at assessing whether the costs of actions for energy efficiency in France comply with objectives defined by the Grenelle de l'Environnement, and at showing how to advise clients to choose the right investments with the best profitability and to improve their behaviour in this respect. In its first part, the report tries to assess the situation of the objectives defined by the Grenelle de l'Environnement in terms of energy consumption. Then, it discusses how to reach these objectives. It analyses the different profitable sources of energy saving in the housing and office building sector. Then, it discusses what could be done, beyond profitable operations, for other available energy saving possibilities

  11. Climate change in China and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Y.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the first assessment report (FAR of Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC in 1990, the international scientific community has made substantial progresses in climate change sciences. Changes in components of climate system, including the atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere, indicate that global warming is unequivocal. Instrumental records demonstrate that the global mean temperature has a significant increasing trend during the 20th century and in the latest 50 years the warming become faster. In the meantime, the global sea level has a strong increasing trend, as well as the snow coverage of Northern Hemisphere showed an obvious downward trend. Moreover, the global warming plays a key role in significantly affecting the climate system and social-economy on both global and regional scales, such as sea level rise, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, desertification, deforestation, increase of weather extremes (typhoon, hurricane and rainstorm and so on. The state of the art understanding of IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4 was most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in the concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Climate change issues, as a grave challenge to the sustainable development of the human society, have received ever greater attention from the international community. Deeply cognizant of the complexity and extensive influence of these issues and fully aware of the arduousness and urgency of the task of addressing climate change, the Chinese government is determined to address climate change in the process of pursuing sustainable development. The facts of climate change in China and its impacts, and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change are introduced in this paper.

  12. Comparison of Monetary Policy Actions and Central Bank Communication on Tackling Asset Price Bubbles-Evidence from China's Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ou; Liu, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    We examine the different effects of monetary policy actions and central bank communication on China's stock market bubbles with a Time-varying Parameter SVAR model. We find that with negative responses of fundamental component and positive responses of bubble component of asset prices, contractionary monetary policy induces the observed stock prices to rise during periods of large bubbles. By contrast, central bank communication acts on the market through expectation guidance and has more significant effects on stock prices in the long run, which implies that central bank communication be used as an effective long-term instrument for the central bank's policymaking.

  13. Joint force opportunities: Policy Aims And Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    temporal proximity to recounting what happened. 19 Antoine Bousquet and Simon Curtis, ‘Beyond Models and Metaphors: Complexity Theory, Systems Thinking and...Bousquet, Antoine And Simon Curtis. "Beyond Models And Metaphors: Complexity

  14. [Depression: state of the art and the need for public policy and action plans in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenzon, Shoshana; Lara, María Asunción; Robles, Rebeca; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    Depression is an important public health problem. It is the fourth cause of disease in the world in terms of lost years of healthy life. In Mexico, it ranks first in terms disability for women and ninth for men. There is a high comorbidity between depression and other mental disorders such as anxiety and substance abuse, as well as other serious and chronic physical conditions (e.g. diabetes, and heart disease). Despite the impact of depressive disorders in the quality of life of the population, there is a large proportion of people who don't get treatment, delaying seeking help and thus don't receive adequate assistance. The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of depression status in the Mexican population from a public health perspective; it includes prevalence and associated factors, gaps in care, characteristics of the use of services and treatments available. The paper concludes with a presentation of the implications for research and mental health policy in Mexico.

  15. Perception of Policy and Environmental Action to Promote Healthy Behaviors in African American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Clifton; Jenkins, Brenda W Campbell; White, Monique; Henderson, Frances; McGill, Dorothy J; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna; Payton, Marinelle

    2017-03-07

    The present study aimed to examine the perceptions of African American communities regarding the involvement of political leaders in facilitating policy and environmental change promoting healthy eating and physical activity. We selected the Metro Jackson Area comprised of Hinds, Madison and Rankin Counties because it is a combination of urban and rural communities. The sample consisted of 70 participants from seven sites. A total of seven focus groups were asked to respond to one question to assess political leaders' involvement in healthy living: "When you think about your political leaders that you have in the Jackson, Mississippi area, do any of them promote healthy eating and physical activity?" Focus groups consisted of six to 12 participants and were asked to comment on their participation in physical activity. The focus group interviews were digitally recorded. The recorded interviews were transcribed by a professional transcriptionist. Community members could not recollect much participation from political leaders in the health prevention/intervention efforts. In each of the counties, there was evidence that there was some involvement by local politicians in health promotion issues, but not on a large scale. In conclusion, making healthy foods and products available in neighborhood stores has long been associated with healthy behaviors and positive health outcomes. This can make a difference in the Mississippi communities where supermarkets are not accessible and health disparities abound.

  16. Enhancing Video Games Policy Based on Least-Squares Continuous Action Policy Iteration: Case Study on StarCraft Brood War and Glest RTS Games and the 8 Queens Board Game

    OpenAIRE

    Sarhan, Shahenda; Abu ElSoud, Mohamed; Rashed, Hebatullah

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advent of video games recently and the increasing numbers of players and gamers, only a tough game with high policy, actions, and tactics survives. How the game responds to opponent actions is the key issue of popular games. Many algorithms were proposed to solve this problem such as Least-Squares Policy Iteration (LSPI) and State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA) but they mainly depend on discrete actions, while agents in such a setting have to learn from the consequences of ...

  17. Having a yarn about smoking: using action research to develop a 'no smoking' policy within an Aboriginal Health Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gillian; Fredericks, Bronwyn; Adams, Karen; Finlay, Summer; Andy, Simone; Briggs, Lyn; Hall, Robert

    2011-11-01

    This article reports on a culturally appropriate process of development of a smoke-free workplace policy within the peak Aboriginal Controlled Community Health Organisation in Victoria, Australia. Smoking is acknowledged as being responsible for at least 20% of all deaths in Aboriginal communities in Australia, and many Aboriginal health workers smoke. The smoke-free workplace policy was developed using the iterative, discursive and experience-based methodology of Participatory Action Research, combined with the culturally embedded concept of 'having a yarn'. Staff members initially identified smoking as a topic to be avoided within workplace discussions. This was due, in part, to grief (everyone had suffered a smoking-related bereavement). Further, there was anxiety that discussing smoking would result in culturally difficult conflict. The use of yarning opened up a safe space for discussion and debate, enabling development of a policy that was accepted across the organisation. Within Aboriginal organisations, it is not sufficient to focus on the outcomes of policy development. Rather, due attention must be paid to the process employed in development of policy, particularly when that policy is directly related to an emotionally and communally weighted topic such as smoking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Book review of The EU’s Foreign Policy: What Kind of Power and Diplomatic Action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Yoshizawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With an international team of foreign policy experts, the editors provide a clear and critical account of EU foreign policy with special reference to the Lisbon Treaty, the global financial crisis of 2007-8, as well as those structural constraints arising from the emerging multipolar world order. The book portrays the EU as a ‘civilian power by default’, while explaining the limited efficiency and effectiveness of post-Lisbon EU foreign policy.

  19. Elderly health and implementation of the Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons on the performed actions in basic healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHMINSKI VIEIRA, Roseli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons (PNSPI – in Portuguese was formulated by the Ministry of Health through Ordinance No. 2.528/2006 in line with the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The study investigated whether municipalities from the South region of the State of Santa Catarina had knowledge and applied the PNSPI, on the performed actions in basic healthcare, especially on the Units of Family Healthcare Services based on what the Constitution and the Statute of the Elderly comprise. A deductive method with a qualitative approach and a descriptive research were used. As a result, some difficulties experienced by the research subjects related to two important points of policies and strategies of PNSPI were identified: the lack of a planned policy and of a continuous health education for the elderly; and the lack of a stimulating exercise of social control, whether in the health sector, or in the Municipal Council of Elderly People.

  20. Social Media as a Catalyst for Policy Action and Social Change for Health and Well-Being: Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Douglas

    2018-03-19

    This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change. However, the diversity of social media platforms and available analysis techniques provides multiple ways to offer insight for policy making and decision making. For instance, social media content can provide timely information about the impact of policy interventions. Social media location information can inform where to deploy resources or disseminate public messaging. Network analysis of social media connections can reveal underserved populations who may be disconnected from public services. Machine learning can help recognize important patterns for disease surveillance or to model population sentiment. To fully realize these potential policy uses, limitations to social media data will need to be overcome, including data reliability and validity, and potential privacy risks. Traditional data collection may not fully capture the upstream factors and systemic relationships that influence health and well-being. Policy actions and social change efforts, such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's effort to advance a culture of health, which are intended to drive change in a network of upstream health drivers, will need to incorporate a broad range of behavioral information, such as health attitudes or physical activity levels. Applying innovative techniques to emerging data has the potential to extract insight from unstructured data or fuse disparate sources of data, such as linking health attitudes that are

  1. Social Media as a Catalyst for Policy Action and Social Change for Health and Well-Being: Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change. However, the diversity of social media platforms and available analysis techniques provides multiple ways to offer insight for policy making and decision making. For instance, social media content can provide timely information about the impact of policy interventions. Social media location information can inform where to deploy resources or disseminate public messaging. Network analysis of social media connections can reveal underserved populations who may be disconnected from public services. Machine learning can help recognize important patterns for disease surveillance or to model population sentiment. To fully realize these potential policy uses, limitations to social media data will need to be overcome, including data reliability and validity, and potential privacy risks. Traditional data collection may not fully capture the upstream factors and systemic relationships that influence health and well-being. Policy actions and social change efforts, such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s effort to advance a culture of health, which are intended to drive change in a network of upstream health drivers, will need to incorporate a broad range of behavioral information, such as health attitudes or physical activity levels. Applying innovative techniques to emerging data has the potential to extract insight from unstructured data or fuse disparate sources of data, such as linking health attitudes that

  2. 76 FR 7893 - FAA Policy Statement on Expungement of Certain Enforcement Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration FAA Policy Statement on Expungement.... SUMMARY: The FAA has temporarily suspended its policy of expunging certain records of legal enforcement... effects on pilots is available at: http://www.faa.gov/pilots/lic_cert/pria/guidance/pilotfaq . Further...

  3. Public Discourse versus Public Policy: Latinas/os, Affirmative Action, and the Court of Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, María C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the power of popular discourse in shaping public policy debates concerning educational access and opportunity for historically marginalized and minoritized students, especially for Latinas/os. I argue that proponents of race-conscious policies would do well to challenge the elimination of affirmative…

  4. Networks in Action: New Actors and Practices in Education Policy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Eneida Oto

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of networks in the policy-making process in education and discusses the potential of network analysis as an analytical tool for education policy research. Drawing on publically available data from personal or institutional websites, this paper reports the findings from research carried out between 2005 and 2011.…

  5. Drought awareness through agricultural policy : multi-level action in Salland, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özerol, Gül; Troeltzsch, Jenny; Larrue, Corinne; Lordkipanidze, Maia; Browne, Alison; Boer, C.L.; Lems, Pieter; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the Salland region of the Netherlands and presents our analysis regarding the role of governance context on the new irrigation policy of the Water Authority of Groot Salland (Waterschap Groot Salland—WGS). The irrigation policy was adopted in early 2013 by the five water

  6. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, A.; Marra, M.; Ciuffo, B.

    2011-01-01

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: → Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. → How to combine ambitious CO 2 reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. → Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. → Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  7. Affirmative Action in Education and Black Economic Empowerment in the Workplace in South Africa since 1994: Policies, Strengths and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold D. Herman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the concepts of Affirmative Action (AA and Black Economic Empowerment (BEE and the policies developed in post-Apartheid South Africa. It compares it to similar policies adopted in different contexts in Malaysia, India and the U.S.A. It explains and critiques the South African policies on AA and BEE, its history since 1994 and how class has replaced race as the determinant of who succeeds in education and the workplace. It analyses why these policies were essential to address the massive racial divide in education and the workplace at the arrival of democracy in 1994, but also why it has been controversial and racially divisive. The strengths and limitations of these policies are juxtaposed, the way it has benefitted the black and white elites, bolstered the black middle-class but has had little success in addressing the education and job futures of poor, working class black citizens in South Africa. The views of a number of key social analysts in the field are stated to explain the moral, racial, divisive aspects of AA in relation to the international experience and how South Africa is grappling with limited success to bridge the divide between the rich and poor.

  8. Improving anti-bullying laws and policies to protect youth from weight-based victimization: parental support for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Suh, Y; Li, X

    2017-04-01

    Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015. Identical online questionnaires were completed by two independent national samples of parents in 2014 and 2015 (N = 1804). Parental support for all policy actions was high (at least 81%) and significantly increased from 2014 to 2015 for legal measures that would a) require state anti-bullying laws to add protections against weight-based bullying, and b) enact a federal anti-bullying law that includes weight-based bullying. These findings can inform policy discourse about remedies for youth bullying, and suggest that parental support for improved legal protections against weight-based bullying is present, consistent, and strong. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Engaging research with policy and action: what are the challenges of responding to zoonotic disease in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin Louis; Scoones, Jake Cornwall; Grace, Delia; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; Jones, Kate E; de Balogh, Katinka; Waltner-Toews, David; Bett, Bernard; Welburn, Susan C; Mumford, Elizabeth; Dzingirai, Vupenyu

    2017-07-19

    Zoonotic diseases will maintain a high level of public policy attention in the coming decades. From the spectre of a global pandemic to anxieties over agricultural change, urbanization, social inequality and threats to natural ecosystems, effectively preparing and responding to endemic and emerging diseases will require technological, institutional and social innovation. Much current discussion emphasizes the need for a 'One Health' approach: bridging disciplines and sectors to tackle these complex dynamics. However, as attention has increased, so too has an appreciation of the practical challenges in linking multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral research with policy, action and impact. In this commentary paper, we reflect on these issues with particular reference to the African sub-continent. We structure the themes of our analysis on the existing literature, expert opinion and 11 interviews with leading One Health scholars and practitioners, conducted at an international symposium in 2016. We highlight a variety of challenges in research and knowledge production, in the difficult terrain of implementation and outreach, and in the politicized nature of decision-making and priority setting. We then turn our attention to a number of strategies that might help reconfigure current pathways and accepted norms of practice. These include: (i) challenging scientific expertise; (ii) strengthening national multi-sectoral coordination; (iii) building on what works; and (iv) re-framing policy narratives. We argue that bridging the research-policy-action interface in Africa, and better connecting zoonoses, ecosystems and well-being in the twenty-first century, will ultimately require greater attention to the democratization of science and public policy.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania : a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are

  11. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J.; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are addressing

  12. Collective action for multi-scale environmental management: Achieving landscape policy objectives through cooperation of local resource managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona-Torres, C.; Parra-López, C.; Groot, J.C.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The design of efficient public policies that aim to improve the provision of ecosystem services faces the problem that many ecosystem services are only apparent at spatial levels beyond the level at which they are managed. This makes it impossible to measure the contribution of individual resource

  13. Defense Management: Proposed Lodging Policy May Lead to Improvements, but More Actions Are Required

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartlett, Roscoe

    2002-01-01

    Mthough we do not believe that travel regulations require DOD to revise its PCS lodging policy, the department does have the discretion to make the proposed change to bring consistency to the program...

  14. Federalism, Collaboration Regime and the Articulated Actions Plan as an inductive instrument of educational policies: an analysis based on academic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Cardoso de Araújo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the studies that address the implementation of the Articulated Actions Plan (PAR, published in the period from 2009 to 2016, identifying in them the results that point to this tool as an instrument for the induction of public policies by the Central Government. The study is part of the bibliographic survey of the Research Project "Regulation and Implementation of the National Education System in Brazil: Intergovernmental Relations for the Guarantee of the Right to Education", a project funded by CNPq, in an initiative of the Federalism Research Group and Educational Policies "Of the Graduate Program of the Education Center of the Federal University of Espírito Santo. Among the 28 works found on the PAR theme, in this time cut and publication vehicles, 23 indicated induction characteristics in the implementation of PAR in counties of several states of the federation, and the action was largely consolidated vertical form directly from the central government to the municipalities, without state intermediation. These observations refer to the discussions on coordination, cooperation and collaboration, and also on centralization and decentralization, which historically go through the whole debate about the nature of Brazilian federalism.

  15. [Government policies and actions in Burundi in the area of rural development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mworoha, E

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses policies and actions designed by the government of Burundi to assure food self-sufficiency and to improve living conditions in rural areas. Burundi has had a long history of food self-sufficiency due to good soils, adequate rainfall, and hard work by the rural population. In the past 3 decades, however, the food supply has been threatened by various factors including soil erosion and rapid population increase. The government has undertaken a reforestation program which covered 51,050 hectares in the past 7 years with plans to cover 20% of the national territory by the year 2000. Work has also been done to contain rivers within their courses and to popularize antierosion techniques such as terracing and proper use of pastures. Partly because the population is growing at a rate of 2.7% per year, the average plot available per household is estimated at only 1.3 hectare, rendering efforts to improve productivity imperative. The high cost of chemical fertilizers has forced reliance on compost, and some 6 million compost heaps are now in existence. Agropastoral integration projects are seeking to improve yields through better combinations of livestock and land use. Research to improve the seed supply has already resulted in improved strains of rice, maize, wheat, kidney beans, manioc, sweet potatoes, cotton, tea and coffee. Regional seed production centers are planned to facilitate distribution and adaptation of seeds to each ecological zone. Research is underway to identify appropriate new crops and to extend the ranges of existing crops. To encourage participation of the rural population in agricultural improvement efforts, the government is financing schools and institutions which will train local level agricultural promoters and extension agents. Local governments at all levels, regional development societies, cooperatives and other structures are also being organized to assist farmers. In order to restructure and modernize the rural

  16. 41 CFR 60-3.17 - Policy statement on affirmative action (see section 13B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management objectives, a systematic plan based on sound organizational analysis and problem identification is... employers have flexibility to formulate affirmative action plans that are best suited to their particular...

  17. 29 CFR 1607.17 - Policy statement on affirmative action (see section 13B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plan based on sound organizational analysis and problem identification is crucial to the accomplishment..., State and local employers have flexibility to formulate affirmative action plans that are best suited to...

  18. Health policy and systems research training: global status and recommendations for action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancred, Tara M; Schleiff, Meike; Peters, David H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the characteristics of health policy and systems research training globally and to identify recommendations for improvement and expansion. Methods We identified institutions offering health policy and systems research training worldwide. In 2014, we recruited participants from identified institutions for an online survey on the characteristics of the institutions and the courses given. Survey findings were explored during in-depth interviews with selected key informants. Findings The study identified several important gaps in health policy and systems research training. There were few courses in central and eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa or Latin America. Most (116/152) courses were instructed in English. Institutional support for courses was often lacking and many institutions lacked the critical mass of trained individuals needed to support doctoral and postdoctoral students. There was little consistency between institutions in definitions of the competencies required for health policy and systems research. Collaboration across disciplines to provide the range of methodological perspectives the subject requires was insufficient. Moreover, the lack of alternatives to on-site teaching may preclude certain student audiences such as policy-makers. Conclusion Training in health policy and systems research is important to improve local capacity to conduct quality research in this field. We provide six recommendations to improve the content, accessibility and reach of training. First, create a repository of information on courses. Second, establish networks to support training. Third, define competencies in health policy and systems research. Fourth, encourage multidisciplinary collaboration. Fifth, expand the geographical and language coverage of courses. Finally, consider alternative teaching formats. PMID:27429488

  19. Fiscal policy to improve diets and prevent noncommunicable diseases: from recommendations to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Downs, Shauna M; Mayes, Christopher; Trevena, Helen; Waqanivalu, Temo; Cawley, John

    2018-03-01

    The World Health Organization has recommended that Member States consider taxing energy-dense beverages and foods and/or subsidizing nutrient-rich foods to improve diets and prevent noncommunicable diseases. Numerous countries have either implemented taxes on energy-dense beverages and foods or are considering the implementation of such taxes. However, several major challenges to the implementation of fiscal policies to improve diets and prevent noncommunicable diseases remain. Some of these challenges relate to the cross-sectoral nature of the relevant interventions. For example, as health and economic policy-makers have different administrative concerns, performance indicators and priorities, they often consider different forms of evidence in their decision-making. In this paper, we describe the evidence base for diet-related interventions based on fiscal policies and consider the key questions that need to be asked by both health and economic policy-makers. From the health sector's perspective, there is most evidence for the impact of taxes and subsidies on diets, with less evidence on their impacts on body weight or health. We highlight the importance of scope, the role of industry, the use of revenue and regressive taxes in informing policy decisions.

  20. AN ANSWER TO DIVERSITY: AFFIRMATIVE ACTION POLICIES FOR TRADITIONAL PEOPLE -- THE UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARÁ (FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF PARÁ EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Felipe Beltrão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research analyzes the Admissions Program and the new reality of affirmative action measures at the Federal University of Pará, its context and implications. A special interest regards higher education and cultural diversity. Study reflects upon the goals of such policy; the different arguments among actors involved; the institutional conduct; and the benefits and difficulties faced to implement the program. The principle that guides the study understands the rights of indigenous populations in their access to University and sees the measures as a victory of the indigenous movement. Challenges remain, though, at two levels: first, it is necessary to develop policy to face institutional and social resistance to the implementation of the program; second, it is paramount to support the indigenous students in their needs in their new academic life.

  1. Global Outlook on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) Policies: Taking Action Together. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, Chris; Perera, Oshani [International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Winnepeg, Ontario (Canada); Arden-Clarke, Charles; Farah, Adriana Zacarias; Polsterer, Nicole [UNEP, Paris (France)

    2012-03-21

    This executive summary, which will be complemented by the full report, was developed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) with the financial support of the European Commission, The study provides a non-exhaustive review of policies and initiatives that are promoting the shift towards Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) patterns. It is illustrated by 56 case studies ranging from global multilateral agreements and regional strategies to specific policies and initiatives being implemented by governments, businesses and civil society organizations. The main objectives are to provide information about existing activities promoting SCP, to identify best practices, and to provide recommendations to adapt, replicate and scale up SCP policies and initiatives contributing to the overarching goal of achieving sustainable development.

  2. Integral Action: Management Tool for Municipal Governments Centralized by the National Policy of Territorial Consolidation and Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Antonio Mejía Quintero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral action has been a key tool for social development, regarding the achievements of the national government to recover legitimacy and governability. Since its beginning in 2002 and up to date, the consolidation process—represented in the National Policy of Territorial Consolidation and Reconstruction (NPTCR— has presented changes in its strategy, in line with current circumstances. This article is theoretically based on the concepts of legitimacy and governability and on the doctrine of integral action of the Armed Forces, complemented with the experience of officers who worked on this strategy or currently run it. Thus, this study offers recommendations to the national government for decision making in modifying the development of NPTCR, taking into account the current historical moment.

  3. Networks: structure and action : steering in and steering by policy networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dassen, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the opportunities to build a structural policy network model that is rooted in social network theories. By making a distinction between a process of steering in networks, and a process of steering by networks, it addresses the effects of network structures on network dynamics as

  4. Social Protection as Development Policy: A New International Agenda for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Merrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the millennium, social protection became a new priority for both states of the global South and international development policy more generally. As, in the past, social protection policies were considered unsuitable for development countries, the elevation of social protection to the level of a preferred instrument of development marks a fundamental paradigm shift. This shift began in the late 1990s, driven by disenchantment with the results of economic adjustment programmes, the 1997 Asian economic crisis, and a heightened awareness of the negative effects of global poverty. Social protection thus became a preferred instrument of the Millennium Development Goals, while the World Bank promoted social protection as a key component of international poverty reduction strategies (social risk management. The Department for International Development (DfID in the United Kingdom, along with other organisations, promoted a development model centred on the rights of the poor. Successful social protection programmes developed in the Global South – such as Brazilian and South African social pension schemes and conditional cash transfers (CCT established in Mexico and Brazil – were adopted as model programmes at the global level. The purpose of this article is to analyse the emergence of social protection in development policies. From this perspective, it examines the various types of programmes promoted by the international community, with a specific focus on CCT. It concludes with an assessment of the relative appropriateness of social protection policies for developing countries.

  5. Assessing School Wellness Policies and Identifying Priorities for Action: Results of a Bi-State Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Susan P; Markenson, Deborah; Gibson, Cheryl A

    2018-05-01

    Obesity is a complex health problem affecting more than one-third of school-aged youth. The increasing obesity rates in Kansas and Missouri has been particularly concerning, with efforts being made to improve student health through the implementation of school wellness policies (SWPs). The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a rigorous assessment of SWPs in the bi-state region. SWPs were collected from 46 school districts. The Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) was used to assess comprehensiveness and strength. Additionally, focus group discussions and an online survey were conducted with school personnel to identify barriers and supports needed. Assessment of the SWPs indicated that most school districts failed to provide strong and specific language. Due to these deficiencies, districts reported lack of enforcement of policies. Several barriers to implementing the policies were reported by school personnel; supports needed for effective implementation were identified. To promote a healthful school environment, significant improvements are warranted in the strength and comprehensiveness of the SWPs. The focus group discussions provided insight as to where we need to bridge the gap between the current state of policies and the desired beneficial practices to support a healthy school environment. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  6. An Energy Policy Analysis and Proposed Remedial Actions to Reduce Energy Crises in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHOUS BUX NAREJO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan energy demand has grown exponentially over the last 2 decades. Reason behind increasing energy demand is excessive mobility of rural population to cities, rapid progression in industrial and transport sector, lack of policy making and implementation on the developed policies and improvements in living style. At present, Pakistan witness 5000-7000 MW power deficit in summer. To reduce the demand and supply gap, power plants across Pakistan are planned to be installed while some are under development phase. Power expansion plans cannot cope with the current energy shortfall since several years are required for them to get fully operational. Effective energy policy is the only key to address the existing shortfall. This paper discusses the initiatives that may be taken to reduce the power shortfall using energy efficiency and conservation, deployment of microgrids, utilization of renewable energy resources and effective research and development in energy sector. Since another most important issue evaluated in the research regarding the energy crises is energy efficiency and lack of compliance to government regulations for energy efficiency and conservation. Implementation on the policies developed for energy efficiencies and conservation has not been witnessed. Possible solutions on short term basis to lessen the energy crises have also been discussed in the paper

  7. Assessing School Wellness Policies and Identifying Priorities for Action: Results of a Bi-State Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Susan P.; Markenson, Deborah; Gibson, Cheryl A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a complex health problem affecting more than one-third of school-aged youth. The increasing obesity rates in Kansas and Missouri has been particularly concerning, with efforts being made to improve student health through the implementation of school wellness policies (SWPs). The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a…

  8. Contextual Admissions and Affirmative Action: Developments in Higher Education Policy in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Laura; Birds, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the value of explaining contextual admissions policy directives through the conceptual lenses of meritocracy and social reproduction. It is suggested that examining these concepts can assist in highlighting some of the ideological and practical complexities associated with contextual admissions whilst providing opportunities to…

  9. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    -, 9/2008 (2008), s. 1-34 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ies.fsv.cuni.cz/default/file/download/id/8361

  10. Attutude-action consistency and social policy related to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.; Greene, M.

    1980-06-01

    This study reports the results of a further analysis of questionnaire data--parts of which have been previously reported by Lindell, Earle, Hebert and Perry (1978)--that are related to the issue of consistency of attitudes and behavior toward nuclear power and nuclear waste management. Three factors are considered that might be expected to have a significant bearing on attitude-action consistency: social support, attitude object importance and past activism. Analysis of the data indicated that pronuclear respondents were more likely to show consistency of attitudes and actions (66%) than were antinuclear respondents (51%) although the difference in proportions is not statistically significant. Further analyses showed a strong positive relation between attitude-action consistency and perceived social support, measured by the degree to which the respondent believed that close friends and work associated agreed with his attitude. This relationship held up even when controls for attitude object importance and past activism were introduced. Attitude object importance--the salience of the issue of energy shortage--had a statistically significant effect only when perceived social support was low. Past activism had no significant relation to attitude-action consistency. These data suggest that the level of active support for or opposition to nuclear technology will be affected by the distribution of favorable and unfavorable attitudes among residents of an area. Situations in which pro- and antinuclear attitudes are concentrated among members of interacting groups, rather than distributed randomly, are more likely to produce high levels of polarization

  11. The Kaleidoscope of Voices: An Action Research Approach to Informing Institutional e-Learning Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Gelareh; Holley, Debbie; Biggins, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a two-spiral action research approach (AR) in its analysis of the experience of a British University endeavouring to change and reposition itself in the context of fast pace external change in terms of innovation. Taking the European Union (EU) 2020 digital competence framework (Ferrari 2013), with its drive to address the…

  12. California: A Case Study in the Loss of Affirmative Action. A Policy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the various efforts undertaken by the University of California to maintain diversity in the institution, and especially at its highly competitive flagship campuses, UCLA and Berkeley, in the face of the loss of affirmative action during the mid-1990s. It demonstrates the continuing decline in representation of…

  13. Indigenous Schooling Grants in Chile: The Impacts of an Integrationist Affirmative Action Policy among Mapuche Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the extent to which indigenous grants administered to school pupils and university students in Chile can be considered affirmative action towards social justice. Drawing on Fraser's framework for parity of participation, I question whether the grants are able to provide both redistribution and recognition for indigenous…

  14. The Courage to Critique Policies and Practices from within: Youth Participatory Action Research as Critical Policy Analysis. A Response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Anjale

    2011-01-01

    This response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School" by Jason G. Irizarry demonstrates how youth participatory action research (YPAR) as an instrument of subverting oppressive school policies and structures is a form of critical policy analysis (CPA). As an evolving method, CPA acknowledges the absent voices in…

  15. Teachers' perceptions and actions in carrying out communication policies in a public school for the deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, M H; Lowenbraun, S

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' opinions on school communication policies in a public school for the Deaf in Taipei, Taiwan. Specifically, the authors examined how teachers carried out communication policies, and examined possible discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of their communication methods and the methods they actually used in the classroom. Questionnaires were distributed to all 120 teachers at Taipei Municipal School for the Deaf. Thirteen of the 85 respondents were selected as subjects for personal interviews followed by direct classroom observation and videotaping. Sixteen deaf high school seniors at the school were interviewed concerning their opinions about the teachers' communication modes and abilities, and about the communication modes the students experienced.

  16. The Agency of Action: Kinetic Culture and American Policy in the Wake of 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    time and space with similar proportions to that of the mid-century airplane, the great “civilizing” force of Billy Mitchell’s day.2 The means of war...shift in the ways of war—victory through information dominance.3 2 William “ Billy ” Mitchell...former Assistant Secretary of Defense for Policy and Plans and Special Advisor to the Secretary of Defense, political scientist Graham Allison

  17. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 7-8 (2008), s. 329-358 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1137_dusek-kopecsni_-_329-358-opravené.pdf

  18. Tax Policy in Action: 2016 Tax Amnesty Experience of the Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmiryzan Wasrinil Said

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax amnesty programs are often used by governments to improve tax compliance and to increase tax revenue. However, the policy choice to provide a tax amnesty often results in adverse consequences, including the violation of other legal rules. For this reason, the policy choice to offer a tax amnesty (‘tax amnesty policy’ is often controversial. The tax amnesty policy and resulting program offered by the Government of Indonesia has been criticized both because it is considered to be unfair and because it favors the perpetrators of tax evasion. In particular, the tax amnesty law offered special treatment to taxpayers who participated in the program, such as no checking of the source of funds, no checking of the financial statements reported by law enforcers, protection from punishment on the financial reports provided to the Director General of Taxation, and the requirement to pay only a small penalty. Tax amnesty programs also provide the potential for money laundering. This is certainly the case in Indonesia. In addition, tax amnesty programs weaken law enforcement in Indonesia; in particular, in the areas of corruption and money laundering. This is because law enforcement officers cannot investigate the perpetrators of white-collar crime that benefit from the tax amnesty program. Under the terms of the tax amnesty program, the financial data is not accessible by them.

  19. Implication Of Protection And Fulfillment Of Women's Political Rights Through Affirmative Action Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Asikin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One group of citizens who because of the conditions require special treatment is women. Without special treatment or affirmative action, women will not be able to access the protection and fulfillment of their constitutional rights because of the differences and distinctions generated and perpetuated by the structure of patriarchal society. The protection and fulfillment of constitutional rights without special treatment will tend to maintain discrimination against women and unable to achieve justice

  20. Multi-Level Policy Dialogues, Processes, and Actions: Challenges and Opportunities for National REDD+ Safeguards Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jagger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ social safeguards have gained increasing attention in numerous forums. This paper reviews the evolution of multi-level policy dialogues, processes, and actions related to REDD+ social safeguards (e.g., Cancun Safeguards 1–5 among policy makers, civil society organizations, and within the media in Brazil, Indonesia and Tanzania, three countries with well advanced REDD+ programs. We find that progress on core aspects of social safeguards is uneven across the three countries. Brazil is by far the most advanced having drafted a REDD+ social safeguards policy. Both Brazil and Indonesia have benefited from progress made by strong sub-national entities in the operationalization of REDD+ safeguards including free prior and informed consent (FPIC, participation, and benefit sharing. Tanzania has weakly articulated how social safeguards will be operationalized and has a more top-down approach. We conclude that in all three countries, measuring, reporting and verifying progress on social safeguards is likely to be a complex issue. Stakeholders with vested interests in REDD+ social safeguards operate in polycentric rather than nested systems, suggesting that aggregation of information from local to national-scale will be a challenge. However, polycentric systems are also likely to support more transparent and comprehensive safeguards systems. Clear direction from the international community and financing for REDD+ safeguard MRV is essential if REDD+ social safeguards are to be meaningfully integrated into forest-based climate mitigation strategies.

  1. Europe into gear for the climate action and energy policy package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Schaik, L.; Van Kampen, E.

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce greenhouse gases in the European Union, various policy measures have already been implemented, as for example the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) for large industries. In January 2008, the European Commission launched a package of far-reaching climate and energy proposals. This article analyses the package and explains why the package can be considered pioneering in view of its targets and international implications. Next, the need for swift adoption by the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament is explained and the items that will face laborious negotiations are discussed. [mk] [nl

  2. Enhancing Video Games Policy Based on Least-Squares Continuous Action Policy Iteration: Case Study on StarCraft Brood War and Glest RTS Games and the 8 Queens Board Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahenda Sarhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advent of video games recently and the increasing numbers of players and gamers, only a tough game with high policy, actions, and tactics survives. How the game responds to opponent actions is the key issue of popular games. Many algorithms were proposed to solve this problem such as Least-Squares Policy Iteration (LSPI and State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA but they mainly depend on discrete actions, while agents in such a setting have to learn from the consequences of their continuous actions, in order to maximize the total reward over time. So in this paper we proposed a new algorithm based on LSPI called Least-Squares Continuous Action Policy Iteration (LSCAPI. The LSCAPI was implemented and tested on three different games: one board game, the 8 Queens, and two real-time strategy (RTS games, StarCraft Brood War and Glest. The LSCAPI evaluation proved superiority over LSPI in time, policy learning ability, and effectiveness.

  3. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Daniel S [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Weissman, Jon [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Turilli, Matteo [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This is the final technical report for the AIMES project. Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). This is evidenced by missing design principles for DCI, and an absence of generally acceptable and usable distributed computing abstractions. The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scientific distributed applications. AIMES laid the foundations to address the tripartite challenge of dynamic resource management, integrating information, and portable and interoperable distributed applications. Four abstractions were defined and implemented: skeleton, resource bundle, pilot, and execution strategy. The four abstractions were implemented into software modules and then aggregated into the AIMES middleware. This middleware successfully integrates information across the application layer (skeletons) and resource layer (Bundles), derives a suitable execution strategy for the given skeleton and enacts its execution by means of pilots on one or more resources, depending on the application requirements, and resource availabilities and capabilities.

  4. The Australian government's review of positron emission tomography: evidence-based policy-making in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Robert E; Francis, Hilton W; Read, Kenneth E

    2004-06-21

    The Commonwealth Government constituted the Medicare Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) to implement its commitment to entrench the principles of evidence-based medicine in Australian clinical practice. With its recent review of positron emission tomography (PETReview), the Commonwealth intervened in an established MSAC process, and sanctioned the stated objective to restrict expenditure on the technology. In our opinion: The evaluation of evidence by PETReview was fundamentally compromised by a failure to meet the terms of reference, poor science, poor process and unique decision-making benchmarks. By accepting the recommendations of PETReview, the Commonwealth is propagating information which is not of the highest quality. The use of inferior-quality information for decision-making by doctors, patients and policy-makers is likely to harm rather than enhance healthcare outcomes.

  5. Educating for action: Aligning skills with policies for sustainable development in the Danube river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Kenneth; Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Popescu, Ioana; Pfeiffer, Ellen; Păun, Andrei; Drobot, Radu; Gettel, Gretchen; Staska, Bernadette; Stanica, Adrian; Hein, Thomas; Habersack, Helmut

    2016-02-01

    Sustainable river basin management depends on knowledge, skills and education. The DANCERS project set out to identify feasible options for achieving education for sustainable water management across the Danube river basin, and its integration with broader education and economic development. The study traced the historic, regulatory and educational landscape of water management in the basin, contrasting it with the complex political decision-making, data-heavy decision support, learning-centred collaboration, and information-based participation that are all inherent components of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). While there is a wide range of educational opportunities and mobility schemes available to individuals, there is no coherent network related to training in water management and sustainable development in the study region. Progress in addressing the multi-layered environmental challenges within the basin requires further aligning of economic, environmental and educational policies, advancing the EU Bologna Process across the region, and the development of dedicated training programmes that combine technical and relational skills. The DANCERS project identified key short and medium term needs for education and research to support progressive adoption of sustainable development, and the necessary dialogue across the public and private sectors to align policies. These include the development of new education networks for masters and PhD programmes, including joint programmes; improved access to technical training and life-long learning programmes for skills development; developing formalized and certified competency structures and associated accreditation of institutions where such skilled individuals work; and developing a co-ordinated research infrastructure and pan-basin programme for research for water management and sustainable development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. AIM Data Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scholz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM Data Services as a virtual facility provides virtual 3D reference tracks for simulation applications in the domain of automotive and railway systems. It offers tools for management and analysis of experiment data and a platform for survey and processing of vehicle data in the public transport domain. Collected spatial data is bundled in a database cluster and published through common web mapping interfaces.

  7. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are addressing the NCDs situation in Tanzania and identify gaps for advancing the NCD research and policy agenda. A literature search was performed on PubMed and Google scholar with full text retrieval from HINARI of English language articles published between 2000 and 2012. Documents were read to extract information on what Tanzanian actors were doing that contributed to NCDs prevention, treatment, and control, and a narration was written out of these. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were searched for additional relevant articles. Websites of organizations active in the field of NCDs including the Government of Tanzania and WHO were searched for reports and grey literature. Lack of a specific and overarching NCD policy has slowed and fragmented the implementation of existing strategies to prevent and control NCDs and their determinants. The health system is not prepared to deal with the rising NCD burden although there are random initiatives to improve this situation. How the community is responding to these emerging conditions is still unknown, and the current health-seeking behavior and perceptions on the risk factors may not favor control of NCDs and their risk factors. There is limited information on the burden and determinants of NCDs to inform the design of an integrative and multisectorial policy. Evidence on effective interventions for NCD services in primary care levels and on community perceptions on NCDs and their care seeking is virtually absent. Research and public health interventions must be anchored in the policy, health system, and community platforms for a holistic response.

  8. Landmine policy in the near-term: a framework for technology analysis and action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    Any effective solution to the problem of leftover landmines and other post-conflict unexploded ordnance (UXO) must take into account the real capabilities of demining technologies and the availability of sufficient resources to carry out demining operations. Economic and operational factors must be included in analyses of humanitarian demining. These factors will provide a framework for using currently available resources and technologies to complete this task in a time frame that is both practical and useful. Since it is likely that reliable advanced technologies for demining are still several years away, this construct applies to the intervening period. It may also provide a framework for utilizing advanced technologies as they become available. This study is an economic system model for demining operations carried out by the developed nations that clarifies the role and impact of technology on the economic performance and viability of these operations. It also provides a quantitative guide to assess the performance penalties arising from gaps in current technology, as well as the potential advantages and desirable features of new technologies that will significantly affect the international community`s ability to address this problem. Implications for current and near-term landmine and landmine technology policies are drawn.

  9. Local Autonomy in Action: Beijing’s Hong Kong and Macau Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how Beijing governs its two special administrative regions (SARs of Hong Kong and Macau through leverages on their local autonomy. First, a conceptual analysis of local autonomy will be provided. Local autonomy is more than a zero-sum game between the central and local authorities over how much power should be granted or taken from the local authorities; it also concerns the space for cultural expression and the use of local customs in public administration. Second, the degree of local autonomy in Hong Kong and Macau will be critically examined. On paper, both SAR governments are able to freely make decisions on a wide range of policies. In practice, however, Beijing has the absolute authority to override the decisions of Hong Kong and Macau. It is argued that the autonomy in cultural expression can compensate for the institutional constraints on the two SARs’ decision-making power and is thus able to alleviate public discontent – as long as the constraints do not conflict with the people’s core values and ways of life.

  10. Service quality in healthcare institutions: establishing the gaps for policy action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuosi, Aaron A; Atinga, Roger A

    2013-01-01

    The authors seek to examine two key issues: to assess patients' hospital service quality perceptions and expectation using SERVQUAL; and to outline the distinct concepts used to assess patient perceptions. Questionnaires were administered to 250 patients on admission and follow-up visits. The 22 paired SERVQUAL expectation and perception items were adopted. Repeated t-measures and factor analysis with Varimax rotation were used to analyse data. Results showed that patient expectations were not being met during medical treatment. Perceived service quality was rated lower than expectations for all variables. The mean difference between perceptions and expectations was statistically significant. Contrary to the SERVQUAL five-factor model, four service-quality factors were identified in the study. Findings have practical implications for hospital managers who should consider stepping up staffing levels backed by client-centred training programmes to help clinicians deliver care to patients' expectations. Limited studies are tailored towards patients' service-quality perception and expectation in Ghanaian hospitals. The findings therefore provide valuable information for policy and practice.

  11. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scienti c distributed applications [1]. The survey established, arguably for the rst time, the relationship between infrastructure and scienti c distributed applications. It examined well known contributors to the complexity associated with infrastructure, such as inconsistent internal and external interfaces, and demonstrated the correlation with application brittleness. It discussed how infrastructure complexity reinforces the challenges inherent in developing distributed applications.

  12. Energy for Rhineland-Palatinate. Safety and sustainability as aim for economy, science and policy. 2. rev. ed.; Energie fuer Rheinland-Pfalz. Sicherheit und Nachhaltigkeit als Ziele fuer Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft und Politik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumann, Gunter; Weingarten, Joe (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    The book under consideration reports on the conclusions and results of the ZIRP project 'Future radar 2030 - On the way to the energy country Rhineland-Palatinate. The book contains the following contributions: (1) Energy as a central question of survival of our industrial society (Kurt Beck); (2) Energy policy and climate protection - Decisive factors for the competitiveness of the industry (Harald Schwager); (3) Further increase of the worldwide energy consumption at limited reserves - one of the central challenges for the next decades. (Dieter Schmitt); (4) Safe energy in the future with energy efficiency and innovation (Gunter Schaumann); (5) Decentralized power supply and cooperative legal form (Walter Weinkauf); (6) Policy of energy and climatic protection in Rhineland-Palatinate - Energy mix of the future (Margit Conrad); (7) Energy supply and climatic protection as a market for companies in Rhineland-Palatinate (Hendrik Hering); (8) The Pfalz companies: Regional strength in the European power market (Guenther Koch); (9) Energy country Rhineland-Palatinate - Scope of possible action and experiences of municipal power supplier (Karl-Heinz Koch); (10) Power supply as a task of the regional planning and planning in Rhineland-Palatinate (Karl Peter Bruch); (11) Power generation and agriculture (Andrea Adams); (12) The implementation of energy as a main theme in the education at schools (Doris Ahnen); (13) Energy management in companies (Dietmar Kohn, Klaus-Werner Linneweber); (14) Hot thing. Geothermal power in Rhineland-Palatinate (Joerg Baumgaertner, Peter Hauffe, Walter Kirsch); (15) Friendly Energy - Friendly World. Sustainability with clean wind power and education (Joachim Fuhrlaender); (16) Rhineland-Palatinate as a region with imports of electricity - Are climate targets available without nuclear power? (Konrad Kleinknecht); (17) Regional material stream management in the energy sector (Peter Heck); (18) The utilization of renewable energies

  13. A stitch in time saves nine. The costs of postponing action in climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinshamn, Stein Ivar; Kvamsdal, Sturla F; Sandal, Leif K

    2011-07-01

    The main purpose of this report is to investigate the effects of postponing implementation of a carbon tax assuming that externalities associated with climate change and global warming is real. Failing to internalize these externalities will only lead to a suboptimal situation. The model applied to investigate these externalities starts with the basic relationships, namely supply and demand for fossil fuel, and an added damage term that accounts for the externality. The objective is then to maximize the sum of consumers' and producers' surplus adjusted for the externality. This must be done subject to the dynamic constraint derived from emissions of carbon associated with extraction and consumption of fossil fuel and the natural assimilation of carbon in the atmosphere. The model is solved as a closed loop feedback policy. First the optimal emission path is calculated, and then the corresponding tax path is found. As the externality dealt with here is a pure stock externality it turns out that the optimal tax is equal to the shadow cost of the pollutant. The dynamic equation for assimilation, or natural decay, of carbon is specified using a fairly sophisticated method, namely the ensemble Kalman filter. Given the relative simplicity of the model with only one type of production and one type of pollutant, this method is supposed to give a best possible estimate of the parameters in the assimilation function.The main message in this report is that it may possibly be very expensive to postpone implementation of a carbon tax as the tax rate may have to increase by up to 30 per cent and more for each year implementation is postponed in order to recover optimality in the most pessimistic cases. In the more optimistic cases an increase of down to 0.5 per cent per year may be sufficient.(eb)

  14. A stitch in time saves nine. The costs of postponing action in climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinshamn, Stein Ivar; Kvamsdal, Sturla F.; Sandal, Leif K.

    2011-07-01

    The main purpose of this report is to investigate the effects of postponing implementation of a carbon tax assuming that externalities associated with climate change and global warming is real. Failing to internalize these externalities will only lead to a suboptimal situation. The model applied to investigate these externalities starts with the basic relationships, namely supply and demand for fossil fuel, and an added damage term that accounts for the externality. The objective is then to maximize the sum of consumers' and producers' surplus adjusted for the externality. This must be done subject to the dynamic constraint derived from emissions of carbon associated with extraction and consumption of fossil fuel and the natural assimilation of carbon in the atmosphere. The model is solved as a closed loop feedback policy. First the optimal emission path is calculated, and then the corresponding tax path is found. As the externality dealt with here is a pure stock externality it turns out that the optimal tax is equal to the shadow cost of the pollutant. The dynamic equation for assimilation, or natural decay, of carbon is specified using a fairly sophisticated method, namely the ensemble Kalman filter. Given the relative simplicity of the model with only one type of production and one type of pollutant, this method is supposed to give a best possible estimate of the parameters in the assimilation function.The main message in this report is that it may possibly be very expensive to postpone implementation of a carbon tax as the tax rate may have to increase by up to 30 per cent and more for each year implementation is postponed in order to recover optimality in the most pessimistic cases. In the more optimistic cases an increase of down to 0.5 per cent per year may be sufficient.(eb)

  15. Integrating Caribbean Seismic and Tsunami Hazard into Public Policy and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Caribbean has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 80 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Almost 90% of all these historical tsunamis have been associated with earthquakes. Just since 1842, 3510 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along the Caribbean shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. Most of the countries also have a very high exposure to earthquakes. Given the elevated vulnerability, it is imperative that government officials take steps to mitigate the potentially devastating effects of these events. Nevertheless, given the low frequency of high impact earthquakes and tsunamis, in comparison to hurricanes, combined with social and economic considerations, the needed investments are not made and disasters like the 2010 Haiti earthquake occur. In the absence of frequent significant events, an important driving force for public officials to take action, is the dissemination of scientific studies. When papers of this nature have been published and media advisories issued, public officials demonstrate heightened interest in the topic which in turn can lead to increased legislation and funding efforts. This is especially the case if the material can be easily understood by the stakeholders and there is a local contact. In addition, given the close link between earthquakes and tsunamis, in Puerto Rico alone, 50% of the high impact earthquakes have also generated destructive tsunamis, it is very important that earthquake and tsunami hazards studies demonstrate consistency. Traditionally in the region, earthquake and tsunami impacts have been considered independently in the emergency planning

  16. Aiming for the ordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Sara Marie Hebsgaard

    that the Danes are encouraged to be alert to still earlier and vaguer bodily signs of potential cancer and seek care ‘in time’. With biomedical constructions such as ‘cancer awareness’ and ‘alarm symptoms of cancer’ and the retrospectively oriented definition of life before symptoms-based healthcare seeking...... and articulation of bodily sensations, and how decisions about healthcare seeking are established in this context. This dissertation aims to explore these matters from the perspective of the Danish middle class, mainly focusing on how sensations are ascribed meaning as symptoms and how they are evoked...... on a continuum between what is locally considered ordinary and extraordinary. Overall, the dissertation argues that inquiries into morality and potentiality provide valuable insights into healthcare seeking practices and the making and management of symptoms in everyday life. The dissertation is based on 18...

  17. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  18. Social Housing Policies and Best Practice Review for Retrofit Action - Case Studies from Parma (IT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherri, Barbara; Cavagliano, Chiara; Orsi, Samuele

    2017-10-01

    The paper aims at investigating the most suitable Energy Saving Measures -ESMs- for the retrofitting of Social Housing Stock -SHS- in Europe. A global awareness has been increasing, as well as education and training among architects and building sectors employees, in order to identify tailored financing schemes and advanced integrated retrofitting solutions. Several European financed programmes have been tested so far and the results are here summarized and deeply investigated in order to increase the energy performance of social housing buildings, to improve knowledge of problems associated with the retrofitting of these households, in order to provide the most appropriate solutions to be applied. Afterward, the best practices selected have been applied to some study cases in Italy, to demonstrate that the large variety of SH programmes in Europe can seriously be used, promoting the best practises’ application. A lot of theoretical and analytical work has been carried out by many European projects in the last decade, defining different approaches according to typologies of social housing buildings, focusing on national or regional regulation, on existing typologies and building techniques, on retrofitting solutions, on energy saving strategies and other managing approaches and energy saving devices. Due to the high participation of social housing organisations -SHO- and related European financed programmes, this academic research is focused on the most effective ESMs in order to encompass a large variety of needs and related solutions, even though some of them are still on course and other ones have already been completed. This research clearly demonstrates the valuable contribution these kinds of programme have in exchanging and sharing of knowledge and experience in the field of retrofit of Social Housing building across Europe, in order to primary improve the energy performance of the existing building stock and the quality of life of their inhabitants.

  19. The neglected heart of science policy (revisited): Balancing knowledge and action in an age of science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, A. S.; Ferguson, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    In the U.S., the need for effective scientist-decision maker engagement is explicitly endorsed at the highest levels of national science policy-making, including the annual research and development priorities memo of the Executive Office for fiscal year 2017. The call from the Executive Office formalizes a long-standing recognition, among a minority of scientists and practitioners, that the public value of research activities may be enhanced through engagement between scientists and decision makers. However, engagement is often embedded in research efforts, despite the fact that the ability to foster relationships and improve knowledge exchange has progressed primarily through boundary spanning efforts. Consequently, sound practice for engagement is not adequately considered in the design of new institutions, programs, and career development tracks. This gap illustrates a lack of formal learning in science policy and is critical because engagement and, specifically, co-production of knowledge are proving effective in adapting to global change. We examined over 10 different case studies spanning urban planning, natural resource management, and water management. In each case, deliberate strategies were employed to encourage decision maker-scientist engagement, including the formation of new organizations, innovative design of research projects, and training and education for professionals to participate in engagement efforts. Individual cases reveal several outcomes, including but not limited to: increased awareness of risk; information that enabled adaptation or resilience choices; exchange between decision makers from different sectors leading to more coordinated responses to natural resource impacts; and mediation for responsible use of science. Collectively, the body of evidence suggests that engagement may be most important not necessarily in reconciling supply and demand for science, but rebalancing knowledge and action in an age of science and technology.

  20. The Minor Roads to Excellence: Positive Action, Outreach Policies and the New Positioning of Elite High Schools in France and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouch, Annabelle; Buisson-Fenet, Helene

    2009-01-01

    Increased academic attention has been drawn to democratisation in higher education, following the implementation of affirmative action in America. However, the models of Access policies presented by certain European educational systems deserve more attention. France and Britain share a common position on elitism, although they define it according…

  1. The Politics of Identity: Re-Examining the Appetite for Affirmative Action Policies in Higher Education among African-Americans in a Post-Racial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tarsha D.

    2014-01-01

    Broad inferences have been made that the election of a Black American President indicates that America now functions in a post-racist society. This optimism has fueled a major discussion for changes in American policies which directly affect minorities; in particular, those related to affirmative action in higher education are under attack. Due to…

  2. Food Classification Systems Based on Food Processing: Significance and Implications for Policies and Actions: A Systematic Literature Review and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Parra, Diana C; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This paper is the first to make a systematic review and assessment of the literature that attempts methodically to incorporate food processing into classification of diets. The review identified 1276 papers, of which 110 were screened and 21 studied, derived from five classification systems. This paper analyses and assesses the five systems, one of which has been devised and developed by a research team that includes co-authors of this paper. The quality of the five systems is assessed and scored according to how specific, coherent, clear, comprehensive and workable they are. Their relevance to food, nutrition and health, and their use in various settings, is described. The paper shows that the significance of industrial food processing in shaping global food systems and supplies and thus dietary patterns worldwide, and its role in the pandemic of overweight and obesity, remains overlooked and underestimated. Once food processing is systematically incorporated into food classifications, they will be more useful in assessing and monitoring dietary patterns. Food classification systems that emphasize industrial food processing, and that define and distinguish relevant different types of processing, will improve understanding of how to prevent and control overweight, obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases, and also malnutrition. They will also be a firmer basis for rational policies and effective actions designed to protect and improve public health at all levels from global to local.

  3. Selecting interventions to promote fruit and vegetable consumption: from policy to action, a planning framework case study in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Lewis, Janette M; Binns, Colin W

    2008-12-24

    The Department of Health in Western Australia identified access to, and daily consumption of recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables, as priority health determinants. The numerous factors that influence supply and consumption of fruit and vegetables indicated that a comprehensive approach would be required.A government and non-government sector steering group was set up to select priority interventions using the National Public Health Partnership's Framework for Implementing Public Health Strategies. This structured framework was used for developing strategies to improve fruit and vegetable consumption and supply, and to identify implementation priorities.After one year a desktop audit of progress on framework interventions was undertaken. The structured framework led to a plan for defined actions, partners, costs, and performance indicators for strategies to improve fruit and vegetable consumption and supply. Lead agency custodians for management of the selected interventions were identified.After one year there was significant progress in the implementation of a number of the high-ranking interventions. The exception was interventions that provide the infrastructure support such as research and development capacity, information systems. A structured framework and stakeholder participation assisted in developing a fruit and vegetable implementation strategy. Engagement and commitment of influential and diverse stakeholders is needed, not just for program support, but particularly in the areas of food and nutrition policy development and providing the infrastructure support required. Further work is required to develop performance outcomes and cost effectiveness measures for many of the strategies that have been proposed to address portfolio objectives.

  4. Reproductive health policy affecting low-income women: historical precedents and current need for social work action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averitt Taylor, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the historical arguments surrounding reproductive health policy and current policy initiatives. Because reproductive policy itself is a vast subject matter with sometimes blurry boundaries, the struggle concerning the advent of birth control is used to illustrate the historic complexities of policy affecting such a wide array of individuals. The battle over introduction of the birth control pill is pertinent because the very same arguments are used today in debates over reproductive health policy.

  5. Comparison of Monetary Policy Actions and Central Bank Communication on Tackling Asset Price Bubbles—Evidence from China’s Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ou; Liu, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    We examine the different effects of monetary policy actions and central bank communication on China’s stock market bubbles with a Time-varying Parameter SVAR model. We find that with negative responses of fundamental component and positive responses of bubble component of asset prices, contractionary monetary policy induces the observed stock prices to rise during periods of large bubbles. By contrast, central bank communication acts on the market through expectation guidance and has more significant effects on stock prices in the long run, which implies that central bank communication be used as an effective long-term instrument for the central bank’s policymaking. PMID:27851796

  6. From Thoughts To Action - Linking Practice, Science, Policy And Decision Making: Dissemination Activities Of The Global Risk Forum, GRF Davos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stal, Marc; Sutter, Corina; Ammann, Walter

    2010-05-01

    The world's growing population in combination with expanding urbanisation, globalisation and climate change has greatly aggravated the risk potential to all communities and nations. These increasing risks imply the intensification of worldwide disasters, hence collaborations and worldwide knowledge exchange to mitigate these negative impacts is mandatory. How can these exchange and collaboration activities take place? The Global Risk Forum, GRF Davos addresses the variety of risks that face communities with a special focus on climate change, natural hazards, environmental degradation as well as technical, biological risks, pandemics and terrorism - all across different political institutions, national and international organisations, countries and business sectors. One of GRF's main goals is to bridge the gap between science and practice and to promote and accelerate the worldwide exchange of know-how and experience. GRF Davos aims at targeting solutions and promoting good practice in integral risk management and climate change adaptation.. The Forum also provides and manages a network for decision-makers, practitioners and experts from politics, government, IGOs, business, science, NGOs, media and the public and works on maintaining and expanding these networks constantly to enable the dissemination of disaster and risk reduction techniques. In order to link practice, science, policy and decision making, GRF Davos has three pillars, the Risk Academy, the International Disaster and Risk Conferences and Workshops (IDRC) as well as the online Platform for Networks. With its pillars, the GRFs aims at reducing vulnerability for all types of risks and disasters to protect life, property, environment, critical infrastructure and all means of business for the worldwide community on a sustainable basis.

  7. The Joint Action on Health Workforce Planning and Forecasting: Results of a European programme to improve health workforce policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroezen, Marieke; Van Hoegaerden, Michel; Batenburg, Ronald

    2018-02-01

    Health workforce (HWF) planning and forecasting is faced with a number of challenges, most notably a lack of consistent terminology, a lack of data, limited model-, demand-based- and future-based planning, and limited inter-country collaboration. The Joint Action on Health Workforce Planning and Forecasting (JAHWF, 2013-2016) aimed to move forward on the HWF planning process and support countries in tackling the key challenges facing the HWF and HWF planning. This paper synthesizes and discusses the results of the JAHWF. It is shown that the JAHWF has provided important steps towards improved HWF planning and forecasting across Europe, among others through the creation of a minimum data set for HWF planning and the 'Handbook on Health Workforce Planning Methodologies across EU countries'. At the same time, the context-sensitivity of HWF planning was repeatedly noticeable in the application of the tools through pilot- and feasibility studies. Further investments should be made by all actors involved to support and stimulate countries in their HWF efforts, among others by implementing the tools developed by the JAHWF in diverse national and regional contexts. Simultaneously, investments should be made in evaluation to build a more robust evidence base for HWF planning methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The EU’s Difficulty in Translating Interests into Effective Foreign Policy Action: A Look at the Ukraine Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Nicholas Ross

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s foreign policy response(s to the unfolding Ukraine crisis has further illustrated its difficulty in making effective foreign policy decisions. Using a neoclassical realist analytical framework, this paper argues that although the EU did have tangible collective interests in pursuing its Ukraine foreign policy, it was unable to adequately filter these through its domestic setting. Three key constraints to the EU’s Ukrainian foreign policy> were identified: decision-makers ’ miscalculations; rigid normative demands; and a reliance on consensus politics. Ultimately, the Ukraine crisis illustrated that the EU, in current incarnation, cannot translate interests into effective foreign policies, even when making policy for their direct neighbourhood.

  9. Implementing Local Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Actions: The Role of Various Policy Instruments in a Multi-Level Governance Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carina H. Keskitalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable focus, e.g., in the fifth IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report (2014 has been trained on why adaptation and mitigation have not been developed more than at present, with relatively few local government actions taken compared with, for example, more discursive policy agreement on the importance of the issue of climate change. Going beyond a focus on general limits and barriers, this comment suggests that one important issue is that climate change has not yet been sufficiently integrated into the state regulative structure of legislation and policy-making. A comparison between three cases suggests that local developments that are not supported in particular by binding regulation are unlikely to achieve the same general level of implementation as issues for which such regulative demands (and thereby also requirements for prioritization exist. This constitutes an important consideration for the development of adaptation and mitigation as policy areas, including on the local level.

  10. Infrastructural requirements for local implementation of safety policies: the discordance between top-down and bottom-up systems of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindqvist Kent

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety promotion is planned and practised not only by public health organizations, but also by other welfare state agencies, private companies and non-governmental organizations. The term 'infrastructure' originally denoted the underlying resources needed for warfare, e.g. roads, industries, and an industrial workforce. Today, 'infrastructure' refers to the physical elements, organizations and people needed to run projects in different societal arenas. The aim of this study was to examine associations between infrastructure and local implementation of safety policies in injury prevention and safety promotion programs. Methods Qualitative data on municipalities in Sweden designated as Safe Communities were collected from focus group interviews with municipal politicians and administrators, as well as from policy documents, and materials published on the Internet. Actor network theory was used to identify weaknesses in the present infrastructure and determine strategies that can be used to resolve these. Results The weakness identification analysis revealed that the factual infrastructure available for effectuating national strategies varied between safety areas and approaches, basically reflecting differences between bureaucratic and network-based organizational models. At the local level, a contradiction between safety promotion and the existence of quasi-markets for local public service providers was found to predispose for a poor local infrastructure diminishing the interest in integrated inter-agency activities. The weakness resolution analysis showed that development of an adequate infrastructure for safety promotion would require adjustment of the legal framework regulating injury data exchange, and would also require rational financial models for multi-party investments in local infrastructures. Conclusion We found that the "silo" structure of government organization and assignment of resources was a barrier to

  11. Infrastructural requirements for local implementation of safety policies: the discordance between top-down and bottom-up systems of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-03-09

    Safety promotion is planned and practised not only by public health organizations, but also by other welfare state agencies, private companies and non-governmental organizations. The term 'infrastructure' originally denoted the underlying resources needed for warfare, e.g. roads, industries, and an industrial workforce. Today, 'infrastructure' refers to the physical elements, organizations and people needed to run projects in different societal arenas. The aim of this study was to examine associations between infrastructure and local implementation of safety policies in injury prevention and safety promotion programs. Qualitative data on municipalities in Sweden designated as Safe Communities were collected from focus group interviews with municipal politicians and administrators, as well as from policy documents, and materials published on the Internet. Actor network theory was used to identify weaknesses in the present infrastructure and determine strategies that can be used to resolve these. The weakness identification analysis revealed that the factual infrastructure available for effectuating national strategies varied between safety areas and approaches, basically reflecting differences between bureaucratic and network-based organizational models. At the local level, a contradiction between safety promotion and the existence of quasi-markets for local public service providers was found to predispose for a poor local infrastructure diminishing the interest in integrated inter-agency activities. The weakness resolution analysis showed that development of an adequate infrastructure for safety promotion would require adjustment of the legal framework regulating injury data exchange, and would also require rational financial models for multi-party investments in local infrastructures. We found that the "silo" structure of government organization and assignment of resources was a barrier to collaborative action for safety at a community level. It may therefore be

  12. Presenting a Framework to Analyze Local Climate Policy and Action in Small and Medium-Sized Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; van der Vegt, Arjen; Stegmaier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs) deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local climate

  13. Presenting a framework to analyze local climate policy and action in small and medium-sized cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, T.; van der Vegt, Arjen; Stegmaier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs) deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local

  14. Dimensions of foreign policy change in Turkey:

    OpenAIRE

    Kesler, Ayşe; Kesler, Ayse

    2005-01-01

    This thesis assumes a substantial change in the Turkish foreign policy, specifically in the traditionally 'sensitive' policy areas such as the Armenian issue, Cyprus conflict, Turkish- Greek relations and those with the EU. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the dynamics of foreign policy restructuring. For this purpose, foreign policy actions of the ruling AKP government and its predecessor DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition are compared and contrasted for illustrating the causes and dynamics of polic...

  15. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives for Targeted Research and Policy Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborg, P; Broens, E M; Chomel, B B; Guenther, S; Pasmans, F; Wagenaar, J A; Weese, J S; Wieler, L H; Windahl, U; Vanrompay, D; Guardabassi, L

    2016-07-01

    The close contact between household pets and people offers favourable conditions for bacterial transmission. In this article, the aetiology, prevalence, transmission, impact on human health and preventative measures are summarized for selected bacterial zoonoses transmissible by household pets. Six zoonoses representing distinct transmission routes were selected arbitrarily based on the available information on incidence and severity of pet-associated disease caused by zoonotic bacteria: bite infections and cat scratch disease (physical injuries), psittacosis (inhalation), leptospirosis (contact with urine), and campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (faecal-oral ingestion). Antimicrobial resistance was also included due to the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic potential in dogs and cats. There is a general lack of data on pathogen prevalence in the relevant pet population and on the incidence of human infections attributable to pets. In order to address these gaps in knowledge, and to minimize the risk of human infection, actions at several levels are recommended, including: (1) coordinated surveillance of zoonotic pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in household pets, (2) studies to estimate the burden of human disease attributable to pets and to identify risk behaviours facilitating transmission, and (3) education of those in charge of pets, animal caretakers, veterinarians and human medical healthcare practitioners on the potential zoonotic risks associated with exposure to pets. Disease-specific recommendations include incentives to undertake research aimed at the development of new diagnostic tests, veterinary-specific antimicrobial products and vaccines, as well as initiatives to promote best practices in veterinary diagnostic laboratories and prudent antimicrobial usage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Taking aim at nurse stress: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Mariam; Eliasson, Arn; Chrosniak, Linda; Vernalis, Marina

    2010-02-01

    The study investigates stress levels and related behaviors of nurses in a military medical center during wartime. In 2007, nurses completed a questionnaire survey with objective validation of data in a subsample using actigraphy over 12 weeks. Of 270 nurses, 255 (94%) returned surveys. A total of 81% reported moderately high or high stress with sources listed as work (66%) and fatigue (39%). Many reported coming to work despite feeling ill and/or stressed (13.6 days/3 months). In contrast, morale was high or moderately high in 71%. Nurses reported an average of 5.5 hours of sleep/night, 8.8 h/wk taken for self, and 3.8 h/wk for exercise. Actigraphy data showed an average of 6.0 hours of sleep/night. These findings highlight a mismatch between stress levels and coping perceptions indicating an inability to properly care for self. To manage the effects of chronic stress, nurse leaders should implement systems targeting healthy life balance.

  17. Trends of domestic climate change policy and the business voluntary action. Its linkage to the energy sector perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    It consists of ten illustrations about the energy policy and global warning effect. The illustrations describe fundamental principle of energy policy, trends of liberalization of electric power, problems of Kyoto Protocol, measures to global warming effect, schedule until first promise time, object and shift of exhaust of carbon dioxide in the industry, countermeasure of electric industry, life cycle CO 2 exhaust unit by each kind of electric power and potential of CO 2 reduction by heat pomp. (S.Y.)

  18. The Multidisciplinary Issue of Obesity: Epidemiological Studies, Company Strategies and Policy Actions: A Systematic and Methodological Review of the Research Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffarini, Chiara; Fioriti, Linda; Marchini, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The work is a review of studies carried out in recent years on the epidemic of obesity. The issue of obesity includes several disciplines: medical-health, socio-economic impacts and policy actions. This review focuses on the three main areas of study: the first area is about patent epidemiological researches, the second one analyzes the companies that focus on research and development towards less obesogenic foods and the third one investigates on the policies actions adopted by European governments to address the problem of obesity. This study underlined a more strong scientific production relative to US and UK countries compared with the southern countries of the world where the attention of scientists and politicians to the obesity is lower due to the problems of food security rather than to those of inappropriate lifestyle. The study of the cause and effects of this phenomenon through epidemiological researches is a good tool to counteract obesity. However, the development of policies controlling and contrasting obesogenic food production is fundamental like greater communication to consumers on the risks of obesity and foods processing.

  19. Understanding How and Why Cities Engage with Climate Policy: An Analysis of Local Climate Action in Spain and Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia De Gregorio Hurtado

    2015-10-01

    The results of the analysis show a trend towards an increasing awareness on climate mitigation (highly focused on energy efficiency and the promotion of cleaner energy sources, while adaptation remains an incipient local policy area in both countries. The analysis identifies also the beneficial influence of national and international climate city networks.

  20. The Implications of Growth Policy for Postsecondary Education. A Model and Proposed Course of Action. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Lewis J.; Bergquist, William H.

    A 5-month project was undertaken at the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education to do a preliminary study of the implications of growth policy for postsecondary education. The decision to focus on this level of education was based on the belief that the existing problems of growth and its limits have become too urgent to be left to…

  1. Participatory Action Research for High School Students: Transforming Policy, Practice, and the Personal with Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Julio; Romero, Augustine

    2011-01-01

    The authors discuss how participatory action research (PAR) informs the pedagogy and epistemology of the social justice education. PAR facilitates students' engagement in their social context and acquisition of knowledge to initiate personal and social transformation. The scope of research contains knowledge about social justice issues negatively…

  2. The joint action on health workforce planning and forecasting: results of a European programme to improve health workforce policies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, M.; Hoegaerden, M. van; Batenburg, R.

    2017-01-01

    Health workforce (HWF) planning and forecasting is faced with a number of challenges, most notably a lack of consistent terminology, a lack of data, limited model-, demand-based- and future-based planning, and limited inter-country collaboration. The Joint Action on Health Workforce Planning and

  3. Teacher evaluation as a policy target for improved student learning: A fifty-state review of statute and regulatory action since NCLB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Hazi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the analysis of state statutes and department of education regulations in fifty states for changes in teacher evaluation in use since the passage of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. We asked what the policy activity for teacher evaluation is in state statutes and department of education regulations, how these changes in statutes and regulations might affect the practice of teacher evaluation, and what were the implications for instructional supervision from these policy actions. Teacher evaluation statutes and department of education regulations provided the data for this study, using archival records from each state's legislature and education departments that were placed into a comparison matrix based on criteria developed from the National Governors Association (NGA goals for school reform (Goldrick, 2002. Data were analyzed deductively in terms of these criteria for underlying theories of action (Malen, 2005, trends, and likely effects on teacher evaluation and implications for supervision. The majority of states adopted many of the NGA strategies, asserted oversight and involvement in local teacher evaluation practices, decreased the frequency of veteran teacher evaluation, and increased the types of data used in evaluation. Whether or not the changes in teacher evaluation will improve student learning in the long run remains to be seen.

  4. Towards Food Security and Livelihoods of Low-income Women in central Uganda: Policy Implications based on action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom; Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2015-01-01

    Uganda is burdened with rising poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity. While most Ugandans depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, it is important to recognize that access to and control over resources by women and climate factors are central to the question of food security in Uganda....... However, a review of the literature demonstrates that policy options have poorly understood these interlinkages or tended to undermine them, especially the extent that these policies and programs put the necessary attention on the role of women farmers in food security. This paper presents part of a work...... in progress of a research project that seeks to investigate the interrelated effects of agricultural practices, access to and control over resources, as well as climate change on women’s food security in the urban and peri-urban areas of central Uganda. The paper not only considers how to turn...

  5. ENTERPRISE RESTRUCTURING AIM AND TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Baranenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise restructuring is aimed at adapting it to market conditions and improving its competitiveness through selection of most effective model of using material, technical, technological, organizational, commercial, economical, financial, tax-related and other resources with due account of the demand. Restructuring classification signs and types as well as restructuring aims specific for industrial enterprises are provided for.

  6. Energy policy. Technical developments, political strategies, and concepts of action regarding renewable energy sources and rational energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauch, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study book deals with problems from the history of energy, energy sytems, energy engineering, and the potential of renewable energy sources: hydro and wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaics and solar thermal conversion; the improvement of boundary conditions for their transfer to market; concepts of action and project funding preferences of the EU, USA and Japan in this sector; relevant activities of the federal German government and proposals by non-governmental players in the field as well as strategies for rational energy use; methods for building an energy consensus and criteria for valuating energy systems; concepts of action and proposals for extending solar energy use in the Mediterranean and Afrika, as well as political factors governing the market introduction and export promotion of renewable energy technologies in this triad: the USA, Japan, and the European Union. Seven of the papers contained in the book are individually recorded. (orig./RHM). 76 figs., 100 tabs [de

  7. Women's Economic Empowerment in Latin America and the Caribbean : Policy Lessons from the World Bank Gender Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Group s gender action plan (GAP) trust fund has financed a series of programs to promote gender equality by empowering women to compete in key markets: land, labor, agriculture, finance and the private sector. Work and family: Latin American and the Caribbean women in search of a new balance offer new analysis of how household decision-making and allocation of resources affects female labo...

  8. The effects of policy actions to improve population dietary patterns and prevent diet-related non-communicable diseases: scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyseni, L; Atkinson, M; Bromley, H; Orton, L; Lloyd-Williams, F; McGill, R; Capewell, S

    2017-06-01

    Poor diet generates a bigger non-communicable disease (NCD) burden than tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity combined. We reviewed the potential effectiveness of policy actions to improve healthy food consumption and thus prevent NCDs. This scoping review focused on systematic and non-systematic reviews and categorised data using a seven-part framework: price, promotion, provision, composition, labelling, supply chain, trade/investment and multi-component interventions. We screened 1805 candidate publications and included 58 systematic and non-systematic reviews. Multi-component and price interventions appeared consistently powerful in improving healthy eating. Reformulation to reduce industrial trans fat intake also seemed very effective. Evidence on food supply chain, trade and investment studies was limited and merits further research. Food labelling and restrictions on provision or marketing of unhealthy foods were generally less effective with uncertain sustainability. Increasingly strong evidence is highlighting potentially powerful policies to improve diet and thus prevent NCDs, notably multi-component interventions, taxes, subsidies, elimination and perhaps trade agreements. The implications for policy makers are becoming clearer.

  9. The impact of the economic crisis and policy actions on GHG emissions from road transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrino, Natalia; Monzon, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic is the greatest contributor to the carbon footprint of the transport sector and reducing it has become one of the main targets of sustainable transport policies. An analysis of the main factors influencing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is essential for designing new energy- and environmentally efficient strategies for the road transport. This paper addresses this need by (i) identifying factors which influence the carbon footprint, including traffic activity, fuel economy and socioeconomic development; and (ii) proposing a methodological framework which uses Modified Laspeyres Index decomposition to analyze the effect of important drivers on the changes in emissions of road transport in Spain during the period from 1990 to 2010. The results demonstrate that the country's economic growth has been closely linked to the rise in GHG emissions. The innovative contribution of this paper is the special analysis of the changes in mobility patterns and GHG emissions during the economic crisis, when, for the first time, Spanish road traffic emissions decreased. The reduction of road transport and improved energy efficiency has been powerful contributors to this decrease, demonstrating the effectiveness of energy-saving measures. On the basis of this analysis, several tailored policy recommendations have been suggested for future implementation. - Highlights: • Drivers contributing to GHG emissions of road transport are identified and analyzed. • Decomposition analysis based on Modified Laspeyres Index (MLI) is applied to the Spanish case. • Economic crisis and changes in mobility patterns and GHG emissions are analyzed. • Policies for the decarbonization of road transport are recommended

  10. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  11. Realigning government action with public health evidence: the legal and policy environment affecting sex work and HIV in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Pierce, Gretchen Williams; Ferguson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has shed light on how government regulation of sex work directly affects the health and well-being of sex workers, their families and communities. A review of the public health evidence highlights the need for supportive legal and policy environments, yet criminalisation of sex work remains standard around the world. Emerging evidence, coupled with evolving political ideologies, is increasingly shaping legal environments that promote the rights and health of sex workers but even as new legislation is created, contradictions often exist with standing problematic legislation. As a region, Asia provides a compelling example in that progressive HIV policies often sit side by side with laws that criminalise sex work. Data from the 21 Asian countries reporting under the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV in 2010 were analysed to provide evidence of how countries' approach to sex-work regulation might affect HIV-related outcomes. Attention to the links between law and HIV-related outcomes can aid governments to meet their international obligations and ensure appropriate legal environments that cultivate the safe and healthy development and expression of sexuality, ensure access to HIV and other related services and promote and protect human rights.

  12. The diverse aims of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Moving knowledge into action for more effective practice, programmes and policy: protocol for a research programme on integrated knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian D; Kothari, Anita; McCutcheon, Chris

    2018-02-02

    Health research is conducted with the expectation that it advances knowledge and eventually translates into improved health systems and population health. However, research findings are often caught in the know-do gap: they are not acted upon in a timely way or not applied at all. Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) is advanced as a way to increase the relevance, applicability and impact of research. With IKT, knowledge users work with researchers throughout the research process, starting with identification of the research question. Knowledge users represent those who would be able to use research results to inform their decisions (e.g. clinicians, managers, policy makers, patients/families and others). Stakeholders are increasingly interested in the idea that IKT generates greater and faster societal impact. Stakeholders are all those who are interested in the use of research results but may not necessarily use them for their own decision-making (e.g. governments, funders, researchers, health system managers and policy makers, patients and clinicians). Although IKT is broadly accepted, the actual research supporting it is limited and there is uncertainty about how best to conduct and support IKT. This paper presents a protocol for a programme of research testing the assumption that engaging the users of research in phases of its production leads to (a) greater appreciation of and capacity to use research; (b) the production of more relevant, useful and applicable research that results in greater impact; and (c) conditions under which it is more likely that research results will influence policy, managerial and clinical decision-making. The research programme will adopt an interdisciplinary, international, cross-sector approach, using multiple and mixed methods to reflect the complex and social nature of research partnerships. We will use ongoing and future natural IKT experiments as multiple cases to study IKT in depth, and we will take advantage of the team

  14. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of your control, you can make positive lifestyle changes to lose weight and to maintain a healthy weight. These include a healthy eating plan and being more physically active. Take the Challenge When it comes to aiming for a healthy ...

  15. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 1): Integrating Knowledge, education, and action for a better world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    The environmental sciences/studies movement, with more than 1000 programs at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, is unified by a common interest-ameliorating environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. Unfortunately, environmental programs have struggled in their efforts to integrate knowledge across disciplines and educate students to become sound problem solvers and leaders. We examine the environmental program movement as a policy problem, looking at overall goals, mapping trends in relation to those goals, identifying the underlying factors contributing to trends, and projecting the future. We argue that despite its shared common interest, the environmental program movement is disparate and fragmented by goal ambiguity, positivistic disciplinary approaches, and poorly rationalized curricula, pedagogies, and educational philosophies. We discuss these challenges and the nature of the changes that are needed in order to overcome them. In a subsequent article (Part 2) we propose specific strategies for improvement. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Crossing the Chasm – Introducing Flexible Learning into the Botswana Technical Education Programme: From Policy to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Mead Richardson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a longitudinal, ethnomethodological case study of the development towards flexible delivery of the Botswana Technical Education Programme (BTEP, offered by Francistown College of Technical & Vocational Education (FCTVE. Data collection methods included documentary analysis, naturalistic participant observation, and semi-structured interviews. The author identifies and analyses the technical, staffing, and cultural barriers to change when introducing technology-enhanced, flexible delivery methods. The study recommends that strategies to advance flexible learning should focus on the following goals: establish flexible policy and administration systems, change how staff utilization is calculated when flexible learning methodologies are used, embed flexible delivery in individual performance development and department/college strategic plans, ensure managerial leadership, hire and support permanent specialists, identify champions and share success stories, and address issues of inflexible organisational culture. This study may be of value in developing countries where mass-based models are sought to expand access to vocational education and training.

  17. Do attitudes, intentions and actions of school food coordinators regarding public organic food procurement policy improve the eating environment at school? Results from the iPOPY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigates whether public organic food procurement policies have the potential to induce changes in the school food service environment. A comparative cross-national survey was conducted in public primary and/or secondary schools in Finland, Germany and Italy. The school food coordinators completed a web-based questionnaire on their attitudes, intentions and actions towards organic school food provision. In Germany, 122 out of 2050 schools in the state of Hesse responded. In Finland, 250 out of 998 schools across the country responded. In Italy, 215 out of 940 schools from eight provinces responded. School food coordinators in the sample of schools in the three countries. The German and Finnish school food coordinators separately most agreed with the promotion of healthy eating habits (P environment.

  18. Aims, assessments and workplace needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Paul

    1997-03-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. Calling on evidence mainly from the UK, it reviews analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the senior physics professors in the UK. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  19. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement. Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  20. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Brown, Glen; Kort, Rodney

    2009-10-06

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection.Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement.Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure.

  1. Towards an adaptation action plan : climate change and health in the Toronto-Niagara region : summary for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiotti, Q.; Morton, I.; Maarouf, A.

    2002-10-01

    The current science regarding climate change and its potential health effects was assessed in an effort to provide information to decision-makers dealing with health infrastructure in the Toronto-Niagara region. This report also presents an assessment of how the health care system can adapt to handle the increased demand for services resulting from the projected negative human health effects of climate change. The first part of the report presents some background information on climate change and health issues and demonstrates how the current health care infrastructure cannot deal effectively with the full range of health effects that may occur in heavily populated areas such as the Toronto-Niagara region. The second part of the report summarizes the scientific knowledge about the expected impacts of climate change and associated health effects, such as heat stress, extreme weather events, poor air quality, vector-borne diseases, food and water-borne diseases, and increased exposure to ultra-violet radiation. It was noted that children and the elderly are most vulnerable. The final part of the report outlines an adaptation action plan to improve the health care infrastructure through public education and communication, surveillance and monitoring, ecosystem intervention, infrastructure development, technical engineering, and medical intervention. 100 refs., 1 fig

  2. When technical achievements aren't enough: Lessons learned from efforts to catalyze policy action on supply chain in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicko, Modibo; Souare, Batouo; Sarr, Lamine Cisse; Gueye, Babacar

    2017-04-19

    Before 2013, Senegal public health supply system was pull-based and fully public-run. Lengthy and recurrent stockouts of essential health products (incl. contraceptives) were the rule, not the exception as they used to strike more than 80% of public service delivery points (SDPs). Following a successful pilot in two districts in 2012, the Senegalese Ministry of Health and Social Action (MSAS) implemented the Informed Push Model (IPM) Project (2013-2016). In its first two years, IPM bridged key gaps and expanded the distribution of contraceptives by private third party logistics operators to all public SDPs in Senegal and nearly eliminated stockouts. However, the MSAS was slow to take ownership of the project. Understanding the roots of this reluctance, executing a range of targeted communication and advocacy efforts and preparing a strong transition plan are succeeding to push Government toward full ownership to enable the National Supply Pharmacy to distribute all health products going to SDPs, including vaccines, consistently with their Strategic Plan 2014-2018. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Políticas de promoção internacional da língua portuguesa: ações na américa latina Language policies for international promotion of portuguese language: actions in latin america

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone da Costa Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo traçar um panorama de ações na área de políticas linguísticas relacionadas à promoção e ao ensino do português como língua adicional no Brasil e fora do país, bem como refletir sobre alguns de seus impactos. Primeiramente, são apresentados o conceito de política linguística (COOPER, 1989 e as noções de valor e de mercado linguístico a partir da Nova Economia (OLIVEIRA, 2010. A seguir, apresenta-se um panorama de ações políticas de promoção internacional da língua portuguesa, focalizando naquelas desenvolvidas nos âmbitos do Mercosul e da América Latina. Conclui-se fazendo uma reflexão sobre possíveis implicações dessas ações no ensino e aprendizagem de português como língua adicional, bem como na difusão internacional da língua portuguesa.This paper aims at drawing an overview of actions in the field of language policies related to Portuguese promotion and teaching, as an additional language, in Brazil and abroad, as well as reflecting about some of the impacts of that. First of all, the concept of language planning (COOPER, 1989 will be presented, as well as the notion of value and linguistic market based on the New Economy (OLIVEIRA, 2010. Next, an overview of politic actions for promoting Portuguese Language internationally will be presented, specially the ones developed in Mercosul and Latin America contexts. In the end, possible implications of these actions for the teaching and learning and international promotion of Portuguese as an additional language are discussed.

  4. A Sophisticated Architecture Is Indeed Necessary for the Implementation of Health in All Policies but not Enough Comment on "Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Eric

    2016-02-29

    In this commentary, I argue that beyond a sophisticated supportive architecture to facilitate implementation of actions on the social determinants of health (SDOH) and health inequities, the Health in All Policies (HiAP) project faces two main barriers: lack of awareness within policy networks on the social determinants of population health, and a tendency of health actors to neglect investing in other sectors' complex problems. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  5. Thailand's Low-Carbon Scenario 2050: The AIM/CGE analyses of CO2 mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thepkhun, Panida; Limmeechokchai, Bundit; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Shrestha, Ram M.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and CO 2 mitigation have become increasingly important environmental issues. Recently Thailand has proposed policies on GHG mitigation such as Thailand’s Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA), which aims at GHG mitigation in the energy sector. This study used the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, called “AIM/CGE” model, to analyse GHG mitigation measures under emission trading and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Thailand. Results show that the international free emission trading policy can drive more GHG reduction by decreasing energy supply and demand, and increasing prices of emissions. The CCS technologies would balance emission reduction but they would reduce energy efficiency improvement and renewable energy utilization. In the energy security aspect, the policy options in this study would improve energy security, energy import dependency, and co-benefits of GHG mitigation in forms of improving local air quality. Results are also helpful to GHG mitigation policy in developing countries. -- Highlights: •A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model was used to analyze GHG mitigation policies in Thailand. •The CCS and emission trading will increase GHG mitigation in Thailand. •The 30% GHG mitigation target with 50% emission trading will give the best result in GDP. •The share of biomass resource and energy efficiency will decrease with CCS. •The emission trading will play an important role in decreasing fossil consumption and increasing renewable energy utilization

  6. Fight against the greenhouse effect. From the local to the international action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousel, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the fight against the greenhouse gases emissions, the local government are directly concerned. This sheet aims to explain the greenhouse effect, the kyoto protocol, the french national policy and to orientate the local actions. (A.L.B.)

  7. Identifying important and feasible policies and actions for health at community sports clubs: a consensus-generating approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; King, Lesley; Bauman, Adrian E; Baur, Louise A; Macniven, Rona; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2014-01-01

    Children's high participation in organised sport in Australia makes sport an ideal setting for health promotion. This study aimed to generate consensus on priority health promotion objectives for community sports clubs, based on informed expert judgements. Delphi survey using three structured questionnaires. Forty-six health promotion, nutrition, physical activity and sport management/delivery professionals were approached to participate in the survey. Questionnaires used an iterative process to determine aspects of sports clubs deemed necessary for developing healthy sporting environments for children. Initially, participants were provided with a list of potential standards for a range of health promotion areas and asked to rate standards based on their importance and feasibility, and any barriers to implementation. Subsequently, participants were provided with information that summarised ratings for each standard to indicate convergence of the group, and asked to review and potentially revise their responses where they diverged. In a third round, participants ranked confirmed standards by priority. 26 professionals completed round 1, 21 completed round 2, and 18 completed round 3. The highest ranked standards related to responsible alcohol practices, availability of healthy food and drinks at sports canteens, smoke-free club facilities, restricting the sale and consumption of alcohol during junior sporting activities, and restricting unhealthy food and beverage company sponsorship. Identifying and prioritising health promotion areas that are relevant to children's sports clubs assists in focusing public health efforts and may guide future engagement of sports clubs. Approaches for providing informational and financial support to clubs to operationalise these standards are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Teacher Is a Learner: Dewey on Aims in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harðarson, Atli

    2018-01-01

    In Chapter VIII of "Democracy and Education", Dewey objects to all three of the following propositions: (1) education serves predefined aims; (2) Education serves aims that are external to the process of education; and (3) Education serves aims that are imposed by authority. From the vantage point of policy-makers and authors of…

  9. Guide to Considering Children's Health When Developing EPA Actions: Implementing Executive Order 13045 and EPA's Policy on Evaluating Health Risks to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations on integrating children's health considerations into EPA's Action Development Process (ADP). Also how to identify economically significant actions, disproportionate risk, and developing the Analytical Blueprint.

  10. American Presidents and Their Attitudes, Beliefs, and Actions Surrounding Education and Multiculturalism. A Series of Research Studies in Educational Policy. Sixth Installment: Examining Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and William Jefferson Clinton. Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, H. Prentice; Orvosh-Kamenski, Heidi; Kamenski, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the recent presidencies of Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and William Jefferson Clinton and is the sixth installment in a series that examines how presidents, through their office of power, have impacted U.S. citizens by their actions and policies. By viewing the presidents through a multicultural lense we can more…

  11. Reflexivity, Position, and the Ambivalent Public Space: The Politics of Educational Policy in Taiwan's Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Teng; Ou, Yung-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The rise of reflexivity and neoliberalism has led to a change in the nature of the public sphere and policy management. Thus, focusing only on analyses of state-initiated policy and the actions of central government is not conducive to understanding the complex process of policy implementation today. Hence, this study aims to analyse the politics…

  12. 75 FR 60485 - NRC Enforcement Policy Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2008-0497] NRC Enforcement Policy Revision AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy statement. SUMMARY: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is publishing a major revision to its Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy) to...

  13. EU policy seminar. The Commission's 2008 climate action and renewable energy package. Options for flexibility regarding the emissions trading scheme and renewable energy proposals. Overview paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Schaik, L.; Van Kampen, E.

    2008-02-01

    This paper accompanies the seminar on the Commission's '08 climate action and renewable energy package. The seminar, and hence this paper, focuses on two of the legislative proposals that the package consists of, namely the revision of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and the directive on the promotion of Renewable Energy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a clear overview of these two proposals. Its purpose is, furthermore, to provide the seminar with a clear focus. This is achieved by means of the inclusion of sections on flexibility in each proposal and the posing of issues for discussion. The objective is to analyse whether the market-based mechanism, as chosen policy instrument, and the way targets are set in the proposals allow for sufficient flexibility in achieving the targets. This refers to whether they can be expected to lead to cost-effective reductions, and whether the target-setting is perceived as fair and accommodating to economic growth projections. Important in this respect, is whether the proposals accommodate the emission reduction and renewable energy potential, as well as the investment capabilities of member states

  14. Local Action Plans for Forest Fire Prevention in Greece: Existing situation and a Proposed Template based on the Collaboration of Academics and Public Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Papanikolaou, , Ioannis; Lozios, Stylianos; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Dimitropoulou, Margarita; Georgiou, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires are a major hazard in Greece suffering on average 1,509 wildfires and 36,151 burned hectares of forestlands every year. Since 1998 the Greek Fire Service is responsible for wildfires suppression and response, while prevention and mitigation yearly directives are also being released by the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. The 3013/2002 Act introduced a major transfer of responsibilities from the national to local municipal and regional authorities, which are accompanied by supplementary financial support. Significant new features were established such as the operation of local coordination councils, the foundation of municipality civil protection offices, the establishment of the annually prevention planning for forest fires and the development of local action plans. The University of Athens has developed a Local Action Plan template for municipality administrative levels, integrating scientific techniques and technologies to public government management. The Local Action Plan for Forest Fire Prevention is the main handbook and primary tool of every municipality for reducing the risk of wildfires. Fire prevention and risk analysis are the principal aims of this Plan, which also emphasizes on the important role of the volunteer organizations on forest fire prevention. The 7 chapters of the Action Plan include the legal framework, the risk analysis parameters, the risk analysis using GIS, the prevention planning, the manpower and available equipment of services involved, along with operational planning and evaluation of the previous year's forest fire prevention actions. Multiple information layers, such as vegetation types, road network, power lines and landfills are combined in GIS environment and transformed into qualitative multiparameter as well as quantitative combinational fire hazard maps. These maps are essential in wildfire risk analysis as they display the areas that need the highest attention during the fire season. Moreover, the separate

  15. Políticas públicas en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires dirigidas a juventudes vulnerables: Continuidades y transformaciones en la última década Políticas públicas na cidade de Buenos Aires destinadas a jovens vulneráveis: Continuidades e transformações ao longo da última década Public policy in the city of Buenos Aires aimed at vulnerable youth: Continuities and transformations in the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Raggio

    2012-07-01

    íticas recentes e conseqüências socioculturais das políticas neoliberais nos países da região.As part of broader research on public policy aimed at vulnerable youth in the City of Buenos Aires, this article discusses a set of programs based on diagnosis regarding urban "insecurity" in general, and youth at risk in particular. Specifically, it addresses the so-called "Crime Prevention Plan" and various actions of cultural policy, reflecting on their characteristics and possible convergence, which bring into play social representations regarding the relationship between crime, culture and vulnerable youth. Through case studies and considering public policy recommendations aimed at youth from various international agencies and institutions, the emphasis and agendas of our own Latin American region are underlined, in relation to recent political changes and socio-cultural consequences of neoliberal policies in the region.

  16. Controversies on affirmative action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Affirmative action was launched by American presidents J.F. Kennedy and L.B. Johnson, yet by ironic historical accident it attained its greatest expansion and most radical form during R. Nixon’s conservative administration. Affirmative action was originally a government programme aimed at improving the social position of Afro-Americans, mostly in the sphere of employment and education, as a kind of compensation for racial discrimination, and also other forms of social injustice suffered by minority and underprivileged groups. Its goal was to increase the proportion of Afro-Americans, and later members of other minorities, as well as women, in higher education institutions and in various types of employment. It was supported by many social researchers and activists. Law courts, namely their verdicts and explanations in the case of precedents, had an especially important role in the debate on affirmative action. Political conservatives attacked various affirmative action programmes (especially preferential enrolment quotas for minority students, basing their criticism on the American constitutional principles on equal rights for every citizen. Market conservatives, furthermore, claimed that the government’s policy of racial preference brought into question the very basis of the capital system (competition and at the same time was not in the interest of the Afro-American working class. Namely, the social strata that profited most was the relatively affluent segment of the Afro-American community, which only increased economic and social differences within the latter. Recently the debate on affirmative action in the US has not been limited only to two opposing sides (liberals and conservatives. More and more scientists and other participants have recognised the negative aspects and also the failures of affirmative action, while at the same time refuting conservative opinions and goals.

  17. Challenges for policy mix in the context

    OpenAIRE

    Stawska, Joanna; Grzesiak, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the essence of policy mix and the extraordinary actions undertaken by the monetary and fiscal authorities in Poland in response to the recent financial crisis. In the article, the hypothesis has been put forward that the challenges faced by monetary and fiscal authorities have contributed to carrying out coordinated actions, especially in support of economic growth during the recent financial crisis. As a result, in Poland during the last f...

  18. Impulsive action and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijda, Nico H

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically, without prior intention (called impulsive actions), or intentionally. Impulsive actions reflect the simplest and biologically most general form in which emotions can cause action, since they require no reflection, no foresight, and no planning. Impulsive actions are determined conjointly by the nature of action readiness, the affordances perceived in the eliciting event as appraised, and the individual's action repertoire. Those actions from one's repertoire are performed that both match the perceived affordances and the aim of the state of action readiness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lamps recycling aiming at the environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Gama, Paulo Henrique R. Pereira; Haddad, Jamil; Santos, Afonso H. Moreira; Guardia, Eduardo C.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of lamps recycling in Brazil: mercury lamps recycling, recycling potential, energy conservation and environmental impacts, enterprises lamps recycling, and incentives policy

  20. How can Saudi Arabia use the Decade of Action for Road Safety to catalyse road traffic injury prevention policy and interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Turki, Yousef Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults worldwide. Nearly three-quarters of road deaths occur in developing countries and men comprise a mean 80% of casualties. The rate of road traffic accidents caused by four-wheeled vehicles is the highest globally reported road traffic accidents statistic. In Saudi Arabia, the motor vehicle is the main means of transportation with one person killed and four injured every hour. Over 65% of accidents occur because of vehicles travelling at excess speed and/or drivers disobeying traffic signals. Road traffic injuries cause considerable economic losses to victims, their families, and to nations as a whole. Strategic prevention plans should be implemented soon by various sectors (health, police, transport, and education) to decrease the mortality and morbidity among adolescent and young age group. Strong and effective coordination between ministry of health and other ministries together with World Health Organization and other related organisations will be an important step towards implementing the international Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020). The aim of this review article is to highlight some aspects of the health impacts of road traffic accidents.

  1. Resolution proposition aiming to create an inquiry commission on the capacities and the financial results of the Total Group, on the resources use, the industrial policy and on the employment, wages and country planing policy, as on the social and environmental liabilities. (refer to the economical, environmental and country affairs commission, for lack of special commission in due time by the articles 30 and 31 of the regulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This document denounces the Total Group policy oriented to the profit and reveals the resulting environmental and social negative effects. It proposes the creation of an inquiry commission on the Group policy activities. (A.L.B.)

  2. Policy of air protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaczun, Z.M.

    1995-01-01

    The changed political situation and recognition of the acute destruction of the natural environment in Poland have caused a series of actions aimed at preventing further deterioration of Polish environment. One of the most important events which took place in the last few years was the enactment by the Polish Parliament in May 1991 of the Act on the National Ecological Policy. The basic assumption of the new environmental policy is a declaration that sustainable development will in future direct economic development in Poland. The aim of the presented paper is to introduce existing policy of air protection and instruments which have been implemented to protect the air. Special attention is paid to legislation instruments, introduction and enforcement of proper economic mechanisms strengthening air protection and foreign policy aiming at increasing foreign assistance for this objective. Pollutants involved include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and particulates from industry and coal-fired power plants. 9 refs

  3. Innovative Policies for a New Social Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Llorens Carbonell

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Social changes, such as the arrival of immigration, demand that public authorities react and design new policies that meet the needs of citizens. Proactive policies, giving people the tools to face this social change with peace of mind, from knowledge; policies aimed not just at immigrants, but at everyone living in our towns and cities. At the Department of Equality and Citizenship of the Diputació de Barcelona, we are committed to citizenship policies. Those that put everyone at the centre of public action, with the objective of working towards better living together and social cohesion. Town Councils, as local administration, must lead this action and face the challenges that it presents.

  4. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  5. A Free Market Requires Voluntary Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions...... are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism....

  6. Delivery 7 Report on the impact of conflicts/synergies and policy proposals for implementing the EU Action Plan in member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne-Marie Tyroll; Michelsen, Johannes

    This report on “Implementing the European Organic Action Plan in EU member states - stakeholders’ perceptions of implementation problems and coping strategies” recapitulates the results of a series of national workshops undertaken in winter/spring 2007. It brings together very different views...... and perceptions on organic action plans and possible evaluation methodologies and can be seen as ORGAP’s stakeholder oriented or public oriented step....

  7. The Mental Health System in North-Eastern Nigeria: A WHO-AIMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The definition of a detailed description of the mental health system of the north-eastern region ... for regional mental health Gap action Plan (mhGAP) policy formulation and implementation.

  8. Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses problems associated with Italian energy policy; economic and industrial development as it relates to that policy is covered. Specific areas covered are: (1) the basis of Italy's new energy policy; (2) energy demand; (3) five objectives; (4) the electrical power system; (5) proposed action; and (6) energy resources

  9. Manifestations of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dorothee; Harting, Janneke; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Jantine; de Vries, Nanne; Stronks, Karien

    2016-06-01

    Integrated public health policy (IPHP) aims at integrating health considerations into policies of other sectors. Since the limited empirical evidence available may hamper its further development, we systematically analysed empirical manifestations of IPHP, by placing policy strategies along a continuum of less-to-more policy integration, going from intersectoral action (IA) to healthy public policy (HPP) to health in all policies (HiAP). Our case study included 34 municipal projects of the Dutch Gezonde Slagkracht Programme (2009-15), which supports the development and implementation of IPHP on overweight, alcohol and drug abuse, and smoking. Our content analysis of project application forms and interviews with all project leaders used a framework approach involving the policy strategies and the following policy variables: initiator, actors, policy goals, determinants and policy instruments. Most projects showed a combination of policy strategies. However, manifestations of IPHP in overweight projects predominantly involved IA. More policy integration was apparent in alcohol/drugs projects (HPP) and in all-theme projects (HiAP). More policy integration was related to broad goal definitions, which allowed for the involvement of actors representing several policy sectors. This enabled the implementation of a mix of policy instruments. Determinants of health were not explicitly used as a starting point of the policy process. If a policy problem justifies policy integration beyond IA, it might be helpful to start from the determinants of health (epidemiological reality), systematically transform them into policy (policy reality) and set broad policy goals, since this gives actors from other sectors the opportunity to participate. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Taking Action against Global Warming - An Overview of the German Climate Policy; Agir contre le rechauffement de la planete. Une vue d'ensemble de la politique climatique Allemande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The climatic change is a reality. The Germany objective is to limit the increase of the earth temperature to 2 degree. The climatology studies show that this represents a limit level to stay in a controlled situation. This paper presents the international and european response to the climatic change and more especially the german approach. It details the revolution of the energy production, the energy efficiency, the problem of the transports and the new energy policy. The legislative framework, the actions of the regions and the financial program are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  11. Affirmative Action: History and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison-Wade, Dorothy F.; Lewis, Chance W.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception, affirmative action policies were created to improve the employment and/or educational opportunities for members of minority groups and women. Even today, however, the debate continues over the future of affirmative action. Proponents offer empirical evidence illustrating that affirmative action has been favorable in aiding…

  12. Journal of Contemporary European Research User You are logged in as... jcer_editor My Profile Log Out Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation Euroscepticism First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security The UACES Blog Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Same aims, different approaches?... Open Journal Systems Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2013 > De Ville The Promise of Critical Historical Institutionalism for EU Trade Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi de Ville

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to convince the reader of the potential of a critical version of historical institutionalism (HI as a theoretical perspective for EU trade policy analysis. It argues that critical HI sensitises the analyst to important but hitherto often neglected factors including: the influence of the past on EU trade policy; the complex, multiarena and multilevel nature of contemporary trade policy; and issues of distributional conflict. The core concept in critical HI is ‘reactive sequencing’, conceiving of policy evolution as a chain of events produced by reactions and counter-reactions. This paper demonstrates that this is invaluable to understand contemporary EU trade politics. Some examples of EU trade policy decisions and its general strategic evolution since the conclusion of the Uruguay Round are given to show the value of critical HI. Finally, the external dimension of “Europe 2020” as the latest trade policy strategy is analysed from a critical historical institutionalist angle.

  13. 48 CFR 750.7104 - Types of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS Extraordinary Contractual Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7104 Types of actions. Three types of actions may be taken by or pursuant...

  14. Local Control in Action: Learning from the CORE Districts' Focus on Measurement, Capacity Building, and Shared Accountability. Policy Brief 16-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie; Bush-Mecenas, Susan; Hough, Heather

    2016-01-01

    California and the nation are at the crossroads of a major shift in school accountability policy. At the state level, California's Local Control and Accountability Plan (LCAP) encourages the use of multiple measures of school performance used locally to support continuous improvement and strategic resource allocation. Similarly, the federal Every…

  15. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as policy and strategy for social work action in child welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, James L

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international agreements. An earlier analysis for understanding the CRC is reviewed and replaced with one that uses a policy analysis model. This new model provides a basis for uniform child welfare policy and strategy throughout the nation. Although NASW has been supportive, it has not actively studied the consequences of implementation of the CRC, nor has it incorporated the CRC into its policy statements as a fundamental tenet. This article recommends that the NASW use the CRC as a basis for all child welfare policy statements and reference the CRS in future articles on child welfare issues. It also urges social workers to become politically active on behalf of the CRC to achieve ratification. Finally, it recommends a national committee to not only coordinate efforts toward ratification, but also oversee implementation of the CRC once it is ratified.

  16. The costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of counteracting overweight on a population level. A scientific base for policy targets for the Dutch national plan for action.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.; Baal, van P.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; Schuit, J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ament, A.; Hoogenveen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To gain insight in realistic policy targets for overweight at a population level and the accompanying costs. Therefore, the effect on overweight prevalence was estimated of large scale implementation of a community intervention (applied to 90% of general population) and an intensive

  17. Implementing Local Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Actions: The Role of Various Policy Instruments in a Multi-Level Governance Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.; Juhola, Sirkku; Baron, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Recently, considerable focus, e.g., in the fifth IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Assessment Report (2014) has been trained on why adaptation and mitigation have not been developed more than at present, with relatively few local government actions taken compared with, for example,...

  18. Action Research for Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , to innovation policies combining Action Research with gender science. In the second part of the book epistemological and ontological dimensions of Action Research are discussed addressing questions of validity criteria related to Action Research, the transformation of knowledge institutions and the specific......Contemporary society encounters profound economical, socio-ecological and political crises challenging the democratic foundation of our societies. This book addresses the potentials and challenges for Action Research supporting democratic alternatives. It offers a broad spectrum of examples from...... Scandinavian Action Research showing different openings towards democratic development. The book’s first part contributes with a wide range of examples such as Action Research in relation to the Triple Helix/Mode II contexts, to design as a democratic process, to renewal of welfare work and public institutions...

  19. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 25. Renewable Energy Action Plan of West Nusa Tenggara Province 2010-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report is expected to become a reference for government and private sectors in the development of renewable energy in West Nusa Tenggara Province, not only the development of renewable energy for electricity generation, but also for other needs such as fuel for industry and cooking fuel for households. The Renewable Energy Action Plan of West Nusa Tenggara Province is a follow-up of the enactment of Presidential Regulation No. 5 Year 2006 concerning National Energy Policy, which the Central Government has set a target utilization of renewable energy by 2025 by 17%. Furthermore, this document contains data and information regarding current utilization of renewable energy, renewable energy potential and development opportunities, target of renewable energy development and action plans necessary to achieve the targets.

  20. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  1. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate r...

  2. Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research and Policy Change in Asia. Couverture du livre Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research and Policy Change in. Directeur(s) : Stephen R. Tyler. Maison(s) d'édition : Practical Action Publishing, CRDI. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN :.

  3. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate...... representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation...... of discrimination against numerically overrepresented groups, or overlook the innocently different ambitions of some numerically underrepresented groups. In relation to the latter point, I appeal to the fact that many luck egalitarians think justice should be ambition sensitive (but endowment insensitive). Also...

  4. AIM: An Integrated Approach to Organizational Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Styron, Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper is based on the new problem-solving model of Blended Leadership called Alloy Improvement Model (AIM. This model consists of an integration of change theory, leadership theory, and democratic principles and practices to form a comprehensive problem-solving strategy for organizational leaders. The utilization of AIM will assist leaders in moving from problems to solutions while engaging stakeholders in a comprehensive, efficient, inclusive, informative, integrated and transparent process.

  5. Implementing Health Policy: Lessons from the Scottish Well Men's Policy Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Flora; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Smith, Cairns; Moffat, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS) policy initiative as a 'real world' case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the 'rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc) the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a) 'policy problem', (b) interventions intended to address the problem, and (c) anticipated policy outcomes. This analysis revealed four key themes: (1) ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2) behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3) uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4) a focus on intervention as outcome . This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation) fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  6. [National population policies. Costa Rica. Oficina de Planificacion Nacional y Politica Economica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Any population policy aimed at influencing population growth, or spacial distribution of population must take into consideration social policies, such as education and health, and also demographic policies, such as reduction of mortality. Such policy must be global in its outlook, and must plan for long term results. Economic and social development carries with it the almost irreversible phenomena of demographic transition and urbanization, and its implementation must never violate the fundamental rights and the dignity of the individual citizen. Designing a strategy to achieve certain demographic objectives implies the coordinated action of different sectorial policies, and a very precise knowledge of existing circumstances.

  7. Is Fitts' law continuous in discrete aiming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sleimen-Malkoun

    Full Text Available The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts' law has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1 but not via target distance (experiment 2. Fitts' law's discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  8. Car ownership, car use and status. A consideration of policy aimed at efficient cars on the basis of happiness theories and the welfare economy; Autobezit, autogebruik en status. Een beschouwing van beleid gericht op zuiniger auto`s vanuit gelukstheorieen en de welvaartseconomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wee, G.P. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, E.T. [Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-11-01

    After a certain ceiling has been reached (i.e. around $ 10,000), an increase in average income in any one country will not lead to increased personal happiness. Such additional earnings are, in all probability, expended rather on satisfying relative needs. Cars with a low fuel efficiency (big cars, and cars with powerful engines) possibly satisfy more relative needs than absolute needs. This is why a general trend towards more economical vehicles does not or hardly leads to a reduction in contentment: relative needs satisfaction, coupled with the status aspect, does not need to suffer from this. lt is the satisfying of relative needs and the emergence of status effects in consumption that is responsible for inefficient market functioning because of the occurrence of consumption externalities. There is therefore a welfare economic argument for adhering to a regulatory policy in which the consumption of relatively low status goods is encouraged while the consumption of relatively high status goods is discouraged. In view of the sharp price increases required to make the national car volume substantially more economical and in order to survive the considerable resistance that will be put up to such price rises, it might be preferable to introduce policies like `fee-bates` or negotiable rights rather than to wield price policies directed at effecting a trend in the direction of more economical car usage. 24 refs.

  9. An european policy of the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This report aims to precise the main dynamics which give structure to the public action in the domain of the energy in Europe. It shows: how the european initiatives which tend to integrate the different national policies, are poorly developed; a new european model of regulation to articulate the liberalization dynamic with the other objectives of national interest; scenari of global integration. (A.L.B.)

  10. Mechanism for Corrective Action on Budget Imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian CATRINA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Fiscal Compact sets the obligation for the signatory states to establish an automatic mechanism for taking corrective action on budget imbalances. Nevertheless, the European Treaty says nothing about the tools that should be used in order to reach the desired equilibrium of budgets, but only that it should aim at correcting deviations from the medium-term objective or the adjustment path, including their cumulated impact on government debt dynamics. This paper is aiming at showing that each member state has to build the correction mechanism according to the impact of the chosen tools on economic growth and on general government revenues. We will also emphasize that the correction mechanism should be built not only exacerbating the corrective action through spending/ tax based adjustments, but on a high quality package of economic policies as well.

  11. Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunting, Stuart W.; Smith, Kevin G.; Lund, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit is a toolkit of research methods and better management practices used in HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development), an EU-funded project with field experiences in China, Vietnam and India. It aims to communi......The Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit is a toolkit of research methods and better management practices used in HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development), an EU-funded project with field experiences in China, Vietnam and India. It aims...... to communicate best practices in conserving biodiversity and sustaining ecosystem services to potential users and to promote the wise-use of aquatic resources, improve livelihoods and enhance policy information....

  12. Governance for territorial development: from conception to action – the case of Para Rural Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cardoso de Moraes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is to analyze the proposal of a public policy of Para State Government (GEP, as its design and actions, presents towards territorial development. In rural areas the Amazon of Para, the GEP has designed a public policy that aims to reduce poverty in poor rural ones. With loan agreement of resources between GEP and World Bank, the Para Rural Program, investing in productive projects without ordering the territory, having despised territorial governance processes that were one of his instruments, in which public policy is carried out in violation of importance of people and the environment which, projecting the policy, resulting interests of governments than of State.

  13. To Conclude: India can aim big

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Transmission and Distribution Losses. If 100 million middle class homes deploy 1 kW on rooftops. 100 GW peak power capacity added at homes alone; 40% of current peak power installed in India today. India must aim by 2030. To have 50% of its electric power from SOLAR; To have 50% of vehicles as Electric Vehicles ...

  14. Aims and harvest of moral case deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Froukje C; Molewijk, Bert A C; Kamsteeg, Frans; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (N = 78) and harvest (N = 255). A naturalistic data collection included interviews with managers and evaluation questionnaires of moral case deliberation participants (nurses). From the analysis, moral case deliberation appeals for cooperation, team bonding, critical attitude towards routines and nurses' empowerment. Differences are that managers aim to foster identity of the nursing profession, whereas nurses emphasize learning processes and understanding perspectives. We conclude that moral case deliberation influences team cooperation that cannot be controlled with traditional management tools, but requires time and dialogue. Exchanging aims and harvest between manager and team could result in co-creating (moral) practice in which improvements for daily cooperation result from bringing together perspectives of managers and team members.

  15. Pragmatics and the aims of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2017-02-01

    Pragmatics has historically played a relatively peripheral role in language evolution research. This is a profound mistake. Here I describe how a pragmatic perspective can inform language evolution in the most fundamental way: by making clear what the natural objects of study are, and hence what the aims of the field should be.

  16. Affirmative Action: The New Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    Reviews eight recently published reports focusing on affirmative action in higher education. Discusses the following topics: (1) college admission policies; (2) minority student performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT); (3) school desegregation; and (4) minority group teachers. (FMW)

  17. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between organizational talk and action. Focusing in particular on the temporal dimension of this relationship, that is, the potential for talk to become action over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk...

  18. Mathematics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    December 2004-November 2007 Denmark, Hungary, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain have cooperated in the project Mathematics in Action (MiA). The MiA project is supported by the Grundtvig action in the Socrates program of the European Commission. The aim of the project...

  19. Tutorial: Asteroseismic Stellar Modelling with AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mikkel N.; Reese, Daniel R.

    The goal of aims (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale) is to estimate stellar parameters and credible intervals/error bars in a Bayesian manner from a set of asteroseismic frequency data and so-called classical constraints. To achieve reliable parameter estimates and computational efficiency, it searches through a grid of pre-computed models using an MCMC algorithm—interpolation within the grid of models is performed by first tessellating the grid using a Delaunay triangulation and then doing a linear barycentric interpolation on matching simplexes. Inputs for the modelling consist of individual frequencies from peak-bagging, which can be complemented with classical spectroscopic constraints. aims is mostly written in Python with a modular structure to facilitate contributions from the community. Only a few computationally intensive parts have been rewritten in Fortran in order to speed up calculations.

  20. CURRICULUM MATTERS: Aims assessments and workplace needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Paul

    1997-09-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. It reviews the results of analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the UK conference of physics professors. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  1. CONSIDERATION REGARDING BUDGETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Curea-Pitorac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the dynamics of the government expenditures, revenues and budgetary balance and to determine the type of budgetary policy adopted in Romania, in the period 1999-2015. The research starts with a theoretical review of the budgetary policy which includes the actions of the governmental authorities, regarding revenue collection and budget expenditures, channels and means of attracting resources. This policy is considered to be a tool in influencing the economy to attenuate the cyclical fluctuation in economy, by accepting the budgetary deficit as a viable solution for the revival and simulation of economic growth. The real value of budget balance represents the actual balance recorded during a certain period and the cyclic balance indicates the difference between the actual balance and the structural balance. This research is focused on the study of budgetary policy implemented in Romania by making a quantitative analysis of the following macroeconomic indicators: governmental expenditures and revenues, budgetary deficit and real GDP. Moreover, a correlation between the dynamics of the structural budgetary deficit and the sign of the output gap has been done, and the results have indicated that, in the analyzed period, a restrictive budgetary policy was adopted in 2000-2004 and in 2011-2014, and an expansionist budgetary policy was implemented from 2005 to 2010. The results of this research highlight the main particularities of the budgetary balance in Romania and the actions taken through this channel in different phase of the business cycle.

  2. Aims and methods of nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leven, D.; Schier, H.

    1979-05-01

    Whilst international safeguarding of fissile materials against abuse has been the subject of extensive debate, little public attention has so far been devoted to the internal security of these materials. All countries using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes have laid down appropriate regulations. In the Federal Republic of Germany safeguards are required, for instance, by the Atomic Energy Act, and are therefore a prerequisite for licensing. The aims and methods of national nuclear materials management are contrasted with viewpoints on international safeguards

  3. Institutional capacity and climate actions. Summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, S.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the role of institutional capacity in selecting the most appropriate climate actions. More specifically, it investigates why, for some countries, institutional capacity may need to be considered as an important criterion for selecting future climate actions, alongside environmental, economic and/or political considerations. This paper is a synthesis of results of an OECD/IEA project undertaken in 2003 for the Annex I Expert Group, which led to several publications, namely a framework paper on Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions, three national cases studies, respectively on Mexico, India and Bulgaria, as well as a paper assessing the status of national inventory preparation in Annex I and non-Annex I Parties (OECD/IEA, 2003). The paper argues that the very nature of a country's institutional development suggests a progressive approach to climate actions, which takes into account the specificity of a country's existing institutional setting. More specifically, substantial changes in a country's existing institutions are likely to be required when particular levels or types of institutional capacities need to be developed, for example when these changes affect public governance as a whole. Finally, particular forms of actions may require significant changes in a country's institutional setting. For example, legally-binding quantified national targets tend to require significant institutional development in all functions of climate policy. With other approaches, such as those based on non-binding targets, sectoral targets or policies and measures, institutional development may be more progressive and targeted. Thus, when considering particular forms of climate actions, countries might benefit from investigating what kind of institutions are likely to be needed and whether they will be able to develop sufficient capacity in time to implement these actions. Overall, this analysis suggests a step-by-step, dynamic model for

  4. Language Policy and Communication Policy - Same Same but Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Johnsen, Mia

    2006-01-01

    Surprisingly, no attempts have yet been made to relate language policy and communication policy. This is the case in theoretical contributions on language policy and theoretical contributions on communication policy alike, none of which mentions the other concept. It is also the case in existing...... language policies where the term communication policy is not mentioned at all. Likewise, the term language policy is not found in communication policies, even where a particular company or organisation has a language policy as well as a communication policy. This contribution aims to define both terms...

  5. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  6. Behavioral decisions and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.

    2011-01-01

    We study the public policy implications of a model in which agents do not fully internalize all the conscequences of their actions. Such a model unifies seemingly disconected models with behavioral agents. We evaluate the scope of paternalistic and libertarian-parternalistic policies in light of our

  7. Behavioral Decisions and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study the public policy implications of a model in which agents do not fully internalize all the conscequences of their actions. Such a model uni es seemingly disconected models with behavioral agents. We evaluate the scope of paternalistic and libertarian-parternalistic policies in the light of

  8. Analysis of newspaper coverage of active aging through the lens of the 2002 World Health Organization Active Ageing Report: A Policy Framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Boushra; Wolbring, Gregor

    2013-12-05

    As populations continue to grow older, efforts to support the process of aging well are important goals. Various synonyms are used to cover aging well, such as active aging. The World Health Organization published in 2002 the report Active Ageing: A Policy Framework that according to the call for papers, has brought active ageing to the forefront of international public health awareness. The 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action was singled out in the call for papers as a key document promoting physical activity one goal of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework. Media are to report to the public topics of importance to them. We investigated the newspaper coverage of aging well and synonymous terms such as active aging through the lens of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. As sources we used the following newspapers: China Daily, The Star (Malaysia), two UK newspapers (The Guardian, The Times), a database of 300 Canadian newspapers (Canadian Newsstand) and a US newspaper (The New York Times). The study generated data answering the following four research questions: (1) how often are the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity mentioned; (2) how often is the topic of active aging and terms conveying similar content (aging well, healthy aging, natural aging and successful aging) discussed; (3) which of the issues flagged as important in the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity are covered in the newspaper coverage of active aging and synonymous terms; (4) which social groups were mentioned in the newspapers covered. The study found a total absence of mentioning of the two key documents and a low level of coverage of "active aging" and terms conveying similar content. It found further a lack of engagement with the issues raised in the two key documents and a low level of

  9. Historiografia wobec Action Francaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kornat

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Action Franęaise in HistoriographyFrench radical right movement, Action Franęaise belongs to those political phe- nomenon in history which are differently interpreted by historiography. Principally we have eight interpretations. First ofthem is Action Franęaise own image and identity as royalist and anti-liberal "party of order”. One of the most important historical interpretation of this movement is French historian Rene Remond’s one. In his Les Droites aujourdhui Remond argued that Action Franęaise was model example of anti-liberal Right in France and in Europe of the first half of the XX century. The most popular interpretation of Action Franęaise are two: (1 Action Franęaise as an incarnation of conservative revolution (Carl Schmitt and (2 as the ideology of "integral nationalism” (Hans Konh, Carlton Hayes. Very original concept was developed by well known German historian Ernst Nolte, who considered Action Franęaise as pro- to-fascistmovement. British thinker Isaiah Berlin and Israeli historian Zeev Sternhell interpreted Action Franęaise as revolution of "anti-Enlightment” (les anti-Lumieres. Polish philosopher Stanisław Brzozowski argued that Action Franęaise was a con- seąuence of conflict between romanticism and positivism and was sure that Action Franęaise inherited much from positivistphilosophy. Non less controversial problem is forthehistorians the excommunication of Action Franęaise by Pope Pius XI in 1926. To our days there are many opposite attempts to reconstruct of this event and its origins. For many historians Pius XI tried to defend the doctrine of the Church which seemed to him intoxicated by the "nationalist and racialist heresy”. For some other writers the Vatican policy was under German influence and this caused papai action. In 1939 another Pope Pius XII decided to abolish the condemnation from 1926.

  10. Rifkin takes aim at USDA animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeffrey L

    1984-10-19

    Jeremy Rifkin has filed a lawsuit to block U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) experiments involving the transfer of human growth hormone genes into sheep and pigs, which he rejects on environmental, economic, and ethical grounds. His real target is the Department's animal breeding program; his ultimate aim is "to establish the principle that there should be no crossing of species barriers in animals." USDA officials have not yet responded to the lawsuit but they intend to continue the experiments, which they consider crucial to the progress of research, until told to stop.

  11. The aims of transfer prices formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More than two-thirds of today's world trade comprises of transactions between related legal persons. Prices for the above-mentioned transactions within legal person or group of related legal persons are called transfer pricing. The aim of this paper is to present the transfer prices as well as the main objectives of transfer pricing. Also, this paper explains application of transfer pricing in the Republic of Serbia and the normative rules that cover the issue of transfer pricing, their determination and their application in the calculation. Overall, there has been a great deal of attention paid to the transfer pricing in national and international levels.

  12. Environmental Policy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don

    1985-03-01

    This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.

  13. Invalidating Policies using Structural Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.

    2013-01-01

    by invalidating policies using structural information of the organisational model. Based on this structural information and a description of the organisation's policies, our approach invalidates the policies and identifies exemplary sequences of actions that lead to a violation of the policy in question. Based...... on these examples, the organisation can identify real attack vectors that might result in an insider attack. This information can be used to refine access control system or policies....

  14. Aims and methods of education: A recapitulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Nataša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of principal distinction between the aims of the so-called "traditional" and "progressive" education and respective pedagogies associated with each. The term "traditional" education is used to denote the kind of education that prepares people for their role in society as it is, while the term "progressive" is used for education that aspires to equip mankind with capacity to shape the change of society. The paper raises some critical questions about the role of pedagogy in achieving the aims of the progressive model, arguing that the employment of "progressive" methods does not necessarily guarantee the achievement of the commonly professed purposes of progressive education. This is illustrated in the paper by the results of a study in English schools showing how despite the claim of progressive methods, teachers tend to retain traditional attitudes and on the other hand, how even traditional teaching methods can serve the progressive purpose. This is not to advocate for the traditional pedagogy, but to suggest that it might be something other than pedagogy that makes a critical difference in educating liberal-minded citizens of the future. In this sense the paper explores the role of other factors that make a difference towards progressive education, such as democratization of human relations in school ethos and respect for children's freedom.

  15. Translating vaccine policy into action: a report from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Consultation on the prevention of maternal and early infant influenza in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Ahonkhai, Vincent I; Gellin, Bruce G; Salisbury, David M; Read, Jennifer S; Adegbola, Richard A; Abramson, Jon S

    2012-11-26

    Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is a promising strategy to protect the mother, fetus, and young infant from influenza-related diseases. The burden of influenza during pregnancy, the vaccine immunogenicity during this period, and the robust influenza vaccine safety database underpin recommendations that all pregnant women receive the vaccine to decrease complications of influenza disease during their pregnancies. Recent data also support maternal immunization for the additional purpose of preventing disease in the infant during the first six months of life. In April 2012, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization recommended revisions to the WHO position paper on influenza vaccines. For the first time, SAGE recommended pregnant women should be made the highest priority for inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination. However, the variable maternal influenza vaccination coverage in countries with pre-existing maternal influenza vaccine recommendations underscores the need to understand and to address the discrepancy between recommendations and implementation success. We present the outcome of a multi-stakeholder expert consultation on inactivated influenza vaccination in pregnancy. The creation and implementation of vaccine policies and regulations require substantial resources and capacity. As with all public health interventions, the existence of perceived and real risks of vaccination will necessitate effective and transparent risk communication. Potential risk allocation and sharing mechanisms should be addressed by governments, vaccine manufacturers, and other stakeholders. In resource-limited settings, vaccine-related issues concerning supply, formulation, regulation, evidence evaluation, distribution, cost-utility, and post-marketing safety surveillance need to be addressed. Lessons can be learned from the Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative as well as efforts to increase vaccine coverage among pregnant

  16. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  17. Description of the effort sharing approaches as presented in the Ecofys' policy brief The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Hagemann, M.; Fekete, H. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The paper 'The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030' explains how setting 2030 targets will reinvigorate the ETS and will put EU emissions on track to limit global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius (2C). The paper describes four key findings for EU policymakers engaged in preparing EU energy and climate measures for 2030 and for the longer term. This document aims to provide background information on the effort sharing approaches, as presented in fore-mentioned paper.

  18. Environmental policy performance revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    . On the basis of the typology, a hypothesis on their ability to expand green markets is generated and tested in a comparative analysis of the performance of organic food policies in Denmark, Sweden, the UK and the US, focusing on their impact on organic consumption. Our analysis demonstrates that cross......Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy...... instruments directed at the demand side of the market. Therefore this article develops a policy typology for government intervention aimed at creating green markets. The typology distinguishes between four types of policy based on the balance between the supply-side and demand-side policy instruments...

  19. Plasma health care - Aims, constraints and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfill, G.E.; Zimmerman, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Health Care covers three areas of interest for cold atmospheric pressure plasmas: Cosmetics, Hygiene and Medicine. These areas can be subdivided into personal and professional care. In this review will concentrate on Hygiene and Medicine. In professional hygiene the most important plasma contribution is sterilization, decontamination and disinfection. The main aim is the prevention of diseases or their containment. Progress in the development of efficient bactericidal plasma sources has been rapid, so that it appears realistic to use plasmas to combat nosocomial infections as well as community associated infections in the not too distant future. The advantages of plasma devices – they use air and electricity only, there are no waste products, they are inexpensive to manufacture and operate, easy to transport and install, and bactericidal effects are fast (seconds). Plasmas can efficiently kill resistant bacteria (e.g. MRSA) and tests have shown no resistance build-up so far. With an estimated 2 Million hospital induced infections each year in the US alone, and about 100.000 resulting deaths, very efficient, safe and fast hospital plasma hygiene devices would appear to be a very important weapon to help contain the spread of infectious diseases. In Medicine there are a number of ambitious ideas and aims. Plasmas can be “designed” to some extent. They can include different active species that can have an effect at the cellular level. There are ionic atoms and molecules, whose medical use need to be evaluated – the vision is that a new area of “plasma pharmacy” could develop. First steps are currently being taken in biological studies. Also the excited atoms in cold atmospheric plasmas may make cell walls more permeable for such species. (author)

  20. Locally specific measures for employment aimed at regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and largest sub-region in the world functioning on the principle of economic union is the European Union. The creation of a single market has initiated the process of conditional adjustment of markets in the EU member states, which has a significant impact on the social welfare of its citizens. It is necessary to tackle this issue by joint efforts within the European Union. As globalization processes push for economic integration and development of competitive advantage, the regions will have to make some challenging adjustments. The development tends to concentrate in highly competitive regions, while regions in the periphery lag behind. However, this pertains not only to the economic lag, but also to a potential negative political situation. Locally specific active employment policy measures are a continuation of the effort to make these measures more flexible. They refer to the Joint Assessment of Employment Policy Priorities and the IPA Human Resources Development Operational Programme - a regional policy instrument of the European Union. Both documents highlight the issue of disproportional development of regions, which requires special local measures and active labour market policy programmes. To reduce regional differences in development, it is necessary to invest more resources in the regions that lag behind. In this particular case, this means the counties in Croatia with high unemployment rates, a large number of registered unemployed persons and low employment rate. Consequently, this paper explains the importance of the adoption of locally specific measures for employment, which unfortunately did not take hold in the Republic of Croatia, and highlights the need for further decentralization of public services, with the aim of balancing regional development

  1. Drug policy constellations: A Habermasian approach for understanding English drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alex; Zampini, Giulia Federica

    2018-07-01

    It is increasingly accepted that a view of policy as a rational process of fitting evidence-based means to rationally justified ends is inadequate for understanding the actual processes of drug policy making. We aim to provide a better description and explanation of recent English drug policy decisions. We develop the policy constellation concept from the work of Habermas, in dialogue with data from two contemporary debates in English policy; on decriminalisation of drug possession and on recovery in drug treatment. We collect data on these debates through long-term participant observation, stakeholder interviews (n = 15) and documentary analysis. We show the importance of social asymmetries in power in enabling structurally advantaged groups to achieve the institutionalisation of their moral preferences as well as the reproduction of their social and economic power through the deployment of policies that reflect their material interests and normative beliefs. The most influential actors in English drug policy come together in a 'medico-penal constellation', in which the aims and practices of public health and social control overlap. Formal decriminalisation of possession has not occurred, despite the efforts of members of a challenging constellation which supports it. Recovery was put forward as the aim of drug treatment by members of a more powerfully connected constellation. It has been absorbed into the practice of 'recovery-oriented' drug treatment in a way that maintains the power of public health professionals to determine the form of treatment. Actors who share interests and norms come together in policy constellations. Strategic action within and between constellations creates policies that may not take the form that was intended by any individual actor. These policies do not result from purely rational deliberation, but are produced through 'systematically distorted communication'. They enable the most structurally favoured actors to institutionalise

  2. Impact of Climate Change. Policy Uncertainty in Power Investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, W.; Yang, M.

    2006-10-01

    Climate change policies are being introduced or actively considered in all IEA member countries, changing the investment conditions and technology choices in the energy sector. Many of these policies are at a formative stage, and policy uncertainty is currently high. The objective of this paper is to quantify the impacts of climate change policy on power investment. We use Real Options Analysis approach in the study and model uncertain carbon price and fuel price with stochastic variables. The analysis compares the effects of climate policy uncertainty with fuel price uncertainty, showing the relative importance of these sources of risk for different technologies. This paper considers views on the importance of climate policy risk, how it is managed, and how it might affect investment behaviour. The implications for policymakers are analyzed, allowing the key messages to be transferred into policy design decisions. We found that in many cases, the dominant risks facing base-load generation investment decisions will be market risks associated with electricity and fuel prices. However, under certain conditions and for some technologies, climate policy uncertainty can be an important risk factor, creating an incentive to delay investment and raising investment thresholds. This paper concludes that government climate change policies to promote investment in low-carbon technologies should aim to overcome this incentive to delay by sending long-term investment signals backed up by strengthened international policy action to enhance domestic policy credibility

  3. Staying mindful in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Action Learning is a well-proven method to integrate ‘task’ and ‘process’, as learning about team and self (process) takes place while delivering on a task or business challenge of real importance (task). An Action Lab® is an intensive Action Learning programme lasting for 5 days, which aims...... at balancing and integrating individual challenges and business challenges, as well as the ‘Action’ and the ‘Learning’ of Action Learning. However, in spite of the aspiration to balance and integrate ‘task’ and ‘process’, a tendency and a challenge is experienced: When deeply involved in delivering...... this tendency by sharing a study looking into what hinders and promotes mindful awareness on the process, while dealing with a business challenge in an Action Lab®. Drawing on the findings, the account of practice will share some recommendations for the Action Learning facilitator to take up the challenge...

  4. Knowledge into Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Thorup

    In the 1970s, most Western nations began to shift the emphasis of health care provision from treatment to prevention. While originally motivated by the rise of lifestyle diseases, the emergence of the new public health policy mainly involves a new way to understand and structure the relationship ...... in the production and circulation of health knowledge, which attempts to replace the usual 'ifs, buts and maybes' of medical science with an action-minded public health knowledge just telling people what to do.......In the 1970s, most Western nations began to shift the emphasis of health care provision from treatment to prevention. While originally motivated by the rise of lifestyle diseases, the emergence of the new public health policy mainly involves a new way to understand and structure the relationship...... between health knowledge and individual action. The book investigates what political rationality characterizes this new ambition in public health policies to put knowledge into action in the hands of individual citizens and how these policies adapt to the continuous experience that citizens often do...

  5. On correlations in IMRT planning aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head‐and‐neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statistically analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommendations, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria. PACS number(s): 87.55.dk, 87.53.Bn, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.de. PMID:27929480

  6. Bangladesh policy on prevention and control of non-communicable diseases: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin; Pervin, Sonia; Tanim, Md Imtiaz Alam; Niessen, Louis; Islam, Anwar

    2017-06-19

    This paper is aimed at critically assessing the extent to which Non-Communicable Disease NCD-related policies introduced in Bangladesh align with the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2013-2020 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of NCDs. The authors reviewed all relevant policy documents introduced by the Government of Bangladesh since its independence in 1971. The literature review targeted scientific and grey literature documents involving internet-based search, and expert consultation and snowballing to identify relevant policy documents. Information was extracted from the documents using a specific matrix, mapping each document against the six objectives of the WHO 2013-2020 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of NCDs. A total of 51 documents were identified. Seven (14%) were research and/or surveys, nine were on established policies (17%), while seventeen (33%) were on action programmes. Five (10%) were related to guidelines and thirteen (25%) were strategic planning documents from government and non-government agencies/institutes. The study covered documents produced by the Government of Bangladesh as well as those by quasi-government and non-government organizations irrespective of the extent to which the intended policies were implemented. The policy analysis findings suggest that although the government has initiated many NCD-related policies or programs, they lacked proper planning, implementation and monitoring. Consequently, Bangladesh over the years had little success in effectively addressing the growing burden of non-communicable diseases. It is imperative that future research critically assess the effectiveness of national NCD policies by monitoring their implementation and level of population coverage.

  7. Egocentric Temporal Action Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao Huang; Weiqiang Wang; Shengfeng He; Lau, Rynson W H

    2018-02-01

    We present an approach to localize generic actions in egocentric videos, called temporal action proposals (TAPs), for accelerating the action recognition step. An egocentric TAP refers to a sequence of frames that may contain a generic action performed by the wearer of a head-mounted camera, e.g., taking a knife, spreading jam, pouring milk, or cutting carrots. Inspired by object proposals, this paper aims at generating a small number of TAPs, thereby replacing the popular sliding window strategy, for localizing all action events in the input video. To this end, we first propose to temporally segment the input video into action atoms, which are the smallest units that may contain an action. We then apply a hierarchical clustering algorithm with several egocentric cues to generate TAPs. Finally, we propose two actionness networks to score the likelihood of each TAP containing an action. The top ranked candidates are returned as output TAPs. Experimental results show that the proposed TAP detection framework performs significantly better than relevant approaches for egocentric action detection.

  8. Developing a research agenda for patient safety in primary care. Background, aims and output of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M; Verstappen, Wim; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Wensing, Michel

    2015-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to a supplement to The European Journal of General Practice, bringing together a body of research focusing on the issue of patient safety in relation to primary care. The supplement represents the outputs of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care, which was a four-year (2009-2013) coordination and support action funded under the Framework 7 programme by the European Union. Being a coordination and support action, its aim was not to undertake new research, but to build capacity through engaging primary care researchers and practitioners in identifying some of the key challenges in this area and developing consensus statements, which will be an essential part in developing a future research agenda. This introductory article describes the aims of the LINNEAUS collaboration, provides a brief summary of the reasons to focus on patient safety in primary care, the epidemiological and policy considerations, and an introduction to the papers included in the supplement.

  9. Challenges, actions and actors in the transition towards a widespread hydrogen energy supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, R.M.; Jeeninga, H.; Groot, de Arend; Pierucci, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Hysociety project, financed under the FP5 framework of the European commission, aims to contribute to European policies on hydrogen related issues through the development of an Action Plan for the introduction of hydrogen and for the removal and/or reduction of challenges. The geographic target

  10. Polypropylene film with silver nanoparticles and nanoclay aiming to action biocidal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliani, W.L.; Lima, L.F.C.P.; Lugao, A.B.; Parra, D.F.; Fermino, D.M.; Diaz, F.R.V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an initial study of films made of polypropylene nanoclay and silver nanoparticles. The nanocomposite of polypropylene (iPP), commercial organoclay - montmorillonite (MMT), Cloisite 20A at concentrations of 1.0% and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at a concentration of 0.1% were prepared in a twin-screw-extruder, using polypropylene with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) as coupling agent. The properties of nanocomposites of PP/MMT/AgNPs are closely related to the dispersion of silver particles and the distribution of sheets of MMT in the polymer matrix, which define its efficiency in the case of the particles and their interaction clay/polymer matrix. However, this combination of MMT and AgNPs that are polar, with the polymer matrix nonpolar in the molten state, presents a challenge. The characterization of the film was performed by analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and reduction of colony forming unit (CFU %). The results indicate the formation of predominantly exfoliated microstructures and agglomeration of silver nanoparticles in the film. The effect of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against bacteria E.coli and S.aureus. (author)

  11. Global action networks: agents for collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbergen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Global action networks (GANs) are civil society initiated multi-stakeholder arrangements that aim to fulfill a leadership role for systemic change in global governance for sustainable development. The paper develops a network approach to study some of these GANs as motivators of global collective

  12. Local Sustainability and Cooperation Actions in the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Daddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The populations of the Middle East and Africa are increasing rapidly, contributing to rapid urban growth. This paper describes a two-year action research process involving diverse public, private, and community stakeholders. The actions aimed to develop and strengthen the capabilities of three Mediterranean cities (Marrakech, Morocco; Sin el Fil, Lebanon; and Bodrum, Turkey in managing and promoting local sustainable development. The needs and priorities of each Mediterranean partner were identified and pilot actions were elaborated to promote urban sustainability, the exploitation of local resources, and the enhancement of local tangible and intangible assets. The paper describes the outputs of pilot actions carried out in these cities, highlighting how these experiences contribute to the current debate on urban sustainability. Broad implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  13. Impact Assessment Road Safety Action Programme : assessment for mid term review : final report. Report on behalf of the European Commission, Directorate-General Energy and Transport.

    OpenAIRE

    ECORYS Transport & SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 the Commission published Saving 20000 lives on our roads, a shared responsibility, also known as the third European Road Safety Action Programme (RSAP). The RSAP describes concrete actions and proposals for actions by the Commission aimed at realising the target for improving road safety as set in the White Paper (European Transport Policy for 2010: time to decide, 2001), namely halving the number of road deaths by 2010. Improving road safety in the EU is clearly a joint responsibilit...

  14. Policies of the traffic control. Good practices of european towns; Politiques d'apaisement du trafic. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallar, J P; Debien, V

    2003-07-01

    This study aims to identify and present the actions of different european local governments in the domain of the development of ''zones 30'' policies (speed limited to 30 km/h). The evaluation of the policies on the road safety, the life quality, the users behavior, the energy consumption reduction, the pollutant emissions, the noise pollution, are detailed. For each case, the context in which the policy occurs is presented. The results are then examined in four main themes: elaboration and planning of the policies, actions realized, communication and public information, evaluation of initiatives and evolution perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  15. Policies of the traffic control. Good practices of european towns; Politiques d'apaisement du trafic. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallar, J.P.; Debien, V.

    2003-07-01

    This study aims to identify and present the actions of different european local governments in the domain of the development of ''zones 30'' policies (speed limited to 30 km/h). The evaluation of the policies on the road safety, the life quality, the users behavior, the energy consumption reduction, the pollutant emissions, the noise pollution, are detailed. For each case, the context in which the policy occurs is presented. The results are then examined in four main themes: elaboration and planning of the policies, actions realized, communication and public information, evaluation of initiatives and evolution perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  16. 48 CFR 750.7102 - General policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS Extraordinary Contractual Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7102 General policy. Extra-contractual claims arising from foreign... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policy. 750.7102...

  17. Why do we need to integrate farmer decision making and wildlife models for policy evaluation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malawska, Anna Katarzyna; Topping, Christopher John; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and agricultural policy instruments cause changes in land-use which in turn affect habitat quality and availability for a range of species. These policies often have wildlife or biodiversity goals, but in many cases they are ineffective. The low effectiveness and the emergence...... on human (farmers) actions, which the policies aim to affect, and wildlife responses to land-use and management changes imposed by farmers. Thus, in order to design effective agri-environmental policies, detailed ex-ante assessments of both of these aspects are necessary. Due to the restrictive assumptions...

  18. Ecolabel and ecodesign. Aims impossible for small and medium companies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, R.; Andriola, L.; Masoni, P.

    2000-01-01

    It is commonly held by now that a policy of sustainable development in the production sector cannot be faced in terms of simply reducing the environmental impact at the end of the production chain but should be imprinted with a preventive approach which, intervening on the production cycles and the products themselves, helps minimize pressure on the environment. To be competitive manufacturing industry must contribute a determinant amount to sustainable development by reducing the material content of products and increasing their use value, through processes and products-services that are innovative, safer, cleaner and based on a low use of natural resources. To be effective and avoid merely shifting the problem, this work should not be aimed at the level of individual plants or industries but be broadly planned, taking into account the entire value chain and hence the product's whole life-cycle. In addition, support should be given to small and medium-sized companies that characterize Italian production, because they find it hard to use the tools of a product policy originally ideated for big business [it

  19. POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS PARA INCENTIVAR EL ACCESO A LA FINANCIACIÓN DE LAS PYMES EN ESPAÑA: EL MERCADO ALTERNATIVO BURSÁTIL (MAB / PUBLIC POLICY TO PROMOTE ACCESS TO FINANCING OF SMES IN SPAIN: THE ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENT MARKET (AIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro GONZÁLEZ LORENTE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La crisis económica actual ha afectado a las posibilidades de captación de financiación de las pequeñas y medianas empresas españolas. Al endurecimiento de las condiciones crediticias hay que sumarle también el aumento del riesgo debido, por un lado, al incremento de la morosidad y, por otro, a la caída del volumen de ventas provocado tanto por la notable pérdida de poder adquisitivo de los consumidores como por el aumento de su desconfianza. En este contexto el Mercado Alternativo Bursátil –en adelante MAB-, surge como un mercado de valores creado y destinado a proveer de financiación a empresas de menor capitalización que, no obstante, desean expandirse y poder llegar a más mercados de lo que su propia estructura financiera podría permitir. El principal objetivo del MAB es dotar de recursos financieros, mediante la aportación de recursos propios, a empresas en fase de expansión, tanto nacional como internacional. En el presente trabajo se analizarán las principales características de este novedoso mercado, así como las ventajas fiscales que incorpora tanto para los inversores como para las empresas. / The current economic crisis has affected the chances of attracting financing of small and medium-sized Spanish companies. To the tightening of credit conditions we must add also the increased risk because, on the one hand, the increase in defaults and, secondly, the fall in sales volume caused both by the significant loss of purchasing power of consumers as by increasing distrust. In this context the Alternative Investment Market (AIM, emerges as an alternative stock exchange market to provide financing to smaller companies, that however, want to expand and reach more markets than its own financial structure could afford. The main objective of the AIM is to provide financial resources, by increasing equity to companies undergoing expansion, both nationally and internationally. In this paper we analyze the main characteristics

  20. The Battle River Project: school division implementation of the health-promoting schools approach: assessment for learning: using student health and school capacity measures to inform action and direct policy in a local school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleddie, Douglas L; Hobin, Erin P

    2011-03-01

    The Battle River Project (BRP) is a school division-level intervention in rural Alberta, Canada, built upon the health-promoting schools approach to health promotion. Using self-reported school and student-level data from administrators and students, the central aim of the BRP is to examine: 'How can the school environment and health behaviours (healthy eating, physical activity and mental wellness) of children and youth be improved when a health-promoting schools model, the Ever Active Schools program, is implemented with school division support?' Evidence used to inform school level changes included students' demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial variables linked to school environment data, comprised of school demographics and administrator-assessed quality of policies, facilities, and programs related to physical activity. Each participating school and the division were provided with a tailored report of their schools' results to reflect, plan and implement for positive health behavior change. The main lesson learned was that sharing school-specific evidence can operate as a catalyst for embedding health promoting policy and practices within the school and division culture.

  1. Complementary coordination strategies in a joint Fitts’ reciprocal aiming task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Skewes, Lea; Michael, J.

    How do dyads coordinate their actions to achieve a common goal when one person has the more difficult task? In the present study, dyads were instructed to engage in a Fitts’s reciprocal aiming task as accurately as possible, and at a given tempo sent through their headphones. They were in conditi...... a joint goal, by taking on leader-follower roles....... was assigned to either the target’s role – with varying target width, and hence task difficulty – or the reference role – with the widest (easiest) target. Results show that when the task was performed interactively with the other person, they were most synchronized, and also used the target most similarly......, while compromising rhythmic accuracy. In addition, as task difficulty increased for the member with the target’s role, the participant with the reference role became more adaptive to her tempo. This suggests that interacting members of a dyad optimally negotiate coordination strategies to achieve...

  2. Negotiating action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    After years of working towards a climate accord, the Paris Agreement of 2015 marked the shift from negotiating to reach consensus on climate action to implementation of such action. The challenge now is to ensure transparency in the processes and identify the details of what is required.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. The challenges and directions for nuclear energy policy in Japan. Japan's nuclear energy national plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanase, Tadao

    2007-01-01

    According to the 'framework for nuclear energy policy' (October, 2005 adopted by cabinet), basic goals of nuclear policy are (1) for nuclear energy to continue to meet more than around 30-40% of electricity supply, and also (2) to further promote a fuel cycle steadily aiming at commercial introduction of a fast breeder by 2050. In order to realize an aim of this framework for nuclear energy policy', the nuclear energy subcommittee of the METI advisory committee deliberated concrete actions and the subcommittee recommendations were drawn up as 'Japan's nuclear energy national plan' in August, 2006 and incorporated as main part of the revised 'basic plan on energy' adopted by the cabinet in March 2007. Backgrounds and directions of future actions for nuclear energy policy were described. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Mitigation Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  9. Citizenship and cultural diversity in agenda of cultural policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Silva Dorneles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a discussion paper which aims to contribute to the systematization of studies, concepts and practices on cultural policies which have been developed in previous years in Brazil and are orienting cultural actions and public programs in the country, also influencing the Occupational Therapy. Citizenship and Cultural Diversity are concepts under construction and are part of the of the agenda of cultural policies and as well as the reflections and practices of various occupational therapists who are acting in a constant dialogue with the cultural area by means of the formation in cultural management, cultural mapping, programs and grant projects aimed to promote inventive identities, traditional communities, native populations, urban mobility, and cultural networks and exchange initiatives, among others. The article presents the process of this conceptual construction and the constitution of experiences aiming the democratization of the culture in the history of Brazilian cultural public policies, over which are being discussed approach paths and possibilities for Occupational Therapy.

  10. Cost of Policy Inaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkes, J.A.; Brauer, I.; Ten Brink, P.; Gorlach, B.; Kuik, O.J.; Medhurst, J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to lay out reasonable expectations of COPI as an assessment instrument. This includes aspects such as potential messages; important technical issues; limitations; issues of focus, direction and process; key information gaps; added value. The scope of this study is environment policy at the EU level, touching on policy areas that are not labelled 'environment' but are nevertheless relevant to the issue of cost of policy non-action regarding the environment. The study reflects on methods to assess COPI in money terms but also considers non-monetary endpoints, such as the number of premature deaths. The study aims to illuminate which stages of the policy making process the concept of COPI can best support. Our interpretation of what DG ENV seeks, in relation to COPI, is: economic thinking, but not too narrow, as an element of a communication strategy. This led us to consider inter alia the possibilities to apply the COPI concept to environmental-related policy as a whole - next to, or contrasted with, other EU priorities. Realism has been an important consideration: this study tries to provide ideas to DG ENV for pragmatic use of the COPI concept. That requires a balance between, or a proper combination and sequencing of, the quick-and-simple and the thorough-but-costly. The study reflects on both and eventually recommends a combination of mostly smaller studies in four distinct categories. In view of this we included in this scoping study elements of COPI methodology that can be of practical use in designing and committing follow-up work. This includes a two-page methodological summary, a section on important design choices, a framework for a COPI program, populated with some examples of good topics for COPI studies that seem double. Although the production of this scoping study has been a small project, it was nevertheless undertaken by five organizations in order to connect with as much practical experience as possible. GHK experience

  11. The nursing profession in Sri Lanka: time for policy changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwihare-Samaranayake, D; Ogilvie, L; Cummings, G G; Gellatly, Ian R

    2017-09-01

    We address issues and challenges in nursing in Sri Lanka with the aim of identifying where and how policy changes need to be made. Increased global interconnectivity calls for professional leadership, research, education, and policy reform in nursing as these are identified as enhancing health workforce performance and professionalization, thereby improving health systems. We draw on first-hand knowledge of health care and nursing in Sri Lanka and a recent survey of nurses at a large urban government hospital in Sri Lanka, followed by discussion and proposed action on themes identified through analysis of published and unpublished literature about the nursing profession. Policy and action are needed to: (a) establish mandatory nurse licensure in the public and private healthcare sectors; (b) implement realistic policies to further develop nursing education; (c) develop a professionalization process to support nursing autonomy and voice; and (d) promote systematic processes for educational accreditation, curriculum revision, continuing professional development, evidence-based practice, research, leadership, and information systems. There is a policy vacuum that requires careful analysis and strategic planning by formal nurse leaders. Implementing change will require political and professional power and strategic, innovative, and evolutionary policy initiatives as well as organizational infrastructure modifications best achieved through committed multidisciplinary collaboration, augmented research capacity, bolstered nursing leadership, and promotion of partnerships with policy makers. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  12. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  13. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...] International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission proposes to remove the International Settlements... proposes to remove the International Settlements Policy (ISP) from all U.S. international routes except...

  14. Health consequences of the US Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration programme: a quasi-experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Atheendar S Venkataramani, DrMD; Sachin J Shah, MD; Rourke O'Brien, PhD; Ichiro Kawachi, ProfPhD; Alexander C Tsai, MD

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Background: The effects of changes in immigration policy on health outcomes among undocumented immigrants are not well known. We aimed to examine the physical and mental health effects of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) programme, a 2012 US immigration policy that provided renewable work permits and freedom from deportation for a large number of undocumented immigrants. Methods: We did a retrospective, quasi-experimental study using nationally representative, repea...

  15. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) proposed the Triple Aim, strategic organizing principles for health care organizations and geographic communities that seek, simultaneously, to improve the individual experience of care and the health of populations and to reduce the per capita costs of care for populations. In 2010, the Triple Aim became part of the US national strategy for tackling health care issues, especially in the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Since that time, IHI and others have worked together to determine how the implementation of the Triple Aim has progressed. Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on this endeavor: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously "improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations." IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and

  16. 76 FR 76192 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0273] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed enforcement policy revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear... licensees, vendors, and contractors), on proposed revisions to the NRC's Enforcement Policy (the Policy) and...

  17. Policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1990-01-01

    The obstacles to bringing about consumer response to environmental dangers are particularly challenging for global problems like ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. In this situation, there is the danger of what is commonly termed the tragedy of the commons, the ecological destruction that can occur from uncontrolled use of shared resources like the atmosphere. There is probably no country for which reductions in global warming provide an adequate economic incentive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions unilaterally, even though such action could yield substantial global benefits. From any one country's viewpoint, the costs of controlling emissions may exceed the benefits since, without international agreement, reductions achieved by one nation may be offset by another. Therefore, even though the entire world may be better off as a result of efforts to lower emissions, new economic incentives are necessary to lead the market to a socially efficient outcome. This paper describes the range of domestic and international policies that could be adopted to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and also discusses the results of modeling analyses of government actions that could reduce or increase such emissions

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Affirmative action and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kölle, Felix

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate spillover effects of affirmative action policies in tournaments on subsequent team performance and the willingness to work in teams. In three different team environments, we find that such policies in form of gender quotas do not harm performance and cooperation within teams, and do not weaken people's willingness to work in teams. Our results, thus, provide further evidence that gender quotas can have the desired effect of promoting women without harming efficie...

  14. National Climate Policies: Aiming at the Factor 4 Target by 2050?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers how the governments of midsize developed countries could define national strategies to control greenhouse gas emissions, assuming that such strategies are the product of cognitive and ethical choices relating to global climate scenarios and the rule for allocating shares of expected global climate damage to individual States. After evaluating the carbon value linked to each cognitive-ethical configuration, I identify the configurations that justify the target of dividing national emissions by 4 between 1990 and 2050 - a goal known as 'Factor 4'. Lastly, I examine the resulting constraints on the shape of the control trajectory leading to that target

  15. Public Opinion and Foreign Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2009-02-26

    Feb 26, 2009 ... person of Charles Taylor, given his antecedents. Regardless ..... influence of the reactions of the public on the foreign policy actions of governments. ... tion reacted vehemently to this move, which was viewed as tantamount.

  16. Elements for a policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the ''Grenelle de l'environnement'' on the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, the authors aim to offer propositions and recommendations for the future energy policy. They explain the possible confusions. They discuss the economic efficiency of propositions of CO 2 emissions reduction, the actions propositions in the different sectors and the axis of research and development. (A.L.B.)

  17. Economic and Policy Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NESG Economic and Policy Review (EPR) is a quarterly publication of the Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG), established to serve as an avenue for constructive analysis of economic policies and their impacts on different aspects of the business and economic environment. The EPR aims to provide unbiased, ...

  18. What is good governance in the context of drug policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Nicola; Rubin, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The concept of governance is applied in a wide range of contexts, but this paper focuses on governance in relation to public administration, i.e. states and how they take action, and specifically governance of particular policy areas. In the current context of financial austerity and an era of globalisation, policy-makers face pressures and challenges from a growing range of interests and local, national and supranational actors. Drug policy is an example of a particularly contentious and polarised area in which governance-related challenges abound. In response to these challenges, interest has grown in developing agreed policy governance standards and processes and articulating policy-making guidelines, including the use of available evidence to inform policy-making. Attempts have been made to identify 'policy fundamentals' - factors or aspects of policy-making apparently associated with successful policy development and implementation (Hallsworth & Rutter, 2011; Laughrin, 2011) and, in the drug policy field, Hughes et al. (2010) reflecting on the co-ordination of Australian drug policy highlighted some of what they considered principles of good governance. But how useful is the concept of 'good governance'; how well can it be defined, and to what purpose? As part of a wider project considering the governance of drug policy, RAND Europe and the UK Drug Policy Commission undertook a targeted review of other research and sought expert views, from within and beyond drug policy, on principles, processes, structures and stakeholders associated with good drug policy governance. From this emerged some perceived characteristics of good governance that were then used by the UK Drug Policy Commission to assess the extent to which drug policy making in the UK fits with these perceived good governance characteristics, and to suggest possible improvements. Particular consideration was given to the range of interests at stake, the overarching aims of drug policy and the

  19. Tendances Carbone no. 94. SUMO policies: smart monetary policies aimed at giving a boost to green investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, Camille; Morel, Romain

    2014-09-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. Beside some statistical figures about energy production/consumption and carbon markets, this issue specifically addresses the following points: - New EU Commissioner: Miguel Arias Canete (Spain) has been appointed as the new energy and climate commissioner. - EU ETS Reform: Denmark, Latvia, Slovenia, and Sweden support Germany's proposal for the mechanism becoming operational ahead of schedule as from 2017. - Climate and Energy package 2030: the European Commission has published a new proposal at the end of July with the goal of improving energy efficiency by 30% in 2030

  20. Assessing sustainable freight policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of the study was to examine transportation demand management strategies related to long haul freight. It investigates freight : movements and truck vehicle miles traveled (TVMT) changes in response to certain transportation policies, inc...

  1. Policy framework for utilisation. A pillar of better accessibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The goals and frameworks for traffic and transport policy for the Netherlands to 2020 are described in the Mobility Document. Whereas government policy previously viewed mobility as a problem or as something permissible, the assumption is now that mobility is a must. Mobility, for people as well as goods, is a prerequisite for society and the economy to function well. The Mobility Document contains ambitious goals to deal with current and anticipated traffic and transport problems: door to door, faster, cleaner and safer. Three interrelated pillars are to help achieve these goals: Building, Pricing and Utilisation. Work is being done on the Building and Pricing pillars; Utilisation is elaborated further in this policy framework. The Policy Framework for Utilisation is an elaboration of the Mobility Document for the 2008-2020 period and aims for faster, cleaner, safer travel from door to door. The purpose of this policy framework is to describe the direction of development of utilisation, in terms of content as well as process, to indicate actions that are required and to provide perspective on the expected effects. The policy framework is in line with current developments or plans, caters to new opportunities (technological and otherwise), encourages the innovative potential of the market and provides room for joint ventures between the government and the market. It will result in actions for the short term and provide direction for activities and developments for the longer term

  2. Invalidating Policies using Structural Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.

    2014-01-01

    by invalidating policies using structural information of the organisational model. Based on this structural information and a description of the organisation’s policies, our approach invalidates the policies and identifies exemplary sequences of actions that lead to a violation of the policy in question. Based...... on these examples, the organisation can identify real attack vectors that might result in an insider attack. This information can be used to refine access control systems or policies. We provide case studies showing how mechanical verification tools, i.e. modelchecking with MCMAS and interactive theorem proving...

  3. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  4. From Knowledge to Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmar, Ulf; Møller, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, focus has been on the utilisation of research-based knowledge and evidence in social work policy and practice in order to make it more effective. A part of this process has been the launch of knowledge portals to make use of knowledge from research. In this article, we investigate...... how knowledge portals about vulnerable children and youth present knowledge and evidence, and how they try to work as ?knowledge brokers? or intermediaries of evidence. We argue that knowledge portals are not merely channels for dissemination of knowledge. Knowledge portals could be considered as part...... of a greater process of bringing knowledge to action, encompassing the social and organisational contexts of research utilisation. The article concludes by stating that knowledge portals have the potential to be effective instruments in knowledge-to-action processes. The two main challenges, however...

  5. Assessing youth policies. A system of indicators for local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Anna; Soler, Pere; Vilà, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    In the current European climate of economic, financial and political crisis and the questioning of the welfare state, assessing public policies assume a primary and strategic relevance in clarifying the results and contributions of policy actions. In this article, we aim to present the current situation in relation to youth policy assessment so as to formulate a system of assessment indicators in the sphere of Spanish local government youth policy. A review is conducted of some of the principal contributions in the field of constructing indicators for evaluating youth policies. We have found that most of these evaluation tools exist on a national or state level and that there is a dearth of local or municipal tools. The article concludes with a concrete proposal for an assessment tool: the SIAPJove (Sistema d'Indicadors d'Avaluació per a les Polítiques Municipals de Joventut or System of Assessment Indicators for Local Government Youth Policies) (web page: http://siapjove.udg.edu/). It provides both quantitative and qualitative indicators for local youth policy managers to obtain assessment reports with relative ease in 12 possible areas for assessment within youth policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy efficieny policy and carbon pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Lisa; Moarif, Sara; Levina, Ellina; Baron, Richard

    2011-08-15

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  7. Energy Efficiency Policy and Carbon Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  8. Comparative assessment of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans in 12 EU countries. European Best Practice Report. Extended version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report is a key output of the EU project 'BAP Driver', an initiative of energy agencies from 8 European key bioenergy nations and the European Biomass Association (AEBIOM). The BAP Driver project aims at identifying ways for improvement of current national policy frameworks for bioenergy in Europe, and at leveraging the process of developing country-specific Biomass Action Plans (BAP). From a strategic perspective, the general approach of this report focuses on four stages, required for setting up national biomass strategies and action plans: Assessment of national biomass resources; Formulation of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans; Implementation of national bioenergy policies; Monitoring of national bioenergy markets and policies. Overall the analysis is split into three chapters corresponding to the following logical steps: Chapter B: Country analysis (12 individual country profiles); Chapter C: Benchmark analysis (comparative assessment of 12 countries); Chapter D: Best practice analysis (transnational conclusions across national boundaries)

  9. Comparative assessment of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans in 12 EU countries. European Best Practice Report. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report is a key output of the EU project 'BAP Driver', an initiative of energy agencies from 8 European key bioenergy nations and the European Biomass Association (AEBIOM). The BAP Driver project aims at identifying ways for improvement of current national policy frameworks for bioenergy in Europe, and at leveraging the process of developing country-specific Biomass Action Plans (BAP). From a strategic perspective, the general approach of this report focuses on four stages, required for setting up national biomass strategies and action plans: Assessment of national biomass resources; Formulation of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans; Implementation of national bioenergy policies; Monitoring of national bioenergy markets and policies. Overall the analysis is split into three chapters corresponding to the following logical steps: Chapter B: Country analysis (12 individual country profiles); Chapter C: Benchmark analysis (comparative assessment of 12 countries); Chapter D: Best practice analysis (transnational conclusions across national boundaries)

  10. The Action Researcher as Chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Mark; Bennett, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project that trained institutional policymakers in action research regarding problems in developing training policies about young people's needs, examining attempts to collaborate and dialog with stakeholders and discussing how project members became enmeshed in complex sets of relationships calling for construction of dialog in…

  11. Implementing Health in All Policies - Time and Ideas Matter Too! Comment on "Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Carole

    2016-06-20

    Carey and Friel suggest that we turn to knowledge developed in the field of public administration, especially new public governance, to better understand the process of implementing health in all policies (HiAP). In this commentary, I claim that theories from the policy studies bring a broader view of the policy process, complementary to that of new public governance. Drawing on the policy studies, I argue that time and ideas matter to HiAP implementation, alongside with interests and institutions. Implementing HiAP is a complex process considering that it requires the involvement and coordination of several policy sectors, each with their own interests, institutions and ideas about the policy. Understanding who are the actors involved from the various policy sectors concerned, what context they evolve in, but also how they own and frame the policy problem (ideas), and how this has changed over time, is crucial for those involved in HiAP implementation so that they can relate to and work together with actors from other policy sectors. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  12. Implementing Health in All Policies – Time and Ideas Matter Too!; Comment on “Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Clavier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Carey and Friel suggest that we turn to knowledge developed in the field of public administration, especially new public governance, to better understand the process of implementing health in all policies (HiAP. In this commentary, I claim that theories from the policy studies bring a broader view of the policy process, complementary to that of new public governance. Drawing on the policy studies, I argue that time and ideas matter to HiAP implementation, alongside with interests and institutions. Implementing HiAP is a complex process considering that it requires the involvement and coordination of several policy sectors, each with their own interests, institutions and ideas about the policy. Understanding who are the actors involved from the various policy sectors concerned, what context they evolve in, but also how they own and frame the policy problem (ideas, and how this has changed over time, is crucial for those involved in HiAP implementation so that they can relate to and work together with actors from other policy sectors.

  13. Toward an Innovation Policy for Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Speakman, John; Afzal, Kiran; Yuge, Yasuhiko; Hanna, James

    2012-01-01

    This policy paper aims to assist policy makers, as they develop the Pakistan Innovation Policy, with an independent assessment of where Pakistan stands now, an international perspective on policy priorities, a review of policy options and some implementation and institutional perspectives. The paper begins with a review of the key lessons of international experience together with a study of ...

  14. 14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4 Major regulatory... of actions shall not be deemed as major regulatory actions requiring an energy statement: (1) Tariff...

  15. 48 CFR 304.7100 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATTERS Review and Approval of Proposed Contract Actions 304.7100 Policy. (a) The HCA (non-delegable) shall establish review and approval procedures for proposed contract actions to ensure that— (1) Contractual documents are in conformance with law, established policies and procedures, and sound business...

  16. Interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almeida Laires

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging of the population and early retirement translates into productivity losses to society. Persistence of working life is crucial to counteract this sustainability issue faced by western countries. Musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases (RD may cause work disability and early exit from work, including early retirement. The objective of this article is to review the current knowledge about interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to RD. Methods: We searched PubMed and The Cochrane Library for studies either in English or Portuguese between January 2000 and June 2016 that evaluated the impact of interventions targeting early retirement in RD patients still at work. We also searched for grey literature from Portuguese institutional repositories. Results: We identified several published studies testing pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic vocational rehabilitation interventions. None was specifically identified for Portugal. The general low quality of the literature and its inconsistency makes it unfeasible to draw definitive conclusions. However, some broad recommendations might be outlined. An effective intervention must: 1 act upon different levels (e.g. RD patient, workplace, involving several stakeholders (e.g. rheumatologists, occupational physicians, employers; 2 prioritize the right patients (e.g. more disabling RD; and 3 consider the patients’ role, for instance by including an element of patient education and support. Despite the lack of good quality evidence on this field, there seems to be a growing interest in the international scientific community with several ongoing studies promoting such interventions. This promising data will be very useful to set up effective policies. Conclusions: This article summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of interventions to avoid or mitigate early retirement in RD patients. It highlights the demand for further research and it also contributes to aware decision

  17. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  18. Cancer beliefs and prevention policies: comparing Canadian decision-maker and general population views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Wild, T Cameron; Raine, Kim D

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of key policy influencers and the general public can support or hinder the development of public policies that support cancer prevention. To address gaps in knowledge concerning healthy public policy development, views on cancer causation and endorsement of policy alternatives for cancer prevention among government influencers (elected members of legislative assemblies and senior ministry bureaucrats), non-governmental influencers (school board chairs and superintendents, print media editors and reporters, and workplace presidents and senior human resource managers), and the general public were compared. Two structured surveys, one administered to a convenience sample of policy influencers (government and non-governmental) and the other to a randomly selected sample of the general public, were used. The aim of these surveys was to understand knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding health promotion principles and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent four behavioral risk factors for cancer (tobacco use, alcohol misuse, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity). Surveys were administered in Alberta and Manitoba, two comparable Canadian provinces. Although all groups demonstrated higher levels of support for individualistic policies (e.g., health education campaigns) than for fiscal and legislative measures, the general public expressed consistently greater support than policy influencers for using evidence-based policies (e.g., tax incentives or subsidies for healthy behaviors). These results suggest that Canadian policy influencers may be less open that the general public to adopt healthy public policies for cancer prevention, with potential detriment to cancer rates.

  19. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  20. Development of Taiwanese government’s climate policy after the Kyoto protocol: Applying policy network theory as an analytical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2014-01-01

    Given its limited involvement in and recognition by international organizations, Taiwan is not presently a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or the Kyoto Protocol. The objective of this study is to analyze how and the extent to which changes in an exogenous factor, namely the Kyoto Protocol and Post-Kyoto climate negotiations, affect and ultimately lead to the formulation of and changes in the Taiwanese government's climate policy. This study applies policy network theory to examine the development of and changes in the Taiwanese government's climate policy. The results demonstrate that international climate agreements and negotiations play a key role in the development of, changes to, and transformation of Taiwan's climate policy. Scarce evidence was found in this study to demonstrate that domestic or internal factors affect climate change policy. Despite its lack of participation in the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, Taiwan has adopted national climate change strategies, action plans, and programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, these climate policies and measures are fairly passive and aim to only conform to the minimal requirements for developing countries under international climate agreements and negotiations. This process results in inconsistent and variable climate policies, targets, and regulations. - Highlights: • Taiwan is not a signatory to the UNFCCC or its Kyoto Protocol. • International climate agreements strongly affected Taiwan's climate policy. • Little evidence was found that domestic factors affect Taiwan's climate policy. • New climate policies, regulations, and laws are formulated and implemented. • Climate policies, targets, and regulations change frequently and are inconsistent

  1. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  2. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Affirmative Action Program. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Affirmative Action Program (AAP) serves as a working document that describes current policies, practices, and results in the area of affirmative action. It represents the Laboratory`s framework for an affirmative approach to increasing the representation of people of color and women in segments of our work force where they have been underrepresented and taking action to increase the employment of persons with disabilities and special disabled and Vietnam era veterans. The AAP describes the hierarchy of responsibility for Laboratory affirmative action, the mechanisms that exist for full Laboratory participation in the AAP, the policies and procedures governing recruitment at all levels, the Laboratory`s plan for monitoring, reporting, and evaluating affirmative action progress, and a description of special affirmative action programs and plans the Laboratory has used and will use in its efforts to increase the representation and retention of groups historically underrepresented in our work force.

  3. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    President George H.W. Bush sought means to influence the policies of Latin American states more effectively. Mexico , particularly in the post-Cold War era...security goals. A review of the U.S. trade policy, and its nesting with the National Security Strategy, demonstrates how President Barack Obama’s... President Barack Obama’s strategic “pivot to Asia,” and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement facilitate U.S. enduring national

  4. Understanding the Development of Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol in Scotland: A Qualitative Study of the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing’s development by taking a ‘multiple-lenses’ approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon’s multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n = 36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. Findings The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy ‘image’ to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Conclusions Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process

  5. Understanding the development of minimum unit pricing of alcohol in Scotland: a qualitative study of the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing's development by taking a 'multiple-lenses' approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon's multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n = 36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy 'image' to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process, with Multi-Level Governance particularly useful for

  6. Understanding the Concept of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Sudhir; Desgain, Denis DR

    This publication is intended to enable national policy makers and other stakeholders, such as the private sector and technical experts, to acquaint themselves with the concept of NAMA. It aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) concept...... and enhance the understanding of NAMAs by explaining the underlying decisions of the Conference of the Parties in layman’s terms. The first chapter describes how the concept of NAMA emerged in the context of the negotiations on climate change. The chapter gives an overview of how the concepts of NAMA...

  7. Affirmative Action: Reservation Seats untuk Perempuan di Parlemen India

    OpenAIRE

    Evi Yunita Kurniaty

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to help us understand and analyze women's efforts in the policy-making process to increase their political participation in the constitutional and electoral processes. We can also see the extent to which the values rooted in the patriarchal culture in a society and what can be done and reduce them. Affirmative action is carried out in India by applying the system of reservation seats for women in the Indian Parliament. This is done in India is proven to increase the number of w...

  8. Students in Action Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Theresa; Mottiar, Ziene; Quinn, Bernadette; Gorman, Catherine; Griffin, Kevin; Craggs, Ruth; Quinn, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    The Students in Action Project in the School of Hospitality Management and Tourism was established in 2012 as a way of engaging students and working with stakeholders in a destination. The overall aim of the project was to immerse students in an active collaborative learning environment within the destination to identify ways in which tourism could be enhanced. In the 2014/2015 academic year the project involved over 300 students from a variety of programmes and modules working with local sta...

  9. Education Policy: Explaining, Framing and Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new heuristic device for the analysis of educational policy. Through an examination of the Evaluative State and the work of Brian Fay, the paper considers the way in which educational policy is subject to rational and linear forms of policy action and implementation. To counter this, positioning theory is deployed to consider…

  10. 78 FR 5838 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0014] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy revision; issuance and request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy,'' December 30, 2009 (ADAMS Accession No. ML093200520);(2...

  11. Revitalizing REDD+ Policy Processes in Vietnam: The Roles of State and Non-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Ba Huynh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam was one of the first countries to introduce the National REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Action Program in 2012. The country has recently revised the Program to aim for a more inclusive 2016–2020 strategy and a vision to 2030. This study explores how Vietnam policy actors view REDD+ policy development and their influence in these processes. The results can contribute to the discussion on how policy actors can effectively influence policy processes in the evolving context of REDD+ and in the types of political arrangements represented in Vietnam. We examined the influence of state and non-state actors on the 2012 National REDD+ Action Program (NRAP processes, and explored factors that may have shaped this influence, using a combination of document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 81 policy actors. It was found that non-state actors in REDD+ are still on the periphery of decision making, occupying “safe” positions, and have not taken either full advantage of their capacities, or of recent significant changes in the contemporary policy environment, to exert stronger influence on policy. We suggest that REDD+ policy processes in Vietnam need to be revitalized with key actors engaging collectively to promote the possibilities of REDD+ within a broader view of social change that reaches beyond the forestry sector.

  12. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  13. Sustainability with an Ethical Aim: Lessons from an American Nun in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Research Topic: An exploration into human imagination, ethical aim and action are the progenitors for reconciliation between humans and their environment. This study of two successful projects in Brazil provides an example of working toward a balance between human endeavors and sustainable environments. This inquiry is an exploration that…

  14. African Journal of Economic Policy: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The primary aim of this journal, an offshoot of the Trade Policy Research and Training Programme in Economics Department, University of Ibadan, is to provide a forum for development and equity on the African continent. It, therefore, welcomes well researched papers on the implications of a specific ...

  15. Aiming for cure in HBV and HDV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jörg; Thompson, Alexander J; Levrero, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be a major health burden worldwide. Currently available antiviral treatment options for chronic hepatitis B include pegylated interferon alpha2a (PegIFN) or nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). The major advantages of NAs are good tolerance and potent antiviral activity associated with high rates of sustained on-treatment response to therapy. The advantages of PegIFN include a finite course of treatment, the absence of drug resistance, and an opportunity to obtain a durable post-treatment response to therapy. Furthermore, PegIFN is the only approved agent known to be active against hepatitis D virus (HDV). The use of these two antiviral agents with different mechanisms of action in combination against hepatitis B is theoretically an attractive approach for treatment. Although several studies have confirmed certain virological advantages of combination therapies, data supporting a long-term clinical benefit for patients are lacking and monotherapy with PegIFN or NAs remains the therapy of choice. Moreover, with the current treatment approaches, only a limited number of patients achieve hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss. HBsAg loss is considered a "functional cure", but does not mean viral eradication. There is a need for novel therapeutic approaches that enable not only suppression of viral replication, but resolution of HBV infection. A key challenge is to target covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nucleus of infected hepatocytes. The recent development and availability of innovative in vitro and in vivo systems and sensitive molecular techniques has opened new possibilities to study the complex network of interactions that HBV establishes with the host in the course of infection and to define new targets for antiviral strategies. Several new antiviral or immunomodulatory compounds have reached preclinical or clinical testing with the aim of silencing or eradicating cccDNA to achieve functional cure

  16. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  17. Privacy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  18. 76 FR 9210 - Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture policy; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (DOC) is... United States. The intent of the policy is to guide DOC's actions and decisions on aquaculture and to...

  19. PUBLIC POLICIES AND STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE THE ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF A COUNTRY . CASE OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia BUŞMACHIU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of concepts applied in the decision - making process aims to investigate the functioning of mechanisms to develop and implement the central public administration policies. A modern decision - making process includes the whole procedure of decision making: setting the priorities of public policies, choosing options, instruments of public policy implementation, developing and adopting the respective legislative and normative acts, funding to implement these policies, conducting implementation actions and monitoring the impact of public policy decisions. Often the decision - making process in public administration is interpreted as a simple organization of the information and documents circuit. Therefore there arises the need to analyze the concept of decision making and propose solutions to improve it.

  20. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  1. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  2. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  3. An intersectionality-based policy analysis framework: critical reflections on a methodology for advancing equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankivsky, Olena; Grace, Daniel; Hunting, Gemma; Giesbrecht, Melissa; Fridkin, Alycia; Rudrum, Sarah; Ferlatte, Olivier; Clark, Natalie

    2014-12-10

    In the field of health, numerous frameworks have emerged that advance understandings of the differential impacts of health policies to produce inclusive and socially just health outcomes. In this paper, we present the development of an important contribution to these efforts - an Intersectionality-Based Policy Analysis (IBPA) Framework. Developed over the course of two years in consultation with key stakeholders and drawing on best and promising practices of other equity-informed approaches, this participatory and iterative IBPA Framework provides guidance and direction for researchers, civil society, public health professionals and policy actors seeking to address the challenges of health inequities across diverse populations. Importantly, we present the application of the IBPA Framework in seven priority health-related policy case studies. The analysis of each case study is focused on explaining how IBPA: 1) provides an innovative structure for critical policy analysis; 2) captures the different dimensions of policy contexts including history, politics, everyday lived experiences, diverse knowledges and intersecting social locations; and 3) generates transformative insights, knowledge, policy solutions and actions that cannot be gleaned from other equity-focused policy frameworks. The aim of this paper is to inspire a range of policy actors to recognize the potential of IBPA to foreground the complex contexts of health and social problems, and ultimately to transform how policy analysis is undertaken.

  4. Assessment of the 2004 Danish National Action Plan for Emplyment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    The report gives the economic, employment and policy context for the National Action Plan for employment, and assess the NAP from a gender persepctive......The report gives the economic, employment and policy context for the National Action Plan for employment, and assess the NAP from a gender persepctive...

  5. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  6. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  7. Community energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo Melchor, N.; Redondo Quintela, F.

    1994-01-01

    The twelve Member states of the European Union will attempt to make their national energy policies converge. Nevertheless the basis of the so called ''Community Energy Policy'' is not this convergence but rather the achievement of a new internal market, the Energy Market, where sources and forms of energy may circulate freely between countries. This aim derives from a change of orientation, dating back some years, when market integration was attempted instead of continuing with the mere unification of national policies. In this paper we summarize the most relevant aspects of the liberalization process and give some of its internal and external repercussions on the European Union. (Author)

  8. BRAZILIAN FEMINIST MOVEMENT: REPERTOIRE AND STRATEGIES FOR ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla de Paiva Bezerra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the development of and changes in, the repertoire and strategies for action of the Brazilian feminist movement, in the period between the democratic “re-opening” set in the 1980s and the first decade of the XXI century. Our interest is centered in two foci of analysis: on the one hand, it focuses on the movement’s positioning in relation to the State, which varied from a situation of opposition, or even of indifference, to direct attempts at influencing public policies and actions in the State sphere, whether through party politics or participative institutions. On the other hand, we are interested in analyzing how, and in which specific moments, agency beyond the national feminist frontiers takes place and in which measure this influences the local repertoires and vice-versa.

  9. Gaz de France: A public utility aiming at environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauger, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to environment preservation by natural gas utilization. Themes covered in this paper are the French natural gas market, characteristics of the European and French energy sectors and environment preservation by natural gas contribution, and European framework for environment policy

  10. Haemoglobinopathies in Europe: health & migration policy perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Martinez, Patricia; Angastiniotis, Michael; Eleftheriou, Androulla; Gulbis, Beatrice; Mañú Pereira, Maria Del Mar; Petrova-Benedict, Roumyana; Corrons, Joan-Lluis Vives

    2014-07-01

    Major haemoglobinopathies (MH), such as thalassaemia syndromes (Thal) and sickle cell disorders (SCD), are genetic defects associated with chronic anaemia and other complications. In Europe, MH are rare diseases (RD) but their prevalence is significantly growing in many countries due to mobility and migration flows. This creates a growing health problem in the EU that has not yet been effectively addressed by Member States (MS) authorities. The present study has been conducted with the aim of: (i) providing an overview of policies for MH in 10 EU member states (MS) (ii) analysing the challenges linked to these RD due to growing requirements imposed by population, mobility and migration trends and (iii) identifying gaps, proposing improvements on existing policies, or developing new ones to fit the identified needs. The study has been undertaken by a group of members of the European Network for Rare and Congenital Anaemias (ENERCA) and the Thalassaemia International Federation (TIF), in collaboration with the public affairs firm Burson-Marsteller Brussels. Data from 10 EU countries have been gathered using targeted desk research and one-to-one interviews with local stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, patients and public health officers/providers. 1. MH are the most common RD in all the 10 countries, 2. Data on prevalence, overall burden, trends, and clinical follow up costs are lacking in most countries. 3. Neonatal screening practices show a wide variation across and within countries. 4. Awareness on MH and their related complications is very low, exception made of Italy, Greece, Cyprus and UK, 5. No disaggregated data is available to understand the impact of mobility and migration on the prevalence of haemoglobinopathies, and how healthcare delivery systems should adapt to respond to this situation. 6. Targeted policy measures and/or actions are generally lacking and/or delayed. Ten policy recommendations have been drawn from this study, building on

  11. Solving the Policy Implementation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg A. Garn

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available When Republican legislators in Arizona failed to approve educational vouchers in four consecutive legislative sessions, a charter school program was approved as a compromise. The charter school policy was written during a special summer session and within three years, over 30,000 students were enrolled in 260 charter schools across the state. Republican policy makers, who failed to enact voucher legislation, proclaimed the charter school program to be an overwhelming success and protected it from amendments by Democrats and potential actions of bureaucrats that could have altered the policy intent. Research on the implementation of policy indicates that state and local implementors frequently undermine or alter legislative intentions. However, when Arizona policy makers approved the charter school policy, they overcame this persistent implementation phenomenon and, in fact, succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions in the working program. This policy study analyzes how they were able to achieve this elusive result. Key policy makers attended to four significant features of policy implementation in creating the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. Manipulating these key variables allowed policy makers to reduce implementation slippage.

  12. 'Action 2016': AREVA's strategic action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Patricia; Briand, Pauline; Floquet-Daubigeon, Fleur; Michaut, Maxime; De Scorbiac, Marie; Du Repaire, Philippine

    2011-01-01

    On December 13, 2011, Luc Oursel, CEO, and Pierre Aubouin, Chief Financial Officer presented the group's strategic plan for the period 2012-2016. The plan has been drawn up collectively and is based on a thorough-going analysis and a realistic assessment of perspectives for all group activities and associated resources. Development of nuclear and renewable energies: the fundamentals are unchanged. In this context, the German decision remains an isolated case and the great majority of nuclear programs around the world have been confirmed. More conservative in its projections than the International Energy Agency, the group expects growth of 2.2% annually, reaching 583 GW of installed nuclear capacity by 2030, against 378 GW today. However, the Fukushima accident will lead to delays in launching new programs. 'Action 2016' plan aims to consolidate AREVA's leadership in nuclear energy and become a leading player in renewable energy. The group's strategic action plan 'Action 2016' is based on the following strategic choices: - commercial priority given to value creation, - selectivity in investments, - strengthening of the financial structure. These demand an improvement in the group's performance by 2015. This plan makes nuclear safety a strategic priority for the industrial and commercial performance of the group. This ambitious performance plan for the period 2012-2016 will give the group the wherewithal to withstand a temporary slowdown in the market resulting from the Fukushima accident and to deliver safe and sustainable growth of the business. The plan sets out the strategic direction for the group's employees for the years ahead: taking advantage of the expected growth in nuclear and renewable energies, targeted investment programs, and return to self-financing as of 2014

  13. Monetary Policy Analysis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysing monetary policy in Serbia. The National Bank of Serbia chose inflation targeting, which sets price stability as the main objective of monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the central bank uses different monetary policy instruments which analysis can provide us with the understanding of the main directions of their actions but also of the limitations of its application. Only through improvement of both instruments and monetary policy the central bank will create a better foundation for achieving monetary stability. In addition, the implementation of exchange rate policy is entrusted to the National Bank of Serbia, as the main regulator of the financial system. A mere use of managed floating exchange rate, as the chosen exchange rate regime, is an appropriate solution in the current economic circumstances and in accordance with the desired objective of monetary policy.

  14. Understanding Iranian Foreign Policy - The Case of Iranian Nuclear Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Hadzikadunic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the Iranian foreign policy through the case of Iranian nuclear program. The paper aims to assess foreign policy orientations and compares actions of the last three Iranian presidents, Mohammad Khatami, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and current Hassan Rouhani in dealing with the international community (IC in pursuing its nuclear program. This assessment would not be complete without reference to the Iranian supreme leader Ali Khamenei who is actual head of the state and the most powerful political authority. This paper also relates Iranian foreign policy expectation to competing theories of international relations to identify the most dominant or the most consistent policy orientation. Its aim is to strengthen realist and power-based explanations that have dominated the discourse on Middle Eastern in general and Iranian foreign policy in particular. In this context, a number of questions will be addressed here. To what extend was Iranian negotiation with the IC over its nuclear program consistent throughout these three presidencies? What has changed, if anything, from Iranian foreign policy perspective and why? Can Iranian foreign policy behavior on this specific topic and in this specific time be explained through any international relations theory? As there are many other questions, so there are many theories to examine and explain true Iranian intentions, those below the surface of declared goals (Hadzikadunic, 2014. The methods employed in answering these questions are largely structured around a chronological account and comparative approach. It is also based on the analysis of foreign policy discourse and the assessment of key decision makers.

  15. Frontline work and the impact of solidarity: Encounters between children and professionals under Danish preventive health and social policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years, Denmark has implemented a number of preventive policies based on the line of reasoning that it is better to prevent than to solve problems. Preventive policies express political intentions aimed at solving core welfare state problems related to health, education and welfare...... & Møller forthcoming in Critical Policy Studies) as well as a reproduction of social boundaries affecting variation between how professionals transform public worries into preventive action (Harrits & Møller re- invited in Public Management Review). One analysis suggested that an increase in social...

  16. Research to Action: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Alder, Rob; MacKenzie, Adrian; Cook, Amanda; Maddalena, Victor

    2012-03-01

    potential benefits of reduced turnover among nurses, the cost of which has been identified as a major burden on the Canadian healthcare system (O'Brien-Pallas et al. 2010). One of the goals of the pan-Canadian framework for health human resources (HHR) planning adopted by the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Advisory Committee on Health Delivery and Human Resources is to enhance all jurisdictions' capacity to build and maintain a sustainable workforce in healthy, safe work environments (ACHDHR 2005).Within this context, Health Canada's Office of Nursing Policy provided funding to the Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions (CFNU) and partner agencies in October 2008 to develop pilot projects across the country aimed at improving nurse retention and recruitment through various workplace improvement schemes. Each of the provincial partners contributed funds, in-kind support or both to the projects. The initiative was entitled Research to Action: Applied Workplace Solutions for Nurses (RTA). A national steering committee including representation from unions, governments and employers, each pilot project, CFNU and its national partners – the Canadian Nurses Association, the Canadian Healthcare Association and the Dietitians of Canada – was formed to oversee the development of 10 pilot projects. There was one project in each of Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia and Nunavut. The pilot projects, led by their own steering committees, focused on various aspects of nursing practice identified as particularly relevant to each jurisdiction, with a specific emphasis on improving the work life of nurses and transforming research knowledge into practice. The goals of the RTA initiative were to promote high-quality workplace environments, improve the retention and recruitment of nurses (RNs and LPNs), enhance the quality of patient care and engage stakeholders in collaborative partnerships

  17. Política industrial e compromissos críveis: uma proposta de análise e de ação governamental Industrial policy and credible commitments: a proposal of analysis and of governmental action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Antonio Grassi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the question of the counterparts that governments should claim from firms and/or economic sectors supported by vertical industrial policy. This is a discussion that still have to advance because everything indicate that the set of current counterparts (goals of costs, productivity, exportation, etc. still may be increased and improved, what will facilitate the assessment of industrial policy execution by society and the verification of its efficacy in order to yielding more possibilities of economic growth for a country or region. To reinforce the commitment credibility of the agents supported by industrial policy, this paper proposes to maintain the counterparts meant before and that such agents will be stimulated to commit specific assets in their activities that are supported by govern. It is shown that, without use more public resources than the used currently, this new counterpart may reinforce substantially the incentives that the firms supported by vertical industrial policy have it to execute the traditional counterparts assumed by them, and with it guarantee the best possible use of public resources.

  18. PoDMan: Policy Deviation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Bakshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Whenever an unexpected or exceptional situation occurs, complying with the existing policies may not be possible. The main objective of this work is to assist individuals and organizations to decide in the process of deviating from policies and performing a non-complying action. The paper proposes utilizing software agents as supportive tools to provide the best non-complying action while deviating from policies. The article also introduces a process in which the decision on the choice of non-complying action can be made. The work is motivated by a real scenario observed in a hospital in Norway and demonstrated through the same settings.

  19. THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AS A CHANGE PROMOTER WITHIN EUROPEAN POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudia ARUSTEI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the non-governmental organization (NGO in implementing specific activities and priorities of European policies increases continuously because of the new environment requirements. Through a qualitative research, our study aims to highlight the catalysts and the main constraints in operationalizing the European policies involving the civil sector. Our approach is integrative and nontheless sequential and it is based on a multi-player model with the identification of the role and types of actions specific to each party involved. A temporal comparative analysis is also made by highlighting the evolution in time of the strategic pillars, the constraints and problems specific to the NGOs. The conclusions of our study are going towards pro-active measures: a fair placement considering the role of NGOs within implementing European policies considering the fact that they can offer consistent support and can undertake innovative actions that generate benefits for the society, community and the organization itself.

  20. Developing a policy game intervention to enhance collaboration in public health policymaking in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, H P E M; van Oers, J A M; Sandu, P

    2017-01-01

    the design and development of the generic frame of the In2Action game focusing on enhancing collaboration in local public health policymaking networks. By keeping the game generic, it became suitable for each of the three country cases with only minor changes. The generic frame of the game is expected......BACKGROUND: One of the key elements to enhance the uptake of evidence in public health policies is stimulating cross-sector collaboration. An intervention stimulating collaboration is a policy game. The aim of this study was to describe the design and methods of the development process......: In2Action was developed as a role-play game of one day, with main focus to develop in collaboration a cross-sector implementation plan based on the approved strategic local public health policy. CONCLUSIONS: This study introduced an innovative intervention for public health policymaking. It described...

  1. Co-ordinated action between youth-care and sports: facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Niels; de Langen, Lisanne; Verkooijen, Kirsten T; Koelen, Maria A

    2017-07-01

    In the Netherlands, youth-care organisations and community sports clubs are collaborating to increase socially vulnerable youths' participation in sport. This is rooted in the idea that sports clubs are settings for youth development. As not much is known about co-ordinated action involving professional care organisations and community sports clubs, this study aims to generate insight into facilitators of and barriers to successful co-ordinated action between these two organisations. A cross-sectional study was conducted using in-depth semi-structured qualitative interview data. In total, 23 interviews were held at five locations where co-ordinated action between youth-care and sports takes place. Interviewees were youth-care workers, representatives from community sports clubs, and Care Sport Connectors who were assigned to encourage and manage the co-ordinated action. Using inductive coding procedures, this study shows that existing and good relationships, a boundary spanner, care workers' attitudes, knowledge and competences of the participants, organisational policies and ambitions, and some elements external to the co-ordinated action were reported to be facilitators or barriers. In addition, the participants reported that the different facilitators and barriers influenced the success of the co-ordinated action at different stages of the co-ordinated action. Future research is recommended to further explore the role of boundary spanners in co-ordinated action involving social care organisations and community sports clubs, and to identify what external elements (e.g. events, processes, national policies) are turning points in the formation, implementation and continuation of such co-ordinated action. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult…

  3. Preliminary studies on affirmative action in a brazilian university1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de São Paulo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a signatory to Durban III World Conference against Racism, Discrimination, Xenophobia and other forms of Intolerance, Brazil has committed itself to the enforcement of mechanisms to promote social equity. As a consequence, governmental programs have been implemented, aiming at the inclusion of Afrodescendents h students in the academy is minimal and does not relate to what can be observed in the general population. As an example of such endeavor, Universidade de Brasília (UnB has started an Affirmative Action program in order to include a contingent of 20% of its freshman students as representatives of racial underprivileged groups. This policy started in August 2004. The present study aimed to investigate the perceptions of students and general public to this policy. An instrument, based partially on McConahay´s (1986 Modern Racism scale, was administered to a sample of 316 students. A factor analysis (AF extracted five factors, corresponding to 48% of the total variance explained. An Analysis of Variance (Anova was performed to better understand the results, concerning both age and gender of the subjects. Results show that, although students demonstrated interest in the implementing of Affirmative Action programs, and are aware of the relevance of such procedures to the cultural and social structure of the community, they do not agree with their reasons or measures taken, or to the existence of the problem itself.

  4. 78 FR 44165 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0159] Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Enforcement policy; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S... Policy. In SRM-SECY-12-0047, ``Revisions to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy,'' dated...

  5. Promoting interactions between local climate change mitigation, sustainable energy development, and rural development policies in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Baležentis, Tomas; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Lithuania has developed several important climate change mitigation policy documents however there are no attempts in Lithuania to develop local climate change mitigation policies or to decentralize climate change mitigation policy. Seeking to achieve harmonization and decentralization of climate change mitigation and energy policies in Lithuania the framework for local climate change mitigation strategy need to be developed taking into account requirements, targets and measures set in national climate change mitigation and energy policy documents. The paper will describe how national climate change mitigation and energy policies can be implemented via local energy and climate change mitigation plans. The aim of the paper is to analyze the climate change mitigation policy and its relationship with policies promoting sustainable energy development in Lithuania and to present a framework for local approaches to climate change mitigation in Lithuania, in the context of the existing national and supra-national energy, climate change, and rural development policies. - Highlights: ► The framework for local energy action plans is offered. ► The structural support possibilities are assessed with respect to the Lithuanian legal base. ► The proposals are given for further promotion of sustainable energy at the local level.

  6. An integrated policy framework for the sustainable exploitation of biomass for bioenergy from marginal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoutsou, Calliope

    2017-04-01

    Currently, there are not sufficiently tailored policies focusing on biomass and bioenergy from marginal lands. This paper will provide an integrated policy framework and recommendations to facilitate understanding for the market sectors involved and the key principles which can be used to form future sustainable policies for this issue. The work will focus at EU level policy recommendations and discuss how these can interrelate with national and regional level policies to promote the usage of marginal lands for biomass and bioenergy. Recommended policy measures will be based on the findings of the Biomass Policies (www.biomasspolicies.eu) and S2Biom (www.s2biom.eu) projects and will be prepared taking into account the key influencing factors (technical, environmental, social and economic) on biomass and bioenergy from marginal lands: • across different types of marginality (biophysical such as: low temperature, dryness, excess soil moisture, poor chemical properties, steep slope, etc., and socio-economic resulting from lack of economic competitiveness in certain regions and crops, abandonment or rural areas, etc.) • across the different stages of the biomass value chain (supply, logistics, conversion, distribution and end-use). The aim of recommendations will be to inform policy makers on how to distinguish key policy related attributes across biomass and bioenergy from marginal lands, measure them and prioritise actions with a 'system' based approach.

  7. The policy work of piloting: Mobilising and managing conflict and ambiguity in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Simon; Checkland, Kath; Hodgson, Damian; McBride, Anne; Elvey, Rebecca; Parkin, Stephen; Rothwell, Katy; Pierides, Dean

    2017-04-01

    In spite of their widespread use in policy making in the UK and elsewhere, there is a relatively sparse literature specifically devoted to policy pilots. Recent research on policy piloting has focused on the role of pilots in making policy work in accordance with national agendas. Taking this as a point of departure, the present paper develops the notion of pilots doing policy work. It does this by situating piloting within established theories of policy formulation and implementation, and illustrating using an empirical case. Our case is drawn from a qualitative policy ethnography of a local government pilot programme aiming to extend access to healthcare services. Our case explores the collective entrepreneurship of regional policy makers together with local pilot volunteers. We argue that pilots work to mobilise and manage the ambiguity and conflict associated with particular policy goals, and in their structure and design, shape action towards particular outcomes. We conclude with a discussion of the generative but managed role which piloting affords to local implementers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. [The contributions of local authorities to regional public health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Maria, Florence; Grémy, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Local authorities in France are key players in shaping public health policy by their action on the determinants of health and through their actions aimed at specific population groups. Since the public health act of 9 August 2004 establishing the first regional public health plans, their level of involvement and role continues to grow as coordinators, funders and project managers within the greater Paris metropolitan region. Their active participation in regional policy to improve population health and reduce inequalities in health has led to a better organization of the public health programs implemented (in terms of visibility, dialogue, coordination, transparency, and better awareness of context and integration of local issues). Their participation is also a source of innovation resulting in the proposal and use of new approaches (such as the development of health surveillance and observation for advising the local decision-making process). Within the current context of the "Hospitals, patients, health and territories" bill, which entrusts the governance of regional health policy to a specific agency, the role given to local authorities in this new organizational structure must be clearly defined to take into account all of their existing and potential contributions to public health policy.

  9. Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative: Legal Authorities and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-10

    Separation of Powers in National Security Matters....................................................................... 10 Congressional Constraints on Executive Action ........................................................................... 15 Policy Considerations and Congressional Options........................................................................ 17 Conclusion..................................................................................................................................... 18 Author Contact

  10. Reconstituted AIM2 inflammasome in cell-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Naoe; Ito, Yuki; Iwasaki, Tomoyuki; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Migita, Kiyoshi; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Kawakami, Atsushi; Morikawa, Shinnosuke; Mokuda, Sho; Kurata, Mie; Masumoto, Junya

    2015-11-01

    Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is an intracellular pattern-recognition receptor, which is a member of the PYHIN protein family, consisting of a PYD domain and an IFN-inducible nuclear localization (HIN) domain. AIM2 is reported to oligomerize with adaptor protein ASC upon sensing bacterial and viral cytosolic DNA in order to form the AIM2 inflammasome, which activates caspase-1 leading to IL-1β secretion. Dysregulation of AIM2 inflammasome is supposed to result in autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Thus, the development of new targeted drugs against AIM2 inflammasome would be important for the treatment of these diseases. However, since AIM2 inflammasome is an intracellular receptor, enforced internalization of both ligands and candidate molecules is necessary for the screening of AIM2-inflammasome-targeted molecules. We developed a reconstituted AIM2 inflammasome in a cell-free system with amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (Alpha). Strong Alpha signal was detected upon incubation with poly-deoxyadenylic-deoxythymidylic acid, poly(dA:dT), whereas no Alpha signal was detected upon incubation with muramyl dipeptide, one of the NLR ligands of Nod2 ligand. The interaction between AIM2 and ASC was disrupted by an anti-human ASC monoclonal antibody, CRID3, a class of diarylsulfonylurea-containing compounds, and glycyrrhizin, a substance found in liquorice root. Thus, the reconstituted AIM2 inflammasome in a cell-free system is useful for screening AIM2-inflammasome-targeted therapeutic molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Migrants' access to healthcare services within the European Union: a content analysis of policy documents in Ireland, Portugal and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Céline; Pilot, Eva; Diaz, Esperanza; Krafft, Thomas

    2018-06-15

    The current migration flow into Europe is leading to a growing ethnically diverse population in many European countries. Now more than ever, those populations have different healthcare needs, languages, traditions, and previous level of care. This higher level of diversity is likely to increase health inequalities that might challenge healthcare systems if not addressed. In this context, this study aims at reviewing the policy framework for migrants' access to healthcare in Spain, Portugal and Ireland, countries with a long history of immigration, to identify lessons to be learned for policies on migrants' health. A content analysis of official policy documents was undertaken and the conceptual framework developed by Mladowsky was adapted to classify the actions indicated in the policies. The content analysis revealed that the policy aim for all three analysed countries is the improvement of the health status of the immigrant population based on equity and equality principles. The main strategies are the adaptation of services through actions targeting patients and providers, such as the implementation of cultural mediators and trainings for health professionals. The three countries propose a great range of policies aiming at improving access to healthcare services for immigrants that can inspire other European countries currently welcoming refugees. Developing inclusive policies, however does not necessarily mean they will be implemented or felt on the ground. Inclusive policies are indeed under threat due to the economic and social crises and due to the respective nationalistic attitudes towards integration. The European Union is challenged to take a more proactive leadership and ensure that countries effectively implement inclusive actions to improve migrant's access to health services.

  12. PUBLIC POLICY AND TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSIF MOLDOVAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state administration process and hence also the economy coordination effort requires the promotion of robust, consistent and transparent public policy, which must be accepted by all stakeholders of economic development. Public policy is a set of measures taken by the authorities legally constituted as public power. Under normal conditions these policy aims at improving living conditions of citizens by developing grounded strategies which are applied by measures implemented to stimulate economic development in all its complexity by harmonizing the efforts of the institutional and non-institutional bodies responsible for ensuring the overall public interest. In Romania, public policies, especially fiscal ones on which we dwell, not reached in many cases the expected effects primarily because of their superficial grounding, lack of transparency, unpredictability, poor communication and secondly as an effect of ineffective management of public financial resources.

  13. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  14. The Logic of Deferral: Educational Aims and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    The educational aims described by educational philosophers rarely embrace the full range of differences in intellectual ability, adaptive behavior, or communication that children exhibit. Because envisioned educational aims have significant consequences for how educational practices, pedagogy, and curricula are conceptualized, the failure to…

  15. Teaching Design Education for Cultural, Pedagogical, and Economic Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…

  16. Database on Aims and Visions in the COINCO Corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    This database contains aims and visions regarding overall regional development as well as more specific aims and visions related to transport and infrastructure in the Corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The sources used for this database are the most essential planning documents from Denmark...

  17. The compatibility between extension aims of staff and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pilot investigation was done to investigate the compatibility between extension aims of extension staff and those of their employer. It shows that only 50 percent of respondents have an acceptable understanding of the official aims (vision), and that none of the components of the official vision has sufficient compatibility ...

  18. Developing consensus-based policy solutions for medicines adherence for Europe: a delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-adherence to prescribed medication is a pervasive problem that can incur serious effects on patients’ health outcomes and well-being, and the availability of resources in healthcare systems. This study aimed to develop practical consensus-based policy solutions to address medicines non-adherence for Europe. Methods A four-round Delphi study was conducted. The Delphi Expert Panel comprised 50 participants from 14 countries and was representative of: patient/carers organisations; healthcare providers and professionals; commissioners and policy makers; academics; and industry representatives. Participants engaged in the study remotely, anonymously and electronically. Participants were invited to respond to open questions about the causes, consequences and solutions to medicines non-adherence. Subsequent rounds refined responses, and sought ratings of the relative importance, and operational and political feasibility of each potential solution to medicines non-adherence. Feedback of individual and group responses was provided to participants after each round. Members of the Delphi Expert Panel and members of the research group participated in a consensus meeting upon completion of the Delphi study to discuss and further refine the proposed policy solutions. Results 43 separate policy solutions to medication non-adherence were agreed by the Panel. 25 policy solutions were prioritised based on composite scores for importance, and operational and political feasibility. Prioritised policy solutions focused on interventions for patients, training for healthcare professionals, and actions to support partnership between patients and healthcare professionals. Few solutions concerned actions by governments, healthcare commissioners, or interventions at the system level. Conclusions Consensus about practical actions necessary to address non-adherence to medicines has been developed for Europe. These actions are also applicable to other regions. Prioritised

  19. Interactions Among Insider Ownership, Dividend Policy, Debt Policy, Investment Decision, and Business Risk

    OpenAIRE

    F., Indri Erkaningrum

    2013-01-01

    The study of interaction among insider ownership, dividend policy, debt policy, investment decision, and business risk is still conducted. This research aims at investigating theinfluencing factors of insider ownership, dividend policy, debt policy, investment decision, business risk, and the interaction among insider ownership, dividend policy, debt policy, investment decision, and business risk. The samples of the research are 137 manufacturing companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchan...

  20. Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapol Pourprasert

    2016-01-01

    This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing ...

  1. INTERACTIONS AMONG INSIDER OWNERSHIP, DIVIDEND POLICY, DEBT POLICY, INVESTMENT DECISION, AND BUSINESS RISK

    OpenAIRE

    F., Indri Erkaningrum

    2015-01-01

    The study of interaction among insider ownership, dividend policy, debt policy, investment decision, and business risk is still conducted. This research aims at investigating theinfluencing factors of insider ownership, dividend policy, debt policy, investment decision, business risk, and the interaction among insider ownership, dividend policy, debt policy, investment decision, and business risk. The samples of the research are 137 manufacturing companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchan...

  2. Urban Policies and Earthquake Risk Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarlo, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims at proposing some considerations about some recent experiences of research carried out on the theme of earthquake risk mitigation and combining policies and actions of mitigation with urban development strategies. The objective was to go beyond the classical methodological approach aiming at defining a 'technical' evaluation of the earthquake risk through a procedure which can correlate the three 'components' of danger, exposure and vulnerability. These researches experiment, in terms of methodology and application, with a new category of interpretation and strategy: the so-called Struttura Urbana Minima (Minimum urban structure).Actually, the introduction of the Struttura Urbana Minima establishes a different approach towards the theme of safety in the field of earthquake risk, since it leads to a wider viewpoint, combining the building aspect of the issue with the purely urban one, involving not only town planning, but also social and managerial implications.In this sense the constituent logic of these researches is strengthened by two fundamental issues:- The social awareness of earthquake;- The inclusion of mitigation policies in the ordinary strategies for town and territory management. Three main aspects of the first point, that is of the 'social awareness of earthquake', characterize this issue and demand to be considered within a prevention policy:- The central role of the risk as a social production,- The central role of the local community consent,- The central role of the local community capability to planTherefore, consent, considered not only as acceptance, but above all as participation in the elaboration and implementation of choices, plays a crucial role in the wider issue of prevention policies.As far as the second point is concerned, the inclusion of preventive mitigation policies in ordinary strategies for the town and territory management demands the identification of criteria of choice and priorities of intervention and, as a

  3. 78 FR 74129 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT members represent academia...

  4. Campaign Seeks Buy-In for High School Reforms: "Stand Up" Aims to Rouse Public Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    Kicked off the week of April 10, 2006 with a big plug on "The Oprah Winfrey Show," a new campaign spearheaded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is aiming to drum up public action to address what its organizers see as a crisis in America's public high schools. The Stand Up campaign comes as high schools have emerged as a focus of public-policy…

  5. Sustainability transition dynamics: Towards overcoming policy resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability transitions receive major scholarly attention, often explicitly with the intention to develop policy recommendations aimed towards progressing such transitions. Despite these efforts, many implemented transition policies have not been able to meet expectations. This tendency of

  6. ENERGY POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Avrupa Topluluğu Enstitüsü, Marmara Üniversitesi

    2015-01-01

    John Mitchell considers EU policies on energy supply security; Tera Allas on energy security of supply in the UK: the way forward; Peter Odell assesses public/private partnerships on the UKCS; Olivier Appert provides an overview of French energy policy.

  7. Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The author places the energy problem in the context of world economy. The various obstacles encountered in the United States to spell out a viable national energy policy are cited. A certain number of practical proposals is given to lead to an 'effective policy' which would allow energy economy at the same time as energy development, that is, including nuclear energy [fr

  8. Bring learning into action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemieke van den Berg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: This critical reflection is about the positive effects for educational and research settings of participation in a two-day programme entitled ‘Using participatory action research and appreciative inquiry to research healthcare practice’. Aims: To reflect on the journey of positive developments in research and education that started with participation in this programme. Using Caring Conversations (Dewar, 2011 as a reflective framework of questions, this article discusses the journey in order to encourage others to consider the approach of appreciative inquiry to bring to life the concept of co-creation in research and education. Conclusions and implications for practice: Participation in this programme has led to the implementation of a variety of actions in educational and research settings. Central to all these actions is an appreciative approach to co-creation as a counterpart to today’s prevailing problem-based viewpoint. A possible factor behind these developments was the power of vulnerability experienced during the programme, a shared process of transformational learning. Implications for practice: This critical reflection: Provides an invitation to shift from a problem-based focus to a positive revolution Provides an appreciative reflective story about the power of vulnerability as an inspiration for others to move out of their comfort zone and seek to discover their own exceptionality Supports a shift from a facilitator-led to a co-creation approach in doing research and teaching with older adults

  9. Multicultural Policies and Interethnic Relations: Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Čičak-Chand

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian policy of multiculturalism recognised the positive and permanent influence of immigration on Canadian society and accepted “nation”-formation based on a model of cultural pluralism. Thus it assumed a radical “modification” of Canadian cultural definitions, instead of a formal adoption of certain “major” national cultural traditions. Canadian society, at the same time, experienced a growing divergence between the official policy of inclusion, and the increasing social exclusion of new immigrants – primarily “visible” minority groups – from economic spheres and from public life in general. In fact, the existing deep tensions in the society between two value systems – on the one hand, the reality of wide-spread racism, and on the other hand, the commitment to an ideology of liberal democracy, as well as poor results in integration policies, as indicated by marked unemployment, low incomes and poverty, especially in immigrant communities – have led to more and more frequent references to a prevailing “democratic racism” in Canada. With regard to the mentioned context, this paper first of all aims to indicate certain specificities in the development of ethnic relations and of multicultural policy, which are engrained and at the same time limited by their particular historical origin. Next, the paper intends to say something about the power of influence of the government’s multicultural policy, and the role of political correctness, as a concrete form of social action, in interethnic relations and in the opinions of the majority society in regard to ethnic minorities, and especially in regard to “visible” groups.

  10. Public Policies to Support Entrepreneurship and SMEs. Empirical Evidences from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel ANTON

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a set of variables measured in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM study, we analyzed the entrepreneurial profi le of Romanian economy after the onset of fi nancial crisis. We found a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship in Romania, but the fi nancial crisis started in 2008 severely affected the entrepreneurial environment. In many countries, the lack of an entrepreneurial culture and fi nancial constraints are seen as critical barriers to entrepreneurship. In the light of global fi nancial crisis, the support of entrepreneurial activities has risen as the entrepreneurship has the potential to foster economic recovery. In the second part of the paper we analyze policy actions implemented by the Romanian authorities in order to support SMEs in coping with the effects of fi nancial crisis. We have found that the most used policy tools have been public subsidies for new businesses and loan guarantees. The paper highlights the main weaknesses in the design and implementation of public policies in Romania and recommends some policy action to improve SMEs’ access to fi nance. The results of this study can be useful for improving the local entrepreneurial environment and also for designing new policy actions aimed to improve the SMEs’ access to fi nancing.

  11. Applications of system dynamics modelling to support health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An M; Wells, Robert; Page, Andrew; Dominello, Amanda; Haines, Mary; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-07-09

    The value of systems science modelling methods in the health sector is increasingly being recognised. Of particular promise is the potential of these methods to improve operational aspects of healthcare capacity and delivery, analyse policy options for health system reform and guide investments to address complex public health problems. Because it lends itself to a participatory approach, system dynamics modelling has been a particularly appealing method that aims to align stakeholder understanding of the underlying causes of a problem and achieve consensus for action. The aim of this review is to determine the effectiveness of system dynamics modelling for health policy, and explore the range and nature of its application. A systematic search was conducted to identify articles published up to April 2015 from the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases. The grey literature was also searched. Papers eligible for inclusion were those that described applications of system dynamics modelling to support health policy at any level of government. Six papers were identified, comprising eight case studies of the application of system dynamics modelling to support health policy. No analytic studies were found that examined the effectiveness of this type of modelling. Only three examples engaged multidisciplinary stakeholders in collective model building. Stakeholder participation in model building reportedly facilitated development of a common 'mental map' of the health problem, resulting in consensus about optimal policy strategy and garnering support for collaborative action. The paucity of relevant papers indicates that, although the volume of descriptive literature advocating the value of system dynamics modelling is considerable, its practical application to inform health policy making is yet to be routinely applied and rigorously evaluated. Advances in software are allowing the participatory model building approach to be extended to

  12. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges.

  13. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    market , accounting for $24.9 billion in exports . An estimated 800,000 U.S. jobs are tied to trade with China .6 President Nixon’s 1972 goal of bringing...pursued a foreign policy initiative referred to as the “North American Accord,” explaining, A developing closeness among Canada, Mexico , and the United...framework to facilitate better cooperation with their powerful southern neighbor.9 Reagan’s North American Accord with Mexico took longer to evolve

  14. Aligning emergency care with the triple aim: Opportunities and future directions after healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shantanu; Conway, Patrick H

    2014-09-01

    The Triple Aim of better health, better care, and lower costs has become a fundamental framework for understanding the need for broad health care reform and describing health care value. While the framework is not specific to any clinical setting, this article focuses on the alignment between the framework and Emergency Department (ED) care. The paper explores where emergency care is naturally aligned with each Aim, as well as current barriers which must be addressed to meet the full vision of the Triple Aim. We propose a vision of EDs serving as a nexus for care coordination optimally consistent with the Triple Aim and the requirements for such a role. These requirements include: (1) substantial integration in coordinated care models; (2) development of reliable and actionable data on ED quality, population health, and cost outcomes; (3) specific initiatives to control and optimize ED utilization; and (4) payment models which preserve surge and disaster response capacity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Liberal coercion? Prostitution, human trafficking and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seo-young

    2013-01-01

    Liberal prostitution policy aims at improving labour conditions for prostitutes and protecting victims of forced prostitution. Its policy orientation predicts that the policy choice of liberalizing prostitution is positively associated with better protection policy for trafficking victims and enhanced anti-trafficking measures. In this paper, I investigate empirically whether the legalization of prostitution improves protection policy for victims, as it is presumed. The results of my analysis...

  16. GOOD PRACTICES FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN FOOD POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena NICOLESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper, based on the coordinates of the problems triggered by the negative externalities chain generated by the poor food supply and production system at the level of the urban collectivities, carries out an analysis focused on the identification of the tools, mechanisms, and good practices needed to ensure the sustainability of the local policies on public nutrition. The experiences in the field show that the progress is remarkable in the case of collaborative administrations aimed at enhancing the cooperation and partnership relations, based on common interests, on both internal and international collaboration level, such as The Milan Urban Food Policy Pact (2015. From this perspective, the paper presents a case study, a significant experience of improving the food supply system of Bucharest population, through local public nutrition policy and the public action set implemented by Bucharest local authorities with the support of State public bodies and the representatives of civil society, materialized in the establishment of peasant markets as flea markets on the territory of Bucharest.

  17. Renewable energy policy for Rural Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldach, R.; Bates, J.; Derrick, A.; Syngellakis, K.; Gantulga, D.; Hasnie, S.; Enebish, N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a project, supported by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), which aims in part to strengthen renewable energy policy in Mongolia. The project activities focusing on policy development include compilation and summary of renewable energy projects carried out in Mongolia up to the present day, examination of experience of renewable energy power supply for remote areas in other countries, and how this can be applied to the situation in Mongolia, study of energy-related laws in Mongolia as well as in other countries and collaboration and discussions with the main stakeholders in renewable energy in Mongolia, including the Ministry of Infrastructure, the Fuel and Energy Authority, the Energy Regulatory Authority, and the Renewable Energy Corporation. The project will also carry out a workshop with national and international experts to discuss the key issues for the development of renewable energy for rural areas. A key result of the project will be the formulation of a Renewable Energy Action Plan for rural areas, based on the results of the foregoing research and the policy workshop. (authors)

  18. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor; Caba Heilbron, Fabian; Niebles, Juan Carlos; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates

  19. US-Africa Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...... AFRICOM and US actions in Africa could be seen as a true (newfound) American interest in Africa or whether actions that are considered low-key and low-budget in Washington are to be regarded as a true asymmetry because African states regard US action as important and significant. The paper will explain...

  20. Regional Peculiarities of Gender Policy in the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flura I. Khramtsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the state gender policy at the present stage in the Republic of Belarus is substantiated. The regional peculiarities of the implementation of the state program document «The National Plan of Action for Ensuring Gender Equality for 2017-2020» are disclosed. The experience of designing a regional plan for the implementation of the state gender policy of the Minsk City Executive Committee for 2017-2020 is shown on the example of the Academy of Management under the President of the Republic of Belarus. In the broad sense, gender policy is understood as one of the strategic directions of social policy. At the same time, gender policy is aimed at overcoming discrimination based on gender, gender asymmetry in the sphere of power relations, gender imbalance in the labor market, employment. Gender policy in the context of international legislative acts takes into account the national identity, the features of the political system, and the socio-economic development of a concrete state. With all existing differences, gender policy in its narrow meaning is a purposeful, dynamic, adaptive process of public administration, regulation, coordination, control in the sphere of gender relations on three bases: political doctrine; state ideology; program priorities and values of gender equality. The interdisciplinarity of gender policy integrates it with other areas of social policy. Thus, gender policy is implicit in goals, the content of state family policy, demographic, educational, youth, protection of maternity and childhood . Formation and implementation of gender policy is based on analysis, interpretation of statistical data (social policy directions, which are disaggregated by sex, in the dynamics of indicators. Based on the UN used methodology, taking into account the national specifics of the Belarusian society, has been created relevant gender statistics and it is developing as an information resource for decision-making. Gender

  1. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, W; Steg, L; Vlek, C; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage households to reduce energy consumption. Thirty-eight studies performed within the field of (applied) social and environmental psychology are reviewed, and categorized as involving either antecedent strategies

  2. Positive psychological interventions aimed at enhancing psychological ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni; Stemmet, Lehan; Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni

    2017-01-01

    Interventions aimed at the enhancement of positive organisational behaviours, within organisational contexts, are imperative for creating and sustaining a high-performance culture, where individual and organisational strengths are optimized and top-talent retained. Psychological ownership, one form

  3. Toolkit for local decision makers aims to strengthen environmental sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Members of the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas were involved in a meeting aimed at the development of a toolkit towards improved integration of climate change into local government's integrated development planning (IDP) process....

  4. AIM analysis, synthetic, kinetic and mechanistic investigations of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    analysis (NPA), atoms in molecules (AIM) methods and CHelpG keyword. ... obtained from studies of the effect of solvent, structure of reactions (different alkyl groups within the dialkyl ...... compounds) have provided useful evidence for steps 1.

  5. Americans aim to overhaul science teaching by 2061

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    Project 2061 is a long-term initiative by the AAAS to reform classroom science. Deputy director Walter Gillespie claims that the aim is for schools to teach less content but teach it better (1/2 page).

  6. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  7. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: A policy and economic comparative analysis for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Husid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to achieve an overall view of Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade in Canada, analyzing both the current situation and the actions and policies being implemented by several provinces to promote this subject. This study will be valuable to companies and governments to understand what has been done and to support strategic planning to invest and trade with Canada, especially for the Brazilian market.

  8. An european policy of the energy; Une politique europeenne de l'energie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    This report aims to precise the main dynamics which give structure to the public action in the domain of the energy in Europe. It shows: how the european initiatives which tend to integrate the different national policies, are poorly developed; a new european model of regulation to articulate the liberalization dynamic with the other objectives of national interest; scenari of global integration. (A.L.B.)

  9. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  10. Integrated planning aimed at sustainability city logistics solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Snežana R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of city logistics system is sustainability, or efficiency, wide acceptability, environmental protection and safety. On the other hand, the city logistics system is very complex. It is characterized by a large number of participants, with different, usually conflicting goals and complex interactions. In addition, the system of city logistics is part of a wider system of the town, the region, and there are complex interactions with the external environment. The system depends on the specific characteristics of the city, affects other forms of urban mobility and is subject to the policies of higher rank (regional, national policy. Given the exceptional complexity, sustainable city logistics solution requires an integrated approach in all phases of planning, from stages of problem identification, definition of alternative solutions and effects assessment, to implementation and by exploitation. In this way, the solution of city logistics is becoming widely accepted and not only affects the efficiency of the socio-economic system of town, already on the sustainability of the whole region.

  11. [Content analysis of food adverts aimed at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Blandón, José Antonio; Pabón-Carrasco, Manuel; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

    To determine the contents and persuasive techniques used in processed food adverts aimed at children in Andalusia, comparing them with those aimed at adults. Study based on advert content analysis with two phases: a descriptive design phase and an analytical observational design phase. A sample of adverts from 60hours of broadcasting from the two most watched television channels in Andalusia. A total of 416 food and non-alcoholic beverage adverts were obtained, for 91 different products. Approximately 42.9% (n=39) was aimed at children and 53.8% (n=49) were products classified as "unhealthy". Unhealthy foods were more common in adverts for children (p <0.001). Significant differences were found between the ads aimed at adults and those aimed at children. Emotional and irrational persuasive resources such as fantasy (p <0.001), cartoons (p <0.001) or offering gifts with the purchase of the product (p=0.003) were observed more frequently in adverts for children. Food advertising aimed at children in Andalusia is mainly based on offering products with a low nutritional value and using persuasive resources based on fantasy or gifts. The message is focused on the incentive and not the food. More effective measures than the current self-regulatory systems must be put in place to counter these distorted adverts. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Data Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  13. Givental action and trivialisation of circle action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsenko, V.; Shadrin, S.; Vallette, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the Givental group action on genus zero cohomological field theories, also known as formal Frobenius manifolds or hypercommutative algebras, naturally arises in the deformation theory of Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras. We prove that the Givental action is equal to an action

  14. Adoption of an information systems security policy in small and medium sized enterprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information Systems Security (ISS is a relevant fact for current organizations. This paper focuses on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs. This article aims to constitute an empirical study on the applicability of the Action Research (AR method in information systems, more specifically by assessing the adoption of an ISS policy in six SMEs, and identifying the critical success factors in adopting an ISS policy. The research question we intend to answer is to what extent this research method is adequate to reach the proposed goal. The results of the study suggest that AR is a promising means for the evaluation of ISS policies adoption. It can both act as a research method that improves the understanding about the reasons why the policy has been abandoned, and as a change method, assisting practitioners to overcome barriers and suggesting measures to be implemented.

  15. Beginning and Becoming: Hannah Arendt's Theory of Action and Action Research in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance and implications of Hannah Arendt's theory of action for action research. Using examples from my teaching experience I demonstrate the relevance of her ideas in understanding the purpose and aims of action research in the classroom.

  16. Environmental health action plan for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This Environmental Health Action Plan for Europe was endorsed by the second European Conference on Environment and Health, held in Helsinki, 20 to 22 June 1994. It sets out directions for the attainment of long term environment and health policy objectives define in the European Charter on Environment and Health. The Action Plan is primarily addressed at the public health and environmental protection sectors. 10 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Draft for a resolution of the Council of the European Communities on the continuation and implementation of a European Community policy and action programme on the environment (1987-1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-18

    With the agreement of the Governments of Member States to the amendments to the Treaty of Rome contained in the Single Act, the Community has given a new status and impetus to its environmental policy. The European Council has underlined that environmental protection can contribute to improved economic growth and job creation; and it has called, for the integration of environmental requirements into the economic, industrial, agricultural and social policies implemented by both the Community and its Member States. There is a wide and growing recognition that strict environmental standards are a necessity - not only in order to achieve an adequate degree of environmental protection and an improved quality of life, but also for economic reasons. As progress is made towards the completion of the Community's internal market by 1992, opportunities will grow in many areas and for many reasons - but only provided that high environmental standards are maintained. The Commission is convinced that better competitivity of Community industry on world markets in the future will depend heavily upon its ability to offer environmentally-friendly goods and services, achieving standards at least as high as its competitors and that an alliance between technological innovation and a commitment to high environmental standards can offer new opportunities through the development of new and growing markets for environmental protection technologies and techniques.

  18. The new challenges of the French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonnot, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Two themes are tackled the opening and the liberalization of the energy market in the European Community. The market opening aims to increase the security and the diversification of energy supply. The European Commission tends to introduce a real control of competition and to lay down a separation between producers and carriers. The keeping of public utility allows to protect the weakest consumers, including the small companies. If the economic development needs energy, this one is also one of the first causes of pollution so it is necessary to equilibrate the supply policy by action on demand. (N.C.)

  19. The Minimum Price Guarantee Policy before and after Real Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackelline Favro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the performance of the Minimum Price Guarantee Policy - MPGPin Brazil for the main agricultural products, during the 1980s and 1990s, and especially the post-Real Plan period. The research has a bibliographic and descriptive nature. The main results showed that the MPGP remains an important tool for ensuring income to farmers and the supply of selected crops in the analyzed period, but there was a reduction of public action for the new MPGP and new private instruments has revealed efficiency

  20. Wider action plan and multidisciplinar approach could be a wining idea in creation of friendly environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojkovic-Bukvic, Natasa; Bukvic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we proposed planning of wide transdisciplinary actions, which bring a solution for economic activity such as transportation, strongly related to pollution output with possible repercussions on climate change and public health. To solve logistics problem by introduction of common intermodal policy, and creation of more friendly transport solution, it is possible to obtain sustainable development, climate change prevention, government policy, and regulation which are all related to human health and creation of health-supportive environment. This approach permits environmental and biological monitoring same as economic results measurement by key performance indicators. This approach implementing emerging scientific knowledge in environmental health science such as genetic epidemiology aimed at understanding how genomic variation impacts phenotypic expression and how genes interact with the environment at the population level with subsequent translation into practical information for clinicians as well as for public health policy creation.

  1. Wider Action Plan and Multidisciplinary Approach Could Be a Wining Idea in Creation of Friendly Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gojkovic-Bukvic, N.; Gojkovic-Bukvic, N.; Bukvic, N.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we proposed planning of wide trans disciplinary actions, which bring a solution for economic activity such as transportation, strongly related to pollution output with possible repercussions on climate change and public health. To solve logistics problem by introduction of common inter modal policy, and creation of more friendly transport solution, it is possible to obtain sustainable development, climate change prevention, government policy, and regulation which are all related to human health and creation of health-supportive environment. This approach permits environmental and biological monitoring same as economic results measurement by key performance indicators. This approach implementing emerging scientific knowledge in environmental health science such as genetic epidemiology aimed at understanding how genomic variation impacts phenotypic expression and how genes interact with the environment at the population level with subsequent translation into practical information for clinicians as well as for public health policy creation

  2. Policy analysis for energy efficiency in the built environment in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yearwood Travezan, Jessica; Harmsen, Robert; Toledo, Gideon van

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency is considered one of the most cost effective ways to enhance security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. According to Europe's Energy Efficiency Plan, the biggest energy savings potential in the EU lies in the built environment. However, the many barriers to energy efficiency have prevented the implementation of the existing potential so far. This paper evaluates the existing policy instruments aimed at energy efficiency in buildings in Spain as laid down in the 2nd National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP). The results show that the current policy package is insufficient to yield the existing energy savings potential in this sector. As much of the savings potential can be found in existing buildings and realization of this potential very much relies on voluntary action, the renovation sector is in need of an appropriate financial framework that mobilizes sufficient public and private financial resources, and transparent and efficient mechanisms to ensure the return on investment and payments from those who benefit from the renovation. Such financial framework needs to be supported by a regulatory framework that is tuned to existing buildings and an organizational framework that effectively connects the different policy layers in Spain. - Highlights: • We evaluate Spain's policies for efficiency improvement in the built environment. • We show that the policy measures in the 2nd NEEAP are insufficient to realize the savings potential. • Especially, the policy package for existing buildings needs to be strengthened

  3. Review of policies and measures for energy efficiency in industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kanako

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industry plays key roles in improving energy security, environmental sustainability and economic performance. It is particularly important in strategies to mitigate climate change. The evidence of great potential for cost-effective efficiency-derived reductions in industrial energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have prompted governments to implement numerous policies and measures aimed at improving their manufacturing industries' energy efficiency. What can be learned from these many and varied initiatives? This paper provides foundation for policy analysis for enhancing energy efficiency and conservation in industry, by surveying more than 300 policies, encompassing about 570 measures, implemented by governments in IEA countries, Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. It outlines the measures' main features, their incidence of use, and their connections with specific technical actions and key stakeholders (i.e., how and where measures affect the energy efficiency of industry). It also examines the key features underlying the measures' success: (1) potential to reduce energy use and CO 2 emissions cost-efficiently; (2) ease of policy development, execution and assessment and (3) ancillary societal effects. - Highlights: → Provides foundation for policy analysis for energy efficiency in industry. → Surveys more than 300 policies and their trends, of mainly IEA countries. → Outlines measures' features, incidence of use, technical actions and stakeholders. → Examines the key features underlying the measures' success.

  4. Developing a policy game intervention to enhance collaboration in public health policymaking in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitters, H P E M; van Oers, J A M; Sandu, P; Lau, C J; Quanjel, M; Dulf, D; Chereches, R; van de Goor, L A M

    2017-12-19

    One of the key elements to enhance the uptake of evidence in public health policies is stimulating cross-sector collaboration. An intervention stimulating collaboration is a policy game. The aim of this study was to describe the design and methods of the development process of the policy game ‘In2Action’ within a real-life setting of public health policymaking networks in the Netherlands, Denmark and Romania. The development of the policy game intervention consisted of three phases, pre intervention, designing the game intervention and tailoring the intervention. In2Action was developed as a role-play game of one day, with main focus to develop in collaboration a cross-sector implementation plan based on the approved strategic local public health policy. This study introduced an innovative intervention for public health policymaking. It described the design and development of the generic frame of the In2Action game focusing on enhancing collaboration in local public health policymaking networks. By keeping the game generic, it became suitable for each of the three country cases with only minor changes. The generic frame of the game is expected to be generalizable for other European countries to stimulate interaction and collaboration in the policy process.

  5. Uncertainty in aiming movements and its association to hand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Priscila de Paiva Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the uncertainty of target location on the planning and execution of aiming movements performed towards the ipsilateral and contralateral directions by the right and left upper limbs. In addition, the association between the performance of aiming movements and the performance of functional manual tasks was investigated. Two tasks were proposed: with prior knowledge of the movement direction (simple reaction time or not (choice reaction time. The grip strength and manual dexterity were measured. The choice option in response (i.e. uncertainty influenced planning of the aiming movements, but not its execution, while movements performed towards the contralateral direction were worse in execution as compared to the ipsilateral direction. Manual dexterity was significantly correlated with reaction times, while the performance during movement execution was significantly correlated with handgrip/pinch strength.

  6. The subversion of Mill and the ultimate aim of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C

    2018-01-01

    This is lightly edited and referenced version of a presentation given at the 20th International Philosophy of Nursing conference in Quebec on 23rd August 2016. Philosophical texts are not given the same prominence in nurse education as their more valued younger sibling, primary research evidence, but they can influence practice through guidelines, codes and espoused values. John Stuart Mill's harm principle, found in On Liberty, is not a universal law, and only a thoroughgoing libertarian would defend it as such, though it, or its remnants, can be seen can be seen in policy documents. But its influence is weakening. Smoking bans in enclosed spaces were initially justified with other-regarding considerations, but judgements from unsuccessful legal challenges from patients in UK psychiatric hospitals rely on preventing harm to the smoker, even when smoking outside, which does not harm others. In the wake of legislation, no-smoking policies enacted by hospitals are becoming more aggressive, banning smoking both inside and outside, and extending the use of power gained through employment to prevent nurses assisting patients enjoy a lawful habit. Mill's dictum has been subverted, and this speaks to the fundamental purpose of nursing. Should nurses collude and willingly exert their power for their version of the good of the patient? Or should they instead reaffirm values that support and facilitate life choices made by autonomous people? The paper supports the latter option, and this has wider application for nursing which can be illuminated, if not settled, by revisiting Mill and his famous dictum. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. CONVERGENCE IN THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Iovitu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed a series of strategies that aim to limit the consequences of non-employment (due to the continuing crisis. These strategies aim by the objectives and mechanisms specific to the eco-social area, to improve the access to employment, social services, professional education and a more efficient European fund management. All this are subordinated to the coupling policy public-private in terms of partnerships both at a national level and European level. The problem is related to differences manifested between the social objectives at the national level and those imposed by the European context. The differences come from different degrees of economic development of the member states, economic development which is reflected on the living standards. The convergence between the social policies is based on the economic convergence, which represents the only way to ameliorate the discrepancies between the united nations of Europe. Social Europe dream or certainty? The answer can be found in the words of Jean Monnet: “we are not bringing together states, we are uniting people”. The efforts to define the four types of actions regarding the free movement of labor force and the correlation of the social security schemes, ensuring equal opportunities, respecting labor rights and the fight against discrimination can be found in the results obtained on these priorities.

  8. Neutral-beam aiming and calorimetry for MFTF-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldner, A.I.; Margolies, D.

    1981-01-01

    The vessel for the Tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will have up to eleven 0.5-s-duration neutral-beam injectors for the initial heating of the MFTF-B plasma. Knowing the exact alignment of the beams and their total power is critical to the performance of the experiment. Using prototype aiming and calorimetry systems on the High Voltage Test Stand (HVTS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we hope to prove our ability to obtain an aiming accuracy of +-1 cm at the plasma and a calorimetric accuracy of +-5% of the actual total beam energy

  9. S3T working group. Report 1: group aims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouey, M.

    1983-04-01

    The work group S3T which is aimed to designing and developing devices using unconventional holographic optics is presented. These devices find applications that are classified here in four items high resolution spectrometers, high definition imaging, high flux devices, metrology and interferometry. The problems to solve and the aims of the group in each of these cases are presented. Three synthesis of lectures are in this report. The main one concerns stigmatism conditions of concave holographic gratings used in normal incidence. This new process of focusing is very interesting for hot plasma diagnostics [fr

  10. US energy conservation and efficiency policies. Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert K.; Onysko, Ganna [Global Environment Facility, Climate Change and Chemicals, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); McGowan, Elizabeth; Scheer, Richard M. [Energetics Incorporated, 7067 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future. (author)

  11. US energy conservation and efficiency policies: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert K. [Global Environment Facility, Climate Change and Chemicals, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); McGowan, Elizabeth [Energetics Incorporated, 7067 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Onysko, Ganna, E-mail: gonysko@thegef.or [Global Environment Facility, Climate Change and Chemicals, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Scheer, Richard M. [Energetics Incorporated, 7067 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future.

  12. US energy conservation and efficiency policies: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Robert K.; McGowan, Elizabeth; Onysko, Ganna; Scheer, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future.

  13. Energy poverty policies in the EU: A critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Petrova, Saska; Sarlamanov, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Once confined to the UK context – where it was struggling to receive political recognition for years – the concept of energy (or fuel) poverty is slowly entering the EU's agenda, where it has crept into a number of regulatory documents and policy proposals. Using evidence gathered from an international workshop and semi-structured interviews with decision-makers, experts and advocacy activists in Brussels and Sofia, this paper explores the adoption of policies aimed at addressing energy poverty within (i) the organisational context of the EU; and (ii) national state institutions in Bulgaria – a member state facing considerable problems at the energy affordability – social inequality nexus. While the former are largely nascent and poorly co-ordinated, the latter have already been implemented de jure to a significant extent. However, many unresolved issues surrounding their de facto implementation remain. At the same time, national policy makers remain largely unaware of the existence of direct energy poverty related initiatives at the EU level. - Highlights: ► This paper explores the adoption of energy poverty policies within the EU and Bulgaria. ► We establish the existence of a range of nascent efforts to address the issue at EU level. ► Bulgaria has been good at implementing EU energy poverty relevant directives. ► However, policy makers speak a different language when it comes to direct energy poverty action.

  14. 7 CFR 1730.2 - RUS policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... whose operations and maintenance practices and records are satisfactory or to those who are taking corrective actions expected to make their operations and maintenance practices and records satisfactory to... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.2 RUS policy. It is RUS policy to require that...

  15. 12 CFR 1815.100 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.100 Policy. The Community Development Financial Institution Fund's policy is to ensure that environmental factors and concerns are given appropriate consideration in decisions and actions by the Fund and...

  16. 76 FR 54986 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Chapter I [NRC-2011-0209] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed enforcement policy revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is soliciting comments from interested...

  17. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  18. Energy policy in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidegaard, M.

    2012-12-15

    Denmark has a long tradition of active energy policy, initiated by the first oil crisis in 1973. Over the years, numerous actions have been taken on the basis of a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament - both in order to reduce the energy consumption and in order to increase the share of renewable energy. Now, the cornerstones for the Danish energy future have also been laid. The Danish Government has set the long-term goal to abandon fossil fuels by 2050. An important milestone was reached in March 2012 with an Energy Agreement for the period 2012-2020 - again based on a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament. This Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, bringing Denmark a good step closer to the target of 100% renewable energy. In the present publication, a selection of past and present Danish energy policies is presented, together with the results achieved in terms of energy savings, use of renewables etc. (LN)

  19. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  20. Refractive aim and visual outcome after phacoemulsification: A 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-24

    Mar 24, 2016 ... was met, 21 eyes (14.3%) did not meet their refractive aim, 20 eyes (12.7%) were ... countries, where blindness is associated with considerable ... and better, the total range of refractive errors postoperatively ... required intraocular lenses (IOL), medical record efficiency, ..... problem that can be alleviated.