WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy act source

  1. National Environmental Policy Act source guide for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansky, M.T.

    1998-09-30

    This Source Guide will assist those working with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 to become more familiar with the environmental assessments (EA) and environmental impact statements (EIS) that apply to specific activities and facilities on the Hanford Site. This document should help answer questions concerning NEPA coverage, history, processes, and the status of many of the buildings and units on and related to the Hanford Site. This document summarizes relevant EAs and EISs by briefly outlining the proposed action of each document and the decision made by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessor agencies, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The summary includes the proposed action alternatives and current status of the proposed action. If a decision officially was stated by the DOE, as in a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) or a record of decision (ROD), and the decision was located, a summary is provided. Not all federal decisions, such as FONSIs and RODS, can be found in the Federal Register (FR). For example, although significant large-action FONSIs can be found in the FR, some low-interest FONSIs might have been published elsewhere (i.e., local newspapers).

  2. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Source Guide for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-09-01

    This Source Guide will assist those working with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 to become more familiar with the environmental assessments (EA) and environmental impact statements (EIS) that apply to specific activities and facilities on the Hanford Site. This document should help answer questions concerning NEPA coverage, history, processes, and the status of many of the buildings and units on and related to the Hanford Site. This document summarizes relevant EAs and EISs by briefly outlining the proposed action of each document and the decision made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessor agencies, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The summary includes the proposed action alternatives and current status of the proposed action. If a decision officially was stated by the DOE, as in a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) or a record of decision (ROD), and the decision was located, a summary is provided. Not all federal decisions, such as FONSIs and RODs, can be found in the Federal Register (FR). For example, although significant large-action FONSIs can be found in the FR, some low-interest FONSIs might have been published elsewhere (i.e., local newspapers).

  3. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  4. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  5. A Study on the preparation of environmental act system in Korea II - concentrated on the preparation of environmental policy fundamental act, protection of water supply source, and greenbelt area act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is to propose to reform environmental policy fundamental act and land related act into future-oriented direction. First of all, the environmental policy fundamental act presented the direction of reforming water supply, national parks, and greenbelt related acts in environmental preservation perspective. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  6. Energy policy act 2005 of the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzi, Graziella

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act 2005 has ended a long energy policy debate in the United States. The new energy legislation aims to assure a stable energy supply and will impact on the structure of the electric sector and the supply of fuels. The paper assesses that while the implications on the electric sector are going to be substantial, those concerning the supply of fuels are expected to bring no significant changes in the present mix of fuels [it

  7. New US energy policy act in force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2005-01-01

    The United States of America is accused by politicians of the German Red-Green federal government, but also by the EU, of not caring enough about climate protection. This allegation is fueled, above all, by the refusal of the United States to sign the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Climate Framework Convention of 1997. However, the US is not idle in this respect. In late July, the United States together with China, India, Japan, South Korea and Australia agreed on an Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate. Almost at the same time, on July 29, 2005, after more than five years of debate, the US Congress adopted new energy legislation (A Bill to Ensure Jobs for the Future with Secure and Reliable Energy - the Energy Policy Act of 2005). The holistic aspect in this piece of US legislation covers nearly the whole field of energy policy. The Act encompasses these areas: - energy efficiency, - renewable energies, - oil and natural gas, - clean coal, - nuclear power, - vehicles and fuels, - hydrogen, - electricity, - research and development. With its new Energy Policy Act, the United States has paved the way politically for making energy supply in the world's largest industrialized national securer and safer on a technical basis and less pollutant for the environment and the climate. (orig.)

  8. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.2 General policies—Privacy Act. The Commission will protect the...

  9. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  10. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  11. The implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The general conclusions are that the Act is a good one, although not perfect, and that it can be implemented on schedule if there can be better interaction between the Federal, State and Tribal entities with less resort to time consuming litigation. A review is made of the progress to date as it appears to the U.S. DOE

  12. A utility's perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act is especially important to utilities because their customers pay for the disposal program, and the program is vital to nuclear operations and reconsideration of the nuclear option. DOE's accomplishments in implementing the Act are noteworthy, but we are concerned that some of them have been achieved later than specified by the schedule in the Act. We make recommendations regarding disposal fees, defense wastes, and shipping casks. Virginia Power has adopted a three-part strategy relying mainly on developing dry cask storage to solve the company's interim storage problems

  13. 77 FR 13137 - Draft Policy on Consultation with Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Claims Settlement Act Corporations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior ACTION: Notice of... draft policy on consultation with Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act corporations. DATES: Submit... consultation policy also applies to corporations established under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act...

  14. A state perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the problems he sees with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) program. He labels the problems as: against the law, all the eggs in one basket, acceptance rate, and the MRS program. The author comments of five issues that need to be addressed to right the wrongs of the NWPA program

  15. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide, Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report contains a comprehensive National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide for the Sandia National Laboratories. It is based on the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations in 40 CFR Parts 1500 through 1508; the US Department of Energy (DOE) N-EPA implementing procedures in 10 CFR Part 102 1; DOE Order 5440.1E; the DOE ``Secretarial Policy Statement on the National Environmental Policy Act`` of June 1994- Sandia NEPA compliance procedures-, and other CEQ and DOE guidance. The Guide includes step-by-step procedures for preparation of Environmental Checklists/Action Descriptions Memoranda (ECL/ADMs), Environmental Assessments (EAs), and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs). It also includes sections on ``Dealing With NEPA Documentation Problems`` and ``Special N-EPA Compliance Issues.``

  16. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended with appropriations acts appended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, to establish a program of research, development and demonstration regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Titles 1 and 2 cover these subjects. Also included in this Act are: Title 3: Other provisions relating to radioactive waste; Title 4: Nuclear waste negotiation; Title 5: Nuclear waste technical review board; and Title 6: High-level radioactive waste. An appendix contains excerpts from appropriations acts from fiscal year 1984--1994

  17. National Environmental Policy Act guidance: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle, B.M.; Lockhart, V.A.T.; Sema, B.; Tuott, L.C.; Irving, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    The ''Model National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Process'' includes: References to regulations, guidance documents, and plans; training programs; procedures; and computer databases. Legislative Acts and reference documents from Congress, US Department of Energy, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company provide the bases for conducting NEPA at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) NEPA / Permitting Department, the Contractor Environmental Organization (CEO) is responsible for developing and maintaining LITCO NEPA and permitting policies, guidance, and procedures. The CEO develops procedures to conduct environmental evaluations based on NEPA, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidance. This procedure includes preparation or support of environmental checklists, categorical exclusion determinations, environmental assessment determinations, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements. In addition, the CEO uses this information to train personnel conducting environmental evaluations at the INEL. Streamlining these procedures fosters efficient use of resources, quality documents, and better decisions on proposed actions

  18. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  19. Assessed Clean Water Act 305(b) Water Sources of Impairment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Identifies the sources of impairment for assessed waters under the Clean Water Act 305(b) program. This view can be used for viewing the details at the assessment...

  20. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  1. Local policies for DSM: the UK's home energy conservation act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.; Leach, M.

    2000-01-01

    Residential energy use accounts for approximately 28 per cent of total primary energy use in the UK, with consumption in this sector forecast to increase due partly to expanding numbers of households. Finding ways to reduce residential energy consumption must form a key part of the climate change strategies of the UK and all developed countries. In 1995, an innovative piece of legislation was passed in the UK, devolving residential energy efficiency responsibility to local government. Under 'The Home Energy Conservation Act' (HECA), local authorities are obliged to consider the energy efficiency of private as well as public housing stock. Authorities were given a duty to produce a strategy for improving residential energy efficiency in their area by 30 per cent in the next 10-15 years. This paper describes the enormous variation in the quality of local authorities' strategies and discusses reasons for this variation. Based on a nationwide survey of HECA lead officers, it considers the opportunities and constraints facing local authorities, and what has been achieved to-date under the Act. It also examines how HECA fits into the UK's national energy policy and explains the roles of other institutions across the public, private and voluntary sector in facilitating implementation of the Act. Finally, the paper considers how other countries can learn from the UK's HECA experience and can use the Act as a template to apply the principle of subsidiarity to this area of environmental policy. (Author)

  2. 76 FR 39443 - National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-058)] National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION... Laboratory (SSFL), Ventura County, California. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act...

  3. 77 FR 11564 - Draft Policy on Consultation With Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Claims Settlement Act Corporations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... draft policy on consultation with Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act corporations. DATES: Submit...-199, this consultation policy also applies to corporations established under the Alaska Native Claims...

  4. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  5. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  6. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  7. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  8. 45 CFR 2508.3 - What is the Corporation's Privacy Act policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Corporation's Privacy Act policy? 2508... NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 2508.3 What is the Corporation's Privacy Act policy? It is the policy of the Corporation to protect, preserve, and defend the right of...

  9. Comparing Clean Water Act Section 316(b Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kadvany

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a comparative framework for policy proposals involving fish protection and Section 316(b of the Clean Water Act (CWA. Section 316(b addresses the impingement and entrainment of fish by cooling-water intake structures used principally by steam electric power plants. The framework is motivated by examining the role of adverse environmental impacts (AEIs in the context of Section 316(b decision making. AEI is mentioned in Section 316(b, but not defined. While various AEI options have been proposed over the years, none has been formalized through environmental regulations nor universally accepted. Using a multiple values approach from decision analysis, AEIs are characterized as measurement criteria for ecological impacts. Criteria for evaluating AEI options are identified, including modeling and assessment issues, the characterization of ecological value, regulatory implementation, and the treatment of uncertainty. Motivated by the difficulties in defining AEI once and for all, a framework is introduced to compare options for 316(b decision making. Three simplified policy options are considered, each with a different implicit or explicit AEI approach: (1 a technology-driven rule based on a strict reading of the 316(b regulatory text, and for which any impingement and entrainment count as AEI, (2 a complementary, open-ended risk-assessment process for estimating population effects with AEI characterized on a site-specific basis, and (3 an intermediate position based on proxy measures such as specially constructed definitions of littoral zone, sensitive habitat, or water body type. The first two proposals correspond roughly to responses provided, respectively, by the Riverkeeper environmental organization and the Utility Water Act Group to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA’s proposed 316(b new facilities rule of August 2000; the third example is a simplified form of the EPA’s proposed August 2000 new facilities

  10. Secondary Containment for Underground Storage Tank Systems - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    These grant guidelines implement the secondary containment provision in Section 9003(i)(1) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  11. Women's policy networks and the Infanticide Act 1922.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Daniel J R

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the reason for the passage of the 1922 Infanticide Act, arguing that it owes much to the influence and work of women's policy networks. Historians have disagreed as to why the Act was passed with relative suddenness in the early 1920s, at a time when infanticide was generally considered a much less pressing social issue than it had been in Victorian England. Moreover, several Bills brought between 1908 and 1913 proposing that the law on this subject be amended so that women who killed their newborns no longer faced the death penalty had all failed. Importantly, the roles of juror and lay magistrate had become open to women in 1920, following the passage of the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919. The public interest generated by a case of newborn murder tried at the Leicester Assizes in 1921 (particularly amongst women's organizations, including the suffragette group the Women's Freedom League) led several leading women with political connections to push for a change in the law. Without the pressure these women could bring to bear on civil servants and politicians, attempts to bring in new legislation on infanticide would have been postponed well into the twentieth century.

  12. Insurers' policies on coverage for behavior management services and the impact of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Burton L

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on dental insurance coverage for behavior management services depends upon the child's source of insurance (Medicaid, CHIP, private commercial) and the policies that govern each such source. This contribution describes historical and projected sources of pediatric dental coverage, catalogues the seven behavior codes used by dentists, compares how often they are billed by pediatric and general dentists, assesses payment policies and practices for behavioral services across coverage sources, and describes how ACA coverage policies may impact each source. Differences between Congressional intent to ensure comprehensive oral health services with meaningful consumer protections for all legal-resident children and regulatory action by the Departments of Treasury and Health and Human Services are explored to explain how regulations fail to meet Congressional intent as of 2014. The ACA may additionally impact pediatric dentistry practice, including dentists' behavior management services, by expanding pediatric dental training and safety net delivery sites and by stimulating the evolution of novel payment and delivery systems designed to move provider incentives away from procedure-based payments and toward health outcome-based payments.

  13. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 3, The Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This teachers guide is unit 3, the nuclear waste policy act, in a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear power plants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  14. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 3, The Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the 3rd unit, (The Nuclear Waste Policy Act) a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear powerplants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  15. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  16. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6

  17. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2013-11-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  18. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Boyd D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schafer, Annette L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  19. 77 FR 9964 - Availability of the Reclamation National Environmental Policy Act Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Availability of the Reclamation National Environmental Policy Act Handbook AGENCY... announcing the availability of its updated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Handbook. This handbook... for existing laws, regulations, policies, and other guidance. It is a guidance document, and as such...

  20. State perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of the National Nuclear Policy Act of 1982 on the selection of a location of this nation's first repository for nuclear wastes is discussed. The importance of public understanding of the relationship between the Federal negotiating team, the State of Washington, and the Department of Energy in the selection of a site for the repository in Washington State is stressed. It is pointed out that the preparation and conclusion of the environmental assessment is of great importance to the states since it will provide a basis for further selections of repository sites. The importance of the consultation and cooperation agreement called for in the Act in the negotiation process between representatives of the State of Washington and the US DOE in forging a C and C document that sets forth clear ground rules as to how the repository examination program is to be carried out is emphasized. It is pointed out that the present investigation of the Hanford site must serve as a model for the development of a site for a repository of radioactive wastes and also for public information programs that result in an educated public and eliminate unfounded fears of health hazards from stored wastes

  1. IntAct: an open source molecular interaction database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermjakob, Henning; Montecchi-Palazzi, Luisa; Lewington, Chris; Mudali, Sugath; Kerrien, Samuel; Orchard, Sandra; Vingron, Martin; Roechert, Bernd; Roepstorff, Peter; Valencia, Alfonso; Margalit, Hanah; Armstrong, John; Bairoch, Amos; Cesareni, Gianni; Sherman, David; Apweiler, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    IntAct provides an open source database and toolkit for the storage, presentation and analysis of protein interactions. The web interface provides both textual and graphical representations of protein interactions, and allows exploring interaction networks in the context of the GO annotations of the interacting proteins. A web service allows direct computational access to retrieve interaction networks in XML format. IntAct currently contains approximately 2200 binary and complex interactions imported from the literature and curated in collaboration with the Swiss-Prot team, making intensive use of controlled vocabularies to ensure data consistency. All IntAct software, data and controlled vocabularies are available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact.

  2. Annotated bibliography National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    The following annotated bibliography lists documents prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE), and predecessor agencies, to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for activities and facilities at Sandia National Laboratories sites. For each NEPA document summary information and a brief discussion of content is provided. This information may be used to reduce the amount of time or cost associated with NEPA compliance for future Sandia National Laboratories projects. This summary may be used to identify model documents, documents to use as sources of information, or documents from which to tier additional NEPA documents

  3. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  4. Urban stormwater source control policies: why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, G.; Deroubaix, J.-F.; Tassin, B.

    2014-09-01

    Stormwater source control is becoming a common strategy for urban stormwater management in many countries. It relies on regulations or other policy instruments compelling or inciting implementation, for each new urban development, of small-scale facilities to locally store and manage stormwater. Local authorities that pioneered source control since the 1980s have already observed that small-scale facilities systematically implemented over a catchment are able to influence its hydrological behaviour. This capability is the main strength of source control, as it allows compensation for the negative effects of urbanization. Yet, it also represents its main risk: if initial decision-making is not sufficiently accurate, source control can produce long-term negative effects. Because of its current spreading, source control will acquire an increasing role as a driver of hydrological changes in urban catchments, and the directions of these changes depend on current policy-making practices. This paper presents an analysis and a critical discussion of the main objectives that policy-makers attribute to stormwater source control. The investigation is based on a sample of French case studies, completed by a literature review for international comparison. It identifies four main objectives, some typical of urban stormwater management and some more innovative: flood reduction, receiving waters protection, sustainable development, costs reduction. The discussion focuses on how current policy-making practices are able to translate these objectives in concrete policy instruments, and on which knowledge and tools could improve this process. It is shown that for some objectives, basic knowledge is available, but the creation of policy instruments which are effective at the catchment scale and adapted to local conditions is still problematic. For other objectives, substantial lacks of knowledge exist, casting doubts on long-term effectiveness of current policy instruments. Research

  5. Urban stormwater source control policies: why and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Petrucci

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater source control is becoming a common strategy for urban stormwater management in many countries. It relies on regulations or other policy instruments compelling or inciting implementation, for each new urban development, of small-scale facilities to locally store and manage stormwater. Local authorities that pioneered source control since the 1980s have already observed that small-scale facilities systematically implemented over a catchment are able to influence its hydrological behaviour. This capability is the main strength of source control, as it allows compensation for the negative effects of urbanization. Yet, it also represents its main risk: if initial decision-making is not sufficiently accurate, source control can produce long-term negative effects. Because of its current spreading, source control will acquire an increasing role as a driver of hydrological changes in urban catchments, and the directions of these changes depend on current policy-making practices. This paper presents an analysis and a critical discussion of the main objectives that policy-makers attribute to stormwater source control. The investigation is based on a sample of French case studies, completed by a literature review for international comparison. It identifies four main objectives, some typical of urban stormwater management and some more innovative: flood reduction, receiving waters protection, sustainable development, costs reduction. The discussion focuses on how current policy-making practices are able to translate these objectives in concrete policy instruments, and on which knowledge and tools could improve this process. It is shown that for some objectives, basic knowledge is available, but the creation of policy instruments which are effective at the catchment scale and adapted to local conditions is still problematic. For other objectives, substantial lacks of knowledge exist, casting doubts on long-term effectiveness of current policy

  6. The use of social science knowledge in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the use of social science knowledge by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), a division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The use of social science is examined both generally and in relation to a body of knowledge most relevant to the program, the social science risk literature. The study is restricted to the use by headquarters staff in relation to the largest repository and Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) projects. The literature on knowledge utilization and the Sabatier framework on knowledge use and policy learning provide the theoretical framework for the study. The research adopts a multistrategy approach, collecting data from two sources: (1) program documents, policy guidance, and meeting records; and (2) interviews with OCRWM officials. The constructs knowledge and use are conceptualized in different ways, each of which forms the basis for a different analytic approach. The research findings showed a very limited use of social science, more especially by the first repository program. Two reasons are advanced. First, the agency has viewed social science knowledge through technical lens and has applied an approach suited to technical problems to its structuring of waste management policy problems. Second, the degree of societal conflict over nuclear power and nuclear waste has prevented a constructive dialogue among the parties and thus reduced the possibility of policy learning

  7. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  8. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts

  9. Cultivating public involvement: Going beyond the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, J.B.; Gleason, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Congress, recognizing that States, Indian tribes, and local governments have a unique and vested interest in the siting of high-level radioactive waste facilities, gave these parties special rights to participate in this country's high-level radioactive waste management program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as amended. However, as the program progresses, it has become increasingly clear that, in addition to these affected parties, many other groups and individuals are interested in what happens to the radioactive waste generated by commercial nuclear reactors and defense-related facilities. In an effort to address the interests of these other groups and individuals, the US DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is expanding its public involvement activities by inviting representatives from a wider range of organizations to join in a dialogue on issues related to high-level waste disposal. Why are we doing this? Because we believe that involving more people in the program will increase understanding of the critical importance of finding a safe and environmentally responsible way to deal with nuclear waste. Furthermore, thoughtful exchanges with the public will increase our awareness of how this program may affect others. Ultimately, our goal is to help build public trust and confidence in the Federal Government's ability to accomplish its mission and in the fairness and competence of the decisionmaking process. This paper explains the rationale and objectives for OCRWM's expanded public involvement efforts; describes the process used to identify and solicit the involvement of additional parties; highlights interactions with several groups contacted to date; and reports on the early results of these consultations

  10. Implementing section 1332, Energy Policy Act of 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, T.

    1993-01-01

    Sections 1332 Clean Coal Technology, and 1608 Environmental Technology of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) describe two technology Transfer Programs for creating jobs and reducing the trade deficit for the US, through providing financial assistance for projects to improve energy efficiency and reduce environmental emissions including open-quotes Greenhouse Gases.close quotes These projects are to be located in countries which are supported by the Agency for International Development (AID) or in countries with an economy in transition from a non-market to a market economy. The legislation requires a very similar approach for the two programs. Working with AID the DOE is to: (1) complete in 150 days an agreement with the appropriate US agencies for conducting the program in the host countries; (2) issue in 240 days a list of potential projects; (3) within one year issue a solicitation and (4) within 120 days after receipt of proposals make selection. In addition, the programs are to develop a procedure for providing financial assistance to projects applying for solicitations in other countries. After an initial consultation with US Treasury, Export-Import Bank, Overseas Private Investment Corp. (OPIC), and AID concerning Organization for Economic Cooperative Development rules for export credits, and the most appropriate means of financing projects under the Transfer Programs, it became apparent that, in addition to providing financing for projects through DOE programs, a more efficient, economical and prudent approach to implementing a transfer program would involve the financing of projects through organizations already experienced in the development of overseas investments. The program approach for implementation of these technology transfer programs is discussed

  11. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  14. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  15. Spread of anti-malarial drug resistance: Mathematical model with implications for ACT drug policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dondorp Arjen M

    2008-11-01

    mismatched half-lives, together with reducing malaria transmission through vector control measures. Conclusion This paper has demonstrated the use of a comprehensive mathematical model to describe malaria transmission and the spread of drug resistance. The model is strongly linked to the empirical evidence obtained from extensive data available from various sources. This model can be a useful tool to inform the design of treatment policies, particularly at a time when ACT has been endorsed by WHO as first-line treatment for falciparum malaria worldwide.

  16. Energy Alert 78-1, National Energy Act: A Special Report on the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This Energy Alert deals specifically with Public Law 95-619, the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 (NECPA). Title III, Part 1 of NECPA authorizes $900 million over a three-year period for grants to schools and hospitals for energy audits, technical assistance and energy conservation projects. This publication attempts to inform…

  17. Energy Policy Act of 1992 : limited progress in acquiring alternative fuel vehicles and reaching fuel goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Since the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, some, albeit limited, progress has been made in acquiring alternative fuel vehicles and reducing the consumption of petroleum fuels in transportation. DOE estimates about 1 million alternative fuel ...

  18. 75 FR 66800 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration... Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Shoreline Restoration and Infrastructure Protection Program (SRIPP). SUMMARY... shoreline and the infrastructure behind it. Alternative One, NASA's preferred alternative, would include...

  19. 75 FR 8997 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration... Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Shoreline Restoration and Infrastructure Protection Program (SRIPP). SUMMARY... from the Wallops Island shoreline and the infrastructure behind it. Alternative One, NASA's preferred...

  20. The endangered species act: science, policy, and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Michael J

    2009-04-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is one of the nation's most significant and most controversial environmental laws. Over three-and-a-half decades, it has profoundly influenced both private and federal agency behavior. As the scope of that influence has come to be recognized, a law that is ostensibly to be guided by science has inevitably become entangled in politics. The generality of many of the law's key provisions has produced continuing uncertainty and conflict over some basic issues. Among these are what species or other taxa are potentially subject to the Act's protections, what the extent of those protections is, and whether the Act's ultimate goal of recovery is one that is being effectively achieved. New challenges face the administrators of this law, including that of incorporating climate change considerations into the decisions made under the Act, and responding to the information made available by recent advances in genetics. This paper provides a brief overview of the Endangered Species Act's history and its key provisions, and a more in-depth look at some of the current and recurrent controversies that have attended its implementation.

  1. Local/regional policies: Acting globally by thinking locally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillsman, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from present levels will require changes in local and regional decision making as well as decisions made at national and multinational scales. A number of cities and states have taken action to reduce emissions either directly or as a byproduct of solving local problems such as air quality. These initiatives represent a potential resource to be mobilized in national policy. A series of case studies is under way to understand the decision making involved and its implications, and to identify ways that national policy might support and benefit from local efforts. Preliminary results from the first of these case studies indicate that reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may be greater when set as a direct target than when resulting as a byproduct of other local problem solving

  2. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, with appropriations acts appended. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This act provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, low-level radioactive wastes, and spent nuclear fuels. In addition, it establishes research and development programs, as well as demonstration programs regarding the disposal of these wastes. This Act consists of the Act of Jan. 7, 1983 (Public Law 97-425; 96 Stat. 2201), as amended by Public Law 100-203 and Public Law 102-486

  3. National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Public Law 95-619, 95th Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This publication is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619). The purposes of this act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy in the United States, and to conserve nonrenewable energy resources produced in this nation and elsewhere, without inhibiting beneficial economic…

  4. 76 FR 44462 - Statement of General Policy or Interpretation; Commentary on the Fair Credit Reporting Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... General Policy or Interpretations Under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (``FCRA''). Recent legislation transferred authority to issue interpretive guidance under the FCRA to the Consumer Financial Protection... on the Fair Credit Reporting Act AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; rescission of...

  5. Non-biomedical sources for systematic reviews of pharmaceutical policy

    OpenAIRE

    Greyson, Devon

    2010-01-01

    It has been well documented that reaching beyond MEDLINE into a diversity of databases enhances search results, but a chronic question in comprehensive and systematic searching is how far, and where, to search. When published in business or economics sources, articles focusing on cost outcomes of health and health policy interventions may not be indexed in the biomedical databases that are traditionally consulted for clinical systematic reviews. This dual case study explores and documents ...

  6. P.L. 102-486, "Energy Policy Act" (1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-13

    Amends the Energy Conservation and Production Act to set a deadline by which each State must certify to the Secretary of Energy whether its energy efficiency standards with respect to residential and commercial building codes meet or exceed those of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) Model Energy Code, 1992, and of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, respectively.

  7. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    Family and Medical Leave Inclusion Act (S. 846, S. 857, and H.R. 1751) would allow an employee to take FMLA leave to care for an adult child, sibling...Industries with below-average percentages of employees who may have been eligible for leave were Wholesale and Retail Trade (53.1%), Professional and...10,804 4,298 100.0% 71.5% 28.5% 10.6% 13.5% 6.9% Wholesale and retail trade 20,413 10,835 9,577 100.0% 53.1% 46.9% 14.3% 13.5% 15.4% Transportation and

  8. 78 FR 55762 - National Environmental Policy Act; Mars 2020 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... power and temperature control while on the surface of Mars. Some science instruments may require the use... requesting to receive a hard copy of the Mars 2020 Draft EIS should also provide a valid US Postal Service... radioisotope power source (MMRTG) using plutonium-238. This single MMRTG would provide adequate power to...

  9. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  11. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  12. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba E. Gámez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  13. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  14. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  15. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, T.A.

    1998-08-01

    This report on National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) chronicles past and current compliance activities and includes a recommended strategy that can be implemented for continued improvement. This report provides a list of important references. Attachment 1 contains the table of contents for SAND95-1648, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide Sandia National Laboratories (Hansen, 1995). Attachment 2 contains a list of published environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) prepared by SNL/NM. Attachment 3 contains abstracts of NEPA compliance papers authored by SNL/NM and its contractors

  16. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the eleventh revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the 12th revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA; SEPA and CERCLA documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomic; occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100,200,300, and other Areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6.0, which describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. People preparing environmental assessments and EISs should also be cognizant of the document entitled ''Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact

  17. 77 FR 3102 - Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Definitions Authority: The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (51 U.S.C. 20101 et seq... policies and procedures for the early integration of environmental considerations into planning and... Applicability. This subpart applies to all organizational elements of NASA. Sec. 1216.302 Responsibilities. (a...

  18. Environmental and social risks: defensive National Environmental Policy Act in the US Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Mortimer; Marc J. Stern; Robert W. Malmsheimer; Dale J. Blahna; Lee K. Cerveny; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and its accompanying regulations provide a spectrum of alternative analytical pathways for federal agencies proposing major actions that might significantly impact the human environment. Although guidance from the President's council on Environmental Quality suggests the decision to develop an environmental impact...

  19. P.L. 94-163, "Energy Policy and Conservation Act" (EPCA) (1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-13

    Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Bill Summary & Status 94th Congress. Issue orders prohibiting power plants and major fuel burning installations from using natural gas or petroleum products as fuel if they had been capable on June 22, 1974, of burning coal.

  20. The ACT and SAT: No Longer Just College Admission Tests. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Jenny; Lord, Joan

    2014-01-01

    This brief report offers analysis of ACT and SAT results from 2008 to 2013 in the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) region. The brief focuses on the increase in test participation rates and points to policies that SREB states initiated that affected these rates. Five SREB states currently require 100 percent student participation on the…

  1. 75 FR 12496 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ...; DOC National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Questionnaire and Checklist AGENCY: Office of the...., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected]doc.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for... Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected]doc.gov ). SUPPLEMENTARY...

  2. The Quality Teacher and Education Act in San Francisco: Lessons Learned. Policy Brief 09-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Heather J.

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief reviews the recent experience of the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) with the development and approval of Proposition A. Proposition A (also known as the Quality Teacher and Education Act, or QTEA) included a parcel tax mainly dedicated to increasing teachers' salaries, along with a variety of measures introducing…

  3. Exploring National Environmental Policy Act processes across federal land management agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer

    2009-01-01

    Broad discretion is granted at all levels throughout federal land management agencies regarding compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). We explored the diversity of procedures employed in NEPA processes across four agencies, the USDA Forest Service, The USDI National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  4. A review of policy acts and initiatives in plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of policy acts and initiatives in plantain and banana innovation system in Nigeria. ... research institutes, both of which has developed many technologies aimed at improving the production of the crop and removing constraints posed by pest and diseases, marketing opportunities and perishability. Despite these ...

  5. A Policy Analysis of the Refugee Act 130 of 1998 | Kleinsmidt | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides a policy analysis of the Refugee Act 130 of 1998, focusing specifi cally on formulation and implementation. The South African legislation on refugees is located within the context of the principles of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), the New Economic ...

  6. Technologies and policies for "hard to scrub" emissions sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    The science of climate change yields harsh math regarding atmospheric accumulations of GHGs. The world is far from target trajectories for 2C or 1.5C, and the global carbon budget is severe. To achieve those targets requires two things. First, we must field technologies that reduce emissions from the "hard to scrub" parts of the US and global economies, such as heavy industry (cement and steel), aviation, ocean shipping, and household cooking and heating. Second, we will likely need negative emissions pathways for those sources that prove extremely difficult to remove or reduce - the climate equivalent of adding revenue to one's budget. Such pathways may well need to convert GHG emissions (especially CO2 and methane) into useful products with minimal infrastructure builds. Dramatic advances in advanced manufacturing, 3D printing, simulation, modeling, and data analytics have made possible solutions which were previously unthinkable or impossible. This include "bespoke reactors", which can simultaneously perform separations and conversions; low-cost modular chemical systems of any scale; biologically inspired or biologically mediated energy services; direct air carbon-capture systems; and electrochemical pathways for emissions reduction and conversion. However, these approaches are unlikely to be fielded without policy actions or reforms that support such systems in competitive global energy markets. Such policy measures do NOT require a carbon price. Rather, they could include individual or combined measures such as emission or performance standards, financial incentives (like tax credits or low-cost access to capital), border adjustable tariffs, creation of CO2 utilities, ands public good surcharges. Innovation in both technical and policy arenas are needed to achieve the goals of the Paris agreement signatories, and these innovations can be simultaneously configured to deliver substantive greenhouse gas mitigation.

  7. The Potential Sources of Change in Romania Regional Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous debates on a new territorial organization of Romania during 2013 and 2014. The miracle of Romania regionalization was deemed to have contradictory effects from territorial construction to dissolution. Due to the presidential elections from the end of 2014, the process of regionalization was postponed, but some questions are still very alive: It is necessary to regroup counties into regions? The low development of Romania regions is caused by the lack of administrative decentralization? In Romania, territorial reform is synonym with institutional reform? Therefore, I consider that it is important to identify the potential sources of change in Romanian regional policy. The political debates on Romanian regionalization were mainly focus on political interests, without taking into account an important serious of factors that can spur growth and socio-economic development across our regions. Through this paper I try to investigate the specialised literature in order to identify some useful policy suggestions from regional scientists, which would be proper for Romania regional development, in the current context of Europe 2020 strategy.

  8. Malicious acts involving radioactive sources: prevention and preparedness for response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The increasing concern over the malevolent use of radioactive sources and radiological terrorism demands strengthening the preparedness for response to radiological emergencies. In spite of various security measures adopted internationally, availability of orphan sources cannot be completely ruled out. The trends in terrorism also indicates the possibility of various means which may be adopted by terrorists especially if they are aware of the challenges of radioactive contamination in public domain and the capability of 'denial of area' and the fear factor which can be injected during such radiological emergencies. It is to be well understood that whatever measures are taken by some countries in preventing the sources from getting stolen or smuggled in/out of their country are not adequate to eliminate radiological terrorism in a global level unless all nations collectively address and ensure the security of radioactive sources, hence preventing the generation of any orphan sources. While preparedness for response to various radiological emergency scenario have many common factors, the challenges involved in responding to radiological terrorism involves understanding the fear factor due to the presence of radioactive contamination after the blast and thermal effects on the victims and issues like handling of contaminated and seriously injured persons, restriction on the movement of responders and forensic teams in a contaminated field etc. Hence an understanding and anticipation of all possible means of radiological terrorism is very essential to prevent and to reduce the consequences. There are many deterrents, which are to be developed and maintained by all nations collectively which should include intelligence, wide usage of radiation monitors by customs, police and other security agencies, installation of state of the art high sensitive radiation monitors and systems etc to prevent and deter stealing and illicit trafficking of radioactive sources

  9. 78 FR 19261 - Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... principle source of drinking water for the citizens of Bainbridge Island and that this aquifer system, if... designation. II. Basis for Determination EPA defines a sole or principle source aquifer as an aquifer or... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation...

  10. 75 FR 29569 - Recovery Policy RP9526.1, Hazard Mitigation Funding Under Section 406 (Stafford Act)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ...] Recovery Policy RP9526.1, Hazard Mitigation Funding Under Section 406 (Stafford Act) AGENCY: Federal... the final Recovery Policy RP9526.1, Hazard Mitigation Funding Under Section 406 (Stafford Act), which... mitigation discretionary funding available under Section 406 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and...

  11. Political insights on implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the options available for implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982. The author concludes that the federal and state governments must cooperate because this is a political problem. Two sites must be selected because this gets the Western states supporting the act and provides a backup if problems develop at one site. The author says once 2-4 sites are chosen as finalists, an educational campaign must be done in those states to stress safety. Solving the waste problem will give the nuclear industry a brighter future

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report, Revision 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2005-09-30

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements about significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the seventeenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the eighteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100, 200, 300, and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities

  13. 76 FR 50407 - Addition of Persons Acting Contrary to the National Security or Foreign Policy Interests of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States. These persons will be... national security or foreign policy interests of the United States) of the EAR. Second, this rule... security or foreign policy interests of the United States and those acting on behalf of such persons may be...

  14. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  15. Developing Moral Sport Policies Through Act-Utilitarianism Based on Bentham’s Hedonic Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT C. SCHNEIDER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moral policy can be developed and maintained in sport organizations through an approach that incorporates act-utilitarianism (AU based on Jeremy Bentham’s hedonic calculus (HC. Sport managers’ effective application of AU based on HC takes on the form of a holistic approach to moral policy development and maintenance and requires an under-standing of the parts and process of a strict adherence to AU based on HC. The traits of common sense, habits, and past experience are supported by the utilitarian views held by Bentham and Mill to accurately predict happiness and un-happiness that result from actions (Beauchamp, 1982 and are also necessary to drive a holistic approach of AU based on HC that develops and maintains moral policy in sport organizations.

  16. Efficiency and the public interest: QF transmission and the Energy Policy Act of 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox-Penner, P.

    1993-01-01

    Prior to the enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Act), most Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission) deliberations involving transmission services did not occur in transmission rate or service proceedings per se. The Commission conducted a number of general inquiries or studies of the subject, including setting the terms and conditions of transmission services as part of merger proceedings and open-quotes market-basedclose quotes pricing proceedings. With the passage of the Act, the FERC is likely to be asked to confront the advisability of requiring transmission services in a more direct manner. The Act permits open-quotes[a]ny electric utility, Federal power marketing agency, or any other person generating electrical energy for sale for resaleclose quotes to petition the Commission for a wheeling order. The FERC may order wheeling in accordance with section 212 of the Federal Power Act (FPA) and a finding that such wheeling would open-quotes otherwise be in the public interest.close quotes When compounded with the need to find that wheeling is in the public interest, the requirements set forth in section 212 are considerable. This article focuses on an important area of section 212 criteria, namely the interplay between between the public interest and economic efficiency criteria in the case of Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) Qualifying Facilities (QF). Two recent proceedings in which the FERC considered the need to provide power transmission service guarantees for QFs are analyzed from the standpoint of public and private economic welfare. The two proceedings are the merger of Utah Power ampersand Light Company, PacifiCorp, PC/UP ampersand L Merging Corporation (Utah) and the Western Systems Power Pool application (WSPP)

  17. How Intense Policy Demanders Shape Postreform Politics: Evidence from the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Philip; Haeder, Simon F

    2018-04-01

    The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been a politically volatile process. The ACA's institutional design and delayed feedback effects created a window of opportunity for its partisan opponents to launch challenges at both the federal and state level. Yet as recent research suggests, postreform politics depends on more than policy feedback alone; rather, it is shaped by the partisan and interest-group environment. We argue that "intense policy demanders" played an important role in defining the policy alternatives that comprised congressional Republicans' efforts to repeal and replace the ACA. To test this argument, we drew on an original data set of bill introductions in the House of Representatives between 2011 and 2016. Our analysis suggests that business contributions and political ideology affected the likelihood that House Republicans would introduce measures repealing significant portions of the ACA. A secondary analysis shows that intense policy demanders also shaped the vote on House Republicans' initial ACA replacement plan. These findings highlight the role intense policy demanders can play in shaping the postreform political agenda. Copyright © 2018 by Duke University Press.

  18. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  19. Factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' participation in health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Nilufa

    2014-01-01

    Health policies impact on nursing profession and health care. Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health care is safe, of a high quality, accessible and affordable. Numerous factors influence nurse leaders' ability to be politically active in influencing health policy development. These factors can be facilitators or barriers to their participation. There is scant research evidence from Eastern African region that draws attention to this topic. This paper reports part of the larger study. The objectives reported in this paper were those aimed to: build consensus on factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' participation in health policy development in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A DELPHI SURVEY WAS APPLIED WHICH INCLUDED: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions in East Africa. Data collection was done, in three iterative rounds, and utilized a questionnaire with open and closed ended questions. 78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study; the response rate was 47% of these 64.8% participated in the second round and of those 100% participated in the third round. Data analysis was done by examining the data for the most commonly occurring categories for the open ended questions and descriptive statistics for structured questions. The findings of the study indicate that both facilitators and barriers exist. The former include: being involved in health policy development, having knowledge and skills, enhancing the image of nursing and enabling structures and processes. The latter include: lack of involvement, negative image of nursing and structures and processes which exclude them. There is a window of opportunity to enhance national nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. Nurse leaders have a key role in mentoring, supporting and

  20. Factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Health policies impact on nursing profession and health care. Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health care is safe, of a high quality, accessible and affordable. Numerous factors influence nurse leaders' ability to be politically active in influencing health policy development. These factors can be facilitators or barriers to their participation. There is scant research evidence from Eastern African region that draws attention to this topic. This paper reports part of the larger study. The objectives reported in this paper were those aimed to: build consensus on factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' participation in health policy development in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Methods A Delphi survey was applied which included: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions in East Africa. Data collection was done, in three iterative rounds, and utilized a questionnaire with open and closed ended questions. 78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study; the response rate was 47% of these 64.8% participated in the second round and of those 100% participated in the third round. Data analysis was done by examining the data for the most commonly occurring categories for the open ended questions and descriptive statistics for structured questions. Results The findings of the study indicate that both facilitators and barriers exist. The former include: being involved in health policy development, having knowledge and skills, enhancing the image of nursing and enabling structures and processes. The latter include: lack of involvement, negative image of nursing and structures and processes which exclude them. Conclusion There is a window of opportunity to enhance national nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. Nurse leaders have a key role

  1. Nuclear Waste Policy Act Amendments of 1988. Introduced in the Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, September 16, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The report recommends that S. 2800 be approved as amended. S. 2800 is a bill to amend the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of1982 with respect to the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Monitored Retrievable Storage Commission

  2. Moving from the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act to HIV Organ Policy Equity in action: changing practice and challenging stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doby, Brianna L; Tobian, Aaron A R; Segev, Dorry L; Durand, Christine M

    2018-02-09

    The HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act, signed in 2013, reversed the federal ban on HIV-to-HIV transplantation. In this review, we examine the progress in HOPE implementation, the current status of HIV-to-HIV transplantation, and remaining challenges. Pursuant to the HOPE Act, the Department of Health and Human Services revised federal regulations to allow HIV-to-HIV transplants under research protocols adherent to criteria published by the National Institutes of Health. The first HIV-to-HIV kidney and liver transplants were performed at Johns Hopkins in March of 2016. Legal and practical challenges remain. Further efforts are needed to educate potential HIV+ donors and to support Organ Procurement Organizations. As of November 2017, there are 22 transplant centers approved to perform HIV-to-HIV transplants in 10 United Network for Organ Sharing regions. To date, 16 Organ Procurement Organizations in 22 states have evaluated HIV+ donors. The National Institutes of Health-funded HOPE in Action: A Multicenter Clinical Trial of HIV-to-HIV Deceased Donor (HIVDD) Kidney Transplantation Kidney Trial will launch at 19 transplant centers in December of 2017. A HOPE in Action Multicenter HIVDD Liver Trial is in development. Significant progress toward full HOPE implementation has been made though barriers remain. Some challenges are unique to HIV-HIV transplantation, whereas others are amplifications of issues across the current transplant system. In addition to a public health benefit for all transplant candidates in the United States, partnership on the HOPE Act has the potential to address systemic challenges to national donation and transplantation.

  3. The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004: a study in the political economy of drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the processes by which the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004, an act that added steroid precursors such as androstenedione to the list of Schedule III Controlled Substances in the United States, came to pass in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Grounded theoretically in political economy, the article addresses, in the abstract, how the interplay of political pressures and economic influences stands to affect the actions of public officials, and how "tougher" drug policies-those touted to be more substantive and efficacious than existing regulations-often fail to effect change. The article concludes with implications for those involved in the regulation of anabolic steroids and steroid precursors.

  4. Creating Official Language Policy from Local Practice: The Example of the Native American Languages Act 1990/1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, Larisa

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the development of landmark federal language policy in the United States: the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992 (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of United States American Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting Native American languages. Indigenous languages in the…

  5. Nonpoint source groundwater pollution and endogenous regulatory policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donna J.; Kim, C. S.

    2002-12-01

    Theory suggests that in the absence of transaction costs, pollution externalities can be mitigated efficiently by charging polluters a tax equal to the marginal social cost of pollution. All other regulatory mechanisms therefore may be no more efficient than a marginal cost pollution tax. We developed a stylized model of dynamic groundwater pollution without transaction costs to examine alternate policies. Using mitigation cost, tax burden, and excess burden we compared the relative efficiency of each tax policy under competitive market conditions. For groundwater nitrate pollution in a Midwestern farming region, results show that the least cost policy is a constant tax on the polluting input, followed by a variable tax on the polluting input and a pollution tax.

  6. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE STATE POLICY FOR THE PREVENTION OF TERRORIST ACTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Bunchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article’s objective is to determine the mechanism for implementing the financial instruments of the state policy to counter terrorist acts in the territory not controlled by Ukrainian authorities in Donetsk and Luhansk regions. Methodology. Within the scientific research, for the most effective approaches at the national level to prevent the threat of international terrorism, under the conditions of the deep internal political crisis and extremely difficult economic situation, in order to improve the efficiency of public administration in developing and implementing the anti-terrorism state policies in Ukraine, the paper analyses international and domestic regulations on preventing the terrorist financing, considers factors that affect the deterioration of the social and economic situation of the temporarily occupied parts of Donbas. Results of the research allow formulating the definition of financial instruments of antiterrorist policies, the paper develops and proposes a series of organizational measures in order to prevent the terrorist financing in Ukraine. Practical implications. Based on the above, we propose an option of classification of main illegal mechanisms that may be used to finance terrorist activities in the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions uncontrolled by Ukrainian authorities, dividing them into internal and external. Given the above studied factors and classification of financing of terrorist acts in eastern Ukraine, we can assume that for the purpose of evading duty payable to relevant state bodies of Ukraine, external supplies of inventories in the uncontrolled areas of the Donetsk region, which are later obtained by illegal armed groups, are possibly carried out as follows: on behalf of a commercial entity registered in a foreign country for the Ukrainian commercial entity, registered in settlements located in the uncontrolled territory; crossing of international transit traffic that moves through the

  7. Examining the sources of public support for wildland fire policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Absher; J.J. Vaske

    2007-01-01

    Recent severe wildfires have reinforced the need for successful mitigation strategies to be coordinated across all levels of government that address the needs and concerns of homeowners who live in the wildland/urban interface (WUI). Despite the growing body of social science literature on agency-initiated wildland fire policies and homeowner mitigation strategies,...

  8. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    Titles I and III of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) establish retail regulatory policies for electric and natural gas utilities, respectively, aimed at achieving three purposes: conservation of energy supplied by electric and gas utilities; efficiency in the use of facilities and resources by these utilities; equitable rates to electricity and natural gas consumers. PURPA also continues the pilot utility implementation program, authorized under Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production ACT (ECPA), to encourage adoption of cost-based rates and efficient energy-management practices. The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to summarize and analyze the progress that state regulatory authorities and certain nonregulated utilities have made in their consideration of the PURPA standards; and (2) to summarize the Department of Energy (DOE) activities relating to PURPA and ECPA. The report provides a broad overview and assessment of the status of electric and gas regulation nationwide, and thus helps provide the basis for congressional and DOE actions targeted on the utility industry to address pressing national energy problems.

  9. Analyzing the Safeguarding Our Communities Act: Patch for Patch Return Policy in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Min Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is prescribed to patients suffering from severe chronic pain. Transdermal patches are the best mode of delivery for patients who have developed tolerance for opioids. However, used patches still contain fentanyl that can be extracted and misused, with potentially severe consequences. To address this issue, patients who are prescribed fentanyl patches in Ontario are now required to return previously dispensed patches to receive new patches under the Safeguarding Our Communities Act: Patch for Patch (P4P Return Policy. The problem is significant in Ontario because the province has the largest annual dispense rate of high-dose prescription fentanyl (112 units per 1,000 population in Canada even though the prevalence rate of chronic pain is lower than the national reported range (16.6% in Ontario versus 19.6 to 21.9% in other provinces, according to Gomes et al. 2014. The primary goal of this reform is to instill responsible use of fentanyl patches, and to improve safety for patients and the public by having a central disposal process. The reform was modeled after a community initiative that was pioneered in North Bay after receiving great support from health professional colleges and communities that voluntarily integrated the program prior to the introduction of Bill 33. Preliminary data suggest that the P4P policy is positively received by health professionals, although ongoing evaluation is needed to assess the effectiveness of the policy in reducing misuse and abuse of prescribed fentanyl patches.

  10. Policy documents as sources for measuring societal impact: how often is climate change research mentioned in policy-related documents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Marx, Werner

    In the current UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), societal impact measurements are inherent parts of the national evaluation systems. In this study, we deal with a relatively new form of societal impact measurements. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy documents. We regard this data source as an interesting possibility to specifically measure the (societal) impact of research. Using a comprehensive dataset with publications on climate change as an example, we study the usefulness of the new data source for impact measurement. Only 1.2 % ( n  = 2341) out of 191,276 publications on climate change in the dataset have at least one policy mention. We further reveal that papers published in Nature and Science as well as from the areas "Earth and related environmental sciences" and "Social and economic geography" are especially relevant in the policy context. Given the low coverage of the climate change literature in policy documents, this study can be only a first attempt to study this new source of altmetrics data. Further empirical studies are necessary, because mentions in policy documents are of special interest in the use of altmetrics data for measuring target-oriented the broader impact of research.

  11. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 3: Title VII, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the National Labor Relations Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, sex, national origin, religion, disability, age, or any other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the third part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issues of race and national origin under the Civil Rights Act, disability under the Americans With Disabilities Act, and employees' rights to engage in concerted activities under the National Labor Relations Act. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed.

  12. The portfolio of renewable energy sources for achieving the three E policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yung-Chi; Chou, Chiyang James; Lin, Grace T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy is considered by many policy-makers to contribute to achieving at least three major policy goals: the energy goal, the environmental goal, and the economic goal (3E goals). As an innovation-oriented island country with scarce natural resources, Taiwan announced the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles in 2008 that stated that Taiwan's renewable energy policy should accomplish the 3E goals. Several studies point out that specific renewable energy policy goals lead to specific renewable energy sources and technologies because each type of renewable energy has different features. In order to achieve the renewable energy policy goals, this research aims to examine how different policy goals lead to corresponding renewable energy sources. The relative importance of each goal is evaluated by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The weight of each policy goal is adjusted separately to construct policy scenarios by the sensitivity analysis. According to the results, non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy are three sources that could meet the three policy goals at the same time. -- Highlights: →This study aims to propose a portfolio of renewable energy sources to achieve energy, environmental, and economic policy goals for Taiwan. →Non-pumped storage hydropower performs best to achieve energy and environmental goals. →Wind energy performs well to accomplish environmental goal. →Solar energy is the most preferred alternative to achieve economic goal. →The portfolio of non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy can accomplish the three E policy goals at the same time.

  13. Policy analysis and recommendations for the open source application development portal (OSADP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This white paper addresses the policy and institutional issues that are associated with the development of an open source applications development portal (OSADP), part of a larger research effort being conducted under the ITS Programs Dynamic Mobi...

  14. Regulatory policy for the prevention, detection, and response before events involving orphan sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Forteza; Yamil; Jerez Vegueria, Pablo F.; Quevedo Garcia, Jose R.; Pedro Diaz Guerra, Pedro

    2003-01-01

    The present paper shows the current policy drafted by the Regulatory Authority and the actions taken. As a conclusion, it also shows the level of safety reached in Cuba in relation to the treatment provide to the orphan sources

  15. Cultural Policy and the Financial Crisis: Some Reflections on the Cinema Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Jesús Díaz-González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008, the financial crisis has often been cited as justification for certain political decisions affecting the film industry in Spain. One of these decisions was the reform of the Cinema Act, which came into effect in early 2016. The aim of this work is, firstly, to reflect on those aspects of the reform that are likely to have the greatest impact on the promotion of filmmaking, and secondly, to provide some arguments to assess whether these reforms can be put down to the financial crisis or to cultural policy decisions. The results show that the reforms likely to have the greatest impact are the characteristics of new subsidies for feature film production, the obligations to spend on national territory, the maximum permitted subsidy intensity, the obligations to reimburse subsidies in some cases, and the regulation of productions that could be considered difficult works.

  16. Policies for Enabling Corporate Sourcing of Renewable Energy Internationally: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Speer, Bethany; Volpi, Christina; Cook, Orrin; Jones, Todd; Taylor, Michael; Ralon, Pablo; Nilson, Emily

    2017-05-25

    This paper explores the policy and regulatory enabling environment for corporate sourcing of renewables. The paper has been developed in support of the Corporate Sourcing of Renewables Campaign, which was launched at the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) meeting in June 2016. Through the campaign, a subset of CEM member governments is collaborating with corporate and nongovernmental organization partners to facilitate increased corporate procurement of renewables and pursue supportive policies for corporate procurement. This paper finds that policy certainty is essential to creating vibrant markets for renewable energy. While policymakers may need to adjust policy mechanisms over time as markets go through different stages of maturity, they must also consider the economic decisions that end-users make in evaluating projects. Policy interaction is also important to consider because buyers seek assurances that their investments in renewables have impact and wish to make clear claims about their renewable energy purchases.

  17. Policy dilemmas in Latino health care and implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Rodriguez, Hector P; Vargas Bustamante, Arturo

    2015-03-18

    The changing Latino demographic in the United States presents a number of challenges to health care policy makers, clinicians, organizations, and other stakeholders. Studies have demonstrated that Latinos tend to have worse patterns of access to, and utilization of, health care than other ethnic and racial groups. The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 may ameliorate some of these disparities. However, even with the ACA, it is expected that Latinos will continue to have problems accessing and using high-quality health care, especially in states that are not expanding Medicaid eligibility as provided by the ACA. We identify four current policy dilemmas relevant to Latinos' health and ACA implementation: (a) the need to extend coverage to the undocumented; (b) the growth of Latino populations in states with limited insurance expansion; (c) demands on public and private systems of care; and (d) the need to increase the number of Latino physicians while increasing the direct patient-care responsibilities of nonphysician Latino health care workers.

  18. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  19. Radiation monitoring policy at the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, R.; Heinzelman, K.; Perdue, G.

    1998-01-01

    When the accelerator first began operation it was decided that, until we had the necessary dosimetry data to decide otherwise, we would badge the entire worker and experimental population. Each person was issued a dosimetry badge that contained 4 TLD elements. Badges were processed on a monthly basis. After three years of analyzing a total of 65,000 TLD elements, the decision was made to modify the radiation monitoring policy at the ALS. Only those individuals in the workforce that have any potential for exposure, no matter how small, would be badged. Subsequently, DOE conducted an independent review of the ALS radiation monitoring and dosimetry program. This review concluded that the ALS program, if expanded as proposed, would be adequate under the 10 CFR 835 Rule to establish radiation exposures to an acceptable level of confidence. The review team recommended the ALS provide more comprehensive documentation on the basis for its radiation protection and monitoring program. This document describes the technical justification for that program

  20. Energy sources policies in terms of environment [Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Safak Gokhan [Etibank Research Centre, Izmir (Turkey); Tuncer, Gungor; Ipekoglu, Bedri [Istanbul Univ., Mining Engineering Dept., Istanbul (Turkey)

    1998-09-01

    The energy sources available in Turkey are reviewed. Currently most of the country`s power is generated in hydroelectric and coal fired power plants, but this is not adequate to meet energy demand. Indigenous oil and gas deposits are small on a global scale but Turkey has 54% of the world`s thorium deposits. Nuclear technology is only at the research stage at present however so that nuclear power is not an immediate possibility. The present reliance on hydro and coal will continue therefore with efforts to enhance petroleum and natural gas production and to develop all other existing resources such as solar, geothermal and biomass where some potential exists. In addition, the need to promote energy conservation and energy efficiency is seen as a priority. (UK)

  1. The Politics of Policy in the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act: Setting the Agenda for Students Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, Alexandra E.; Duffield, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    While most of the press around the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) has focused on how it signals an end to No Child Left Behind, the implications of ESSA for students experiencing homelessness have been largely overlooked. Garnering organizational insights from Kingdon's (Agendas, alternatives, and public policies, Pearson, Glenviiew, 2011)…

  2. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Unit 3. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 3 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to identify the key elements of the United States' nuclear waste dilemma and introduce the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the role of the…

  3. The U.S. Forest Service and its responsibilities under the national environmental policy act: a work design problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Auer; Kenneth Richards; David N. Seesholtz; Burnell Fischer; Christian Freitag; Joshua. Grice

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service’s responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act entail a wide range of activities including scoping, scientific analysis, social and economic analysis, managing public input and involvement, media relations, regulatory analysis, and litigation. These myriad duties raise several important organizational and management questions....

  4. 75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the NASA GRC Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project located near Sandusky... at Plum Brook Station, which will enable NASA to meet the objectives of the Energy Policy Act of 2005...

  5. 75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “NEPA Mitigation and Monitoring.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... the environment and mandates that Federal agencies consider the environmental impacts of their... is usually completed with a ``Finding of No Significant Impact'' (FONSI) on the environment and a... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, ``NEPA...

  6. Siting provisions of the U.S. Nuclear Waste Policy Act versus related experience in other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, H.W.; Owens, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is based on a report prepared by International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) under contract to the Department of Energy. The report, whose title is the same as that of this paper, was submitted to DOE a little over one year ago. In that report, the relevant provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 setting forth the procedures for obtaining the local acceptance of sites for nuclear waste facilities were compared with the corresponding procedures of fifteen foreign countries also trying to locate sites for nuclear waste facilities. In this paper, the major points on which the Nuclear Waste Policy Act is or is not in keeping with lessons learned in other countries are discussed as well as some general and specific observations related to siting acceptance problems and how the Act addresses them

  7. Lessons learned and new challenges for integrated assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the first government-sponsored demands for integrated assessment to support decision making in the United States is embodied in the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Over the past 25 years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supported federal agencies` in evaluating health and environmental impacts as required by NEPA. Many of ORNL`s efforts have focused on complex, programmatic assessments that break new ground and require and integrate expertise from a wide range of technical disciplines. Examples of ORNL projects that illustrate the use of integrated assessment approaches include environmental documentation for: (1) the Department of the Army`s Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, (2) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s licensing activities related to the Owens River Basin in eastern California and along a 500-mile reach of the upper Ohio River, and (3) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s decision regarding restart of the undamaged reactor (Unit 1) at Three Mile Island. Our discussion of these examples illustrates successful integrated assessment approaches and identifies new challenges facing integrated assessment activities.

  8. RISKIND: An enhanced computer code for National Environmental Policy Act transportation consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The RISKIND computer program was developed for the analysis of radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or other radioactive materials. The code is intended to provide scenario-specific analyses when evaluating alternatives for environmental assessment activities, including those for major federal actions involving radioactive material transport as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). As such, rigorous procedures have been implemented to enhance the code's credibility and strenuous efforts have been made to enhance ease of use of the code. To increase the code's reliability and credibility, a new version of RISKIND was produced under a quality assurance plan that covered code development and testing, and a peer review process was conducted. During development of the new version, the flexibility and ease of use of RISKIND were enhanced through several major changes: (1) a Windows trademark point-and-click interface replaced the old DOS menu system, (2) the remaining model input parameters were added to the interface, (3) databases were updated, (4) the program output was revised, and (5) on-line help has been added. RISKIND has been well received by users and has been established as a key component in radiological transportation risk assessments through its acceptance by the U.S. Department of Energy community in recent environmental impact statements (EISs) and its continued use in the current preparation of several EISs

  9. The conservation genetics juggling act: Integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M.; Mercer, Dacey; Mullins, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980’s following development of the polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our lab has “grown up” with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multi-disciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal lab, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions. 

  10. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  11. Acting discursively: the development of UK organic food and farming policy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOMLINSON, Isobel Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the early evolution of UK organic food and farming policy networks and locates this empirical focus in a theoretical context concerned with understanding the contemporary policy-making process. While policy networks have emerged as a widely acknowledged empirical manifestation of governance, debate continues as to the concept's explanatory utility and usefulness in situations of network and policy transformation since, historically, policy networks have been applied to "static" circumstances. Recognizing this criticism, and in drawing on an interpretivist perspective, this paper sees policy networks as enacted by individual actors whose beliefs and actions construct the nature of the network. It seeks to make links between the characteristics of the policy network and the policy outcomes through the identification of discursively constructed "storylines" that form a tool for consensus building in networks. This study analyses the functioning of the organic policy networks through the discursive actions of policy-network actors.

  12. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) environmental checklist forms for 304 Concretion Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium with zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy, and zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gallon containers) in the 304 Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy and zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as mixed waste with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040. This closure plan presents a description of the 304 Facility, the history of materials and waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Facility. The 304 Facility is located within the 300-FF-3 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater) operable units, as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992). Contamination in the operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5 is scheduled to be addressed through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 remedial action process. Therefore, all soil remedial action at the 304 Facility will be conducted as part of the CERCLA remedial action of operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5

  13. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) environmental checklist forms for 304 Concretion Facility Closure Plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium with zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy, and zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gallon containers) in the 304 Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy and zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as mixed waste with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040. This closure plan presents a description of the 304 Facility, the history of materials and waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Facility. The 304 Facility is located within the 300-FF-3 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater) operable units, as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992). Contamination in the operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5 is scheduled to be addressed through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 remedial action process. Therefore, all soil remedial action at the 304 Facility will be conducted as part of the CERCLA remedial action of operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5.

  14. Implementation of the Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 (RA 9344: Inputs to Policy Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. FREDDY E. BILOG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the status of implementation of RA 9433 or Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 with respect to the various sectors namely: police; city social welfare and development and family court.. It also determine the problems encountered by the three groups of respondents and test the difference among the responses of the three groups: to determine the implication of implementation of RA 9344 to the community as perceived by three groups of respondents and based on the findings to propose inputs to policy amendments. It was found out that majority of the juvenile offenders in Batangas City are 15-17 years old, single, males, finished elementary education with crime of theft committed in 2012 and under the custody of their parents or legal guardians. Objectives, compliance, evaluation and monitoring as status of RA 9344 were implemented as a new approach in criminal justice system with juvenile offenders. Each sector experiences problems in implementing RA 9344 especially when it comes to insufficient knowledge of the child, and the parents regarding the child’s severity of crime and constitutional rights. The study found a significant relationship between the status of implementation of RA 9344 and the problems encountered. Further, there are differences between the responses of the three groups of respondents. Exemption of youth offenders in criminal responsibility has an impact on the community since the youth may repeat the crime or they could commit crime that is more severe than the previous crime committed. Additionally, compliance, evaluation and monitoring were found to be significantly related to the impact of exemption of youth offenders in criminal responsibility. Based on the findings, the study identified inputs for possible amendments of policies that govern RA 9344 towards a more efficient and effective implementation. These intervention programs such as child management training and rehabilitative program

  15. Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…

  16. Parsing pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: forensic chemistry, receptor models, and source control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kirk T; Pietari, Jaana; Boehm, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    A realistic understanding of contaminant sources is required to set appropriate control policy. Forensic chemical methods can be powerful tools in source characterization and identification, but they require a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach. Atmospheric receptor models, such as the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)'s chemical mass balance (CMB), are increasingly being used to evaluate sources of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments. This paper describes the assumptions underlying receptor models and discusses challenges in complying with these assumptions in practice. Given the variability within, and the similarity among, pyrogenic PAH source types, model outputs are sensitive to specific inputs, and parsing among some source types may not be possible. Although still useful for identifying potential sources, the technical specialist applying these methods must describe both the results and their inherent uncertainties in a way that is understandable to nontechnical policy makers. The authors present an example case study concerning an investigation of a class of parking-lot sealers as a significant source of PAHs in urban sediment. Principal component analysis is used to evaluate published CMB model inputs and outputs. Targeted analyses of 2 areas where bans have been implemented are included. The results do not support the claim that parking-lot sealers are a significant source of PAHs in urban sediments. © 2013 SETAC.

  17. Locations of Racism in Education: A Speech Act Analysis of a Policy Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneback, Emma; Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how racism is located in an educational policy chain and identifies how its interpretation changes throughout the chain. A basic assumption is that the policy formation process can be seen as a chain in which international, national and local policies are "links"--separate entities yet joined. With Sweden as the…

  18. Policy and programmatic considerations for introducing a longer-acting injectable contraceptive: perspectives of stakeholders from Kenya and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kevin; Arcara, Jennet; Rademacher, Kate H; Mackenzie, Caroline; Ngabo, Fidele; Munyambanza, Emmanuel; Wesson, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth E

    2014-10-15

    approach. At the policy level, respondents indicated that obtaining regulatory approvals before introducing the new method could be costly and time-consuming. Manufacturing and procurement decisions could also affect cost and availability. Successful introduction of a potential longer-acting injectable may be enhanced by considering broader systemic issues, including managing cost to the health system and users, expanding access through community-based distribution, and training providers on the latest service delivery guidelines. © McKenna et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly cited. To view a copy of the license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/. When linking to this article, please use the following permanent link: http://dx.doi.org/10.9745/GHSP-D-14-00106.

  19. Geothermal Development and the Use of Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, A.; Young, K. R.

    2014-09-01

    The federal environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) can be complex and time consuming. Currently, a geothermal developer may have to complete the NEPA process multiple times during the development of a geothermal project. One mechanism to reduce the timeframe of the federal environmental review process for activities that do not have a significant environmental impact is the use of Categorical Exclusions (CXs), which can exempt projects from having to complete an Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement. This study focuses primarily on the CX process and its applicability to geothermal exploration. In this paper, we: Provide generalized background information on CXs, including previous NEPA reports addressing CXs, the process for developing CXs, and the role of extraordinary circumstances; Examine the history of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) geothermal CXs; Compare current CXs for oil, gas, and geothermal energy; Describe bills proposing new statutory CXs; Examine the possibility of standardizing geothermal CXs across federal agencies; and Present analysis from the Geothermal NEPA Database and other sources on the potential for new geothermal exploration CXs. As part of this study, we reviewed Environmental Assessments (EAs) conducted in response to 20 geothermal exploration drilling permit applications (Geothermal Drilling Permits or Notices of Intents) since the year 2001, the majority of which are from the last 5 years. All 20 EAs reviewed for this study resulted in a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). While many of these FONS's involved proponent proposed or federal agency required mitigation, this still suggests it may be appropriate to create or expand an exploration drilling CX for geothermal, which would have a significant impact on reducing geothermal exploration timelines and up-front costs. Ultimately, federal agencies tasked with permitting and completing

  20. The Impacts of Policies To Meet The UK Climate Change Act Target on Air Quality - An Explicit Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Beevers, S.; Lott, M. C.; Kitwiroon, N.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a preliminary analysis of different pathways to meet the UK Climate Change Act target for 2050, of an 80% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions on a base year of 1990. The pathways can result in low levels of air pollution emissions through the use of renewables and nuclear power. But large increases in biomass burning and the continued use of diesel cars they can result in larger air quality impacts. The work evaluated the air quality impacts in several pathways using an energy system optimisation model (UK TIMES) and a chemical transport model (CMAQ). The work described in this paper goes beyond the `damage cost' approach where only emissions in each are assessed. In this work we used scenarios produced by the UK TIMES model which we converted into air pollution emissions. Emissions of ammonia from agriculture are not attributed to the energy system and are thus not captured by energy system models, yet are crucial in forming PM2.5, acknowledged to be currently the most important pollutant associated with premature deaths. Our model includes these emissions and other non-energy sources of hydrocarbons which lead to the formation of ozone, another significant cause of air pollution health impacts. A key policy issue is how much biogenic hydrocarbons contribute to ozone formation compared with man-made emissions. We modelled pollution concentrations at a resolution of 7 km across the UK and at 2km in urban areas. These results allow us to estimate changes in premature mortality and morbidity associated with the changes in air pollution and subsequently the economic cost of the impacts on public health. The work shows that in the `clean' scenario, urban exposures to particles (PM2.5) and NO2 could decrease by very large amounts, but ozone exposures are likely to increase without further significant reductions world-wide. Large increases in biomass use however could lead to increases in urban levels of carcinogens and primary PM.

  1. A Review of Policies, Acts and Initiatives in Rice Innovation System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Bank, World Trade Organization, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) helped in introducing distortions in the policies. Efforts by all stakeholders, the desirable political will by government and sound agricultural rice policy are essential to ensure that necessary conditions exist in meeting rice production. Key word: ...

  2. The impacts of renewable energy policies on renewable energy sources for electricity generating capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bryan Bonsuk

    Electricity generation from non-hydro renewable sources has increased rapidly in the last decade. For example, Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity (RES-E) generating capacity in the U.S. almost doubled for the last three year from 2009 to 2012. Multiple papers point out that RES-E policies implemented by state governments play a crucial role in increasing RES-E generation or capacity. This study examines the effects of state RES-E policies on state RES-E generating capacity, using a fixed effects model. The research employs panel data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia, for the period 1990 to 2011, and uses a two-stage approach to control endogeneity embedded in the policies adopted by state governments, and a Prais-Winsten estimator to fix any autocorrelation in the panel data. The analysis finds that Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Net-metering are significantly and positively associated with RES-E generating capacity, but neither Public Benefit Funds nor the Mandatory Green Power Option has a statistically significant relation to RES-E generating capacity. Results of the two-stage model are quite different from models which do not employ predicted policy variables. Analysis using non-predicted variables finds that RPS and Net-metering policy are statistically insignificant and negatively associated with RES-E generating capacity. On the other hand, Green Energy Purchasing policy is insignificant in the two-stage model, but significant in the model without predicted values.

  3. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  4. EPA Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information on sole source aquifers (SSAs) is widely used in assessments under the National Environmental Policy Act and at the state and local level. A national...

  5. Energy source perceptions and policy support: Image associations, emotional evaluations, and cognitive beliefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes Truelove, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This paper represents the most in-depth effort conducted to date to assess affective, emotional and cognitive perceptions of coal, natural gas, nuclear, and wind energy and the relationship between these perceptions and support for the energy sources. U.S. residents, recruited from a consumer panel, completed surveys assessing image associations, emotional reactions, and cognitive beliefs about energy sources and support for increased reliance on energy sources and local siting of energy facilities. The content of images produced by participants when evaluating energy sources revealed several interesting findings. Additionally, analysis of the image evaluations, emotions, and beliefs about each energy source showed that coal and nuclear energy were viewed most negatively, with natural gas in the middle, and wind viewed most positively. Importantly, these affective, emotional, and cognitive perceptions explained significant amounts of variance in support for each of the energy sources. Implications for future researchers and policy makers are discussed. - Highlights: ► Image associations, emotions, and beliefs about energy sources were measured. ► A dual-process model of energy support was proposed and tested. ► Coal and nuclear were viewed most negatively and wind was viewed most positively. ► The cognitive-affective model predicted support for each energy source.

  6. An assessment of exploiting renewable energy sources with concerns of policy and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yung-Chi; Lin, Grace T.R.; Li, Kuang-Pin; Yuan, Benjamin J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the Taiwanese government has vigorously promoted the development of renewable energy to engage the challenges of gradual depletion of fossil fuels and oil, as well as the intensification of the greenhouse effect. Since the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles were announced in 2008, Taiwanese government has declared that the development of renewable energy should take into account goals that pertain to energy, the environment, and the economy (3E goals). This study aims to assess the 3E goals and renewable energy sources regulated by the Renewable Energy Development Bill that passed in 2009. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is used to resolve the multi-goal problem for achieving our research purposes. That is, this research attempts to reveal the suitable renewable energy sources for the purposes of meeting the 3E policy goals. The results first show that environmental goal is the most important to the development of various renewable energy technologies in Taiwan, followed by the economic and energy goals. Additionally, hydropower, solar energy, and wind energy would be the renewable energy sources utilized in meeting the 3E policy goals. (author)

  7. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 2: title VII of the civil rights act and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, gender, national origin, religion, disability, age, or other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the second part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issue of gender under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed.

  8. 76 FR 40751 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility; Site-Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... academia. One guiding principle of the National Space Policy is for Federal agencies to facilitate the...) research and development and training missions, including target and missile launches, and aircraft...

  9. 75 FR 885 - 40th Anniversary of the National Environmental Policy Act, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... overwhelming bipartisan support, ushering in a new era of environmental awareness and citizen participation in... environment and revitalize our economy. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 reaffirmed NEPA's...

  10. Tobacco packaging and labeling policies under the U.S. Tobacco Control Act: research needs and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2012-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (the "Act"), enacted in June 2009, gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products. The current paper reviews the provisions for packaging and labeling, including the existing evidence and research priorities. Narrative review using electronic literature search of published and unpublished sources in 3 primary areas: health warnings, constituent labeling, and prohibitions on the promotional elements of packaging. The Act requires 9 pictorial health warnings covering half of cigarette packages and 4 text warnings covering 30% of smokeless tobacco packages. The Act also prohibits potentially misleading information on packaging, including the terms "light" and "mild," and provides a mandate to require disclosure of chemical constituents on packages. Many of the specific regulatory provisions are based on the extent to which they promote "greater public understanding of the risks of tobacco." As a result, research on consumer perceptions has the potential to shape the design and renewal of health warnings and to determine what, if any, information on product constituents should appear on packages. Research on consumer perceptions of existing and novel tobacco products will also be critical to help identify potentially misleading information that should be restricted under the Act. Packaging and labeling regulations required under the Act will bring the United States in line with international standards. There is an immediate need for research to evaluate these measures to guide future regulatory action.

  11. Integrating NEPA [National Environmental Policy Act] and CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs

  12. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  13. Two sources of meaning in infant communication: preceding action contexts and act-accompanying characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszkowski, Ulf

    2014-09-19

    How do infants communicate before they have acquired a language? This paper supports the hypothesis that infants possess social-cognitive skills that run deeper than language alone, enabling them to understand others and make themselves understood. I suggested that infants, like adults, use two sources of extralinguistic information to communicate meaningfully and react to and express communicative intentions appropriately. In support, a review of relevant experiments demonstrates, first, that infants use information from preceding shared activities to tailor their comprehension and production of communication. Second, a series of novel findings from our laboratory shows that in the absence of distinguishing information from preceding routines or activities, infants use accompanying characteristics (such as prosody and posture) that mark communicative intentions to extract and transmit meaning. Findings reveal that before infants begin to speak they communicate in meaningful ways by binding preceding and simultaneous multisensory information to a communicative act. These skills are not only a precursor to language, but also an outcome of social-cognitive development and social experience in the first year of life. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Mineralization of Calcium Carbonate on Multifunctional Peptide Assembly Acting as Mineral Source Supplier and Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Kazuki; Kinoshita, Takatoshi; Nagata, Kenji; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2016-09-13

    Crystal phase and morphology of biominerals may be precisely regulated by controlled nucleation and selective crystal growth through biomineralization on organic templates such as a protein. We herein propose new control factors of selective crystal growth by the biomineralization process. In this study, a designed β-sheet Ac-VHVEVS-CONH2 peptide was used as a multifunctional template that acted as mineral source supplier and having crystal phase control ability of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) during a self-supplied mineralization. The peptides formed three-dimensional nanofiber networks composed of assembled bilayer β-sheets. The assembly hydrolyzed urea molecules to one carbonate anion and two ammonium cations owing to a charge relay effect between His and Ser residues under mild conditions. CaCO3 was selectively mineralized on the peptide assembly using the generated carbonate anions on the template. Morphology of the obtained CaCO3 was fiber-like structure, similar to that of the peptide template. The mineralized CaCO3 on the peptide template had aragonite phase. This implies that CaCO3 nuclei, generated using the carbonate anions produced by the hydrolysis of urea on the surface of the peptide assembly, preferentially grew into aragonite phase, the growth axis of which aligned parallel to the direction of the β-sheet fiber axis.

  15. Designing better methane mitigation policies: the challenge of distributed small sources in the natural gas sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-04-01

    Methane—a short-lived and potent greenhouse gas—presents a unique challenge: it is emitted from a large number of highly distributed and diffuse sources. In this regard, the United States’ Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended periodic leak detection and repair surveys at oil and gas facilities using optical gas imaging technology. This regulation requires an operator to fix all detected leaks within a set time period. Whether such ‘find-all-fix-all’ policies are effective depends on significant uncertainties in the character of emissions. In this work, we systematically analyze the effect of facility-related and mitigation-related uncertainties on regulation effectiveness. Drawing from multiple publicly-available datasets, we find that: (1) highly-skewed leak-size distributions strongly influence emissions reduction potential; (2) variations in emissions estimates across facilities leads to large variability in mitigation effectiveness; (3) emissions reductions from optical gas imaging-based leak detection programs can range from 15% to over 70%; and (4) while implementation costs are uniformly lower than EPA estimates, benefits from saved gas are highly variable. Combining empirical evidence with model results, we propose four policy options for effective methane mitigation: performance-oriented targets for accelerated emission reductions, flexible policy mechanisms to account for regional variation, technology-agnostic regulations to encourage adoption of the most cost-effective measures, and coordination with other greenhouse gas mitigation policies to reduce unintended spillover effects.

  16. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Source Guide for the Hanford Site September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CUMMINS, G.D.

    1999-09-01

    This document summarizes relevant EAs and EISs by briefly outlining the proposed action of each document and the decision made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessor agencies, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The summary includes the proposed action alternatives and current status of the proposed action. If a decision officially was stated by the DOE, as in a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) or a record of decision (ROD), and the decision was located, a summary is provided. Not all federal decisions, such as FONSIs and RODs, can be found in the Federal Register (FR). For example, although significant large-action FONSIs can be found in the FR, some low-interest FONSIs might have been published elsewhere (i.e., local newspapers).

  17. Amendment of Republic Act No. 5207 and creation of the Philippine Regulatory Commission: a policy issue paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    In line with the government's reorganization and in view of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) being replaced by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) with a different function, an assessment of the usefulness and relevance of RA 5207 is discussed and the different stakeholders identified. The policy problem is how to revive the provision of RA 5207 and create the agency which will implement the provision of the Act. The author's recommendation includes the amendment of RA 5207 and the creation of the Philippine Regulatory Commission with five members who would be responsible for protecting the public health and safety, the environment and safeguarding nuclear materials and nuclear installations. (ELC)

  18. Commentary: More implications of the 2008 amendments to the Americans with Disabilities Act: influencing institutional policies, practices, and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisa, Joel; Silverstein, Robert; Thomas, Peter

    2011-06-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a civil rights law designed to ensure that qualified individuals with disabilities are not discriminated against by covered entities. Under the ADA, colleges of medicine were expected to focus their attention on implementing policies that facilitated equal educational opportunity, not on the threshold question of whether an individual was considered "disabled enough" to be protected by the law. In this issue, Allen and Smith examine the implications of the 2008 ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) for medical education, focusing on the potential for the ADAAA to eliminate the threshold question and allow individuals seeking protection to bring their cases to trial.The authors of this commentary argue that the ADAAA also has important implications for institutions like colleges of medicine and the National Board of Medical Examiners that must not be overlooked. The impact of the ADAAA on colleges of medicine will depend in large part on how they historically viewed their obligations under the ADA. Those institutions that focused on eliminating all vestiges of disability discrimination by implementing comprehensive, system-wide, evidence-based policies, practices, and procedures related to reasonable accommodations and academic modifications/adjustments will experience little or no impact under the ADAAA. Those colleges that attempted to avoid or minimize compliance with the ADA by focusing on whether an individual achieved sufficient disability status to be protected by the law will need to pay closer attention to the development and implementation of nondiscrimination policies, particularly policies relating to reasonable accommodations and academic modifications/adjustments.

  19. Knowledge, Power, and Social Policy: John M. MacEachran and Alberta's 1928 Sexual Sterilization Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puplampu, Korbla P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how academic knowledge and power have shaped the discourse on human classification and how political authorities use academic knowledge producers to legitimize public policy. Specifically, the article draws on the role of John M. MacEachran, a former academic at the University of Alberta, in the implementation of the Alberta…

  20. A Review of Policies, Acts and Initiatives in Rice Innovation System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    development of behavioral patterns that make organizations and policies sensitive to stakeholders (Ashley and ... effective innovation system facilitates flow of information and mutual partnerships between actors. Rice production ... marketing with non transfer of actual costs to consumers. There was protection of elite.

  1. Fostering Health: The Affordable Care Act, Medicaid, and Youth Transitioning from Foster Care. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Simmons, Renée; Dworsky, Amy; Tongue, Denzel; Hulbutta, Marikate

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act includes language that requires states to provide Medicaid coverage to youth who were in foster care in their state before aging out of the child welfare system. However, most states have interpreted the law differently for youth who move to their state after aging out, determining that automatic Medicaid coverage is an…

  2. The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974: Policies and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Stuart N.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Congress enacted the Employment Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) to help assure economic security in retirement. This analysis includes description of the growth, operation, and inequities within the private pension system and analysis of ERISA: (1) participation, vesting and joint and survivor annuities; (2) funding and plan…

  3. Policy Analyses on the Effectiveness of the National University Corporation Act: What Has Changed since 2004?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Kensuke; Yanagiura, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    (Purpose) While numerous data and research indicate that the fiscal practice of institutions has been influenced by National University Corporation Act (NUCA), what exactly the effect NUCA has had on institutions is not known beyond anecdotal experiences and stories. The contribution of this paper is to provide hard evidence on such institutional…

  4. Application of Implementation Science Methodology to Immediate Postpartum Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Policy Roll-Out Across States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Kristin M; Kroelinger, Charlan D; DeSisto, Carla L; Pliska, Ellen; Akbarali, Sanaa; Mackie, Christine N; Goodman, David A

    2016-11-01

    Purpose Providing long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) in the immediate postpartum period is an evidence-based strategy for expanding women's access to highly effective contraception and for reducing unintended and rapid repeat pregnancy. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of implementation science methodology to study the complexities of rolling-out policies that promote immediate postpartum LARC use across states. Description The Immediate Postpartum LARC Learning Community, sponsored by the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), is made up of multi-disciplinary, multi-agency teams from 13 early-adopting states with Medicaid reimbursement policies promoting immediate postpartum LARC. Partners include federal agencies and maternal and child health organizations. The Learning Community discussed barriers, opportunities, strategies, and promising practices at an in-person meeting. Implementation science theory and methods, including the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), and a recent compilation of implementation strategies, provide useful tools for studying the complexities of implementing immediate postpartum LARC policies in birthing facilities across early adopting states. Assessment To demonstrate the utility of this framework for guiding the expansion of immediate postpartum LARC policies, illustrative examples of barriers and strategies discussed during the in-person ASTHO Learning Community meeting are organized by the five CFIR domains-intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and process. Conclusion States considering adopting policies can learn from ASTHO's Immediate Postpartum LARC Learning Community. Applying implementation science principles may lead to more effective statewide scale-up of immediate postpartum LARC and other evidence-based strategies to improve women and children's health.

  5. Policy implementation of the Republic Act (RA) No. 9003 in the Philippines: a case study of Cebu City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premakumara, Dickella Gamaralalage Jagath; Canete, Aloysius Mariae L; Nagaishi, Masaya; Kurniawan, Tonni Agustiono

    2014-06-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is considered to be one of the most serious environmental issues in the Philippines. The annual waste generation was estimated at 10.6 million tonnes in 2012 and this is expected to double in 2025. The Republic Act (RA) No. 9003, widely known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, provides the required policy framework, institutional mechanisms and mandate to the Local Government Units (LGUs) to achieve 25% waste reduction target through establishing an integrated solid waste management plan based on the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycling). Although the initial impact of the LGUs is still very limited in implementing the national mandate, this article highlights the successful experiences of Cebu, the second largest city in the Philippines, in reducing its MSW generation by more than 30% in the past three years. This study also explores the implementation process, innovative actions taken by the Cebu City Government in implementing the national mandate at local level and identifies the factors that influence the policy implementation. The findings suggest that the impacts of the national mandate can be achieved if the LGUs have the high degree of political commitment, planning and development of effective local strategies in a collaborative manner to meet with local conditions, partnership building with other stakeholders, capacity development, adequate financing and incentives, and in the close monitoring and evaluation of performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    services, post-separation medical and dental coverage, career counseling, financial planning, employment and re-employment rights , and veterans...available at http://thinkprogress.org/ lgbt /2011/05/11/177408/navy-marriage-rescind/. FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military...raised that the possibility or actuality of military deployments may encourage courts to deny custodial rights of a service member to a former spouse

  7. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Environmental Checklist Form 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan (Revision 1) consists of a Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. The 216-B-3 Pond System consists of a series of four earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. These four ponds, collectively. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the 216-B-3-3 Ditch. Water discharged to the 216-8-3-3 Ditch flows directly into the 216-B-3 Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to B Pond and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste also may be considered a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) when considering remediation of waste sites

  8. Clean Water Act Section 319 Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Projects Grants, US EPA Region 9, 2008, California Nonpoint Source Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The California Nonpoint Source (NPS) Program allocates about $4.5 million of CWA Section 319 funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency annually to...

  9. Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; proposed general guidelines for recommendation of sites for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-425), hereinafter referred to as the Act, the Department of Energy is proposing general guidelines for the recommendation of sites for repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in geologic formations. These guidelines are based on the criteria that the Department has used in its National Waste Terminal Storage program, the criteria proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the environmental standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency. These guidelines establish the performance requirements for a geologic repository system, specify how the Department will implement its site-selection program, and define the technical qualifications that candidate sites must meet in the various steps of the site-selection process mandated by the Act. After considering comments from the public; consulting with the Council on Environmental Quality, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Director of the Geological Survey, and interested Governors; and obtaining NRC concurrence, the Department will issue these guidelines in final form as a new Part 960 to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 960)

  10. Funding policies and postabortion long-acting reversible contraception: results from a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Thompson, Kirsten M J; Goodman, Suzan; Westhoff, Carolyn L; Harper, Cynthia C

    2016-06-01

    Almost one-half of women having an abortion in the United States have had a previous procedure, which highlights a failure to provide adequate preventive care. Provision of intrauterine devices and implants, which have high upfront costs, can be uniquely challenging in the abortion care setting. We conducted a study of a clinic-wide training intervention on long-acting reversible contraception and examined the effect of the intervention, insurance coverage, and funding policies on the use of long-acting contraceptives after an abortion. This subanalysis of a cluster, randomized trial examines data from the 648 patients who had undergone an abortion who were recruited from 17 reproductive health centers across the United States. The trial followed participants 18-25 years old who did not desire pregnancy for a year. We measured the effect of the intervention, health insurance, and funding policies on contraceptive outcomes, which included intrauterine device and implant counseling and selection at the abortion visit, with the use of logistic regression with generalized estimating equations for clustering. We used survival analysis to model the actual initiation of these methods over 1 year. Women who obtained abortion care at intervention sites were more likely to report intrauterine device and implant counseling (70% vs 41%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.83; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-6.19) and the selection of these methods (36% vs 21%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-3.21). However, the actual initiation of methods was similar between study arms (22/100 woman-years each; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.51). Health insurance and funding policies were important for the initiation of intrauterine devices and implants. Compared with uninsured women, those women with public health insurance had a far higher initiation rate (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-3.62). Women at sites that provide

  11. Source-critical studies in Luke-Acts: Implications for understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), focusing on Luke's use of the oral Gospel he internalised during his kerygma performance, to demonstrate how an author's use of his sources in a literature is dialogically governed by his rhetorical goal and his ability to manage his sources.

  12. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  13. India’s Look/Act East Policy and the Northeast Region: A Critical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Hiranya K Nath

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available India’s Look East Policy (LEP signifies a strategic shift in its international political, economic, and military relationships. Regional integration of its Northeast Region (NER with the countries in East, Southeast and South Asia may potentially generate economic dividends to the region. However, there are formidable challenges in realizing the potentials. The proposed infrastructure projects, if completed with no further delay, will go a long way in improving connectivity with the neighbouring countries. However, improving connectivity within the region and with the rest of the country is also very important. Further, it would require a comprehensive long-term plan with well-defined projects for developing industries and services including education, health and tourism. Building infrastructure, ensuring socio-political stability and ecological balance, and improving the quality of institutions would be a major part of this plan.

  14. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  15. The European Environmental Policy with Respect to Stationary Sources. Harmonisation versus Differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Laan, R.

    2002-01-01

    Glancing at the actual development of environmental policy in the European Community over the past three decades, one sees a picture that seems to be very much in contradiction with the advise of neo-classical economics. With the support of the Council, the European Commission has been developing a Community environmental policy from 1972 on. Principal instruments of this Community environmental policy have been directives that require harmonisation of environmental standards for similar industries in the various Member States. In its most strict sense of full harmonisation, this policy would imply uniform environmental standards. Industry would then use the environment with the same intensity independent of where producers are situated in the European Community. The consequence of a harmonised approach would be that in countries where environmental quality is scarce, pollution per unit of output would be as high or low as it is in countries where environmental quality is relatively abundant. This dissertation has been inspired by this apparent discrepancy between the advice from economic theory and the practice of the Community environmental policy. A first question, which is the main issue of this book, is whether the observation of a discrepancy is correct or perhaps a faulty perception. A next question is whether an explanation can be given for the discrepancy in so far as it turns out to exist. These questions are analysed on the bases of a selection of directives aimed at or having a strong impact on polluting emissions by stationary point sources. The first issue addressed is to determine what economic theory says exactly about the international harmonisation of environmental standards. A second question concerns the legal base for the environmental secondary legislation that was chosen by the European Institutions. A third question concerns the reasons for harmonisation of environmental standards that are used. A fourth question concerns the actual level of

  16. Science, information, technology, and the changing character of public policy in non-point source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, John L.; Corwin, Dennis L.

    Information technologies are already delivering important new capabilities for scientists working on non-point source (NPS) pollution in the vadose zone, and more are expected. This paper focuses on the special contributions of modeling and network communications for enhancing the effectiveness of scientists in the realm of policy debates regarding NPS pollution mitigation and abatement. The discussion examines a fundamental shift from a strict regulatory strategy of pollution control characterized by a bureaucratic/technical alliance during the period through the 1970's and early 1980's, to a more recently evolving paradigm of pluralistic environmental management. The role of science and scientists in this shift is explored, with special attention to the challenges facing scientists working in NPS pollution in the vadose zone. These scientists labor under a special handicap in the evolving model because their scientific tools are often times incapable of linking NPS pollution with individuals responsible for causing it. Information can facilitate the effectiveness of these scientists in policy debates, but not under the usual assumptions in which scientific truth prevails. Instead, information technology's key role is in helping scientists shape the evolving discussion of trade-offs and in bringing citizens and policymakers closer to the routine work of scientists.

  17. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

  18. Rules implementing Sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: a regulatory history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danziger, R.N.; Caples, P.W.; Huning, J.R.

    1980-09-15

    An analysis is made of the rules implementing Sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). The act provides that utilities must purchase power from qualifying producers of electricity at nondiscriminatory rates, and it exempts private generators from virtually all state and Federal utility regulations. Most of the analysis presented is taken from the perspective of photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal electric point-focusing distributed receivers (pfdr). It is felt, however, that the analysis is applicable both to cogeneration and other emerging technologies. Chapters presented are: The FERC Response to Oral Comments on the Proposed Rules Implementing Sections 201 and 210 of PURPA; Additional Changes Made or Not Made That Were Addressed in Other Than Oral Testimony; View on the Proposed Rules Implementing Sections 201 and 210 of PURPA; Response to Comments on the Proposed 201 and 210 Rules; and Summary Analysis of the Environmental Assessment of the Rules. Pertinent reference material is provided in the Appendices, including the text of the rules. (MCW)

  19. Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaghel, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government

  20. The Veterans Choice Act: A Qualitative Examination of Rapid Policy Implementation in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattocks, Kristin M; Mengeling, Michelle; Sadler, Anne; Baldor, Rebecca; Bastian, Lori

    2017-07-01

    Congress enacted the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 [Veterans Choice Act (VCA)] to improve access to timely, high-quality health care for Veterans. Although Congress mandated that VCA must begin within 90 days of passage of the legislation, no guidelines were provided in the legislation to ensure that Veterans had access to an adequate number of community providers across different specialties of care or distinct geographic areas, including rural areas of the country. To examine VCA policy implementation across a sampling of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Medical Centers. We conducted a qualitative study of 43 VHA staff and providers by conducting in-person interviews at 5 VA medical centers in the West, South, and Midwest United States. Interview questions focused on perceptions and experiences with VCA and challenges related to implementation for VHA staff and providers. We identified 3 major themes to guide description of choice implementation: (1) VCA implemented too rapidly with inadequate preparation; (2) community provider networks insufficiently developed; and (3) communication and scheduling problems with subcontractors may lead to further delays in care. Our evaluation suggests that VCA was implemented far too rapidly, with little consideration given to the adequacy of community provider networks available to provide care to Veterans. Given the challenges we have highlighted in VCA implementation, it is imperative that the VHA continue to develop care coordination systems that will allow the Veterans to receive seamless care in the community.

  1. Public acceptance of nuclear power in the United States - the role of the national environmental policy act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellinek, S.D.; Brubaker, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    The passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969, required all U.S. Federal agencies to build consideration of the environmental impacts of their proposed activities into their decisionmaking process. It also established the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) within the Executive Office of the President to oversee its implementation, and to serve as the principle environmental policy adviser to the President. Agency environmental analyses are documented in an environmental impact statement (EIS) which is prepared prior to deciding if a project or a proposal is to be approved. Today the EIS is the foremost document used by both the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to achieve public understanding and acceptance of nuclear power facilities in the U.S. At the center of the NEPA process is the opportunity for public comment on proposed projects. Initial public concern was with thermal pollution and the traditional environmental impacts related to power plant construction and operation. Recent interests, however, have been with larger policy issues related to safeguards and management of radioactive wastes. The role of the EIS in resolving these current issues and its role in the debate over future nuclear development in the U.S. is discussed. The provisions of NEPA are representative of the increasing trend worldwide toward greater public involvement in decisions on technology which can affect the future. The development and integration of the EIS into the U.S. nuclear decisionmaking process can provide interesting and valuable insights to other nations concerning the achievement of better public understanding and acceptance of nuclear power through public involvement in the decision process

  2. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: An interim report on the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.

    1992-08-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted two workshops on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The first workshop was held in Charlotte, North Carolina for southern and eastern states in April 1992 and the second was held in St. Louis, Missouri for Midwestern states in May. The workshops had four objectives: (1) discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interest, (3) attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on some key issues, and (4) provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing rules, orders, and procedures in their state. Of primary interest from the federal perspective was for workshop participants to return to their states with additional background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and enable them to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. The basic format of the workshops was that invited speakers made presentations on specific issues. {open_quotes}Primary participants{close_quotes} from each state and other workshop attendees then discussed the issues raised by the speakers and other related concerns. The primary participants were state commissioners, commission staff, representatives from state consumer advocate organizations, EPA, DOE, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Other attendees were utility representatives, consultants, and other interested parties. All participants were given a workbook with excerpts from an NRRI report on CAAA implementation and papers or outlines from speakers.

  3. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [ed.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  4. In vivo Piroxicam Metabolites: Possible Source for Synthesis of Central Nervous System (CNS) Acting Depressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganuwan, Saganuwan A

    2017-01-01

    Piroxicam has been reported to be convertible to Central Nervous System (CNS) acting agents. It has serious depressant effects at high doses. In view of this, structures of piroxicam metabolites were assessed for possible conversion to CNS depressants. Literature search was carried out with intent to identifying piroxicam metabolites and the possibility of converting them to CNS acting depressants. Piroxicam is convertible to hydroxymethylated metabolite which may be converted to barbiturates such as thiopentone and thiamylal. Whereas cyclodehydrated metabolite may be converted to acetylcyclodehydrated compound that may be in turn converted to acetylacetone and cyclohexamide. However, carboxybenzothiazine metabolite may be converted to carboxamide compound, benzolactone which is convertible to phenazone. Carboxybenzothiazine is also convertible to 2-aminopyridine mepyramine and triplenamine. Conversion of carboxybenzothiazine to gamma aminobutyric acid and phenothiazines such as chlorpromazine, thioridazine, fluphenazine and perphenazine is highly possible. Structurally, barbituric compounds, carboxamide, cyclodehydrated, benzothiazine and carboxybenzothiazine metabolites may act via dopamine and adrenergic receptors causing depression of CNS activities. Piroxicam metabolites may also act via histamine, melatonin and potassium channel receptors causing CNS depression. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. H.R. 1543: This Act may be cited as the Comprehensive Energy Policy Act of 1991, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, March 21, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This bill would encourage cost effective energy conservation and energy efficiency and would permit the exploration, development, production, purchase, and sale of domestic energy resources to the maximum extent practicable and in a manner consistent with environmental values. Sections of the bill describe the following: Conservation and energy efficiency in the electricity sector (electricity and utilities; residential, commercial, and Federal energy use; standards and information; and tax provisions); Conservation in the transportation sector (alternative fuels; natural gas as a transportation fuel; fuel economy; and miscellaneous); Renewable energy sources (PURPA size cap and co-firing reform; hydroelectric power regulatory reform; credit for electricity generated using solar, wind, or geothermal energy; study of tax and rate treatment of renewable energy projects; and encouragement of energy recovery from waste); Electric power (Public Utility Holding Company Act reform; miscellaneous); Natural gas regulatory reform; Oil and gas production (Arctic coastal plain domestic energy leasing; tax incentives for oil and gas exploration and production; oil pipeline deregulation; leasing of Naval Petroleum Reserve; outer continental shelf local impact assistance; western hemisphere energy policy); Coal and coal technology;Nuclear energy (licensing reform; amendment of PUHCA; and Fast Flux Test Facility)

  6. Recovery Act: Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative Ground Source Heat Pump Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Terry [Townsend Engineering, Inc., Davenport, IA (United States); Slusher, Scott [Townsend Engineering, Inc., Davenport, IA (United States)

    2017-04-24

    The Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) Hybrid-Water Source Heat Pump (HY-GSHP) Program sought to provide installation costs and operation costs for different Hybrid water source heat pump systems’ configurations so that other State of Tennessee School Districts will have a resource for comparison purposes if considering a geothermal system.

  7. Promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources - Strategic objective of the Romania energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, Alexandru; Stanciulescu, Georgeta; Jisa, Mihaela; Stanciu, Nadina

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents different types of support schemes for promoting electricity produced from renewable energy sources in some countries from European Union and details concerning the primary and secondary legislation developed in Romania in the field of promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources, making a rehearse of the acts issued. Romania has a clear regulatory framework in the field of promoting E-RES, the green certificates market becoming operational from November 2005, when the first green certificates transaction session organised by SC OPCOM SA took place. With hydro energy being exception from the rule, the Romanian RES potential is almost unused, existing the possibility for promotion some efficient investments in units which produce E-RES, turning to good account to the best emplacements. Although the achievements in using RES are still modest, taking into consideration the attention of numerous investors and the way that the support scheme worked until now, with advantages for the existing E-RES producers, it is expected an acceleration of the rhythm of appearance of new investments. In order to actuate the investors attention, a stronger involvement of the local authorities is necessary, for identifying and promoting the most efficient RES using projects

  8. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  9. Adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007: presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, K J; Ayah, R; Olewe, T

    2016-09-28

    Despite extensive knowledge about effective tobacco control interventions, the prevalence of tobacco use in many middle- and low-income countries continues to rise. In these countries, public appreciation of levels of protection provided by laws and regulations on tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke is limited. After ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Kenya enacted the Tobacco Control Act, 2007, banning smoking in public places except in designated smoking areas. To assess adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007 by determining the presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants. A survey of 176 liquor licensed bars and restaurants in Nairobi County was carried out. Their managers were asked about the presence of a workplace policy governing smoking of tobacco, and observations made on provisions that determine adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007. Smoking took place in almost all bars and restaurants (150 (85%)). Half the establishments (86 (49%)) had a workplace policy governing tobacco use among employees, although a difference between bars (11 (23%)) and restaurants (75 (58%)) was recorded (peducation were less likely to have a workplace policy (ppost-secondary education level. The Tobacco Control Act, 2007 requires strengthening to ensure that bars and restaurants have a smoke-free environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content View Sources Ask Us Also Known As ACT Activated Coagulation Time Formal Name Activated Clotting Time ... What is being tested? The activated clotting time (ACT) is a test that is used primarily to ...

  11. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission meeting with states on the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (LLRWPAA) of 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, C.; Schneider, K. (comps.)

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to discuss with selected State officials NRC responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act, including the approach being taken and progress being made in fulfilling NRC responsibilities. The NRC staff objective was to obtain State views on technical and institutional issues associated with NRC and State implementation of the Act and to determine any additional areas in which NRC can be of assistance in the development of disposal facilities. We believe this objective was accomplished. A transcript of the meeting was made, and it is being published as a NUREG report in order that the information presented and discussed at the meeting may be available to those individuals and groups that have responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act for developing disposal capacity and for regulating a low-level waste disposal site.

  12. Carbon and black carbon in Yosemite National Park soils: sources, prescribed fire impacts, and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, G.; Traina, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the chemical and radiocarbon properties of black carbon recently deposited and accumulated in surface soils of six sites along an altitudinal gradient in Yosemite National Park, central California. The effect of prescribed (or controlled) forest burning on existing carbon and black carbon in surface soils was assessed to illuminate the role of this forest management and wildfire control strategy in the soil carbon cycle. The proportional contribution of fossil fuel or radiocarbon dead carbon versus biomass sources on these black carbon materials was analyzed to elucidate their origin, estimate their ages and explore the possible effects of prescribed burning on the amount of black carbon produced recently as well as historically. Supplementing these field results, we conducted a comparative spatial analysis of recent prescribed burn and wildfire coverage in Central California's San Joaquin Valley to approximate the effectiveness of prescribed burning for wildfire prevention. Federal and California policies pertaining to prescribed forest fires and/or black carbon were then evaluated for their effectiveness, air quality considerations, and environmental benefits. 13C NMR spectrum of soil surface char from study sites Prescribed burn coverage versus wildfires in central California

  13. Research priorities and infrastructure needs of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act: science to inform FDA policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Zeller, Mitch; Backinger, Cathy L

    2012-01-01

    A new law in the United States gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) wide latitude to regulate tobacco products for the first time. Given the need for science to serve as a foundation for FDA actions, it is critical that a scientific review of the literature relevant to the proposed legislation be undertaken by experts in the field of nicotine and tobacco research in order to develop research priorities. This paper describes an initiative that was implemented to identify research opportunities under "The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act" and summarizes the conclusions and future directions derived from that initiative. Multiple research and surveillance needs were identified, such as characterization of biomarkers and increased analysis of risk perception. It was also recognized that science will play a critical role in policy determinations such as what constitutes "substantial equivalence" and that there will be considerable infrastructure needs (e.g., laboratories for product testing). Science must drive FDA's decision making regarding tobacco regulation. This article provides a summary of research opportunities identified through literature reviews related to various provisions of the new law. However, the science required by the law requires a transdisciplinary approach because of its complexity, so one of the challenges facing the FDA will be to connect the silos of research in recognition that the "system" of tobacco regulation is greater than the sum of its parts.

  14. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs.

  15. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; Lloyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2013-11-01

    Environmental and health impacts are presented for activities associated with transient testing of nuclear fuel and material using two candidate test reactors. Transient testing involves irradiation of nuclear fuel or materials for short time-periods under high neutron flux rates. The transient testing process includes transportation of nuclear fuel or materials inside a robust shipping cask to a hot cell, removal from the shipping cask, pre-irradiation examination of the nuclear materials, assembly of an experiment assembly, transportation of the experiment assembly to the test reactor, irradiation in the test reactor, transport back to the hot cell, and post-irradiation examination of the nuclear fuel or material. The potential for environmental or health consequences during the transportation, examination, and irradiation actions are assessed for normal operations, off-normal (accident) scenarios, and transportation. Impacts to the environment (air, soil, and groundwater), are assessed during each phase of the transient testing process. This report documents the evaluation of potential consequences to the general public. This document supports the Environmental Assessment (EA) required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 USC Subsection 4321 et seq.).

  16. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  17. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported

  18. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  19. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  1. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  2. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  3. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  4. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  5. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs

  7. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    of the problems society is facing today. To facilitate the creation and operation of such RIs, the EU adopted legal frameworks for European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC). On August 31, 2015, the European Spallation Source (ESS) was established as an ERIC. Under the ERIC Regulations and ESS Statutes......, the European Spallation Source ERIC is required to adopt various policy documents relating to the operation and management of the facility. These cover a wide variety of issues such as user access, public procurement, intellectual property rights (IPR), data management, and dissemination. One of the main goals...... international research collaborations? The complex relationship between scientific excellence, innovation, and IPRs must be carefully considered. Taking the European Spallation Source ERIC as an example, this article investigates ERIC Regulations and EU policies and discusses what issues and perspectives ERICs...

  8. More gas, less coal, and less CO2? Unilateral CO2 reduction policy with more than one carbon energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Henriet, Fanny; Schubert, Katheline

    We examine an open economy’s strategy to reduce its carbon emissions by replacing its consumption of coal—very carbon intensive—with gas—less so. Unlike the standard analysis of carbon leakage, unilateral carbon-reduction policies with more than one carbon energy source may turn counter......-productive, ultimately increasing world emissions. Thus, we establish testable conditions as to whether a governmental emission-reduction commitment warrants the exploitation of gas, and whether such a strategy increases global emissions. We also characterize the extent to which this unilateral policy makes the rest...

  9. The sources for orthodox and heterodox trade and industrial policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAN-ULRICH ROTHACHER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Brazilian government has over the past years promulgated a mix of orthodox and heterodox policies for Brazil's economic development. This paper seeks to test whether the existing economic ideas have been prescriptive in formulating the policies, or whether they have been the outcome of the "infusion of private interests" (Katzenstein, 1978 in the policy making process. To this end, the paper charts the origins of the unilateral opening for trade in the agribusiness and contrasts them with the policy process in the car industry, where trade barriers have been erected. The article will identify the channels through which private actors informed the government's interventions and show that the industry bodies have largely prodded the government. The resulting policy maze has left both the representatives of the orthodox as well those of the heterodox approach unsatisfied and has failed to halt Brazil's dwindling manufacturing capabilities.

  10. Incorporating community and multiple perspectives in the development of acceptable drinking water source protection policy in catchments facing recreation demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Geoffrey J; Nancarrow, Blair E

    2013-11-15

    The protection of catchment areas for drinking water quality has become an increasingly disputed issue in Australia and internationally. This is particularly the case in regard to the growing demand for nature based and rural recreation. Currently the policy for the protection of drinking water in Western Australia is to enforce a 2 km exclusion zone with a much larger surrounding area with limited and prescribed access to recreators. The debate between recreators and water management agencies has been lively, culminating in a recent state government enquiry. This paper describes the second phase of a three phase study to develop a methodology for defensible policy formulation which accounts for the points of view of all stakeholders. We examine general community, active recreators and professionals' views on the current policy of catchment protection and five proposed alternatives using a social judgement theory approach. Key attitudinal determinants of the preferences for policies were identified. Overall the recreators did not support the current policy despite strong support from both the general community and the professional group. Nevertheless, it was evident that there was some support by the community for policies that would enable a slight relaxation of current recreational exclusion. It was also evident that there was a significant proportion of the general community who were dissatisfied with current recreational opportunities and that, in future, it may be less easy to police exclusion zones even if current policy is maintained. The potential for future integration of recreational and water source protection is discussed as well as the benefits of community research in understanding policy preferences in this regard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethanol and Acetate Acting as Carbon/Energy Sources Negatively Affect Yeast Chronological Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Orlandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chronological lifespan (CLS is defined as the length of time that a population of nondividing cells can survive in stationary phase. In this phase, cells remain metabolically active, albeit at reduced levels, and responsive to environmental signals, thus simulating the postmitotic quiescent state of mammalian cells. Many studies on the main nutrient signaling pathways have uncovered the strong influence of growth conditions, including the composition of culture media, on CLS. In this context, two byproducts of yeast glucose fermentation, ethanol and acetic acid, have been proposed as extrinsic proaging factors. Here, we report that ethanol and acetic acid, at physiological levels released in the exhausted medium, both contribute to chronological aging. Moreover, this combined proaging effect is not due to a toxic environment created by their presence but is mainly mediated by the metabolic pathways required for their utilization as carbon/energy sources. In addition, measurements of key enzymatic activities of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis, together with respiration assays performed in extreme calorie restriction, point to a long-term quiescent program favoured by glyoxylate/gluconeogenesis flux contrary to a proaging one based on the oxidative metabolism of ethanol/acetate via TCA and mitochondrial respiration.

  12. [Anticholinergic syndrome caused by contaminated herbal tea; acting swiftly to identify the source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, C; de Vries, I; van Riel, A J H P

    2017-01-01

    Despite good manufacturing practice and quality control, consumer products can become contaminated. In some cases, this can result in severe and life-threatening intoxication with potentially fatal consequences. A 27-year-old man and a 28-year-old pregnant woman presented to the Emergency Department with severe anticholinergic syndrome after using a marshmallow root (Althaea officinalis) herbal remedy, mixed into hot chocolate drink, to reduce symptoms of common cold. After a short stay in Intensive Care, the symptoms diminished and the patients could be released from hospital. The herbs were found to be contaminated with atropine, most probably derived from deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). Analyses of the contaminated product indicated that the patients were exposed to 20-200 mg atropine, while a dose of 2 mg is already considered mildly toxic. Consultation of the Dutch National Poisons Information Center resulted in rapid detection of the contamination; close collaboration with the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority and the manufacturer of the product allowed rapid identification of the source of contamination and facilitated the prevention of an epidemic.

  13. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  14. Mobile source air toxics mitigation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    In accordance with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Interim Guidance Update on Mobile Source Air Toxic Analysis in NEPA Documents (September 30, 2009), transportation projects subject to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) mus...

  15. Shifts from methyl chloride sink to source functions within a coastal salt marsh in eastern China: an examination of the effects of biomass burning prohibition policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinxin; Wang, Jinshu

    2018-03-01

    Our previous study found that a salt marsh in eastern China can act as a large CH 3 Cl sink. One striking finding of this previous study was a strong relationship between high-ambient CH 3 Cl concentrations and fluxes during the growing season. Moreover, the high-ambient CH 3 Cl concentration was likely to be related to local biomass burning. However, implementation of biomass burning prohibition policies has effectively reduced biomass burning. Therefore, we predicted that the prohibition of biomass burning would alter CH 3 Cl concentration and flux within the eastern Chinese coastal salt marsh. In this study, we used static flux chambers to measure CH 3 Cl fluxes in the early (July of 2004 and January of 2005) and middle-late stages (August and December of 2013) of biomass burning prohibition of along a creek and vegetation transects of the salt marsh. After implementation of the biomass burning prohibition, the concentration and flux of CH 3 Cl directly related to biomass burning changed remarkably. During the middle-late stage of prohibition, the initial CH 3 Cl concentration was significantly reduced compared to during the early stage of prohibition. Reductions in atmospheric CH 3 Cl concentration were especially apparent during the growing season, when biomass burning was prohibited and atmospheric CH 3 Cl concentration dropped to levels nearly as low as the Northern Hemisphere background concentration. Atmospheric CH 3 Cl concentration significantly varied throughout the salt marsh, with the highest concentrations appearing over the inland areas and mudflat and lower values occurring over the middle locations. This spatial distribution of CH 3 Cl may have been directly related to the existence and distribution of potential CH 3 Cl sources, such as coastal seawater, terrestrial biomass burning, and senescent and decaying aboveground biomass. These changes in initial CH 3 Cl concentration caused by the biomass burning prohibition may eventually lead to shift

  16. Welfare, Liberty, and Security for All? U.S. Sex Education Policy and the 1996 Title V Section 510 of the Social Security Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Justin E; Hawkins, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    When adolescents delay (meaning they wait until after middle school) engaging in sexual intercourse, they use condoms at higher rates and have fewer sexual partners than those who have sex earlier, thus resulting in a lower risk for unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. The 1996 Section 510 of Title V of the Social Security Act (often referred to as A-H) is a policy that promotes abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOE) within public schools. Using Stone's (2012) policy analysis framework, this article explores how A-H limits welfare, liberty, and security among adolescents due to the poor empirical outcomes of AOE policy. We recommend incorporating theory-informed comprehensive sex education in addition to theory-informed abstinence education that utilizes Fishbein and Ajzen's (2010) reasoned action model within schools in order to begin to address adolescent welfare, liberty, and security.

  17. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  18. Advancing Health Marketing Research and Policy Recommendations by Incorporating Source Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Guadagno, Marie; Champlin, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Communication researchers, recognizing the message sent is not necessarily the same as the message received, have incorporated the perspective of advertising professionals into the study of advertising effects. Health marketing research could similarly benefit from incorporating this largely absent perspective into the academic and policy debate surrounding the impact of advertising on health issues ranging from obesity to alcohol use. This commentary serves as a call to action to stakeholders in this academic and policy debate: focus on the perspective of advertising professionals to enrich health marketing and public health research in which advertising is the delivery vehicle for health messages.

  19. Integration of renewable energy sources for a sustainable energy policy at Djibouti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye, Fouad Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Generally, the predictable exhaustion of the fossil fuels, the necessity of fighting against the global warming, the awareness for the protection of the environment and finally the consideration of the sustainable development in energy policies put the renewable energies in the heart of a strategic stake for the future of our planet. But for the Republic of Djibouti which currently knows an annual economic growth of 3,5 %, it is almost vital to exploit its potential in renewable energies to ensure its economic growth, to realize savings of currencies and to initially achieve the Millennium human development goals whose calendar is fixed at 2015. Unfortunately, the country knows the same energy situation of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa where the energy is plentiful but the electricity is rare. Indeed, the current energy balance of the country is strongly overdrawn. The 97 % of the energy needs of the population (mainly urban in more than 85 %) are satisfied by the imports of oil productions and 90 % of the Djiboutians households use the kerosene as domestic fuel. The cover rate for the electricity network is very low, about 30 %. Only 0,2 % of the electric production (with a total capacity installed of 130 MW) is made from a unique source of renewable energy ( the photovoltaic solar energy). Nevertheless, the country has an important potential in renewable energies. At the level of the photovoltaic solar energy (PV), the technically exploitable solar potential is estimated in 1535 GWh/day. At the level of the wind energy, the estimation of the currently exploitable potential is 8 MW and yet no form of wind energy (whether it is the big or the small wind energy) is exploited in the country. At the level of the geothermal energy, the technically exploitable potential is estimated between 350 and 650 MWe. The economically exploitable potential for the only region of Assal-Ghoubbet is higher than 150 MWe, very widely upper to the current needs of the country. At

  20. 32 CFR 292.4 - Specific policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 292.4 Specific policy... of source and object codes, regardless of medium are not agency records. (This does not include the... existing computer program or printout for retrieval of the requested information. (c) The prior application...

  1. 77 FR 74847 - Modifications to Statement of Policy for Section 19 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... laundering. ``Dishonesty'' means directly or indirectly to cheat or defraud; to cheat or defraud for monetary... to distort, cheat, or act deceitfully or fraudulently, and may include crimes which federal, state or...

  2. The rules implementing sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: A regulatory history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    The act provides that utilities must purchase power for qualifying producers of electricity at nondiscriminatory rates. It exempts private generators from virtually all state and federal utility regulation. Pertinent reference material is provided.

  3. Primary care physician attitudes and perceptions of the impact of FDA-proposed REMS policy on prescription of extended-release and long-acting opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinas GD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gregory D Salinas, Caroline O Robinson, Maziar AbdolrasulniaCE Outcomes LLC, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: With increasing numbers of patients experiencing chronic pain, opioid therapy is becoming more common, leading to increases in concern about issues of abuse, diversion, and misuse. Further, the US Food and Drug Administration recently released a statement notifying sponsors and manufacturers of extended-release and long-acting opioids of the need to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS programs in order to ensure that the benefits of this therapy choice outweigh the potential risks. There is little research on physician opinions concerning opioid-prescribing and education policies. To assess attitudes surrounding new opioid policies, a survey was designed and distributed to primary care physicians in October 2011. Data collected from 201 primary care physicians show that most are not familiar with the REMS requirements proposed by the Food and Drug Administration for extended-release and long-acting opioids; there is no consensus among primary care physicians on the impact of prescribing requirements on patient education and care; and increasing requirements for extended-release and long-acting opioid education may decrease opioid prescribing. Physician attitudes toward increased regulatory oversight of opioid therapy prescriptions should be taken into consideration by groups developing these interventions to ensure that they do not cause undue burden on already busy primary care physicians.Keywords: REMS, opioids, attitudes, survey

  4. State-of-the-practice and lessons learned on implementing open data and open source policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the current government, academic, and private sector practices associated with open data and open source application development. These practices are identified; and the potential uses with the ITS Programs Data Capture and M...

  5. Response to Action Memorandum - Policy for New Sources in Non-Attainment Areas, Hampton Roads Oil Refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, (SRREN). Summary for policy makers; FNs klimapanel: Spesialrapport om fornybar energi, sammendrag for beslutningstakere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-15

    In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)

  7. Is the Affordable Care Act Cultivating a Cross-Class Constituency? Income, Partisanship, and a Proposal for Tracing the Contingent Nature of Positive Policy Feedback Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Jacqueline

    2018-02-01

    Social Security and Medicare enjoy strong political coalitions within the mass public because middle-class Americans believe they derive benefits from these programs and stand alongside lower-income beneficiaries in defending them from erosion. By pooling data from nine nationally representative surveys, this article examines whether the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is cultivating a similar cross-class constituency. The results show that middle-income Americans are less likely than low-income Americans to say the ACA has helped them personally so far. On the other hand, partisanship conditions the relationship between income and beliefs about benefits likely to be derived from the ACA in the long run. In total, the results suggest that cross-class Democratic optimism about long-run benefits may enable the ACA to reap positive beneficiary feedbacks, but a large and bipartisan cross-class constituency appears unlikely. Drawing on these results, this article also makes theoretical contributions to the policy feedback literature by underscoring the need for research on prospections' power in policy feedbacks and proposing a strategy for researchers, policy makers, and public managers to identify where partisanship intervenes in the standard policy feedback logic model, and thereby to better assess how it fragments and conditions positive feedback effects in target populations. Copyright © 2018 by Duke University Press 2018.

  8. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990, Number 3; Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1 through September 30, 1990. This report is the third of a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of new initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, study plans, and performance assessment. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Effect of school wellness policies and the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act on food-consumption behaviors of students, 2006-2016: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Jennifer L; Savaiano, Dennis A

    2017-07-01

    Federal regulation mandates that the US National School Lunch Program nutrition standards align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. As students consume a substantial proportion of their nutrition during school lunch, increasing access to healthy foods is proposed to improve student dietary outcomes. The purpose of this review is to assess whether policy changes impacted food-consumption behaviors of students during periods when (1) school wellness policies were implemented (2006-2007); (2) the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was passed (2010-2012); and (3) the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was implemented (2012-present). PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct were searched for primary research studies. Policy evaluations and interventions implemented from 2006 to 2016 were included. A total of 31 studies evaluating plate waste, dietary intake, food selection, and/or purchasing patterns were identified and reviewed. Fourteen of 19 intervention and longitudinal observation studies reported improved food-consumption behaviors (increased selection, intake, and sales of healthy foods, and decreased plate waste). Only 2 of 12 one-time observation studies reported food-consumption behaviors meeting target nutrition standards. The majority of studies indicated that increasing access to healthy foods during school lunch improved students' dietary intakes. Challenges related to study design, adaptation period, quality of foods, and policy implementation likely affect a school lunch program's ability to impact students' food-consumption behaviors. Ongoing evaluation of these programs is warranted. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Emissions and doses from sources of ionising radiation in the Netherlands: radiation policy monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleveld, H.; Pruppers, M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997 the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment requested RIVM to develop an information system for policy monitoring. One of the motives was that the European Union requires that the competent authorities of each member state ensure that dose estimates due to practices involving exposure to ionising radiation are made as realistic as possible for the population as a whole and for reference groups in all places where such groups may occur. Emissions of radionuclides and radiation to the environment can be classified as follows: (1) emissions to the atmosphere, (2) emissions to the aquatic system and (3) emission of external radiation from radioactive materials and equipment that produces ionising radiation. Released radioactivity is dispersed via exposure pathways, such as the atmosphere, deposition on the ground and farmland products, drinking water, fish products, etc. This leads to radiation doses due to inhalation, ingestion and exposure to external radiation. To assess the possible radiation doses different kinds of models are applied, varying from simple multiplications with dispersion coefficients, transfer coefficients and dose conversion coefficients to complex dispersion models. In this paper an overview is given of the human-induced radiation doses in the Netherlands. Also, trends in and the effect of policy on the radiation dose of members of the public are investigated. This paper is based on an RIVM report published recently. A geographical distribution of radiation risks due to routine releases for a typical year in the Netherlands was published earlier

  11. Monetary policy as a source of risk in international business financings and investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Cristian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at explaining the volatility of two main macroeconomic variables (interest rate and exchange rate that impact the cost of international capital and, consequently, the international financing decision. Firstly, the main economic theories are called to illustrate the relevant determinants of these variables from the perspective of demand and supply of capital sides. The state intervention through monetary policy is introduced to emphasize the alteration of these prices (the price of capital, the price of foreign currencies. The paper is presenting the role of these prices in international financing decision (based on the theoretical model used to estimate cost of international capital, their impact on the foreign direct investment decision and on the international portfolio investment decision. Finally, the paper describe the economic consequences of the monetary public intervention on the financing and investment decision in direct connection with the business cycle theory. The paper associates the monetary policy to the business cycles. The paper comments the unsound solutions proposed against the economic crises and that continued to harm negatively these prices generating the seeds for next international economic recession. The paper is a theoretical one, containing some very interesting research hypothesis and opening the paths for presumable further empirical researches.

  12. Response of School Districts to the New York State Concussion Awareness and Management Act: Review of Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajankova, Maria; Oswald, Jennifer M.; Terranova, Lauren M.; Kaplen, Michael V.; Ambrose, Anne F.; Spielman, Lisa A.; Gordon, Wayne A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: By 2014, all states implemented concussion laws that schools must translate into daily practice; yet, limited knowledge exists regarding implementation of these laws. We examined the extent to which concussion management policies and procedure (P&P) documents of New York State school districts comply with the State's Concussion…

  13. 76 FR 48202 - Trade Policy Staff Committee; Public Comments on the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... effect on the volume and composition of trade and investment between the United States and the Caribbean Basin beneficiary countries; and its effect on advancing U.S. trade policy goals as set forth in the... a party to and implement the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption. (7) The extent to which...

  14. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 1: title VII of the civil rights act and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Moore, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    As more and more individuals choose to express themselves and their religious beliefs with headwear, jewelry, dress, tattoos, and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, sex, national origin, religion, disability, age, or any other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article addresses the issue of religious discrimination focusing on dress and appearance and some of the court cases that provide guidance for employers.

  15. Local Responses to National Policy: The Contrasting Experiences of Two Midlands Cities to the Academies Act 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Penny; Abbott, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data from a series of semi-structured interviews this article reports on findings from a research project focusing on the responses of two local authorities and their secondary schools to the Academies Act 2010. The article considers the background and the development of the education system in both localities. It goes on to focus on…

  16. The Real Education for Healthy Youth Act: Honest, Age Appropriate Sexual Health Education for Responsible Decision Making. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Jendayi

    2012-01-01

    The Real Education for Healthy Youth Act (S. 1782/H.R. 3324), introduced in November 2011 by Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) and Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA), would ensure that federal funding is allocated to comprehensive sexual health education programs that provide young people with the skills and information they need to make informed,…

  17. Understanding and Informing Policy Implementation: A Case Study of the Domestic Violence Provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we…

  18. Information sources for obesity prevention policy research: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; Young, Sabrina K

    2017-08-08

    Systematic identification of evidence in health policy can be time-consuming and challenging. This study examines three questions pertaining to systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy, in order to identify the most efficient search methods: (1) What percentage of the primary studies selected for inclusion in the reviews originated in scholarly as opposed to gray literature? (2) How much of the primary scholarly literature in this topic area is indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE? (3) Which databases index the greatest number of primary studies not indexed in PubMed, and are these databases searched consistently across systematic reviews? We identified systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy and explored their search methods and citations. We determined the percentage of scholarly vs. gray literature cited, the most frequently cited journals, and whether each primary study was indexed in PubMed. We searched 21 databases for all primary study articles not indexed in PubMed to determine which database(s) indexed the highest number of these relevant articles. In total, 21 systematic reviews were identified. Ten of the 21 systematic reviews reported searching gray literature, and 12 reviews ultimately included gray literature in their analyses. Scholarly articles accounted for 577 of the 649 total primary study papers. Of these, 495 (76%) were indexed in PubMed. Google Scholar retrieved the highest number of the remaining 82 non-PubMed scholarly articles, followed by Scopus and EconLit. The Journal of the American Dietetic Association was the most-cited journal. Researchers can maximize search efficiency by searching a small yet targeted selection of both scholarly and gray literature resources. A highly sensitive search of PubMed and those databases that index the greatest number of relevant articles not indexed in PubMed, namely multidisciplinary and economics databases, could save considerable time and effort. When combined with a gray literature search and

  19. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  20. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Environmental Checklist Form 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan (Revision 1) consists of a Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. The 216-B-3 Pond System consists of a series of four earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. These four ponds, collectively. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the 216-B-3-3 Ditch. Water discharged to the 216-8-3-3 Ditch flows directly into the 216-B-3 Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to B Pond and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste also may be considered a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) when considering remediation of waste sites.

  1. Sources of conflicts in climate policy within the EU. An economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, H. Asbjoern; Bretteville, Camilla

    1999-09-01

    This report is a part of a study of the potential for the EU to take on leadership in the climate negotiations. The aim is to sort out factors that may explain the different economic interests in cutting CO{sub 2}-emissions within the EU. It is based on the idea that interests occur as a result of different perception of the cost of emission cuts among stakeholders. Sector-based comparisons of France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and United Kingdom indicate that the conflicts resulting from an announcement of emission cuts are likely to be moderate in Germany, the Netherlands and UK, while the possibilities for conflicts in France, Italy and Spain are significantly higher. The explanation can to a large extent be found by the possibilities for reducing emissions in the electricity sector. The differences facing the different countries when it comes to emission cuts might explain why the EU has not succeeded in implementing common measures across the member countries. To prepare for a common policy, a co-ordination of the electricity market should be given priority. Meanwhile, the differentiation of targets agreed upon after Kyoto clearly contributes to mitigate conflicts. However, new conflicts may occur as a result. The present analysis points out that Italy has got very strict targets compared with the other countries, while the targets for the Netherlands and Spain are moderate. 21 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  3. Effects of Chinese Deforestation and Reforestation Policies on Sediment Sourcing in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henck Schmidt, A. C.; Bierman, P. R.; Sosa-Gonzalez, V.; Neilson, T. B.; Singleton, A.; Qiu, Y.; Bower, J.; Rood, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Widespread deforestation from the 1960s through 1980s, blamed for catastrophic flooding in the lower Yangtze in 1998, prompted bans on logging and agriculture on steep slopes in western China. However, despite reports of extensive erosion resulting from the deforestation, sediment yield data show no corresponding increase during this time. Prior work suggested that if the deforestation increased erosion, the sediment is stored in floodplains, terraces, and alluvial fans throughout the region. In order to test this hypothesis, we sampled in-channel and overbank sediments at 38 locations, 19 of which are co-located with Chinese hydrology stations with at least five years of daily sediment yield data. Sediments were analyzed for meteoric and in situ 10-Be, unsupported 210-Pb, and 137-Cs. Unsupported 210-Pb activity is uniformly low throughout the study area and 137-Cs was found only in a few high-altitude, low-relief watersheds. Modern sediment yields, determined from Chinese data, are higher than long term in situ 10-Be-derived erosion rates in all but four watersheds, where we hypothesize sediment is being stored in alluvial features and agricultural terraces or that stochastic events such as landslides were not captured in the sediment yield data. Overall there is no relationship between topographic or climatic metrics, including slope, relief, or mean annual rainfall for any of the four isotopes except for a weak but statistically significant negative relationship between in situ 10-Be derived erosion rate and rainfall. Although paired in-channel and overbank samples are statistically indistinguishable for meteoric and in situ 10-Be, the overbank samples have lower unsupported 210-Pb activity, suggesting deeper sediment sourcing during the monsoon. In summary, in addition to suggesting differences between wet- and dry-season sediment sources, preliminary results support previous hypotheses regarding increased contemporary erosion and low hillslope

  4. Source apportionment analysis of air pollutants using CMAQ/BFM for national air quality management policy over Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, N.; Kim, S.; Seo, J.; Lee, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the Korean government is focusing on solving air pollution problem such as fine particulate matter and ozone. Korea has high population density and concentrated industrial complex in its limited land space. For better air quality management, it is important to understand source and contribution relation to target pollutant. The air quality analysis representing the mutual contribution among the local regions enables to understand the substantive state of the air quality of a region in association with neighboring regions. Under this background, the source apportionment of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, SO2 using WRF and CMAQ/BFM was analyzed over Korea and BFM was applied to mobile, area and point sources in each local government. The contribution rate from neighboring region showed different pattern for each pollutant. In case of primary pollutants such as NO2, SO2, local source contribution is dominant, on the other hand secondary pollutants case especially O3, contribution from neighboring region is higher than that from source region itself. Local source contribution to PM10 showed 20-25% and the contribution rate to O3 has big difference with different meteorological condition year after year. From this study, we tried to estimate the conversion rate between source (NOx, VOC, SO2, NH3, PMC, PM2.5, CO) and concentration (PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, SO2,) by regional group over Korea. The result can contribute to the decision-making process of important national planning related to large-scale industrial developments and energy supply policies (eg., operations of coal-fired power plants and diesel cars) and emission control plan, where many controversies and concerns are currently concentrated among local governments in Korea. With this kind of approach, various environmental and social problems related to air quality can also be identified early so that a sustainable and environmentally sound plan can be established by providing data infrastructures to be utilized

  5. 25 CFR 700.33 - Act (The Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88 Stat...

  6. Modeling environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; McDonald, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The eight book chapters demonstrate the link between the physical models of the environment and the policy analysis in support of policy making. Each chapter addresses an environmental policy issue using a quantitative modeling approach. The volume addresses three general areas of environmental policy - non-point source pollution in the agricultural sector, pollution generated in the extractive industries, and transboundary pollutants from burning fossil fuels. The book concludes by discussing the modeling efforts and the use of mathematical models in general. Chapters are entitled: modeling environmental policy: an introduction; modeling nonpoint source pollution in an integrated system (agri-ecological); modeling environmental and trade policy linkages: the case of EU and US agriculture; modeling ecosystem constraints in the Clean Water Act: a case study in Clearwater National Forest (subject to discharge from metal mining waste); costs and benefits of coke oven emission controls; modeling equilibria and risk under global environmental constraints (discussing energy and environmental interrelations); relative contribution of the enhanced greenhouse effect on the coastal changes in Louisiana; and the use of mathematical models in policy evaluations: comments. The paper on coke area emission controls has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM

  7. The interconnectedness between landowner knowledge, value, belief, attitude, and willingness to act: policy implications for carbon sequestration on private rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Seth L; Ma, Zhao

    2014-02-15

    Rangelands can be managed to increase soil carbon and help mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide. This study assessed Utah rangeland owner's environmental values, beliefs about climate change, and awareness of and attitudes towards carbon sequestration, as well as their perceptions of potential policy strategies for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and a statewide survey of Utah rangeland owners, and were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics. Over two-thirds of respondents reported some level of awareness of carbon sequestration and a generally positive attitude towards it, contrasting to their lack of interest in participating in a relevant program in the future. Having a positive attitude was statistically significantly associated with having more "biocentric" environmental values, believing the climate had been changing over the past 30 years, and having a stronger belief of human activities influencing the climate. Respondents valued the potential ecological benefits of carbon sequestration more than the potential financial or climate change benefits. Additionally, respondents indicated a preference for educational approaches over financial incentives. They also preferred to work with a private agricultural entity over a non-profit or government entity on improving land management practices to sequester carbon. These results suggest potential challenges for developing technically sound and socially acceptable policies and programs for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Potential strategies for overcoming these challenges include emphasizing the ecological benefits associated with sequestering carbon to appeal to landowners with ecologically oriented management objectives, enhancing the cooperation between private agricultural organizations and government agencies, and funneling resources for promoting carbon sequestration into existing land management and

  8. Sources and Chronology of Nitrate Contamination of Spring Waters: Integrating Science and Policy Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B. G.; Stevenson, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    Human health and ecological concerns have arisen regarding spring waters in Florida as a steady increase in nitrate concentrations has been observed during the past 30 years. The extensive aesthetic, cultural, and recreational value of these springs, which also supply water for human consumption and support critical ecological habitats, could be threatened by the presence of nitrate. As part of the response to these concerns by the State of Florida, several research studies have used various chemical and isotopic tracers to determine sources of nitrate contamination and age of ground water discharging from springs. Since 1997, 60 water samples have been collected from 44 springs and analyzed for isotopic (15N, 3H/3He, 18O, 2H, 13C) and other chemical tracers (CFCs, major ions, dissolved gases, SF6). Delta 15N values of nitrate ranged from 2.6 to 12.9 per mil (median = 5.8 per mil) and indicated that nitrate in most spring waters originated from synthetic fertilizers. CFCs, 3H/3He, and SF6, used to estimate the residence time of ground water discharging from springs, indicated that spring-water ages ranged from 5 to 39 years. Concentrations of these multiple transient tracers are consistent with a two-component hydrologic model with mixtures of varying proportions of young water (less than 8 years) from the shallow part of the aquifer system and older water (20-50 years) from the deeper part of the flow system. Given residence times of 20-40 years for ground water discharging from most springs, it could take decades for nitrate concentrations to decrease to near background levels, even with immediate reductions in nitrogen inputs to the land surface. These research results are being used by the State of Florida to inform elected officials, water-resource mangers, and planners that decisions about land use today will affect the quality of ground water in springs for decades.

  9. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  10. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 3: technological innovation, renewable sources and rural energization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    These proceedings cover the papers presented in the 8. Brazilian congress on energy held at Rio de Janeiro from November, 30 to December, 02, 1999, focusing energy policy, regulation and sustainable development, specifically the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  11. Underlying Motives, Moral Agendas and Unlikely Partnerships: The Formulation of the U.S. Trafficking in Victims Protection Act Through the Data and Voices of Key Policy Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Footen Bromfield

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the overwhelming amount of attention to human trafficking, the debates surrounding its definition, and its focus on the sex industry, the purpose of this study was to understand the motivations behind the formation of the Trafficking in Victims Protection Act (TVPA. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as a model, data was collected and analyzed in order to examine the coalition identities of key players and their positions. Through the presentation of in-depth interview data with key policy players involved in the making of the TVPA, this article illustrates how and why the TVPA was formulated, the implications of its development, and the necessity for critical analysis of its effects. The use of alternative frameworks of labor and migration for understanding trafficking is proposed. Further consideration is given to legislative changes to eliminate anti-prostitution ideology and to support anti-oppressive approaches to addressing forced or deceptive working conditions.

  12. Health and environmental policy issues in Canada: the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John-Mark; Mazumder, Asit

    2003-07-01

    Sustaining clean and safe drinking water sources is increasingly becoming a priority because of global pollution. The means of attaining and maintaining clean drinking water sources requires effective policies that identify, document, and reduce watershed risks. These risks are defined by their potential impact to human health. Health and risk are, therefore, indelibly linked because they are in part defined by each other. Understanding pathogen ecology and identifying watershed sources remains a priority because of the associated acute risks. Surface water quality changes resulting from inputs of human waste, nutrients and chemicals are associated with higher drinking water risks. Nutrient input can increase primary production and the resulting increase of organic matter results in greater disinfection by-product formation or requires greater treatment intensity. Many drinking water disease outbreaks have resulted from breaches in treatment facilities, therefore, even with greater treatment intensity poor source water quality intrinsically has greater associated health risks. Government and international agencies play a critical role in developing policy. The goal of maintaining water supplies whose availability is maximized and risks are minimized (i.e. sustainable) should be a vital part of such policy. Health risks are discussed in the context of a multi-barrier perspective and it is concluded that both passive (protection) and active (prescriptive management) management is necessary for sustainability. Canadian aboriginal water systems, British Columbian water policy and US EPA policies are given as examples. The basis for developing effective policies includes a strong reliance on sound science and effective instrumentation with careful consideration of stakeholders' interests. Only with such directed policies can the future availability of clean drinking water sources be ensured.

  13. The Ukrainian regulatory authority policy in respect of reducing the quantity of radiation sources which are subject to treatment and disposal in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubiev, V.; Makarovska, O.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of safe management of disused radiation sources generated from the use of radionuclides in industry, research and medicine is very important for the Ukraine. This paper discusses some methods to solve this problem. The methods could be termed preventive and are aimed at determining and implementing an appropriate national regulatory policy in the sphere of activities with sealed sources. This policy includes a wide spectrum of measures: from political steps to the creation of a State computerized inventory system. It has led to a reduction in the quantity of radiation sources which have to be subject to reprocessing and disposal in the Ukraine. The content, reason and phases of realization of each issue of this policy in the Ukraine are discussed. (author)

  14. Act local, think global: how the Malawi experience of scaling up antiretroviral treatment has informed global policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Harries

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in Malawi was based on a public health approach adapted to its resource-poor setting, with principles and practices borrowed from the successful tuberculosis control framework. From 2004 to 2015, the number of new patients started on ART increased from about 3000 to over 820,000. Despite being a small country, Malawi has made a significant contribution to the 15 million people globally on ART and has also contributed policy and service delivery innovations that have supported international guidelines and scale up in other countries. The first set of global guidelines for scaling up ART released by the World Health Organization (WHO in 2002 focused on providing clinical guidance. In Malawi, the ART guidelines adopted from the outset a more operational and programmatic approach with recommendations on health systems and services that were needed to deliver HIV treatment to affected populations. Seven years after the start of national scale-up, Malawi launched a new strategy offering all HIV-infected pregnant women lifelong ART regardless of the CD4-cell count, named Option B+. This strategy was subsequently incorporated into a WHO programmatic guide in 2012 and WHO ART guidelines in 2013, and has since then been adopted by the majority of countries worldwide. In conclusion, the Malawi experience of ART scale-up has become a blueprint for a public health response to HIV and has informed international efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

  15. The rise of digital direct-to-consumer advertising?: Comparison of direct-to-consumer advertising expenditure trends from publicly available data sources and global policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Cuomo, Raphael E; Liang, Bryan A

    2015-06-19

    Pharmaceutical marketing is undergoing a major shift in the United States, in part due to new transparency regulations under the healthcare reform act. Changes in pharmaceutical marketing practices include a possible shift from more traditional forms of direct-to-consumer advertising towards emerging use of Internet-based DTCA ("eDTCA") given the growing importance of digital health or "eHealth." Though legally allowed only in the U.S. and New Zealand, eDTCA poses novel regulatory challenges, as it can cross geopolitical boundaries and impact health systems and populations outside of these countries. We wished to assess whether changes in DTCA and eDTCA expenditure trends was occurring using publicly available pharmaceutical marketing data. DTCA data was analyzed to compare trends in aggregate marketing expenditures and to assess if there were statistically significant differences in trends and magnitudes for data sources and DTCA sub-categories (including eDTCA). This was accomplished using regression lines of DTCA trend data and conducting pairwise comparisons of regression coefficients using t-tests. Means testing was utilized for comparing magnitude of DTCA expenditure. Data from multiple data sources indicate that aggregate DTCA expenditures have slightly declined during the period from 2005-2009 and are consistent with results from other studies. For DTCA sub-categories, television remained the most utilized form of DTCA, though experienced trends of declining expenditures (-13.2 %) similar to other traditional media platforms such as radio (-30.7 %) and outdoor ads (-12.1 %). The only DTCA sub-category that experienced substantial increased expenditures was eDTCA (+109.0 %) and it was the only medium that had statistically significant differences in its marketing expenditure trends compared to other DTCA sub-categories. Our study indicates that traditional DTCA marketing may be on the decline. Conversely, the only DTCA sub-category that experienced

  16. H.R. 1020: A Bill to amend the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, February 23, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The report H.R. 1020 is a bill to amend the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The purpose of the Act is to direct the Secretary of Energy to develop an integrated spent nuclear fuel management system and to commence acceptance of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in accordance with the acceptable schedule no later than January 31, 1998. The proposed legislative text is included

  17. Energy, economic and environmental discourses and their policy impact: The case of Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, Mark; Dolter, Brett

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the debates around the Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act (GEGEA) as an energy and economic development strategy through comparative public policy and discourse analysis approaches. The evidence regarding the economic impacts of the GEGEA is found to be almost entirely based on the results of economic modeling exercises. Critics and supporters of the legislation have arrived at very different conclusions through such exercises. These outcomes are similar to those seen in other jurisdictions pursuing renewable energy initiatives, such as Feed In Tariffs (FITs), renewables obligations and portfolio standards. A discourse analysis approach is employed to examine the reasons for the different conclusions being reached over the impacts of renewable energy initiatives. Differences in modeling approaches and assumptions are found to reflect differences in ideational perspectives on the part of the modelers with respect to the appropriate roles of markets and the state and the relationship between economic development and environmental sustainability in public policy. The paper concludes with suggestions regarding the gathering and availability of information regarding economic development in the renewable energy sector, and a discussion of potential ways to strengthen future efforts to understand the economic and environmental impact of renewable energy initiatives. - Highlights: • The discourse surrounding renewable energy initiatives is embedded within wider ideological debates. • The information that underpins the debates in Ontario is the result of economic modelling, not empirical data. • All of the existing modelling efforts suffer from significant shortcomings. • FITS are seen as politically feasible mechanisms for correcting biases in favour of conventional technologies. • The province's long-term commitment of renewable energy development is now uncertain

  18. The utility industry's perspective on OCRWM's plans for developing the system for transporting spent fuel under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodnick, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The electric utility industry has a vital interest in the transport program to be developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The industry's interest stems in part from the fact that the DOE's transportation program is financed by the Nuclear Waste Fund which is made up of ratepayer funds. However, the industry is also vitally interested in the DOE's transportation program because it could impact the ongoing transportation operations of all nuclear utilities, and, perhaps most importantly, without the utility industry's input, DOE is not able to develop an optimal transportation program. The NWPA contemplates that the DOE conducts its transportation program in accordance with the existing federal and state regulatory structure. DOE has significant discretion, however, in creating and implementing the business, operational and institutional aspects of its NWPA transportation program. The utility industry intends to ensure that the DOE meets the challenge to develop a safe, efficient and economically sound program to transport spent fuel and high-level waste to the appropriate federal facilities

  19. Payments-Equal-To-Taxes (PETT): An interpretation of Sections 116(c) (3) and 118(b) (4) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.; Moore, W.E.; Lesko, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Payments-Equal-To-Taxes (PETT) program breaks new ground in government interaction by creating a tax-like transfer of funds from the federal government to states and local government. The PETT program is one of the financial assistance provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended [42 U.S.C. 10101, et seq.] (NWPAA). The NWPAA charges the US DOE with, among other things, the responsibility for investigation of potential sites and for licensing, constructing, and operating a repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel and an MRS facility. The NWPAA also called for financial assistance to the jurisdictions in which the repository and MRS facility are to be located. One of the financial impacts to the jurisdictions would be loss of tax revenue since the Supremacy clause of the Constitution prohibits jurisdictions from taxing the federal government. The objective of the PETT program is to provide payments that will offset this loss. Since the NWPAA authorizes continued site characterization activities only in the state of Nevada, the focus of this paper will be on the PETT program in Nevada. However, the information presented here generally applied to implementation of the program in other states where site characterization activities have been conducted

  20. SUHARTO’S POPULATION POLICY IN CONTEMPORARY INDONESIA : FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAM, MARRIAGE ACT OR COMPULSORY EDUCATION HAS THE GREATEST IMPACT TO FERTILITY DECLINE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Anantalia Widyastari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fertility in Indonesia has been falling significantly, from an average total fertility rate of 5.6 children per women in 1970s to 4.1 in 1980, and 2.6 in 2010. This paper attempts to explore which and how Suharto’s population policies have played role in Indonesia’s fertility decline. Whilst the adoption of modern contraceptive was perceived as the major determinant of fertility decline in Indonesia, changes in Indonesia’s political order and socio-economic development also contribute a considerable effect to Indonesians’ familial norms. The implementation of 9-year compulsory education had placed a strong foundation for the future Indonesian human capital and enabled women to obtain higher opportunities for schooling. Beside facilitates the diffusion of ideas among young people and opened up their perspective toward reproductive rights and self actualization, education also increases women’s opportunities to participate in laborforce. With the increasing roles outside the domestic sector, delaying age of marriage and limiting family size becomes a choice for women in contemporary Indonesia. The marriage act, however, was perceived as an accelerator rather than a predictor in increasing age of first marriage. Regardless the existence of the Marriage Law 1974, age of first marriage is likely to increase with increasing of education, although maybe in a slower rate.

  1. Quantifying the Impact of Vehicle and Motor Fuel Provisions from the Energy Policy Act on the Sustainability and Resilience of U.S. Cities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, Darlene; Sears, Ted

    2017-02-01

    The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, with later amendments, was enacted with the goal of reducing U.S. petroleum consumption by building a core market for alternative fuels and vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy manages three federal programs related to EPAct; the Sustainable Federal Fleets Program, the State and Alternative Fuel Provider Program, and Clean Cities. Federal agencies and State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets are required to submit annual reports that document their compliance with the legislation. Clean Cities is a voluntary program aimed at building partnerships and providing technical expertise to encourage cities to reduce petroleum use in transportation. This study reviews the evolution of these three programs in relation to alternative fuel and vehicle markets and private sector adoption of alternative fueled vehicles to assess the impact of the programs on reduction in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions both within the regulated fleets and through development of alternative fuel and vehicle markets. The increased availability of alternative fuels and use of alternative fuels in regulated fleets is expected to improve cities' ability to respond to and quickly recover from both local disasters and short- and long-term regional or national fuel supply interruptions. Our analysis examines the benefits as well as potential drawbacks of alternative fuel use for the resiliency of U.S. cities.

  2. The views of policy influencers and mental health officers concerning the Named Person provisions of the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzins, Kathryn M; Atkinson, Jacqueline M

    2010-10-01

    The Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 introduced the role of the Named Person, who can be nominated by service users to protect their interests if they become subject to compulsory measures and replaces the Nearest Relative. If no nomination is made, the primary carer or nearest relative is appointed the Named Person. The views of professionals involved in the development and implementation of the provisions were unknown. To describe the perceptions of mental health officers and policy makers involved in the development and implementation of the new provisions. Sixteen professionals were interviewed to explore their perceptions of and experiences with the Named Person provisions. Data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Perceptions of the Named Person provisions were generally favourable but concerns were expressed over low uptake; service users' and carers' lack of understanding of the role; and potential conflict with human rights legislation over choice and information sharing. Legislation should be amended to allow the choice of no Named Person and the prevention of information being shared with the default appointed Named Person. Removal of the default appointment should be considered.

  3. GABA induction of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae UGA4 gene depends on the quality of the carbon source: role of the key transcription factors acting in this process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Carolina E; Cardillo, Sabrina B; Bertotti, Santiago; Ríos, Cristian; Correa García, Susana; Moretti, Mariana Bermúdez

    2012-05-11

    Yeast cells are able to adapt their metabolism according to the quality of both carbon and nitrogen sources available in the environment. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UGA4 gene encodes a permease capable of transporting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) into the cells. Yeast uses this amino acid as a nitrogen source or as a carbon skeleton that enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The quality of the carbon source modulates UGA4 expression through two parallel pathways, each one acting on different regulatory elements, the UAS(GATA) and the UAS(GABA). In the presence of a fermentable carbon source, UGA4 expression is induced by GABA while in the presence of a non-fermentable carbon source this expression is GABA-independent. The aim of this work was to study the mechanisms responsible for the differences in the profiles of UGA4 expression in both growth conditions. We found that although the subcellular localization of Gln3 depends on the carbon source and UGA4 expression depends on Tor1 and Snf1, Gln3 localization does not depend on these kinases. We also found that the phosphorylation of Gln3 is mediated by two systems activated by a non-fermentable carbon source, involving the Snf1 kinase and an unidentified TORC1-regulated kinase. We also found that the activity of the main transcription factors responsible for UGA4 induction by GABA varies depending on the quality of the carbon source. In a fermentable carbon source such as glucose, the negative GATA factor Dal80 binds to UGA4 promoter; only after the addition of the inducer, the positive factors Uga3, Dal81 and Gln3 interact with the promoter removing Dal80 and leading to gene induction. In contrast, in the non-fermentable carbon source acetate the negative GATA factor remains bound to UGA4 promoter in the presence or absence of GABA, the positive factors are not detected bound in any of these conditions and in consequence, UGA4 is not induced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  5. DOD Purchase of Renewable Energy Credits Under the National Defense Authorization Act of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005 established renewable energy goals for federal government agencies. The National Defense Authorization Act for...Fiscal Year 2012 directs the Secretary of Defense to establish a policy to maximize savings for the bulk purchase of replacement renewable energy certificates...in connection with the development of facility energy projects using renewable energy sources. This requires that each service purchase

  6. Assessment of effectiveness measures in patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting therapy: the SOURCE study results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirani Riad D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate effectiveness outcomes in a real-world setting in patients with schizophrenia initiating risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT. Methods This was a 24-month, multicenter, prospective, longitudinal, observational study in patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on RLAT. Physicians could change treatment during the study as clinically warranted. Data were collected at baseline and subsequently every 3 months up to 24 months. Effectiveness outcomes included changes in illness severity as measured by Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S scale; functional scores as measured by Personal and Social Performance (PSP scale, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF, and Strauss-Carpenter Levels of Functioning (LOF; and health status (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 [SF-36]. Life-table methodology was used to estimate the cumulative probability of relapse over time. Adverse events were evaluated for safety. Results 532 patients were enrolled in the study; 209 (39.3% completed the 24-month study and 305 (57.3% had at least 12 months of follow-up data. The mean (SD age of patients was 42.3 (12.8 years. Most patients were male (66.4% and either Caucasian (60.3% or African American (23.7%. All changes in CGI-S from baseline at each subsequent 3-month follow-up visit were statistically significant (p Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on RLAT demonstrated improvements in measures of effectiveness within 3 months, which persisted over 24 months. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00246194

  7. Basaltic substrate composition affects microbial community development and acts as a source of nutrients in the deep biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, B.; Sudek, L.; Templeton, A.; Staudigel, H.; Tebo, B.; Moyer, C.; Davis, R.

    2006-12-01

    Studies of the oceanic crust over the past decade have revealed that in spite of the oligotrophic nature of this environment, a diverse biosphere is present in the upper 1 km of basaltic crust. The key energy source in this setting may be the high content of transistion metals (Fe, Mn) found in the basaltic glass, but in order to discover the role of Fe and Mn in the deep biosphere, we must first determine which microbes are present and how they attain the necessary metabolites for proliferation. Our work contributes to both questions through the use of molecular microbiology techniques and the exposure of specifically designed substrates on the ocean floor. Loihi Seamount off the southeast coast of the Big Island of Hawai'i provides a unique laboratory for the study of distribution and population of microbial communities associated with iron rich environments on the ocean floor. Iron oxide flocculent material (floc) dominates the direct and diffuse hydrothermal venting areas on Loihi which makes it a prime target for understanding the role of iron in biological systems in the deep biosphere. We collected iron oxide floc and basaltic glass from pillow basalts around several hydrothermal vents on the crater rim, within the pit crater Pele's Pit, and from deep off of the southern rift zone of Loihi using the HURL PISCES IV/V submersibles. We also deployed basaltic glass sand amended with various nutrients (phosphate, oxidized and reduced iron, manganese) and recovered them in subsequent years to determine how substrate composition affects community structure. We extracted DNA from both rock and iron flocs and used t-RFLP to obtain a genetic fingerprint of the microbial communities associated with each substrate. From olivine and tholeiitic basalt enrichments, it appears that substrate composition strongly influences microbial colonization and subsequent community development even when deployed in the same conditions. Culturing efforts have yielded several iron

  8. Sources of difference. In answer to the article about diverging paths of German and US policies for renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Sarina

    2010-01-01

    The article to which this article refers gives some very interesting insights into the different development of both countries' renewable energy policies. However, after reading this article, some questions ensue and several points require clarification.

  9. A fast-acting hydrogen gas source for staged pneumatic high-speed acceleration of fusion plasma fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, S.A.; Baekmark, L.

    1990-02-01

    This report describes a possible design of a fast, high-temperature, arc-driven hydrogen gas source module, to be used in a scheme for multistage high-speed pneumatic acceleration of fusion plasma fuel pellets. The potential of this scheme for operating with a moderate driving pressure at long acceleration path lengths is particular attractive for accelerating fragile hydrogen isotope ice pellets. From experiments with an ethanol-based arc unit, design parameters for a propeller module were assessed, and with a barrel-mounted ethanol module staged pneumatic acceleration of a plastic dummy pellet was demonstrated. In experiments with a hydrogenbased, cryogenic arc unit in which 200 joules of electrical energy were dissipated with a power level approaching 5 MW within 30 mus, the velocity of a 23-mg plastic pellet was increased from 1.7 to 2.4 km/s. Results in terms of barrel pressure transients and arc characteristics are described. (author) 20 ills., 8 refs

  10. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Cale

    Full Text Available Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle's fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success.

  11. Successful implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) at a US Department of Energy (DOE) site: Environmental assessment preparation - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haagenstad, T.; Ladino, A.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) implements the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) using a NEPA Compliance Team. The NEPA Compliance Team (Team) is composed of DOE Los Alamos Area Office (LAAO) and LANL employees that combine to create quality improvements in the DOE NEPA compliance process at both LAAO and LANL. A major focus of quality improvement has been in the area of Environmental Assessment (EA) documentation preparation. The NEPA Team within LANL's Ecology Group (ESH-20) is the organization responsible for preparing the EA documentation on behalf of DOE. DOE and LANL team in an interdisciplinary process to prepare review, and complete EAs using the technical expertise of individuals throughout the DOE and LANL. This approach has demonstrated significant time and cost savings as well as EA document quality improvements. The process used to prepare an EA for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) is presented as an example of a successful approach to implementing NEPA. The LEDA EA is used as a case study example to demonstrate how an integrated and interdisciplinary approach to conducting a NEPA analysis yields extremely successful results. The LEDA EA was prepared on an extremely aggressive schedule with tight cost constraints. The ESH-20 NEPA Team was successful in providing a critical link between the DOE decision-makers and the LEDA project representatives within LANL. As the technical scope of the LEDA project changed during the preparation of the EA, by emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach, the Team was able to quickly assess the implications and potential impacts through open communications with the various subject matter experts while maintaining a pace consistent with the EA schedule demands

  12. Preventive Care Benefits (Affordable Care Act)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For children Footer Resources About the Affordable Care Act Regulatory and Policy Information For Navigators, Assisters & Partners ... gov USA.gov Resources About the Affordable Care Act Regulatory and Policy Information For Navigators, Assisters & Partners ...

  13. Macro and micro plastics sorb and desorb metals and act as a point source of trace metals to coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, B; Bendell, L I

    2018-01-01

    3) serving as a point source of acute trace metal exposure to coastal ecosystems. All three mechanisms will put coastal ecosystems at risk to the toxic effects of these metals.

  14. Macro and micro plastics sorb and desorb metals and act as a point source of trace metals to coastal ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Munier

    . Plastic debris will affect metals within coastal ecosystems by; 1 providing a sorption site (copper and lead, notably for PVC 2 desorption from the plastic i.e., the "inherent" load (cadmium and zinc and 3 serving as a point source of acute trace metal exposure to coastal ecosystems. All three mechanisms will put coastal ecosystems at risk to the toxic effects of these metals.

  15. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Research and innovation are key pillars of the EU’s strategy to create sustainable growth and prosperity in Europe. Research infrastructures (RIs) are central instruments to implement this strategy. They bring together a wide diversity of expertise and interests to look for solutions to many of t...... need to consider in their IPR policies to balance the core-objectives of multiple stakeholders and achieve sustainability. In Part II, we will analyze and compare the different IPR policies of the various ERICs in a subsequent article....

  16. The Abandoned E-Waste Recycling Site Continued to Act As a Significant Source of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: An in Situ Assessment Using Fugacity Samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Wang, Shaorui; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-08-16

    The recycling of e-waste has attracted significant attention due to emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminants into the environment. We measured PCB concentrations in surface soils, air equilibrated with the soil, and air at 1.5-m height using a fugacity sampler in an abandoned electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China. The total concentrations of PCBs in the soils were 39.8-940 ng/g, whereas the concentrations in air equilibrated with the soil and air at 1.5 m height were 487-8280 pg/m(3) and 287-7380 pg/m(3), respectively. The PCB concentrations displayed seasonal variation; they were higher in winter in the soils and higher in summer in the air, indicating that the emission of PCBs from the soil was enhanced during hot seasons for the relatively high temperature or additional sources, especially for low-chlorinated PCBs. We compared two methods (traditional fugacity model and fugacity sampler) for assessing the soil-air partition coefficients (Ksa) and the fugacity fractions of PCBs. The results suggested that the fugacity sampler provided more instructive and practical estimation on Ksa values and trends in air-soil exchange, especially for low-chlorinated PCBs. The abandoned e-waste burning site still acted as a significant source of PCBs many years after the prohibition on open burning.

  17. IT Policies for Development: Analysis and Recommendations of Free Libre Open Source Software Initiatives of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Rangel, Edgar A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the two concepts of economic development and technological advancement have become entwined so that they have, in many cases, come to mean the same thing. For countries seeking economic development through engagement with the Information Economy, policies supporting technological development claim privileged positions in national…

  18. Research Self-Efficacy Sources and Research Motivation in a Foreign Language University Faculty in Mexico: Implications for Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cruz, María del Rosario; Perales-Escudero, Moisés Damián

    2016-01-01

    The research self-efficacy and motivation of foreign language (FL) faculty in periphery countries is under-researched, yet there is a need to understand the impact of public policies that drive such faculty to conduct research. This paper reports a qualitative case study investigating research self-efficacy and research motivation in a group of…

  19. Analyzing Cost Implications of Water Quality Trading Provisions: Lessons from the Virginia Nutrient Credit Exchange Act

    OpenAIRE

    Aultman, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the cost implications of various provisions of the Virginia Nutrient Credit Exchange Act. The first objective was to estimate the cost implications of point source trading provisions of the Act. An integer programming cost minimization model was constructed to estimate the cost of achieving four point source trading policy scenarios. The model estimated the annual cost of meeting two different nutrient cap levels, each with and without a limits-of-te...

  20. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY REGARDING THE SUITABILITY OF THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE FOR A REPOSITORY UNDER THE NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY ACT OF 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2002-03-26

    For more than half a century, since nuclear science helped us win World War II and ring in the Atomic Age, scientists have known that !he Nation would need a secure, permanent facility in which to dispose of radioactive wastes. Twenty years ago, when Congress adopted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA or ''the Act''), it recognized the overwhelming consensus in the scientific community that the best option for such a facility would be a deep underground repository. Fifteen years ago, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to investigate and recommend to the President whether such a repository could be located safely at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since then, our country has spent billions of dollars and millions of hours of research endeavoring to answer this question. I have carefully reviewed the product of this study. In my judgment, it constitutes sound science and shows that a safe repository can be sited there. I also believe that compelling national interests counsel in favor of proceeding with this project. Accordingly, consistent with my responsibilities under the NWPA, today I am recommending that Yucca Mountain be developed as the site for an underground repository for spent fuel and other radioactive wastes. The first consideration in my decision was whether the Yucca Mountain site will safeguard the health and safety of the people, in Nevada and across the country, and will be effective in containing at minimum risk the material it is designed to hold. Substantial evidence shows that it will. Yucca Mountain is far and away the most thoroughly researched site of its kind in the world. It is a geologically stable site, in a closed groundwater basin, isolated on thousands of acres of Federal land, and farther from any metropolitan area than the great majority of less secure, temporary nuclear waste storage sites that exist in the country today. This point bears emphasis. We are not confronting a hypothetical problem. We have a

  1. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY REGARDING THE SUITABILITY OF THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE FOR A REPOSITORY UNDER THE NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY ACT OF 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than half a century, since nuclear science helped us win World War II and ring in the Atomic Age, scientists have known that the Nation would need a secure, permanent facility in which to dispose of radioactive wastes. Twenty years ago, when Congress adopted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA or ''the Act''), it recognized the overwhelming consensus in the scientific community that the best option for such a facility would be a deep underground repository. Fifteen years ago, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to investigate and recommend to the President whether such a repository could be located safely at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since then, our country has spent billions of dollars and millions of hours of research endeavoring to answer this question. I have carefully reviewed the product of this study. In my judgment, it constitutes sound science and shows that a safe repository can be sited there. I also believe that compelling national interests counsel in favor of proceeding with this project. Accordingly, consistent with my responsibilities under the NWPA, today I am recommending that Yucca Mountain be developed as the site for an underground repository for spent fuel and other radioactive wastes. The first consideration in my decision was whether the Yucca Mountain site will safeguard the health and safety of the people, in Nevada and across the country, and will be effective in containing at minimum risk the material it is designed to hold. Substantial evidence shows that it will. Yucca Mountain is far and away the most thoroughly researched site of its kind in the world. It is a geologically stable site, in a closed groundwater basin, isolated on thousands of acres of Federal land, and farther from any metropolitan area than the great majority of less secure, temporary nuclear waste storage sites that exist in the country today. This point bears emphasis. We are not confronting a hypothetical problem. We have a staggering amount of

  2. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer, Arthur S. Rood, A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-12-23

    Groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility. The analysis was prepared to support the National Environmental Policy Act environmental assessment for the top two ranked sites for the proposed disposal facility. A four-phase screening and analysis approach was documented and applied. Phase I screening was site independent and applied a radionuclide half-life cut-off of 1 year. Phase II screening applied the National Council on Radiation Protection analysis approach and was site independent. Phase III screening used a simplified transport model and site-specific geologic and hydrologic parameters. Phase III neglected the infiltration-reducing engineered cover, the sorption influence of the vault system, dispersion in the vadose zone, vertical dispersion in the aquifer, and the release of radionuclides from specific waste forms. These conservatisms were relaxed in the Phase IV analysis which used a different model with more realistic parameters and assumptions. Phase I screening eliminated 143 of the 246 radionuclides in the inventory from further consideration because each had a half-life less than 1 year. An additional 13 were removed because there was no ingestion dose coefficient available. Of the 90 radionuclides carried forward from Phase I, 57 radionuclides had simulated Phase II screening doses exceeding 0.4 mrem/year. Phase III and IV screening compared the maximum predicted radionuclide concentration in the aquifer to maximum contaminant levels. Of the 57 radionuclides carried forward from Phase II, six radionuclides were identified in Phase III as having simulated future aquifer concentrations exceeding maximum contaminant limits. An additional seven radionuclides had simulated Phase III groundwater concentrations exceeding 1/100th of their respective maximum contaminant levels and were also retained for Phase IV analysis. The Phase IV analysis predicted that none of the thirteen remaining

  3. An approximate policy for a dual-sourcing inventory model with positive lead times and binomial yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Wanrong; Gabor, Adriana F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the inventory system of a retailer who orders his products from two supply sources, a local one that is responsive and reliable, but expensive, and a global one that is low-cost but less reliable. The deliveries from the global source only partially satisfy the quality

  4. Proxy measures of fitness suggest coastal fish farms can act as population sources and not ecological traps for wild gadoid fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Dempster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecological traps form when artificial structures are added to natural habitats and induce mismatches between habitat preferences and fitness consequences. Their existence in terrestrial systems has been documented, yet little evidence suggests they occur in marine environments. Coastal fish farms are widespread artificial structures in coastal ecosystems and are highly attractive to wild fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate if coastal salmon farms act as ecological traps for wild Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and saithe (Pollachius virens, we compared proxy measures of fitness between farm-associated fish and control fish caught distant from farms in nine locations throughout coastal Norway, the largest coastal fish farming industry in the world. Farms modified wild fish diets in both quality and quantity, thereby providing farm-associated wild fish with a strong trophic subsidy. This translated to greater somatic (saithe: 1.06-1.12 times; cod: 1.06-1.11 times and liver condition indices (saithe: 1.4-1.8 times; cod: 2.0-2.8 times than control fish caught distant from farms. Parasite loads of farm-associated wild fish were modified from control fish, with increased external and decreased internal parasites, however the strong effect of the trophic subsidy overrode any effects of altered loads upon condition. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Proxy measures of fitness provided no evidence that salmon farms function as ecological traps for wild fish. We suggest fish farms may act as population sources for wild fish, provided they are protected from fishing while resident at farms to allow their increased condition to manifest as greater reproductive output.

  5. EPA's Revised Policy with Respect to the New Source Review (NSR) Offset Provisions in Attainment, Marginal and Moderate Ozone Nonattainment Areas in the Ozone Transport Region (OTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy Act of 1977. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session on S. 897 and S. 1432

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    On April 7, 1977, President Carter announced his nuclear power policy. The policy statement set forth seven specific objectives for the future use of nuclear energy in this country and the rest of the world. The two proposed instruments for implementing this policy are the revised fiscal year 1978 ERDA authorization draft bill and S. 1432, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1977. These legislative proposals are linked in that S. 1432 is designed to establish a non-proliferation framework with specific objectives established for the ERDA nuclear energy programs. The ERDA authorization bill is the budgetary vehicle to implement those objectives. The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources obtained joint referral of certain portions of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act to insure that non-proliferation policy is implemented in a manner consistent with the policy of having sufficient energy for this country and foreign countries in the future. The Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development must examine the costs and the consequences of various initiatives before they are implemented. F or example, the proposal to guarantee uranium enrichment services for foreign nations poses specific requirements on ERDA to expand considerably our enrichment capacity by the year 2000. Without reprocessing, it is expected that spent fuel rods from abroad will be returned to this country for storage with attendant costs and siting decisions. Also, international fuel-cycle evaluation programs must be carefully examined to insure that all options, including regional fuel cycle centers with international controls and inspection, are considered in seeking international approaches to the non-proliferation objectives. At the June 10 hearing, the subcommittee received testimony on S. 1432, the bill prepared by the administration. The hearings on September 13 and 14 focused on S. 897. Statements by many witnesses are included

  7. The long-term relationships among China's energy consumption sources and adjustments to its renewable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Gaolu

    2012-01-01

    To reduce its consumption of coal and oil in its primary energy consumption, China promotes the development of renewable energy resources. I have analysed the long-term relationship among China's primary energy consumption sources. Changes in coal consumption lead those in the consumption of other energy sources in the long term. Coal and oil fuels substitute for each other equally. The long-term elasticities of China's coal consumption relative to its hydroelectricity consumption were greater than one and nearly equal during the two sample periods. Therefore, increased hydroelectricity consumption did not imply a reduction in coal consumption. China holds abundant hydroelectricity, wind and, solar energy potential. China must prevent an excessive escalation of its economy and resultant energy demand to realise a meaningful substitution of coal with hydroelectricity. Moreover, China must develop and use wind and solar energy sources. Natural gas can be a good substitute for coal, given its moderate price growth and affordable price levels. - Highlights: ► Coal consumption changes lead those of other energy sources in the long term. ► Coal and oil fuels substitute for each other equally. ► Increased hydroelectricity consumption has not meant lower coal consumption. ► Wind, solar and natural gas are China's promising energy sources.

  8. Differential catabolism of muscle protein in garden warblers (Sylvia borin): flight and leg muscle act as a protein source during long-distance migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchinger, U; Biebach, H

    2001-05-01

    Samples of flight and leg muscle tissue were taken from migratory garden warblers at three different stages of migration: (1) pre-flight: when birds face an extended flight phase within the next few days, (2) post-flight: when they have just completed an extended flight phase, and (3) recovery: when they are at the end of a stop-over period following an extended flight phase. The changes in body mass are closely related to the changes in flight (Pflight. From pre- to post-flight, the flight and the leg muscle masses decrease by about 22%, but are restored to about 12% above the pre-flight masses during the recovery period. Biochemical analyses show that following flight a selective reduction occurred in the myofibrillar (contractile) component of the flight muscle (Pflight and leg muscle act as a protein source during long-distance migration. As a loss of leg muscle mass is additionally observed besides the loss in flight muscle mass, mass change seems not to be strictly associated with the mechanical power output requirements during flight. Whereas the specific content of sarcoplasmic proteins in the flight muscle is nearly twice as high as that in the leg muscle (Pflight muscle is one of the highest observed in muscles of a vertebrate.

  9. Department of Defense Cyberspace Policy Report: A Report to Congress Pursuant to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011, Section 934

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    could pose a serious threat to the U.S. economy, government, or military through cyber attacks . The Department recognizes that a nation possessing...in order to defend against them and to improve our ability to attribute any cyber attacks that may occur. Forensic analysis is a part of...our partners, and our interests from hostile acts in cyberspace. Hostile acts may include significant cyber attacks directed against the U.S

  10. Policies for energy performance and use of renewable sources in Brazil; Politicas para el rendimiento energetico y uso de fuentes renovables en Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Howard; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre; Tolmasquim, Mauricio [Southwest Energy Efficiency Proyect, CO (United States)

    2005-04-15

    The objectives for the tendencies and the energy policy in Brazil are presented along with 12 policy options searching advancement in the efficient use of energy and renewable energy. The policies are analyzed by a group of experts in relation to their impacts on source and demand of total energy as well as CO{sub 2} emissions. It is concluded that the policies will offer a wide range of advantages for Brazil, including the reduction of requirements for the investment in the energy sector, the reduction of the import as well as of the CO{sub 2} emissions and the granting of social benefits. Since Brazil looks forward to diversify its sources, reduce its dependency on imports and diminish the inefficiency and energy cost, its policies are focused to the adoption of energy standards for new commercial constructions, to the use extension of wind power and combined heat and energy systems and to stimulate the CHP systems using bagasse and other sugar cane products. [Spanish] Se muestran los objetivos de las tendencias y la politica energetica en Brasil junto con 12 opciones de politicas para avanzar en el uso eficiente de energeticos y de la energia renovable. Las politicas son analizadas por un grupo de expertos en relacion con sus impactos en fuente y demanda de energia totales, asi como emisiones de CO{sub 2}. Se concluye que las politicas ofreceran una amplia gama de ventajas para Brasil, incluyendo la reduccion de requisitos para la inversion en el sector energia, el descenso tanto de la importacion como de las emisiones de CO{sub 2} y el otorgamiento de beneficios sociales. Dado que Brasil busca diversificar sus fuentes, reducir su dependencia de la importacion y disminuir la ineficacia y gasto de la energia, sus politicas estan enfocadas a la adopcion de estandares de energia para nuevas construcciones comerciales, la ampliacion del uso de los sistemas combinados de calor y energia, usar el poder del viento y estimular los sistemas de CHP usando bagazo y otros

  11. A Simple Object-Oriented and Open Source Model for Scientific and Policy Analyses of the Global Carbon Cycle-Hector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, C.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Patel, P.; Link, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in policy and scientific communities. They are used in climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe, Hector an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global scale earth system processes, e.g., carbon fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere, and respiration and primary production on land. Hector has three main carbon pools: an atmosphere, land, and ocean. The terrestrial carbon cycle is represented by a simple design with respiration and primary production, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. The ocean carbon cycle actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air-sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the large-scale global trends found in historical data of atmospheric [CO2] and surface temperature and simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways. Hector's results compare well with current observations of critical climate variables, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), as well as, model output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5. Hector has the ability to be a key analytical tool used across many scientific and policy communities due to its modern software architecture, open source, and object-oriented structure. In particular, Hector can be used to emulate larger complex models to help fill gaps in scenario coverage for future scenario processes.

  12. Environmental Policy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don

    1985-03-01

    This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.

  13. submitter BioSharing: curated and crowd-sourced metadata standards, databases and data policies in the life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    McQuilton, Peter; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Thurston, Milo; Lister, Allyson; Maguire, Eamonn; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta

    2016-01-01

    BioSharing (http://www.biosharing.org) is a manually curated, searchable portal of three linked registries. These resources cover standards (terminologies, formats and models, and reporting guidelines), databases, and data policies in the life sciences, broadly encompassing the biological, environmental and biomedical sciences. Launched in 2011 and built by the same core team as the successful MIBBI portal, BioSharing harnesses community curation to collate and cross-reference resources across the life sciences from around the world. BioSharing makes these resources findable and accessible (the core of the FAIR principle). Every record is designed to be interlinked, providing a detailed description not only on the resource itself, but also on its relations with other life science infrastructures. Serving a variety of stakeholders, BioSharing cultivates a growing community, to which it offers diverse benefits. It is a resource for funding bodies and journal publishers to navigate the metadata landscape of the ...

  14. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy Act of 1977. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session, June 10, September 13, 14, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Senator Frank Church presented the opening statement on the June 10, 1977 hearing concerning the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy Act of 1977, S.1432. S.1432 is designed to establish a nonproliferation framework with specific objectives established for the ERDA nuclear energy programs. The ERDA authorization bill is the budgetary vehicle to implement these objectives. The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources obtained joint referral of certain portions of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act to insure that nonproliferation policy is implemented in a manner consistent with the policy of having sufficent energy for this country and foreign countries in the future. Additionally, the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development must examine the cost and the consequences of various initiatives before they are implemented. For example, the proposal to guarantee uranium enrichment services for foreign nations poses specific requirements on ERDA to expand considerably our enrichment capacity by the year 2000. Without reprocessing, it is expected that spent fuel rods from abroad will be returned to this country for storage with attendant costs and siting decisions. Also, international fuel cycle evaluation programs must be carefully examined to insure that all options, including regional fuel cycle centers with international controls and inspection, are considered in seeking international approaches to the nonproliferation objectives. It is these and related questions to which the subcommittee seeks answers. The hearings on September 13 and 14 focused on S.897, a bill to strengthen U.S. policies on nonproliferation and to reorganize certain export functions of the Federal government to promote more efficient administration of such functions. Statements were presented by experts in government, private firms, and industrial sectors

  15. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  16. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  17. Energy policy. Technical developments, political strategies, and concepts of action regarding renewable energy sources and rational energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauch, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study book deals with problems from the history of energy, energy sytems, energy engineering, and the potential of renewable energy sources: hydro and wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaics and solar thermal conversion; the improvement of boundary conditions for their transfer to market; concepts of action and project funding preferences of the EU, USA and Japan in this sector; relevant activities of the federal German government and proposals by non-governmental players in the field as well as strategies for rational energy use; methods for building an energy consensus and criteria for valuating energy systems; concepts of action and proposals for extending solar energy use in the Mediterranean and Afrika, as well as political factors governing the market introduction and export promotion of renewable energy technologies in this triad: the USA, Japan, and the European Union. Seven of the papers contained in the book are individually recorded. (orig./RHM). 76 figs., 100 tabs [de

  18. The Children's Internet Protection Act and E-Rate Policies in Louisiana: A Comparison of Policy Interpretations in Region III and Their Impact on Learning Opportunities of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautreaux, Madge L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2000, President Bill Clinton enacted the "Children's Internet Protection Act" (CIPA) which requires all K-12 schools and publicly funded libraries to use Internet filters to protect children from pornography and other obscene or potentially harmful online content as a stipulation for receiving E-Rate funding. The varying…

  19. A Point Source of a Different Color: Identifying a Gap in United States Regulatory Policy for “Green” CSO Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno F. Levy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to 850 billion gallons of untreated combined sewer overflow (CSO is discharged into waters of the United States each year. Recent changes in CSO management policy support green infrastructure (GI technologies as “front of the pipe” approaches to discharge mitigation by detention/reduction of urban stormwater runoff. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment have been considered among suites of GI solutions. However, these wetlands differ fundamentally from other GI technologies in that they are “end of the pipe” treatment systems that discharge from a point source, and are therefore regulated in the U.S. under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES. We use a comparative regulatory analysis to examine the U.S. policy framework for CSO treatment wetlands. We find in all cases that permitting authorities have used best professional judgment to determine effluent limits and compliance monitoring requirements, referencing technology and water quality-based standards originally developed for traditional “grey” treatment systems. A qualitative comparison with Europe shows less stringent regulatory requirements, perhaps due to institutionalized design parameters. We recommend that permitting authorities develop technical guidance documents for evaluation of “green” CSO treatment systems that account for their unique operational concerns and benefits with respect to sustainable development.

  20. Access to Information Act

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PC Forms Inc. 834-4048

    To apply for information under the Access to. Information Act, complete this form or a written request mentioning the Act. Describe the information being sought and provide any relevant details necessary to help the International. Development Research Centre (IDRC) find it. If you require assistance, refer to Info Source.

  1. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  2. A difficult balancing act: policy actors' perspectives on using economic evaluation to inform health-care coverage decisions under the Universal Health Insurance Coverage scheme in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Russell, Steve

    2008-03-01

    In Thailand, policymakers have come under increasing pressure to use economic evaluation to inform health-care resource allocation decisions, especially after the introduction of the Universal Health Insurance Coverage (UC) scheme. This article presents qualitative findings from research that assessed a range of policymakers' perspectives on the acceptability of using economic evaluation for the development of health-care benefit packages in Thailand. The policy analysis examined their opinions about existing decision-making processes for including health interventions in the UC benefit package, their understanding of health economic evaluation, and their attitudes, acceptance, and values relating to the use of the method. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role or have some input into health resource allocation decisions within the Thai health-care system. These included 14 senior policymakers at the national level, 5 hospital directors, 10 health professionals, and 7 academics. Policy actors thought that economic evaluation information was relevant for decision-making because of the increasing need for rationing and more transparent criteria for making UC coverage decisions. Nevertheless, they raised several difficulties with using economic evaluation that would pose barriers to its introduction, including distrust in the method, conflicting philosophical positions and priorities compared to that of "health maximization," organizational allegiances, existing decision-making procedures that would be hard to change, and concerns about political pressure and acceptability.

  3. Persistent Pb Pollution in Central East Antarctic Snow: A Retrospective Assessment of Sources and Control Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chaewon; Han, Changhee; Han, Yeongcheol; Hur, Soon Do; Lee, Sanghee; Motoyama, Hideaki; Hou, Shugui; Hong, Sungmin

    2016-11-15

    Well-defined variations in the enrichments and isotopic compositions of Pb have been observed in snow from Dome Fuji and Dome A in the central East Antarctic Plateau (EAP) over the past few decades. The Pb isotopic fingerprints indicate that the rapid increase in Pb enrichments from the mid-1970s, reaching a peak in ∼1980, is due to the massive use of leaded gasoline in northern South America, especially Brazil. Since then, they show a continuous decline, mostly due to the significant removal of the Pb additives from gasoline in Brazil in the 1980s and, subsequently, in Argentina and Chile in the 1990s. After the phase-out of Pb in gasoline, Cu smelting in Chile has become the major source of Pb, contributing ∼90% to the total Pb emissions in northern South America in 2005. Nevertheless, Pb pollution in the central EAP declined substantially until recently as a result of the regulatory efforts to curb toxic trace metal emissions from the Cu industry in Chile. However, more than 90% of the Pb in the most remote places on Earth are still of anthropogenic origin, highlighting the need for the continuation of environmental regulations for the further reduction of Pb emissions.

  4. Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and processes. ... New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ... South African skills development policy since the promulgation of the Skills Development Act of 1998 has undergone a number of different iterations or attempts at accelerating ...

  5. CO2 Tax or Fee as a Single Economic Instrument for Climate Protection Policy Promoting Renewable Energy Sources and Enhancing Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.; Horvath, L.; Jelavic, B.; Juric, Z.; Kulisic, B.; Vuk, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the current implementation of the policy to reduce CO 2 emissions through four practically independent processes: energy market, emission market, support for renewable energy sources through feed-in tariffs (FIT) and support scheme for enhancing energy efficiency. The conclusion is that in this system, some elements of which appear to be controversial, it is not possible to reach the goal - a radical reduction of CO 2 emissions by 80% in total and 95% in electricity production until 2050, which the EU has set as emission reduction targets for this period. Therefore, a new system is now proposed that is based on a single objective function, CO 2 emissions. The process would be managed through taxes or fees on CO 2 , while the raised revenues would be returned to projects aimed at reducing CO 2 emissions, projects for enhancing energy efficiency, renewable energy sources projects and projects reducing emissions from fossil fuels. The paper outlines the basis of the concept of CO 2 tax or fee as a key measure to stimulate the lowering of emissions and gives an analysis of the impact of different rates of tax or fee on CO 2 emissions on the energy price. A critical analysis of the new model's impact on development of renewable energy sources and on improving energy efficiency in buildings was carried out. Also, there is an analysis of the impact of the new model on transport development. The introduction of the new model should clear the energy market from administrative limitations and privileged positions of renewable sources and should bring all back in the frame of market economy, no matter what source of energy for production of electricity we are dealing with. One limitation to the new model is translation of the current situation in to the new system, especially in the field of renewable energy sources and their protected position under the already concluded long-term contracts. The paper also elaborates the basis for the

  6. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Source Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schroeder, J. N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, R. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patton, T. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Durham, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Murphy, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel–based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  7. Response surface modeling-based source contribution analysis and VOC emission control policy assessment in a typical ozone-polluted urban Shunde, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yun; Jang, Carey; Wang, Shuxiao; Gao, Jian; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Minhui; Zhu, Zhenghua; Wei, Hao; Yang, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    To develop a sound ozone (O 3 ) pollution control strategy, it is important to well understand and characterize the source contribution due to the complex chemical and physical formation processes of O 3 . Using the "Shunde" city as a pilot summer case study, we apply an innovative response surface modeling (RSM) methodology based on the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling simulations to identify the O 3 regime and provide dynamic analysis of the precursor contributions to effectively assess the O 3 impacts of volatile organic compound (VOC) control strategy. Our results show that Shunde is a typical VOC-limited urban O 3 polluted city. The "Jiangmen" city, as the main upper wind area during July 2014, its VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions make up the largest contribution (9.06%). On the contrary, the contribution from local (Shunde) emission is lowest (6.35%) among the seven neighbor regions. The local VOCs industrial source emission has the largest contribution comparing to other precursor emission sectors in Shunde. The results of dynamic source contribution analysis further show that the local NO x control could slightly increase the ground O 3 under low (10.00%) and medium (40.00%) reduction ratios, while it could start to turn positive to decrease ground O 3 under the high NO x abatement ratio (75.00%). The real-time assessment of O 3 impacts from VOCs control strategies in Pearl River Delta (PRD) shows that the joint regional VOCs emission control policy will effectively reduce the ground O 3 concentration in Shunde. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  9. Type of Plan and Provider Network (Affordable Care Act)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to you. Footer Resources About the Affordable Care Act Regulatory and Policy Information For Navigators, Assisters & Partners ... gov USA.gov Resources About the Affordable Care Act Regulatory and Policy Information For Navigators, Assisters & Partners ...

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to try. However, the best ACT is the one that you are most likely to perform as part of your daily treatment plan. Watch the webcast below to hear a respiratory ... Policy Our History Board of Trustees Our Leadership Careers ...

  11. 75 FR 11565 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings Type: Quarterly Meeting. Dates and Times.... Agenda: Public Comment Sessions; Emergency Management; Developmental Disabilities and Bill of Rights Act, International Development, National Summit on Disability Policy 2010, United States Marine Corps Research...

  12. 25 CFR 700.103 - Uniform Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform Act. 700.103 Section 700.103 Indians THE OFFICE... and Instructions Definitions § 700.103 Uniform Act. The term Uniform Act means the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1894; 42 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.; Pub. L...

  13. 40 CFR 1508.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 1508.2 Section 1508.2 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.2 Act. Act means the National Environmental Policy Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.) which is also referred to as “NEPA.” ...

  14. Collecting Evidence to Inform Salt Reduction Policies in Argentina: Identifying Sources of Sodium Intake in Adults from a Population-Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Elorriaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The maximum content of sodium in selected processed foods (PF in Argentina was limited by a law enacted in 2013. Data about intake of these and other foods are necessary for policy planning, implementation, evaluation, and monitoring. We examined data from the CESCAS I population-based cohort study to assess the main dietary sources among PF and frequency of discretionary salt use by sex, age, and education attainment, before full implementation of the regulations in 2015. We used a validated 34-item FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess PF intake and discretional salt use. Among 2127 adults in two Argentinean cities, aged 35–76 years, mean salt intake from selected PFs was 4.7 g/day, higher among male and low education subgroups. Categories of foods with regulated maximum limits provided near half of the sodium intake from PFs. Use of salt (always/often at the table and during cooking was reported by 9% and 73% of the population, respectively, with higher proportions among young people. Reducing salt consumption to the target of 5 g/day may require adjustments to the current regulation (reducing targets, including other food categories, as well as reinforcing strategies such as education campaigns, labeling, and voluntary agreement with bakeries.

  15. INEL storage facility for sealed sources from the commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsford, C.O.; Satterthwaite, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    Commercially owned sealed radiation sources determine by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to be a public health or safety hazard are accepted by the US Department of Energy, under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as material for reuse of recycle. To implement this policy, the sealed sources must be stored until proper disposition is determined. This report documents the investigation and selection process undertaken to locate a suitable storage facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

  16. The new Swiss Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.

    1999-01-01

    The new Swiss Energy Act and the accompanying regulation enable the instructions given in the poll by the electorate in 1990 -- the Energy Article in the Swiss Constitution -- to be implemented. The Energy Act creates the necessary basis for an advanced and sustainable energy policy. It should contribute to a sufficient, broadly based, dependable, economical and environment-friendly energy supply. The Energy Act and the Energy Regulation entered into force on January 1, 1999. (author)

  17. Funding of renewable energy sources - an economic impetus? An empirical comparison of the EEG (Renewables Act) with conventional economic incentives; Wirtschaftsfoerderung durch die Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien? Ein empirischer Vergleich des Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetzes mit der herkoemmlichen Wirtschaftsfoerderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selke, Jan-Welf [Bundesnetzagentur, Bonn (Germany). Bereich Energieregulierung; Lang, Thorsten [IW Consult GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Puls, Thomas [Institut der Deutschen Wirtschaft, Koeln (Germany). Forschungsstelle Umwelt- und Enegietechnik

    2010-07-01

    The use of renewable energy sources for power generation has increased dramatically in recent years. As a rule, however, such use is still not economical and is therefore cross-subsidised. In Germany this support is provided largely on the basis of the Renewable Energy Act. The focus of the present analysis is the extent to which the Act can also be regarded as a successful instrument of business promotion. To find an answer to this question, an investigation was carried out into the amount of additional private investment generated by public subsidies for the wind and photovoltaic power generation subsidised by the Act, on the one hand, and conventional regional business and research promotion, on the other. The results show that the wind farm sector scored rather better than the traditional instruments of business promotion, whereas the photovoltaic power industry performed much worse. When interpreting the results, however, account must be taken of some of the special features of the subsidies provided by the Act, such as guarenteed market for 20 years at fixed prices. (orig.)

  18. 22 CFR 161.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental concerns and, when consistent with the foreign policy of the United States, lend appropriate... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 161.2 Section 161.2 Foreign Relations... POLICY ACT (NEPA) General § 161.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of State to use all...

  19. Critical Care Implications of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Anjali P; Dorman, Todd

    2016-03-01

    To provide an overview of key elements of the Affordable Care Act. To evaluate ways in which the Affordable Care Act will likely impact the practice of critical care medicine. To describe strategies that may help health systems and providers effectively adapt to changes brought about by the Affordable Care Act. Data sources for this concise review include search results from the PubMed and Embase databases, as well as sources relevant to public policy such as the text of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and reports of the Congressional Budget Office. As all of the Affordable Care Act's provisions will not be fully implemented until 2019, we also drew upon cost, population, and utilization projections, as well as the experience of existing state-based healthcare reforms. The Affordable Care Act represents the furthest reaching regulatory changes in the U.S. healthcare system since the 1965 Medicare and Medicaid provisions of the Social Security Act. The Affordable Care Act aims to expand health insurance coverage to millions of Americans and place an emphasis on quality and cost-effectiveness of care. From models which link pay and performance to those which center on episodic care, the Affordable Care Act outlines sweeping changes to health systems, reimbursement structures, and the delivery of critical care. Staffing models that include daily rounding by an intensivist, palliative care integration, and expansion of the role of telemedicine in areas where intensivists are inaccessible are potential strategies that may improve quality and profitability of ICU care in the post-Affordable Care Act era.

  20. Compliance. Regulatory policy P-211

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This regulatory policy describes the basic principles and directives for establishing and conducting the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Compliance Program. The program is aimed at securing compliance by regulated persons with regulatory requirements made under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act ('the Act'). The policy applies to persons who are regulated by the CNSC through the Act, regulations and licences, as well as by decisions and orders made under the Act. The policy applies to officers and employees of the CNSC, and its authorized representatives or agents, who are involved in developing and carrying out compliance activities. Compliance, in the context of this policy, means conformity by regulated persons with the legally binding requirements of the Act, and the CNSC regulations, licences, decisions, and orders made under the Act. Compliance activities are CNSC measures of promotion, verification and enforcement aimed at securing compliance by regulated person with the applicable legally binding requirements. (author)

  1. Compliance. Regulatory policy P-211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This regulatory policy describes the basic principles and directives for establishing and conducting the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Compliance Program. The program is aimed at securing compliance by regulated persons with regulatory requirements made under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act ('the Act'). The policy applies to persons who are regulated by the CNSC through the Act, regulations and licences, as well as by decisions and orders made under the Act. The policy applies to officers and employees of the CNSC, and its authorized representatives or agents, who are involved in developing and carrying out compliance activities. Compliance, in the context of this policy, means conformity by regulated persons with the legally binding requirements of the Act, and the CNSC regulations, licences, decisions, and orders made under the Act. Compliance activities are CNSC measures of promotion, verification and enforcement aimed at securing compliance by regulated person with the applicable legally binding requirements. (author)

  2. 40 CFR Appendix F to Part 52 - Clean Air Act Section 126 Petitions From Eight Northeastern States: Named Source Categories and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... units with a heat input capacity of 250 mmBtu/hr or greater. Massachusetts Electricity generating plants... exchange combustion units with a maximum rated heat input capacity of 250 mmBtu/hr or greater, and fossil... Petitions From Eight Northeastern States: Named Source Categories and Geographic Coverage The table and...

  3. 78 FR 58254 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Customs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Information (PII) and is supplied to AMOSS by means of networked external sources. For instance, global... 1324; and the Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Public Law 104-208... defined to encompass U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents. As a matter of policy, DHS extends...

  4. Curatorial Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a self-critical inquiry into my own recent work of co-curating and the experience of seeing my video work being curated by others, this article examines acts of framing as performative acts that seek to transform visitors' preconceptions. This affective effect is pursued by means of immersion,

  5. Country policy profile - Slovenia. February 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    Promotion of renewable energy sources has traditionally important place in the national energy policy of Slovenia. In recent years, the ambitions are increasing, especially in the context of the overall environmental and energy policy in the EU. The energy policy is set in an Energy Act where a basis for exploitation of renewable energy sources is set. The Objectives 2020 are set in Action Plan for Renewable Energy 2010-2020 (AN RES) with the proposed measures. The pursued goal is at least 25 per cent share of renewables in final energy balance by 2020. In the field of cogeneration the objective is in accordance with the proposal of a new National Energy plan. An 80 per cent share of heat in all district heating systems produced from RES or CHP or waste heat to 2020 is introduced, with the exclusive use of renewables, CHP and district heating in all buildings with heat consumption of 250 kW from 2012 onwards. The production of electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff and a premium tariff and through soft loans. Renewable energy sources for heating are promoted through soft loans and subsidies. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system and certain tax exempts

  6. Country policy profile - Slovenia. October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    Promotion of renewable energy sources has traditionally important place in the national energy policy of Slovenia. In recent years, the ambitions are increasing, especially in the context of the overall environmental and energy policy in the EU. The energy policy is set in an Energy Act where a basis for exploitation of renewable energy sources is set. The Objectives 2020 are set in a National Renewable Energy Action Plan 2010-2020 (NREAP) with the proposed measures. The pursued goal is at least 25 per cent share of renewables in final energy consumption by 2020. In the field of cogeneration the objective is in accordance with the proposal of a new National Energy plan. An 80 per cent share of heat in all district heating systems produced from RES or CHP or waste heat to 2020 is introduced, with the exclusive use of renewables, CHP and district heating in all buildings with heat consumption of 250 kW from 2012 onwards. The production of electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff and a premium tariff and through soft loans. Renewable energy sources for heating are promoted through soft loans and subsidies. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system and certain tax exemptions

  7. Office of Integrated Assessment and Policy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The mission of the Office of Integrated Assessments and Policy Analysis (OIAPA) is to examine current and future policies related to the development and use of energy technologies. The principal ongoing research activity to date has focused on the impacts of several energy sources, including coal, oil shale, solar, and geothermal, from the standpoint of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. An additional project has recently been initiated on an evaluation of impacts associated with the implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act. The impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act on energy supply constitute the principal research focus of OIAPA for the near term. From these studies a research approach will be developed to identify certain common elements in the regulatory evaluation cycle as a means of evaluating subsequent environmental, health, and socioeconomic impact. It is planned that an integrated assessment team examine studies completed or underway on the following aspects of major regulations: health, risk assessment, testing protocols, environment control cost/benefits, institutional structures, and facility siting. This examination would assess the methodologies used, determine the general applicability of such studies, and present in a logical form information that appears to have broad general application. A suggested action plan for the State of Tennessee on radioactive and hazardous waste management is outlined

  8. NUSTAR and Xmm-Newton Observations of the Extreme Ultraluminous X-Ray Source NGC 5907 UlX1: A Vanishing Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Bachetti, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present results obtained from two broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5907 ULX1, known to have a peak X-ray luminosity of ~5 × 1040 erg s–1. These XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations, separated by only ~4 days, revealed an extreme level of short......-term flux variability. In the first epoch, NGC 5907 ULX1 was undetected by NuSTAR, and only weakly detected (if at all) with XMM-Newton, while in the second NGC 5907 ULX1 was clearly detected at high luminosity by both missions. This implies an increase in flux of ~2 orders of magnitude or more during...

  9. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  10. Policies and procedures for considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-20

    This order updates the FAA agency-wide policies and procedures for compliance with the : National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and implementing regulations issued by the Council : on Environmental Quality (40 CFR parts 1500-1508). The provisions o...

  11. Energy policy in Maghreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents energy policy in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. Statistical data on fossil fuels reserves and renewable energy sources are given. This paper describes also energy consumption and energy conservation, power generation and interconnected power systems. 5 tabs

  12. 32 CFR 174.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Policy § 174.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to: (a) Act... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 174.4 Section 174.4 National Defense... will, when feasible, be accelerated to facilitate the transfer of real property for community reuse. In...

  13. Recovery Act: Innovative CO2 Sequestration from Flue Gas Using Industrial Sources and Innovative Concept for Beneficial CO2 Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dando, Neal [Alcoa Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gershenzon, Mike [Alcoa Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ghosh, Rajat [Alcoa Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    The overall goal of this DOE Phase 2 project was to further develop and conduct pilot-scale and field testing of a biomimetic in-duct scrubbing system for the capture of gaseous CO2 coupled with sequestration of captured carbon by carbonation of alkaline industrial wastes. The Phase 2 project, reported on here, combined efforts in enzyme development, scrubber optimization, and sequestrant evaluations to perform an economic feasibility study of technology deployment. The optimization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme reactivity and stability are critical steps in deployment of this technology. A variety of CA enzyme variants were evaluated for reactivity and stability in both bench scale and in laboratory pilot scale testing to determine current limits in enzyme performance. Optimization of scrubber design allowed for improved process economics while maintaining desired capture efficiencies. A range of configurations, materials, and operating conditions were examined at the Alcoa Technical Center on a pilot scale scrubber. This work indicated that a cross current flow utilizing a specialized gas-liquid contactor offered the lowest system operating energy. Various industrial waste materials were evaluated as sources of alkalinity for the scrubber feed solution and as sources of calcium for precipitation of carbonate. Solids were mixed with a simulated sodium bicarbonate scrubber blowdown to comparatively examine reactivity. Supernatant solutions and post-test solids were analyzed to quantify and model the sequestration reactions. The best performing solids were found to sequester between 2.3 and 2.9 moles of CO2 per kg of dry solid in 1-4 hours of reaction time. These best performing solids were cement kiln dust, circulating dry scrubber ash, and spray dryer absorber ash. A techno-economic analysis was performed to evaluate the commercial viability of the proposed carbon capture and sequestration process in full-scale at an aluminum smelter and

  14. Analyzing the sources and nature of influence: how the Avahan program used evidence to influence HIV/AIDS prevention policy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhan T; Bennett, Sara C; Bishnu, Rituparna; Singh, Suneeta

    2013-04-17

    Major investments by development partners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) often seek to develop a supportive policy environment. There is limited knowledge about the mechanisms that development partners use to influence government policy, or which mechanisms are effective. This study assessed the influence of Avahan, a large HIV/AIDS prevention program in India supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, on the development of HIV/AIDS policies in India, particularly the National AIDS Control Program III (NACP III). A retrospective assessment of the contributions of Avahan to the development of NACP III was conducted based upon document review and in-depth interviews with key informants, including Avahan staff and staff of implementing partners. This assessment was carried out within a framework centered on three domains: evidence considered by policy and decision-makers; the channel through which influence is exerted; and the target audience for influence. Respondents identified a number of respects in which Avahan influenced NACP III policy, notably, Avahan influenced perception of the feasibility of scaling up services (through a demonstration effect) and Avahan, along with others, helped ensure a strong focus on targeted interventions. Overall Avahan's influence was greatest during policy implementation. While the extent to which research evidence generated by Avahan influenced NACP III was limited, best practice evidence generated by Avahan, including the lessons learned from routine implementation and management, contributed significantly to NACP III. This was largely due to the credibility Avahan had established and strategic 'inside track' communications. While studies of knowledge translation typically focus primarily on scientific evidence, this study suggests that other forms of evidence, notably best practice evidence derived from program experience, and disseminated through personal communication, were particularly influential. The

  15. The Multi-allelic Genetic Architecture of a Variance-Heterogeneity Locus for Molybdenum Concentration in Leaves Acts as a Source of Unexplained Additive Genetic Variance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon K G Forsberg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association (GWA analyses have generally been used to detect individual loci contributing to the phenotypic diversity in a population by the effects of these loci on the trait mean. More rarely, loci have also been detected based on variance differences between genotypes. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the possible genetic mechanisms leading to such variance signals. However, little is known about what causes these signals, or whether this genetic variance-heterogeneity reflects mechanisms of importance in natural populations. Previously, we identified a variance-heterogeneity GWA (vGWA signal for leaf molybdenum concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, fine-mapping of this association reveals that the vGWA emerges from the effects of three independent genetic polymorphisms that all are in strong LD with the markers displaying the genetic variance-heterogeneity. By revealing the genetic architecture underlying this vGWA signal, we uncovered the molecular source of a significant amount of hidden additive genetic variation or "missing heritability". Two of the three polymorphisms underlying the genetic variance-heterogeneity are promoter variants for Molybdate transporter 1 (MOT1, and the third a variant located ~25 kb downstream of this gene. A fourth independent association was also detected ~600 kb upstream of MOT1. Use of a T-DNA knockout allele highlights Copper Transporter 6; COPT6 (AT2G26975 as a strong candidate gene for this association. Our results show that an extended LD across a complex locus including multiple functional alleles can lead to a variance-heterogeneity between genotypes in natural populations. Further, they provide novel insights into the genetic regulation of ion homeostasis in A. thaliana, and empirically confirm that variance-heterogeneity based GWA methods are a valuable tool to detect novel associations of biological importance in natural populations.

  16. Post-Cold War Russia/West relations: U.S. Foreign policy initiatives, sources of friction, and prospects for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Lasica, Kristen Anne.

    2001-01-01

    This study analyzes U.S. foreign policy initiatives toward Russia between 1993- 2000. With the fall of the Soviet Union, the West found itself in a period of global transition during which they had an opportunity to redefine the post-Cold War security arena and secure enduring peace and cooperation between historically adversarial blocs, The key to creating this system was immediate, full-fledged Russian inclusion. Yet due to remaining Cold War-biases and misaligned U.S. policies, Russia has ...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.4 - Policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT General Provisions § 1000.4 Policy statement. (a) Congressional findings. In the Tribal Self-Governance Act of 1994... of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act relating to the provision of Indian...

  18. Partnerships for technology introduction -- Putting the technologies of tomorrow into the marketplace of today. Report to Congress on Sections 127 and 128 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report to Congress was prepared on behalf of the Secretary of the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to Sections 127 and 128 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), Pub. L. 102-486. In preparing the report to the Congress, DOE has assessed the national and regional energy savings potential of products already on the market and those that will be available to consumers by the late 1990s. The Department has also examined the present cost-effectiveness of these emerging appliances as mature technologies. To help in its assessment, DOE organized eight workshops at which representatives from manufacturing and building industries, utilities, retailers and wholesalers, public interest groups and Federal and state government agencies could express their views. The information derived from these workshops was key to the formulation of the report`s general and specific recommendations. DOE has concluded that the Federal Government can effectively stimulate the market for emerging technologies by forming partnerships with the appliance industry and other interested parties promoting the use of highly efficient appliances. Based on the interaction with industry at the eight workshops and through direct contact, DOE has concluded that Federal action and technical assistance is not only desired by industry, but crucial to the expansion of these markets. Section 128 of EPAct requires an assessment of the energy savings and environmental benefits of replacing older, less efficient appliances with more efficient products than currently required by Federal law. Since early replacement of appliances is but one possible market-stimulating action, DOE has elected to include its discussion as part of the overall report to the Congress.

  19. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters.... SUMMARY: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for...

  20. The ''Article Act'' - a substitute for the miscarried energy consensus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, G.

    1994-01-01

    A prerequisite for arriving at a long-term energy policy is that all political parties come to an energy consensus. This paper reviews the chronology of the energy consensus negatiations, their failure, and the consequent energy-political rerouting which is to be realised by an act securing hard coal a share in electricity generation and amending the Atomic Energy Act (termed 'Article Act'). The Article Act is an attempt at a binding definition of central issues of the energy consensus talks even in the absence of an all-party agreement. It is particularly noteworthy that the bill makes mention of both coal and nuclear energy, reviving this link-up between the two energy sources already decined lost. The German electricity industry considers the provisions on atomic energy law contained in the Article Act insufficient for securing already existing power plants an untroubled future and for providing the investment climate needed by the manufacturing industry. To the electricity industry the main problems lie in the execution deficits at the Laender level, but these are not affected by the Article Act. It is concluded that an all-party consensus on an answerable nuclear energy utilisation will have to be found by 1995 at the latest in order to give the manufacturing industry the go-alread for continuing research and provide electricity producers with a sound basis for investment decisions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Transplanting EU waste law : The European waste electrical and electronic equipment directives as a source of inspiration to Brazilian law and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes Más, Heyd

    2016-01-01

    What are the legal instruments and policy choices producing improvements in e-waste management strategies worldwide? Could they be used from one legal system to another? The EU’s tradition of focusing on waste management and setting goals and responsibilities for all stakeholders involved in

  2. Counterterrorism: Policy of Preemptive Action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westphal, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The tragic events of September 11, 2001(911), and the devastating effects that those cowardly acts of terrorism had on our nation and the world, have forced us to review and reevaluate our country's counterterrorism policy...

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals That Lactose Acts as an Inducer and Provides Proper Carbon Sources for Enhancing Exopolysaccharide Yield in the Deep-Sea Bacterium Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi-Long; Li, Yi; Sun, Mei-Ling; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Liu, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Su, Hai-Nan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Xi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Many marine bacteria secrete exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that have important ecological and physiological functions. Numerous nutritional and environmental factors influence bacterial EPS production. However, the regulatory mechanisms of EPS production are poorly understood. The deep-sea Bacteroidetes bacterium Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87 can produce high quantities of EPS, and its EPS production is enhanced significantly by lactose. Here, we studied the reasons behind the significant advantage that lactose has over other carbon sources in EPS production in SM-A87. RNA-seq technologies were used to study lactose-regulated genes in SM-A87. The expression level of genes within the EPS gene cluster was up-regulated when lactose was added. Supplement of lactose also influenced the expression of genes located outside the EPS gene cluster that are also involved in EPS biosynthesis. The major glycosyl components of SM-A87 EPS are mannose, glucose and galactose. Genomic metabolic pathway analyses showed that the EPS precursor GDP-mannose can be synthesized from glucose, while the precursor UDP-glucose must be synthesized from galactose. Lactose can provide glucose and galactose simultaneously and prevent glucose inhibition. Lactose can also greatly stimulate the growth of SM-A87. Taken together, lactose acts not only as an inducer but also as a carbohydrate source for EPS production. This research broadens our knowledge of the regulation of EPS production in marine bacteria. PMID:25679965

  4. Effect of different economic support policies on the optimal synthesis and operation of a distributed energy supply system with renewable energy sources for an industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casisi, Melchiorre; De Nardi, Alberto; Pinamonti, Piero; Reini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP model optimization identifies best structure and operation of an energy system. • Total cost of the system is minimized according to industrial stakeholders wills. • Effects of the adoption of economic support policies on the system are evaluated. • Social cost of incentives is comparted with correspondent CO 2 emission reduction. • Support schemes that promote an actual environmental benefit are highlighted. - Abstract: Economic support policies are widely adopted in European countries in order to promote a more efficient energy usage and the growth of renewable energy technologies. On one hand these schemes allow us to reduce the overall pollutant emissions and the total cost from the point of view of the energy systems, but on the other hand their social impact in terms of economic investment needs to be evaluated. The aim of this paper is to compare the social cost of the application of each incentive with the correspondent CO 2 emission reduction and overall energy saving. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization procedure is used to evaluate the effect of different economic support policies on the optimal configuration and operation of a distributed energy supply system of an industrial area located in the north-east of Italy. The minimized objective function is the total annual cost for owning, operating and maintaining the whole energy system. The expectation is that a proper mix of renewable energy technologies and cogeneration systems will be included in the optimal solution, depending on the amount and nature of the supporting policies, highlighting the incentives that promote a real environmental benefit

  5. Maps of Indian Territory, the Dawes Act, and Will Rogers' Enrollment Case File. The Constitution Community: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kerry C.

    This lesson offers historical background on federal Indian policy from 1870 to 1900, focusing on the Dawes Act of 1887 (with two resources). It provides four primary source documents, including maps of Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and Will Roger's application for enrollment in the Five Civilized Tribes. The lesson relates to the powers granted to…

  6. Country policy profile - Croatia. October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    Promotion of renewable energy sources has an important place in the national energy policy of Croatia. The energy policy is set in an Energy Act where a basis for exploitation of renewable energy sources is set. The objectives for 2020 are set in Energy Strategy adopted in 2009. It obliges the Croatia to encourage the future use of RES and to achieve a higher percentage of primary use of RES in the heating sector. The production of electricity from renewable energy sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff and loans. The Croatian Bank for Development and Reconstruction and the Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency operate a loan scheme for RES-E projects. In past renewable energy sources for heating hadn't been promoted by the state so far. Currently, a support scheme for RES heating from biomass is in progress. The main promotion scheme in the field of RES-T is a bio-fuel quota obligation. Additionally, the state provides a subsidy for producers of bio-fuels as well as a tax regulation mechanism to encourage the usage of bio-fuels

  7. Country policy profile - Croatia. February 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    Promotion of renewable energy sources has an important place in the national energy policy of Croatia. The energy policy is set in an Energy Act where a basis for exploitation of renewable energy sources is set. The objectives for 2020 are set in Energy Strategy adopted in 2009. It obliges the Croatia to encourage the future use of RES and to achieve a higher percentage of primary use of RES in the heating sector. The production of electricity from renewable energy sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff and loans. The Croatian Bank for Development and Reconstruction and the Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency operate a loan scheme for RES-E projects. In past renewable energy sources for heating hadn't been promoted by the state so far. Currently, a support scheme for RES heating from biomass is in progress. The main promotion scheme in the field of RES-T is a bio-fuel quota obligation. Additionally, the state provides a subsidy for producers of bio-fuels as well as a tax regulation mechanism to encourage the usage of bio-fuels

  8. Country policy profile - Croatia. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Promotion of renewable energy sources has an important place in the national energy policy of Croatia. The energy policy is set in an Energy Act where a basis for exploitation of renewable energy sources is set. The objectives for 2020 are set in Energy Strategy adopted in 2009. It obliges the Croatia to encourage the future use of RES and to achieve a higher percentage of primary use of RES in the heating sector. The production of electricity from renewable energy sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff and loans. The Croatian Bank for Development and Reconstruction and the Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency operate a loan scheme for RES-E projects. In past renewable energy sources for heating hadn't been promoted by the state so far. Currently, a support scheme for RES heating from biomass is in progress. The main promotion scheme in the field of RES-T is a bio-fuel quota obligation. Additionally, the state provides a subsidy for producers of bio-fuels as well as a tax regulation mechanism to encourage the usage of bio-fuels

  9. 48 CFR 323.7100 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE... the Energy Policy Act of 2005; Section 9002 of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 323.7100 Section...

  10. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  11. 75 FR 22432 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Remarks. CSB Data Policies Task Force. FY 2011 Budget Request Update. ARRA Update. Strategic Plan Update... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION National Science Board Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice The National Science Board, pursuant to NSF regulations (45 CFR Part 614), the National Science Foundation Act, as...

  12. 14 CFR 313.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.2 Policy. (a) General. It is the policy of DOT to view the conservation of energy and the energy efficiency improvement goals of Chapter... extent practicable and consistent with DOT's authority under the Statute and other law, energy...

  13. Community energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo Melchor, N.; Redondo Quintela, F.

    1994-01-01

    The twelve Member states of the European Union will attempt to make their national energy policies converge. Nevertheless the basis of the so called ''Community Energy Policy'' is not this convergence but rather the achievement of a new internal market, the Energy Market, where sources and forms of energy may circulate freely between countries. This aim derives from a change of orientation, dating back some years, when market integration was attempted instead of continuing with the mere unification of national policies. In this paper we summarize the most relevant aspects of the liberalization process and give some of its internal and external repercussions on the European Union. (Author)

  14. Models for evaluation of energy technology and policy options to maximize low carbon source penetration in the United States energy supply.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickard, Paul S.; Kataoka, Dawn; Reno, Marissa Devan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Roach, Jesse D.; Brainard, James Robert; West, Todd H.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2009-12-01

    An initial version of a Systems Dynamics (SD) modeling framework was developed for the analysis of a broad range of energy technology and policy questions. The specific question selected to demonstrate this process was 'what would be the carbon and import implications of expanding nuclear electric capacity to provide power for plug in hybrid vehicles?' Fifteen SNL SD energy models were reviewed and the US Energy and Greenhouse gas model (USEGM) and the Global Nuclear Futures model (GEFM) were identified as the basis for an initial modeling framework. A basic U.S. Transportation model was created to model U.S. fleet changes. The results of the rapid adoption scenario result in almost 40% of light duty vehicles being PHEV by 2040 which requires about 37 GWy/y of additional electricity demand, equivalent to about 25 new 1.4 GWe nuclear plants. The adoption rate of PHEVs would likely be the controlling factor in achieving the associated reduction in carbon emissions and imports.

  15. Photurgen: The open source software for the analysis and design of hybrid solar wind energy systems in the Caribbean region: A brief introduction to its development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daren Watson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRES use multiple renewable resources such as hydro, solar and wind collaboratively to produce energy that can meet a defined load demand continuously. Their combination can lead to the improvement in the systems efficiency and overall reliability. However, the level of penetration of HRES in the Caribbean region is less than its expected potential. The constraints generated by their complexity and the costly access to useful energy planning tools is a limitation to their implementation. Therefore, in collaboration with the Alternative Energy Research Group, UWI Mona, we develop a free Linear Optimization software, Photurgen, for the design and analysis of hybrid solar-wind systems within the Caribbean region. Solar-wind hybrid systems are simulated based on historic climatological resources and instantaneous load consumption data, providing the user with graphics and advice for their optimal configuration. This paper introduces the first version of Photurgen and its associated development policies. This tool is one simple solution to be applied to increase the rate of autonomous and grid-tied households within the region, with Jamaica being its experimental location.

  16. The Role of the Social Scientist in Human Resource Development Policy and Programs for Hispanics. National Symposium on Hispanics and CETA (1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furino, Antonio, Ed.

    Conference speakers focused on three topics: Hispanics and Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) policy and implementation issues; data sources; and research regarding Hispanic manpower. After introductory remarks by James W. Wagener, Eli Ginzberg and Tomas Rivera, Ernest Green discussed Hispanics and CETA. Harry Greenspan described…

  17. New source review for stationary sources of air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Changes in New Source Review Programs for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    2006-01-01

    The Clean Air Act established a pair of programsâ€"known as New Source Review (NSR)â€"that regulate large stationary sources of air pollution, such as factories and electricity-generating facilities...

  18. Endangered Species Act Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Demonstrating the value of publishing open data by linking DOI-based citations of source datasets to uses in research and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copas, K.; Legind, J. K.; Hahn, A.; Braak, K.; Høftt, M.; Noesgaard, D.; Robertson, T.; Méndez Hernández, F.; Schigel, D.; Ko, C.

    2017-12-01

    GBIF—the Global Biodiversity Information Facility—has recently demonstrated a system that tracks publications back to individual datasets, giving data providers demonstrable evidence of the benefit and utility of sharing data to support an array of scholarly topics and practical applications. GBIF is an open-data network and research infrastructure funded by the world's governments. Its community consists of more than 90 formal participants and almost 1,000 data-publishing institutions, which currently make tens of thousands of datasets containing nearly 800 million species occurrence records freely and publicly available for discovery, use and reuse across a wide range of biodiversity-related research and policy investigations. Starting in 2015 with the help of DataONE, GBIF introduced DOIs as persistent identifiers for the datasets shared through its network. This enhancement soon extended to the assignment of DOIs to user downloads from GBIF.org, which typically filter the available records with a variety of taxonomic, geographic, temporal and other search terms. Despite the lack of widely accepted standards for citing data among researchers and publications, this technical infrastructure is beginning to take hold and support open, transparent, persistent and repeatable use and reuse of species occurrence data. These `download DOIs' provide canonical references for the search results researchers process and use in peer-reviewed articles—a practice GBIF encourages by confirming new DOIs with each download and offering guidelines on citation. GBIF has recently started linking these citation results back to dataset and publisher pages, offering more consistent, traceable evidence of the value of sharing data to support others' research. GBIF's experience may be a useful model for other repositories to follow.

  20. Framing, Engagement, and Policy Change: Lessons for the ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Andrew; Rosenthal, Aaron

    2017-04-01

    Supporters of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) sometimes speculate that public attitudes toward the law will shift if proponents succeed in focusing attention on its more popular components, but the scholarly literature on framing effects provides ample reason to question their assertion. This article contends that engagement, an alternative rhetorical strategy where advocates address the same policy dimensions as their opponents, is a more promising approach. Extending the engagement literature to the elite context in which most ACA-related decisions are made, it argues that elite-level engagement necessitates the additional task of linking policy change to opponents' broader philosophical and policy goals. Current debates surrounding the application of sales taxes to electronic commerce-a policy arena that seems far removed from health care policy but overlaps with the ACA in ways that make it an appropriate source of lesson drawing-illustrate the potential of an engagement strategy. Recently, many conservative lawmakers who previously opposed policy change have instead embraced online sales taxes as a mechanism for additional tax cuts. Analogous connections may facilitate the diffusion of ACA provisions that presently receive hostile receptions in Republican-leaning states. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  1. Editorial: Open Source in Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dru Lavigne

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Last summer, the Center for Strategic and International Studies published the sixth update to their Open Source Policy survey. The survey "tracks governmental policies on the use of open source software as reported in the press or other media." The report lists 275 open source policy initiatives. It also breaks down by country and by government level whether the policy on the use of open source is considered to be advisory, preferential, or mandatory. The editorial theme for the May issue of the OSBR is "open source in government" and we are pleased that the authors have drawn upon their experiences to provide insight into public policy regarding open source for many parts of the world.

  2. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  3. Old-growth Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Vosick

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Most federal legislation and policies (e.g., the Wilderness Act, Endangered Species Act, National Forest Management Act fail to speak directly to the need for old-growth protection, recruitment, and restoration on federal lands. Various policy and attitudinal barriers must be changed to move beyond the current situation. For example, in order to achieve the goal of healthy old growth in frequent-fire forests, the public must be educated regarding the evolutionary nature of these ecosystems and persuaded that collaborative action rather than preservation and litigation is the best course for the future of these forests. Land managers and policy makers must be encouraged to look beyond the single-species management paradigm toward managing natural processes, such as fire, so that ecosystems fall within the natural range of variability. They must also see that, given their recent evidence of catastrophic fires, management must take place outside the wildland-urban interface in order to protect old-growth forest attributes and human infrastructure. This means that, in some wilderness areas, management may be required. Land managers, researchers, and policy makers will also have to agree on a definition of old growth in frequent-fire landscapes; simply adopting a definition from the mesic Pacific Northwest will not work. Moreover, the culture within the federal agencies needs revamping to allow for more innovation, especially in terms of tree thinning and wildland fire use. Funding for comprehensive restoration treatments needs to be increased, and monitoring of the Healthy Forest Initiative and Healthy Forest Restoration Act must be undertaken.

  4. Energy policy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauen, Edvard; Bjoerndalen, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue that the current energy policy in Norway will inevitably lead to higher and more varying electricity prices in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. The Energy Act works well, but politicians have not realized that Norway is now an integral part of the power market in Europe. The EU Commission considers that the Nordic model with regional prices in order to utilize the capacity of international (market splitting) is the best

  5. Source data supported high resolution carbon emissions inventory for urban areas of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: Spatial patterns, decomposition and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bofeng; Li, Wanxin; Dhakal, Shobhakar; Wang, Jianghao

    2018-01-15

    This paper developed internationally compatible methods for delineating boundaries of urban areas in China. By integrating emission source data with existing official statistics as well as using rescaling methodology of data mapping for 1 km grid, the authors constructed high resolution emission gridded data in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) region in China for 2012. Comparisons between urban and non-urban areas of carbon emissions from industry, agriculture, household and transport exhibited regional disparities as well as sectoral differences. Except for the Hebei province, per capita total direct carbon emissions from urban extents in Beijing and Tianjin were both lower than provincial averages, indicating the climate benefit of urbanization, comparable to results from developed countries. Urban extents in the Hebei province were mainly industrial centers while those in Beijing and Tianjin were more service oriented. Further decomposition analysis revealed population to be a common major driver for increased carbon emissions but climate implications of urban design, economic productivity of land use, and carbon intensity of GDP were both cluster- and sector-specific. This study disapproves the one-size-fits-all solution for carbon mitigation but calls for down-scaled analysis of carbon emissions and formulation of localized carbon reduction strategies in the Jing-Jin-Ji as well as other regions in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Act No. 11/87 of 7 april - Basic environment act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this Act is to provide the basis for an environmental policy in Portugal. Section 25 of the Act deals with radioactive substances. It provides that any contamination likely to be caused by these substances should be controlled with a view to preventing its effects on the health and welfare of the population and specifies the methods for such control [fr

  7. 76 FR 24537 - Paperwork Reduction Act; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... President, Office of National Drug Control Policy, Drug-Free Communities (DFC) Support Program, 750 17th... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Paperwork Reduction Act; Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: 60-Day notice and request for comments...

  8. Developing recommendations to improve the quality of diabetes care in Ireland: a policy analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Hugh, Sheena M

    2014-09-01

    In 2006, the Health Service Executive (HSE) in Ireland established an Expert Advisory Group (EAG) for Diabetes, to act as its main source of operational policy and strategic advice for this chronic condition. The process was heralded as the starting point for the development of formal chronic disease management programmes. Although recommendations were published in 2008, implementation did not proceed as expected. Our aim was to examine the development of recommendations by the EAG as an instrumental case study of the policy formulation process, in the context of a health system undergoing organisational and financial upheaval.

  9. Energy policy and the high price of energy; Politique energetique et energie chere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, D. [Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Dir. Generale de l' Energie et des Matieres Premieres, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-08-15

    Ever rising energy prices can mainly be set down to insufficient investments at various points in the chain of production. In combination with geopolitical or climatic circumstances, this spawns uncertainty about how energy will reach final consumers. France's energy policy act of 13 July 2005 has set four principal orientations: control the demand for energy, diversify the supply (by increasing recourse to replenishable sources and by keeping the nuclear option open), develop research and, in general, improve the security of supply lines. In January 2006, the French government published a memorandum in order to 're-launch a European energy policy in view of sustainable development. (author)

  10. Military Policy toward Homosexuals: Scientific, Historic, and Legal Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Jeffrey S

    1990-01-01

    This thesis examines military policy toward homosexuals. Scientific, historic, and legal perspectives are reviewed as they relate to current policy and the distinction between homosexual acts and homosexual status...

  11. 78 FR 24749 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment AGENCY... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee to make recommendations on the implementation of a nationwide health information technology...

  12. 78 FR 42945 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy... its 20 members. ARRA requires that one member have expertise in health information privacy and...

  13. Policies to promote user innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Peter O.; Hartmann, Rasmus Koss

    2018-01-01

    As it becomes apparent that users are an important source in innovation in society and in organizations, scholars are realizing that user-directed innovation policy might contribute to improving social welfare. How such policy might be designed, however, is uncertain, as are the costs and benefit...

  14. Uncertainty and climate change policy

    OpenAIRE

    Quiggin, John

    2008-01-01

    The paper consists of a summary of the main sources of uncertainty about climate change, and a discussion of the major implications for economic analysis and the formulation of climate policy. Uncertainty typically implies that the optimal policy is more risk-averse than otherwise, and therefore enhances the case for action to mitigate climate change.

  15. Federal policy documentation and geothermal water consumption: Policy gaps and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J. N.; Harto, C. B.; Clark, C. E.

    2015-09-01

    With U.S. geothermal power production expected to more than triple by 2040, and the majority of this growth expected to occur in arid and water-constrained areas, it is imperative that decision-makers understand the potential long-term limitations to and tradeoffs of geothermal development due to water availability. To this end, water consumption data, including documentation triggered by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, production and injection data, and water permit data, were collected from state and federal environmental policy sources in an effort to determine water consumption across the lifecycle of geothermal power plants. Values extracted from these sources were analyzed to estimate water usage during well drilling; to identify sourcing of water for well drilling, well stimulation, and plant operations; and to estimate operational water usage at the plant level. Nevada data were also compared on a facility-by-facility basis with other publicly available water consumption data, to create a complete picture of water usage and consumption at these facilities. This analysis represents a unique method of capturing project-level water data for geothermal projects; however, a lack of statutory and legal requirements for such data and data quality result in significant data gaps, which are also explored

  16. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, F

    1999-01-01

    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  17. Policy and practices in the United States of America for DOE-generated nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Throughout the history of attempts to utilize atomic power in the USA, health and safety have been primary considerations in programme policy formulation. A brief historical review of the US nuclear waste management policy formulation over the years aids understanding of our current management strategy for government-generated (primarily defence-related) nuclear wastes. Scientists involved in the Manhattan project during World War II were aware of the dangers of radioactive wastes. The first reaction to this concern was the establishment of a health physics programme to monitor radioactive hazards in Manhattan District Laboratories. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which established the Atomic Energy Commission, called for protection of the health and safety of the public as well as atomic workers. That concept has been continued and strengthened, throughout the history of nuclear waste management in the USA. Passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 required consideration of radioactive wastes generated by private industry as well as those produced by the Manhattan projects. Commercial waste management policy was based on the already established policy for management of government-generated wastes and is the subject of a separate paper at this symposium. Current US policy is to maintain separate but complementary programmes for nuclear wastes generated by government activities and those from commercial sources. US policy and practices for management of government-generated radioactive waste are summarized. Key organizational structure relating to waste management responsibility is presented. (author)

  18. Future considerations for clinical dermatology in the setting of 21st century American policy reform: The Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act and Alternative Payment Models in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, John S; Miller, Jeffrey J; Nguyen, Harrison P; Forman, Howard P; Bolognia, Jean L; VanBeek, Marta J

    2017-06-01

    With the introduction of the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act, clinicians who are not eligible for an exemption must choose to participate in 1 of 2 new reimbursement models: the Merit-based Incentive Payment System or Alternative Payment Models (APMs). Although most dermatologists are expected to default into the Merit-based Incentive Payment System, some may have an interest in exploring APMs, which have associated financial incentives. However, for dermatologists interested in the APM pathway, there are currently no options other than joining a qualifying Accountable Care Organization, which make up only a small subset of Accountable Care Organizations overall. As a result, additional APMs relevant to dermatologists are needed to allow those interested in the APMs to explore this pathway. Fortunately, the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act establishes a process for new APMs to be approved and the creation of bundled payments for skin diseases may represent an opportunity to increase the number of APMs available to dermatologists. In this article, we will provide a detailed review of APMs under the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act and discuss the development and introduction of APMs as they pertain to dermatology. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000 (Act 588)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Act 588 of the Republic of Ghana entitled, Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000, amends and consolidates the Atomic Energy Commission Act, 204 of 1963 relating to the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission. Act 588 makes provision for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission to establish more institutes for the purpose of research in furtherance of its functions and also promote the commercialization of its research and development results. (E.A.A.)

  20. Policies Supporting Local Food in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. Martinez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Local food has been the subject of federal, state, and local government policies in recent years throughout the United States as consumer demand has grown. Local foods have been linked to several government priorities—including enhancing the rural economy, the environment, and supporting agricultural producers. This article provides an overview of U.S. Federal, State and regional policies designed to support local food systems. It details the latest economic information on policy, relying on findings from several national surveys and a synthesis of recent literature. Federal policies related to local food systems were greatly expanded by the 2008 Farm Bill, and are further expanded in the Agricultural Act of 2014. United States policies address several barriers to the further expansion of local food markets, including scaling up output of small farms to address the needs of larger commercial outlets, lack of infrastructure for increasing local food sales, ability to trace product source, and producer education regarding local food expansion.

  1. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  2. Graduate course development : transportation policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Transportation, public policy, and politics are inextricably linked and have been, in the United States, from : at least 1956, with the birth of the federal highway system and the Interstate Highway Act, if not earlier. : Much of the transportation s...

  3. 48 CFR 43.102 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts without requiring consideration to incorporate changes authorized by FASA or Clinger-Cohen Act... without requiring consideration to incorporate these new policies. The contract modification should be....102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X close Advocate Our goal is to educate policy makers about the needs of people with cystic ... and Regulatory Comments Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus Our Policy Agenda Policy Principles SIGN UP FOR ADVOCACY ACTION ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus Our Policy Agenda Policy Principles SIGN UP FOR ADVOCACY ACTION ALERTS Community We ... Trustees Our Leadership Careers Reports & Financials Contact Us Governance & Policies What is CF? About Cystic Fibrosis CF ...

  6. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  7. The changing winds of atmospheric environment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Changes in atmosphere policies over several decades are analysed. ► Direct regulation is less effective and been complemented by other instruments. ► Policy approaches are more complex and integrated and the scale of the issues has evolved. ► The role of stakeholders has grown and the corporate sector has assumed increased responsibility. ► Governance arrangements have become more complex, multilevel and polycentric. -- Abstract: Atmospheric environmental policies have changed considerably over the last several decades. Clearly the relative importance of the various issues has changed over half a century, for example from smoke, sulphur dioxide and photochemical smog being the top priorities to greenhouse gases being the major priority. The traditional policy instrument to control emissions to the atmosphere has been command and control regulation. In many countries this was successful in reducing emissions from point sources, the first generation issues, and to a lesser extent, emissions from mobile and area sources, the second generation issues, although challenges remain in many jurisdictions. However once the simpler, easier, cheaper and obvious targets had been at least partially controlled this form of regulation became less effective. It has been complemented by other instruments including economic instruments, self-regulation, voluntarism and information instruments to address more complex issues including climate change, a third generation issue. Policy approaches to atmospheric environmental issues have become more complex. Policies that directly focus on atmospheric issues have been partially replaced by more integrated approaches that consider multimedia (water, land, etc.) and sustainability issues. Pressures from stakeholders for inclusion, greater transparency and better communication have grown and non-government stakeholders have become increasingly important participants in governance. The scale of the issues has evolved

  8. The IAEA and Control of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, B.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation discusses the authoritative functions and the departments of the IAEA, especially the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security and its Safety and Security of Radiation Sources Unit. IAEA safety series and IAEA safety standards series inform about international standards, provide underlying principles, specify obligations and responsibilities and give recommendations to support requirements. Other IAEA relevant publications comprise safety reports, technical documents (TECDOCs), conferences and symposium papers series and accident reports. Impacts of loss of source control is discussed, definitions of orphan sources and vulnerable sources is given. Accidents with orphan sources, radiological accidents statistic (1944-2000) and its consequences are discussed. These incidents lead to development of the IAEA guidance. The IAEA's action plan for the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive material was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors and the General Conference in September 1999. This led to the 'Categorization of Radiation Sources' and the 'Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources'. After 0911 the IAEA developed a nuclear security plan of activities including physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, detection of malicious activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials, state systems for nuclear material accountancy and control, security of radioactive material other than nuclear material, assessment of safety and security related vulnerability of nuclear facilities, response to malicious acts, or threats thereof, adherence to and implementation of international agreements, guidelines and recommendations and nuclear security co-ordination and information management. The remediation of past problems comprised collection and disposal of known disused sources, securing vulnerable sources and especially high-risk sources (Tripartite initiative), searching for

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory Comments Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus Our Policy Agenda Policy Principles SIGN UP FOR ADVOCACY ACTION ...

  10. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan

  11. Russian Foreign Policy. Sources and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Russia and the USA in World Politics],” SShA- Kanada , Ekonomika, Politika, Kul’tura, No. 9, September 2006, pp. 3–18. 5 Celeste Wallander calls this...Century: Problems and Perspectives],” SShA- Kanada , Ekonomika, Politika, Kul’tura, May 2007, pp. 61–76. 118 Pavel Zolotarev, “Tzeli i Prioriteti...SShA- Kanada , Ekonomika, Politika, Kul’tura, May 2007, pp. 61–76. Podvig, Paul, “Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces,” Web page, undated. As of August

  12. Future considerations for clinical dermatology in the setting of 21st century American policy reform: The Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act and the Merit-based Incentive Payment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, John S; Miller, Jeffrey J; Nguyen, Harrison P; Forman, Howard P; Bolognia, Jean L; VanBeek, Marta J

    2017-06-01

    As the implementation of the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act begins, many dermatologists who provide Medicare Part B services will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS). Clinicians subject to MIPS will receive a composite score based on performance across 4 categories: quality, advancing care information, improvement activities, and cost. Depending on their overall MIPS score, clinicians will be eligible for a positive or negative payment adjustment. Quality will replace the Physician Quality Reporting System and clinicians will report on 6 measures from a list of over 250 options. Advancing care information will replace meaningful use and will assess clinicians on activities related to integration of electronic health record technology into their practice. Improvement activities will require clinicians to attest to completion of activities focused on improvements in care coordination, beneficiary engagement, and patient safety. Finally, cost will be determined automatically from Medicare claims data. In this article, we will provide a detailed review of the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act with a focus on MIPS and briefly discuss the potential implications for dermatologists. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Water Management Policy in California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Christina; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    Using Olson’s 1965 logic of collective action and group theory, we argue that the “small group” of the “iron triangle” is able to collectively act to push for command-and-control regulations in Californian water policy. There are individual rent-seeking incentives in the small group because the p...

  14. Exposure diversity as a policy goal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.

    2012-01-01

    The protection and promotion of media diversity is one of the primary goals of national media laws and policies. Existing laws and policies are typically concerned with the supply of a wide range of content from diverse sources. Law and policy makers have been until now far more cautious about

  15. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  16. 48 CFR 323.7001 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Safety and Health 323.7001 Policy. Various statutes and regulations (e.g., the Walsh-Healy Act and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 323.7001 Section...

  17. 32 CFR 165.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING RECOUPMENT OF NONRECURRING COSTS ON SALES OF U.S. ITEMS § 165.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) A nonrecurring cost recoupment charge shall be imposed for sales of major defense equipment only as required by Act of Congress (e.g...

  18. Nuclear Regulatory Authority Act, 2015 (Act 895)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    An Act to establish a Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Ghana. This Act provides for the regulation and management of activities and practices for the peaceful use of nuclear material or energy, and to provide for the protection of persons and the environment against the harmful effects of radiation; and to ensure the effective implementation of the country’s international obligations and for related matters. This Act replaced the Radiation Protection Instrument, of 1993 (LI 1559).

  19. Pedagogy, policy and preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Ida; Schrøder, Vibeke

    The aim of this study is to conduct a discourse analysis on how global, national and local policy documents influence preschool teacher education and the practical pedagogical work in preschools. The study is part of a larger Nordic research study (Gjems, Vatne, Schrøder and Kornerup). Previous...... studies of preschool teacher education (Vatne, Gjems 2014) shows that professional knowledge vary according to the consolidation act of education and that there seems to be connections between both global and national policy and the educational field (Kornerup, 2011). The discourse analysis...... of the implementation of the learning curriculum in Danish preschools. This focus has affected both preschools and education. During this century, the preschool teacher education has been revised three times....

  20. Avoiding the known prior acts exclusion when insuring newly acquired entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, J P; Passannante, W G

    1998-09-01

    Adding a new entity to an organization's existing insurance program can be problematic if the existing policy contains a known prior acts exclusion clause. By purportedly excluding claims that a policyholder "could have reasonably foreseen or discovered," the known prior acts exclusion allows the insurer to reject those claims after a lawsuit has been filed policyholders should have known prior acts exclusion clauses removed from their policies or work with their insurers on language that will clarify the policy regarding this exclusion.

  1. Country policy profile - Austria. October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    Renewable energy policy in Austria exists on three levels: the Federal level, the regional level of the provinces (Bundeslaender) and the local level of municipalities. In Austria, electricity from renewable sources is supported mainly through a feed-in tariff. Since 2002, the Eco Electricity Act (Oekostromgesetz) sets feed-in tariffs for different renewable energy sources. The levels of feed-in tariffs are annually adapted and set in the Eco Electricity Ordinance (Oekostromverordnung). No use is made of any other instruments, such as quotas or certificates. Feed-in tariffs are basically set in annual regulations and may be set for several years. There is a special annual reduction in the feed-in tariff (8 %) for photovoltaic systems. Unless new tariffs are set, the feed-in tariff is reduced by 1 % per annum for all other technologies. Measures in individual provinces (investment funds and support programmes on state level) most notably in the renewable heat sectors are further important support schemes. The most substantial form of supporting small-scale RES heating and cooling is provided by the Environmental Assistance in Austria (UFI) programme. There are special investment incentives for solar thermal installations, heat pumps, geothermal and biomass heating plants. In Austria, the main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system

  2. Country policy profile - Austria. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    Renewable energy policy in Austria exists on three levels: the Federal level, the regional level of the provinces (Bundeslaender) and the local level of municipalities. In Austria, electricity from renewable sources is supported mainly through a feed-in tariff. Since 2002, the Eco Electricity Act (Oekostromgesetz) sets feed-in tariffs for different renewable energy sources. The levels of feed-in tariffs are annually adapted and set in the Eco Electricity Ordinance (Oekostromverordnung). No use is made of any other instruments, such as quotas or certificates. Feed-in tariffs are basically set in annual regulations and may be set for several years. There is a special annual reduction in the feed-in tariff for photovoltaic systems. Unless new tariffs are set, the feed-in tariff is reduced by 1 % per annum for all other technologies. Measures in individual provinces (investment funds and support programmes on state level) most notably in the renewable heat sectors are further important support schemes. The most substantial form of supporting small-scale RES heating and cooling is provided by the Environmental Assistance in Austria (UFI) programme. There are special investment incentives for solar thermal installations, heat pumps, geothermal and biomass heating plants. In Austria, the main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system

  3. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector

  4. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector.

  5. The institutional framework of Industrial policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sandrine Labory; Patrizio Bianchi

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that the institutional framework of industrial policies derives from the analysis of industries as systems. Industries are embedded in specific institutional frameworks with which they co-evolve. However, industrial systems are primarily organised at local level: industries may be global but in the sense that they constitute global networks of local systems. The institutional framework of industrial policy derives from this result: industrial policy acts at different levels,...

  6. 75 FR 39974 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings DATE AND TIMES: July 28, 2010, 2 p.m.-6 p.m. PLACE: Renaissance Washington, DC Downtown Hotel, 999 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC. STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: (1) National Summit on Disability Policy 2010 Evaluation; (2...

  7. 76 FR 49659 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... defense and foreign policy, to avoid interference during the conduct of criminal, civil, or administrative... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 319 [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0087] Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule with request...

  8. 77 FR 15592 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... relating to national defense and foreign policy; avoid interference during the conduct of criminal, civil... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DoD-2012-OS-0029] 32 CFR Part 319 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule with request...

  9. The America COMPETES Act and the FY2009 Budget

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stine, Deborah D

    2008-01-01

    .... An issue for Congress is whether FY2009 appropriations will. The Presidents s Office of Science and Technology Policy reports that the FY2009 budget request includes funding for America COMPETES Act initiatives at 88...

  10. 78 FR 25414 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Reinvestigating Individuals in Positions of Public Trust; and the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act... controlled by electronic card readers, office personnel to control access, visitor escorts policy and...

  11. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  12. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-07-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  13. 78 FR 41835 - Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (AEA), requires the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory.... Congressional Review Act I. Background Section 604 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58, amended...

  14. The Clean Air Act and bonus allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markey, E.J.; Moorhead, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses how utility companies can benefit in the form of bonus sulfur dioxide allowances from the Environmental Protection Agency by investing in renewable energy sources such as wind and promoting conservation. Topics discussed include the Clean Air Act Amendments, acid rain, energy conservation, renewable energy sources, and the procedure for gaining bonus allowances

  15. The Competition in Contracting Act of 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    contribution to the historical body or k~nawledgeIcon~ cerning the ’Competition in Contracting Act. 20 DoSIR3UIOU1/4AVAILAIJ OF ASSIXACT 21. ABSTRACT SICUmITY...Sole-Source. More Competiton Needed in Federal Civil Agencies’ Contracting", Genf ral Accounting Office Report, April A982. 3 5 "Less Sole-Source. More

  16. Ethics policies on euthanasia in nursing homes: a survey in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Verbeke, Geert; Van Craen, Katleen; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2008-01-01

    In many European countries there is a public debate about the acceptability and regulation of euthanasia. In 2002, Belgium became the second country after the Netherlands to enact a law on euthanasia. Although euthanasia rarely occurs, the complexity of the clinical-ethical decision making surrounding euthanasia requests and the need for adequate support reported by caregivers, means that healthcare institutions increasingly need to consider how to responsibly handle euthanasia requests. The development of written ethics policies on euthanasia may be important to guarantee and maintain the quality of care for patients requesting euthanasia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, development, position, and communication of written ethics policies on euthanasia in Flemish nursing homes. Data were obtained through a cross-sectional mail survey of general directors of all Catholic nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. Of the 737 nursing homes invited to participate, 612 (83%) completed the questionnaire. Of these, only 15% had a written ethics policy on euthanasia. Presence of an ethics committee and membership of an umbrella organization were independent predictors of whether a nursing home had such a written ethics policy. The Act on Euthanasia and euthanasia guidelines advanced by professional organizations were the most frequent reasons (76% and 56%, respectively) and reference sources (92% and 64%, respectively) for developing ethics policies on euthanasia. Development of ethics policies occurred within a multidisciplinary context. In general, Flemish nursing homes applied the Act on Euthanasia restrictively by introducing palliative procedures in addition to legal due care criteria. The policy was communicated to the consulting general practitioner and nurses in 74% and 89% of nursing homes, respectively. Although the overall prevalence of ethics policies on euthanasia was low in Flemish nursing homes, institution administrators displayed growing

  17. Atomic Act amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper by the chairwoman of the Czech nuclear regulatory authority, the history of Czech nuclear legislation is outlined, the reasons for the amendment of the Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) are explained, and the amendments themselves are highlighted. The Act No. 13/2002 of 18 December 2001 is reproduced from the official Collection of Acts of the Czech Republic in the facsimile form. The following acts were thereby amended: Atomic Act No. 18/1997, Metrology Act No. 505/1990, Public Health Protection Act No. 258/2000, and Act No. 2/1969 on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Governmental Agencies of the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  18. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  19. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conference 2017 NACFC Carolyn and C Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos ... Attendance Policy Our History Board of Trustees Our Leadership Careers Reports & Financials Contact Us Governance & Policies What ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conference 2017 NACFC Carolyn and C. Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos ... Attendance Policy Our History Board of Trustees Our Leadership Careers Reports & Financials Contact Us Governance & Policies What ...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your CF Story to Legislators Current Advocacy Actions Sign Up for Advocacy Action Alerts CURRENT ADVOCACY ACTIONS ... Cystic Fibrosis Caucus Our Policy Agenda Policy Principles SIGN UP FOR ADVOCACY ACTION ALERTS Community We recognize ...

  3. 77 FR 15141 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings The National Science Board's Committee on Strategy and Budget Task Force on Data Policies, pursuant to NSF regulations (45... Science Board's focus on data policies. STATUS: Open. LOCATION: This meeting will be held by...

  4. Validation of a McKinney-Vento Act Implementation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, James P.; Teasley, Martell L.; Abell, Neil; Randolph, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The McKinney-Vento Act (MVA) is the primary federal policy addressing homelessness in America with specific mandates designed to ameliorate the effects homelessness has on educational attainment for school-age children. The extent to which this policy is implemented may have far-reaching effects for homeless children. The MVA…

  5. 75 FR 59242 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... title IV, HEA programs; (2) to store electronic data that support the existence of a legal obligation to... complex password policy. In addition to the enforcement of the complex password policy, users are required... programs authorized by title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA), and to include...

  6. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b) With... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement...

  7. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and the...

  8. International Entrepreneurship and Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Per; Zucchella, Antonella; Palamera, Giada

    2006-01-01

    This contribution focuses on international sourcing as an entrepreneurial act and aims at demonstrating that it is actually at the core of internationalization processes of small firms, both established and international new ventures. Another issue of this research is to understand how these firms...

  9. 77 FR 21812 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meeting The National Science Board's Committee on Strategy and Budget Task Force on Data Policies, pursuant to NSF regulations (45 CFR part 614), the National Science Foundation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1862n-5), and the Government...

  10. 75 FR 63865 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings The National Science Board's Task Force on Data Policies, Committee on Strategy and Budget, pursuant to NSF regulations (45 CFR Part 614), the National Science Foundation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1862n-5), and the Government...

  11. 76 FR 76191 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice The National Science Board's Committee on Strategy and Budget and the CSB Task Force on Data Policies, pursuant to NSF regulations (45 CFR Part 614), the National Science Foundation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1862n-5), and the...

  12. The Davis-Bacon Act: An Appraisal of Recent Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert S.; Morrall, John F., III

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the Davis-Bacon Act, including how its wage determinations compare to local construction wages as measured by sources other than the act's administrators; the effects of lags in the act's data-gathering process; and the savings that would result from changing the way prevailing rates are calculated. (CT)

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Open Enrollment Periods Claims and Appeals Glossary of Common Health Insurance Terms Understanding Travel Insurance Research X ... with CF and her father: Demonstrate and discuss common ACT therapies Offer their tips for fitting ACTs ...

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ... for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can ...

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Therapeutics Lab Developing New Treatments The CF Foundation offers a number of resources for learning about clinical ... her father: Demonstrate and discuss common ACT therapies Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life ...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the smaller airways to attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist or another member ... specific ACTs for you to try. However, the best ACT is the one that you are most ...

  18. The US Refugee Protection System on the 35th Anniversary of the Refugee Act of 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Center for Migration Studies of New York (CMS initiated a project to bring concentrated academic and policy attention to the US refugee protection system, broadly understood to encompass refugees, asylum seekers and refugee-like populations in need of protection. The initiative gave rise to a series of papers published in 2014 and 2015, which CMS is releasing as a special collection in its Journal on Migration and Human Security on the 35th anniversary of the Refugee Act of 1980. This introductory essay situates the papers in the collection within a broader discussion of state compliance with international law, impediments to protection, US protection programs, vulnerable populations, and due process concerns. The essay sets forth extensive policy recommendations to strengthen the system drawn from the papers, legislative proposals, and other sources.

  19. Telecommunication Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2016-01-01

    This article is a response to the call of the Energy and Commerce Committee for Communications Act Update, and implies that setting a regulation which may prevent the free movement of market players for proposition of new value. As It is almost impossible to understand the future requirements of ...

  20. Nuclear Installations Act 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This Act governs all activities related to nuclear installations in the United Kingdom. It provides for the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the duties of licensees, the competent authorities and carriers of nuclear material in respect of nuclear occurrences, as well as for the system of third party liability and compensation for nuclear damage. The Act repeals the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959 and the Nuclear Installations (Amendment Act) 1965 except for its Section 17(2). (NEA) [fr

  1. Flexibility-friendly support policies:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscán Flores, Luis Rafael; Skytte, Klaus; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of flexibilityfriendly support policies, i.e. state of-the-system-dependent subsidies given to producers of electricity who base their output on renewable energy sources (RES). Such policies increase with demand, decrease with the availability of Variable Renewable...... Energy (VRE) producers and, overall, follow the power system’s residual load. The paper presents a microeconomic framework to analyze this and other desirable properties of support mechanisms. To illustrate the concept, it uses the present-day policies of Nordic and Baltic countries (Denmark, Estonia......, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden and Norway) as a case study....

  2. Policy Implementation beyond the Management of Change: A Case Study in Managing the Policy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, John; Evans, Jennifer

    Using the 1981 Education Act of England and Wales as a case study, this paper develops a conceptual framework of education legislation as a significant reference point in the process of negotiation and bargaining that initiates legislation and continues throughout the period of policy implementation. A model of the policy process and the…

  3. Children and the Industrial Revolution: Changes in Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    Presents four lessons focusing on the laws, institutions, programs, and policies affecting students as minors, the shifts in the policies toward children in industrial societies, examining the changing policies using primary and secondary sources, and forming arguments on the policies using historical evidence. Describes an additional comparative…

  4. 76 FR 37632 - Addition of Certain Persons on the Entity List: Addition of Persons Acting Contrary to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... to the National Security or Foreign Policy Interests of the United States AGENCY: Bureau of Industry.... Government to be acting contrary to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States... security or foreign policy interests of the United States, and those acting on behalf of such entities...

  5. 77 FR 23114 - Addition of Certain Persons on the Entity List: Addition of Persons Acting Contrary to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... to the National Security or Foreign Policy Interests of the United States AGENCY: Bureau of Industry... acting contrary to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States) of the EAR... national security or foreign policy interests of the United States and those acting on behalf of such...

  6. Legislating for Terrorism: The Philippines’ Human Security Act 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E. Eadie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In February 2007 the Philippine Senate passed the Human Security Act (HSA otherwise known as Republic Act No. 9372: An Act to Secure the State and Protect our People From Terrorism. Philippine Senate Minority Leader Aquilino Q. Pimentel Jr. was heavily involved in the final drafting of the HSA. He gave it its final name shortly before the Senate Chamber passed it into law. Previously the Act had been known by various titles including ‘An Act to Deter and Punish Acts of Terrorism and for Other Purposes’ (Senate Bill No. 2137 and ‘An Act to Define and Punish the Crime of Terrorism, the Crime of Conspiracy to Commit Terrorism, and the Crime of Proposal to Commit Terrorism, and for Other Purposes (Senate Bill No. 2187. Thus the Human Security Act exists as an instrument of counter terrorism as opposed to human security policy.

  7. Policy Windows, Public Opinion, and Policy Ideas: The Evolution of No Child Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiani, Vasil; Whitford, Andrew B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the policy process that led to the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act in the United States and the Bush Administration's role in this process. Design/methodology/approach: The research design is historical and archival. A description of the NCLB Act is given and the major provisions and…

  8. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  9. Values in reasoning on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaska, P.; Kantola, I.; Kasanen, P.

    1989-01-01

    Energy policy at the present time is a controversial issue with value loaded but hidden assumptions and controdictory views between proponents and opponents. The hidden or even open value contradictions between people acting on the policy formulation as experts or participating in public discussion, hinder attainment of common understanding of the situation and the choices available as well as rational decision making. Diversified subjects of energy issues followed with logical argumentation by different people and with controversial views as presented in public or in the value panel of the research project, have been described and analysed in a novel way in this research. A previously developed cognitive mapping technique has been applied in presenting the logical substructures of argumentation. However, controversality of energy policy does not stem only from the values but equally from other sources of possible contradictory views, such as erraneous or partial data, contingential information or invalid logic. Energy discussion is not devoid of these pitfalls, not necessarily even when the so-called experts express their views and recommendations. The report analyses some important themes. The message of the research, if any, is about how to consider the value arguments in a rational way and how to 'solve' value contradictions for decision making or how to make decisions on energy in a rational way under value contradictions. It is concluded that the remedy is in conscious elaborations on these contradictions and detection of them from other relevant information and furthermore, in the development of communicative rationality instead of and side by side with the more commonly adapted technical rationality

  10. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In the last 40 years, barriers to compliant and timely disposition of radioactive sealed sources have become apparent. The story starts with the explosive growth of nuclear gauging technologies in the 1960s. Dozens of companies in the US manufactured sources and many more created nuclear solutions to industrial gauging problems. Today they do not yet know how many Cat 1, 2, or 3 sources there are in the US. There are, at minimum, tens of thousands of sources, perhaps hundreds of thousands of sources. Affordable transportation solutions to consolidate all of these sources and disposition pathways for these sources do not exist. The root problem seems to be a lack of necessary regulatory framework that has allowed all of these problems to accumulate with no national plan for solving the problem. In the 1960s, Pu-238 displaced Pu-239 for most neutron and alpha source applications. In the 1970s, the availability of inexpensive Am-241 resulted in a proliferation of low energy gamma sources used in nuclear gauging, well logging, pacemakers, and X-ray fluorescence applications for example. In the 1980s, rapid expansion of worldwide petroleum exploration resulted in the expansion of Am-241 sources into international locations. Improvements of technology and regulation resulted in a change in isotopic distribution as Am-241 made Pu-239 and Pu-238 obsolete. Many early nuclear gauge technologies have been made obsolete as they were replaced by non-nuclear technoogies. With uncertainties in source end of life disposition and increased requirements for sealed source security, nuclear gauging technology is the last choice for modern process engineering gauging solutions. Over the same period, much was learned about licensing LLW disposition facilities as evident by the closure of early disposition facilities like Maxey Flats. The current difficulties in sealed source disposition start with adoption of the NLLW policy act of 1985, which created the state LLW compact system they

  11. Dealing with the Clean Water Act pending reauthorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, S.

    1994-01-01

    This report addresses probable changes in the Clean Water Act that may affect federal facilities such as those under the DOE. These changes will be included in a reauthorization of the act. The author draws upon the 1992 National Water Quality Inventory Report to Congress as a source to identify changes in the focus of the reauthorized act on non-point source issues, watershed management, new enforcement mechanisms and an assortment of smaller issues that will have indirect effects on federal facilities

  12. Sport supporting act: terminology issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The text deals with terminology issues from an interdisciplinary point of view. It is based on two different disciplines, law and kinanthropology, in an area of their overlap. AIM: The aim of the author is to point out some possible legislative problems, which could arise due to the current reading of the sport supporting act (Act no. 115/2001. The second aim of the author is to contribute to the discussion of kinantropologists (possibly also the educational researchers and lawyers and to stress the importance of the systematic approach to terminology formulation. METHODS: The author uses the method of language interpretation. We also use the basic analytical methods, induction and deduction, while we stress the systematic approach to the term formulation. RESULTS: The analysis of the sport supporting act terminology shows some specific legislative problems, which could arise due to the definition of sport in the sport supporting act. The author discusses a possible alternative solution. CONCLUSION: According to the opinion of the author, clear, obvious and unified terminology of kinantropologists as specialists in their discipline should represent a source, from which other sciences could derive their terminology. Defined and inexpert terminology used in other disciplines should not be used as an argument for its adopting in kinanthropology.

  13. Antibiotic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gyssens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear association between antibiotic use and resistance both on individual and population levels. In the European Union, countries with large antibiotic consumption have higher resistance rates. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatments, prolonged hospitalisations, increased costs and deaths. With few new antibiotics in the Research & Development pipeline, prudent antibiotic use is the only option to delay the development of resistance. Antibiotic policy consists of prescrib...

  14. Local Television News Coverage of the Affordable Care Act: Emphasizing Politics Over Consumer Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Baum, Laura M; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2017-05-01

    To examine the public health and policy-relevant messages conveyed through local television news during the first stage of Affordable Care Act (ACA) implementation, when about 10 million Americans gained insurance. We conducted a content analysis of 1569 ACA-related local evening television news stories, obtained from sampling local news aired between October 1, 2013, and April 19, 2014. Coders systematically collected data using a coding instrument tracking major messages and information sources cited in the news. Overall, only half of all ACA-related news coverage focused on health insurance products, whereas the remainder discussed political disagreements over the law. Major policy tools of the ACA-the Medicaid expansion and subsidies available-were cited in less than 10% of news stories. Number of enrollees (27%) and Web site glitches (33%) were more common features of coverage. Sources with a political affiliation were by far the most common source of information (> 40%), whereas research was cited in less than 4% of stories. The most common source of news for Americans provided little public health-relevant substance about the ACA during its early implementation, favoring political strategy in coverage.

  15. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  16. Review of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986, the 1986 Annual Delegate Conference of the Institution of Professional Civil Servants set up a Working Party to review the Institution's energy policy, including safety and environmental factors. The review is presented in two volumes as the basis for discussion by the members. Volume I is the main report. Section A, the introduction, includes a summary of the detailed conclusions and recommendations of the Working Party. Section B (chapters 4-12) concerns all aspects of nuclear power including fuel reprocessing and waste management. Section C (chapters 13-16) considers the alternatives to nuclear power and Section D (chapters 17-24) looks at the economic and social aspects of energy policy. The appendices, which contain the detailed technical and source information used by the Working Party in reaching its conclusions, are printed separately in Volume II. (UK)

  17. 77 FR 61895 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... and demand-side management programs, green pricing and net metering programs, and distributed... section 1281 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), to facilitate price transparency in markets...; Transparency Provisions of the Energy Policy Act, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 72 FR 20791 (April 26, 2007...

  18. Energy sector reforms status of Danish energy policy - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullev, L.

    2000-01-01

    The new millennium brings change and new ways of thinking to the energy sector. Today the sector faces new challenges which it must deal with at a time where increasing market liberalisation and increasing internalisation is creating completely new frameworks for the sector. The Danish tradition of progressive energy policy action plans is the best possible basis on which to build. The target remains set. Energy policy must create the framework for structuring future energy systems so as to ensure that they are sustainable. Over many years there have been numerous initiatives to transfer consumption to cleaner energy sources, which has now led to a steady reduction in CO 2 emissions. The government places great importance on a continuation of this current development, both short term and long term. The adoption of the Electricity Reform in spring 1999 was an important step in the right direction. The government can, with great satisfaction, conclude that an agreement has now been made with most of the Parliament regarding a Gas reform, modernisation of the heat Supply Act and a new Energy Saving Act. In addition to this, the agreement also includes a follow up to the Electricity Reform concerning utilisation of biomass, offshore wind turbines, harmonisation of costs for priority electricity production, private generator's payment to priority electricity and the establishment of a market for electricity based on renewable. (author)

  19. Australia's approach to monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Sneddon Little

    2002-01-01

    According to Australia's Reserve Bank Act, the central bank's broad policy objectives include maintaining the stability of the currency, full employment, and the economic prosperity and welfare of the people of Australia. In 1993 the Reserve Bank of Australia adopted a specific, and thus transparent, inflation target as its operating objective; it aims to keep overall inflation between 2 percent and 3 percent on average over the business cycle.

  20. Essays on Environmental Regulatory Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Two common desires for individuals are to live in a society with a healthy and sustainable environment, and a growing and productive economy. Through environmental regulatory policy, governments pursue these objectives on behalf of their electorate. It can often be a difficult balancing act, however, as these objectives do not always fit well together. Industrial activities that drive and stimulate the economy often have negative and lasting impacts on the environment. In this dissertation,...

  1. Ontario’s Clean Water Act and Capacity Building: Implications for Serviced Rural Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Minnes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores Ontario’s Clean Water Act (S.O. 2006, c. 22 and its contribution to capacity building for rural municipalities impacted by source protection plans created under the Act. Source water protection (SWP under the Clean Water Act (S.O. 2006, c. 22 is explored drawing from a capacity framework. A nested case study approach has been employed to allow for in depth exploration of the experience within the Cataraqui Source Protection Area and the North Bay-Mattawa Source Protection Area, where key informant interviews were conducted. Findings are outlined looking at four elements of capacity for SWP: institutional, financial, social, and technical/human. It was found that the process was successful for building capacity in the serviced rural municipalities involved, but did not provide any meaningful protection for areas reliant on private drinking water systems such as wells. Several improvements to the legislated process were suggested including greater flexibility for local circumstance and better methods for engagement of First Nations and the general public. It is unknown if this capacity will be sustained as the program continues and provincial funding is reduced. Reduced funding will particularly impact rural communities that lack the internal human and financial capacity to implement SWP policies without the assistance of provincial funding and conservation authority staff (who also rely on provincial/municipal funding sources. Ultimately, it was found that SWP in rural areas requires enforceable mandatory legislation; sustainable provincial funding and municipal fiscal frameworks to support ongoing SWP planning and implementation; technical aid at the regional level; and support and commitment to SWP at the local level (e.g., municipalities, local health units, landowners, residents and watershed users.

  2. Radioactive Substances Act 1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    This Act regulates the keeping and use of radioactive material and makes provision for the disposal and storage of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. It provides for a licensing system for such activities and for exemptions therefrom, in particular as concerns the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The Act repeals Section 4(5) of the Atomic Energy Authority Act, 1954 which made temporary provision for discharge of waste on or from premises occupied by the Authority. (NEA) [fr

  3. Learning dialog act processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wermter, Stefan; Löchel, Matthias

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach for learning dialog act processing. In this approach we integrate a symbolic semantic segmentation parser with a learning dialog act network. In order to support the unforeseeable errors and variations of spoken language we have concentrated on robust data-driven learning. This approach already compares favorably with the statistical average plausibility method, produces a segmentation and dialog act assignment for all utterances in a robust manner,...

  4. Radiological Protection Act 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of a Radiological Protection Board to undertake research and advise on protection from radiation hazards. Its functions include provision of advice to Government departments with responsibilities in relation to protection of sectors of the community or the community as a whole against the hazards of ionizing radiation. The Act, which lays down that the Board shall replace certain departments concerned with radiation protection, repeals several Sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and the Science and Technology Act 1965. (NEA) [fr

  5. Disability Policy Implementation From a Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel A; Jenaro, Cristina; Calvo, Isabel; Navas, Patricia

    2017-07-01

    Implementation of disability policy is influenced by social, political, and cultural factors. Based on published work, this article discusses four guidelines considered critical for successful policy implementation from a cross-cultural perspective. These guidelines are to: (a) base policy implementation on a contextual analysis, (b) employ a value-based approach, (c) align the service delivery system both vertically and horizontally, and (d) engage in a partnership in policy implementation. Public policy should be understood from a systems perspective that includes cross-cultural issues, such as how different stakeholders are acting and the way they plan and implement policy.

  6. Act II of the Sunshine Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2014-11-01

    To coincide with the introduction in the United States of the Sunshine Act, Genevieve Pham-Kanter discusses what we need to look for to fight hidden bias and deliberate or unconscious corruption. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  7. Act II of the Sunshine Act.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Pham-Kanter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To coincide with the introduction in the United States of the Sunshine Act, Genevieve Pham-Kanter discusses what we need to look for to fight hidden bias and deliberate or unconscious corruption. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  8. Nuclear energy: French government policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the French government policy concerning nuclear energy and alternative sources of energy for the next 10 years. This report overviews the situation of Super-Phenix fast reactor and presents the implications of the 30/12/1999 decree (Bataille's law) about the management of radioactive wastes

  9. Strategies of Chinese energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2007-01-01

    In order to close the growing gap between stagnant domestic production and expanding consumption China has sought to reform its energy sector and diversify both its energy mix and sources. Securing supplies from abroad has become a major drive of the country's foreign policy and China's aggressive pursue of energy security on the international scene has increasing become a major global concern [it

  10. Aviation, Carbon, and the Clean Air Act

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the policy options available to the United States for regulating greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft under existing law: the Clean Air Act (CAA). Europe has unilaterally and controversially moved to include aviation emissions in its Emissions Trading System. The United States can, however, allow its airlines to escape this requirement by imposing “equivalent” regulation. U.S. aviation emissions rules could also have significant environmental benefits and would limit dom...

  11. Act No. 583, 9 July 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This Act provides that a contract for surrogate motherhood "shall be absolutely null and shall be void and unenforceable as contrary to public policy." A contract for surrogate motherhood is defined as "any agreement whereby a person not married to the contributor of the sperm agrees for valuable consideration to be inseminated, to carry any resulting fetus to birth, and then to relinquish to the contributor of the sperm the custody and all rights and obligations to the child." full text

  12. Long term radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Dina, D.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is a key issue of the environmental policy of any company. According to the Romanian Nuclear Act (Law 111/1996) and the Environmental Protection Act (Law 137/1996) the owner is responsible for the management of all radioactive waste effluents at the nuclear installations, including the technical and cost components. The developed policy incorporates the practice in the EU Member States and in the country of the plant supplier (Canada). On short term, the priorities of our radioactive waste management policy are to extend the spent fuel storage capacity using the dry storage technology. On long term the policy includes a facilities for L/ILW packaging for disposal in a new surface repository to be built on the Cernavoda NPP site. For HLW the interim storage for about 50 years will provide the necessary time to select and implement the geological disposal, in accordance with the best international practice. (authors)

  13. Public health professionals as policy entrepreneurs: Arkansas's childhood obesity policy experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Rebekah L; Felix, Holly C; Walker, Jada F; Phillips, Martha M

    2010-11-01

    In response to a nationwide rise in obesity, several states have passed legislation to improve school health environments. Among these was Arkansas's Act 1220 of 2003, the most comprehensive school-based childhood obesity legislation at that time. We used the Multiple Streams Framework to analyze factors that brought childhood obesity to the forefront of the Arkansas legislative agenda and resulted in the passage of Act 1220. When 3 streams (problem, policy, and political) are combined, a policy window is opened and policy entrepreneurs may advance their goals. We documented factors that produced a policy window and allowed entrepreneurs to enact comprehensive legislation. This historical analysis and the Multiple Streams Framework may serve as a roadmap for leaders seeking to influence health policy.

  14. New sources will drive global emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2007-01-01

    Nearly all policy initiatives to mitigate climate change have adopted the cap and trade approach, perhaps because this approach has worked so well for reducing SO x and NO x from existing power plants in the US. However, new sources, not existing sources, will be primarily responsible for global CO 2 emissions in the 21st century, since new sources provide for growth and replace existing sources at the end of their useful lives. Hence, policy initiatives should be designed for new sources rather than for existing sources, and cap and trade may not be the best approach

  15. MONETARY POLICY AND PARALLEL FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela IONESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monetary policy is one of the economic policy "tools" through which it acts on the currency demand and supply in the economy. The importance of monetary policy results from its primary objective - price stability, plus limiting inflation and maintaining internal and external value of the currency. Responsibility for achieving these objectives rests with the Central Bank, which has a monopoly in the formulation and the implementation of monetary policy targets. Price stability is the primary objective of monetary policy and also the central objective of economic policy, alongside with: sustainable economic growth, full employment of labor force, balance of external payments equilibrium. To achieve these overall objectives of economic policy, monetary policy acts through currency as an instrument of action and it represents the overall action exercised by the monetary authority to influence economic development and to ensure price stability. In economic processes numerous factors emerge to the sale or purchase of capital available for a shorter or longer period and to achieving their aspirations of maximize capital gains, they are negotiating, they are confronting and agreeing within specific market relationships. The entirety of relations between various economic issues, enterprises and individuals, between them and the banking intermediaries, as well as the relationship between banks and other credit institutions on the transfer of cash money as specific form of debt and fructification of capital, form capital markets or credit markets. These markets are carved up according to the nature and purposes of the participants.

  16. 15 CFR 744.11 - License requirements that apply to entities acting contrary to the national security or foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... entities acting contrary to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States. 744.11... national security or foreign policy interests of the United States. BIS may impose foreign policy export... to United States national security or foreign policy interests or enabling such transfer, service...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About the Foundation Media Center Attendance Policy Our History Board of Trustees Our Leadership Careers Reports and Financials Contact Us Governance and Policies What is CF? About Cystic Fibrosis CF Genetics Diagnosis Testing for CF Life With CF Caring for a Child With CF ...

  18. Multiple Environmental Externalities and Manure Management Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel D.; Kaplan, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the economic and environmental implications of regulating water and air nitrogen emissions under single and multi-environmental media policies in the U.S. hog industry. We examine tradeoffs from policies designed to correct an externality in one medium, when there are multiple environmental externalities. We separately and jointly analyze: (a) nitrogen land application restrictions consistent with recently adopted EPA requirements under the Clean Water Act, and (b) hypoth...

  19. U.S. Conservation Policy Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Amy Whritenour

    2007-01-01

    Research related to the Endangered Species Act tends to take the presence of that policy as given and focus on issues of implementation and effects. This paper seeks to reconsider U.S. conservation policy entirely. The ESA does not protect species or ecosystems that are not endangered, and formally requires that conservation efforts be spread evenly across endangered species to prevent their extinctions. However, the focus of conservation science has evolved in recent years towards ecosystems...

  20. Essays in Human Development and Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Arindam

    2010-01-01

    Despite strong recent economic growth, gender inequality remains a major concern for India. This dissertation examines the effectiveness of public policy in improving some important human development outcomes, with a focus on gender issues. The national Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostics Techniques (PNDT) Act of 1994, implemented in 1996, banned sex-selective abortions in the Indian states which hitherto had not legislated such a policy. Using village-level and town-level longitudinal d...

  1. Policy on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This Regulatory Policy Statement describes the policy of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) on the decommissioning of those facilities defined as nuclear facilities in the Atomic Energy Control (AEC) Regulations. It is intended as a formal statement, primarily for the information of licensees, or potential licensees, of the regulatory process and requirements generally applicable to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities licensed and regulated by the AECB pursuant to the authority of the AEC Act and Regulations

  2. Nuclear Installations Act 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to amend the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to bring it into full compliance with the international conventions on nuclear third party liability to which the United Kingdom is a Signatory, namely, the Paris Convention, the Brussels Supplementary Convention and the Vienna Convention. (NEA) [fr

  3. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  4. Radiation emitting devices act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act, entitled the Radiation Emitting Devices Act, is concerned with the sale and importation of radiation emitting devices. Laws relating to the sale, lease or import, labelling, advertising, packaging, safety standards and inspection of these devices are listed as well as penalties for any person who is convicted of breaking these laws

  5. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  6. Clean Air Act Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be taken through a nebulizer during ACTs. Inhaled antibiotics should be taken after ACTs are finished and the lungs are as clear of mucus as possible. This will allow the medication to reach deeply into the smaller airways to attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist ...

  8. 76 FR 213 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... below. DOE also proposes to modify certain technology-specific vocabulary to reflect current usage... example, to update technology-specific vocabulary, DOE proposes to change ``electric powerlines'' to... inserting the condition that the construction, acquisition, and relocation of these linear features be...

  9. 75 FR 66774 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... valuations can be highly subjective and land appraisals are understood to represent an art, not a science... statement. A Federalism summary impact statement is not required. 7. Consultation with Indian Tribes (E.O... and determined that it has no potential effects on Federally recognized Indian Tribes since Native...

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site

  11. Geothermal Induced Seismicity National Environmental Policy Act Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckers, Koenraad J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    In 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assist the BLM in developing and building upon tools to better understand and evaluate induced seismicity caused by geothermal projects. This review of NEPA documents for four geothermal injection or EGS projects reveals the variety of approaches to analyzing and mitigating induced seismicity. With the exception of the Geysers, where induced seismicity has been observed and monitored for an extended period of time due to large volumes of water being piped in to recharge the hydrothermal reservoir, induced seismicity caused by geothermal projects is a relative new area of study. As this review highlights, determining the level of mitigation required for induced seismic events has varied based on project location, when the review took place, whether the project utilized the International Energy Agency or DOE IS protocols, and the federal agency conducting the review. While the NEPA reviews were relatively consistent for seismic monitoring and historical evaluation of seismic events near the project location, the requirements for public outreach and mitigation for induced seismic events once stimulation has begun varied considerably between the four projects. Not all of the projects were required to notify specific community groups or local government entities before beginning the project, and only one of the reviews specifically stated the project proponent would hold meetings with the public to answer questions or address concerns.

  12. 77 FR 35471 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... or inspection equipment. (24) Installation, repair and replacement of equipment and small structures... accessible platforms. (22) Bridge rehabilitation, reconstruction or replacement, and the construction of... crossings, or construction or replacement of short span bridges. (23) Acquisition (including purchase or...

  13. 76 FR 63763 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... expanded. For example, in recent years, DOE has reviewed thousands of applications from private entities... research and development and pilot projects; solar photovoltaic systems; solar thermal systems; wind... health requirements; requiring siting and construction, or major expansion, of a new waste storage...

  14. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  15. Uproar over Milk Substitutes Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-15

    Health policy activists lobbied 7 years for the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Food Bill. Proponents of the bill say that it basically curtails unethical marketing practices, not the sales of baby foods, and argue that it was conceived to reduce the trend of mothers over-diluting commercial milk in order to reduce household expenses as well as stem the potential erosion of knowledge on locally available weaning foods. Even though the bill will become an Act only after its rules and regulations have been finalized, the government has already banned baby food advertisements on television and in other electronic media under its control. Women's groups now argue that the bill tends to focus almost exclusively upon the welfare of children and compromises the position of women who can not lactate adequately. Moreover, they hold that the bill may be used to compel wives to stay out of the formal workforce so that they may feed their babies. The intention of the bill may be meaningless without complementary legislation addressing the problems of working mothers. Specifically, amendments to the Maternity Benefits Act of 1961 would extend maternity leave to 4 months after delivery and lengthen the duration of nursing breaks. It is, however, feared that these changes may reduce employment prospects for women.

  16. Drug Policy in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucek Psenkova, Maria; Visnansky, Martin; Mackovicova, Stanislava; Tomek, Dominik

    2017-09-01

    Slovak law sets clear rules and timelines in the process of approving the price and reimbursement of drugs. During the last decade, the Ministry of Health adopted several cost-containment measures in the price and reimbursement policy. The most effective measures were the implementation of the external referencing of drug prices in 2008 and the reimbursement law in 2011. The new act introduced several regulations such as making stricter rules for the referencing of prices, setting cost per quality-adjusted life-year threshold, and defining new rules for the setting of reimbursements. On one side, implementation of these measures helped to achieve visible cost savings, but, on the other side, cost-containment policies have had some unintended consequences. In recent years, Slovakia has been facing a decreased availability of drugs because of parallel exports. As a result of the government's effort, Slovakia is the only country in the European Union that implemented a legal ban on the re-export of medicines. During the decade before 2011, many innovative drugs were included in the reimbursement system. Because of stricter legal conditions introduced in 2011, there has been a gradual shift in reimbursing innovative drugs from the standard reimbursement system to reimbursement by way of exceptions of health insurance companies. Recently, there has been an ongoing discussion on possible changes to the reimbursement law. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. 77 FR 49821 - Exercise of Authority Under the Immigration and Nationality Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Exercise of Authority Under the Immigration and Nationality Act AGENCY... Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. 1182(d)(3)(B)(i), as amended, as well as the foreign policy... Refugee Immigration Fairness Act (HRIFA), or granted a similar immigration benefit other than a non...

  18. 18 CFR 380.13 - Compliance with the Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Endangered Species Act. 380.13 Section 380.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.13 Compliance with the Endangered Species Act. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Listed species and critical habitat have the same meaning as provided in 50 CFR 402...

  19. Fiscal policy under alternative monetary policy regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Roldan; Carmelo Monteagudo-Cuerva

    2013-01-01

    In the particular policy framework of a monetary union, the management of fiscal policy becomes an issue of special relevance, because the fiscal discipline imposed by the monetary agreements could limit the scope of stabilization fiscal policies, and its implications on economic growth. Therefore, is not trivial to manage fiscal policy in such particular economic framework. In this paper we will review the implications of fiscal policy in open economies. But we will pay special attention to ...

  20. My Summer with Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marissa

    This past summer I interned at the American Institute of Physics and helped research and write articles for the FYI Science Policy Bulletin. FYI is an objective digest of science policy developments in Washington, D.C. that impact the greater physical sciences community. Over the course of the summer, I independently attended, analyzed, and reported on a variety of science, technology, and funding related events including congressional hearings, government agency advisory committee meetings, and scientific society events. I wrote and co-wrote three articles on basic energy research legislation, the National Institute of Standards and Technology improvement act, and the National Science Foundation's big ideas for future investment. I had the opportunity to examine some challenging questions such as what is the role of government in funding applied research? How should science priorities be set? What is the right balance of funding across different agencies and programs? I learned about how science policy is a two-way street: science is used to inform policy decisions and policy is made to fund and regulate the conduct of science. I will conclude with how my summer working with FYI showed me the importance of science advocacy, being informed, and voting. Society of Physics Students.