Inflation, economic policy, and the inner city
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curtis, L.A.
1981-07-01
This article describes the greater impact of inflation among the poor and minorities in American inner cities than among other population groups. Surveys show, however, that minorities are even more concerned over unemployment and racial discrimination than over inflation. There are indications that, especially today, crime and potential group disorder are affected by or influence inflation, unemployment, and discrimination in the inner city. With these interrelated factors in mind, present federal economic policy is reviewed, critiqued, and interpreted as basically consistent with Keynesian economic theory. Modifications of and alternatives to present policy are offered that fit both inner-city needs and the concerns of the rest of American society. These policies include targeted private sector neighborhood development and self-help, private sector productivity increases through workplace democracy, private-public sector codetermination of investment, private-public sector job guarantees, and public anti-inflation policy carefully targeted at the basic necessities of energy, food, housing, and health care - which have a disproportionate effect on inflation in the inner city, as well as the overall economy. Coalitions are suggested that could politically implement such policies.
Monetary policy and inflation in Brazil (1975-2000: a VAR estimation
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Minella André
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates monetary policy and basic macroeconomic relationships involving output, inflation rate, interest rate, and money in Brazil. Based on a vector autoregressive (VAR estimation, it compares three different periods: moderately-increasing inflation (1975-1985, high inflation (1985-1994, and low inflation (1994-2000. The main results are the following: monetary policy shocks have significant effects on output; monetary policy shocks do not induce a reduction in the inflation rate in the first two periods, but there are indications that they have gained power to affect prices after the Real Plan was launched; monetary policy does not usually respond rapidly or actively to inflation-rate and output innovations; in the recent period, the interest rate responds intensely to financial crises; positive interest-rate shocks are accompanied by a decline in money in all the three periods; the degree of inflation persistence is substantially lower in the recent period.
MONETARY POLICY AND THE INFLATION TARGETING STRATEGY
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Zina V. MARCU căs. CIORAN
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The monetary policy is a basic component of the economic policy. It has an important role in fulfilling the main objectives of the economic politics, which is: price stability, insurance of a balanced economic raise, full occupancy of human resources and the external payment balance stability insurance. Inflation is a negative thing affecting the economy both on short and long term. On short term, it erodes the purchasing power of currency and thus, it mostly affects the retirees and those with fixed incomes. On long term, inflation discourages the investments and the economic growth. The purpose of this paper consists in the revision and presentation of the specialized literature concerning the impact the monetary policy has on the main macro-economical variables, especially on inflation, in terms of influence of the monetary authority decision on economic and financial conjunction. It was found that the monetary authorities of any country can evaluate exactly the rhythm and the effects of their actions on the economy by understanding the mechanisms which the monetary policy uses to influence the economy.
NAACP Policy Recommendations for Economic Growth and Combating Inflation.
Crisis, 1981
1981-01-01
Reacts to the Reagan Administration's economic plans. Presents NAACP policy positions on combating inflation, tax relief, unemployment, and stimulating growth in inner cities to offset urban blight. (MK)
Replenishment policy for an inventory model under inflation
Singh, Vikramjeet; Saxena, Seema; Singh, Pushpinder; Mishra, Nitin Kumar
2017-07-01
The purpose of replenishment is to keep the flow of inventory in the system. To determine an optimal replenishment policy is a great challenge in developing an inventory model. Inflation is defined as the rate at which the prices of goods and services are rising over a time period. The cost parameters are affected by the rate of inflation. High rate of inflation affects the organizations financial conditions. Based on the above backdrop the present paper proposes the retailers replenishment policy for deteriorating items with different cycle lengths under inflation. The shortages are partially backlogged. At last numerical examples validate the results.
Model-based inflation forecasts and monetary policy rules
Wouters, Raf; Dombrecht, Michel
2000-01-01
In this paper, the interaction between inflation and monetary policy rules is analysed within the framework of a dynamic general equilibrium model derived from optimising behaviour and rational expectations. Using model simulations, it is illustrated that the control of monetary policy over the inflation process is strongly dependent on the role of forward looking expectations in the price and wage setting process and on the credibility of monetary policy in the expectation formation process ...
Moving from inflation targeting to prices and incomes policy
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Arestis Philip
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the future of economic policies with regard to inflation. The dominant approach to inflation over the past two decades or so has been inflation targeting. The global environment of the decade circa 1995 to 2005 with the “China effect” pushing down prices of manufactured goods and with primary commodity prices being subdued was conducive to low inflation. It is argued that inflation targeting has not been a great success story and is unable to address inflation arising from global forces or from struggles over the distribution of income. It is argued that a more sophisticated analysis than that contained in the Phillips curve is required. Further, and from our analysis, counter inflation policies should include the achievement of an inflation barrier consistent with full employment without inflationary pressures. This can be addressed by ensuring that there is sufficient productive capacity to underpin full employment, where sufficient is to be interpreted in terms of quantity, quality and geographical distribution. Further, we argue that this should be complemented by some form of incomes policy, to enable inflation to be contained without resorting to demand deflation.
MONETARY POLICY AND INFLATION TARGETING IN A SMALL OPEN ECONOMY
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Antoni Antoni
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The danger of inflation has been the focus of many central banks. This paper analyzes the transmission mechanism of monetary policy and inflation targeting in Malaysia with a backward-looking aggregate supply and demand analysis. The manage floating regime applied in the country has an important role in achieving a stable exchange rate against its major trading partners. It also analyzes the policy of maintaining the soundness of interest rate to perceive inflation targeting to increase its economic growth. Using 1991-2004 data and a traditional structural econometric model, it shows that output gap is important in forecasting a domestic inflation rate by controlling the interest rate. Keywords: Inflation targeting, monetary economics, structural econometric modelJEL classification numbers: E3, E52
Learning, Inflation Reduction and Optimal Monetary Policy
Schaling, E.
2003-01-01
In this paper we analyze disinflation in two environments.One in which the central bank has perfect knowledge, in the sense that it understands and observes the process by which private sector inflation expectations are generated, and one in which the central bank has to learn the private sector
Inflation or output targeting? Monetary policy appropriateness in south Africa
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Temitope Leshoro
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The design and implementation of monetary policy in South Africa has been based on the idea of a trade-off between inflation and output growth. However, in the empirical literature there is no consensus on the existence of a Phillips curve in present times. This study aims to estimate the Hybrid New Keynesian Phillips Curve model with a view to determine whether a Phillips curve exists for South Africa and to ascertain whether backward-looking or forward-looking components drive inflation dynamics. Employing both OLS and GMM estimation techniques and using various measures of the demand-side variables, we do not find evidence of a Phillips curve in South Africa. These findings are robust across estimation methodologies as well as different measurements of inflation expectations and data frequency. Our findings therefore support the argument that monetary policy ought to aim at targeting growth rather than inflation. While our findings indicate that economic agents in South Africa are both rational and adaptive in predicting inflation, the results clearly indicate the dominance of forward looking variables over the backward looking ones in driving inflation. JEL: E31
THE INFLUENCES OF INFLATION ON THE MONETARY POLICY INTEREST
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Popa Coralia Emilia
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In the context of sovereign debt crisis in Europe, a crisis entirely felt also in the direct relation between credit institutions, the National Bank of Romania (NBR adopted a monetary policy strategy meant to determine the reinforcement of its image, by initiating in the autumn of 2011 a new series of reduction of the monetary policy interest rate and implicitly the appropriate resizing of liquidity conditions. By increasing the role of liquidity adjustment, the European Central Bank (ECB succeeded to determine in the money market the decrease of interbank rate interests under the interest rate level of monetary policy. The direct inflation targeting strategy used by the European Central Bank in applying its monetary policy has the first criterion of implementation the expression of inflation target in terms of â€žheadline inflationâ€ (consumer price index - CPI given that the economic market in Romania is familiar with this indicator. Also, the main criterion considered by the investment segment of the market to achieve capital infusions in economic transactions is represented by the consumer price index, this one ensuring the necessary transparency related to the effects of inflation phenomenon. A strong argument supporting the use of consumer price index in monetary policy is represented by its upward flexibility towards the limited effectiveness of monetary aggregates in sizing inflationary anticipations. The downward slope of inflation phenomenon, in whose depreciation the evolution of consumer price index, whose positive trend surprised the European Central Bank, played a significant role, determined adjustments in the monetary policy strategy of the National Bank of Romania and at the same time the achievement of the inflationary target proposed with a direct effect on the monetary policy interest rate. The same measure to reduce the key interest rate is outlined in the monetary policy of the European Central Bank and it is
Inflation targeting and core inflation
Julie Smith
2005-01-01
This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...
Monetary Policy in a Low Inflation Environment
C.A. Ullersma (Cornelis Alexander)
2007-01-01
textabstractThis thesis shows that since the mid 1980s a sharp fall in equity and house prices tends to go hand in hand with a reduction of the monetary policy interest rate, which is the central bank’s main instrument to safeguard price stability. In exceptional circumstances, the policy rate can
Vallurupalli, Srikanth; Kasula, Srikanth; Kumar Agarwal, Shiv; Pothineni, Naga Venkata K; Abualsuod, Amjad; Hakeem, Abdul; Ahmed, Zubair; Uretsky, Barry F
2017-08-01
High-pressure inflation for coronary stent deployment is universally performed. However, the duration of inflation is variable and does not take into account differences in lesion compliance. We developed a standardized "pressure optimization protocol" (POP) using inflation pressure stability rather than an arbitrary inflation time or angiographic balloon appearance for stent deployment. Whether this approach improves long-term outcomes is unknown. 792 patients who underwent PCI using either rapid inflation/deflation (n = 376) or POP (n = 416) between January 2009 and March 2014 were included. Exclusion criteria included PCI for acute myocardial infarction, in-stent restenosis, chronic total occlusion, left main, and saphenous vein graft lesions. Primary endpoint was target vessel failure [TVF = combined end point of target vessel revascularization (TVR), myocardial infarction, and cardiac death]. Outcomes were analyzed in the entire cohort and in a propensity analysis. Stent implantation using POP with a median follow-up of 1317 days was associated with lower TVF compared with rapid inflation/deflation (10.1 vs. 17.8%, P deflation (10 vs. 18%, P < 0.0001). Stent deployment using POP led to reduced TVF compared to rapid I/D. These results recommend this method to improve long-term outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Robert Pollin; James Heintz
2007-01-01
This IPC Country Study by Robert Pollin and James Heintz examines three policy areas related to monetary policies in Kenya: inflation dynamics and the relationship between inflation and long-run growth; monetary policy targets and instruments; and exchange rate dynamics and the country?s external balance. It concludes with five main policy recommendations
Food inflation in South Africa: some implications for economic policy.
Rangasamy, Logan
2011-01-01
This paper analyses the trends in food price movements in South Africa between 1980 and 2008. There are three main results emanating from the analysis in this paper. Firstly, food price movements have played a large role in generating inflationary episodes in South Africa. Secondly, while external influences do matter, South African food price movements are mainly due to domestic influences. This implies that national policy has an important role to play in taming domestic food price inflation. Thirdly, given the strong second round impacts, food price movements warrant special attention in monetary policymaking. Core measures of inflation that exclude food price movements may not accurately reflect the underlying inflationary pressures in the economy and could compromise the attainment of the goal of price stability.
The impact of monetary policy on output and inflation in India: A frequency domain analysis
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Salunkhe Bhavesh
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the recent past, several attempts by the RBI to control inflation through tight monetary policy have ended up slowing the growth process, thereby provoking prolonged discussion among academics and policymakers about the efficacy of monetary policy in India. Against this backdrop, the present study attempts to estimate the causal relationship between monetary policy and its final objectives; i.e., growth, and controlling inflation in India. The methodological tool used is testing for Granger Causality in the frequency domain as developed by Lemmens et al. (2008, and monetary policy has been proxied by the weighted average call money rate. In view of the fact that output gap is one of the determinants of future inflation, an attempt has also been made to study the causal relationship between output gap and inflation. The results of empirical estimation show a bi-directional causality between policy rate and inflation and between policy rate and output, which implies that the monetary authorities in India were equally concerned about inflation and output growth when determining policy. Furthermore, any attempt to control inflation affects output with the same or even greater magnitude than inflation, thereby damaging the growth process. The relationship between output gap and inflation was found to be positive, as reported in earlier studies for India. Furthermore, the output gap causes inflation only in the short-tomediumrun.
Monetary policy and heterogeneous inflation expectations in South Africa
Kabundi, A.; Schaling, E.; Some, M.
2015-01-01
This paper examines the relationship between inflation and inflation expectations of analysts, business, and trade unions in South Africa during the inflation targeting (IT) regime. We consider inflation expectations based on the Bureau of Economic Research (BER) quarterly survey observed from
Some Evidence on Policy Makers’ Motives, Macroeconomic preferences and Output-Inflation Trade-offs
O.H. Swank (Otto)
1997-01-01
textabstractThis paper presents the results of an empirical study of the relationship between macroeconomic performance and policy makers' preferences for real output growth and inflation based on quarterly data from 16 countries. The empirical results indicate that a lower priority to inflation and
The economic policy options and their connection with inflation and unemployment
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Bogna Kopeć
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Economic system after 1990 had many fluctuations. This article applies to two essential phenomena in a free market economy: inflation and unemployment. This article applies to changes in the process of inflation and fluctuations in the unemployment rate under different economic policy options. Economic policies can affect the development of the inflation and unemployment. It includes interest rates and budget deficits. Methodology of model is based on a pendulum. Economic policy has been designated as a synthetic indicator of the resultant two policies - monetary and fiscal policies. With the help of the pendulum model has been established that the character had run monetary and fiscal policy, and how developed as economic policy. By the dominance of one of the policy options is understood that during cycles level inflation or the deficit fluctuated strongly to economic stabilization. One of the stages of the study was to analyze the monetary policy and assess whether there is a link between the evolution of interest rates and the evolution of the inflation rate. In a similar way, fiscal policy was analyzed. This article attempts to determine whether the conduct of economic policy was correct, and has had an impact on the economic situation.
IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY ON RELATIVE PRICE VARIABILITY OF FOOD CROPS AND INFLATION IN NIGERIA
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Ifeoluwa Akin Babalola
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Prices of food crops in Nigeria tend to exhibit similar trend with inflation. The study therefore established quantitatively relationships among agricultural policy, relative price variability (RPV of food crops and inflation in Nigeria. Data for the study includes annual producer prices (nominal and output of food crops and annual inflation rate obtained from the publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Nigerian Bureau of Statistics, Food and Agricultural Organisation and Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research covering the period of 1970-2009. Analytical tools used were RPV index and Error Correction Method (ECM. The results showed that the variables are stationary at their levels. As inflation increases, RPV of food crops also increases both in short run (0.0002 and the long run (0.0310. Civilian Post-Structural Adjustment Period Policies (CPSAP caused a significant reduction in inflation and consequently reduced the RPV of food crops in the long run. There is a need for policies that will buffer the food crop sub-sector from the effects of inflation. Policies that reduce the rate of inflation and minimise RPV among food crops are needed. Effective management of inefficiencies and misallocation of resources in the sub-sector should be explored.
How Does Monetary Policy Change? Evidence on Inflation Targeting Countries
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horváth, Roman; Baxa, Jaromír; Vašíček, B.
2014-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 3 (2014), s. 593-630 ISSN 1365-1005 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Inflation Targeting * Time-Varying Parameter Model * Endogenous Regressors Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2014 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9205115&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S1365100512000545
Credit policy, inflation and growth in a financially repressed economy
van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.
1983-01-01
This paper analyzes credit policy in an open economy macro-model incorporating stylized facts about the financial sector of less developed countries. The Keynes-Wicksell growth model is applied in view of the transmission channel of monetary policy into the supply side of the economy via the cost of
INFLATION TARGETING – AN OPTIMAL MONETARY POLICY REGIME FOR THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AT PRESENT
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Oleg STRATULAT
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The National Bank of the Republic of Moldova, as well as other central banks from other neighbouring countries, with the view to promoting the monetary policy, replaced the objective „ achieving and maintaining the national currency stability” with the target “ensuring and maintaining price stability”. This adjustment conditioned the selection of an optimal monetary policy regime to achieve the respective aim. Further to analysis and research there has been adopted the inflation targeting regime in order to determine the exact amount to a variation interval on a 24 month range. Relying on the experience in implementing the inflation targeting regime by the National Bank of Moldova it was determined that this monetary policy regime is the most adequate for the present socio-economic development of the Republic of Moldova.
The Impact of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth and Inflation in Sri Lanka
Amarasekara, Chandranath
2008-01-01
Based on a vector autoregressive (VAR) framework and utilising both recursive and structural specifications, this study analyses the effects of interest rate, money growth and the movements in nominal exchange rate on real GDP growth and inflation in Sri Lanka for the period from 1978 to 2005. The results of the recursive VARs are broadly in line with the established empirical findings, especially when the interest rate is considered the monetary policy variable. Following a positive innov...
Inflation, exchange rate and efficacy of monetary policy in Nigeria: The empirical evidence
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BigBen Chukwuma Ogbonna
2016-01-01
1986 – 2008. Estimates from a vector auto regression model (VAR of key macroeconomic variables demonstrate the weak link between money supply and inflation in the both time horizons, which suggests that the hypothesis that money supply is not an effective policy instrument for management of inflationary developments cannot be rejected for Nigeria. The results further suggest that in both time horizons, exchange rate has been identified as a singular most promising macroeconomic fundamental for both internal and external sectors adjustments. However, the deregulation of the domestic economy as occasioned by SAP has significantly diluted the efficacy of exchange rate as a monetary policy instrument for the management of Nigeria’s aggregate money stock and trade balance developments. These notwithstanding, the Central Bank of Nigeria can continue to play a stabilizing role in the economy through the continuation of prudent monetary policies and frequent interventions in exchange rate management to smooth out shocks.
Pfajfar, D.; Zakelj, B.
2011-01-01
Using laboratory experiments within a New Keynesian macro framework, we explore the formation of inflation expectations and its interaction with monetary policy design. The central question in this paper is how to design monetary policy in the environment characterized by heterogeneous expectations.
Sundara Rajan, R.; Uthayakumar, R.
2017-12-01
In this paper we develop an economic order quantity model to investigate the optimal replenishment policies for instantaneous deteriorating items under inflation and trade credit. Demand rate is a linear function of selling price and decreases negative exponentially with time over a finite planning horizon. Shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a profit maximization problem to determine the optimal selling price, optimal order quantity and optimal replenishment time. An easy-to-use algorithm is developed to determine the optimal replenishment policies for the retailer. We also provide optimal present value of profit when shortages are completely backlogged as a special case. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the algorithm provided to obtain optimal profit. And we also obtain managerial implications from numerical examples to substantiate our model. The results show that there is an improvement in total profit from complete backlogging rather than the items being partially backlogged.
Michal Andrle; Andrew Berg; R. Armando Morales; Rafael Portillo; Jan Vlcek
2013-01-01
We develop a semi-structural new-Keynesian open-economy model, with separate food and non-food inflation dynamics, for forecasting and monetary policy analysis in low-income countries and apply it to Kenya. We use the model to run several policy-relevant exercises. First, we filter international and Kenyan data (on output, inflation and its components, exchange rates and interest rates) to recover a model-based decomposition of most variables into trends (or potential values) and temporary mo...
Interest Rate Policy, Inflation and Economic Growth: A Policy Evaluation of Indonesia, 1969-1997
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Iswardono Sardjono Permono
2004-09-01
Basically, either PAKJUN or PAKTO was not policies in which urgently implemented in Indonesia. Those financial deregulations were not supported by the existence of deregulation on real sectors, so that the financial deregulations were not effective to achieve their goals.
Climate adaptation and policy-induced inflation of coastal property value.
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Dylan E McNamara
Full Text Available Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities.
Climate Adaptation and Policy-Induced Inflation of Coastal Property Value
McNamara, Dylan E.; Gopalakrishnan, Sathya; Smith, Martin D.; Murray, A. Brad
2015-01-01
Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities. PMID:25806944
Climate adaptation and policy-induced inflation of coastal property value.
McNamara, Dylan E; Gopalakrishnan, Sathya; Smith, Martin D; Murray, A Brad
2015-01-01
Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities.
Product Replacement Bias in Inflation and its Consequences for Monetary Policy
WEBER, Henning
2012-01-01
Article first published online: 27 MAR 2012 The article is a revised version of EUI Working Paper, RSCAS 2009/44 The paper examines a New Keynesian model with product entry and exit and with two types of households. Households consume different product baskets, and therefore, face different inflation rates. The statistical bureau used in the model measures aggregate inflation, but observes product entry with a probabilistic delay. Consequently, measured inflation suffers from product re...
Do policy-makers find commissioned rapid reviews useful?
Moore, Gabriel; Redman, Sally; Rudge, Sian; Haynes, Abby
2018-02-26
Rapid reviews are increasingly used by policy agencies to access relevant research in short timeframes. Despite the growing number of programmes, little is known about how rapid reviews are used by health policy agencies. This study examined whether and how rapid reviews commissioned using a knowledge brokering programme were used by Australian policy-makers. This study used interview data to examine the use of 139 rapid reviews by health policy agencies that were commissioned between 2006 and 2015. Transcripts were coded to identify how rapid reviews were used, the type of policy processes in which they were used, what evidence of use was provided and what reasons were given when rapid reviews were not used. Fisher's exact test was used to assess variation between types of agencies. Overall, 89% of commissioned rapid reviews were used by the commissioning agencies and 338 separate instances of use were identified, namely, on average, three uses per review. Policy-makers used reviews primarily to determine the details of a policy or programme, identify priorities for future action or investment, negotiate interjurisdictional decisions, evaluate alternative solutions for a policy problem, and communicate information to stakeholders. Some variation in use was observed across agencies. Reasons for non-use were related to changes in organisational structures, resources or key personnel in the commissioning agencies, or changes in the broader political environment. This study found that almost all rapid reviews had been used by the agencies who commissioned them, primarily in policy and programme development, agenda-setting, and to communicate information to stakeholders. Reviews were used mostly in instrumental and conceptual ways and there was little evidence of symbolic use. Variations in use were identified across agencies. The findings suggest that commissioned rapid reviews are an effective means of providing timely relevant research for use in policy processes
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WEI-BIN ZHANG
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study global monetary economic growth with heterogeneous households under free trade. The paper examines dynamics of global and national wealth and income distribution in association with monetary economic growth within an integrated framework. Money is introduced via the cash-in-advance (CIA approach. We show that the dynamics of the world economy (with any number of countries is described by a set of differential equations. We simulate equilibrium of the global economy with three countries and two types of households in each country. We also demonstrate effects of changes in technology and inflation policy. Our model demonstrates, as Grier and Grier (2007 empirically show, that the global economy exhibits absolute divergence in output levels if some determinants of steady state income are different. The study shows that as one country increases its inflation policy, the equilibrium values of the global output, consumption level and physical wealth are enhanced, and the rate of interest is lowered. The country which raises its inflation policy benefits in every aspect, but the other countries suffer in some aspects and benefit in others.
Inflation, inflation uncertainty and output growth in the USA
Bhar, Ramprasad; Mallik, Girijasankar
2010-12-01
Employing a multivariate EGARCH-M model, this study investigates the effects of inflation uncertainty and growth uncertainty on inflation and output growth in the United States. Our results show that inflation uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on the level of inflation and a negative and significant effect on the output growth. However, output uncertainty has no significant effect on output growth or inflation. The oil price also has a positive and significant effect on inflation. These findings are robust and have been corroborated by use of an impulse response function. These results have important implications for inflation-targeting monetary policy, and the aim of stabilization policy in general.
Zvi Bodie
1989-01-01
A contract to insure $1 against inflation is equivalent to a European call option on the consumer price index. When there is no deductible this call option is equivalent to a forward contract on the CPI. Its price is the difference between the prices of a zero coupon real bond and a zero coupon nominal bond, both free of default risk. Provided that the risk-free real rate of interest is positive, the price of such an inflation insurance policy first rises and then falls with time to maturity....
Winitzki, Sergei
2009-01-01
This volume is the only monograph covering the exciting and dazzling recent developments in quantum cosmology, including the theory of the "multiverse" and eternal inflation pioneered by A Vilenkin, A Linde, S W Hawking, and others. Written by a leading expert in the field known for his depth and clarity of presentation, the volume presents an overview of 20 years of development of the theory of eternal inflation as well as a comprehensive, research-level introduction into the current methods and problems. This volume is invaluable for researchers as a definitive reference in the rapidly devel
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Ioana Plescau
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The aim of our study is to review the monetary framework and instruments adopted by the inflation-targeting countries in Central and Eastern Europe, from 2005-ownwards. We employ a qualitative approach and develop a comparative analysis of the changes that occurred in the conduct of monetary policy after the 2008 financial crisis. The results highlight that the central banks in our sample have adjusted their policy in order to counteract the effects of the financial crisis and adopt different instruments to fulfill this aim. The contribution of our study is twofold. First, we offer a review of the literature regarding the adjustments in the monetary policy after the crisis and their effectiveness. Second, we make a comparative analysis between countries with respect to the path of monetary policy from conventional to unconventional and assess the (potential way back.
Rapid Asymmetric Inflation and Early Cosmology in Theories with Sub-Millimeter Dimensions
Arkani-Hamed, N; Kaloper, Nemanja; March-Russell, John David; Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Kaloper, Nemanja; March-Russell, John
2000-01-01
It was recently pointed out that the fundamental Planck mass could be close to the TeV scale with the observed weakness of gravity at long distances being due the existence of new sub-millimeter spatial dimensions. In this picture the standard model fields are localized to a $(3+1)$-dimensional wall or ``3-brane''. We show that in such theories there exist attractive models of inflation that occur while the size of the new dimensions are still small. We show that it is easy to produce the required number of efoldings, and further that the density perturbations $\\delta\\rho/\\rho$ as measured by COBE can be easily reproduced, both in overall magnitude and in their approximately scale-invariant spectrum. In the minimal approach, the inflaton field is just the moduli describing the size of the internal dimensions, the role of the inflationary potential being played by the stabilizing potential of the internal space. We show that under quite general conditions, the inflationary era is followed by an epoch of contra...
Schaling, E.
1998-01-01
We extend the Svensson (1997a) inflation forecast targeting framework with a convex Phillips curve. We derive an asymmetric target rule, that implies a higher level of nominal interest rates than the Svensson (1997a) forward looking version of the reaction function popularised by Taylor (1993).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eckhard Hein
2002-09-01
Full Text Available Assessing the effects of monetary policy and wage bargaining on employment andinflation in the European Monetary Union (EMU, the first step sees development of a Post-Keynesian competitive claims model of inflation with endogenous money. In this model the NAIRU is considered to be a short-run limit to employment enforced by independent and conservative central banks. In the long run, however, the NAIRU will follow actual unemployment and is therefore also dependent on the forces determining aggregate demand, including monetary policies. But the NAIRU may also be reduced through effectively co-ordinated wage bargaining, as has been shown by institutional political economists. Applying these considerations to the economic performance of the EMU, different scenarios determined by wage bargainingcoordination and the European Central Bank's (ECB monetary policies are developed. It is shown that the first phase of the EMU was dominated by uncoordinated wage bargaining across the EMU and an "anti-growth-bias" of theECB. Thus the euro area was plagued with nominal wage restraint, highunemployment and inflation above the ECB target. Economic performance will improve if the ECB abandons its asymmetric monetary strategy. This may be facilitated by a higher degree of effective wage bargaining co-ordination across the EMU.
Tony Cavoli; Ramkishen Rajan
2003-01-01
While favoring relatively more flexible regimes, emerging economies in East Asia and elsewhere appear to heavily manage their currencies despite being officially described as Â“floatersÂ”. In other words, revealed preferences of regional monetary authorities appear to indicate a high degree of Â“fear of floatingÂ”. The paper first explores the reasons for this fear of floating. It then goes on to examine the case for and operational mechanics behind an open inflation targeting regime which ha...
Inflation and inflation uncertainty in the Euro area
Caporale, GM; Onorante, L; Paesani, P
2009-01-01
This paper estimates a time-varying AR-GARCH model of inflation producing measures of inflation uncertainty for the euro area, and investigates their linkages in a VAR framework, also allowing for the possible impact of the policy regime change associated with the start of EMU in 1999. The main findings are as follows. Steadystate inflation and inflation uncertainty have declined steadily since the inception of EMU, whilst short-run uncertainty has increased, mainly owing to exogenous shocks....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vu, H. X.; DuBois, D. F.; Bezzerides, B.
2007-01-01
The rapid onset, with increasing laser intensity, of levels of backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) exceeding linear convective predictions, from single laser hot spots was predicted by simulations [Vu et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1745 (2002)], and has been observed [Montgomery et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2311 (2002)] in nonlinear regimes dominated by electron trapping. A theory for this inflation threshold is given here. The threshold is the result of competition between velocity diffusion and trapping, and is exceeded when the convectively amplified SRS Langmuir wave (LW) achieves an amplitude for which the coherent trapping velocity increment of electrons in the LW (the half-width of the trapping separatrix) exceeds the rms diffusion velocity (resulting from background plasma fluctuations), accumulated in one bounce time, for electrons with mean velocities near the phase velocity of the LW. The results of this theory, when the kinetic theory of the one-dimensional (1D) reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) simulation is used, are in good agreement with a series of 1D RPIC simulations. The theory is naturally generalized to three dimensions, and is compatible with macroscopic laser interaction codes such as pF3d [Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 4337 (1998)]. Comparison of the LW trapping-induced inflation threshold to the LW threshold for the Langmuir decay instability provides an estimate for the transition between nonlinear saturation regimes. In an independent hot spot model of many hot spots, statistics suggests that the inflation threshold intensity will control the rapid onset of strong BSRS in laser beams smoothed by random phase plates
INFLATE: INFlate Landing Apparatus Technology
Koryanov, V. V. K.; Da-Poian, V. D. P.
2018-02-01
Our project, named INFLATE (INFlatable Landing Apparatus Technology), aims at reducing space landing risks and constraints and so optimizing space missions (reducing cost, mass, and risk and in the same time improving performance).
Inflation and Inflation Uncertainty Revisited: Evidence from Egypt
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Mesbah Fathy Sharaf
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The welfare costs of inflation and inflation uncertainty are well documented in the literature and empirical evidence on the link between the two is sparse in the case of Egypt. This paper investigates the causal relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty in Egypt using monthly time series data during the period January 1974–April 2015. To endogenously control for any potential structural breaks in the inflation time series, Zivot and Andrews (2002 and Clemente–Montanes–Reyes (1998 unit root tests are used. The inflation–inflation uncertainty relation is modeled by the standard two-step approach as well as simultaneously using various versions of the GARCH-M model to control for any potential feedback effects. The analyses explicitly control for the effect of the Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Program (ERSAP undertaken by the Egyptian government in the early 1990s, which affected inflation rate and its associated volatility. Results show a high degree of inflation–volatility persistence in the response to inflationary shocks. Granger-causality test along with symmetric and asymmetric GARCH-M models indicate a statistically significant bi-directional positive relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty, supporting both the Friedman–Ball and the Cukierman–Meltzer hypotheses. The findings are robust to the various estimation methods and model specifications. The findings of this paper support the view of adopting inflation-targeting policy in Egypt, after fulfilling its preconditions, to reduce the welfare cost of inflation and its related uncertainties. Monetary authorities in Egypt should enhance the credibility of monetary policy and attempt to reduce inflation uncertainty, which will help lower inflation rates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antusch, S.; King, F.S.; Malinsky, M.; Velasco-Sevilla, L.; Zavala, I.
2008-04-01
We propose an entirely new class of particle physics models of inflation based on the phase transition associated with the spontaneous breaking of family symmetry responsible for the generation of the effective quark and lepton Yukawa couplings. We show that the Higgs fields responsible for the breaking of family symmetry, called flavons, are natural candidates for the inflation field in new inflation, or the waterfall fields in hybrid inflation. This opens up a rich vein of possible inflation models, all linked to the physics of flavour, with interesting cosmological and phenomenological implications. Out of these many possibilities we discuss two examples which realise flavon inflation: a model of new inflation based on the discrete non-Abelian family symmetry group A 4 or Δ 27 , and a model of hybrid inflation embedded in an existing flavour model with a continuous SU(3) family symmetry. With the inflation scale and family symmetry breaking scale below the Grand Unification Theory (GUT) scale, these classes of models are free of the monopole (and similar) problems which are often associated with the GUT phase transition. (author)
Monetary policy, inflation and economic growth Política monetaria, inflación y crecimiento económico
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Gómez José Eduardo
2000-06-01
Full Text Available This article presents the two main theoretical visions of the relationship between monetary policy and inflation and economic growth, and emphasizes the Post-Keynesian approach. It also presentsa statistical exercise which validates some of the major hypotheses for the case of Colombia.Este articulo expone las dos principales visiones teoricas de la relacion entre politica monetaria e inflacion y crecimeinto economico, y hace enfasis en el enfoque poskeynesiano. Tambien presenta un ejercicio estadistico que valida algunas de las principales hipotesis para el caso colombiano.
Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia
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Alkhareif Ryadh M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.
Inflation, Institutions, and Preferences
Lelyveld, I.P.P. van
2000-01-01
The institutional structure of monetary policy has seen some profound changes in recent decades. Exchange rate systems have prospered and perished. Periods of high inflation have given way to the present - more tranquil - times. Several theoretical models have been proposed to capture the
Inflation and Inflation Uncertainty in Turkey
dogru, bulent
2014-01-01
Abstract: In this study, the relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty is analyzed using Granger causality tests with annual inflation series covering the time period 1923 to 2012 for Turkish Economy. Inflation uncertainty is measured by Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic model. Econometric findings suggest that although in long run the Friedman's hypothesis that high inflation increases inflation ...
Applying Rapid Acquisition Policy Lessons for Defense Innovation
2017-12-21
finds that DOD can incorporate innovation practices by dispersing organizations focused on new capabilities development across the agency to avoid...these efforts. Keywords: defense acquisition, defense procurement, rapid acquisition, de- fense innovation, program management, organizational culture ...Device De- feat Organization , JIEDDO, Rapid Equipping Force, REF Silicon Valley-style innovation is a hot topic in the Department of De-fense (DOD). For
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, P.J.
1987-01-01
The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact
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Bhanupriya Dash
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Background: Replenishment policy for entropic order quantity model with two component demand and partial backlogging under inflation is an important subject in the stock management. Methods: In this paper an inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items with stock dependant consumption rate and partial back logged in addition the effect of inflection and time value of money on replacement policy with zero lead time consider was developed. Profit maximization model is formulated by considering the effects of partial backlogging under inflation with cash discounts. Further numerical example presented to evaluate the relative performance between the entropic order quantity and EOQ models separately. Numerical example is present to demonstrate the developed model and to illustrate the procedure. Lingo 13.0 version software used to derive optimal order quantity and total cost of inventory. Finally sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to different parameters of the system carried out. Results and conclusions: The obtained inventory model is very useful in retail business. This model can extend to total backorder.
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Luis Alberto Pelicioni
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper two hypotheses about the relationship between monetary policy and investment in the context of the inflation target system were tested. One of these hypotheses is based on the idea of neutrality of money, and the other hypothesis is based on the reject of that idea. An investment equation for seventeen economies using a piece-wise dummy variable was estimated by the Methodology of Panel Data. The results highlight that a negative correlation between current expectation of restrictive monetary policy and current investment rose after the inflation target system implementation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.
1986-04-01
The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The Ω-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig
Moore, Gabriel Mary; Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Haines, Mary
2016-01-01
Rapid reviews of research are a key way in which policy makers use research. This paper examines 74 rapid reviews commissioned by health policy agencies through the Sax Institute's Evidence Check programme. We examine what prompted policy makers to commission rapid reviews, their purpose, how and when they intended to use them, and how this varied…
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Kristina S Sobotka
Full Text Available A sustained inflation (SI rapidly restores cardiac function in asphyxic, bradycardic newborns but its effects on cerebral haemodynamics and brain injury are unknown. We determined the effect of different SI strategies on carotid blood flow (CaBF and cerebral vascular integrity in asphyxiated near-term lambs.Lambs were instrumented and delivered at 139 ± 2 d gestation and asphyxia was induced by delaying ventilation onset. Lambs were randomised to receive 5 consecutive 3 s SI (multiple SI; n = 6, a single 30 s SI (single SI; n = 6 or conventional ventilation (no SI; n = 6. Ventilation continued for 30 min in all lambs while CaBF and respiratory function parameters were recorded. Brains were assessed for gross histopathology and vascular leakage.CaBF increased more rapidly and to a greater extent during a single SI (p = 0.01, which then decreased below both other groups by 10 min, due to a higher cerebral oxygen delivery (p = 0.01. Blood brain barrier disruption was increased in single SI lambs as indicated by increased numbers of blood vessel profiles with plasma protein extravasation (p = 0.001 in the cerebral cortex. There were no differences in CaBF or cerebral oxygen delivery between the multiple SI and no SI lambs.Ventilation with an initial single 30 s SI improves circulatory recovery, but is associated with greater disruption of blood brain barrier function, which may exacerbate brain injury suffered by asphyxiated newborns. This injury may occur as a direct result of the initial SI or to the higher tidal volumes delivered during subsequent ventilation.
García-Bellido, J
1998-01-01
We propose a new model of inflation based on the soft-breaking of N=2 supersymmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. The advantage of such a model is the fact that we can write an exact expression for the effective scalar potential, including non-perturbative effects, which preserves the analyticity and duality properties of the Seiberg-Witten solution. We find that the scalar condensate that plays the role of the inflaton can drive a long period of cosmological expansion, produce the right amount of temperature anisotropies in the microwave background, and end inflation when the monopole acquires a vacuum expectation value. Duality properties relate the weak coupling Higgs region where inflation takes place with the strong coupling monopole region, where reheating occurs, creating particles corresponding to the light degrees of freedom in the true vacuum.
Barenboim, Gabriela; Lykken, Joseph
2006-02-01
We present a new approach to quintessential inflation, in which both dark energy and inflation are explained by the evolution of a single scalar field. We start from a simple scalar potential with both oscillatory and exponential behavior. We employ the conventional reheating mechanism of new inflation, in which the scalar decays to light fermions with a decay width that is proportional to the scalar mass. Because our scalar mass is proportional to the Hubble rate, this gives adequate reheating at early times while shutting off at late times to preserve quintessence and satisfy nucleosynthesis constraints. We discuss a simple model which solves the horizon, flatness, and “why now” problems. Without any additional tuning of parameters, this model satisfies all constraints from CMB, large scale structure, and nucleosynthesis. The predictions for the inflationary spectral indices are n=n=1. In this model we are currently beginning the third cosmic epoch of accelerated expansion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barenboim, Gabriela [Departament de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia, Carrer Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)]. E-mail: gabriela.barenboim@uv.es; Lykken, Joseph [Theoretical Physics Department, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)
2006-02-16
We present a new approach to quintessential inflation, in which both dark energy and inflation are explained by the evolution of a single scalar field. We start from a simple scalar potential with both oscillatory and exponential behavior. We employ the conventional reheating mechanism of new inflation, in which the scalar decays to light fermions with a decay width that is proportional to the scalar mass. Because our scalar mass is proportional to the Hubble rate, this gives adequate reheating at early times while shutting off at late times to preserve quintessence and satisfy nucleosynthesis constraints. We discuss a simple model which solves the horizon, flatness, and 'why now' problems. Without any additional tuning of parameters, this model satisfies all constraints from CMB, large scale structure, and nucleosynthesis. The predictions for the inflationary spectral indices are n{sub S}=n{sub T}=1. In this model we are currently beginning the third cosmic epoch of accelerated expansion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barenboim, Gabriela; Lykken, Joseph
2006-01-01
We present a new approach to quintessential inflation, in which both dark energy and inflation are explained by the evolution of a single scalar field. We start from a simple scalar potential with both oscillatory and exponential behavior. We employ the conventional reheating mechanism of new inflation, in which the scalar decays to light fermions with a decay width that is proportional to the scalar mass. Because our scalar mass is proportional to the Hubble rate, this gives adequate reheating at early times while shutting off at late times to preserve quintessence and satisfy nucleosynthesis constraints. We discuss a simple model which solves the horizon, flatness, and 'why now' problems. Without any additional tuning of parameters, this model satisfies all constraints from CMB, large scale structure, and nucleosynthesis. The predictions for the inflationary spectral indices are n S =n T =1. In this model we are currently beginning the third cosmic epoch of accelerated expansion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Couture, T. D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Jacobs, D. [International Energy Transition (IET), Boston, MA (United States); Rickerson, W. [Meister Consultants Group, Boston, MA (United States); Healey, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2015-02-01
A number of policies have been used historically in order to stimulate the growth of the renewable electricity sector. This paper examines four of these policy instruments: competitive tendering, sometimes called renewable electricity auctions, feed-in tariffs, net metering and net billing, and tradable renewable energy certificates. In recent years, however, a number of changes to both market circumstances and to policy priorities have resulted in numerous policy innovations, including the emergence of policy hybrids. With no common language for these evolving policy mechanisms, policymakers have generally continued to use the same traditional policy labels, occasionally generating confusion as many of these new policies no longer look, or act, like their traditional predecessors. In reviewing these changes, this paper makes two separate but related claims: first, policy labels themselves are breaking down and evolving. As a result, policy comparisons that rely on the conventional labels may no longer be appropriate, or advisable. Second, as policymakers continue to adapt, we are in effect witnessing the emergence of the next generation of renewable electricity policies, a change that could have significant impacts on investment, as well as on market growth in both developed and developing countries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, Daniel; Horn, Bart; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Senatore, Leonardo; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2009-06-19
We analyze a distinctive mechanism for inflation in which particle production slows down a scalar field on a steep potential, and show how it descends from angular moduli in string compactifications. The analysis of density perturbations - taking into account the integrated effect of the produced particles and their quantum fluctuations - requires somewhat new techniques that we develop. We then determine the conditions for this effect to produce sixty e-foldings of inflation with the correct amplitude of density perturbations at the Gaussian level, and show that these requirements can be straightforwardly satisfied. Finally, we estimate the amplitude of the non-Gaussianity in the power spectrum and find a significant equilateral contribution.
Theoretical aspects of inflation targeting
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Obradović Jelena
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Inflation targeting is one of the possible strategies used by central banks during conducting monetary policy. The basic characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of inflation targeting will be presented in this paper. The focus is on the the presentation and interpretation of the understanding of this strategy from the perspective of monetarist and Keynesian theory, the theory of rational expectations, and methodological analysis of the strategy in light of the game theory using payoff matrix.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinhardt, P.J.; Accetta, F.S.
1990-01-01
We present a dynamical mechanism for completing inflationary phase transitions via bubble nucleation which can satisfy all known constraints for a wide spectrum of models and parameters. The approach is a generalization of the recent ''extended inflation'' model which corrects a serious flaw. We find an essentially model-independent bubble-size distribution which may be important for large-scale structure
Ho, Chiu Man; Kephart, Thomas W.
2010-01-01
We consider a 4+N dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to a non-linear sigma model. This theory admits a solution in which the N extra dimensions contract exponentially while the ordinary space expand exponentially. Physically, the non-linear sigma fields induce the dynamical compactification of the extra dimensions, which in turn drives inflation. No inflatons are required.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, J.D.; California Univ., Berkeley; Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL
1981-01-01
The problems of explaining the observed isotropy, homogeneity, flatness and specific entropy of the Universe are discussed in the context of an inflationary Universe which has recently been suggested. It is shown that the isotropy cannot be ignored as a Universe with a large amount of anisotropy will not undergo the inflationary phase. A Universe with only moderate anistropy will undergo inflation and will be rapidly isotropized. (U.K.)
Fiscal Deficits, Monetary Reform and Inflation Stabilization in Romania.
van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Budina, N.
2001-01-01
Investigates the consistency between inflation, monetary reform and fiscal policy in Romania. Offers a framework for the assessment of the fiscal and monetary interactions of Romanian economy; Shows impact of inflation on fiscal inconsistency measure; Considers importance of consolidating public
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anca Elena NUCU
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of monetary policy transmission mechanism in Romania, via interest rate channel. Using a Vector Error Correction Model and impulse response analysis, we study the impact of a positive monetary policy shock via short term interest rate on macroeconomic variables over the period 2003M01-2012M06. Our empirical results are in line with economic theory and we can say that we are witnessing to an improvement in the transmission effectiveness of monetary policy impulses via interest rate channel.
Kehagias, Alex
2017-01-01
We investigate the recently proposed clockwork mechanism delivering light degrees of freedom with suppressed interactions and show, with various examples, that it can be efficiently implemented in inflationary scenarios to generate flat inflaton potentials and small density perturbations without fine-tunings. We also study the clockwork graviton in de Sitter and, interestingly, we find that the corresponding clockwork charge is site-dependent. As a consequence, the amount of tensor modes is generically suppressed with respect to the standard cases where the clockwork set-up is not adopted. This point can be made a virtue in resurrecting models of inflation which were supposed to be ruled out because of the excessive amount of tensor modes from inflation.
Vasile COCRIŞ; Anca Elena NUCU
2013-01-01
The purpose of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of monetary policy transmission mechanism in Romania, via interest rate channel. Using a Vector Error Correction Model and impulse response analysis, we study the impact of a positive monetary policy shock via short term interest rate on macroeconomic variables over the period 2003M01-2012M06. Our empirical results are in line with economic theory and we can say that we are witnessing to an improvement in the transmission effectiveness...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab
2005-04-01
We present a new approach to quintessential inflation, in which both dark energy and inflation are explained by the evolution of a single scalar field. We start from a simple scalar potential with both oscillatory and exponential behavior.We employ the conventional reheating mechanism of new inflation, in which the scalar decays to light fermions with a decay width that is proportional to the scalar mass. Because our scalar mass is proportional to the Hubble rate, this gives adequate reheating at early times while shutting off at late times to preserve quintessence and satisfy nucleosynthesis constraints. We discuss a simple model which solves the horizon, flatness, and ''why now'' problems. Without any additional tuning of parameters, this model satisfies all constraints from CMB, large scale structure, and nucleosynthesis. The predictions for the inflationary spectral indices are n{sub S} = n{sub T} = 1. In this model we are currently beginning the third cosmic epoch of accelerated expansion.
Targeting nominal income growth or inflation?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Henrik
2002-01-01
Within a simple New Keynesian model emphasizing forward-looking behavior of private agents, I evaluate optimal nominal income growth targeting versus optimal inflation targeting. When the economy is mainly subject to shocks that do not involve monetary policy trade-offs for society, inflation...
Rapid Evidence Assessments of Research to Inform Social Policy: Taking Stock and Moving Forward
Thomas, James; Newman, Mark; Oliver, Sandy
2013-01-01
There is a tension between conducting comprehensive systematic reviews and completing them in time to meet policy-making deadlines. The "rapid evidence assessment" has been proposed as a solution to this; offering rigorous reviews in a condensed timescale. While used frequently in healthcare, this mode of reviewing presents considerable…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeynep KARAÇOR
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Since the early years of 1990, new frameworks and the economical preferences change has made countries approach inflation targeting adoptation. In this essay, besides the results and reasons of inflationary targeting, the time incompetency of monetary policies and the problem of reliabilty has been discussed. That the inflationary targeting is only effective policy provided that adopted with determined, willing and consistent monetary policy appears as a result coming from recent countries cases. Therefore, new frameworks and changes seen in economical preferences are found out to be usefull strategic tool for countries.
Inflation, volatility and growth
Ruth Judson; Athanasios Orphanides
1996-01-01
This paper re-examines the relationship between inflation, inflation volatility and growth using cross-country panel data for the past 30 years. With regard to the level of inflation, we find that in contrast to current findings which are based on cross-sectional time-average regression comparisons, exploiting the time dimension of the data reveals a strong negative correlation between inflation and income growth for all but very low inflation countries. To examine the role of inflation uncer...
Pfajfar, D.; Zakelj, B.
2012-01-01
Abstract: This paper compares the behavior of subjects' uncertainty in different monetary policy environments when forecasting inflation in the laboratory. We find that inflation targeting produces lower uncertainty and higher accuracy of interval forecasts than inflation forecast targeting. We also
Pfajfar, D.; Zakelj, B.
2012-01-01
Abstract: This paper compares the behavior of subjects' uncertainty in different monetary policy environments when forecasting inflation in the laboratory. We find that inflation targeting produces lower uncertainty and higher accuracy of interval forecasts than inflation forecast targeting. We also
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Brisne Céspedes
2008-06-01
Full Text Available This article uncovers some stylized facts about the short run fluctuations of the Brazilian economy after the Real Plan, giving special attention to the identification of the effects of monetary policy shocks. A distinctive feature of this article is the careful attention paid to monetary policy developments after the Real Plan when dividing our sample into two subsamples (1996:07-1998:08 and 1999:03-2004:12. We use directed acyclic graphs to identify the Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR models. In contrast with most SVAR analysis for Brazil, we found empirical evidence that supports the view that a contractionary monetary policy indeed reduces the price level.Este artigo obtém alguns fatos estilizados sobre as flutuações de curto prazo da economia brasileira após o Plano Real, dando atenção especial à identificação dos efeitos dos choques da política monetária. Dadas as alterações na política monetária, ocorridos após o Plano Real, optamos por dividir a nossa análise em dois subperíodos (1996:07-1998:08 e 1999:032004:12. Os modelos de Auto-Regressão Vetorial Estrutural (SVAR foram identificados através do uso de grafos acíclicos direcionados. Em contraste com a maioria das análises feitas para o Brasil, que adotam modelos SVAR, encontramos evidências de que uma política monetária contracionista reduz o nível geral de preços.
Various Measures of Underlying Inflation in Poland 1995 - 98
Przemyslaw Wozniak
1999-01-01
As inflation targeting gains popularity policy makers, monetary authorities seek to design a measure of inflation that would be a good indicator of fundamental demand-driven price movements, i.e. the underlying or core rate of inflation. It is widely acknowledged that the Consumer Price Index (which is the simple weighted average of price changes of the set of goods and services comprising the consumers' expenditure basket) is a rather deficient indicator of the 'trend' inflation as it is hig...
Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Jimenez, Raul
2010-01-01
Using the universal X superfield that measures in the UV the violation of conformal invariance we build up a model of multifield inflation. The underlying dynamics is the one controlling the natural flow of this field in the IR to the Goldstino superfield once SUSY is broken. We show that flat directions satisfying the slow roll conditions exist only if R-symmetry is broken. Naturalness of our model leads to scales of SUSY breaking of the order of 10^{11-13} Gev, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of the initial perturbations and negligible gravitational waves. We obtain that the inflaton field is lighter than the gravitino by an amount determined by the slow roll parameter eta. The existence of slow-roll conditions is directly linked to the values of supersymmetry and R-symmetry breaking scales. We make cosmological predictions of our model and compare them to current data.
The Determinants of Inflation in Pakistan: An Econometric Analysis
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Nazima Ellahi
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Inflation is not just a rise in general price level, but a much more complex phenomenon. It is well admitted fact that mild inflation is natural and a greasing factor to the wheel of economy and commerce and on the other hand, high inflation causes negative impact on economy. In order to formulate policies regarding its control and keeping it at a moderate level, it is necessary to explore its major determinants. Present study is an attempt to discuss the determinants of inflation in Pakistan utilizing a data set over 1975 to 2015. The empirical analysis is carried out with application of Auto Regressive Distributed Lag methodology. The estimation methods find the short run and long run impact of each variable on inflation and also found the speed of adjustment. Analysis used money supply, national expenditure, imports of goods and services and GDP growth as exogenous variables while taking inflation as an endogenous variable. Major preliminary findings suggested that money supply and national expenditure have significant effect on inflation, where national expenditure has a positive impact on inflation but money supply implies negative impact on inflation. Moreover, GDP growth has negative impact on inflation and imports of goods and services have positive impact on inflation. The findings for short run effect showed that none of the variable proves to be a significant determinant of inflation in short run. In sum, study suggested a few policy recommendations for keeping the inflation at level required for country to grow.
Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghulam Rasool Madni
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of co-integration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. It is found that investment negatively and significantly affect the inflation rate. The outcomes of the study show that both types of taxes (direct and indirect are causing to increase the inflation level while fiscal deficit is also one of the reasons to increase the inflation in the country. The study proposed that government should decrease the level of expenditure to reduce the level of fiscal deficit and investment have to be promoted to decrease the inflation in the country. Furthermore, it is also suggested to decrease the level of taxation for controlling inflation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raphael T Mpofu
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The paper analyses the association between certain macroeconomic variables and food price inflation, non-food price inflation and overall inflation in Zimbabwe, and also seeks to determine the level of association between these variables, given food security implications and overall well-being of its citizens. The study reveals that during the 2010 to 2016 period, Zimbabwe experienced stable food prices—annual food price inflation for food and non-alcoholic beverages averaged a relatively low growth rate of 0.12% monthly, while non-food inflation monthly growth rate was 0.09% and overall inflation growth rate was 0.11%. Although inflation from 2010 had been declining, of late, the increase in annual inflation has been underpinned by a rise in non-food inflation. Zimbabwe’s annual inflation remains lower than inflation rates in other countries in the region. Despite the increases lately in overall inflation, it remained below zero in January 2016, mostly driven by the depreciation of the South African rand and declining international oil prices. It should also be noted that domestic demand continued to decline in 2015, leading to the observed decline in both food and non-food prices. While food inflation has remained relatively low, it should be noted that non-food expenditures is significant component of the household budget and the rising prices result often lead to declining purchasing power and force households to make difficult choices in terms of their purchases. The findings of the study are food inflation has a low association with the independent variables under study; Zimbabwe broad money supply, rand-dollar exchange rates and the South Africa food inflation. There is, however, a very strong association between non-food inflation and these independent variables, as well as between overall inflation and the independent variables. Given the mostly rural population and the high level of unemployment in Zimbabwe, it can be surmised that
Inflation. National Issues Forum.
Public Agenda Foundation, New York, NY.
This booklet is designed to help citizens understand public issues concerning chronic inflation and to work toward acceptable solutions for ending inflation. There are seven chapters. Chapter one provides a brief explanation of the nation's inflation problem. The psychological, social, and economic impact of inflation is the topic of chapter two.…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Insukindro Insukindro
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A series of relatively high inflation characterize Indonesian economy, especially during the economic crisis. Economists generally agree that high inflation is one of the major economic problems, and that economic authorities need to cope with such a problem. Therefore, it is essential to understand the behavior of inflation in Indonesia. The aim of this paper is to estimate the inflation dynamics in Indonesia using equilibrium correction and forward-looking Phillips Curve approaches. Previous empirical studies show that the equilibrium correction or backward-looking approach may explain the inflation dynamics in Indonesia. The backward-looking specification does not have to be the proper model even if the fact shows that the specification holds. The major innovation of this paper is the application of a forward-looking Phillips curve model. The empirical results—estimated using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM—show that the forward-looking Phillips Curve approach dominates the backward-looking behavior. It indicates that after a credible monetary policy announcement, for instance, the former model predicts that economic agents will change their behavior quickly. Therefore, the policy will affect the economy more rapidly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vitalie MOTELICA
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This article explores some approaches used for inflation analysis over different time horizons. Over the long-term horizon, inflation is caused by the increase of the money supply, in other words by the monetary policy. Over the short-term horizon, the causes of inflation are analysed in order to understand the nature of the shock, whether it is permanent or temporary. Over the short-term inflation can be caused by excess demand, as well as, by some supply shocks. An accurate identification of the link between aggregate demand and inflation would provide valuable input for policy makers in their attempt to ensure macroeconomic balance and welfare. However, this estimation is a continuous challenge given several factors including the different structure of economies, the degree of price liberalization and the quality of available statistical data. At the same time, for the developing countries, the estimation of the aforementioned relationship is hampered by the significant and rapid changes in the structure of the economies and in their legislative frameworks. In this study, the impact of the aggregate demand deviation from equilibrium levels on the dynamics of core inflation in Moldova was estimated.
Political conditions for successful inflation stabilization: comparing Brazil and Argentina
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonca Özdemir
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This study tries to understand how Brazil and Argentina, two countries with chronically high inflation, achieved permanent stabilization by looking at political factors necessary for stabilization. It suggests that, although state autonomy or political unity may contribute to successful price stabilization, reconciling the interests of different stakeholders and thereby building a broad political support base is more essential for stabilization to succeed. Political skills of the leaders and compensatory policies may help raise such support and they are more crucial where other political conditions are less favorable. Also, rapid improvement in the economy is important for sustained political support, and thus, for successful stabilization.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hakubi Center; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Takahashi, Tomo [Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yokoyama, Jun' ichi [Tokyo Univ. (JP). Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU); Tokyo Univ., Chiba (JP). Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)
2012-03-15
We study Higgs inflation in the context of generalized G-inflation, i.e., the most general single-field inflation model with second-order field equations. The four variants of Higgs inflation proposed so far in the literature can be accommodated at one time in our framework. We also propose yet another class of Higgs inflation, the running Einstein inflation model, that can naturally arise from the generalized G-inflation framework. As a result, five Higgs inflation models in all should be discussed on an equal footing. Concise formulas for primordial fluctuations in these generalized Higgs inflation models are provided, which will be helpful to determine which model is favored from the future experiments and observations such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Planck satellite.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Tsutomu
2012-03-01
We study Higgs inflation in the context of generalized G-inflation, i.e., the most general single-field inflation model with second-order field equations. The four variants of Higgs inflation proposed so far in the literature can be accommodated at one time in our framework. We also propose yet another class of Higgs inflation, the running Einstein inflation model, that can naturally arise from the generalized G-inflation framework. As a result, five Higgs inflation models in all should be discussed on an equal footing. Concise formulas for primordial fluctuations in these generalized Higgs inflation models are provided, which will be helpful to determine which model is favored from the future experiments and observations such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Planck satellite.
PERSPECTIVES OF INFLATION TARGETING, IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
COROIU SORINA IOANA
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In the context of economic crisis, monetary policy makers are facing a number of challenges, including the selection and implementation of the best monetary policy. In this paper, we want to see if inflation targeting is or is not a solution to exit the economic crisis. If the answer is positive, then what would be the optimal level of inflation? Many central banks target an inflation rate of 2%. In this paper we intend to show that, in certain circumstances, a very low level of inflation can significantly reduce the stabilizing effects of monetary policy. A slightly higher value of inflation targeting would reduce the constraints on monetary policy, caused by the appearance of liquidity trap. The risk for the interest rates of monetary policy to achieve zero level is related to the central banks’ choise of the appropriate inflation target. We believe that an increase in the inflation target of 2% to 4% would ease monetary policy constraints arising from the liquidity trap problem. If inflation targeting is not a solution to exit the crisis, then are there other strategies that would be a better alternative? Following this analysis, no obvious alternatives were identified, so far, there is no clear reason for that to abandon inflation targeting.
Composite Inflation Setup and Glueball Inflation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bezrukov, Fedor; Channuie, Phongpichit; Jark Joergensen, Jakob
2012-01-01
We explore the paradigm according to which inflation is driven by a four-dimensional strongly coupled dynamics coupled non-minimally to gravity. We start by introducing the general setup, both in the metric and Palatini formulation, for generic models of composite inflation. We then analyze......-minimally to gravity. We demonstrate that it is possible to achieve successful inflation with the confining scale of the underlying Yang-Mills theory naturally of the order of the grand unified energy scale. We also argue that within the metric formulation models of composite inflation lead to a more consistent...
Rapid urbanization and the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta
Rukmana, D.
2018-03-01
Not only is Jakarta the largest metropolitan area in Southeast Asia, it is the also one of the most dynamic, though beset with most of the urban problems experienced in twenty-first century Southeast Asia. Batavia, colonial capital of the Netherland Indies in the first half of the 20th century was a small urban area of approximately 150,000 residents. In the second half, Batavia became Jakarta, the 28 million megacity capital of independent Indonesia. Among many urban problems, one major problem plagued Jakarta in the last two decades is traffic congestions. This paper discusses the extent to which rapid urbanization in Jakarta has contributed to the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta. The development of MRT could be viable solutions to alleviate the acute traffic jams in Jakarta. Jakarta will need to implement other innovative sustainable transportation policies including promoting active live through more walking and bicycling, carpool matching services, shuttle services, telecommuting and downzoning in downtown areas.
Trade unions’ inflation expectations and the second-round effect in South Africa
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Temitope Lydia Leshoro
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Inflation expectations play a critical role in the formation of prices and wages. Hence, the South African Reserve Bank (SARB reacts to inflation’s direct effects by tightening the monetary policy in order to avoid any second-round effects. The study we conducted attempts to investigate whether the inflation rate are led by inflation expectations or vice versa. We analyse quarterly data using the Toda-Yamamoto causality technique and three different measures of inflation expectations of the trade union representatives. We also investigate the role of the exchange rate in leading or lagging the inflation rate. Overall, the results obtained demonstrate that the inflation and the exchange rates have bidirectional causality, while unidirectional causality exists from the inflation rate to inflation expectations. We therefore conclude that a second-round effect of inflation cannot be induced by changes in the inflation expectations of the trade unions, and provide some policy recommendations.
Inflation persistence in African countries: Does inflation targeting matter?
Phiri, Andrew
2016-01-01
This study investigates inflation persistence in annual CPI inflation collected between 1994 and 2014 for 46 African countries. We group these countries into panels according to whether they are inflation targeters or not and conduct estimations for pre and post inflation targeting periods. Interestingly enough, we find that inflation persistence was much higher for inflation targeters in periods before adopting their inflation targeting regimes and inflation persistence dropped by 40 percent...
Money Supply, Deficit, and Inflation in Pakistan
Mohammad Aslam Chaudhary; Naved Ahmad
1995-01-01
Inflation is a burning issue in Pakistan. It is generally felt that for several years Pakistan has had a double-digit inflation. The public sector has used a mix of policies to control inflation, and it is also held responsible for its creation. The consumer price index (CPI) increased over 11 percent in 1981-82, and over 12 percent in 1990-91. Similarly, sensitive price index (SPI) increased over 15 percent in 1981-82, and over 12 percent in 1990-91. The GDP deflator was also double-digit fo...
Inflatable artificial sphincter
... procedures to treat urine leakage and incontinence include: Anterior vaginal wall repair Urethral bulking with artificial material ... urinary incontinence Images Inflatable artificial sphincter Anal sphincter anatomy Inflatable artificial sphincter - series References Adams MC, Joseph ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.
1991-01-01
In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been reviewed. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL
1990-09-01
In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolb, E.W. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)
1990-09-01
In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.
Controlling public debt without forgetting inflation
Ferrari, Giorgio
2016-01-01
Consider the problem of a government that wants to control its debt-to-GDP (gross domestic product) ratio, while taking into consideration the evolution of the inflation rate of the country. The uncontrolled inflation rate follows an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck dynamics and affects the growth rate of the debt ratio. The level of the latter can be reduced by the government through fiscal interventions. The government aims at choosing a debt reduction policy which minimises the total expe...
Retrofitting models of inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kain, Ben
2009-01-01
I use the method of retrofitting, developed by Dine, Feng and Silverstein, to generate the scale of inflation dynamically, allowing it to be naturally small. This is a general procedure that may be performed on existing models of supersymmetric inflation. I illustrate this idea on two such models, one an example of F-term inflation and the other an example of D-term inflation.
Spacetime Curvature and Higgs Stability after Inflation.
Herranen, M; Markkanen, T; Nurmi, S; Rajantie, A
2015-12-11
We investigate the dynamics of the Higgs field at the end of inflation in the minimal scenario consisting of an inflaton field coupled to the standard model only through the nonminimal gravitational coupling ξ of the Higgs field. Such a coupling is required by renormalization of the standard model in curved space, and in the current scenario also by vacuum stability during high-scale inflation. We find that for ξ≳1, rapidly changing spacetime curvature at the end of inflation leads to significant production of Higgs particles, potentially triggering a transition to a negative-energy Planck scale vacuum state and causing an immediate collapse of the Universe.
Inflation Protected Investment Strategies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirco Mahlstedt
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is presented, which is based on traditional asset classes and Markov-switching models. Different stock market, as well as inflation regimes are identified, and within those regimes, the inflation hedging potential of stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities and gold are investigated. Within each regime, we determine optimal investment portfolios driven by the investment idea of protection from losses due to changing inflation if inflation is rising or high, but decoupling the performance from inflation if inflation is low. The results clearly indicate that these asset classes behave differently in different stock market and inflation regimes. Whereas in the long-run, we agree with the general opinion in the literature that stocks and bonds are a suitable hedge against inflation, we observe for short time horizons that the hedging potential of each asset class, especially of real estate and commodities, depend strongly on the state of the current market environment. Thus, our approach provides a possible explanation for different statements in the literature regarding the inflation hedging properties of these asset classes. A dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is developed, which combines inflation protection and upside potential. This strategy outperforms standard buy-and-hold strategies, as well as the well-known 1 N -portfolio.
Price level versus inflation targeting under model uncertainty
Cateau, Gino
2008-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to make a quantitative contribution to the inflation versus price level targeting debate. It considers a policy-maker that can set policy either through an inflation targeting rule or a price level targeting rule to minimize a quadratic loss function using the actual projection model of the Bank of Canada (ToTEM). The paper finds that price level targeting dominates inflation targeting, although it can lead to much more volatile inflation depending on the weight a...
Dozier, André Q.; Arabi, Mazdak; Wostoupal, Benjamin C.; Goemans, Christopher G.; Zhang, Yao; Paustian, Keith
2017-08-01
In rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions, increasing amounts of historically irrigated cropland lies permanently fallowed due to water court policies as agricultural water rights are voluntarily being sold to growing cities. This study develops an integrative framework for assessing the effects of population growth and land use change on agricultural production and evaluating viability of alternative management strategies, including alternative agricultural transfer methods, regional water ownership restrictions, and urban conservation. A partial equilibrium model of a spatially-diverse regional water rights market is built in application of the framework to an exemplary basin. The model represents agricultural producers as profit-maximizing suppliers and municipalities as cost-minimizing consumers of water rights. Results indicate that selling an agricultural water right today is worth up to two times more than 40 years of continued production. All alternative policies that sustain agricultural cropland and crop production decrease total agricultural profitability by diminishing water rights sales revenue, but in doing so, they also decrease municipal water acquisition costs. Defining good indicators and incorporating adequate spatial and temporal detail are critical to properly analyzing policy impacts. To best improve agricultural profit from production and sale of crops, short-term solutions include alternative agricultural transfer methods while long-term solutions incorporate urban conservation.
Inflation impact of food prices: Case of Serbia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Šoškić Dejan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Food prices traditionally have an impact on inflation around the world. Movements in these prices are coming more from the supply side, then from the demand side. If treated as a supply shock, monetary policy should not react. However, food prices are part of headline inflation that is an official target for most central banks. Serbia conducts Inflation targeting and faces serious challenges with food price volatility. Food price volatility in Serbia hampers inflation forecasting, and may have a negative influence on inflationary expectations and public confidence in (i.e. credibility of the Central bank, all of crucial importance for success of Inflation targeting. There are several important possible improvements that may decrease volatility of food prices but also limit negative impact of food price volatility on Consumer Price Index (CPI as a measure of inflation. These improvements are very important for success of Inflation targeting in Serbia.
An evaluation of inflation expectations in Turkey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barış Soybilgen
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Expectations of inflation play a critical role in the process of price setting in the market. Central banks closely follow developments in inflation expectations to implement a successful monetary policy. The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (CBRT conducts a survey of experts and decision makers in the financial and real sectors to reveal market expectations and predictions of current and future inflation. The survey is conducted every month. This paper examines the accuracy of these survey predictions using forecast evaluation techniques. We focus on both point and sign accuracy of the predictions. Although point predictions from CBRT surveys are compared with those of autoregressive models, sign predictions are evaluated on their value to a user. We also test the predictions for bias. Unlike the empirical evidence from other economies, our results show that autoregressive models outperform most of inflation expectations in forecasting inflation. This indicates that inflation expectations have poor point forecast accuracies. However, we show that sign predictions for all inflation expectations have value to a user.
Inflation Asymmetry and Menu Costs - New Micro Data Evidence
Adam Reiff; Peter Karadi
2009-01-01
evidence on the asymmetry of inflation response to aggregate shocks. We show that even though a standard menu cost model like that of Golosov and Lucas (2007) underestimates the asymmetry, a sectoral menu cost model with multi-product firms and trend-inflation can quantitatively account for the inflation asymmetry observed in the data, thereby it provides direct evidence to the argument of Ball and Mankiw (1994). The model predicts that the effect of a positive monetary policy shock can have ...
The Cost of Low Inflation in Case of Pakistan
BHATTI, Zobia; QAYYUM, Abdul
2016-01-01
Abstract. It is a debatable issue that high and variable inflation causes the well fare loss while on the other side reducing inflation generally has some cost and the amount of that cost is measured by the sacrifice ratio. Therefore inflation output trade off is important for central banks when formulating policy. Sacrifice ratio is the main indicator to measure the real cost of disinflation, calculated as the ratio of the cumulative percentage output loss (the difference between actual and ...
Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Barreto, Jorge; Reveiz, Ludovic; Lavis, John N
2016-11-25
Rapid reviews have the potential to overcome a key barrier to the use of research evidence in decision making, namely that of the lack of timely and relevant research. This rapid review of systematic reviews and primary studies sought to answer the question: What are the best methodologies to enable a rapid review of research evidence for evidence-informed decision making in health policy and practice? This rapid review utilised systematic review methods and was conducted according to a pre-defined protocol including clear inclusion criteria (PROSPERO registration: CRD42015015998). A comprehensive search strategy was used, including published and grey literature, written in English, French, Portuguese or Spanish, from 2004 onwards. Eleven databases and two websites were searched. Two review authors independently applied the eligibility criteria. Data extraction was done by one reviewer and checked by a second. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed independently by two reviewers. A narrative summary of the results is presented. Five systematic reviews and one randomised controlled trial (RCT) that investigated methodologies for rapid reviews met the inclusion criteria. None of the systematic reviews were of sufficient quality to allow firm conclusions to be made. Thus, the findings need to be treated with caution. There is no agreed definition of rapid reviews in the literature and no agreed methodology for conducting rapid reviews. While a wide range of 'shortcuts' are used to make rapid reviews faster than a full systematic review, the included studies found little empirical evidence of their impact on the conclusions of either rapid or systematic reviews. There is some evidence from the included RCT (that had a low risk of bias) that rapid reviews may improve clarity and accessibility of research evidence for decision makers. Greater care needs to be taken in improving the transparency of the methods used in rapid review products. There is
Towards a formal link between inflation perceptions and inflation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper reports the finding of a survey of inflation perceptions and inflation expectations in South Africa undertaken in 2014. This survey posed questions on perceptions of past inflation (historic inflation) and expectations of future inflation to the same respondents and determined linkages between historic views and ...
Rapid increase in contraceptive rate: since 1981 new population control policy.
1984-03-01
In December 1981 the government of the Republic of Korea announced new population control policy measures calling for an improvement of the current family planning program management system; institution of a new social and institutional support system to inculcate the small size family norm and to eradicate the parental son preference attitude; strengthening information, education, and communication (IEC) activities; and establishment of close coordination among the government organizations relating to the population programs. As a result of the policy measures, since 1982 there has been a rapid increase in the contraceptive acceptance rate. The number of contraceptive acceptors through the government program increased from 614,100 in 1981 to 1,094,600 in 1983, a 78.3% increase. There has been a marked increase in sterilization and menstrual regulation services. The program achievement for 1983 is equivalent to about 19% of the total eligible women aged 15-44. According to the contraceptive acceptors' coupon analysis, the age of women at the time of contraceptive acceptance through the government program dropped steadily from 31.4 in 1981 to 30.2 in 1983 and their number of children declined from 2.8 to 2.5 during the same period. In line with the new population control policy, several social support measures for the small size family have been strengthened. These include: income tax exemption up to 2 children; corporation tax exemption on expenditure for family planning services to employees; inclusion of population education in the formal school curriculum; and reduction of child delivery charges for sterilization acceptors after 2nd delivery in public hospitals. The 1982 National Family Health Survey revealed that the total fertility rate declined to 2.7 and the contraceptive practice rate of women aged 15-44 increased to 58% in 1982. Yet, in recent years virtually no substantial change in the fertility level and in the contraceptive practice rate has been
Estimating Venezuelas Latent Inflation
Juan Carlos Bencomo; Hugo J. Montesinos; Hugo M. Montesinos; Jose Roberto Rondo
2011-01-01
Percent variation of the consumer price index (CPI) is the inflation indicator most widely used. This indicator, however, has some drawbacks. In addition to measurement errors of the CPI, there is a problem of incongruence between the definition of inflation as a sustained and generalized increase of prices and the traditional measure associated with the CPI. We use data from 1991 to 2005 to estimate a complementary indicator for Venezuela, the highest inflation country in Latin America. Late...
Inflation and quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linde, A.
1991-01-01
In this article a review of the present status of inflationary cosmology is given. We start with a discussion of the simplest version of the chaotic inflation scenario. Then we discuss some recent develoments in the inflationary cosmology, including the theory of a self-reproducing inflationary universe (eternal chaotic inflation). We do it with the help of stochastic approach to inflation. The results obtained within this approach are compared with the results obtained in the context of Euclidean quantum cosmology. (WL)
Coopersmith, Michael; Gambardella, Pascal J.
2016-01-01
This article is an extension of the work of one of us (Coopersmith, 2011) in deriving the relationship between certain interest rates and the inflation rate of a two component economic system. We use the well-known Fisher relation between the difference of the nominal interest rate and its inflation adjusted value to eliminate the inflation rate and obtain a delay differential equation. We provide computer simulated solutions for this equation over regimes of interest. This paper could be of ...
Inflation stabilization, fiscal defecits and public debtmanagement in Poland
van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Budina, N.
1999-01-01
Poland edged towards hyperinflation towards the latter half of 1989,but inflation fell dramatically after drastic reformswere enacted in January of 1990. We analyse the consistency betweenfiscal deficits and inflation targets and assessPoland's domestic and foreign debt management policies and the
Modelling persistence in the conditional mean of inflation using the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
These results would, therefore, be useful to both countries in making good portfolio decisions, assessing the efficacy of a monetary policy or programme meant to control inflation persistence and also serving as a tool for detecting volatility and its impact, for the Ghanaian and South African inflation rates and their economies ...
Inflation - Growth Nexus in Ethiopia: Evidence from Threshold Auto ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Optiplex 7010 Pro
Achieving high economic growth with stable and low inflation level has long been the macroeconomic policy ..... Various endogenous growth models also indicate that inflation has a negative effect on economic growth. .... indicator function indicating the regime defined by the threshold variable , and the threshold level γ.
Ballesteros, Guillermo
2016-01-01
We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflation with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.
Quantum fluctuations and inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, J.M.; Bublik, G.J.
1987-01-01
The authors study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the roll-down rate of the inflation field in a semiclassical approximation; this is done by treating the inflation field as a classical random field. The quantum fluctuations are simulated by a noise term in the equation of motion. Two different inflationary scenarios (new and chaotic inflation) are considered and it is found that the roll-down rate of the median value of the inflation field is increased by the quantum fluctuations. Non-linear effects may become important in the later stages of the inflationary regime. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vishniac, E.T.
1987-01-01
We examine the compatibility of inflation with the cosmic string theory for galaxy formation. There is a general conflict between having sufficient string tension to effect galaxy formation, and reheating after inflation to a high enough temperature that strings may form in a thermal phase transition. To escape this conflict, we propose a class of models where the inflation is coupled to the string-producing field. The strings are formed late in inflation as the inflaton rolls towards its zero-temperature value. A large subset of these models have a novel large-scale distribution of galaxies that is fractal, displays biasing without dynamics or feedback mechanisms, and contains voids. (orig.)
Inflation Volatility and the Inflation-Growth Tradeoff in India
Raghbendra Jha; Varsha S. Kulkarni
2012-01-01
This paper amends the New Keynesian Phillips curve model to include inflation volatility and tests the determinants of such volatility for India. It provides results on the determinants of inflation volatility and expected inflation volatility for OLS and ARDL (1,1) models and for change in inflation volatility and change in expected inflation volatility using ECM models. Output gap affects change in expected inflation volatility along (in the ECM model) and not in the other models. Major det...
Inflation Targeting and the Unemployment-Inflation Trade-off
Chorng-Huey Wong; Eric V. Clifton; Gene L. Leon
2001-01-01
This paper examines the impact of the introduction of inflation targeting on the unemployment-inflation trade-off in OECD countries. Theoretical models suggest that the credibility-enhancing effects of the adoption of inflation targeting should cause an improvement in the unemployment-inflation trade-off, i.e., that reducing inflation by a given amount should occur with a smaller rise in unemployment. The empirical evidence examined for OECD countries adopting inflation targeting supports thi...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghoreishi, Maryam; Mirzazadeh, Abolfazl; Nakhai Kamalabadi, Isa
2014-01-01
. The effects of time value of money are studied using the Discounted Cash Flow approach. The main objective is to determine the optimal selling price, the optimal length of the production period, and the optimal length of inventory cycle simultaneously such that the present value of total profit is maximized....... An efficient algorithm is presented to find the optimal solution of the developed model. Finally, a numerical example is extracted to solve the presented inventory model using our proposed algorithm, and the effects of the customer returns, inflation, and delay in payments are also discussed....
Inflation in inhomogeneous cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calzetta, E.; Sakellariadou, M.
1992-01-01
We discuss the onset of inflation in an inhomogeneous, asymptotically Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe coupled to a scalar inflaton field. We consider a three-parameter family of inhomogeneous Cauchy data, for which we can solve analytically the constraint equations. Inflation only occurs if the Cauchy data are homogeneous over several horizon lengths
Air-Inflated Fabric Structures
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Cavallaro, Paul V; Sadegh, Ali M
2006-01-01
.... Examples include air ships, weather balloons, inflatable antennas and radomes, temporary shelters, pneumatic muscles and actuators, inflatable boats, temporary bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags...
Rispel, Laetitia C; de Sousa, César A D Palha; Molomo, Boitumelo G
2009-08-01
The global resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health provides an opportunity for determined action on unacceptable and unjust health inequalities that exist within and between countries. This paper reviews three categories of social inclusion policies: cash-transfers; free social services; and specific institutional arrangements for programme integration in six selected countries--Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. The policies were appraised as part of the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN) set up under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The paper highlights the development landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and presents available indicators of the scale of inequity in the six countries. A summary of the policies appraised is presented, including whether or what the impact of these policies has been on health inequalities. Cross-cutting benefits include poverty alleviation, notably among vulnerable children and youths, improved economic opportunities for disadvantaged households, reduction in access barriers to social services, and improved nutrition intake. The impact of these benefits, and hence the policies, on health status can only be inferred. Among the policies reviewed, weaknesses or constraints were in design and implementation. The policy design weaknesses include targeting criteria, their enforcement and latent costs, inadequate participation of the community and failure to take the cultural context into account. A major weakness of most policies was the lack of a monitoring and evaluation system, with clear indicators that incorporate system responsiveness. The policy implementation weaknesses include uneven regional implementation with rural areas worst affected; inadequate or poor administrative and implementation capacity; insufficient resources; problems of fraud and corruption; and lack of involvement of civil servants, exacerbating
Palha de Sousa, César A.D; Molomo, Boitumelo G
2009-01-01
The global resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health provides an opportunity for determined action on unacceptable and unjust health inequalities that exist within and between countries. This paper reviews three categories of social inclusion policies: cash-transfers; free social services; and specific institutional arrangements for programme integration in six selected countries—Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. The policies were appraised as part of the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN) set up under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The paper highlights the development landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and presents available indicators of the scale of inequity in the six countries. A summary of the policies appraised is presented, including whether or what the impact of these policies has been on health inequalities. Cross-cutting benefits include poverty alleviation, notably among vulnerable children and youths, improved economic opportunities for disadvantaged households, reduction in access barriers to social services, and improved nutrition intake. The impact of these benefits, and hence the policies, on health status can only be inferred. Among the policies reviewed, weaknesses or constraints were in design and implementation. The policy design weaknesses include targeting criteria, their enforcement and latent costs, inadequate parti-cipation of the community and failure to take the cultural context into account. A major weakness of most policies was the lack of a monitoring and evaluation system, with clear indicators that incorporate system responsiveness. The policy implementation weaknesses include uneven regional implementation with rural areas worst affected; inadequate or poor administrative and implementation capacity; insufficient resources; problems of fraud and corruption; and lack of involvement of civil servants, exacerbating
The inflation sector of extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.
1990-11-01
In extended inflation the inflationary era is brought to a close by the process of percolation of true vacuum bubbles produced in a first-order phase transition. In this paper I discuss several effects that might obtain if the Universe undergoes an inflationary first-order phase transition. 17 refs
Inflation perceptions and inflation expectation in South Africa: trends ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper reports the results of a multinomial analysis of inflation perceptions and inflation expectations in South Africa. Inflation perceptions surveys among South African individuals have been undertaken since 2006. The introduction of these surveys followed on domestic inflation expectation surveys conducted in 2000, ...
Rodriguez, Carolyn I; Arbuckle, Melissa R; Simpson, Helen B; Herman, Daniel B; Stroup, T Scott; Skrobala, Anne M; Sederer, Lloyd I; Appel, Anita; Essock, Susan M
2013-02-01
To help grow a cadre of researchers with the knowledge and skills to pursue topics of great utility to public mental health systems, the director of the Division of Mental Health Services and Policy Research at Columbia University used funding from the New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH) to create a rapid small-grant program called the OMH Policy Scholars Program. This column uses two case examples to describe how this public-academic partnership exposes early-career researchers to the needs and complexities of large public mental health systems while providing them with senior research and policy mentors to help ensure the success of the scholars' projects and oversee their introduction to and work within the public mental health system. This type of collaboration is one model of encouraging early-career psychiatric researchers to pursue policy-relevant research.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Croon, Djuna; Sanz, Verónica, E-mail: d.croon@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: v.sanz@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)
2015-02-01
Slow-roll inflation requires the inflaton field to have an exceptionally flat potential, which combined with measurements of the scale of inflation demands some degree of fine-tuning. Alternatively, the flatness of the potential could be due to the inflaton's origin as a pseudo-Goldstone boson, as in Natural Inflation. Alas, consistency with Planck data places the original proposal of Natural Inflation in a tight spot, as it requires a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton. Although one can still tune the renormalizable potential to sub-Planckian values, higher order corrections from quantum gravity or sources of breaking of the Goldstone symmetry would ruin the predictivity of the model. In this paper we show how in more realistic models of Natural Inflation one could achieve inflation without a trans-Planckian excursion of the field. We show how a variant of Extra-natural inflation with bulk fermions can achieve the desired goal and discuss its four-dimensional duals. We also present a new type of four dimensional models inspired in Little Higgs and Composite Higgs models which can lead to sub-Planckian values of the inflaton field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballesteros, Guillermo; Tamarit, Carlos
2016-01-01
We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflaton with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.
Brandenberger, Robert; Easson, Damien A.; Mazumdar, Anupam
2003-01-01
We investigate a new way of realizing a period of cosmological inflation in the context of brane gas cosmology. It is argued that a gas of co-dimension one branes, out of thermal equilibrium with the rest of the matter, has an equation of state which can - after stabilization of the dilaton - lead to power-law inflation of the bulk. The most promising implementation of this mechanism might be in Type IIB superstring theory, with inflation of the three large spatial dimensions triggered by ``s...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, R.L.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge
1989-01-01
Without inflation the energy density of relic axions in a Robertson-Walker universe arises not from coherent oscillations of a zero-momentum mode but from radiative decay of axion strings. An estimate of the upper bound on the PQ scale coming from these axions is in conflict with the lower bound from SN1987a. We present analytical and numerical evidence supporting this estimate. If true, then the axion needs inflation. With inflation the axion is safe, but the motivation for axion search experiments is weakened. (orig.)
Inflation variability and the relationship between inflation and growth
Raghbendra Jha; Tu Dang
2011-01-01
We examine the effect of inflation variability and economic growth using annual historical data on both developing and developed countries. The data cover 182 developing countries and 31 developed countries for the period 1961-2009. Proxying inflation variability by the five-year coefficient of variation of inflation, we obtain the following results: (1) For developing countries, there is significant evidence to suggest that when the rate of inflation exceeds 10 percent inflation variability ...
Euro area Inflation as a Predictor of National Inflation Rates
Antonella Cavallo; Antonio Ribba
2013-01-01
The stability of inflation differentials is an important condition for the smooth working of a currency area, such as the European Economic and Monetary Union. In the presence of stability, changes in national inflation rates, while holding Euro-area inflation fixed contemporaneously, should be only transitory. If this is the case, the rate of inflation of the whole area can also be interpreted as a predictor, at least in the long run, of the different national inflation rates. However, in th...
Sovereign default and the stability of inflation targeting regimes
Schabert, A.; van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.
2011-01-01
We analyse the impact of interactions between monetary and fiscal policy on macroeconomic stability. We find that in the presence of sovereign default beliefs a monetary policy, which aims to stabilize inflation through an active interest rate policy, will destabilize the economy if the feedback
Lazarides, G
1997-01-01
A variant of hybrid inflation which is applicable in a wide class of supersymmetric grand unified models and reproduces the observed temperature perturbations of cosmic background radiation with natural values of the parameters is presented. The theory is consistent with the unification of the minimal supersymmetric standard model gauge couplings as measured at LEP. The termination of inflation is smooth and does not produce any topological defects. Numerical investigation of the cosmological evolution of the system shows that for almost all initial values of the fields we do get an adequate amount of inflation. Finally, the "reheating" process following inflation and the production of the baryon asymmetry of the universe via a primordial lepton asymmetry are briefly discussed and some important implications for right handed neutrino Majorana masses are investigated.
Preheating in Hybrid Inflation
García-Bellido, J; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Linde, Andrei
1998-01-01
We investigate a possibility of preheating in hybrid inflation. This scenario involves at least two scalar fields, the inflaton field $\\phi$, and the symmetry breaking field $\\sigma$. We found that the behavior of these fields after inflation, as well as the possibility of preheating, depends crucially on the ratio of the coupling constant $\\lambda$ (self-interaction of the field For $\\lambda \\gg g^2$, oscillations of the field $\\sigma$ soon after inflation become very small, and all energy is concentrated in the oscillating field light scalar (or vector) fields~$\\chi$. For $\\lambda \\sim g^2$ both fields motion stabilizes, and parametric resonance with production of $\\chi$ particles becomes possible. For $\\lambda \\ll g^2$ parametric resonance typically does not occur, though some exceptions from this rule are possible. In the recently proposed hybrid models with a second stage of inflation after the phase transition, both preheating and usual reheating are inefficient. Therefore for a very long time the unive...
Chaotic inflation in supergravity
Kawasaki, M
2001-01-01
It is shown that chaotic inflation naturally takes place in the framework of supergravity if we assume hat the Kahler potential has a shift symmetry of the inflaton chiral multiplet and introduce a small breaking parameter.
Inflation with finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellini, M.; Michoacan, Univ. Michoacana de S.Nicola de Hidalgo
1998-01-01
In this work the inflationary scenario of the Universe with finite temperature is studied. In this context, thermal equilibrium is closely maintained at the end of inflation. The example of the de Sitter expansion is developed
Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.
2016-01-01
Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on $R + R^2$ gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: $n_s \\sim 0.96$, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio $r < 0.1$, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.
Coopersmith, Michael
2011-01-01
A relation between interest rates and inflation is presented using a two component economic model and a simple general principle. Preliminary results indicate a remarkable similarity to classical economic theories, in particular that of Wicksell.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, P.; Chicago Univ., IL
1986-01-01
Cosmological solutions with three exponentially expanding space dimensions in the N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills supergravity system are found under the assumption of gluino and ''subgravitino'' condensation. The potential has a long flat region providing sufficient inflation. (orig.)
Some Issues in Inflation Targeting
Andrew Haldane
1997-01-01
This paper discusses some of the operational issues relevant to the implementation of an inflation-targeting regime. In particular it focuses on: whether inflation targeting is 'new'; whether (and how) the forward-looking nature of inflation-targeting helps to prevent instabilities in inflation; whether inflation-targeting potentially destabilises output; and whether it requires too much knowledge on the part of the authorities. The paper argues that none of these propositions is in general c...
Inflation, slack, and Fed credibility
Evan F. Koenig; Tyler Atkinson
2012-01-01
It is generally agreed that slack has some impact on inflation. There is much less agreement on what form the relationship takes and whether it is stable enough to reliably help predict inflation. This analysis focuses on the Great Moderation period. We find that slack (as measured by the unemployment rate) and changes in slack are negatively correlated with changes in inflation and also deviations of inflation from long-forward inflation expectations.> ; These relationships could have been e...
Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation
Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide
2003-01-01
We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valerio Faraoni
2013-07-01
Full Text Available A massive scalar field in a curved spacetime can propagate along the light cone, a causal pathology, which can, in principle, be eliminated only if the scalar couples conformally to the Ricci curvature of spacetime. This property mandates conformal coupling for the field driving inflation in the early universe. During slow-roll inflation, this coupling can cause super-acceleration and, as a signature, a blue spectrum of primordial gravitational waves.
Watts, Myles J.; Helmers, Glenn A.
1981-01-01
This article addresses (1) the differences in machinery cost estimating techniques, particularly for depreciation and opportunity cost, and (2) the necessary modifications in cost estimating techniques to account for the changing monetary base under inflation. The conditions under which capital budgeting and traditional budgeting differ are examined on a before tax and after tax basis, with and without inflation. The variations in cost estimates depending upon techniques, and with and without...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. MODIGLIANI
2014-08-01
Full Text Available There appears to be a rather wide agreement among Italian economists, in and out of the Government, on the causes of Italy’s balance of payments crisis and of the recession that began in 1964. This explanation, originally put forward by the Bank of Italy, though rather unsatisfactory, has been uncritically accepted or at least has not been challenged in any systematic way. The present paper assesses the validity of this explanation and proposes an alternative one. For the sake of simplicity the authors keep separate the case of an open economy from that of a closed one. The Bank of Italy’s model is first formalised before its basic shortcomings are demonstrated. The authors then present the alternative model they propose. The nature of the Italian inflation and the determinants of wage movements are then discussed. The authors then consider the case of an open economy before provided a formal treatment of the problems raised.JEL: E31, E52, F31, F34
Initial conditions for inflation
Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Artymowski, Michał
2017-09-01
Within the α-attractors framework we investigate scalar potentials with the same pole as the one featured in the kinetic term. We show that, in field space, this leads to directions without a plateau. Using this, we present a proposal, which manages to overcome the initial conditions problem of inflation with a plateau. An earlier period of proto-inflation, beginning at Planck scale, accounts for the Universe expansion and arranges the required initial conditions for inflation on the plateau to commence. We show that, if proto-inflation is power-law, it does not suffer from a sub-Planckian eternal inflationary stage, which would otherwise be a problem. A simple model realisation is constructed in the context of α-attractors, which can both generate the inflationary plateau and the exponential slopes around it, necessary for the two inflation stages. Our mechanism allows to assume chaotic initial conditions at the Planck scale for proto-inflation, it is generic and it is shown to work without fine-tuning.
Chern-Simons inflation and baryogenesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, Stephon; Marcianò, Antonino; Spergel, David
2013-01-01
We present a model of inflation based on the interaction between a homogeneous and isotropic configuration of a U(1) gauge field and fermionic charge density J 0 . The regulated fermionic charge density is generated from a Bunch-Davies vacuum state using the methods of Koksma and Prokopec [11], and is found to redshift as 1/a(η). The time-like component of gauge field is sourced by the fermionic charge leading to a growth in the gauge field A(η) 0 ∼ a(η). As a result inflation is dominated by the energy density contained in the gauge field and fermionic charge interaction, A 0 J 0 , which remains constant during inflation. We also provide a mechanism to generate a net lepton asymmetry. The coupling of a pseudo scalar to the Chern-Simons term converts the gauge field fluctuations into lepton number and all three Sahkarov conditions are satisfied during inflation. Finally, the rapid oscillation of the pseudo scalar field near its minimum thermalizes the gauge field and ends inflation. We provide the necessary initial condition on the gauge field and fermionic charge to simultaneously generate enough e-folds and baryon asymmetry index
New type of hill-top inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barvinsky, A.O. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute,Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Tomsk State University,Lenin Ave. 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pacific Institue for Theoretical Physics,University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kamenshchik, A.Yu. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physcis,Kosygin str. 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nesterov, D.V. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute,Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2016-01-20
We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ϵ and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.
SECOND ROUND EFFECTS AND PASS-THROUGH OF FOOD PRICES TO INFLATION IN KENYA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roseline Nyakerario Misati
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In the recent past, the Kenyan economy experienced persistent inflationary pressures, partly attributed to food price spikes. However, the quantitative role of food prices in inflation is not well understood or formally empirically analyzed in Kenya yet food occupies a weight of 36 percent in the consumer price index and contributes a monthly average of over 40 percent to overall inflation. Based on monthly data covering the period 1997-2012, this paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the relationship between food prices and inflation. The study used gap models and Phillips curve approaches to estimate the passthrough effects of food prices to both overall inflation and non-food non-fuel inflation. Based on gap models, the results confirm presence of second round effects from food prices to inflation while estimations of the Phillips curve suggest a domestic food price pass-through of 0.49 to overall inflation and 0.38 to non-food non-fuel inflation. The world food prices pass-through to overall inflation and non-food non-fuel inflation are estimated at 0.09 and 0.08, respectively. Thus this paper recommends usage of headline inflation to estimate trend inflation, enhanced communication to mitigate second round effects and that while monetary policy is very critical in anchoring inflationary expectations, there is mutual gain from a supportive fiscal policy in addressing supply side shocks.
Inflation Targeting and Exchange Rate Management in Korea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Won-Am Park
2008-06-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the experience of inflation targeting in Korea with an emphasis on exchange rate management. The Korean call rate responded to not only expected inflation, but also to output gap and changes in the real effective exchange rate of the Korean won, when we estimated the call rate reaction function over the period of 1999-2007. It was found that the call rate responded to changes in real effective exchange rate more than it did to expected inflation. We also examined whether Korean inflation targeting was actually centered on the exchange rate by estimating the Singaporean style of exchange rate reaction function. It was found that Korean monetary policy was not exchange-rate- centered, since the nominal effective exchange rate of the Korean won responded modestly to inflation and output gap, far less than did the Singaporean dollar.
Warm inflation with an oscillatory inflaton in the non-minimal kinetic coupling model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goodarzi, Parviz [University of Ayatollah Ozma Borujerdi, Department of Science, Boroujerd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadjadi, H.M. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-07-15
In the cold inflation scenario, the slow roll inflation and reheating via coherent rapid oscillation, are usually considered as two distinct eras. When the slow roll ends, a rapid oscillation phase begins and the inflaton decays to relativistic particles reheating the Universe. In another model dubbed warm inflation, the rapid oscillation phase is suppressed, and we are left with only a slow roll period during which the reheating occurs. Instead, in this paper, we propose a new picture for inflation in which the slow roll era is suppressed and only the rapid oscillation phase exists. Radiation generation during this era is taken into account, so we have warm inflation with an oscillatory inflaton. To provide enough e-folds, we employ the non-minimal derivative coupling model. We study the cosmological perturbations and compute the temperature at the end of warm oscillatory inflation. (orig.)
Warm inflation with an oscillatory inflaton in the non-minimal kinetic coupling model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodarzi, Parviz; Sadjadi, H.M.
2017-01-01
In the cold inflation scenario, the slow roll inflation and reheating via coherent rapid oscillation, are usually considered as two distinct eras. When the slow roll ends, a rapid oscillation phase begins and the inflaton decays to relativistic particles reheating the Universe. In another model dubbed warm inflation, the rapid oscillation phase is suppressed, and we are left with only a slow roll period during which the reheating occurs. Instead, in this paper, we propose a new picture for inflation in which the slow roll era is suppressed and only the rapid oscillation phase exists. Radiation generation during this era is taken into account, so we have warm inflation with an oscillatory inflaton. To provide enough e-folds, we employ the non-minimal derivative coupling model. We study the cosmological perturbations and compute the temperature at the end of warm oscillatory inflation. (orig.)
Eternal inflation and its implications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guth, Alan H
2007-01-01
I summarize the arguments that strongly suggest that our universe is the product of inflation. The mechanisms that lead to eternal inflation in both new and chaotic models are described. Although the infinity of pocket universes produced by eternal inflation are unobservable, it is argued that eternal inflation has real consequences in terms of the way that predictions are extracted from theoretical models. The ambiguities in defining probabilities in eternally inflating spacetimes are reviewed, with emphasis on the youngness paradox that results from a synchronous gauge regularization technique. Although inflation is generically eternal into the future, it is not eternal into the past: it can be proven under reasonable assumptions that the inflating region must be incomplete in past directions, so some physics other than inflation is needed to describe the past boundary of the inflating region
The chaotic regime of D-term inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchmueller, W.; Domcke, V.; Schmitz, K.
2014-08-01
We consider D-term inflation for small couplings of the inflaton to matter fields. Standard hybrid inflation then ends at a critical value of the inflaton field that exceeds the Planck mass. During the subsequent waterfall transition the inflaton continues its slow-roll motion, whereas the waterfall field rapidly grows by quantum fluctuations. Beyond the decoherence time, the waterfall field becomes classical and approaches a time-dependent minimum, which is determined by the value of the inflaton field and the self-interaction of the waterfall field. During the final stage of inflation, the effective inflaton potential is essentially quadratic, which leads to the standard predictions of chaotic inflation. The model illustrates how the decay of a false vacuum of GUT-scale energy density can end in a period of 'chaotic inflation'.
Technical Note: Does Core Inflation Help Forecast Total Inflation? Evidence from Colombia
John Thornton
1998-01-01
In Colombia core and total inflation are both (1) series, and core inflation is cointegrated with total inflation. Granger causality tests using error correction methodology indicate that divergence of total inflation from core inflation is quickly revers
Aerocapture Inflatable Decelerator (AID)
Reza, Sajjad
2007-01-01
Forward Attached Inflatable Decelerators, more commonly known as inflatable aeroshells, provide an effective, cost efficient means of decelerating spacecrafts by using atmospheric drag for aerocapture or planetary entry instead of conventional liquid propulsion deceleration systems. Entry into planetary atmospheres results in significant heating and aerodynamic pressures which stress aeroshell systems to their useful limits. Incorporation of lightweight inflatable decelerator surfaces with increased surface-area footprints provides the opportunity to reduce heat flux and induced temperatures, while increasing the payload mass fraction. Furthermore, inflatable aeroshell decelerators provide the needed deceleration at considerably higher altitudes and Mach numbers when compared with conventional rigid aeroshell entry systems. Inflatable aeroshells also provide for stowage in a compact space, with subsequent deployment of a large-area, lightweight heatshield to survive entry heating. Use of a deployable heatshield decelerator not only enables an increase in the spacecraft payload mass fraction and but may also eliminate the need for a spacecraft backshell and cruise stage. This document is the viewgraph slides for the paper's presentation.
García-Bellido, J; Montes, X; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Garriga, Jaume; Montes, Xavier
1998-01-01
We show that a large class of two-field models of single-bubble open inflation do not lead to infinite open universes, as it was previously thought, but to an ensemble of very large but finite inflating `islands'. The reason is that the quantum tunneling responsible for the nucleation of the bubble does not occur simultaneously along both field directions and equal-time hypersurfaces in the open universe are not synchronized with equal-density or fixed-field hypersurfaces. The most probable tunneling trajectory corresponds to a zero value of the inflaton field; large values, necessary for the second period of inflation inside the bubble, only arise as localized fluctuations. The interior of each nucleated bubble will contain an infinite number of such inflating regions of comoving size of order $\\gamma^{-1}$, where $\\gamma$ depends on the parameters of the model. Each one of these islands will be a quasi-open universe. Since the volume of the hyperboloid is infinite, inflating islands with all possible values...
Is wartime mobilisation a suitable policy model for rapid national climate mitigation?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delina, Laurence L.; Diesendorf, Mark
2013-01-01
Climate science suggests that, to have a high probability of limiting global warming to an average temperature increase of 2 °C, global greenhouse gas emissions must peak by 2020 and be reduced to close to zero by 2040. However, the current trend is heading towards at least 4 °C by 2100 and little effective action is being taken. This paper commences the process of developing contingency plans for a scenario in which a sudden major global climate impact galvanises governments to implement emergency climate mitigation targets and programs. Climate activists assert that rapid mitigation is feasible, invoking the scale and scope of wartime mobilisation strategies. This paper draws upon historical accounts of social, technological and economic restructurings in several countries during World War 2 in order to investigate potential applications of wartime experience to radical, rigorous and rapid climate mitigation strategies. We focus on the energy sector, the biggest single contributor to global climate change, in developed and rapidly developing countries. We find that, while wartime experience suggests some potential strategies for rapid climate mitigation in the areas of finance and labour, it also has severe limitations, resulting from its lack of democratic processes. - Highlights: • The paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of using wartime experience as a model for rapid climate mitigation. • Wartime experience suggests some potential strategies for rapid climate mitigation in the areas of finance and labour. • Wartime experience also has severe limitations, resulting from its lack of democratic processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Qian
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Shenzhen is a city that is highly representative of China’s rapid urbanization process. As the city rapidly expands, there are enormous challenges to the sustainable use of land resources. This paper introduces the evolution of urban land expansion and the sustainable land use policy of the Shenzhen Government since 2005. The policy covers the reduction in rural-to-urban land conversion, the delineation of urban growth boundaries, arable land reclamation and the establishment of farmland protection areas, urban redevelopment, and the investigation and prosecution of illegal construction. This paper considers the aspects of urbanization and land management systems that are unique to China. The current top-down indicative and mandatory mode of control, which relies on the central government, has very limited effects. Good results were achieved in Shenzhen for the following elements: governmental self-restraint, governmental identity change, and policy innovation. Shenzhen’s sustainable land use practices can provide a reference for other cities in China.
Assessing Inflation Persistence: Micro Evidence on an Inflation Targeting Economy
Jan Babecký; Fabrizio Coricelli; Roman Horváth
2009-01-01
The paper provides an empirical analysis of inflation persistence in one of the inflation targeting countries, the Czech Republic, using 412 detailed product-level consumer price indexes underlying the consumer basket over the period from 1994:M1 to 2005:M12. Subject to various sensitivity tests, the authors´ results suggest that raw goods and non-durables, followed by services, display smaller inflation persistence than durables and processed goods. Inflation seems to be somewhat less persis...
Ellis, John; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih
2015-01-01
We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)$\\times$U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, $A_s$, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, $n_s$, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, $r$. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.
Brane annihilations during inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battefeld, Diana; Battefeld, Thorsten; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Khosravi, Nima
2010-01-01
We investigate brane inflation driven by two stacks of mobile branes in a throat. The stack closest to the bottom of the throat annihilates first with antibranes, resulting in particle production and a change of the equation of state parameter w. We calculate analytically some observable signatures of the collision; related decays are common in multi-field inflation, providing the motivation for this case study. The discontinuity in w enters the matching conditions relating perturbations in the remaining degree of freedom before and after the collision, affecting the power-spectrum of curvature perturbations. We find an oscillatory modulation of the power-spectrum for scales within the horizon at the time of the collision, and a slightly redder spectrum on super-horizon scales. We comment on implications for staggered inflation
Successful supersymmetric inflation
Ross, Graham G
1996-01-01
We reconsider the problems of cosmological inflation in effective supergravity theories. We argue that an inflaton in a hidden sector is likely to yield, without fine tuning, an inflationary potential with an energy scale set by a stage of spontaneous symmetry breaking below the Planck scale. In the simplest such model, normalization to the amplitude of the primordial density perturbations inferred from COBE requires the inflationary scale to be about 3\\times 10^{14} GeV, implying a reheat temperature of order 10^{5} GeV. This is below the upper limit derived from consideration of the thermal generation of unstable gravitinos and their effects on primordial nucleosynthesis, but high enough to allow baryogenesis after inflation. Such consistency requires that gravitational waves contribute negligibly to the observed anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Other models, including chaotic inflation, violate the reheat bound and require additional physics structure to be viable. We also consider ...
Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D
2016-01-22
We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.
Ferrara, Sergio
2017-01-01
Theories with elementary scalar degrees of freedom seem nowadays required for simple descriptions of the Standard Model and of the Early Universe. It is then natural to embed theories of inflation in supergravity, also in view of their possible ultraviolet completion in String Theory. After some general remarks on inflation in supergravity, we describe examples of minimal inflaton dynamics which are compatible with recent observations, including higher-curvature ones inspired by the Starobinsky model. We also discuss different scenarios for supersymmetry breaking during and after inflation, which include a revived role for non-linear realizations. In this spirit, we conclude with a discussion of the link, in four dimensions, between "brane supersymmetry breaking" and the super--Higgs effect in supergravity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Channuie, Phongpichit; Jark Joergensen, Jakob; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
We investigate models in which the inflaton emerges as a composite field of a four dimensional, strongly interacting and nonsupersymmetric gauge theory featuring purely fermionic matter. We show that it is possible to obtain successful inflation via non-minimal coupling to gravity, and that the u......We investigate models in which the inflaton emerges as a composite field of a four dimensional, strongly interacting and nonsupersymmetric gauge theory featuring purely fermionic matter. We show that it is possible to obtain successful inflation via non-minimal coupling to gravity......, and that the underlying dynamics is preferred to be near conformal. We discover that the compositeness scale of inflation is of the order of the grand unified energy scale....
Quintessential inflation: A unified scenario of inflation and dark energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossain Wali
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Quintessential inflation unifies inflation and late time acceleration by a single scalar field. Such a scenario, with canonical and non-canonical scalar fields, has been discussed. The scalar field behaves as an inflaton field during inflation and as a quintessence field during late time. Also the predictions of the models has been compared with the recent Planck data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chimento, Luis P.
2002-01-01
We find the group of symmetry transformations under which the Einstein equations for the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe are form invariant. They relate the energy density and the pressure of the fluid to the expansion rate. We show that inflation can be obtained from nonaccelerated scenarios by a symmetry transformation. We derive the transformation rule for the spectrum and spectral index of the curvature perturbations. Finally, the group is extended to investigate inflation in the anisotropic Bianchi type-I spacetime and the brane-world cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kappl, Rolf; Nilles, Hans Peter; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang
2016-01-01
We discuss some model-independent implications of embedding (aligned) axionic inflation in string theory. As a consequence of string theoretic duality symmetries the pure cosine potentials of natural inflation are replaced by modular functions. This leads to “wiggles” in the inflationary potential that modify the predictions with respect to CMB-observations. In particular, the scalar power spectrum deviates from the standard power law form. As a by-product one can show that trans-Planckian excursions of the aligned effective axion are compatible with the weak gravity conjecture.
Supersymmetric inflation: Recent progress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ovrut, B.A.; Steinhardt, P.J.
1986-01-01
The new inflationary universe scenario is, in principle, a simple and powerful approach to resolving a large number of fundamental cosmological problems. However, in order for the scenario to be considered a complete theory, one critical question remains to be answered: What is the physics responsible for the phase transition that triggers the exponential expansion (inflation) of the universe? One possibility that the authors and several other groups have been pursuing is that the physics responsible for the phase transition involves (local) supersymmetry. The goal of this paper is to review the present status of ''Supersymmetric Inflation'', particularly emphasizing some very exciting results that they recently obtained
Inflation of a Polymeric Menbrane
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Susanne B.; Larsen, Johannes R.; Hassager, Ole
1998-01-01
We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane.......We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane....
Did The Taylor Rule Stabilize Inflation in Brazil?
Rodrigo De-Losso
2012-01-01
This paper characterizes the monetary policy in Brazil through a forward-looking Taylor-rule-type reaction function before and after the Real plan, which stabilized inflation in July 1994. The results show that the interest rate response to inflation was greater than one-to-one before stabilization and smaller than that afterwards, hence inverting the Taylor’s principle. Several robustness checks, using mainly distinct proxies for output, output gap and data frequency strongly confirm the fin...
Using a Neural Network Control Policy for Rapid Switching Between Beam Parameters in an FEL
Edelen, A.L.; Biedron, S.G.; Edelen, J.P.; Milton, S.V.; van der Slot, P.J.M.
2017-01-01
FEL user facilities often must accommodate requests for a variety of beam parameters. This usually requires skilled operators to tune the machine, reducing the amount of available time for users. In principle, a neural network control policy that is trained on a broad range of operating states could
Inflation targeting in dollarized economies
Dokle, Eda
2013-01-01
Inflation targeting has become an increasingly popular regime among emerging markets. Focusing on the experience of inflation targeting adoption in the countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States, this thesis highlights the main features of the inflation targeting framework. A clear economic condition bringing these countries together is considered the dollarization issue which gains importance when designing the inflation targeting framework. The empirical ...
Inflation and seigniorage in Argentina
Kiguel, Miguel A.; Neumeyer, Pablo Andres
1989-01-01
Argentina, where increases in inflation appear to be closely linked to government attempts to raise seigniorage, was chosen for this study because of its persistent high rates of inflation and its fiscal imbalance. Monetization of fiscal deficits becomes a major force for creating money and inflation in countries with limited access to domestic and foreign credit. The authors found that inflation in Argentina played an important role in generating public sector revenues. The authors found tha...
Topological defects in extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL; Liddle, A.R.
1990-04-01
We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings. 18 refs
Topological defects in extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Liddle, A.R.
1990-01-01
We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended-inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of the bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings
Bus rapid transit and development : policies and practices that affect development around transit.
2009-12-01
The development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is relatively recent in the United States, but several systems are in operation and more are advancing. There is a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between land use and...
On the Rapid Rise of Social Networking Sites: New Findings and Policy Implications
Livingstone, Sonia; Brake, David R
2010-01-01
Social networking sites have been rapidly adopted by children and, especially, teenagers and young people worldwide, enabling new opportunities for the presentation of the self, learning, construction of a wide circle of relationships, and the management of privacy and intimacy. On the other hand, there are also concerns that social networking…
Jinno, Ryusuke; Kaneta, Kunio; Oda, Kin-ya
2018-01-01
We propose a realization of cosmic inflation with the Higgs field when the Higgs potential has degenerate vacua by employing the recently proposed idea of hill-climbing inflation. The resultant inflationary predictions exhibit a sizable deviation from those of the ordinary Higgs inflation.
Initial conditions for chaotic inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenberger, R.; Kung, J.; Feldman, H.
1991-01-01
In contrast to many other inflationary Universe models, chaotic inflation does not depend on fine tuning initial conditions. Within the context of linear perturbation theory, it is shown that chaotic inflation is stable towards both metric and matter perturbations. Neglecting gravitational perturbations, it is shown that chaotic inflation is an attractor in initial condition space. (orig.)
Monetary aggregate targeting and inflation in Nigeria | Adedoyin ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In a capitalist economy, monetary aggregate policy instruments are normally employed by monetary authorities. This attempt is to achieve counter cyclical policy objectives like the level of inflation, a reasonable level of price stability, an equitable distribution of income and wealth, a favourable balance of payments and ...
Trapped quintessential inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bueno Sanchez, J.C.; Dimopoulos, K.
2006-01-01
Quintessential inflation is studied using a string modulus as the inflaton-quintessence field. The modulus begins its evolution at the steep part of its scalar potential, which is due to non-perturbative effects (e.g. gaugino condensation). It is assumed that the modulus crosses an enhanced symmetry point (ESP) in field space. Particle production at the ESP temporarily traps the modulus resulting in a brief period of inflation. More inflation follows, due to the flatness of the potential, since the ESP generates either an extremum (maximum or minimum) or a flat inflection point in the scalar potential. Eventually, the potential becomes steep again and inflation is terminated. After reheating the modulus freezes due to cosmological friction at a large value, such that its scalar potential is dominated by contributions due to fluxes in the extra dimensions or other effects. The modulus remains frozen until the present, when it can become quintessence and account for the dark energy necessary to explain the observed accelerated expansion
Dynamical fractional chaotic inflation
Harigaya, Keisuke; Ibe, Masahiro; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.
2014-12-01
Chaotic inflation based on a simple monomial scalar potential, V (ϕ )∝ϕp, is an attractive large-field model of inflation capable of generating a sizable tensor-to-scalar ratio r . Therefore, assuming that future cosmic microwave background observations will confirm the large r value reported by BICEP2, it is important to determine what kind of dynamical mechanism could possibly endow the inflaton field with such a simple effective potential. In this paper, we answer this question in the context of field theory, i.e. in the framework of dynamical chaotic inflation, where strongly interacting supersymmetric gauge dynamics around the scale of grand unification dynamically generate a fractional power-law potential via the quantum effect of dimensional transmutation. In constructing explicit models, we significantly extend our previous work, as we now consider a large variety of possible underlying gauge dynamics and relax our conditions on the field content of the model. This allows us to realize almost arbitrary rational values for the power p in the inflaton potential. The present paper may hence be regarded as a first step toward a more complete theory of dynamical chaotic inflation.
Pneumatic inflatable end effector
Clark, K. H.; Johnston, J. D. (Inventor)
1981-01-01
The invention relates to an end effector device for robot or teleoperated type space vehicle which includes an inflatable balloon member carried on the end of tubular member which has a hollow center or conduit through which a suitable pressurized fluid is supplied. The device may be inserted into a variety of shaped openings or truss-type structures for handling in space.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linde, A.D.
1986-05-01
It is shown that the universe evolution in the chaotic inflation scenario has no end and may have no beginning. According to this scenario, the universe consists of exponentially large number of different mini-universes inside which all possible metastable vacuum states and all possible types of compactification are realized. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kripfganz, J.; Ilgenfritz, E.M.
1985-07-01
A numerical analysis of reheating is performed for a classical scalar field with exponentially flat potential. An operational definition of the reheating time is given involving the gradient contribution to the inflation field energy. For the parameter range studied the product of reheating time and Hubble constant H is found to be of order one, being approximately independent of the value of H. (author)
Nanopoulos, D. V.; Srednicki, M.
1983-12-01
We show that, before the onset of primordial inflation, there is plenty of time for fields with very flat potentials and very weak couplings (such as the local supersymmetry breaking field and the axion field) to roll to the global minima of their potentials. Thus there is no energy stored in these fields today and hence no constraint (such as faxion USA.
Inflation from higher dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shafi, Q.
1987-01-01
We argue that an inflationary phase in the very early universe is related to the transition from a higher dimensional to a four-dimensional universe. We present details of a previously considered model which gives sufficient inflation without fine tuning of parameters. (orig.)
Chuss, David
2010-01-01
The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided a wealth of information about the history and physics of the early Universe. Much progress has been made on uncovering the emerging Standard Model of Cosmology by such experiments as COBE and WMAP, and ESA's Planck Surveyor will likely increase our knowledge even more. Despite the success of this model, mysteries remain. Currently understood physics does not offer a compelling explanation for the homogeneity, flatness, and the origin of structure in the Universe. Cosmic Inflation, a brief epoch of exponential expansion, has been posted to explain these observations. If inflation is a reality, it is expected to produce a background spectrum of gravitational waves that will leave a small polarized imprint on the CMB. Discovery of this signal would give the first direct evidence for inflation and provide a window into physics at scales beyond those accessible to terrestrial particle accelerators. I will briefly review aspects of the Standard Model of Cosmology and discuss our current efforts to design and deploy experiments to measure the polarization of the CMB with the precision required to test inflation.
Hillclimbing saddle point inflation
Kawana, Kiyoharu; Sakai, Katsuta
2018-03-01
Recently a new inflationary scenario was proposed in [1] which can be applicable to an inflaton having multiple vacua. In this letter, we consider a more general situation where the inflaton potential has a (UV) saddle point around the Planck scale. This class of models can be regarded as a natural generalization of the hillclimbing Higgs inflation [2].
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bekker, Bernard [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and The Built Environment, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, RONDEBOSCH 7700 (South Africa); Eberhard, Anton [Graduate School of Business, University of Cape Town, Cape Town (South Africa); Gaunt, Trevor [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Cape Town, Cape Town (South Africa); Marquard, Andrew [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Cape Town (South Africa)
2008-08-15
This paper documents South Africa's electrification programme from the late 1980s to the present. The primary aim of the paper is to present the reader with an overview of the policy, institutional, planning, financing and technological developments and innovations that resulted in more than 5 million households receiving access to electricity between 1990 and 2007. Key aspects include the way in which a period of political change and policy disruption were essential to the programme's initiation, and the critical role played by organisations and individuals outside of national government in helping shape new electrification policies and strategies. In addition, the paper identifies the contribution of technology development in cost reduction and achieving the social aims of the programme. Several lessons may be drawn from the institutional and planning arrangements that the South African programme has developed, the significance of the development of appropriate cost-driven technical innovations and standards, and the acknowledgement of the social function of electrification and its funding from the fiscus (rather than through cross-subsidies). (author)
Chen, Karen Hui-Jung
2017-12-01
Evaluation capacity building (ECB) is a context-dependent process. Contextual factors affecting ECB implementation have been explored theoretically and practically, but their influence within a changing environment has seldom been discussed. This study examined essential context-sensitive parameters, particularly those involved in implementing new governmental policies regarding higher education. Taiwan was used as a case study for exploring the effect of contextual change on ECB attributes from the perspectives of training receivers and providers. Surveys and interviews were used for data collection and importance-performance analysis was applied for data analysis. Four prominent features were identified. First, the ECB attributes perceived as important by receivers were performed adequately, whereas those perceived as less important were performed less well. Second, under new policies, training provider designed training covering a wide range of ECB, whereas receivers focused on those can be directly applied in evaluation process. Third, in a small education system such as Taiwan's, the complexity of peer review is high and ethical issues become important. Fourth, because the evaluation structure has been changed from single- to dual-track, receivers expect more training for institution staff, whereas providers insist on hierarchical training. Aligning ECB supply and needs is paramount for adaptation to new policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer: Status and Plans
Kogut, Alan
2009-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to detect the characteristic signature of gravity waves created during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. PIPER combines cold /I.G K\\ optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. I will discuss the current status and plans for the PIPER instrument.
Chaotic inflation with metric and matter perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldman, H.A.; Brandenberger, R.H.
1989-01-01
A perturbative scheme to analyze the evolution of both metric and scalar field perturbations in an expanding universe is developed. The scheme is applied to study chaotic inflation with initial metric and scalar field perturbations present. It is shown that initial gravitational perturbations with wavelength smaller than the Hubble radius rapidly decay. The metric simultaneously picks up small perturbations determined by the matter inhomogeneities. Both are frozen in once the wavelength exceeds the Hubble radius. (orig.)
THE ACTUAL IMPLICATIONS OF INFLATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Murăriţa Ilie
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The authors have started from the idea that inflationary phenomenon is a companion, the cause and the effect of the globalization of poverty in the broader context of world economy globalization. Therefore, starting from a common definition of inflation, the first objective was to identify causal relationships that singularize contemporary inflationary process. After that, attention was focused on the implications of inflation in the current stage, bearing in mind that monetary financial theory and practice are operating with perfectly anticipated inflation or imperfectly anticipated inflation. Inflation has great implications on the long-term contracts and wage contracts.
Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Kate; Patterson, Jan; Baum, Fran
2011-01-01
This paper describes a partnership between researchers and policy actors that was developed within a short timeframe to produce a rapid appraisal case study of a government policy initiative--South Australia's "Social Inclusion Initiative"--for the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the international Commission on Social Determinants…
Gravitational reheating in quintessential inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scopel, Stefano
2010-01-01
Quintessential inflation assumes a common origin for inflation and the dark energy of the Universe. In this scenario reheating can occur through gravitational particle production during the inflation-kination transition. We provide a detailed study of gravitational reheating in quintessential inflation and determine the temperature T * at which radiation starts dominating over kination, generalizing previous analyses only available for the standard case when inflation is followed by an era dominated by the energy density of radiation, The value of T * is controlled by the Hubble parameter H 0 during inflation and the transition time Δt, scaling as H 0 2 [ln(1/H 0 Δt)] 3/4 for H 0 Δt 0 2 (H 0 Δt) -c for H 0 t >> 1. The model-dependent parameter c is found to be around 0.5 in two different parametrizations for the transition between inflation and kination.
Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiadan Li
2016-05-01
Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.
Empirical Analysis of High-Inflation Episodes in Argentina, Brazil, and Israel
Peter J. Montiel
1989-01-01
Although accommodative policies and widespread indexation may account for the persistence of high inflation, they cannot explain changes in the inflation rate. The causes of such changes for the high-inflation episodes immediately preceding the recent "heterodox" attempts at stabilization in Argentina, Brazil, and Israel are examined by computing historical decompositions of these episodes based on vector autoregressions, distinguishing between the "fiscal" and "balance of payments" views of ...
Mbonye, Anthony K; Clarke, Sîan E; Lal, Sham; Chandler, Clare I; Hutchinson, Eleanor; Hansen, Kristian S; Magnussen, Pascal
2015-11-14
Malaria is a major public health problem in Uganda and the current policy recommends introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) to facilitate effective case management. However, provision of RDTs in drug shops potentially raises a new set of issues, such as adherence to RDTs results, management of severe illnesses, referral of patients, and relationship with caretakers. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of introducing RDTs in registered drug shops in Uganda and document lessons and policy implications for future scale-up of malaria control in the private health sector. A cluster-randomized trial introducing RDTs into registered drug shops was implemented in central Uganda from October 2010 to July 2012. An evaluation was undertaken to assess the impact and the processes involved with the introduction of RDTs into drug shops, the lessons learned and policy implications. Introducing RDTs into drug shops was feasible. To scale-up this intervention however, drug shop practices need to be regulated since the registration process was not clear, supervision was inadequate and record keeping was poor. Although initially it was anticipated that introducing a new practice of record keeping would be cumbersome, but at evaluation this was not found to be a constraint. This presents an important lesson for introducing health management information system into drug shops. Involving stakeholders, especially the district health team, in the design was important for ownership and sustainability. The involvement of village health teams in community sensitization to the new malaria treatment and diagnosis policy was a success and this strategy is recommended for future interventions. Introducing RDTs into drug shops was feasible and it increased appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy. It is anticipated that the lessons presented will help better implementation of similar interventions in the private sector.
Reheating stage after inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, Edward W.; Notari, Alessio; Riotto, Antonio
2003-01-01
We point out that inflaton decay products acquire plasma masses during the reheating phase following inflation. The plasma masses may render inflaton decay kinematically forbidden, causing the temperature to remain frozen for a period at a plateau value. We show that the final reheating temperature may be uniquely determined by the inflaton mass, and may not depend on its coupling. Our findings have important implications for the thermal production of dangerous relics during reheating (e.g., gravitinos), for extracting bounds on particle physics models of inflation from cosmic microwave background anisotropy data, for the production of massive dark matter candidates during reheating, and for models of baryogenesis or leptogenesis where massive particles are produced during reheating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.
1994-01-01
We study a simple extension of Linde's hybrid inflation model, with the inflaton mass term replaced by the most general renormalizable potential for φ. The unprocessed power spectrum of density perturbations can have two minima and one maximum, roughly corresponding to two steep regions separated by a somewhat flat region in V(φ). In the examples studied here, a sufficient amount of inflation and normalization to COBE requires a vacuum scale of 10 16 GeV and a φ mass of 10 13 GeV. Depending on the initial value of φ, our model can give either less (∼n 1) power on small scales compared to the scale-invariant spectrum (n=1), given the normalization to COBE. Given the same power on small scales, our power spectra can give more power on intermediate scales, compared to simple ''tilted'' power spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.
1983-01-01
The hot big bang cosmology provides a reliable accounting of the evolution of the Universe from -- 0.01 s after 'the bang' until the present (10-20 Byr after 'the bang'). This is a truly impressive achievement. There are, however, a handful of very fundamental 'cosmological facts' which the model by itself fails to elucidate. They include: the large-scale homogeneity, the isotropy, the small-scale inhomogeneity, the near critical expansion rate, the predominance of matter, the 'monopole problem', and the extremely tiny value of the present cosmological term. Inflation makes the present state of the observable Universe virtually insensitive to the initial state of the Universe. Unfortunately, at present there is no model of new inflation which both resolves the cosmological puzzles and leads to sensible particle physics. A general prescription for the cosmologically-desirable Higgs potential does exist
Felder, G; Linde, Andrei D; Tkachev, Igor I; Felder, Gary; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Tkachev, Igor
2000-01-01
Preheating after inflation may lead to nonthermal phase transitions with symmetry restoration. These phase transitions may occur even if the total energy density of fluctuations produced during reheating is relatively small as compared with the vacuum energy in the state with restored symmetry. As a result, in some inflationary models one encounters a secondary, nonthermal stage of inflation due to symmetry restoration after preheating. We review the theory of nonthermal phase transitions and make a prediction about the expansion factor during the secondary inflationary stage. We then present the results of lattice simulations which verify these predictions, and discuss possible implications of our results for the theory of formation of topological defects during nonthermal phase transitions.
The Primordial Inflation Explorer
Kogut, Alan J.
2012-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.
Likelihood Inflating Sampling Algorithm
Entezari, Reihaneh; Craiu, Radu V.; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.
2016-01-01
Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling from a posterior distribution corresponding to a massive data set can be computationally prohibitive since producing one sample requires a number of operations that is linear in the data size. In this paper, we introduce a new communication-free parallel method, the Likelihood Inflating Sampling Algorithm (LISA), that significantly reduces computational costs by randomly splitting the dataset into smaller subsets and running MCMC methods independently ...
Gravitational waves from inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzzetti, M.C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.
2016-01-01
The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index ηT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.
Inflation from supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antoniadis, I. [UMR CNRS 7589 Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, LPTHE, Paris (France); University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Chatrabhuti, A.; Isono, H.; Knoops, R. [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pathumwan, Bangkok (Thailand)
2017-11-15
We explore the possibility that inflation is driven by supersymmetry breaking with the superpartner of the goldstino (sgoldstino) playing the role of the inflaton. Moreover, we impose an R-symmetry that allows one to satisfy easily the slow-roll conditions, avoiding the so-called η-problem, and leads to two different classes of small-field inflation models; they are characterised by an inflationary plateau around the maximum of the scalar potential, where R-symmetry is either restored or spontaneously broken, with the inflaton rolling down to a minimum describing the present phase of our Universe. To avoid the Goldstone boson and be left with a single (real) scalar field (the inflaton), R-symmetry is gauged with the corresponding gauge boson becoming massive. This framework generalises a model studied recently by the present authors, with the inflaton identified by the string dilaton and R-symmetry together with supersymmetry restored at weak coupling, at infinity of the dilaton potential. The presence of the D-term allows a tuning of the vacuum energy at the minimum. The proposed models agree with cosmological observations and predict a tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial perturbations 10{sup -9}
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Lyth, David H.; Kohri, Kazunori; Matsuda, Tomohiro
2012-01-01
The primordial curvature perturbation ζ may be generated by some curvaton field σ, which is negligible during inflation and has more or less negligible interactions until it decays. In the current scenario, the curvaton starts to oscillate while its energy density ρσ is negligible. We explore the opposite scenario, in which ρσ drives a few e-folds of inflation before the oscillation begins. In this scenario for generating ζ it is exceptionally easy to solve the η problem; one just has to make the curvaton a string axion, with anomaly-mediated susy breaking which may soon be tested at the LHC. The observed spectral index n can be obtained with a potential V∝φ p for the first inflation; p = 1 or 2 is allowed by the current uncertainty in n but the improvement in accuracy promised by Planck may rule out p = 1. The predictions include (i) running n' ≅ 0.0026 (0.0013) for p = 1 (2) that will probably be observed, (ii) non-gaussianity parameter f NL ; ∼ −1 that may be observed, (iii) tensor fraction r is probably too small to ever observed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dvali, Gia
2003-10-03
We propose a new class of inflationary solutions to the standard cosmological problems (horizon, flatness, monopole,...), based on a modification of old inflation. These models do not require a potential which satisfies the normal inflationary slow-roll conditions. Our universe arises from a single tunneling event as the inflaton leaves the false vacuum. Subsequent dynamics (arising from either the oscillations of the inflaton field or thermal effects) keep a second field trapped in a false minimum, resulting in an evanescent period of inflation (with roughly 50 e-foldings) inside the bubble. This easily allows the bubble to grow sufficiently large to contain our present horizon volume. Reheating is accomplished when the inflaton driving the last stage of inflation rolls down to the true vacuum, and adiabatic density perturbations arise from moduli-dependent Yukawa couplings of the inflaton to matter fields. Our scenario has several robust predictions, including virtual absence of gravity waves, a possible absence of tilt in scalar perturbations, and a higher degree of non-Gaussianity than other models. It also naturally incorporates a solution to the cosmological moduli problem.
Inflation and quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linde, A.
1990-01-01
We investigate an interplay between elementary particle physics, quantum cosmology and inflation. These results obtained within this approach are compared with the results obtained in the context of Euclidean quantum cosmology. In particular, we discuss relations between the stochastic approach to inflationary cosmology and the approaches based on the investigation of the Hartle-Hawking and tunneling wave functions of the universe. We argue that neither of these wave functions can be used for a complete description of the inflationary universe, but in certain cases they can be used for a description of some particular stages of inflation. It is shown that if the present vacuum energy density ρ υ exceeds some extremely small critical value ρ c (ρ c ∼ 10 -107 ) g cm -3 for chaotic inflation in the theory 1/2m 2 φ 2 ), then the lifetime of mankind in the inflationary universe should be finite, even though the universe as a whole will exist without end. A possible way to justify the anthropic principle in the context of the baby universe theory and to apply it to the evaluation of masses of elementary particles, of their coupling constants and of the vacuum energy density is also discussed. (author)
Accidental inflation from Kaehler uplifting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Dayan, Ido; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens; Jing, Shenglin; Toronto Univ., ON
2013-09-01
We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Kaehler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ''left-rolling'' ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ''inflation by deflation'' (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running α -5 . The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.
Scale-invariant extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Y.
1991-01-01
We propose a model of extended inflation which makes use of the nonlinear realization of scale invariance involving the dilaton coupled to an inflaton field whose potential admits a metastable ground state. The resulting theory resembles the Jordan-Brans-Dicke version of extended inflation. However, quantum effects, in the form of the conformal anomaly, generate a mass for the dilaton, thus allowing our model to evade the problems of the original version of extended inflation. We show that extended inflation can occur for a wide range of inflaton potentials with no fine-tuning of dimensionless parameters required. Furthermore, we also find that it is quite natural for the extended-inflation period to be followed by an epoch of slow-rollover inflation as the dilaton settles down to the minimum of its induced potential
Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?
Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut
2003-01-01
We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...
Dark energy from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Membiela, A.; Bellini, M.
2008-01-01
Gravitoelectromagnetic Inflation (GI) was introduced to describe in a unified manner electromagnetic, gravitatory and inflation fields from a 5D vacuum state. On the other hand, the primordial origin and evolution of dark energy is today unknown. In this letter we show using GI that the zero modes of some redefined vector fields B i = A i /a produced during inflation could be the source of dark energy in the Universe.
Inflation and the Higgs Scalar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2014-12-05
This note makes a self-contained exposition of the basic facts of big bang cosmology as they relate to inflation. The fundamental problems with that model are then explored. A simple scalar model of inflation is evaluated which provides the solution of those problems and makes predictions which will soon be definitively tested. The possibility that the recently discovered fundamental Higgs scalar field drives inflation is explored.
Mattocks, Kristin M; Mengeling, Michelle; Sadler, Anne; Baldor, Rebecca; Bastian, Lori
2017-07-01
Congress enacted the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 [Veterans Choice Act (VCA)] to improve access to timely, high-quality health care for Veterans. Although Congress mandated that VCA must begin within 90 days of passage of the legislation, no guidelines were provided in the legislation to ensure that Veterans had access to an adequate number of community providers across different specialties of care or distinct geographic areas, including rural areas of the country. To examine VCA policy implementation across a sampling of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Medical Centers. We conducted a qualitative study of 43 VHA staff and providers by conducting in-person interviews at 5 VA medical centers in the West, South, and Midwest United States. Interview questions focused on perceptions and experiences with VCA and challenges related to implementation for VHA staff and providers. We identified 3 major themes to guide description of choice implementation: (1) VCA implemented too rapidly with inadequate preparation; (2) community provider networks insufficiently developed; and (3) communication and scheduling problems with subcontractors may lead to further delays in care. Our evaluation suggests that VCA was implemented far too rapidly, with little consideration given to the adequacy of community provider networks available to provide care to Veterans. Given the challenges we have highlighted in VCA implementation, it is imperative that the VHA continue to develop care coordination systems that will allow the Veterans to receive seamless care in the community.
What Causes Inflation in a Post Communist Economy? Evidence from Ethiopia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dejene Mamo Bekana
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of inflation for a post communist economy, in the long run as well as in the short run, using time series evidence from Ethiopia and applying the Johnson co integration and Error Correction Mechanisms. A vivid observation of the results shows that the short run determinants of inflation are broad money supply, growth of domestic gross product, real interest rate, budget deficit, Exchange rate, inflation expectation and world price movements. The result of the long run model after co integration is proved using the residual based ducky fuller test and the Johnson co integration tests revealed that broad money supply, government budget deficit, exchange rate and inflation expectation are found to be the major determinants of inflation. The result shows that domestic gross product growth rate has no effect on inflation. To curb inflation, therefore, policy makers need to implement prudential fiscal and monetary policy tools. Inflation expectations need to be tackled by way of transparent and well informed government policies to change consumer perception. Concerning this, it is important to consider targeting monetary and fiscal policy variables and appropriately implanting the set targets.
A critical review of inflation
Turok, N G
2002-01-01
The theory of cosmic inflation offers an attractive resolution of some of the great paradoxes in cosmology: why the universe is so large, flat and uniform on large scales, and how density variations arose. Inflation has rightly dominated cosmological thinking for the past two decades, helping stimulate the development of high-precision observational programmes. The survival of simple inflationary models in the face of an impressive observational onslaught has been interpreted as convincing evidence of the correctness of the basic idea. In this paper, I review inflation, but highlight its weaknesses, explaining my reasons for believing that a more complete theory may supersede inflation without necessarily incorporating it.
Magnetogenesis from axion inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adshead, Peter; Scully, Timothy R.; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Giblin, John T., E-mail: adshead@illinois.edu, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu, E-mail: tscully2@illinois.edu, E-mail: esfaki@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Rd, Gambier, Ohio 43022 (United States)
2016-10-01
In this work we compute the production of magnetic fields in models of axion inflation coupled to the hypercharge sector of the Standard Model through a Chern-Simons interaction term. We make the simplest choice of a quadratic inflationary potential and use lattice simulations to calculate the magnetic field strength, helicity and correlation length at the end of inflation. For small values of the axion-gauge field coupling strength the results agree with no-backreaction calculations and estimates found in the literature. For larger couplings the helicity of the magnetic field differs from the no-backreaction estimate and depends strongly on the comoving wavenumber. We estimate the post-inflationary evolution of the magnetic field based on known results for the evolution of helical and non-helical magnetic fields. The magnetic fields produced by axion inflation with large couplings to U(1) {sub Y} can reach B {sub eff} ∼> 10{sup −16} G, exhibiting a field strength B {sub phys} ≈ 10{sup −13} G and a correlation length λ{sub phys} ≈10 pc. This result is insensitive to the exact value of the coupling, as long as the coupling is large enough to allow for instantaneous preheating. Depending on the assumptions for the physical processes that determine blazar properties, these fields can be found consistent with blazar observations based on the value of B {sub eff}. Finally, the intensity of the magnetic field for large coupling can be enough to satisfy the requirements for a recently proposed baryogenesis mechanism, which utilizes the chiral anomaly of the Standard Model.
Explosive dome eruptions modulated by periodic gas-driven inflation
Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Lyons, John; Andrews, B. J.; Lees, J.M.
2014-01-01
Volcan Santiaguito (Guatemala) “breathes” with extraordinary regularity as the edifice's conduit system accumulates free gas, which periodically vents to the atmosphere. Periodic pressurization controls explosion timing, which nearly always occurs at peak inflation, as detected with tiltmeters. Tilt cycles in January 2012 reveal regular 26 ± 6 min inflation/deflation cycles corresponding to at least ~101 kg/s of gas fluxing the system. Very long period (VLP) earthquakes presage explosions and occur during cycles when inflation rates are most rapid. VLPs locate ~300 m below the vent and indicate mobilization of volatiles, which ascend at ~50 m/s. Rapid gas ascent feeds pyroclast-laden eruptions lasting several minutes and rising to ~1 km. VLPs are not observed during less rapid inflation episodes; instead, gas vents passively through the conduit producing no infrasound and no explosion. These observations intimate that steady gas exsolution and accumulation in shallow reservoirs may drive inflation cycles at open-vent silicic volcanoes.
Assessing inflation persistence: micro evidence on an inflation targeting economy
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Babecký, Jan; Coricelli, F.; Horváth, R.
-, č. 353 (2008), s. 1-37 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation dynamics * persistence * inflation targeting Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp353.pdf
News on Inflation and the Epidemiology of Inflation Expectations
Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.
2012-01-01
Abstract: This paper examines the nexus between news coverage on inflation and households' inflation expectations. In doing so, we test the epidemiological foundations of the sticky information model (Carroll, 2003, 2006). We use both aggregate and household-level data from the Survey Research
News on inflation and the epidemiology of inflation expectations
Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.
2013-01-01
This paper examines the nexus between news coverage on inflation and households’ inflation expectations. In doing so, we test the epidemiological foundations of the sticky information model (Carroll 2003, 2006). We use both aggregate and household-level data from the Survey Research Center at the
Inflation targeting and inflation performance : a comparative analysis
Samarina, Anna; De Haan, Jakob; Terpstra, M.
2014-01-01
This article examines how the impact of inflation targeting on inflation performance depends on the choice of country samples, adoption dates, time periods and methodological approaches. We apply two different estimation methods - difference-in-differences and propensity score matching - for our
Symmetries leading to inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguirregabiria, Juan M.; Lazkoz, Ruth; Chimento, Luis P.; Jakubi, Alejandro S.
2003-01-01
We present here the general transformation that leaves unchanged the form of the field equations for perfect fluid Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi type V cosmologies. The symmetries found can be used as algorithms for generating new cosmological models from existing ones. A particular case of the general transformation is used to illustrate the crucial role played by the number of scalar fields in the occurrence of inflation. Related to this, we also study the existence and stability of Bianchi type V power law solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenberger, R.H.
1986-01-01
Cosmological phase transitions are examined using a new approach based on the dynamical analysis of the equations of motion of quantum fields rather than on static effective potential considerations. In many models the universe enters a period of exponential expansion required for an inflationary cosmology. Analytical methods show that this will be the case if the interaction rate due to quantum field nonlinearities is small compared to the expansion rate of the universe. They derive a heuristic criterion for the maximal value of the coupling constant for which they expect inflation. The prediction is in good agreement with numerical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binetruy, P.
1985-08-01
The reasons that led to study supersymmetric models in the context of inflation are reviewed by setting up the constraints that candidates to an inflationary scenario must satisfy. The question is raised whether the groundstate of the new scalar field introduced, the inflaton, breaks supersymmetry. This is discussed in connection with the so-called thermal constraint. Some problems about the study of thermal fluctuations are discussed. The different models available are reviewed and the way they address those issues. A discussion of baryon number generation and of the gravitino problem follows. 67 refs., 4 figs
Disagreement about inflation and the yield curve
Ehling, P; Gallmeyer, M; Heyerdahl-Larsen, C; Illeditsch, P
2018-01-01
We show that inflation disagreement, not just expected inflation, has an impact on nominal interest rates. In contrast to expected inflation, which mainly affects the wedge between real and nominal yields, inflation disagreement affects nominal yields predominantly through its impact on the real side of the economy. We show theoretically and empirically that inflation disagreement raises real and nominal yields and their volatilities. Inflation disagreement is positively related to consumers’...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vijay Boyapati
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This article provides an Austrian overview of the inflation versus deflation debate which has captured the attention of the economics profession in the years following the US housing bust. Much of the Austrian analysis of this debate has focused on the massive expansion of the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet and attendant creation of new reserves. Several Austrian economists have predicted that the creation of new reserves will cause a massive increase in inflation. The money multiplier theory, on which these predictions are based, is criticized and an overview of the Austrian business cycle theory is provided to explain why banks are reluctant to issue new credit. Finally, an analysis of the politics of deflation is provided and a class theory is presented to explain why a policy of controlled credit deflation is more likely than a policy that would result in mass inflation or hyperinflation.
Notari, Alessio
2016-12-22
We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term $\\frac{\\phi}{f_\\gamma} F \\tilde{F}$, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density $\\rho_R$, which which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta $k$ smaller than the cutoff $f_\\gamma$, including numerically the backreaction. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if $f_\\gamma$ is smaller than the field excursion $\\phi_0$ by about a factor of at least ${\\cal O} (20)$, there is a friction effect which turns on before that the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of...
Strings, texture, and inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.
1991-01-01
We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I
Holography of Little Inflation
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Brett McInnes
2015-05-01
Full Text Available For several crucial microseconds of its early history, the Universe consisted of a Quark–Gluon Plasma. As it cooled during this era, it traced out a trajectory in the quark matter phase diagram. The form taken by this trajectory is not known with certainty, but is of great importance: it determines, for example, whether the cosmic plasma passed through a first-order phase change during the transition to the hadron era, as has recently been suggested by advocates of the “Little Inflation” model. Just before this transition, the plasma was strongly coupled and therefore can be studied by holographic techniques. We show that holography imposes a strong constraint (taking the form of a bound on the baryonic chemical potential relative to the temperature on the domain through which the cosmic plasma could pass as it cooled, with important consequences for Little Inflation. In fact, we find that holography applied to Little Inflation implies that the cosmic plasma must have passed quite close to the quark matter critical point, and might therefore have been affected by the associated fluctuation phenomena.
Topological inflation with graceful exit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marunović, Anja; Prokopec, Tomislav, E-mail: a.marunovic@uu.nl, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Spinoza Institute and Center for Extreme Matter and Emergent Phenomena, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)
2016-04-01
We investigate a class of models of topological inflation in which a super-Hubble-sized global monopole seeds inflation. These models are attractive since inflation starts from rather generic initial conditions, but their not so attractive feature is that, unless symmetry is again restored, inflation never ends. In this work we show that, in presence of another nonminimally coupled scalar field, that is both quadratically and quartically coupled to the Ricci scalar, inflation naturally ends, representing an elegant solution to the graceful exit problem of topological inflation. While the monopole core grows during inflation, the growth stops after inflation, such that the monopole eventually enters the Hubble radius, and shrinks to its Minkowski space size, rendering it immaterial for the subsequent Universe's dynamics. Furthermore, we find that our model can produce cosmological perturbations that source CMB temperature fluctuations and seed large scale structure statistically consistent (within one standard deviation) with all available data. In particular, for small and (in our convention) negative nonminimal couplings, the scalar spectral index can be as large as n {sub s} ≅ 0.955, which is about one standard deviation lower than the central value quoted by the most recent Planck Collaboration.
Topological inflation with graceful exit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marunović, Anja; Prokopec, Tomislav
2016-01-01
We investigate a class of models of topological inflation in which a super-Hubble-sized global monopole seeds inflation. These models are attractive since inflation starts from rather generic initial conditions, but their not so attractive feature is that, unless symmetry is again restored, inflation never ends. In this work we show that, in presence of another nonminimally coupled scalar field, that is both quadratically and quartically coupled to the Ricci scalar, inflation naturally ends, representing an elegant solution to the graceful exit problem of topological inflation. While the monopole core grows during inflation, the growth stops after inflation, such that the monopole eventually enters the Hubble radius, and shrinks to its Minkowski space size, rendering it immaterial for the subsequent Universe's dynamics. Furthermore, we find that our model can produce cosmological perturbations that source CMB temperature fluctuations and seed large scale structure statistically consistent (within one standard deviation) with all available data. In particular, for small and (in our convention) negative nonminimal couplings, the scalar spectral index can be as large as n s ≅ 0.955, which is about one standard deviation lower than the central value quoted by the most recent Planck Collaboration.
Forecasting Interest Rates and Inflation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chun, Albert Lee
the best overall for short horizon forecasts of short to medium term yields and inflation. Econometric models with shrinkage perform the best over longer horizons and maturities. Aggregating over a larger set of analysts improves inflation surveys while generally degrading interest rates surveys. We...
Inflation differentials among Czech households
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Janský, Petr; Hait, Pavel
2016-01-01
Roč. 25, č. 1 (2016), s. 71-84 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020188 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : households * inflation * inflation differentials Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.710, year: 2016
Regional Inflation and Financial Dollarization
Brown, M.; de Haas, R.; Sokolov, V.
2013-01-01
Abstract: We exploit variation in consumer price inflation across 71 Russian regions to examine the relationship between the perceived stability of the local currency and financial dollarization. Our results show that regions with higher inflation experience an increase in the dollarization of
Inflation Targeting and Liquidity Traps under Endogenous Credibility
Hommes, C.; Lustenhouwer, J.
2015-01-01
We derive policy implications for an inflation targeting central bank, who's credibility is endogenous and depends on its past ability to achieve its targets. We do this in a New Keynesian framework with heterogeneous agents and boundely rational expectations. Our assumptions about expectation
Finding optimal measures of core inflation in the Kyrgyz Republic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Uzagalieva, Ainura
-, 04/01 (2004), s. 1-37 ISSN 1561-2422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : Kyrgyz Republic * inflation * monetary policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.eerc.ru/details/download.aspx?file_id=3744
Finding optimal measures of core inflation in the Kyrgyz Republic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Uzagalieva, Ainura
-, č. 261 (2005), s. 1-37 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : Kyrgyz Republic * core inflation * monetary policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp261.pdf
Fiscal Deficits and Inflation in Nigeria | Ozurumba | Journal of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Journal of Research in National Development ... This paper examines the causal relationship between inflation and fiscal deficits in Nigeria, covering the period 1970-2009. This was ... It is recommended that policies targeted at inflationary control in Nigeria could best be achieved if they are aimed at fiscal deficits reduction.
78 FR 5722 - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment
2013-01-28
... the National Environmental Policy Act is not required for this rule. This rule only revises our Class... Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Direct... Class I civil penalties under the Clean Water Act and the National Fishing Enhancement Act to account...
Inflation targeting and macroeconomic performance since the Great Recession
Thomas Barnebeck Andersen; Nikolaj Malchow-Møller; Jens Nordvig
2015-01-01
Has inflation targeting (IT) conferred benefits in terms of economic growth on countries that followed this particular monetary policy strategy during the crisis period 2007–13? We answer this question in the affirmative. Countries with an IT monetary regime weathered the crisis much better than did countries with other monetary regimes, particularly countries with fixed exchange rates.
An Economic Recovery with Little Sign of Inflation Acceleration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hallett, Andrew Hughes
This paper investigates the possibility that there has been a structural shift in inflation (upward) in the euro area since the recovery in 2014 or 2015. From the perspective of policy, it is important to be sure that any such shifts are significant statistically, sustained or likely to be sustai...
The Term Structure of Interest Rates and Inflation Forecast Targeting
Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Schaling, E.; Verhagen, W.H.
1998-01-01
This paper examines the implications of the expectations theory of the term structure for the implementation of inflation targeting. We show that the term structure weakens the transmission of short term interest rates to ultimate policy objectives. Therefore, short term interest rates in the
Relevance of Low Inflation in the Southeastern European Countries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lakić Slobodan
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The paper starts from the assumption that the significant reduction of the inflation problem is a result of the long-term dynamics of economic growth in countries with developing markets and, as a result, operational inability of multinational companies to increase accumulation through the policy of raising prices by creating space for their full expansion. We believe that in such circumstances civil theories on the causes of inflation are dominantly of class character. We check negative repercussions of low inflation on the examples of the countries of South-East Europe, in the regimes with fixed and flexible exchange rates, and with different strategies of monetary policy. We conclude that destructive implications of the financial crisis and psychological factors have a negative impact on a sustainable low-inflation environment, regardless of the monetary-exchange regime. We propose that low and stable inflation rates can be followed by a series of negative implications for the overall economic system, which our analysis of the observed countries proves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halter, Sebastian
2012-07-09
This thesis is concerned with aspects of inflation both from a field theory and a string theory perspective. It aims at exploring new approaches to address the problem of moduli destabilization and the η-problem and to realize inflation in the matter sector. The first part is devoted to studying models of inflation in the framework of four-dimensional N=1 supergravity. We begin with investigating a new proposal to solve the problem of moduli destabilization, which seems to force us to choose between low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. This new approach is based on a particular way to couple the modulus to the F-term driving inflation. Using chaotic inflation with a shift symmetry as an example, we show that we can successfully combine low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. We construct a class of inflation models in N=1 supergravity where the inflaton resides in gauge non-singlet matter fields. These are extensions of a special class of hybrid inflation models, so-called tribrid inflation, where the η-problem can be solved by a Heisenberg symmetry. Compared to previously studied models, we have generalized our models with some inspiration from string theory. We investigate moduli stabilization during inflation and identify situations in which the inflaton slope is dominated by radiative corrections. We outline under which conditions this class of matter inflation models could be embedded into heterotic orbifold compactifications. In doing so, we suggest a new mechanism to stabilize some Kaehler moduli by F-terms for matter fields. In the second part, we consider models of warped D-brane inflation on a family of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We consider inflation along the radial direction near the tip of the warped throat and show that generically an inflection point arises for the inflaton potential, which is related to an inflection point of the dilaton profile. A universal scaling behaviour with the parameters of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halter, Sebastian
2012-01-01
This thesis is concerned with aspects of inflation both from a field theory and a string theory perspective. It aims at exploring new approaches to address the problem of moduli destabilization and the η-problem and to realize inflation in the matter sector. The first part is devoted to studying models of inflation in the framework of four-dimensional N=1 supergravity. We begin with investigating a new proposal to solve the problem of moduli destabilization, which seems to force us to choose between low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. This new approach is based on a particular way to couple the modulus to the F-term driving inflation. Using chaotic inflation with a shift symmetry as an example, we show that we can successfully combine low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. We construct a class of inflation models in N=1 supergravity where the inflaton resides in gauge non-singlet matter fields. These are extensions of a special class of hybrid inflation models, so-called tribrid inflation, where the η-problem can be solved by a Heisenberg symmetry. Compared to previously studied models, we have generalized our models with some inspiration from string theory. We investigate moduli stabilization during inflation and identify situations in which the inflaton slope is dominated by radiative corrections. We outline under which conditions this class of matter inflation models could be embedded into heterotic orbifold compactifications. In doing so, we suggest a new mechanism to stabilize some Kaehler moduli by F-terms for matter fields. In the second part, we consider models of warped D-brane inflation on a family of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We consider inflation along the radial direction near the tip of the warped throat and show that generically an inflection point arises for the inflaton potential, which is related to an inflection point of the dilaton profile. A universal scaling behaviour with the parameters of the
News on Inflation and the Epidemiology of Inflation Expectations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pfajfar, Damjan; Santoro, Emiliano
2013-01-01
This paper examines the nexus between news coverage on inflation and households’ inflation expectations. In doing so, we test the epidemiological foundations of the sticky information model (Carroll ). We use both aggregate and household-level data from the Survey Research Center at the University...... of Michigan. We highlight a fundamental disconnection among news on inflation, consumers’ frequency of expectation updating, and the accuracy of their expectations. Our evidence provides at best weak support to the epidemiological framework, as most of the consumers who update their expectations do not revise...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Briggs
2015-12-01
Full Text Available An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (inactivity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality: 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development.
Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry
2015-12-22
An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development.
The Impact of Financial Dollarization on Inflation Targeting: Empirical Evidence from Serbia
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Fabris Nikola
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Serbia has applied inflation targeting against the backdrop of financial dollarization for almost a decade. In such circumstances, efficiency of monetary policy instruments decreases and begs the question of efficiency of the monetary regime efficiency issue. Although there is some empirical testing of financial dollarization effects on monetary policy performance in the inflation targeting regime for some countries, such studies for Serbia mostly cover periods of early application of the regime.
Herrera, Ramón
2018-03-01
The reconstruction of a warm inflationary universe model from the scalar spectral index n_S(N) and the tensor to scalar ratio r( N) as a function of the number of e-folds N is studied. Under a general formalism we find the effective potential and the dissipative coefficient in terms of the cosmological parameters n_S and r considering the weak and strong dissipative stages under the slow roll approximation. As a specific example, we study the attractors for the index n_S given by nS-1∝ N^{-1} and for the ratio r∝ N^{-2}, in order to reconstruct the model of warm inflation. Here, expressions for the effective potential V(φ ) and the dissipation coefficient Γ (φ ) are obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chimento, Luis P.; Jakubi, Alejandro S.; Zuccala, Norberto; Pavon, Diego
2002-01-01
We consider an alternative warm inflationary scenario in which n scalar fields coupled to a dissipative matter fluid cooperate to produce power-law inflation. The scalar fields are driven by an exponential potential and the bulk dissipative pressure coefficient is linear in the expansion rate. We find that the entropy of the fluid attains its asymptotic value in a characteristic time proportional to the square of the number of fields. This scenario remains nearly isothermal along the inflationary stage. The perturbations in energy density and entropy are studied in the long-wavelength regime and seen to grow roughly as the square of the scale factor. They are shown to be compatible with COBE measurements of the fluctuations in temperature of the CMB
Ellis, John; Sueiro, Maria
2014-01-01
Inflationary models based on a single scalar field $\\phi$ with a quadratic potential $V = \\frac{1}{2} m^2 \\phi^2$ are disfavoured by the recent Planck constraints on the scalar index, $n_s$, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio for cosmological density perturbations, $r_T$. In this paper we study how such a quadratic inflationary model can be rescued by postulating additional fields with quadratic potentials, such as might occur in sneutrino models, which might serve as either curvatons or supplementary inflatons. Introducing a second scalar field reduces but does not remove the pressure on quadratic inflation, but we find a sample of three-field models that are highly compatible with the Planck data on $n_s$ and $r_T$. We exhibit a specific three-sneutrino example that is also compatible with the data on neutrino mass difference and mixing angles.
Cosmology, inflation, and supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.; Dimopoulos, S.; Fischler, W.; Kolb, E.W.; Raby, S.; Steinhardt, P.J.
1982-01-01
Cosmological consequences of supersymmetric grand unified models based on the Witten-O'Raifeartaigh potential are discussed. In particular we study the development of the phase transition in the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry. We find that in realistic models where light fields feel supersymmetry breaking only through coupling to massive fields, e.g., the Geometric Hierarchy model, the universe does not inflate or reheat. Thus, the standard cosmological flatness, monopole, and horizon problems remain. In addition, we find that the transition is never completed, in the sense that the universe remains dominated by coherent Higgs field energy, resulting in an apparent matter dominated universe with Ω greater than or equal to 10 30
Kahler Moduli Inflation Revisited
Blanco-Pillado, Jose J; Copeland, Edmund J; Gomez-Reino, Marta; Nunes, Nelson J
2010-01-01
We perform a detailed numerical analysis of inflationary solutions in Kahler moduli of type IIB flux compactifications. We show that there are inflationary solutions even when all the fields play an important role in the overall shape of the scalar potential. Moreover, there exists a direction of attraction for the inflationary trajectories that correspond to the constant volume direction. This basin of attraction enables the system to have an island of stability in the set of initial conditions. We provide explicit examples of these trajectories, compute the corresponding tilt of the density perturbations power spectrum and show that they provide a robust prediction of n_s approximately 0.96 for 60 e-folds of inflation.
Gravitational reheating in quintessential inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, E.J.; Zaballa, I.; Scopel, S.
2009-01-01
We provide a detailed study of gravitational reheating in quintessential inflation generalizing previous analyses only available for the standard case when inflation is followed by an era dominated by the energy density of radiation. Quintessential inflation assumes a common origin for inflation and the dark energy of the Universe. In this scenario reheating can occur through gravitational particle production during the inflation-kination transition. We calculate numerically the amount of the radiation energy density, and determine the temperature T * at which radiation starts dominating over kination. The value of T * is controlled by the Hubble parameter H 0 during inflation and the transition time Δt, scaling as H 0 2 [ln(1/H 0 Δt)] 3/4 for H 0 Δt 0 2 (H 0 Δt) −c for H 0 Δt >> 1. The model-dependent parameter c is found to be around 0.5 in two different parameterizations for the transition between inflation and kination
Extended inflation with induced gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accetta, F.S.; Trester, J.J.; Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520)
1989-01-01
We consider a recently proposed extended model of inflation which improves upon the original old inflation scenario by achieving a graceful exit from the false-vacuum phase. In this paper extended inflation is generalized to include a potential V(phi) for the Brans-Dicke-type field phi. We find that whereas a graceful exit can still be had, the inclusion of a potential places constraints on the percolation time scale for exiting the inflationary phase. Additional constraints on V(phi) and the false-vacuum energy density rho /sub F/ from density and gravitational-wave perturbations are discussed. For initially small values of phi the false vacuum undergoes power-law inflation, while for initially large values of phi the expansion is exponential. Within true-vacuum regions slow-rolling inflation can occur. As a result, this model generically leads to multiple episodes of inflation. We discuss the significance these multiple episodes of inflation may have on the formation of large-scale structure and the production of voids
Manyfield inflation in random potentials
Bjorkmo, Theodor; Marsh, M. C. David
2018-02-01
We construct models of inflation with many randomly interacting fields and use these to study the generation of cosmological observables. We model the potentials as multi-dimensional Gaussian random fields (GRFs) and identify powerful algebraic simplifications that, for the first time, make it possible to access the manyfield limit of inflation in GRF potentials. Focussing on small-field, slow-roll, approximate saddle-point inflation in potentials with structure on sub-Planckian scales, we construct explicit examples involving up to 100 fields and generate statistical ensembles comprising of 164,000 models involving 5 to 50 fields. For the subset of these that support at least sixty e-folds of inflation, we use the 'transport method' and δ N formalism to determine the predictions for cosmological observables at the end of inflation, including the power spectrum and the local non-Gaussianities of the primordial perturbations. We find three key results: i) Planck compatibility is not rare, but future experiments may rule out this class of models; ii) In the manyfield limit, the predictions from these models agree well with, but are sharper than, previous results derived using potentials constructed through non-equilibrium Random Matrix Theory; iii) Despite substantial multifield effects, non-Gaussianities are typically very small: fNLloc ll 1. We conclude that many of the 'generic predictions' of single-field inflation can be emergent features of complex inflation models.
Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Inflation Targeting on the Risk Premium
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Krušković Borivoje D.
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The basis for the conduct of monetary policy is monetary policy strategy. Monetary strategy is necessary for monetary policy makers to analyse all relevant information in order to undertake effective policy actions. Inflation targeting has enabled countries to achieve low inflation in the very short term. Due to this, the financial markets have adjusted their long-term inflation expectations and incorporated them into the interest rate. Risk premiums that compensate for the uncertainty of inflation have fallen. The aim of this paper is to examine how the adoption of inflation targeting affects the movement of the risk premium. The hypothesis we want to test is that the adoption of inflation targeting affects the reduction of the country risk premium by affecting the formation of a more stable macroeconomic environment through a more stable and predictable inflation rate in the medium and long term. The method used for evaluating the regression coefficients is the dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM. This method involves the use of conditional moments in endogenous and exogenous variables with a lag as instruments for the assessment of differential equations, while the difference lagged endogenous variables are used as instruments in the levels equation.
Intrinsic and Inherited Inflation Persistence
Jeffrey C. Fuhrer
2006-01-01
In the now conventional view of the inflation process, the New Keynesian Phillips Curve (NKPC) captures most of the persistence in inflation. The sources of persistence are twofold. First, the “driving process” for inflation—the output gap or, more commonly, real marginal cost—is itself quite persistent, and a casual inspection of the NKPC reveals that inflation must “inherit” this persistence. Second, a modest amount of backward-looking or indexing behavior imparts some “intrinsic” persisten...
Natural inflation and quantum gravity.
de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman
2015-04-17
Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models.
Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman
2009-01-01
Following \\cite{Lin:2009yt}, we explore the parameter space of the case when the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale is lower, for example, in gauge mediated SUSY breaking model. During inflation, the form of the potential is $V_0$ plus MSSM (MSSM stands for Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) (or A term (It is called A-term inflation when the inflaton field is any direction (gauge or singlet) that generates an A-term.)) inflation. We show that the model works for a wide range of the poten...
Bianchi models and new inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.; Widrow, L.
1986-03-01
The promise of the inflationary Universe scenario is to free the present state of the Universe from extreme dependence on initial data. Paradoxically, inflation is usually analyzed in the context of the homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker (RW) cosmological models. We show that all but a small subset of the homogeneous models (the Bianchi models) undergo inflation. Any initial anisotropy is so strongly damped that if sufficient inflation occurs to solve the flatness/horizon problems the Universe today would still be very isotropic. Some of the Bianchi models will eventually (in the exponentially distant future) become very anisotropic again. 15 refs
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
After reviewing the nice properties of Higgs inflation and some of its problems, I will discuss a simple unitarization of the scenario that is genuinely weakly coupled up to Planckian energies. A large non-minimal coupling between the Higgs and the Ricci curvature is induced dynamically at intermediate energies, as a simple ratio of mass scales. Inflationary dynamics is not dominated by the Higgs field, but 'Higgs inflation' arises as an approximate 'mirage' picture of the true dynamics. I will speculate on the generality of this phenomenon and show that, if Higgs-inflation arises as an effective description, the details of the UV completion are necessary to extract robust quantitative predictions.
Assessing inflation persistence: micro evidence on an inflation targeting economy
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Babecký, Jan; Coricelli, F.; Horváth, R.
2009-01-01
Roč. 59, č. 2 (2009), s. 102-127 ISSN 0015-1920 Grant - others:Česká národní banka(CZ) E5/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation dynamics * persistence * inflation targeting Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.264, year: 2009 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1153_babeck%C3%BD_horv%C3%A1th_coricelli.pdf
The relationship between inflation, inflation uncertainty, and economic growth in South Africa
2014-01-01
M.Comm. (Financial Economics) This dissertation examines the relationship between inflation, inflation uncertainty, and economic growth using quarterly data for South Africa covering the period 1960-2012. Inflation uncertainty is estimated using the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity modelling framework. Granger methods are employed in order to investigate the interaction between inflation, inflation uncertainty, and economic growth. The presence of structural change...
Consumer's inflation expectations in Brazil
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Fernando Ormonde Teixeira
Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates what are the main components of consumer's inflation expectations. We combine the FGV's Consumer Survey with the indices of inflation (IPCA and government regulated prices, professional forecasts disclosed in the Focus report, and media data which we crawl from one of the biggest and most important Brazilian newspapers, Folha de São Paulo, to determine what factors are responsible for and improve consumer's forecast accuracy. We found gender, age and city of residence as major elements when analyzing micro-data. Aggregate data shows the past inflation as an important trigger in the formation of consumers' expectations and professional forecasts as negligible. Moreover, the media plays a significant role, accounting not only for the expectations' formation but for a better understanding of actual inflation as well.
Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an entry and descent technology to enhance and enable robotic and scientific missions to destinations with atmospheres.The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic...
Gravity, parametric resonance, and chaotic inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Easther, Richard; Parry, Matthew
2000-01-01
We investigate the possibility that nonlinear gravitational effects influence the preheating era after inflation. Our work is based on numerical solutions of the inhomogeneous Einstein field equations, and is free of perturbative approximations. The one restriction we impose is to limit the inhomogeneity to a single spatial direction. We compare our results to perturbative calculations and to solutions of the nonlinear field equations in a rigid (unperturbed) spacetime, in order to isolate gravitational phenomena. We consider two types of initial conditions: where only one mode of the field perturbation has a non-zero initial amplitude, and where all the modes begin with a non-zero amplitude. Here we focus on preheating following inflation driven by a scalar field with a quartic potential. We confirm the broad picture of preheating obtained from the nonlinear field equations in a rigid background, but gravitational effects have a measurable impact on the dynamics for both sets of initial data. The rigid spacetime results predict that the amplitude of a single initially excited mode drops rapidly after resonance ends, whereas in the relativistic case the amplitude is roughly constant. With all modes initially excited, the longest modes in the simulation grow much more rapidly in the relativistic calculation than with a rigid background. However, we see no evidence for the sort of gravitational collapse associated with the formation of primordial black holes. The numerical codes described here are easily extended to more complicated resonant models, which we will examine in the future
False vacuum decay after inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asaka, T.; Buchmueller, W.; Covi, L.
2001-04-01
Inflation is terminated by a non-equilibrium process which finally leads to a thermal state. We study the onset of this transition in a class of hybrid inflation models. The exponential growth of tachyonic modes leads to decoherence and spinodal decomposition. We compute the decoherence time, the spinodal time, the size of the formed domains and the homogeneous classical fields within a single domain. (orig.)
Some problems with extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, E.J.
1989-01-01
The recently proposed extended inflation scenario is examined. Upper bounds on the Brans-Dicke parameter ω are obtained by requiring that the recovery from the supercooled regime be such that the presently observed Universe could have emerged. These bounds are well below the present-day experimental limits, implying that one must use models which have a potential to fix the present value of the Brans-Dicke-like scalar field. The implications for extended inflation in such models are discussed
Accidental inflation from Kaehler uplifting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Dayan, Ido; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Jing, Shenglin [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Canadian Inst. for Theoretical Astrophysics; Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
2013-09-15
We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Kaehler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ''left-rolling'' ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ''inflation by deflation'' (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running {alpha}<{proportional_to}0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r{proportional_to}10{sup -5}. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.
Performing a Launch Depressurization Test on an Inflatable Space Habitat
Martin, Patrick J.; Van Velzer, Paul
2014-01-01
In July, 2014 JPL's Environmental Test Laboratory successfully performed a launch depressurization test on an inflatable space habitat proposed to be installed on the International Space Station. The inflatable habitat is to be launched in the SpaceX Dragon Trunk. During the launch, the unpressurized Dragon Trunk will rapidly change from ground level atmospheric pressure to the vacuum of space. Since the inflatable habitat is tightly folded during launch with multiple layers of bladder, Kevlar fabric sections, and micro-meteoroid shielding, it was not possible to analyze or simulate how the residual air pockets would behave during the launch. If the inflatable habitat does not vent adequately and expands, it could rupture the payload bay of the launch vehicle. A launch depressurization test was chosen as the best way to qualify the inflatable habitat. When stowed, the inflatable habitat measured approximately 241 cm (95 inches) in diameter by 152 cm (60 inches) high and weighed close to 1361 kg (3,000 pounds). Two vacuum chambers connected by a large vacuum line were used to perform this test. The inflatable habitat was mounted in the smaller chamber, which was 396 cm (13 feet) in diameter and 1128 cm (37 feet) high. The larger chamber, which was 823 cm (27 feet) in diameter and 2,591 cm (85 feet) high, was rough pumped and used as a vacuum reservoir. A two stage axial type compressor and ten Stokes vacuum pumps were also used during the depressurization. Opening a butterfly valve on the vacuum line, at the smaller chamber, was manually controlled so that the smaller chamber's depressurization rate matched the launch pressure profile.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andre Zida
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Background Good decision-making requires gathering and using sufficient information. Several knowledge translation platforms have been introduced in Burkina Faso to support evidence-informed decision-making. One of these is the rapid response service for health. This platform aims to provide quick access for policy-makers in Burkina Faso to highquality research evidence about health systems. The purpose of this study is to describe the process and extent of the institutionalization of the rapid response service. Methods A qualitative case study design was used, drawing on interviews with policy-makers, together with documentary analysis. Previously used institutionalization frameworks were combined to guide the analysis. Results Burkina Faso’s rapid response service has largely reached the consolidation phase of the institutionalization process but not yet the final phase of maturity. The impetus for the project came from designated project leaders, who convinced policy-makers of the importance of the rapid response service, and obtained resources to run a pilot. During the expansion stage, additional policy-makers at national and sub-national levels began to use the service. Unit staff also tried to improve the way it was delivered, based on lessons learned during the pilot stage. The service has, however, stagnated at the consolidation stage, and not moved into the final phase of maturity. Conclusion The institutionalization process for the rapid response service in Burkina Faso has been fluid rather than linear, with some areas developing faster than others. The service has reached the consolidation stage, but now requires additional efforts to reach maturity.
Zida, Andre; Lavis, John N; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Kouyate, Bocar; Ouedraogo, Salimata
2017-04-10
Good decision-making requires gathering and using sufficient information. Several knowledge translation platforms have been introduced in Burkina Faso to support evidence-informed decision-making. One of these is the rapid response service for health. This platform aims to provide quick access for policy-makers in Burkina Faso to highquality research evidence about health systems. The purpose of this study is to describe the process and extent of the institutionalization of the rapid response service. A qualitative case study design was used, drawing on interviews with policy-makers, together with documentary analysis. Previously used institutionalization frameworks were combined to guide the analysis. Burkina Faso's rapid response service has largely reached the consolidation phase of the institutionalization process but not yet the final phase of maturity. The impetus for the project came from designated project leaders, who convinced policy-makers of the importance of the rapid response service, and obtained resources to run a pilot. During the expansion stage, additional policy-makers at national and sub-national levels began to use the service. Unit staff also tried to improve the way it was delivered, based on lessons learned during the pilot stage. The service has, however, stagnated at the consolidation stage, and not moved into the final phase of maturity. The institutionalization process for the rapid response service in Burkina Faso has been fluid rather than linear, with some areas developing faster than others. The service has reached the consolidation stage, but now requires additional efforts to reach maturity. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
The Relationship between Trade Openness and Inflation in Turkey
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Rana Atabay
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Both in Turkey and in the world in 1980 was a year of major structural transformations. Globalization has been accelerated in this time and countries have implemented some liberal policies for opening borders to foreign capital. Economies began to be led by export-oriented industrialization and liberalization policies after 1980 and these policies continue since then. Turkey is one of these countries that began liberalization after 1980. While decreasing trade barriers exerts a downward pressure on prices trade liberalization represents a structural break. In this article, I estimated the relation between inflation and trade openness and tested the negative openness versus inflation hypothesis for the years between 1980 and 2010 for Turkey by using OLS method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucchin, F.; Matarrese, S.
1985-01-01
The outstanding cosmological problems (horizon, flatness, . . .) which may be solved by the usual inflationary models may also find a solution in the frame of a ''generalized'' inflationary cosmology which is characterized by a suitable phase of accelerated expansion. The usual exponential growth of the scale factor S is just a particular case of such a general idea. Following this line of thought, we study in some detail a simple inflationary model characterized by a scale factor which grows like Sapprox.t/sup p/, with p a constant greater than one, which we call power-law inflation (PLI). Some properties of PLI have been analyzed, in different contexts, also by other authors. We consider the constraints on this model coming from the requirement of solving the horizon, flatness, ''good'' reheating, and ''convenient'' perturbation-spectrum problems. In order to obtain the perturbation spectrum when re-entering the horizon during the Friedmann phase, we extend to PLI the gauge-invariant approach developed by Bardeen et al. for the usual inflationary models. We find that the above constraints can be suitably satisfied. Finally, we outline possible connections between PLI and particular inflationary models which have recently been proposed
Hinterbichler, Kurt; Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin
2017-01-01
We investigate the symmetry structure of inflation in 2+1 dimensions. In particular, we show that the asymptotic symmetries of three-dimensional de Sitter space are in one-to-one correspondence with cosmological adiabatic modes for the curvature perturbation. In 2+1 dimensions, the asymptotic symmetry algebra is infinite-dimensional, given by two copies of the Virasoro algebra, and can be traced to the conformal symmetries of the two-dimensional spatial slices of de Sitter. We study the consequences of this infinite-dimensional symmetry for inflationary correlation functions, finding new soft theorems that hold only in 2+1 dimensions. Expanding the correlation functions as a power series in the soft momentum q, these relations constrain the traceless part of the tensorial coefficient at each order in q in terms of a lower-point function. As a check, we verify that the Script O(q2) identity is satisfied by inflationary correlation functions in the limit of small sound speed.
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Erkam Serkan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the linkage between inflation and inflation uncertainty in seven transitional economies (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine which experienced hyper-inflation until the mid-1990s. This linkage is investigated in the ARCH modeling framework by using both conventional Granger noncausality testing and the Holmes-Hutton approach, which has significant small- and large-sample power advantages over the former. The results support the Friedman- Ball hypothesis in Azerbaijan, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Cukierman-Meltzer hypothesis is favored in the Kyrgyz Republic and in the Russian Federation using a different model. In Azerbaijan, greater inflation uncertainty preceded lower rates of inflation, indicative of the strong monetary stabilization policies pursued in this economy.
Bilateral Coordination Strategy of Supply Chain with Bidirectional Option Contracts under Inflation
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Nana Wan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available As far as the price increase and the demand contraction caused by inflation are concerned, we establish a Stackelberg game model that incorporates bidirectional option contracts and the effect of inflation and derive the optimal ordering and production policies on a one-period two-stage supply chain composed of one supplier and one retailer. Through using the model of wholesale price contracts as the benchmark, we find that the introduction of bidirectional option contracts can benefit both the supplier and the retailer under inflation scenarios. Based on the conclusions drawn above, we design the bilateral coordination mechanism from the different perspective of two members involved and discuss how bidirectional option contracts should be set to achieve channel coordination under inflation scenarios. Through the sensitivity analysis, we illustrate the effect of inflation on the optimal decision variables and the optimal expected profits of the two parties with bidirectional option contracts.
Does political instability lead to higher and more volatile inflation?: A panel data analysis
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Aisen Ari
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Economists generally accept the proposition that high and volatile inflation rates generate inefficiencies that reduce society’s welfare. Furthermore studies have shown that inflation is harmful to economic growth. However determining the causes of the worldwide diversity of inflationary experiences is an important challenge not yet satisfactorily confronted by the profession. Based on a broad dataset covering over 100 countries for the period 1975-1997 and using dynamic and static panel data econometric techniques, this paper shows that a higher degree of political instability is associated with both higher inflation levels and volatility. Not only does this paper advance the political economy literature establishing a relationship between inflation moments and political instability, but it also has important policy implications regarding the optimal design of inflation stabilization programs and of the institutions favorable to price stability.
The effect of owning private long-term care insurance policies on out-of-pocket costs.
Rice, T; Thomas, K; Weissert, W
1991-01-01
This article examines the effect of owning long-term care insurance policies on the amount of out-of-pocket costs incurred by the elderly during their nursing home stays, and the importance of different policy features and restrictions. Data were drawn from the 1985 National Nursing Home Survey, and from copies of long-term care insurance policies collected from 11 leading companies during the spring and summer of 1988. The study results show a great deal of uncertainty concerning amounts the policies are likely to pay toward nursing home stays. This implies that the policies collected did not adequately fulfill one of the primary purposes of insurance: a reduction in risk and uncertainty. To examine whether rapid policy changes in recent years have made a difference, we assessed each of seven policy features and found that the two most important restrictions in long-term care insurance policies are prior hospitalization and level-of-care requirements. Recently, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) recommended that states prohibit the sale of policies containing these restrictions. Our findings confirm the wisdom of this recommendation. We did find, however, that two other policy restrictions--policy maximums and lack of inflation adjustment--are problematic. We recommend that the NAIC expand its model regulations to require that policy maximums be a minimum of four years, and that some form of inflation protection be incorporated into policy benefit structures. PMID:1899410
The effect of owning private long-term care insurance policies on out-of-pocket costs.
Rice, T; Thomas, K; Weissert, W
1991-02-01
This article examines the effect of owning long-term care insurance policies on the amount of out-of-pocket costs incurred by the elderly during their nursing home stays, and the importance of different policy features and restrictions. Data were drawn from the 1985 National Nursing Home Survey, and from copies of long-term care insurance policies collected from 11 leading companies during the spring and summer of 1988. The study results show a great deal of uncertainty concerning amounts the policies are likely to pay toward nursing home stays. This implies that the policies collected did not adequately fulfill one of the primary purposes of insurance: a reduction in risk and uncertainty. To examine whether rapid policy changes in recent years have made a difference, we assessed each of seven policy features and found that the two most important restrictions in long-term care insurance policies are prior hospitalization and level-of-care requirements. Recently, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) recommended that states prohibit the sale of policies containing these restrictions. Our findings confirm the wisdom of this recommendation. We did find, however, that two other policy restrictions--policy maximums and lack of inflation adjustment--are problematic. We recommend that the NAIC expand its model regulations to require that policy maximums be a minimum of four years, and that some form of inflation protection be incorporated into policy benefit structures.
Upgrading inflatable door seals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sykes, T.M.; Metcalfe, R.; Welch, L.A.; Josefowich, J.M.
1997-01-01
Inflatable door seals are used for airlocks in CANDU stations. They have been a significant source of unreliability and maintenance cost. A program is underway to improve their performance and reliability, backed by environmental qualification testing. Only commercial products and suppliers existed in 1993. For historical reasons, these 'existing products' did not use the most durable material then available. In hindsight, neither had they been adapted nor optimized to combat conditions often experienced in the plants-sagging doors, damaged sealing surfaces, and many thousands of openings and closings per year. Initial attempts to involve the two existing suppliers in efforts to upgrade these seals were unsuccessful. Another suitable supplier had therefore to be found, and a 'new,' COG-owned seal developed; this was completed in 1997. This paper summarizes its testing, along with that of the two existing products. Resistance to aging has been improved significantly. Testing has shown that an accident can be safely withstood after 10 years of service or 40,000 openings-closings, whichever comes first. AECL's Fluid Sealing Technology Unit (FSTU) has invested in the special moulds, test fixtures and other necessary tooling and documentation required to begin commercial manufacture of this new quality product. Accordingly, as with FSTU's other nuclear products such as pump seals, the long-term supply of door seals to CANDU plants is now protected from many external uncertainties-e.g., commercial products being discontinued, materials being changed, companies going out of business. Manufacturing to AECL's detailed specifications is being subcontracted to the new supplier. FSTU is performing the quality surveillance, inspection, testing, and customer service activities concomitant with direct responsibility for supply to the plants. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira, Ricardo Z.; Notari, Alessio, E-mail: rferreira@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: notari@ub.edu [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain)
2017-09-01
We analyze the dynamics of inflationary models with a coupling of the inflaton φ to gauge fields of the form φ F F-tilde / f , as in the case of axions. It is known that this leads to an instability, with exponential amplification of gauge fields, controlled by the parameter ξ= φ-dot /(2 fH ), which can strongly affect the generation of cosmological perturbations and even the background. We show that scattering rates involving gauge fields can become larger than the expansion rate H , due to the very large occupation numbers, and create a thermal bath of particles of temperature T during inflation. In the thermal regime, energy is transferred to smaller scales, radically modifying the predictions of this scenario. We thus argue that previous constraints on ξ are alleviated. If the gauge fields have Standard Model interactions, which naturally provides reheating, they thermalize already at ξ∼>2.9, before perturbativity constraints and also before backreaction takes place. In absence of SM interactions (i.e. for a dark photon), we find that gauge fields and inflaton perturbations thermalize if ξ∼>3.4; however, observations require ξ∼>6, which is above the perturbativity and backreaction bounds and so a dedicated study is required. After thermalization, though, the system should evolve non-trivially due to the competition between the instability and the gauge field thermal mass. If the thermal mass and the instabilities equilibrate, we expect an equilibrium temperature of T {sub eq} ≅ ξ H / g-bar where g-bar is the effective gauge coupling. Finally, we estimate the spectrum of perturbations if φ is thermal and find that the tensor to scalar ratio is suppressed by H /(2 T ), if tensors do not thermalize.
Chung, Roger Y; Kim, Jean H; Yip, Benjamin H; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wong, Martin C S; Chung, Vincent C H; Griffiths, Sian M
2014-01-01
To delineate the temporal dynamics between alcohol tax policy changes and related health outcomes, this study examined the age, period and cohort effects on alcohol-related mortality in relation to changes in government alcohol policies. We used the age-period-cohort modeling to analyze retrospective mortality data over 30 years from 1981 to 2010 in a rapidly developed Chinese population, Hong Kong. Alcohol-related mortality from 1) chronic causes, 2) acute causes, 3) all (chronic+acute) causes and 4) causes 100% attributable to alcohol, as defined according to the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were examined. The findings illustrated the possible effects of alcohol policy changes on adult alcohol-related mortality. The age-standardized mortality trends were generally in decline, with fluctuations that coincided with the timing of the alcohol policy changes. The age-period-cohort analyses demonstrated possible temporal dynamics between alcohol policy changes and alcohol-related mortality through the period effects, and also generational impact of alcohol policy changes through the cohort effects. Based on the illustrated association between the dramatic increase of alcohol imports in the mid-1980s and the increased alcohol-related mortality risk of the generations coming of age of majority at that time, attention should be paid to generations coming of drinking age during the 2007-2008 duty reduction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roger Y Chung
Full Text Available To delineate the temporal dynamics between alcohol tax policy changes and related health outcomes, this study examined the age, period and cohort effects on alcohol-related mortality in relation to changes in government alcohol policies. We used the age-period-cohort modeling to analyze retrospective mortality data over 30 years from 1981 to 2010 in a rapidly developed Chinese population, Hong Kong. Alcohol-related mortality from 1 chronic causes, 2 acute causes, 3 all (chronic+acute causes and 4 causes 100% attributable to alcohol, as defined according to the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were examined. The findings illustrated the possible effects of alcohol policy changes on adult alcohol-related mortality. The age-standardized mortality trends were generally in decline, with fluctuations that coincided with the timing of the alcohol policy changes. The age-period-cohort analyses demonstrated possible temporal dynamics between alcohol policy changes and alcohol-related mortality through the period effects, and also generational impact of alcohol policy changes through the cohort effects. Based on the illustrated association between the dramatic increase of alcohol imports in the mid-1980s and the increased alcohol-related mortality risk of the generations coming of age of majority at that time, attention should be paid to generations coming of drinking age during the 2007-2008 duty reduction.
Chung, Roger Y.; Kim, Jean H.; Yip, Benjamin H.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Wong, Martin C. S.; Chung, Vincent C. H.; Griffiths, Sian M.
2014-01-01
To delineate the temporal dynamics between alcohol tax policy changes and related health outcomes, this study examined the age, period and cohort effects on alcohol-related mortality in relation to changes in government alcohol policies. We used the age-period-cohort modeling to analyze retrospective mortality data over 30 years from 1981 to 2010 in a rapidly developed Chinese population, Hong Kong. Alcohol-related mortality from 1) chronic causes, 2) acute causes, 3) all (chronic+acute) causes and 4) causes 100% attributable to alcohol, as defined according to the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were examined. The findings illustrated the possible effects of alcohol policy changes on adult alcohol-related mortality. The age-standardized mortality trends were generally in decline, with fluctuations that coincided with the timing of the alcohol policy changes. The age-period-cohort analyses demonstrated possible temporal dynamics between alcohol policy changes and alcohol-related mortality through the period effects, and also generational impact of alcohol policy changes through the cohort effects. Based on the illustrated association between the dramatic increase of alcohol imports in the mid-1980s and the increased alcohol-related mortality risk of the generations coming of age of majority at that time, attention should be paid to generations coming of drinking age during the 2007–2008 duty reduction. PMID:25153324
Curvaton reheating: An application to braneworld inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liddle, Andrew R.; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo
2003-01-01
The curvaton was introduced recently as a distinct inflationary mechanism for generating adiabatic density perturbations. Implicit in that scenario is that the curvaton offers a new mechanism for reheating after inflation, as it is a form of energy density not diluted by the inflationary expansion. We consider curvaton reheating in the context of a braneworld inflation model, steep inflation, which features a novel use of the braneworld to give a new mechanism for ending inflation. The original steep inflation model featured reheating by gravitational particle production, but the inefficiency of that process causes observational difficulties. We demonstrate here that the phenomenology of steep inflation is much improved by curvaton reheating
The scale of inflation in the landscape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedro, F.G.; Westphal, A.
2013-03-01
We determine the frequency of regions of small-field inflation in the Wigner landscape as an approximation to random supergravities/type IIB flux compactifications. We show that small-field inflation occurs exponentially more often than large-field inflation The power of primordial gravitational waves from inflation is generically tied to the scale of inflation. For small-field models this is below observational reach. However, we find small-field inflation to be dominated by the highest inflationary energy scales compatible with a sub-Planckian field range. Hence, we expect a typical tensor-to-scalar ratio r∝O(10 -3 ) currently undetectable in upcoming CMB measurements.
Inflation in a closed universe
Ratra, Bharat
2017-11-01
To derive a power spectrum for energy density inhomogeneities in a closed universe, we study a spatially-closed inflation-modified hot big bang model whose evolutionary history is divided into three epochs: an early slowly-rolling scalar field inflation epoch and the usual radiation and nonrelativistic matter epochs. (For our purposes it is not necessary to consider a final dark energy dominated epoch.) We derive general solutions of the relativistic linear perturbation equations in each epoch. The constants of integration in the inflation epoch solutions are determined from de Sitter invariant quantum-mechanical initial conditions in the Lorentzian section of the inflating closed de Sitter space derived from Hawking's prescription that the quantum state of the universe only include field configurations that are regular on the Euclidean (de Sitter) sphere section. The constants of integration in the radiation and matter epoch solutions are determined from joining conditions derived by requiring that the linear perturbation equations remain nonsingular at the transitions between epochs. The matter epoch power spectrum of gauge-invariant energy density inhomogeneities is not a power law, and depends on spatial wave number in the way expected for a generalization to the closed model of the standard flat-space scale-invariant power spectrum. The power spectrum we derive appears to differ from a number of other closed inflation model power spectra derived assuming different (presumably non de Sitter invariant) initial conditions.
Initial conditions for noncanonical inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franche, Paul; Underwood, Bret; Wissanji, Alisha; Gwyn, Rhiannon
2010-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of homogeneous phase space for single-field models of inflation. Inflationary trajectories are formally attractors in phase space, but since in practice not all initial conditions lead to them, some degree of fine-tuning is required for successful inflation. We explore how the dynamics of noncanonical inflation, which is driven by the potential energy but has additional kinetic terms that are powers of the kinetic energy, can play a role in ameliorating the initial-conditions fine-tuning problem. We present an analysis of inflationary phase space based on the dynamical behavior of the scalar field. This allows us to construct the flow of trajectories, finding that they generically decay towards the inflationary solution at a steeper angle for noncanonical kinetic terms, in comparison to canonical kinetic terms, so that a larger fraction of the initial-conditions space leads to inflation. Thus, noncanonical kinetic terms can be important for removing the initial conditions fine-tuning problem of some small-field inflation models.
Sustained inflation during neonatal resuscitation.
Keszler, Martin
2015-04-01
Sustained inflation performed shortly after birth to help clear lung fluid and establish functional residual capacity in preterm infants is gaining popularity, but definitive evidence for its effectiveness is lacking. Although there is a sound physiologic basis for this approach, and much preclinical experimental evidence of effectiveness, the results of recent animal studies and clinical trials have been inconsistent. The most recent data from a multicenter randomized trial suggest a modest benefit of sustained inflation in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. However, the impact may be more modest than earlier retrospective cohort comparisons suggested. The trend toward more airleak and a higher rate of intraventricular hemorrhage is worrisome. Sustained inflation may be ineffective unless some spontaneous respiratory effort is present. Several on-going trials should further clarify the putative benefits of sustained inflation. Delivery room sustained inflation is an attractive concept that holds much promise, but widespread clinical application should await definitive evidence from on-going clinical trials.
Project Evaluation under Inflation Condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hindy, M.; El Missiry, P.
2004-01-01
This paper analyzes the role of inflation in capital budgeting and attempts to introduce solutions to such implication in order to make the appropriate decision for the firm' stockholders under these circumstances. Inflation leads to biasness in evaluating the investment projects, due to its impact on the cash flow, the discount rate, the initial investment cost, and the depreciation. This paper has shown that the capital budgeting process is not neutral with respect to inflation, as the output prices will raise as well as the operating and capital expenditures will also be adjusted due to inflation. In addition, it has shown that it is reasonable to expect that the cost of capital will increase as a result of an increase in the real interest rate, the inflation premium, and the cost of equity. Of critical importance is the basis used in calculating the annual depreciation which may lead to the transfer of wealth from the investment projects to the government and will result in underestimating the net present value of the investment projects, if these depreciation charges is calculated based upon the historical values and not on the replacement cost of the fixed assets
GRADE INFLATION: An Issue for Higher Education?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donald L. CARUTH,
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: Ø student evaluations of professors, Ø student teacher dynamics, Ø merit-based financial aid, and Ø student expectations. Ø Among the reasons for higher student grades on the part of professors are: Ø fear of student evaluations, Ø avoidance of bad relations with students, Ø below average teaching skills,Ø lack of experience, Ø a lack of clearly stated objectives, and Ø job security. While grades are not a perfect answer to assessing student performance in a course they are still the best answer we have for evaluating students. In order to evaluate students more accurately, universities must identify the problems in grading and grading practices. Once this is accomplished new practices can be designed and policies implemented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, Andrew J.S.; Avelino, Pedro P.
2010-01-01
If you fall into a real astronomical black hole (choosing a supermassive black hole, to make sure that the tidal forces do not get you first), then you will probably meet your fate not at a central singularity, but rather in the exponentially growing, relativistic counter-streaming instability at the inner horizon first pointed out by Poisson and Israel (1990), who called it mass inflation. The chief purpose of this paper is to present a clear exposition of the physical cause and consequence of inflation in spherical, charged black holes. Inflation acts like a particle accelerator in that it accelerates cold ingoing and outgoing streams through each other to prodigiously high energies. Inflation feeds on itself: the acceleration is powered by the gravity produced by the streaming energy. The paper: (1) uses physical arguments to develop simple approximations that follow the evolution of inflation from ignition, through inflation itself, to collapse; (2) confirms that the simple approximations capture accurately the results of fully nonlinear one- and two-fluid self-similar models; (3) demonstrates that, counter-intuitively, the smaller the accretion rate, the more rapidly inflation exponentiates; (4) shows that in single perfect fluid models, inflation occurs only if the sound speed equals the speed of light, supporting the physical idea that inflation in single fluids is driven by relativistic counter-streaming of waves; (5) shows that what happens during inflation up to the Planck curvature depends not on the distant past or future, but rather on events happening only a few hundred black hole crossing times into the past or future; (6) shows that, if quantum gravity does not intervene, then the generic end result of inflation is not a general relativistic null singularity, but rather a spacelike singularity at zero radius.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F.A. LUTZ
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War the world economy has, apart from brief interludes of price stability, been in the grip of continuous inflation. No country seems to have managed to escape this world inflation entirely, although a few have made the very greatest efforts to do so. The present article considers why these efforts were in vain and if there really is no defence against “imported” world inflation. The author analyses the four types of policy for avoiding inflation - restrictive monetary and fiscal policy, export of capital, periodic changes in exchange parities and flexible exchange rates. The analysis suggests that the first two are least recommendable in the face of chronic balance of payments surpluses because they do not eradicate the surplus itself and can be sustained for only a relatively short period of time. The latter two do eliminate the external surplus, however, in the face of continuous world inflation, periodic revaluation does so only temporarily while flexible rates represent a permanent solution. The author concludes that world inflation can be checked only if there is an international monetary order which keeps reserves so scarce that no country feels able to allow inflation to proceed.JEL: E31, E42, E52, E62
London equation for monodromy inflation
Kaloper, Nemanja; Lawrence, Albion
2017-03-01
We focus on the massive gauge theory formulation of axion monodromy inflation. We argue that a gauge symmetry hidden in these models is the key mechanism protecting inflation from dangerous field theory and quantum gravity corrections. The effective theory of large-field inflation is dual to a massive U (1 ) 4-form gauge theory, which is similar to a massive gauge theory description of superconductivity. The gauge theory explicitly realizes the old Julia-Toulouse proposal for a low-energy description of a gauge theory in a defect condensate. While we work mostly with the example of quadratic axion potential induced by flux monodromy, we discuss how other types of potentials can arise from the inclusion of gauge-invariant corrections to the theory.
Low-scale Quintessential Inflation
Giovannini, Massimo
2003-01-01
In quintessential inflationary model, the same master field that drives inflation becomes, later on, the dynamical source of the (present) accelerated expansion. Quintessential inflationary models require a curvature scale at the end of inflation around $10^{-6}M_{\\rm P}$ in order to explain the large scale fluctuations observed in the microwave sky. If the curvature scale at the end of inflation is much smaller than $10^{-6}M_{\\rm P}$, the large scale adiabatic mode may be produced thanks to the relaxation of a scalar degree of freedom, which will be generically denoted, according to the recent terminology, as the curvaton field. The production of the adiabatic mode is analysed in detail in the case of the minimal quintessential inflationary model originally proposed by Peebles and Vilenkin.
Inflatable Antennas Support Emergency Communication
2010-01-01
Glenn Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to ManTech SRS Technologies, of Newport Beach, California, to develop thin film inflatable antennas for space communication. With additional funding, SRS modified the concepts for ground-based inflatable antennas. GATR (Ground Antenna Transmit and Receive) Technologies, of Huntsville, Alabama, licensed the technology and refined it to become the world s first inflatable antenna certified by the Federal Communications Commission. Capable of providing Internet access, voice over Internet protocol, e-mail, video teleconferencing, broadcast television, and other high-bandwidth communications, the systems have provided communication during the wildfires in California, after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi, and following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbón, J.L.F.; Casas, J.A.; Elias-Miró, J.; Espinosa, J.R.
2015-01-01
We discuss a simple unitarization of Higgs inflation that is genuinely weakly coupled up to Planckian energies. A large non-minimal coupling between the Higgs and the Ricci curvature is induced dynamically at intermediate energies, as a simple ratio of mass scales. Despite not being dominated by the Higgs field, inflationary dynamics simulates the ‘Higgs inflation’ one would get by blind extrapolation of the low-energy effective Lagrangian, at least qualitatively. Hence, Higgs inflation arises as an approximate ‘mirage’ picture of the true dynamics. We further speculate on the generality of this phenomenon and show that, if Higgs-inflation arises as an effective description, the details of the UV completion are necessary to extract robust quantitative predictions.
Chameleon field dynamics during inflation
Saba, Nasim; Farhoudi, Mehrdad
By studying the chameleon model during inflation, we investigate whether it can be a successful inflationary model, wherein we employ the common typical potential usually used in the literature. Thus, in the context of the slow-roll approximations, we obtain the e-folding number for the model to verify the ability of resolving the problems of standard big bang cosmology. Meanwhile, we apply the constraints on the form of the chosen potential and also on the equation of state parameter coupled to the scalar field. However, the results of the present analysis show that there is not much chance of having the chameleonic inflation. Hence, we suggest that if through some mechanism the chameleon model can be reduced to the standard inflationary model, then it may cover the whole era of the universe from the inflation up to the late time.
Inflation from Asymptotically Safe Theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund; Sannino, Francesco; Svendsen, Ole
2015-01-01
We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, differently from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because of the exi......We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, differently from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because...... for inflation. In the minimal coupling case the theory requires large non-perturbative quantum corrections to the quantum potential for the theory to agree with data, while in the non- minimal coupling case the perturbative regime in the couplings of the theory is preferred. Requiring the theory to reproduce...
A structural VAR approach to core inflation in Canada
Martel, Sylvain
2008-01-01
The author constructs a measure of core inflation using a structural vector autoregression containing oil-price growth, output growth, and inflation. This macro-founded measure of inflation forecasts total inflation at least as well as other, atheoretical measures.
New consensus macroeconomics and inflation targeting: Keynesian critique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philip Arestis
2008-12-01
Full Text Available A number of countries have adopted Inflation Targeting (IT since the early 1990s in an attempt to reduce inflation to low levels. Since then, IT has been praised by most literature as a superior framework of monetary policy. We suggest that IT is a major policy prescription closely associated with the New Consensus Macroeconomics (NCM. This paper concentrates mainly on the IT aspects of the NCM. We address the theoretical foundations of IT. This is followed by an assessment of its theoretical foundations, where a number of aspects are discussed. We then turn our attention to an assessment of the empirical work on IT, where we distinguish the work that has been done utilising structural macroeconomic models, and work based in single equation techniques. The IT theoretical framework and the available empirical evidence do not appear to support the views of the proponents.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.; Srednicki, M.
1985-01-01
We present a simple model for primordial inflation in the context of SU(N, 1) no-scale n=1 supergravity. Because the model at zero temperature very closely resembles global supersymmetry, minima with negative cosmological constants do not exist, and it is easy to have a long inflationary epoch while keeping density perturbations of the right magnitude and satisfying other cosmological constraints. We pay specific attention to satisfying the thermal constraint for inflation, i.e. the existence of a high temperature minimum at the origin. (orig.)
Inflation with light Weyl ghost
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tokareva Anna
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Inflationary perturbations are considered in a renormalizable but non-unitary theory of gravity with the additional Weyl term. We obtained that ghost degrees of freedom do not spoil the inflation and the scalar perturbation amplitude at the linear level even in a case of the ghost with mass smaller than Hubble parameter at inflation. The ghost impact to the observables is also estimated to be negligible for the range of masses allowed by the experiment. The non-linear level of the theory and its possible application are also discussed.
76 FR 60405 - Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices
2011-09-29
...' usage of inflatable PFDs during the past 15 years, as well as advances in inflatable PFD technology, to... Determining Gas Permeability Characteristics of Plastic Film and Sheeting), because those standards, or...
Ten years of inflation targeting in Serbia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bungin Sanja
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Monetary strategy of inflation targeting in Serbia was unofficially introduced in September 2006. The National Bank of Serbia has faced the numerous challenges that are typical for transition countries which apply the same strategy. At the start of inflation targeting, inflation was reduced to a single-digit number, which characterises most other countries. However, the volatility of inflation during the implementation of the strategy has been extremely high, mainly caused by the changes of processed and unprocessed food prices. Moreover, for a country with a high degree of euroisation, such as Serbia, the exchange rate plays an important role in the movement of inflation. Controlling the trends of the exchange rate in order to maintain the stability of inflation is contrary to the assumptions of inflation targeting. However, it can be concluded that despite all the obstacles faced by the NBS, inflation targeting is the optimal choice of a monetary strategy.
Inflation and the theory of cosmological perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riotto, A.
2003-01-01
These lectures provide a pedagogical introduction to inflation and the theory of cosmological perturbations generated during inflation which are thought to be the origin of structure in the universe. (author)
Liu, H; Cai, L P; Xue, H; Zhao, Y; Wu, D; Zhang, D P; Yin, W Y; Sun, J P
2016-10-06
Currently, a growing number of community-based organizations are providing rapid HIV testing service in various forms, some people with specific needs also purchase HIV rapid test papers through online sales channels, those imply that the demand of HIV self-test is in increasing year by year.In this paper, aims to understand the current situation of HIV rapid test led by CBOs and the approach, strategies and results of social marketing by means of expert interviews and site visits. Hope to illustrate the current situation, and make recommendations for future work.
Air Tight: Building Inflatables/Inflatable Construction: Planning and Details
Kennedy, Kriss J.
2016-01-01
A design-build seminar consisting of students from Physics, Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Robotic, Material Science, Art, and Architecture who will work together on a deployable "closed-loop" inflatable greenhouse for Mars in theory, and an Earth analogue physical mockup on campus.
Inflation targeting and product market deregulation
Moretti, Laura
2012-01-01
I evaluate the effect of inflation targeting on inflation and how it interacts with product market deregulation during the disinflationary process in the 1990s. Using a sample of 21 OECD countries, I show that, after controlling for product market deregulation, the effect of inflation targeting is quantitatively important and statistically significant. Moreover, product market deregulation also matters in particular in countries that adopted an inflation targeting regime. I propose a New Keyn...
What is the Globalisation of Inflation?
Altansukh, Gantungalag; Becker, Ralf; Bratsiotis, George J.; Osborn, Denise R.
2017-01-01
This paper studies the globalisation of CPI inflation by analysing core, energy and food components, testing for structural breaks in the relationships between domestic inflation and a corresponding country-specific foreign inflation series at the monthly frequency for OECD countries.The iterative methodology employed separates coefficient and variance breaks, while also taking account of outliers. We find that the overall pattern of globalisation in aggregate inflation is largely driven by c...
12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.
2010-01-01
... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within OFHEO's jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as...
12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.
2010-01-01
... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within the OCC's jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b) The...
Inflation Dynamics in the Dominican Republic
Oral Williams; Olumuyiwa S Adedeji
2004-01-01
This paper investigates the determinants of inflation in the Dominican Republic during 1991-2002, a period characterized by remarkable macroeconomic stability and growth. By developing a parsimonious and empirically stable error-correction model using quarterly observations, the paper finds that inflation is explained by changes in monetary aggregates, real output, foreign inflation, and the exchange rate.
Inflation and Failure of Polymeric Membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Neergaard, Jesper
2000-01-01
We consider the inflation of an axisymmetric polymeric membrane.Some membranes composed of viscoelastic materialsdescribed by a Mooney-Rivlin model show a monotone increasingpressure during inflation. These materialsdevelop a homogeneous membrane thickness in agreement with the Considere...... is found to stabilize the inflated polymer membrane....
Consumers' Attitudes and Their Inflation Expectations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ehrmann, Michael; Pfajfar, Damjan; Santoro, Emiliano
2017-01-01
This paper studies consumers’ inflation expectations using micro-level data from the University of Michigan’s Surveys of Consumers. It shows that beyond the well-established socioeconomic factors such as income, age, or gender, inflation expectations are also related to respondents’ financial......, their bias shrinks by more than that of the average household in response to increasing media reporting about inflation....
No-scale SUGRA SO (10) Inflation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-10-09
Oct 9, 2017 ... We show that a renormalizable theory based on gauge group S O ( 10 ) and Higgs system 10 ⊕ 210 ⊕ 126 ⊕ 126 ¯ with no scale supergravity can lead to a Starobinsky kind of potential for inflation. Successful inflation is possible in cases where the potential during inflation corresponds to S U ( 3 ) C × S U ...
Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation
Oleinik, Anton
2009-01-01
Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…
2011-12-22
... Cost Accounting Standards: Change to the CAS Applicability Threshold for the Inflation Adjustment to... Federal Procurement Policy, Cost Accounting Standards Board. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board (Board), has adopted, without...
Inflation as de Sitter instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cadoni, Mariano; Franzin, Edgardo [Universita di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, Dipartimento di Fisica, Monserrato (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Monserrato (Italy); Mignemi, Salvatore [INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Monserrato (Italy); Universita di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Cagliari (Italy)
2016-09-15
We consider cosmological inflation generated by a scalar field slowly rolling off from a de Sitter maximum of its potential. The models belong to the class of hilltop models and represent the most general model of this kind in which the scalar potential can be written as the sum of two exponentials. The minimally coupled Einstein-scalar gravity theory obtained in this way is the cosmological version of a two-scale generalization of known holographic models, allowing for solitonic solutions interpolating between an AdS spacetime in the infrared and scaling solutions in the ultraviolet. We then investigate cosmological inflation in the slow-roll approximation. Our model reproduces correctly, for a wide range of its parameters, the most recent experimental data for the power spectrum of primordial perturbations. Moreover, it predicts inflation at energy scales of four to five orders of magnitude below the Planck scale. At the onset of inflation, the mass of the tachyonic excitation, i.e. of the inflaton, turns out to be seven to eight orders of magnitude smaller than the Planck mass. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enqvist, Kari [Physics Department, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki Institute of Physics, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Koivisto, Tomi [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands); Rigopoulos, Gerasimos, E-mail: kari.enqvist@helsinki.fi, E-mail: T.S.Koivisto@astro.uio.no, E-mail: rigopoulos@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)
2012-05-01
We consider inflation within the context of what is arguably the simplest non-metric extension of Einstein gravity. There non-metricity is described by a single graviscalar field with a non-minimal kinetic coupling to the inflaton field Ψ, parameterized by a single parameter γ. There is a simple equivalent description in terms of a massless field and an inflaton with a modified potential. We discuss the implications of non-metricity for chaotic inflation and find that it significantly alters the inflaton dynamics for field values Ψ∼>M{sub P}/γ, dramatically changing the qualitative behaviour in this regime. In the equivalent single-field description this is described as a cuspy potential that forms of barrier beyond which the inflation becomes a ghost field. This imposes an upper bound on the possible number of e-folds. For the simplest chaotic inflation models, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio receive small corrections dependent on the non-metricity parameter. We also argue that significant post-inflationary non-metricity may be generated.
Davis Meeting on Cosmic Inflation
Kaloper, N; Knox, L; Cosmic Inflation
2003-01-01
The Davis Meeting on Cosmic Inflation marked an exciting milestone on the road to precision cosmology. This is the index page for the proceedings of the conference. Individual proceedings contributions, when they appear on this archive, are linked from this page.
The Implications of Grade Inflation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven
2011-01-01
The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral...
How are inflation targets set?
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horváth, R.; Matějů, Jakub
-, č. 426 (2010), s. 1-35 ISSN 1211-3298 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) SVV-2010-261801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : inflation targeting * central bank * credibility Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp426.pdf
Topological phases of eternal inflation
Sekino, Yasuhiro; Shenker, Stephen; Susskind, Leonard
2010-06-01
“Eternal inflation” is a term that describes a number of different phenomena that have been classified by Winitzki. According to Winitzki’s classification, these phases can be characterized by the topology of the percolating structures in the inflating, “white,” region. In this paper we discuss these phases, the transitions between them, and the way they are seen by a “Census Taker,” a hypothetical observer inside the noninflating, “black,” region. We discuss three phases that we call “black island,” “tubular,” and “white island.” The black island phase is familiar, composed of rare Coleman De Luccia bubble nucleation events. The Census Taker sees an essentially spherical boundary, described by the conformal field theory of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker/conformal field theory (FRW/CFT) correspondence. In the tubular phase the Census Taker sees a complicated infinite genus structure composed of arbitrarily long tubes. The white island phase is even more mysterious from the black side. Surprisingly, when viewed from the noninflating region this phase resembles a closed, positively curved universe that eventually collapses to a singularity. Nevertheless, pockets of eternal inflation continue forever. In addition, there is an “aborted” phase in which no eternal inflation takes place. Rigorous results of Chayes, Chayes, Grannan, and Swindle establish the existence of all of these phases, separated by first order transitions, in Mandelbrot percolation, a simple model of eternal inflation.
Inflation,Inflation Variability, and Output Performance. Venezuela 1951-2002
Olivo, Victor
2014-01-01
This paper explores the relationship between the level of inflation, inflation variability, and output performance in the Venezuelan economy for the period 1951-2002. The paper examines the mechanism through which higher inflation translates into lower non-oil real GDP growth. We find empirical evidence that supports Friedman's (1977) contention that higher inflation produces more inflation volatility /uncertainty that leads to relative price variability that in turn, is harmful for the prope...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nilsson, Maans; Nilsson, Lars J.; Ericsson, Karin
2008-10-15
The EU has assumed ambitious targets and strategies for the promotion of renewable sources of energy (RES) binding to all its member states. This report sets out to examine the proposed EU-wide policy instrument designed to help achieve the targets on renewable electricity and heat - the trading of Guarantees of Origin (GO). It analyses the fate of the GO trading proposal in the European policy-making machinery during 2007 and 2008. It first discusses its origins, key components and points of contention, and then examines key factors behind the policy development leading first to its development and subsequently to its abandonment in 2008. Addressing these factors, the report explores first the near-term policy-making process before and after the proposal on GO trading was tabled in January 2008, focusing on processes in the European bureaucracy and how they were influenced by different interest groups and member state governments. It then takes a step back and looks at how competing policy frames over time have shaped the GO instrument debate. Results show how a strong internal market frame acted as a primary driving force in the Commission throughout the 2000s to promote the GO trading instrument. The subsequent collapse of the GO trading proposal can be largely attributed to a) the lack of a strong lobby in favour of GO, b) the accumulated experience with and institutionalisation of national RES support policy, and c) growing general political concerns for supply security, innovation and competitiveness. In the end, the fall of the GO trading instrument is indicative of how the underlying political battle line between advocates of the European internal market and guardians of national interests has moved in favour of the latter in recent years. (author). refs
Liang, Ying; Lu, Wanyi; Wu, Wei
2014-01-15
on the HRQOL of landless farmers. As regards social security policies, the land acquisition compensation policy and the employment security policy produce the greatest and weakest influences on the HRQOL of landless farmers, respectively. The rapid urbanization in China has deprived many farmers of their lands and of the benefits of urbanization. These farmers are often in a disadvantaged position in the land acquisition process. Statistic analysis in this paper shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. The implementation and improvement of social security policies is very important for the long-term and sustainable development of these landless farmers.
SUGRA chaotic inflation and moduli stabilisation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, S.C.
2008-01-01
Chaotic inflation predicts a large gravitational wave signal which can be tested by the upcoming Planck satellite. We discuss a SUGRA implementation of chaotic inflation in the presence of moduli fields, and find that inflation does not work with a generic KKLT moduli stabilisation potential. A viable model can be constructed with a fine-tuned moduli sector, but only for a very specific choice of Kaeahler potential. Our analysis also shows that inflation models satisfying ∂ i W inf =0 for all inflation sector fields φ i can be combined successfully with a fine-tuned moduli sector. (orig.)
Malard, J. J.; Baig, A. I.; Hassanzadeh, E.; Adamowski, J. F.; Tuy, H.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.
2016-12-01
Model coupling is a crucial step to constructing many environmental models, as it allows for the integration of independently-built models representing different system sub-components to simulate the entire system. Model coupling has been of particular interest in combining socioeconomic System Dynamics (SD) models, whose visual interface facilitates their direct use by stakeholders, with more complex physically-based models of the environmental system. However, model coupling processes are often cumbersome and inflexible and require extensive programming knowledge, limiting their potential for continued use by stakeholders in policy design and analysis after the end of the project. Here, we present Tinamit, a flexible Python-based model-coupling software tool whose easy-to-use API and graphical user interface make the coupling of stakeholder-built SD models with physically-based models rapid, flexible and simple for users with limited to no coding knowledge. The flexibility of the system allows end users to modify the SD model as well as the linking variables between the two models themselves with no need for recoding. We use Tinamit to couple a stakeholder-built socioeconomic model of soil salinization in Pakistan with the physically-based soil salinity model SAHYSMOD. As climate extremes increase in the region, policies to slow or reverse soil salinity buildup are increasing in urgency and must take both socioeconomic and biophysical spheres into account. We use the Tinamit-coupled model to test the impact of integrated policy options (economic and regulatory incentives to farmers) on soil salinity in the region in the face of future climate change scenarios. Use of the Tinamit model allowed for rapid and flexible coupling of the two models, allowing the end user to continue making model structure and policy changes. In addition, the clear interface (in contrast to most model coupling code) makes the final coupled model easily accessible to stakeholders with
The gravitino problem in supersymmetric warm inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sánchez, Juan C. Bueno; Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Kohri, Kazunori
2011-01-01
The warm inflation paradigm considers the continuous production of radiation during inflation due to dissipative effects. In its strong dissipation limit, warm inflation gives way to a radiation dominated Universe. High scale inflation then yields a high reheating temperature, which then poses a severe gravitino overproduction problem for the supersymmetric realisations of warm inflation. In this paper we show that, in a certain class of supersymmetric models, the dissipative dynamics of the inflaton is such that the field can avoid its complete decay after inflation. In some cases, the residual energy density stored in the inflaton field oscillations may come to dominate over the radiation bath at a later epoch. If the inflaton field finally decays much later than the onset of this matter dominated phase, the entropy produced from its decay may be sufficient to counteract the excess of gravitinos produced during the last stages of warm inflation
Ambiguities of fighting inflation: structure of alcohol fuel prices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nastari, Plinio Mario
1993-01-01
The control of consumer prices of alcohol fuel and gasoline has been used by the Brazilian government as a tool for fighting inflation. The production of alcohol fuel from biomass and the use of its by-products is one of the few strategies that will permit economic development and environmental preservation at the same time. While the pricing policy continues to determine the energy policy, it will be almost impossible to promote the production and the use of alcohol fuel in the country
Inflation, Reionization, and All That: The Primordial Inflation Explorer
Kogut, Alan J.
2012-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.
THE HYBRID APPROACH OF INFLATION TARGETING: WHAT OPPORTUNITIES FOR AN EMERGING ECONOMY LIKE TUNISIA?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hella Guerchi Mehri
2016-07-01
Full Text Available After economic crises happening in many emerging countries, flexible exchange rates became a required theoretical condition helping to target inflation. Many countries stopped using exchange rate as an anchor for monetary policy and started using inflation targeting framework. In emerging countries, monetary authorities work to stabilize the exchange rate because of their “fear of floating”. They are against high volatility of interest rate allowing speculative attacks and causing free fluctuations of their national currency. To avoid uncontrolled market movements, they have to choose between active and public exchange rate management and tight inflation targeting. In the same vein, Central bank of Tunisia follows financial measures linked closely to inflation without focusing especially on monetary aggregates in order to study a possible transition to targeting inflation strategy. It uses a simple Taylor rule where interest rates adjustment are guided by the anticipated inflation deviation from its original target and also by the gap between observed and potential GDP.As an emerging economy with a high degree of financial vulnerability, and facing different shocks, Tunisia should adopt a hybrid rule of inflation targeting in an open economy. This hybrid rule explicitly takes into account the evolution of the exchange rate in the reaction function of the central bank.
An Autoregressive and Distributed Lag Model Approach to Inflation in Nigeria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chimere Okechukwu Iheonu
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This study scrutinized the precursors of Inflation in Nigeria between the periods 1980 to 2014. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test was engaged to test for stationarity of the variables while the Autoregressive and Distributed lag (ARDL Model was applied to capture the affiliation between inflation and selected macroeconomic variables. Our findings revealed that there exists a long run relationship between Inflation, money supply, interest rate, GDP per capita and exchange rate in Nigeria while in the short run, money supply has a significant positive one period lag effect on Inflation and Interest Rate also has a significant negative one period lag influence on Inflation in Nigeria. Recommendations are that in the short run, monetary policies should be geared towards the control of money supply and interest rate in Nigeria in other to regulate Inflation and also, the Nigerian economy can afford to vary any of human capital development or technological advancement to boost productivity without causing inflation as GDP per capita proved insignificant in the short run.
The Effect of Food Prices on Inflation in the Republic of Serbia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radukić Snežana
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In the Republic of Serbia, food accounts for a significant share in the consumer price index through which the inflation is statistically expressed. Therefore, in considerations of the basic factors of increase in the general price level, a special emphasis is placed on the specific features of the market of agricultural-food products. The aim of this research is to peruse the effect of the characteristics of the food market in Serbia on the inflation rate. High volatility of food prices is present because of the instability of this market, mainly due to seasonal fluctuations of supply and the effect of natural factors. Bearing in mind that the increase in food prices is the main determinant of the increase in the inflation rate, the indirect state control is very important so as to maintain price stability. Special importance is attached to the following instruments of economic policy: commodity reserves, storage policy, and fiscal and foreign trade policy.
Estimating the Threshold Level of Inflation for Thailand
JIRANYAKUL, Komain
2017-01-01
Abstract. This paper analyzes the relationship between inflation and economic growth in Thailand using annual dataset during 1990 and 2015. The threshold model is estimated for different levels of threshold inflation rate. The results suggest that the threshold level of inflation above which inflation significantly slow growth is estimated at 3 percent. The negative relationship between inflation and growth is apparent above this threshold level of inflation. In other words, the inflation rat...
Inflation in Nigeria: Possible determinants and remedies to tackle it in Nigeria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Godly Otto
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The previous Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN had intended to introduce the N5,000.00 currency bill into the Nigerian economy and claimed that such currency bill would help it manage the exchange rate especially against the dollar. This generated a huge outcry from the public especially economists. The major reason was that this introduction would generate inflation and also because the policy ran counter to the cash-less policy of the Central Bank of Nigeria. But to the Central Bank, there was no economic theory to suggest a currency redenomination could cause inflation. This debate once more threw up a need to reexamine the determinants of inflation in Nigeria. Generally, inflation could be cost push or demand pull but what drives the demand or informs cost quite often differ from one economy to another. This study examined the factors responsible for increasing cost of production and spending behaviour in Nigeria. It was able to identify 13 factors that impact on inflation. However, the degree of impact of each factor is left for another study. The study recommends that government should concentrate on providing social infrastructure that would encourage the private sector to invest and expand output, taking advantage of existing unemployed resources. This would help to stem inflation in Nigeria which is usually caused by scarcity
Resonant magnetic fields from inflation
Byrnes, Christian T; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Urban, Federico R
2012-01-01
We propose a novel scenario to generate primordial magnetic fields during inflation induced by an oscillating coupling of the electromagnetic field to the inflaton. This resonant mechanism has two key advantages over previous proposals. First of all, it generates a narrow band of magnetic fields at any required wavelength, thereby allaying the usual problem of a strongly blue spectrum and its associated backreaction. Secondly, it avoids the need for a strong coupling as the coupling is oscillating rather than growing or decaying exponentially. Despite these major advantages, we find that the backreaction is still far too large during inflation if the generated magnetic fields are required to have a strength of ${\\cal O}(10^{-15}\\, \\Gauss)$ today on observationally interesting scales. We provide a more general no-go argument, proving that this problem will apply to any model in which the magnetic fields are generated on subhorizon scales and freeze after horizon crossing.
Higgsed Chromo-Natural Inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adshead, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Martinec, Emil [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637-1433 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Chicago,5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637-1433 (United States); Sfakianakis, Evangelos I. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Wyman, Mark [PDT Partners,1745 Broadway, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10019 (United States)
2016-12-27
We demonstrate that Chromo-Natural Inflation can be made consistent with observational data if the SU(2) gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken. Working in the Stueckelberg limit, we show that isocurvature is negligible, and the resulting adiabatic fluctuations can match current observational constraints. Observable levels of chirally-polarized gravitational radiation (r∼10{sup −3}) can be produced while the evolution of all background fields is sub-Planckian. The gravitational wave spectrum is amplified via linear mixing with the gauge field fluctuations, and its amplitude is not simply set by the Hubble rate during inflation. This allows observable gravitational waves to be produced for an inflationary energy scale below the GUT scale. The tilt of the resulting gravitational wave spectrum can be either blue or red.
Inflation with generalized initial conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Matzner, R.
1987-01-01
In many current models of the early Universe a scalar field phi which is only very weakly coupled to other quantum fields is used to generate inflation. In such models there are no forces which could thermalize the scalar field, and previous assumptions about its preinflation ''initial'' conditions must be abandoned. In this paper the onset of inflation is studied classically for more general initial conditions of the scalar field configuration. In particular, initial conditions with a nonvanishing spatial average of phi, with phi chosen at random in each initial horizon volume, and with random initial momenta are considered. We identify and discuss several mechanisms that can drive these more general initial conditions toward an inflationary state. The analysis is done in one spatial dimension
Cybersecurity Risks: Are They Inflated?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Chrapavy
2016-05-01
Full Text Available With various views being posed on cybersecurity, this paper examines the proposition that cybersecurity risks are inflated. Due to the complexity of the cybersecurity environment, the risks will be dichotomised into two distinct categories—those posed by cybercrime, and those classified as cyber-warfare. In relation to cyber-crime, the paper examines the rise of cyber-crime, its costs, and the views of these factors by “alarmists” and “sceptics.” In relation to cyber-war, the paper sets aside the emotive issue of the consequences and focuses on the likelihood of a catastrophic attack. The paper concludes that the risk of cyber-crime is real, but the sometimes mooted existential threat poses by cyber-war is inflated. The paper argues that it is important for cyber defences to improve in line with the risks, and to do this, researchers need to work across both categories of cybersecurity.
Thomas, Vernon G; Hanner, Robert H; Borisenko, Alex V
2016-11-01
Managing invasive alien species in Canada requires reliable taxonomic identification as the basis of rapid-response management. This can be challenging, especially when organisms are small and lack morphological diagnostic features. DNA-based techniques, such as DNA barcoding, offer a reliable, rapid, and inexpensive toolkit for taxonomic identification of individual or bulk samples, forensic remains, and even environmental DNA. Well suited for this requirement, they could be more broadly deployed and incorporated into the operating policy and practices of Canadian federal departments and should be authorized under these agencies' articles of law. These include Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Transport Canada, Environment Canada, Parks Canada, and Health Canada. These efforts should be harmonized with the appropriate provisions of provincial jurisdictions, for example, the Ontario Invasive Species Act. This approach necessitates that a network of accredited, certified laboratories exists, and that updated DNA reference libraries are readily accessible. Harmonizing this approach is vital among Canadian federal agencies, and between the federal and provincial levels of government. Canadian policy and law must also be harmonized with that of the USA when detecting, and responding to, invasive species in contiguous lands and waters. Creating capacity in legislation for use of DNA-based identifications brings the authority to fund, train, deploy, and certify staff, and to refine further developments in this molecular technology.
An introduction to cosmological inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liddle, A.R.
1999-01-01
An introductory account is given of the inflationary cosmology, which postulates a period of accelerated expansion during the Universe's earliest stages. The historical motivation is briefly outlined, and the modelling of the inflationary epoch explained. The most important aspect of inflation is that it provides a possible model for the origin of structure in the Universe, and key results are reviewed, along with a discussion of the current observational situation and outlook. (author)
Frame covariant nonminimal multifield inflation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sotirios Karamitsos
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We introduce a frame-covariant formalism for inflation of scalar-curvature theories by adopting a differential geometric approach which treats the scalar fields as coordinates living on a field-space manifold. This ensures that our description of inflation is both conformally and reparameterization covariant. Our formulation gives rise to extensions of the usual Hubble and potential slow-roll parameters to generalized fully frame-covariant forms, which allow us to provide manifestly frame-invariant predictions for cosmological observables, such as the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, the spectral indices nR and nT, their runnings αR and αT, the non-Gaussianity parameter fNL, and the isocurvature fraction βiso. We examine the role of the field space curvature in the generation and transfer of isocurvature modes, and we investigate the effect of boundary conditions for the scalar fields at the end of inflation on the observable inflationary quantities. We explore the stability of the trajectories with respect to the boundary conditions by using a suitable sensitivity parameter. To illustrate our approach, we first analyze a simple minimal two-field scenario before studying a more realistic nonminimal model inspired by Higgs inflation. We find that isocurvature effects are greatly enhanced in the latter scenario and must be taken into account for certain values in the parameter space such that the model is properly normalized to the observed scalar power spectrum PR. Finally, we outline how our frame-covariant approach may be extended beyond the tree-level approximation through the Vilkovisky–De Witt formalism, which we generalize to take into account conformal transformations, thereby leading to a fully frame-invariant effective action at the one-loop level.
Frame covariant nonminimal multifield inflation
Karamitsos, Sotirios; Pilaftsis, Apostolos
2018-02-01
We introduce a frame-covariant formalism for inflation of scalar-curvature theories by adopting a differential geometric approach which treats the scalar fields as coordinates living on a field-space manifold. This ensures that our description of inflation is both conformally and reparameterization covariant. Our formulation gives rise to extensions of the usual Hubble and potential slow-roll parameters to generalized fully frame-covariant forms, which allow us to provide manifestly frame-invariant predictions for cosmological observables, such as the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, the spectral indices nR and nT, their runnings αR and αT, the non-Gaussianity parameter fNL, and the isocurvature fraction βiso. We examine the role of the field space curvature in the generation and transfer of isocurvature modes, and we investigate the effect of boundary conditions for the scalar fields at the end of inflation on the observable inflationary quantities. We explore the stability of the trajectories with respect to the boundary conditions by using a suitable sensitivity parameter. To illustrate our approach, we first analyze a simple minimal two-field scenario before studying a more realistic nonminimal model inspired by Higgs inflation. We find that isocurvature effects are greatly enhanced in the latter scenario and must be taken into account for certain values in the parameter space such that the model is properly normalized to the observed scalar power spectrum PR. Finally, we outline how our frame-covariant approach may be extended beyond the tree-level approximation through the Vilkovisky-De Witt formalism, which we generalize to take into account conformal transformations, thereby leading to a fully frame-invariant effective action at the one-loop level.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrara, Sergio [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy andMani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, UCLA,470 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Roest, Diederik [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)
2016-10-24
We prove that all inflationary models, including those with dark energy after the end of inflation, can be embedded in minimal supergravity with a single chiral superfield. Moreover, the amount of supersymmetry breaking is independently tunable due to a degeneracy in the choice for the superpotential. The inflaton is a scalar partner of the Goldstino in this set-up. We illustrate our general procedure with two examples that are favoured by the Planck data.
Black holes from extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, S.D.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA
1990-01-01
It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be >10 8 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes. (orig.)
Ferrara, Sergio
2016-10-24
We prove that all inflationary models, including those with dark energy after the end of inflation, can be embedded in minimal supergravity with a single chiral superfield. Moreover, the amount of supersymmetry breaking is independently tunable due to a degeneracy in the choice for the superpotential. The inflaton is a scalar partner of the Goldstino in this set-up. We illustrate our general procedure with two examples that are favoured by the Planck data.
Sneutrino chaotic inflation and landscape
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hitoshi Murayama
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The most naive interpretation of the BICEP2 data is the chaotic inflation by an inflaton with a quadratic potential. When combined with supersymmetry, we argue that the inflaton plays the role of right-handed scalar neutrino based on rather general considerations. The framework suggests that the right-handed sneutrino tunneled from a false vacuum in a landscape to our vacuum with a small negative curvature and suppressed scalar perturbations at large scales.
Investment choice and inflation uncertainty
Gregory Fischer
2013-01-01
This paper investigates the relationship between infation uncertainty and investment using a panel of loan-level data from small businesses. Micro-level data makes it possible to study phenomena that are obscured in country or industry aggregates. The data show that periods of increased inflation uncertainty are associated with substantial reductions in total investment. Moreover, there is a shift in the composition of investment away from fixed assets and towards working capital - the more f...
The productivity-inflation nexus: the case of the Australian mining sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahadevan, R.; Asafu Adjaye, J.
2005-01-01
This paper examines the causal links between productivity growth and two price series given by domestic inflation and the price of mineral products in Australia's mining sector for the period 1968/1969 to 1997/1998. The study also uses a stochastic translog cost frontier to generate improved estimates of total factor productivity (TFP) growth. The results indicate negative unidirectional causality running from both price series to mining productivity growth. Regression analysis further shows that domestic inflation has a small but adverse effect on mining productivity growth, thus providing some empirical support for Australia's 'inflation first' monetary policy, at least with respect to the mining sector. Inflation in mineral price, on the other hand, has a greater negative effect on mining productivity growth via mineral export growth. (author)
The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE)
Kogut, Alan; Chluba, Jens; Fixsen, Dale J.; Meyer, Stephan; Spergel, David
2016-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to open new windows on the early universe through measurements of the polarization and absolute frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE will measure the gravitational-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint in linear polarization, and characterize the thermal history of the universe through precision measurements of distortions in the blackbody spectrum. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning over 7 octaves in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). Multi-moded non-imaging optics feed a polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer to produce a set of interference fringes, proportional to the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from the two input beams. Multiple levels of symmetry and signal modulation combine to reduce systematic errors to negligible levels. PIXIE will map the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters with angular resolution 2.6 degrees and sensitivity 70 nK per 1degree square pixel. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r inflation to the nature of the first stars and the physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. We describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture required to measure the CMB to the limits imposed by astrophysical foregrounds.
Inflation and preheating in supergravity - the role of flat directions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaminska, A.; Pacholek, P.
2009-01-01
In order to properly describe inflation and particle production one has to consider the underlying theory of particles and interactions. Supersymmetry is one of the most promising extensions of the Standard Model (SM). One of the typical features of supersymmetric extensions of the SM is the presence of flat directions - directions in field space, along which the scalar potential identically vanishes in the limit of unbroken global supersymmetry. Due to large quantum fluctuations or the classical evolution of fields during inflation flat directions can easily acquire large vacuum expectation values (VEVs). Therefore, there is a natural question about the role of such large VEVs in the process of particle production. It was postulated in literature that large flat direction VEVs influence the process of particle production by blocking preheating from the inflaton - the phase of rapid, non-perturbative inflaton decay. Motivated by a recent discussion about the role of flat directions in the early universe a consistent model of inflation and preheating in supergravity with MSSM fields is built. It is based on a model proposed by M. Kawasaki, M. Yamaguchi and T. Yanagida. In the inflationary stage, the flat directions acquire large VEVs without spoiling the background of slow-roll, high-scale inflation consistent with the latest WMAP5 observational data. In the stage of particle production, naturally following inflation, the role of flat direction large VEVs depends strongly on effects connected with the supergravity framework and non-renormalizable terms in the superpotential, which have been neglected so far in the literature. Such effects turn out to be very important, changing the previous picture of preheating in the presence of large flat direction VEVs by allowing for efficient preheating from the inflaton. (author)
Forecasting deflation, intrusion and eruption at inflating volcanoes
Blake, Stephen; Cortés, Joaquín A.
2018-01-01
A principal goal of volcanology is to successfully forecast the start of volcanic eruptions. This paper introduces a general forecasting method, which relies on a stream of monitoring data and a statistical description of a given threshold criterion for an eruption to start. Specifically we investigate the timing of intrusive and eruptive events at inflating volcanoes. The gradual inflation of the ground surface is a well-known phenomenon at many volcanoes and is attributable to pressurised magma accumulating within a shallow chamber. Inflation usually culminates in a rapid deflation event caused by magma escaping from the chamber to produce a shallow intrusion and, in some cases, a volcanic eruption. We show that the ground elevation during 15 inflation periods at Krafla volcano, Iceland, increased with time towards a limiting value by following a decaying exponential with characteristic timescale τ. The available data for Krafla, Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes show that the duration of inflation (t*) is approximately equal to τ. The distribution of t* / τ values follows a log-logistic distribution in which the central 60% of the data lie between 0.99 deflation event starting during a specified time interval to be estimated. The time window in which there is a specified probability of deflation starting can also be forecast, and forecasts can be updated after each new deformation measurement. The method provides stronger forecasts than one based on the distribution of repose times alone and is transferable to other types of monitoring data and/or other patterns of pre-eruptive unrest.
Design of a hybrid rocket / inflatable wing UAV
Sudduth, Cory
This paper discusses the design challenges and development of a UAV that transitions from a rocket, which allows the aircraft to reach a target altitude rapidly, and then deploys an inflatable wing from an enclosed shell in midflight to allow for loitering and surveillance. The wing deployment and transition is tested in static and dynamic environments, while the performance and stability of both the aircraft mode and rocket mode are examined analytically. An in-depth discussion of key components, including the design, analysis and testing, is also included. Designing an UAV that transitions from a high velocity rocket, to a slow velocity UAV provides many difficult and unique design challenges. For example, the incorporation of deployable wing technology into a full UAV system results in many design constraints. In this particular design inflatable wings are used to generate lift during aircraft mode, and the stabilizing fins for the main wing also acted as the fins for the vehicle during its rocket phase. This required the balancing of the two different vehicle configurations to ensure that the aircraft would be able to fly stably in both modes, and transition between them without catastrophic failure. Significant research, and testing went into the finding the best method of storing the inflatable wing, as well as finding the required inflation rate to minimize unsteady aerodynamic affects. Design work was also invested in the development of an inflation system, as it had to be highly reliable, and yet very light weight for use in this small UAV. This paper discusses how these design challenges were overcome, the development and testing of individual sub-components and how they are incorporated into the overall vehicle. The analysis that went into this UAV, as well as methods used to optimize the design in order to minimize weight and maximize the aircraft performance and loitering time is also discussed.
The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)
Lazear, Justin Scott; Ade, Peter A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinderks, James;
2014-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on approximately 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales theta ? = approximately 0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32×40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 milli-Kelvin. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variabledelay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,0V) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.
The Effect of Inflation on Inflation Uncertainty in the G7 Countries: A Double Threshold GARCH Model
Chowdhury, Kushal Banik; Sarkar, Nityananda
2015-01-01
This paper studies the impact of inflation on inflation uncertainty in a modelling framework where both the conditional mean and conditional variance of inflation are regime specific, and the GARCH model for inflation uncertainty is extended by including a lagged inflation term in each regime. Applying this model to the G7 countries with monthly data from 1970 till 2013, it is found that the impact of inflation on inflation uncertainty differs over the regimes in most of the G7 countries....
Herrmann, Michael; Khan, Haider
2008-01-01
Rapid urbanization is a fact of live even in the least developed countries (LDCs) where the lion’s share of the population presently lives in rural areas and will continue to do so for decades to come. At the turn of the millennium 75% of the LDCs’ population still lived in rural areas and 71% of the LDCs’ labor force was involved in agriculture. But even though the largest share of their population lives in rural areas and directly or indirectly derives their livelihoods from agriculture, a ...
Reheating and gravitino production in braneworld inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copeland, Edmund J.; Seto, Osamu
2005-01-01
We consider the constraints that can be imposed on a wide class of Inflation models in modified gravity scenarios in which the Friedmann equation is modified by the inclusion of ρ 2 terms, where ρ is the total energy density. In particular we obtain the reheating temperature and gravitino abundance associated with the end of inflation. Whereas models of chaotic inflation and natural inflation can easily avoid the conventional gravitino overproduction problem, we show that supersymmetric hybrid inflation models (driven by both F and D terms) do not work in the ρ 2 dominated era. We also study inflation driven by exponential potentials in this modified background and show that the gravitino production is suppressed enough to avoid there being a problem, although other conditions severely constrain these models
The scale of inflation in the landscape
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pedro, F.G.; Westphal, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2013-03-15
We determine the frequency of regions of small-field inflation in the Wigner landscape as an approximation to random supergravities/type IIB flux compactifications. We show that small-field inflation occurs exponentially more often than large-field inflation The power of primordial gravitational waves from inflation is generically tied to the scale of inflation. For small-field models this is below observational reach. However, we find small-field inflation to be dominated by the highest inflationary energy scales compatible with a sub-Planckian field range. Hence, we expect a typical tensor-to-scalar ratio r{proportional_to}O(10{sup -3}) currently undetectable in upcoming CMB measurements.
Graceful exit from Higgs G-inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kunimitsu, Taro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yokoyama, Jun' ichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU); Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU)
2013-09-15
Higgs G-inflation is a Higgs inflation model with a generalized Galileon term added to the standard model Higgs field, which realizes inflation compatible with observations. Recently, it was claimed that the generalized Galileon term induces instabilities during the oscillation phase, and that the simplest Higgs G-inflation model inevitably suffers from this problem. In this paper, we extend the original Higgs G-inflation Lagrangian to a more general form, namely introducing a higher-order kinetic term and generalizing the form of the Galileon term, so that the Higgs field can oscillate after inflation without encountering instabilities. Moreover, it accommodates a large region of the n{sub s}-r plane, most of which is consistent with current observations, leading us to expect the detection of B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background in the near future.
On inflation in the heterotic superstring model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, K.; Pollock, M.D.
1985-11-01
We consider the possibility of achieving inflation in the field-theory limit of the E 8 xE 8 superstring model. We show that neither type I inflation nor inflation due to a SUSY-breaking gaugino-condensation potential, is possible, essentially because of the absence of free dimensionless parameters. Kaluza-Klein type inflation is ruled out because the internal space is Ricci flat. The occurrence of type II inflation (due to some gauge singlet 'inflaton' field phi) depends upon the form of the superpotential F and of the Kaehler potential G, but this also seems not to be possible, unless the SU(n,1) symmetry can be broken in a particular way. Hence, some new type of compactification scheme may be called for, or a different type of inflation
The scale of inflation in the landscape
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F.G. Pedro
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We determine the frequency of regions of small-field inflation in the Wigner landscape as an approximation to random supergravities/type IIB flux compactifications. We show that small-field inflation occurs exponentially more often than large-field inflation. The power of primordial gravitational waves from inflation is generically tied to the scale of inflation. As for small-field models this is below observational reach, their exponential enhancement seems to indicate a tendency towards small tensor-to-scalar ratio r. However, cosmologically viable inflationary regions must provide for a successful exit from inflation into a meta-stable dS minimum. Hence future work will need to determine the ‘graceful exit likelihood’ before any statement about the statistically expected level of tensor modes r is possible.
Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes
Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.
2015-01-01
Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.
Microwave background anisotropies in quasiopen inflation
García-Bellido, Juan; Garriga, Jaume; Montes, Xavier
1999-10-01
Quasiopenness seems to be generic to multifield models of single-bubble open inflation. Instead of producing infinite open universes, these models actually produce an ensemble of very large but finite inflating islands. In this paper we study the possible constraints from CMB anisotropies on existing models of open inflation. The effect of supercurvature anisotropies combined with the quasiopenness of the inflating regions make some models incompatible with observations, and severely reduces the parameter space of others. Supernatural open inflation and the uncoupled two-field model seem to be ruled out due to these constraints for values of Ω0<~0.98. Others, such as the open hybrid inflation model with suitable parameters for the slow roll potential can be made compatible with observations.
Fissioning universe: Topological inflation and Kaluza-Klein cosmologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaku, Michio; Lykken, J.
1986-05-05
We propose a Kaluza-Klein cosmology by reversing the usual scenario: instead of starting with a flat 4+N dimensional universe in which N of the dimensions curl up into a compact manifold, we start with a compact 3+N dimensional manifold in which 3 of the dimensions are allowed to peel off and expand into the known universe. We reverse the usual ''spontaneous compactification'' scenario begin with a closed manifold Msup(3+N) which undergoes ''spontaneous fissioning'' into a product manifold M/sup 3/xMsup(N). Remarkably, the 3-dimensional universe M/sup 3/ can undergo a rapid de Sitter expansion large enough to solve the horizon and flatness problem. We call this ''topological inflation'', which we propose as an alternative to the usual GUT inflation. The inflationary phase automatically terminates into a big bang phase. (orig.).
The fissioning universe: Topological inflation and Kaluza-Klein cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, Michio; Lykken, J.
1986-01-01
We propose a Kaluza-Klein cosmology by reversing the usual scenario: instead of starting with a flat 4+N dimensional universe in which N of the dimensions curl up into a compact manifold, we start with a compact 3+N dimensional manifold in which 3 of the dimensions are allowed to peel off and expand into the known universe. We reverse the usual ''spontaneous compactification'' scenario begin with a closed manifold Msup(3+N) which undergoes ''spontaneous fissioning'' into a product manifold M 3 xMsup(N). Remarkably, the 3-dimensional universe M 3 can undergo a rapid de Sitter expansion large enough to solve the horizon and flatness problem. We call this ''topological inflation'', which we propose as an alternative to the usual GUT inflation. The inflationary phase automatically terminates into a big bang phase. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jannie Rossouw
2011-08-01
Full Text Available This paper reports a comparison of South African household inflation expectations and inflation credibility surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. It tests for possible feed-through between inflation credibility and inflation expectations. It supplements earlier research that focused only on the 2006 survey results. The comparison shows that inflation expectations differed between different income groups in both 2006 and 2008. Inflation credibility differed between male and female respondents, but this difference did not feed through to inflation expectations. More periodic survey data will be required for developing final conclusions on the possibility of feed-through effects. To this end the structure of credibility surveys should be reconsidered, as a large percentage of respondents indicated that they ‘don’t know’ whether the historic rate of inflation is an accurate indication of price increases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liao Ying
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the influencing factors of inflation persistence in China’s economy using the DSGE approach. Two monetary DSGE models are estimated, namely, a standard CIA model and a CIA model with a Taylor rule. This article uses the Bayesian method to estimate the model, and the estimated and inferred results are credible due to the Markov chain reaching convergence. The results show that the augmented model outperforms the standard CIA model in terms of capturing inflation persistence. Further studies show that inflation persistence mainly comes from the persistence of the money supply, while money supply uncertainty, the reaction coefficient of monetary growth to productivity, productivity persistence and productivity uncertainty have a smaller impact on inflation persistence. Changes of monetary policy have little effect on inflation persistence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joko Waluyo
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the effect of macroeconomics variable, which is real exchange rate, SBI, M1 and GDP to domestic inflation in Inflation Targeting Framework. This research also intended to analyze effect of macroeconomics to inflation, which been transmitted through interest rate and will give us a big picture on what’s the next monetary policies. We used monthly time series data 1999:01–2008:06 and applied Vector Error Correction Model to analyze the phenomenon. Real exchange rate, SBI (quarterly, M1 and GDP have positive effect to the inflation, but only real exchange rate and SBI (quarterly which has permanent and long term effect. The real exchange rate has strong effect on inflation stability because, by applying ITF. The free-floating exchange rate system should be applied, and the fragile currency shall be easily fluctuated.
Numerically investigating the emergent cyclic inflation scenario
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duhe, William; Biswas, Tirthabir
2014-01-01
We provide a comprehensive numerical study of the emergent cyclic inflation scenario. This is a scenario where instead of traditional monotonic slow roll inflation, the universe expands over numerous short asymmetric cycles due to the production of entropy via interactions among different species. This is one of the very few scenarios of inflation that provides a non-singular geodesically complete space-time and does not require any ‘reheating’ mechanism. (paper)
Multifield DBI Inflation and Non-Gaussianities
Huang, Min-xin; Underwood, Bret
2008-01-01
We analyze the trajectories for multifield DBI inflation, which can arise in brane inflation models, and show that the trajectories are the same as in typical slow roll inflation. We calculate the power spectrum and find that the higher derivative terms of the DBI action lead to a suppression of the contribution from the isocurvature perturbations. We also calculate the bispectrum generated by the isocurvature perturbation, and find that it leads to distinctive features.
Primordial inflation and the monopole problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olive, K.A.; Seckel, D.
1984-01-01
This chapter discusses the cosmological abundance of magnetic monopoles in locally supersymmetry grand unified theories (GUTs) and primordial inflation. It is shown how the magnetic monopole problem can be solved in variants of broken N=1 supergravity primordial inflation. The monopole problem and its solution in inflationary models is reviewed. It is demonstrated that the monopole problem can be solved by coupling primordial inflation to supersymmetric SU(5) breaking
Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation
Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2014-01-01
The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these ...
Towards natural inflation in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Dayan, Ido; Pedro, Francisco G.; Westphal, Alexander
2014-07-01
We provide type IIB string embeddings of two axion variants of natural inflation. We use a combination of RR 2 form axions as the inflaton field and have its potential generated by non perturbative effects in the superpotential. Besides giving rise to inflation, the models developed take into account the stabilization of the compact space, both in the KKLT and large volume scenario regimes, an essential condition for any semi-realistic model of string inflation.
New Sources of Gravitational Waves During Inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Zaldarriaga, Matias; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2012-02-15
We point out that detectable inflationary tensor modes can be generated by particle or string sources produced during inflation, consistently with the requirements for inflation and constraints from scalar fluctuations. We show via examples that this effect can dominate over the contribution from quantum fluctuations of the metric, occurring even when the inflationary potential energy is too low to produce a comparable signal. Thus a detection of tensor modes from inflation does not automatically constitute a determination of the inflationary Hubble scale.
Measurement of Inflation: Another Stochastic Approach
Michal Andrle
2003-01-01
In this paper, we present an alternative approach to inflation and inflation measurement based on Menger’s theory of inner exchange value of money and on the stochastic approach to index numbers. We briefly describe the characteristics of the sample cross-section distribution of price changes. We propose a measure of inflation based on Törnqvist price index adjusted by the (a)symmetric trimmed means.
Inflatable Rigidizable Solar Array for Small Satellites
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lichodziejewski, David; Veal, Gordon; Helms, Richard; Freeland, Robert; Kruer, Mark
2002-01-01
.... Utilizing L Garde s next-generation stretched aluminum inflatable rigidizable tube technology, and Northrop Grumman s new polymer coverglass photovoltaic cell technology, power densities as high...
Is non-minimal inflation eternal?
Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou
2010-12-01
The possibility that the non-minimal coupling inflation could be eternal is investigated. We calculate the quantum fluctuation of the inflaton in a Hubble time and find that it has the same value as that in the minimal case in the slow-roll limit. Armed with this result, we have studied some concrete non-minimal inflationary models including the chaotic inflation and the natural inflation, in which the inflaton is non-minimally coupled to the gravity. We find that the non-minimal coupling inflation could be eternal in some parameter spaces.
Is Non-minimal Inflation Eternal?
Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou
2009-01-01
The possibility that the non-minimal coupling inflation could be eternal is investigated. We calculate the quantum fluctuation of the inflaton in a Hubble time and find that it has the same value as in the minimal case in the slow-roll limit. Armed with this result, we have studied some concrete non-minimal inflationary models including the chaotic inflation and the natural inflation while the inflaton is non-minimally coupled to the gravity and we find that these non-minimal inflations could...
Chaotic inflation in models with flat directions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graziani, F.; Olive, K.
1989-01-01
We consider the chaotic inflationary scenario in models with flat directions. We find that unless the scalars along the flat directions have vacuum expectation values p or 10 14 M p 15 M p depending on the expectation values of the chaotic inflator, Ψ, one or two or more periods of inflation occur but with a resulting energy density perturbation δρ/ρ ≅ 10 -16 , far too small to be of any consequence for galaxy formation. Even with p only limited initial values of ≅ (3-200) M p result in inflation with reasonable density perturbations. Thus chaotic inflation in models with flat directions require rather special initial conditions. (orig.)
Chaotic inflation with curvaton induced running
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sloth, Martin Snoager
2014-01-01
of the apparent tension, but which would be in conflict with prediction of the simplest model of chaotic inflation. The large field chaotic model is sensitive to UV physics, and the nontrivial running of the spectral index suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration could therefore, if true, be telling us some...... additional new information about the UV completion of inflation. However, before we would be able to draw such strong conclusions with confidence, we would first have to also carefully exclude all the alternatives. Assuming monomial chaotic inflation is the right theory of inflation, we therefore explore...
Inflation and Instability of a Polymeric Membrane
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neergaard, Jesper; Hassager, Ole
1999-01-01
We consider the inflation of an axisymmetric polymeric membrane. Some membranes composed of viscoelastic materials described by a Mooney-Rivlin model show a monotone increasingpressure during inflation. These materialsdevelop a homogeneous membrane thickness in agreement with the Considere......-Pearson condition.Molecularly based models such as the neo-Hookean, Doi-Edwards or Tom-Pom model exhibit a pressure maximum when inflated. Membranes described by these models develop local thinning which may lead to bursting in finite time. Chain branching is found to be a stabilizing factor for a polymer membrane...... undergoing inflation....
Public debt and changing inflation targets
Krause, Michael U.; Moyen, Stéphane
2013-01-01
What are the effects of a higher central bank inflation target on the burden of real public debt? Several recent proposals have suggested that even a moderate increase in the inflation target can have a pronounced effect on real public debt. We consider this question in a New Keynesian model with a maturity structure of public debt and an imperfectly observed inflation target. We find that moderate changes in the inflation target only have significant effects on real public debt if they are e...
Inflation expectations and inflation uncertainty in the Eurozone : Evidence from survey data
Arnold, I.J.M.; Lemmen, J.J.G.
2006-01-01
This paper uses the European Commission's Consumer Survey to assess whether inflation expectations have converged and whether inflation uncertainty has diminished following the introduction of the Euro in Europe. Consumers' responses to the survey suggest that inflation expectations depend more on
Inflation expectations and inflation uncertainty in the eurozone : Evidence from survey data
Arnold, I.J.M.; Lemmen, J.J.G.
2008-01-01
This paper uses the European Commission’s Consumer Survey to assess whether inflation expectations have converged and whether inflation uncertainty has diminished following the introduction of the euro in Europe. Consumers’ responses to the survey suggest that inflation expectations depend more on
PRICE VOLATILITY, EXPECTATIONS AND MONETARY POLICY IN NIGERIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajimuda Olumide
2009-05-01
Full Text Available The study has as its objectives, to determine the influence of price volatility and price expectation in the rate of inflation as a measure of the price level. In addition, the study sought to evaluate ipso facto the extent to which monetary policy has influenced inflation by reducing price volatility and expectation towards zero. The study applied the maximum likelihood estimator in addition to the GARCH (p, q model to estimate the steady state model of inflation. As a measure of volatility, the conditional standard deviation for inflation was obtained from the GARCH model. Inflation expectation was solved using the Gauss-Siedel algorithm for forward-looking expectations with actual inflation series as start values. The VAR model was estimated to determine the impulse response functions and the variance decomposition using Cholesky decomposition so as to determine the response to monetary policy of inflation, its volatility and expectations. The study found that inflation expectation and price volatility not only influence the contemporaneous inflation, it also results in persistence in interest rate differential and monetary growth, thus compromising the objective of monetary policy. The study recommends that explicit anchoring of expectations and volatility ensure that monetary policy is forward-looking and that a symmetric inflation target strengthens intertemporal sustainability in monetary policy management. In addition, the behaviour of inflation ex post and the speed of convergence of inflation expectations should provide the basis for determining the most appropriate pulse of nominal interest rate in the economy which will keep inflation trajectory consistent with the growth of the economy.
Stochastic dynamics of new inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakao, Ken-ichi; Nambu, Yasusada; Sasaki, Misao.
1988-07-01
We investigate thoroughly the dynamics of an inflation-driving scalar field in terms of an extended version of the stochastic approach proposed by Starobinsky and discuss the spacetime structure of the inflationary universe. To avoid any complications which might arise due to quantum gravity, we concentrate our discussions on the new inflationary universe scenario in which all the energy scales involved are well below the planck mass. The investigation is done both analytically and numerically. In particular, we present a full numerical analysis of the stochastic scalar field dynamics on the phase space. Then implications of the results are discussed. (author)
Foam rigidized inflatable structural assemblies
Tinker, Michael L. (Inventor); Schnell, Andrew R. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
An inflatable and rigidizable structure for use as a habitat or a load bearing structure is disclosed. The structure consists of an outer wall and an inner wall defining a containment member and a bladder. The bladder is pressurized to erect the structure from an initially collapsed state. The containment member is subsequently injected with rigidizable fluid through an arrangement of injection ports. Exhaust gases from the curing rigidizable fluid are vented through an arrangement of exhaust ports. The rate of erection can be controlled by frictional engagement with a container or by using a tether. A method for fabricating a tubular structure is disclosed.
Rigid inflatable gastrostomy tube malposition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy E. Murray, MB, MCh, MRCS, FFR
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Rigid inflatable gastrostomy (RIG tubes are widely used in contemporary clinical practice for a variety of indications. Insertion of RIG tubes is associated with a high technical success rate and low incidence of mortality. In this case report, a procedural pitfall associated with intraperitoneal-extragastric malposition is described. Rigorous assessment of abdominal radiographs, as well as awareness of the expected appearance of the RIG tube and gastropexy T-fasteners, allows the abdominal radiologist to detect early RIG position in the early postprocedural period. Abdominal radiography is a widely available and inexpensive technique. The high spatial resolution it provides makes it a valuable tool in determining hardware position.
Corpuscular slow-roll inflation
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Giusti, Andrea
2018-01-01
We show that a corpuscular description of gravity can lead to an inflationary scenario similar to Starobinsky's model without requiring the introduction of the inflaton field. All relevant properties are determined by the number of gravitons in the cosmological condensate or, equivalently, by their Compton length. In particular, the relation between the Hubble parameter H and its time derivative H ˙ required by cosmic microwave background observations at the end of inflation, as well as the (minimum) initial value of the slow-roll parameter, are naturally obtained from the Compton size of the condensate.
When Parents’ Praise Inflates, Children's Self-Esteem Deflates
Brummelman, Eddie; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Thomaes, Sander; Orobio De Castro, Bram
2017-01-01
Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to
Investigating the asymmetric relationship between inflation-output growth exchange rate changes
Chu, Jenq Fei; Sek, Siok Kun
2017-08-01
The relationship between inflation-output growth or output variation has long been studied. In this study, we extend the investigation under two exchange rate flexibility/regime in four Asian countries (Indonesia, Korea, Philippines and Thailand) that have experienced drastic exchange rate regime changes aftermath the financial crisis of 1997. These countries have switched from fixed/rigid exchange rate regime to flexible exchange rate and inflation targeting (IT) regime after the crisis. Our main objective is to compare the inflation-output trade-off relationship in the pre-IT and post-IT periods as a tool to evaluate the efficiency of monetary policy. A nonlinear autoregressive distributed lags (NARDL) model is applied to capture the asymmetric effects of exchange rate changes (increases and decreases). The data ranging from 1981M1 onwards till 2016M3. Our results show that exchange rate has asymmetric effect on inflation both short-run and long-run with larger impact in the post-IT period under flexible regime. Depreciation of exchange rate has leads to higher inflation. Furthermore, we find evidences on the relationship between inflation and growth in both short-run and long-run, but the trade-off only detected in the short run both in the pre- and post-IT periods.
Australia's approach to monetary policy
Jane Sneddon Little
2002-01-01
According to Australia's Reserve Bank Act, the central bank's broad policy objectives include maintaining the stability of the currency, full employment, and the economic prosperity and welfare of the people of Australia. In 1993 the Reserve Bank of Australia adopted a specific, and thus transparent, inflation target as its operating objective; it aims to keep overall inflation between 2 percent and 3 percent on average over the business cycle.
Stochastic inflation and nonlinear gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salopek, D.S.; Bond, J.R.
1991-01-01
We show how nonlinear effects of the metric and scalar fields may be included in stochastic inflation. Our formalism can be applied to non-Gaussian fluctuation models for galaxy formation. Fluctuations with wavelengths larger than the horizon length are governed by a network of Langevin equations for the physical fields. Stochastic noise terms arise from quantum fluctuations that are assumed to become classical at horizon crossing and that then contribute to the background. Using Hamilton-Jacobi methods, we solve the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner constraint equations which allows us to separate the growing modes from the decaying ones in the drift phase following each stochastic impulse. We argue that the most reasonable choice of time hypersurfaces for the Langevin system during inflation is T=ln(Ha), where H and a are the local values of the Hubble parameter and the scale factor, since T is the natural time for evolving the short-wavelength scalar field fluctuations in an inhomogeneous background
Inflation Metaphor in Contemporary American English
Hu, Chunyu; Chen, Zhi
2015-01-01
Inflation is often regarded as a dangerous phenomenon which poses a potential threat to economies in the world. It is thus an entity that demands the constant attention of economists, policymakers and the general public. In order to make this abstract entry more concrete and vivid, a number of metaphorical expressions are used to depict inflation.…
Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?
Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.
2013-01-01
Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…
Inflation, large scale structure and particle physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We review experimental and theoretical developments in inflation and its application to structure formation, including the curvation idea. We then discuss a particle physics model of supersymmetric hybrid inflation at the intermediate scale in which the Higgs scalar field is responsible for large scale structure, show how such ...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Goldberg, Matthew
1997-01-01
.... This paper also develops estimates of an intensity/technology factor, which drives additional funding growth over and above inflation, demographic, and other adjustments already applied under current DHP methodology. Finally, we estimate the impact on the DHP budget if the alternative inflation indices were applied and, simultaneously, the intensity/technology factor introduced.
Regional Inflation, Financial Integration and Dollarization
de Haas, R.; Brown, M.; Sokolov, V.
2015-01-01
We exploit variation in consumer price inflation across 71 Russian regions to examine the relationship between the perceived stability of the domestic currency and financial dollarization. Our results show that regions with higher inflation experience an increase in the dollarization of household
Social background, credential inflation and educational strategies
van de Werfhorst, H.G.; Andersen, R.
2005-01-01
The primary goal of this paper is to examine the impact of credential inflation on educational attainment in twentieth century United States. To do so, we create a measure of 'intergenerational credential inflation' (IIF) and include it in regression models predicting educational transitions. Using
Fluctuations in models with primordial inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kahn, R.; Brandenberger, R.
1984-01-01
The recently proposed general framework for calculating the growth of primordial energy density fluctuations in cosmological models is applied to two models of phenomenological interest in which the cosmological evolution differs crucially from that in new inflationary universe models. Both in a model of primordial supersymmetric inflation and in Linde's proposal of chaotic inflation we verify the conjectured results. (orig.)
The effect of inflation on nuclear energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schofield, L.J.
A sophisticated analysis is given of the effects of inflation on the respective economics of CANDU power plants versus fossil fuel (especially coal-fired) power plants in Canada. Coal price escalation of 8% per annum or greater significantly favors CANDU plants. At 5%, especially with double digit inflation of capital costs, the competitive advantage of CANDU becomes small. (E.C.B.)
Inflation adjustment in the open economy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Heino Bohn; Bowdler, Christopher
2006-01-01
of these processes cointegrate to I(1). This supports an analysis in which I(1) and I(2) restrictions are imposed. A key finding is that an increase in real import prices reduces productivity adjusted real wages, such that the change in domestic inflation is moderated. This may explain why the depreciation...... of sterling in 1992 left inflation unchanged...
Robustness of inflation to inhomogeneous initial conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clough, Katy; Lim, Eugene A. [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, Kings College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); DiNunno, Brandon S.; Fischler, Willy; Flauger, Raphael; Paban, Sonia, E-mail: katy.clough@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com, E-mail: bsd86@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: fischler@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: flauger@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: paban@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States)
2017-09-01
We consider the effects of inhomogeneous initial conditions in both the scalar field profile and the extrinsic curvature on different inflationary models. In particular, we compare the robustness of small field inflation to that of large field inflation, using numerical simulations with Einstein gravity in 3+1 dimensions. We find that small field inflation can fail in the presence of subdominant gradient energies, suggesting that it is much less robust to inhomogeneities than large field inflation, which withstands dominant gradient energies. However, we also show that small field inflation can be successful even if some regions of spacetime start out in the region of the potential that does not support inflation. In the large field case, we confirm previous results that inflation is robust if the inflaton occupies the inflationary part of the potential. Furthermore, we show that increasing initial scalar gradients will not form sufficiently massive inflation-ending black holes if the initial hypersurface is approximately flat. Finally, we consider the large field case with a varying extrinsic curvature K , such that some regions are initially collapsing. We find that this may again lead to local black holes, but overall the spacetime remains inflationary if the spacetime is open, which confirms previous theoretical studies.
Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation
Hodges, Linda C.
2014-01-01
This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…
Inflation Metaphor in the TIME Magazine Corpus
Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie
2016-01-01
A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…
Inflation Fossils in Cosmic Structure
Kamionkowski, Marc
The agreement of the predictions of inflation with increasingly precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large-scale-structure (LSS) data is remarkable. The notion that such a simple early-Universe scenario, based on still-mysterious ultra-high-energy physics, can explain such a wealth of precise data is simply amazing. An active ongoing program of research is afoot to seek the CMB polarization signatures of inflationary gravitational waves and measure the primordial bispectrum in order to learn about inflation. Still, there is far more that can be done to probe inflationary physics, and no stone should be left unturned in this quest. Here we propose a multi-component program of theoretical research that includes model building, new CMB/LSS tests, a potentially powerful new survey strategy, and the investigation of a new observational avenue for large-scale structure. We propose to broaden the circle of ideas to empirically probe inflation. To begin, the hemispherical power asymmetry seen in WMAP and Planck is truly striking. While it may simply be an unusual statistical fluke, a more tantalizing possibility is that it is a remnant of the pre-inflationary Universe. We propose to develop and study several physical models for this asymmetry and work out other testable predictions of these models. Only by pursuing other signatures of whatever new physics may be responsible for this asymmetry will we be able to infer if it is truly a window to new physics. We also plan to develop departures from statistical isotropy (SI) as a test of inflationary models. We have recently shown that single-field slow-roll inflation generically predicts a quadrupolar departure from SI in primordial perturbations, albeit a very small one. The power quadrupole is expected, however, to be significantly larger in more general inflationary models. We propose to calculate these power quadrupoles so that new constraints to the power quadrupole from CMB and LSS data can be applied to test
Inflation targeting and economic performance: The case of Mexico
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carrasco Carlos A.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In the paper we analyze the impact of Inflation Targeting (IT in Mexico. The objective is to evaluate the impact of the implementation of inflation targeting and full-fledged inflation targeting (FFIT on the level and the variability of the inflation and the output in the Mexican economy. We conclude that inflation rates had been reduced in Mexico before the introduction of IT and FFIT. In our opinion, the structural reforms, including the Banxico reforms, are the main determinants of the decrease in inflation and its variability. The main impact of IT would have been the lock-in of inflation expectations around a low rate of inflation.
Technology & Mechanics Overview of Air-Inflated Fabric Structures
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Cavallaro, Paul V
2006-01-01
.... Examples include air ships, weather balloons, inflatable radomes, shelters, pneumatic muscles, inflatable boats, bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags and landing cushions for space vehicles...
Usuda, Takashi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takeda, Sunao; Kotake, Yoshifumi
2010-01-01
We have developed the non-invasive blood pressure monitor which can measure the blood pressure quickly and robustly. This monitor combines two measurement mode: the linear inflation and the linear deflation. On the inflation mode, we realized a faster measurement with rapid inflation rate. On the deflation mode, we realized a robust noise reduction. When there is neither noise nor arrhythmia, the inflation mode incorporated on this monitor provides precise, quick and comfortable measurement. Once the inflation mode fails to calculate appropriate blood pressure due to body movement or arrhythmia, then the monitor switches automatically to the deflation mode and measure blood pressure by using digital signal processing as wavelet analysis, filter bank, filter combined with FFT and Inverse FFT. The inflation mode succeeded 2440 measurements out of 3099 measurements (79%) in an operating room and a rehabilitation room. The new designed blood pressure monitor provides the fastest measurement for patient with normal circulation and robust measurement for patients with body movement or severe arrhythmia. Also this fast measurement method provides comfortableness for patients.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knuiman Matthew
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatments for coronary heart disease (CHD have evolved rapidly over the last 15 years with considerable change in the number and effectiveness of both medical and surgical treatments. This period has seen the rapid development and uptake of statin drugs and coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs that include Coronary Artery Bypass Graft procedures (CABGs and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PCIs. It is difficult in an era of such rapid change to accurately forecast requirements for treatment services such as CARPs. In a previous paper we have described and outlined the use of a Markov Monte Carlo simulation model for analyzing and predicting the requirements for CARPs for the population of Western Australia (Mannan et al, 2007. In this paper, we expand on the use of this model for forecasting CARPs in Western Australia with a focus on the lack of adequate performance of the (standard model for forecasting CARPs in a period during the mid 1990s when there were considerable changes to CARP technology and implementation policy and an exploration and demonstration of how the standard model may be adapted to achieve better performance. Methods Selected key CARP event model probabilities are modified based on information relating to changes in the effectiveness of CARPs from clinical trial evidence and an awareness of trends in policy and practice of CARPs. These modified model probabilities and the ones obtained by standard methods are used as inputs in our Markov simulation model. Results The projected numbers of CARPs in the population of Western Australia over 1995–99 only improve marginally when modifications to model probabilities are made to incorporate an increase in effectiveness of PCI procedures. However, the projected numbers improve substantially when, in addition, further modifications are incorporated that relate to the increased probability of a PCI procedure and the reduced probability of a CABG
Mannan, Haider R; Knuiman, Matthew; Hobbs, Michael
2008-06-25
Treatments for coronary heart disease (CHD) have evolved rapidly over the last 15 years with considerable change in the number and effectiveness of both medical and surgical treatments. This period has seen the rapid development and uptake of statin drugs and coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs) that include Coronary Artery Bypass Graft procedures (CABGs) and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PCIs). It is difficult in an era of such rapid change to accurately forecast requirements for treatment services such as CARPs. In a previous paper we have described and outlined the use of a Markov Monte Carlo simulation model for analyzing and predicting the requirements for CARPs for the population of Western Australia (Mannan et al, 2007). In this paper, we expand on the use of this model for forecasting CARPs in Western Australia with a focus on the lack of adequate performance of the (standard) model for forecasting CARPs in a period during the mid 1990s when there were considerable changes to CARP technology and implementation policy and an exploration and demonstration of how the standard model may be adapted to achieve better performance. Selected key CARP event model probabilities are modified based on information relating to changes in the effectiveness of CARPs from clinical trial evidence and an awareness of trends in policy and practice of CARPs. These modified model probabilities and the ones obtained by standard methods are used as inputs in our Markov simulation model. The projected numbers of CARPs in the population of Western Australia over 1995-99 only improve marginally when modifications to model probabilities are made to incorporate an increase in effectiveness of PCI procedures. However, the projected numbers improve substantially when, in addition, further modifications are incorporated that relate to the increased probability of a PCI procedure and the reduced probability of a CABG procedure stemming from changed CARP preference
Paez-Farrell, Juan; Cardiff University
2006-01-01
This paper examines the relationship between cyclical output and inflation in models commonly used for monetary policy analysis. This includes models that incorporate the New Keynesian, Fuhrer-Moore and backward-looking Phillips curves. The main finding is that these models imply a strong negative relationship between inflation and output, a result that is at odds with the data. The fact that New Keynesian models yield counterfactual implications is not new; the novelty of the paper lies in t...
Setting initial conditions for inflation with reaction-diffusion equation
Bagchi, Partha; Das, Arpan; Dave, Shreyansh S.; Sengupta, Srikumar; Srivastava, Ajit M.
2018-03-01
We discuss the issue of setting appropriate initial conditions for inflation. Specifically, we consider natural inflation model and discuss the fine tuning required for setting almost homogeneous initial conditions over a region of order several times the Hubble size which is orders of magnitude larger than any relevant correlation length for field fluctuations. We then propose to use the special propagating front solutions of reaction-diffusion equations for localized field domains of smaller sizes. Due to very small velocities of these propagating fronts we find that the inflaton field in such a field domain changes very slowly, contrary to naive expectation of rapid roll down to the true vacuum. Continued expansion leads to the energy density in the Hubble region being dominated by the vacuum energy, thereby beginning the inflationary phase. Our results show that inflation can occur even with a single localized field domain of size smaller than the Hubble size. We discuss possible extensions of our results for different inflationary models, as well as various limitations of our analysis (e.g. neglecting self gravity of the localized field domain).
Correlation-consistency cartography of the double-inflation landscape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsujikawa, Shinji; Parkinson, David; Bassett, Bruce A.
2003-01-01
We show explicitly some exciting features of double inflation: (i) it can often lead to strongly correlated adiabatic and entropy (isocurvature) power spectra; (ii) the two-field slow-roll consistency relations can be violated when the correlation is large at the Hubble crossing; (iii) the spectra of adiabatic and entropy perturbations can be strongly scale dependent and tilted toward either the red or blue. These effects are typically due to a light or time-dependent entropy mass and a non-negligible angular velocity in field space during inflation. They are illustrated via a multiparameter numerical search for correlations in two concrete models. The correlation is found to be particularly strong in a supersymmetric scenario due to the rapid growth of entropy perturbations in the tachyonic region separating the two inflationary stages. Our analysis suggests that realistic double-inflation models will provide a rich and fruitful arena for the application of future cosmic data sets and new approximation schemes which go beyond slow roll
Multi-natural inflation in supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czerny, Michael; Higaki, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Fuminobu
2014-01-01
We show that the recently proposed multi-natural inflation can be realized within the framework of 4D N=1 supergravity. The inflaton potential mainly consists of two sinusoidal potentials that are comparable in size, but have different periodicity with a possible non-zero relative phase. For a sub-Planckian decay constant, the multi-natural inflation model is reduced to axion hilltop inflation. We show that, taking into account the effect of the relative phase, the spectral index can be increased to give a better fit to the Planck results, with respect to the hilltop quartic inflation. We also consider a possible UV completion based on a string-inspired model. Interestingly, the Hubble parameter during inflation is necessarily smaller than the gravitino mass, avoiding possible moduli destabilization. Reheating processes as well as non-thermal leptogenesis are also discussed.
Nonthermal gravitino production after large field inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ema, Yohei; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori; Terada, Takahiro
2016-01-01
We revisit the nonthermal gravitino production at the (p)reheating stage after inflation. Particular attention is paid to large field inflation models with a ℤ 2 symmetry, for which the previous perturbative analysis is inapplicable; and inflation models with a stabilizer superfield, which have not been studied non-perturbatively. It is found that in single-superfield inflation models (without the stabilizer field), nonthermal production of the transverse gravitino can be cosmologically problematic while the abundance of the longitudinal gravitino is small enough. In multi-superfield inflation models (with the stabilizer field), production of the transverse and longitudinal gravitinos is significantly suppressed, and they are cosmologically harmless. We also clarify the relation between the background field method used in the preheating context and the standard perturbative decay method to estimate the gravitino abundance.
Towards matter inflation in heterotic string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antusch, Stefan; Erdmenger, Johanna; Halter, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Dutta, Koushik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2011-02-15
Recently, a class of inflation models in supergravity with gauge non-singlet matter fields as the inflaton has been proposed. It is based on a 'tribrid' structure in the superpotential and on a 'Heisenberg symmetry' for solving the {eta}-problem. We suggest that a generalization of this model class may be suitable for realising inflation in heterotic orbifold compactifications, where the Heisenberg symmetry is a property of the tree-level Kaehler potential of untwisted matter fields. We discuss moduli stabilization in this setup and propose a mechanism to stabilize the modulus associated to the inflaton, which respects the symmetry in the large radius limit. Inflation ends via a waterfall phase transition, as in hybrid inflation. We give conditions which have to be satisfied for realising inflation along these lines in the matter sector of heterotic orbifolds. (orig.)
Does string theory lead to extended inflation?
Campbell, Bruce A.; Linde, Andrei; Olive, Keith A.
1991-05-01
We consider the relationship between string theory and currently proposed models of extended inflation. In doing so, we discuss the conformal actions in string theory and in Jordan-Brans-Dicke gravity. We show explicitly the equivalence of pictures in which either gauge or gravitational couplings are changing with time. We demonstrate that the existence of the dilation in string theory does not naturally lead to extended inflation as currently discussed. We also discuss the resolution of the graceful exit problem of old inflation in Einstein gravity using either power-law inflation, or exponential inflation with a changing bubble formation rate. On leave of absence from School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
Towards matter inflation in heterotic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antusch, Stefan; Erdmenger, Johanna; Halter, Sebastian; Dutta, Koushik
2011-02-01
Recently, a class of inflation models in supergravity with gauge non-singlet matter fields as the inflaton has been proposed. It is based on a 'tribrid' structure in the superpotential and on a 'Heisenberg symmetry' for solving the η-problem. We suggest that a generalization of this model class may be suitable for realising inflation in heterotic orbifold compactifications, where the Heisenberg symmetry is a property of the tree-level Kaehler potential of untwisted matter fields. We discuss moduli stabilization in this setup and propose a mechanism to stabilize the modulus associated to the inflaton, which respects the symmetry in the large radius limit. Inflation ends via a waterfall phase transition, as in hybrid inflation. We give conditions which have to be satisfied for realising inflation along these lines in the matter sector of heterotic orbifolds. (orig.)
Bank Lending, Inflation, and China's Stock Market (2004–2010
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard C. K. Burdekin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The 2009 surge in bank lending in China was accompanied by allegations of substantial funds being funneled into the nation's stock and property markets. This paper uses 2004–2010 People's Bank survey data to examine the possible linkages between banking activity and the stock market as well as the associated inflation risks. In general, stock market strength in China seems to be accompanied by rising inflationary concerns, increased bank lending activity, and reduced banker confidence that stable conditions will be maintained. This suggests that the Shanghai market could serve as a useful indicator variable for Chinese monetary policy.
B. HEITZ
2005-01-01
This paper seeks to apply the general framework of Markov-switching models to inflation in France and in the USA. We propose a model where inflation can, alternatively, follow two regimes: the first one, where inflation is stationary, is interpreted as a situation where there exists a credible inflation target, even if it is not explicit; the second one where inflation is integrated. Moreover, observing that the two oil shocks were followed by accelerating inflation periods, we allow dependen...
75 FR 72935 - Revisions to the Civil Penalty Inflation Adjustment Tables
2010-11-29
... environmental assessment or environmental impact statement under the National Environmental Policy Act in the... for inflation the minimum and maximum civil monetary penalty amounts the FAA may impose for violations... civil monetary penalties for violations of the statues it enforces to preserve their deterrent effect...
Right on target: Exploring the factors leading to inflation targeting adoption
Samarina, A..; de Haan, J.
2014-01-01
This paper examines which economic, fiscal, external, financial, and institutional characteristics of countries affect the likelihood that they adopt inflation targeting (IT) as their monetary policy strategy. We estimate a panel binary response model for 60 countries and two subsamples consisting
The ECB's fight against low inflation : On the effects of ultra-low interest rates
van Riet, Ad
2017-01-01
Starting in June 2014, the European Central Bank (ECB) stepped up its monetary accommodation in order to counter a too prolonged period of low inflation in the euro area. This article offers a narrative of the monetary policy measures taken up to December 2016 and a review of the effects of
2011-07-12
... Cost Accounting Standards: Change to the CAS Applicability Threshold for the Inflation Adjustment to the Truth in Negotiations Act Threshold AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board, Office of Federal... Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board (Board), invites public comments...
Time-Consistency Problem and the Behavior of US Inflation from 1970 to 2008
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nonejad, Nima
show that the Federal Reserve places more weight on inflation stabilization throughout the bigger part of the 1980s and 1990s while on the other hand the Federal Reserve is pursuing a policy of placing more weight on its goals for unemployment reduction in the 1970s and from 2003 to 2008....
A Theory of Interest Rate Stepping : Inflation Targeting in a Dynamic Menu Cost Model
Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Schaling, E.; Verhagen, W.H.
1999-01-01
Abstract: A stylised fact of monetary policy making is that central banks do not immediately respond to new information but rather seem to prefer to wait until sufficient ‘evidence’ to warrant a change has accumulated. However, theoretical models of inflation targeting imply that an optimising
Lin, H-F; Dhindsa, M S; Tarumi, T; Miles, S C; Umpierre, D; Tanaka, H
2012-01-01
Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) is widely used as an index of nitric oxide-mediated vasodilator function, yet its methodology has not been well established. Previous research indicates that a rapid inflation of a blood pressure cuff evokes systemic vasoconstriction, as it was observed even on non-occluded contralateral arm. This would potentially contribute to the variability of FMD readings and complicate the emerging evidence that non-occluded contralateral arm fingertip temperature responses during the FMD procedure may be an indicator of the presence of coronary artery disease. To test the hypotheses that rapid inflation of a blood pressure cuff could reduce FMD values and influence contralateral vasodilatory states, 33 apparently healthy adults (18 males and 15 females, 29±6 years) were studied in two randomized FMD trials. The blood flow-occluding cuff was inflated rapidly (inflation trials (5.9±0.6 vs 5.9±0.4%). There were no differences in reactive hyperaemia (6.4±1.6 vs 6.2±1.7 AU), shear stress (80±20 vs 77±17 dyn cm(-2)) and fingertip temperature rebound (TR; 1.8±1.2 vs 1.9±1.0 °C) between the rapid and slow inflation. Changes in finger temperature on the contralateral (non-occluded) arm were positively associated with those on the occluded arm (r=0.26 to 0.61, Pinflating a blood pressure cuff do not affect FMD and TR response, and that neurovascular-induced vasodilatation of the contralateral arm was not observed regardless of cuff inflation rates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freivogel, Ben; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /LBL, Berkeley; Hubeny, Veronika E.; /LBL, Berkeley /Durham U., Dept. of Math.; Maloney, Alexander; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Myers, Rob; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys. /Waterloo U.; Rangamani, Mukund; /LBL, Berkeley /Durham U., Dept. of Math.; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2005-10-07
We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.
The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE)
Kogut, Alan; Chluba, Jens; Fixsen, Dale J.; Meyer, Stephan; Spergel, David
2016-07-01
The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to open new windows on the early universe through measurements of the polarization and absolute frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE will measure the gravitational-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint in linear polarization, and characterize the thermal history of the universe through precision measurements of distortions in the blackbody spectrum. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning over 7 octaves in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). Multi-moded non-imaging optics feed a polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer to produce a set of interference fringes, proportional to the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from the two input beams. Multiple levels of symmetry and signal modulation combine to reduce systematic errors to negligible levels. PIXIE will map the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters with angular resolution 2.6° and sensitivity 70 nK per 1° square pixel. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r complements anticipated ground-based polarization measurements such as CMB- S4, providing a cosmic-variance-limited determination of the large-scale E-mode signal to measure the optical depth, constrain models of reionization, and provide a firm detection of the neutrino mass (the last unknown parameter in the Standard Model of particle physics). In addition, PIXIE will measure the absolute frequency spectrum to characterize deviations from a blackbody with sensitivity 3 orders of magnitude beyond the seminal COBE/FIRAS limits. The sky cannot be black at this level; the expected results will constrain physical processes ranging from inflation to the nature of the first stars and the
Chaotic inflation: A numerical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biller, P.; Pertuccione, F.
1991-01-01
A numerical study of chaotic inflation is presented. Following a semiclassical treatment of quantum effects, the dynamics is described as a random process. The relevant Langevin equation is then integrated numerically for a large number of realizations and results are evaluated as ensemble averages. For the understanding of the global structure of the universe the fact that different domains of the universe have different growth rates is important. This is handled by a new modified algorithm. The simulation results for the probability distribution functions at constant and proper volume are given for two typical initial conditions. We compare them to the approximate results of an already existing analytical approach. The picture of an eternally existing self-reproducing universe is confirmed. (orig.)
Conformal frame dependence of inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao
2015-01-01
Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case
Stochastic inflation and dimensional reduction
Kühnel, Florian; Schwarz, Dominik J.
2008-11-01
We adopt methods that are well-known in statistical physics to the problem of stochastic inflation. The effective power spectrum for the classical, stochastic long-wavelength fluctuations is calculated for free scalar fields in a de Sitter background. For a smooth separation into long and short wavelengths, we identify an infrared divergence of the effective power spectrum, which has its correspondence in statistical physics in the phenomenon of dimensional reduction. The inflationary dynamics pushes the affected scales exponentially fast to large superhorizon scales, and establishes scale-invariant behavior for smaller scales (for massless fields). In the limit of a sharp separation of wavelengths, the scale of the infrared divergence is pushed to infinity.
Clustering fossils in solid inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhshik, Mohammad, E-mail: m.akhshik@ipm.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-05-01
In solid inflation the single field non-Gaussianity consistency condition is violated. As a result, the long tenor perturbation induces observable clustering fossils in the form of quadrupole anisotropy in large scale structure power spectrum. In this work we revisit the bispectrum analysis for the scalar-scalar-scalar and tensor-scalar-scalar bispectrum for the general parameter space of solid. We consider the parameter space of the model in which the level of non-Gaussianity generated is consistent with the Planck constraints. Specializing to this allowed range of model parameter we calculate the quadrupole anisotropy induced from the long tensor perturbations on the power spectrum of the scalar perturbations. We argue that the imprints of clustering fossil from primordial gravitational waves on large scale structures can be detected from the future galaxy surveys.
String moduli inflation. An overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cicoli, Michele; Quevedo, Fernando
2011-06-01
We present an overview of inflationary models derived from string theory focusing mostly on closed string moduli as inflatons. After a detailed discussion of the η-problem and different approaches to address it, we describe possible ways to obtain a de Sitter vacuum with all closed string moduli stabilised. We then look for inflationary directions and present some of the most promising scenarios where the inflatons are either the real or the imaginary part of Kaehler moduli. We pay particular attention on extracting potential observable implications, showing how most of the scenarios predict negligible gravitational waves and could therefore be ruled out by the Planck satellite. We conclude by briefly mentioning some open challenges in string cosmology beyond deriving just inflation. (orig.)
Systematics of constant roll inflation
Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2018-02-01
We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.
Territorial differentiation of incomes adjusted for inflation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marina Valeryevna, Moroshkina
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Objective to analyze and evaluate the regional disparities of socioeconomic development of the Russian regions in terms of income differentiation adjusted for the level of inflation. Methods indicator by which to measure the level of regional growth heterogeneity is Gini coefficient allowing to determine the degree of the Russian regionsrsquo deviation from absolute equality. The unique feature of the authorrsquos approach is the calculation and analysis of the Gini coefficient not only in current prices but also in comparable prices of 1991. Thus the comparison of the Gini coefficient in terms of quotper capita incomequot in the period from 1991 to 2013 in comparable and current prices allows to estimate the impact of changes in the prices level on the dynamics of regional development. Results the article states that the regions differentiation by the level of economic development determines the necessity of considering this factor in economic policy areas. In these circumstances the analysis of income differentiation of the Russian regions has to take the impact of inflation into account. The article reviews the Russian and foreign research in the sphere of the income differentiation. Significant scientific interest to the problem of regional inequality is obvious over the past several decades. Approaches and methods of assessing the level of regional disparities are systematized as well as its key performance indicators. To assess the level of differentiation of Russian regions we used the Gini coefficient which was calculated not only by current but also by comparable prices. The calculation was carried out basing on the recalculation of the per capita income using the consumer price index. In the framework of the analysis the calculated Gini coefficient for per capita income by current and integrated prices allowed to observe the differential behavior of this indicator. In terms of quotper capita incomequot by current prices there is a
Simulations of the end of supersymmetric hybrid inflation and nontopological soliton formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broadhead, Matt; McDonald, John
2005-01-01
We present two- and three-dimensional simulations of the growth of quantum fluctuations of the scalar fields in supersymmetric hybrid inflation models. For a natural range of couplings, subhorizon quantum fluctuations undergo rapid growth due to scalar field dynamics, resulting in the formation of quasistable nontopological solitons (inflaton condensate lumps) which dominate the postinflation era
Cosmological Inflation with Multiple Fields and the Theory of Density Fluctuations
Tent, B.J.W. van
2002-01-01
Inflation is a stage of extremely rapid expansion in the very early universe. It was proposed to solve a number of problems in the standard Big Bang theory. In particular it others an explanation for the origin of structures like (clusters of) galaxies on the one hand (by generating small density
Inflating with large effective fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burgess, C.P. [PH-TH Division, CERN, CH-1211, Genève 23 (Switzerland); Cicoli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Quevedo, F. [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Williams, M., E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: mcicoli@ictp.it, E-mail: f.quevedo@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: mwilliams@perimeterinsititute.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton ON (Canada)
2014-11-01
We re-examine large scalar fields within effective field theory, in particular focussing on the issues raised by their use in inflationary models (as suggested by BICEP2 to obtain primordial tensor modes). We argue that when the large-field and low-energy regimes coincide the scalar dynamics is most effectively described in terms of an asymptotic large-field expansion whose form can be dictated by approximate symmetries, which also help control the size of quantum corrections. We discuss several possible symmetries that can achieve this, including pseudo-Goldstone inflatons characterized by a coset G/H (based on abelian and non-abelian, compact and non-compact symmetries), as well as symmetries that are intrinsically higher dimensional. Besides the usual trigonometric potentials of Natural Inflation we also find in this way simple large-field power laws (like V ∝ φ{sup 2}) and exponential potentials, V(φ) = ∑{sub k}V{sub x}e{sup −kφ/M}. Both of these can describe the data well and give slow-roll inflation for large fields without the need for a precise balancing of terms in the potential. The exponential potentials achieve large r through the limit |η| || ε and so predict r ≅ (8/3)(1-n{sub s}); consequently n{sub s} ≅ 0.96 gives r ≅ 0.11 but not much larger (and so could be ruled out as measurements on r and n{sub s} improve). We examine the naturalness issues for these models and give simple examples where symmetries protect these forms, using both pseudo-Goldstone inflatons (with non-abelian non-compact shift symmetries following familiar techniques from chiral perturbation theory) and extra-dimensional models.
Inflating with large effective fields
Burgess, C. P.; Cicoli, M.; Quevedo, F.; Williams, M.
2014-11-01
We re-examine large scalar fields within effective field theory, in particular focussing on the issues raised by their use in inflationary models (as suggested by BICEP2 to obtain primordial tensor modes). We argue that when the large-field and low-energy regimes coincide the scalar dynamics is most effectively described in terms of an asymptotic large-field expansion whose form can be dictated by approximate symmetries, which also help control the size of quantum corrections. We discuss several possible symmetries that can achieve this, including pseudo-Goldstone inflatons characterized by a coset G/H (based on abelian and non-abelian, compact and non-compact symmetries), as well as symmetries that are intrinsically higher dimensional. Besides the usual trigonometric potentials of Natural Inflation we also find in this way simple large-field power laws (like V propto phi2) and exponential potentials, V(phi) = ∑kVxe-kphi/M. Both of these can describe the data well and give slow-roll inflation for large fields without the need for a precise balancing of terms in the potential. The exponential potentials achieve large r through the limit |η| ll epsilon and so predict r simeq (8/3)(1-ns) consequently ns simeq 0.96 gives r simeq 0.11 but not much larger (and so could be ruled out as measurements on r and ns improve). We examine the naturalness issues for these models and give simple examples where symmetries protect these forms, using both pseudo-Goldstone inflatons (with non-abelian non-compact shift symmetries following familiar techniques from chiral perturbation theory) and extra-dimensional models.
Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices And Monetary Policy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pfajfar, Damjan; Santoro, Emiliano
2014-01-01
We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of pass-through of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong cost......-side effects limit the size of the policy rate response to inflation that is consistent with determinacy, so that inflation-targeting policies may not be capable of ensuring REE uniqueness. In this case it is advisable to combine policy rate responses to inflation with an appropriate reaction to the output gap...... and/or firm profitability. The negative reaction of real activity and asset prices to inflationary shocks adds a negative force to inflation responses that counteracts the borrowing cost effect and prevents expectations of higher inflation from becoming self-fulfilling...
The expected anisotropy in solid inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartolo, Nicola; Ricciardone, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Peloso, Marco; Unal, Caner, E-mail: nicola.bartolo@pd.infn.it, E-mail: peloso@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it, E-mail: unal@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis 55455 (United States)
2014-11-01
Solid inflation is an effective field theory of inflation in which isotropy and homogeneity are accomplished via a specific combination of anisotropic sources (three scalar fields that individually break isotropy). This results in specific observational signatures that are not found in standard models of inflation: a non-trivial angular dependence for the squeezed bispectrum, and a possibly long period of anisotropic inflation (to drive inflation, the ''solid'' must be very insensitive to any deformation, and thus background anisotropies are very slowly erased). In this paper we compute the expected level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations of this model. To do so, we account for the classical background values of the three scalar fields that are generated on large (superhorizon) scales during inflation via a random walk sum, as the perturbation modes leave the horizon. Such an anisotropy is unavoidably generated, even starting from perfectly isotropic classical initial conditions. The expected level of anisotropy is related to the duration of inflation and to the amplitude of the squeezed bispectrum. If this amplitude is close to its current observational limit (so that one of the most interesting predictions of the model can be observed in the near future), we find that a level of statistical anisotropy F{sup 2} gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations on superhorizon scales.
A case of RapidRhino herniation causing airway obstruction.
Lau, Bi Wen; Paspaliaris, Alex
2018-03-28
Epistaxis is commonly managed with RapidRhino in emergency departments. We report a case of RapidRhino herniation during air inflation in a 99-year-old female, leading to significant airway obstruction. Upon re-inflation of the RapidRhino for persistent epistaxis, our patient suddenly developed acute respiratory distress. Throat examination revealed a large clot-like circular mass occluding the oropharynx. Initially mistaken as a massive blood clot, the mass was identified as the distal end of the RapidRhino. Immediate deflation of the RapidRhino results in spontaneous resolution of the respiratory distress. We hypothesise that the RapidRhino has herniated posteriorly into the oropharynx through excessive air inflation, potentially compounded by a product defect. Our case highlights a fatal consequence of RapidRhino application where emergency physicians should be cautious of, especially among inexperienced users. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Forecasting Euro Area Inflation Using Single-Equation and Multivariate VAR–Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerdesmeier Dieter
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Forecasting inflation is of key relevance for central banks, not least because the objective of low and stable inflation is embodied in most central banks’ mandates and the monetary policy transmission mechanism is well known to be subject to long and variable lags. To our best knowledge, central banks around the world use conditional as well as unconditional forecasts for such purposes. Turning to unconditional forecasts, these can be derived on the basis of structural and non-structural models. Among the latter, vector autoregressive (VAR-models are among the most popular tools.
INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
EMILIA HERMAN
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The current economic theory and practice highlights the fact thatbetween inflation and unemployment, two macroeconomic issues which affect the lives ofmillions of individuals, directly and indirectly, there is no simple correlation. Taking intoconsideration these aspects, we aim to present a theoretical and empirical view on therelationship between inflation and unemployment in this study. Also, our intention is toanalyze if in Romania, during 1990 and 2009, there is a Phillips type relation between theinflation rate and the unemployment rate. The results of this research show that, in Romania,in the long run (20 years one cannot identify a stable, statistically significant relationshipbetween inflation and unemployment.
On the constant-roll inflation
Yi, Zhu; Gong, Yungui
2018-03-01
The primordial power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations during slow-roll inflation are usually calculated with the method of Bessel function approximation. For constant-roll or ultra slow-roll inflation, the method of Bessel function approximation may be invalid. We compare the numerical results with the analytical results derived from the Bessel function approximation, and we find that they differ significantly on super-horizon scales if the constant slow-roll parameter ηH is not small. More accurate method is needed for calculating the primordial power spectrum for constant-roll inflation.
Theories of inflation and conformal transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalara, S.; Kaloper, N.; Olive, K.A.
1990-01-01
We show that several different theories of inflation including R 2 , Brans-Dicke, and induced-gravity inflation are all related to generalized or power-law inflation by means of conformal transformations. These theories all involve non-standard gravity, and the use of conformal transformations allows one to obtain standard inflationary predictions such as the expansion time-scale, reheating and density perturbations in each case very simply. We also discuss the possibilities of this method to be applied to string theory. (orig.)
Inflation in the Universe, circa 1986
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL
1988-01-01
The status of the 'Inflationary Paradigm', Circa 1986 is reviewed. At present essentially all inflationary models involve a very weakly-coupled scalar field which is displaced from the minimum of its potential. Regions of the Universe where the scalar field is initially displaced from its minimum undergo inflation as the scalar field relaxes, resulting in a Universe today which resembles ours in regions much larger than our present Hubble volume (≅ 10 28 cm), but which on very largescales (>> 10 28 cm) may be highly irregular. Some other unresolved issues facing inflation, including the confrontation between the predictions of inflation and observational data, are also reviewed. (author) 113 refs.; 4 figs
Stability of inflation processes with polymer melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Hassager, Ole
2002-01-01
The production process Blow-moulding is used to produce different kinds of bottles in plastic. The final stage in this process is the inflation of some kind of (extruded or injection moulded) cylinder outward against the wall of the mould. This creates the final shape of the product. The inflation...... is performed applying a gas pressure into the core of the cylinder, which press the molten plastic cylinder outward. During the inflation the plastic may burst. The occurrence of this burst, or break, puts a limit on the possibility to produce a specified product at some, or all, processing conditions. Here...
Planck 2015 results: XX. Constraints on inflation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey, which includes more than twice the integration time of the nominal survey used for the 2013 release...... a joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck data. These results imply that V(φ) â φ2 and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as R2 inflation. We search for several physically motivated deviations from a simple power...
Localization on the landscape and eternal inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Perry, Malcolm J
2014-01-01
We investigate the validity of the assertion that eternal inflation populates the landscape of string theory. We verify that bubble solutions do not satisfy the Klein–Gordon equation for the landscape potential. Solutions to the landscape potential within the formalism of quantum cosmology are Anderson localized wavefunctions. These are inconsistent with inflating bubble solutions. The physical reasons behind the failure of a relation between eternal inflation and the landscape are rooted in quantum phenomena such as interference between wavefunction concentrated around the various vacua in the landscape. (paper)
D-term uplifted racetrack inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, P.; Postma, M.
2007-10-01
It is shown that racetrack inflation can be implemented in a moduli stabilisation scenario with a supersymmetric uplifting D-term. The resulting model is completely described by an effective supergravity theory, in contrast to the original racetrack models. We study the inflationary dynamics and show that the gaugino condensates vary during inflation. The resulting spectral index is n s ∼0.95 as in the original racetrack inflation model. Hence extra fields do not appear to alter the predictions of the model. An equivalent, simplified model with just a single field is presented. (orig.)
Non-Gaussianity from Axion Monodromy Inflation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hannestad, Steen; Haugboelle, Troels; R. Jarnhus, Philip
2010-01-01
We study the primordial non-Gaussinity predicted from simple models of inflation with a linear potential and superimposed oscillations. This generic form of the potential is predicted by the axion monodromy inflation model, that has recently been proposed as a possible realization of chaotic...... inflation in string theory, where the monodromy from wrapped branes extends the range of the closed string axions to beyond the Planck scale. The superimposed oscillations in the potential can lead to new signatures in the CMB spectrum and bispectrum. In particular the bispectrum will have a new distinct...
Inflation and Instability of a Polymeric Membrane
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neergaard, Jesper; Hassager, Ole
1999-01-01
We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane. The polymeric materialis described by an arbitrary combination of a viscoelastic and a purely viscous component to the stress. Some viscoelastic materials described by a Mooney......-Rivlin model show a monotone increasingpressure during inflation of a spherical membrane. These materials develop a homogeneous membrane thickness in agreement with the Considere-Pearson condition. Molecularly based models such as the neo-Hookean, Doi-Edwards or Tom-Pom model show a pressure maximum when...... inflated. Membranesdescribed by these models develop a local thinning of the membrane which may lead to bursting in finite time....
Observational Constraints on Monomial Warm Inflation
Visinelli, Luca
2016-01-01
Warm inflation is, as of today, one of the best motivated mechanisms for explaining an early inflationary period. In this paper, we derive and analyze the current bounds on warm inflation with a monomial potential $U\\propto \\phi^p$, using the constraints from the PLANCK mission. In particular, we discuss the parameter space of the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ and the potential coupling $\\lambda$ of the monomial warm inflation in terms of the number of e-folds. We obtain that the theoretical ten...
21 CFR 878.3530 - Silicone inflatable breast prosthesis.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Silicone inflatable breast prosthesis. 878.3530... inflatable breast prosthesis. (a) Identification. A silicone inflatable breast prosthesis is a silicone... inflatable breast prosthesis that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on or...
77 FR 65100 - Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation
2012-10-25
... monitors the impact of inflation on its CMP maximums and adjusts them as needed to implement the... Penalties for Inflation AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... civil monetary penalties, to adjust for inflation. This rule sets forth the maximum, inflation-adjusted...
On the burst of branched polymer melts during inflation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Yu, Kaijia
2008-01-01
Two molten low-density polyethylene melts, shaped as plates, have been inflated into a circular cylinder during isothermal conditions. Lowering the inflation rates allow the plates to be inflated into a larger volume of the cylinder before bursting. Numerical simulations of the inflations have been...
21 CFR 876.3350 - Penile inflatable implant.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penile inflatable implant. 876.3350 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3350 Penile inflatable implant. (a) Identification. A penile inflatable implant is a device that consists of two inflatable cylinders...
Introduction of Inflation Linked Bond in Nigeria: Prospects and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Protection against inflation is an essential part of contemporary financial markets, particularly in high-inflation economies like Nigeria. Nowadays, inflation linked instruments are becoming popular in the world financial markets. The objective of this paper is to examine the issues that may arise if inflation linked bond are ...
46 CFR 506.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 506.3... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Commission shall... each civil monetary penalty provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission by the inflation...
78 FR 49370 - Inflation Adjustment of Maximum Forfeiture Penalties
2013-08-14
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Inflation Adjustment of Maximum Forfeiture Penalties AGENCY: Federal Communications... for inflation. The inflation adjustment is necessary to implement the Debt Collection Improvement Act... established in that section to account for inflation since the last adjustment to these penalties. The...
12 CFR 263.65 - Civil penalty inflation adjustments.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty inflation adjustments. 263.65... Money Penalties § 263.65 Civil penalty inflation adjustments. (a) Inflation adjustments. In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note), the Board has...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hladkykh Dmytro M.
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the preconditions for introduction, the main problems and prospects for implementation of the inflation targeting regime in Ukraine. In 2014, the country got into a crisis that affected at once the currency market, the banking system and the real sector, resulting in devaluations, bank failures, decreasing GDP, growing prices. One of the responses to the financial challenges was the transition to inflationary targeting, which led to a slowdown in inflation in 2016-2017. Goals of an inflation targeting are both price growth and international reserves. Achieving these goals implies a policy of «expensive money», exclusive smoothing by interventions of excessive fluctuations, lack of fiscal dominance, prudent fiscal policies, and elimination of quasi-fiscal imbalances. The risks of current monetary policy are the slow implementation of reforms, which can stop external lending, «pre-election» increases in social spending, debt burden growth, and the escalation of hostilities in the east of the country. Further actions by the State should include: minimization of monetary emissions, further reduction of the interest rate, providing the positive level of rates by the National Bank of Ukraine in terms of inflation, increased use of compulsory reservation of the funds involved, restriction of sales of domestic bonds and the NBU certificates to banks.
Flexible Thermal Protection System Development for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators
DelCorso, Joseph A.; Bruce, Walter E., III; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dec, John A.; Rezin, Marc D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Guo, Haiquan; Fletcher, Douglas G.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Cheatwood, McNeil
2012-01-01
The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIAD) project has invested in development of multiple thermal protection system (TPS) candidates to be used in inflatable, high downmass, technology flight projects. Flexible TPS is one element of the HIAD project which is tasked with the research and development of the technology ranging from direct ground tests, modelling and simulation, characterization of TPS systems, manufacturing and handling, and standards and policy definition. The intent of flexible TPS is to enable large deployable aeroshell technologies, which increase the drag performance while significantly reducing the ballistic coefficient of high-mass entry vehicles. A HIAD requires a flexible TPS capable of surviving aerothermal loads, and durable enough to survive the rigors of construction, handling, high density packing, long duration exposure to extrinsic, in-situ environments, and deployment. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of key work being performed within the Flexible TPS element of the HIAD project. Included in this paper is an overview of, and results from, each Flexible TPS research and development activity, which includes ground testing, physics-based thermal modelling, age testing, margins policy, catalysis, materials characterization, and recent developments with new TPS materials.
The Causal Relationship between Inflation and Inflation Expectations in the United Kingdom
Kelly, Roger
2008-01-01
Two major events have affected the monetary regime in the United Kingdom in recent years, namely the introduction of inflation targeting, and the granting of operational independence to the Bank of England. In this paper we examine what impact, if any, these events have had on inflation expectations. A series of Granger causality tests are used in order to examine the causal relationship between a measure of prices and inflation expectations. We find evidence that the introduction of inflatio...
ON ROLE OF INFLATION TARGETING IN RUSSIAN ECONOMY PROGRESS OF LAST YEARS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Егор Николаевич Поляков
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Author of the article gives an explanation of Russian economy slowing down from 4 quarter 2011 till 3 quarter 2013. According to author reasoning the main problem of Russian economy throughout this period of time was growth of real interest rates. The growth of real interest rate is determined by monetary policy, conducted by Central Bank. The main priority of CB is fight against inflation, which is waged by liquidity shrinkage. The bottom-line is fall of inflation and interest rates growth (including lending rate. Real interest rates are growing drastically. In certain branches of economy (for instance manufacturing real interest rates growth amounted to 10 and more percentage points.CB calls this policy inflation targeting. Besides fight against inflation floating ruble is important feature of this policy. The author made a conclusion that floating ruble when hydrocarbons prices are at historical maximum level is the worst recipe for Russian economy which is strongly dependent from hydrocarbons export revenue. The author compares Russian monetary and budget policy with monetary and budget policy of other countries with distorted export structure, for example Saudi Arabia and Norway. The author came to conclusion that Russian monetary and budget policy combination is unique among countries dependent from hydrocarbons export revenues. Result of this monetary and budget policy is vulnerability toward external shocks, tradable sectors noncompetitiveness, close to zero growth rate of economy and deterioration all branches of Russian economy. Zero net of payment balance while high oil price is economic nonsense. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-7
Does the Credible Fiscal Policy Support the Prices Stabilization?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kuncoro Haryo
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the co-movement between fiscal policy and monetary policy rules in the context of price stabilization. More specifically, we observe the potential impact of fiscal policy credibility on the price stabilization in the inflation targeting framework. Motivated by the fact that empirical studies concerning this aspect are still limited, we take the case of Indonesia over the period 2001-2013. Based on the quarterly data analysis, we found that the impact of credibility typically depends on characteristics of fiscal rules commitment. On one hand, the credibility of debt rule reduces the inflation rate. In contrast, the incredible deficit rule policy does not have any impact on the inflation rate and therefore does not support to inflation targeting. Given those results, we conclude that credibility matters in stabilizing price levels. Accordingly, those findings suggest tightening coordination between monetary and fiscal policy to maintain fiscal sustainability in accordance with price stabilization policy
Inflation with non-Markovian dissipation and noise: conditions for warm inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, L.A. da; Farias, R.L.S.; Ramos, R.O.
2009-01-01
Full text. It has been thirteen years since warm inflation was introduced and with it the first and still only alternative dynamical realization of inflation to the standard scenario. The standard picture of inflation introduced in 1981 relied on a scalar field, called the inflaton, which during inflation was assumed to have no interaction with any other fields. During inflation, this field rolls down its potential and due to it being coupled to the background metric, a damping-like term is present which slows down its motion. As this inflaton field was assumed to not interact with other fields, there was no possibility for radiation to be produced during inflation, thus leading to a thermodynamically supercooled phase of the Universe during inflation, followed by a reheating phase, where the Universe goes to the radiation phase. The warm inflation picture differs from the cold inflation picture in that there is no separate reheating phase in the former, and rather radiation production occurs concurrently with inflationary expansion. The constraints by General Relativity for realizing an inflationary phase simply require that the vacuum energy density dominates and so this does not rule out the possibility that there is still a substantial radiation energy density present during inflation. Thus on basic principles, the most general picture of inflation accommodates a radiation energy density component. Warm Inflation models based on microscopic quantum field theories have been constructed where this scenario of inflation concomitant with radiation production can be achieved. The typical equation of motion for the inflaton has been shown to be well approximated by a local equation of motion. However, no systematic study has been performed to test critical assumptions of the warm inflation picture. In this work, we study some of these assumptions. For instance, we verify whether the inflaton equation of motion can be well approximated by a local form. Then, assuming
Eternal extended inflation and graceful exit from old inflation without Jordan-Brans-Dicke
Linde, Andrei
1990-10-01
Recently a possible solution to the graceful exit problem of the old inflation was proposed in the context of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory (extended inflation). In this paper we will argue that inflation in this theory occurs in a most natural way if it starts near the Planck density, as in the standard version of chaotic inflation. With most natural initial conditions, the inflationary universe in the JBD theory enters the stage of permanent reproduction of new inflationary domains (eternal extended inflation). In order to realize the extended inflation scenario at least two classical scalar fields driving inflation are necessary, as distinct from the simplest versions of new and chaotic inflation. It is shown that in the theory of two scalar fields one can solve the graceful exit problem even without modifying the Einstein gravity theory, due to the possibility that the decay rate of the false rate vacuum in old inflation depends on the value of the second scalar field and hence on time. Address after 1 September 1990: Physics Department, Stanford University, Varian Building, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Textile Strain Gauge for Inflatable Structures
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the important elements of an inflatable structure is the restraint layer, made of textile straps that are woven together. This provides the structural support...
Fermion production during and after axion inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adshead, Peter; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I.
2015-01-01
We study derivatively coupled fermions in axion-driven inflation, specifically m ϕ 2 ϕ 2 and monodromy inflation, and calculate particle production during the inflationary epoch and the post-inflationary axion oscillations. During inflation, the rolling axion acts as an effective chemical potential for helicity which biases the gravitational production of one fermion helicity over the other. This mechanism allows for efficient gravitational production of heavy fermion states that would otherwise be highly suppressed. Following inflation, the axion oscillates and fermions with both helicities are produced as the effective frequency of the fermion field changes non-adiabatically. For certain values of the fermion mass and axion-fermion coupling strength, the two helicity states are produced asymmetrically, resulting in unequal number-densities of left- and right-helicity fermions
Hybrid inflation and the moduli problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berkooz, M.; Volansky, T.; Dine, M.
2005-01-01
We revisit some questions in supersymmetric hybrid inflation. We analyze the amount of fine-tuning required in various models, the problem of decay at the end of inflation and the generation of baryons after inflation. We find that the most natural setting for hybrid inflation is in supersymmetric models with nonrenormalizable couplings. Furthermore, we argue that almost inevitably, one of the fields involved is a modulus, with Planck scale variation. The resulting moduli problem can be solved in two ways: either by a massive modulus (which requires some fine-tuning), or an enhanced symmetry point, in which the moduli becomes strongly coupled to the standard model. Various possibilities for baryon production are discussed
Lightweight Materials and Structures (LMS): Inflatable Structures
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current inflatable structures are designed on the restraint layer’s short term properties with a Factor of Safety of 4 due to lack of long-term data on structural...
Inflatable Air Beam Standard Interface Connector
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will develop a system of 3D-printed connectors that can be used as a kit of parts to connect inflatable air beams to form a variety of spacecraft...
Revisiting the minimal chaotic inflation model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harigaya, Keisuke, E-mail: keisukeharigaya@berkeley.edu [ICRR, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Ibe, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro [ICRR, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)
2016-05-10
We point out that the prediction of the minimal chaotic inflation model is altered if a scalar field takes a large field value close to the Planck scale during inflation due to a negative Hubble induced mass. In particular, we show that the inflaton potential is effectively flattened at a large inflaton field value in the presence of such a scalar field. The scalar field may be identified with the standard model Higgs field or super partners of standard model fermions. With such Hubble-induced flattening, we find that the minimal chaotic inflation model, especially the model with a quadratic potential, is consistent with recent observations of the cosmic microwave background fluctuation without modifying the inflation model itself.
Time-reparametrization invariance in eternal inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winitzki, Sergei
2005-01-01
I address some recently raised issues regarding the time-parametrization dependence in stochastic descriptions of eternal inflation. To clarify the role of the choice of the time gauge, I show examples of gauge-dependent as well as gauge-independent statements about physical observables in eternally inflating spacetimes. In particular, the relative abundance of thermalized and inflating regions is highly gauge-dependent. The unbounded growth of the 3-volume of the inflating regions is found in certain time gauges, such as the proper-time or the scale-factor gauge. Yet in the same spacetimes there exist time foliations with a finite and monotonically decreasing 3-volume, which I demonstrate by an explicit construction. I also show that there exists no choice of the time gauge that would yield an unbiased stationary probability distribution for observables in thermalized regions
Inflation's Impact on Faculty Retirement Annuities
Dorfman, Nancy S.
1975-01-01
The discussion is confined to the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA) and College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF) and how they have remained effective with the rise of inflation. (Author/BP)
Grade Inflation: Impact on Graduate Program Entrance.
Johnson, Norbert; And Others
1980-01-01
Results confirm the existence of grade inflation and indicate recent graduates have an advantage over those who enter graduate school 13 to 27 years after undergraduate completion. A correctional factor should be considered. (JAC)