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Sample records for policies odds ratio

  1. The odds ratio: Principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakshi Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The odds ratio (OR is a simple tool, widely utilized in clinical research. As a simple statistic, it can be hand calculated to determine the odds of a particular event or a disease, and the information provided can be useful for understanding the results of a treatment/intervention. This article discusses the application of OR with examples and shows a simple way of performing the test using an online calculator.

  2. Racial odds for amputation ratio in traumatic lower extremity fractures.

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    Weber, Daniel J; Shoham, David A; Luke, Amy; Reed, R Lawrence; Luchette, Fred A

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that black patients receive substandard care compared with white patients across healthcare settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of race on the management (salvage vs. amputation) of traumatic lower extremity open fractures. Data analysis was conducted using the American College of Surgeon's National Trauma Data Bank. Open tibial and fibular (OTFF) and open femoral (OFF) fractures among adults above the age of 18 were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes. Injuries were identified as amputated based on the presence of one of three types of knee amputations. Statistical analysis included logistic regression stratified for sex, age, race, mechanism of injury, severity, and insurance type. From the National Trauma Data Bank, 10,082 OFF and 22,479 OTFF were identified. Amputation rates were 3.1% for OFF and 4.2% for OTFF. With age stratification, the ratio of amputation odds for blacks to amputation odds for whites (i.e., the Racial Odds for Amputation Ratio [ROAR]) demonstrated a significant interaction between black and age in both the OFF (p = 0.028) and OTFF (p = 0.008) groups. In younger patients, a lower ROAR (p = 0.016) favored salvage in blacks, while the ROAR in older patients favored amputation in blacks (p = 0.013). The higher prevalence of penetrating injuries in blacks only accounted for 12.7% of the lower ROAR among younger adults. There exists a racial disparity in the management of lower extremity open fractures. Older blacks have greater odds of amputation that is not explained by mechanism. In contrast, younger blacks have lower odds for amputation that is only partially explained by mechanism of injury.

  3. Inverse odds ratio-weighted estimation for causal mediation analysis.

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    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2013-11-20

    An important scientific goal of studies in the health and social sciences is increasingly to determine to what extent the total effect of a point exposure is mediated by an intermediate variable on the causal pathway between the exposure and the outcome. A causal framework has recently been proposed for mediation analysis, which gives rise to new definitions, formal identification results and novel estimators of direct and indirect effects. In the present paper, the author describes a new inverse odds ratio-weighted approach to estimate so-called natural direct and indirect effects. The approach, which uses as a weight the inverse of an estimate of the odds ratio function relating the exposure and the mediator, is universal in that it can be used to decompose total effects in a number of regression models commonly used in practice. Specifically, the approach may be used for effect decomposition in generalized linear models with a nonlinear link function, and in a number of other commonly used models such as the Cox proportional hazards regression for a survival outcome. The approach is simple and can be implemented in standard software provided a weight can be specified for each observation. An additional advantage of the method is that it easily incorporates multiple mediators of a categorical, discrete or continuous nature. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer.

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    Plagens-Rotman, Katarzyna; Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata

    2016-03-01

    Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated.

  5. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study: The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods: The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results: The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions : A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated.

  6. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  7. The odd couple: Diverging paths in language policy and educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the divergences between what educational policy calls for in South African schools with regard to language and learning and what takes place in schools. It argues that South African constitutional and education policy statements employ an idea of languages as bound entities and systems, and ...

  8. Clinical trials: odds ratios and multiple regression models--why and how to assess them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobh, Mohamad; Cleophas, Ton J.; Hadj-Chaib, Amel; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2008-01-01

    Odds ratios (ORs), unlike chi2 tests, provide direct insight into the strength of the relationship between treatment modalities and treatment effects. Multiple regression models can reduce the data spread due to certain patient characteristics and thus improve the precision of the treatment

  9. Odds ratio based multifactor-dimensionality reduction method for detecting gene-gene interactions.

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    Chung, Yujin; Lee, Seung Yeoun; Elston, Robert C; Park, Taesung

    2007-01-01

    The identification and characterization of genes that increase the susceptibility to common complex multifactorial diseases is a challenging task in genetic association studies. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method has been proposed and implemented by Ritchie et al. (2001) to identify the combinations of multilocus genotypes and discrete environmental factors that are associated with a particular disease. However, the original MDR method classifies the combination of multilocus genotypes into high-risk and low-risk groups in an ad hoc manner based on a simple comparison of the ratios of the number of cases and controls. Hence, the MDR approach is prone to false positive and negative errors when the ratio of the number of cases and controls in a combination of genotypes is similar to that in the entire data, or when both the number of cases and controls is small. Hence, we propose the odds ratio based multifactor dimensionality reduction (OR MDR) method that uses the odds ratio as a new quantitative measure of disease risk. While the original MDR method provides a simple binary measure of risk, the OR MDR method provides not only the odds ratio as a quantitative measure of risk but also the ordering of the multilocus combinations from the highest risk to lowest risk groups. Furthermore, the OR MDR method provides a confidence interval for the odds ratio for each multilocus combination, which is extremely informative in judging its importance as a risk factor. The proposed OR MDR method is illustrated using the dataset obtained from the CDC Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Research Group. The program written in R is available.

  10. Practical guidance for conducting mediation analysis with multiple mediators using inverse odds ratio weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Osypuk, Theresa L; Schmidt, Nicole M; Glymour, M Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship between the exposure (treatment) and multiple mediators, conditional on covariates, by regressing exposure on mediators and covariates. The inverse of the covariate-adjusted exposure-mediator odds ratio association is used to weight the primary analytical regression of the outcome on treatment. The treatment coefficient in such a weighted regression estimates the natural direct effect of treatment on the outcome, and indirect effects are identified by subtracting direct effects from total effects. Weighting renders treatment and mediators independent, thereby deactivating indirect pathways of the mediators. This new mediation technique accommodates multiple discrete or continuous mediators. IORW is easily implemented and is appropriate for any standard regression model, including quantile regression and survival analysis. An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity (1994-2002) experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity. Relevant Stata code (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) is provided. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Misuse of odds ratios in obesity literature: an empirical analysis of published studies.

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    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Sen, Bisakha; Allison, David B; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-08-01

    Odds ratios (ORs) are widely used in scientific research to demonstrate the associations between outcome variables and covariates (risk factors) of interest, and are often described in language suitable for risks or probabilities, but odds and probabilities are related, not equivalent. In situations where the outcome is not rare (e.g., obesity), ORs no longer approximate the relative risk ratio (RR) and may be misinterpreted. Our study examines the extent of misinterpretation of ORs in Obesity and International Journal of Obesity. We reviewed all 2010 issues of these journals to identify all articles that presented ORs. Included articles were then primarily reviewed for correct presentation and interpretation of ORs; and secondarily reviewed for article characteristics that may have been associated with how ORs are presented and interpreted. Of the 855 articles examined, 62 (7.3%) presented ORs. ORs were presented incorrectly in 23.2% of these articles. Clinical articles were more likely to present ORs correctly than social science or basic science articles. Studies with outcome variables that had higher relative prevalence were less likely to present ORs correctly. Overall, almost one-quarter of the studies presenting ORs in two leading journals on obesity misinterpreted them. Furthermore, even when researchers present ORs correctly, the lay media may misinterpret them as relative RRs. Therefore, we suggest that when the magnitude of associations is of interest, researchers should carefully and accurately present interpretable measures of association--including RRs and risk differences--to minimize confusion and misrepresentation of research results.

  12. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state.

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    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Research laboratory. 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). None. Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0-2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r(2) = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Likelihood ratio and posterior odds in forensic genetics: Two sides of the same coin.

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    Caliebe, Amke; Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Kayser, Manfred; Krawczak, Michael

    2017-05-01

    It has become widely accepted in forensics that, owing to a lack of sensible priors, the evidential value of matching DNA profiles in trace donor identification or kinship analysis is most sensibly communicated in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR). This restraint does not abate the fact that the posterior odds (PO) would be the preferred basis for returning a verdict. A completely different situation holds for Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), which is aimed at predicting externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of a trace donor from DNA left behind at the crime scene. FDP is intended to provide leads to the police investigation helping them to find unknown trace donors that are unidentifiable by DNA profiling. The statistical models underlying FDP typically yield posterior odds (PO) for an individual possessing a certain EVC. This apparent discrepancy has led to confusion as to when LR or PO is the appropriate outcome of forensic DNA analysis to be communicated to the investigating authorities. We thus set out to clarify the distinction between LR and PO in the context of forensic DNA profiling and FDP from a statistical point of view. In so doing, we also addressed the influence of population affiliation on LR and PO. In contrast to the well-known population dependency of the LR in DNA profiling, the PO as obtained in FDP may be widely population-independent. The actual degree of independence, however, is a matter of (i) how much of the causality of the respective EVC is captured by the genetic markers used for FDP and (ii) by the extent to which non-genetic such as environmental causal factors of the same EVC are distributed equally throughout populations. The fact that an LR should be communicated in cases of DNA profiling whereas the PO are suitable for FDP does not conflict with theory, but rather reflects the immanent differences between these two forensic applications of DNA information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphism barcoding to evaluate oral cancer risk using odds ratio-based genetic algorithms

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    Cheng-Hong Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancers often involve the synergistic effects of gene–gene interactions, but identifying these interactions remains challenging. Here, we present an odds ratio-based genetic algorithm (OR-GA that is able to solve the problems associated with the simultaneous analysis of multiple independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with oral cancer. The SNP interactions between four SNPs—namely rs1799782, rs2040639, rs861539, rs2075685, and belonging to four genes (XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, and XRCC4—were tested in this study, respectively. The GA decomposes the SNPs sets into different SNP combinations with their corresponding genotypes (called SNP barcodes. The GA can effectively identify a specific SNP barcode that has an optimized fitness value and uses this to calculate the difference between the case and control groups. The SNP barcodes with a low fitness value are naturally removed from the population. Using two to four SNPs, the best SNP barcodes with maximum differences in occurrence between the case and control groups were generated by GA algorithm. Subsequently, the OR provides a quantitative measure of the multiple SNP synergies between the oral cancer and control groups by calculating the risk related to the best SNP barcodes and others. When these were compared to their corresponding non-SNP barcodes, the estimated ORs for oral cancer were found to be great than 1 [approx. 1.72–2.23; confidence intervals (CIs: 0.94–5.30, p < 0.03–0.07] for various specific SNP barcodes with two to four SNPs. In conclusion, the proposed OR-GA method successfully generates SNP barcodes, which allow oral cancer risk to be evaluated and in the process the OR-GA method identifies possible SNP–SNP interactions.

  15. Beta-binomial model for meta-analysis of odds ratios.

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    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Kulinskaya, Elena

    2017-05-20

    In meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), heterogeneity between the studies is usually modelled via the additive random effects model (REM). An alternative, multiplicative REM for ORs uses overdispersion. The multiplicative factor in this overdispersion model (ODM) can be interpreted as an intra-class correlation (ICC) parameter. This model naturally arises when the probabilities of an event in one or both arms of a comparative study are themselves beta-distributed, resulting in beta-binomial distributions. We propose two new estimators of the ICC for meta-analysis in this setting. One is based on the inverted Breslow-Day test, and the other on the improved gamma approximation by Kulinskaya and Dollinger (2015, p. 26) to the distribution of Cochran's Q. The performance of these and several other estimators of ICC on bias and coverage is studied by simulation. Additionally, the Mantel-Haenszel approach to estimation of ORs is extended to the beta-binomial model, and we study performance of various ICC estimators when used in the Mantel-Haenszel or the inverse-variance method to combine ORs in meta-analysis. The results of the simulations show that the improved gamma-based estimator of ICC is superior for small sample sizes, and the Breslow-Day-based estimator is the best for n⩾100. The Mantel-Haenszel-based estimator of OR is very biased and is not recommended. The inverse-variance approach is also somewhat biased for ORs≠1, but this bias is not very large in practical settings. Developed methods and R programs, provided in the Web Appendix, make the beta-binomial model a feasible alternative to the standard REM for meta-analysis of ORs. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Potential misinterpretation of treatment effects due to use of odds ratios and logistic regression in randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam J Knol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In randomized controlled trials (RCTs, the odds ratio (OR can substantially overestimate the risk ratio (RR if the incidence of the outcome is over 10%. This study determined the frequency of use of ORs, the frequency of overestimation of the OR as compared with its accompanying RR in published RCTs, and we assessed how often regression models that calculate RRs were used. METHODS: We included 288 RCTs published in 2008 in five major general medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine. If an OR was reported, we calculated the corresponding RR, and we calculated the percentage of overestimation by using the formula . RESULTS: Of 193 RCTs with a dichotomous primary outcome, 24 (12.4% presented a crude and/or adjusted OR for the primary outcome. In five RCTs (2.6%, the OR differed more than 100% from its accompanying RR on the log scale. Forty-one of all included RCTs (n = 288; 14.2% presented ORs for other outcomes, or for subgroup analyses. Nineteen of these RCTs (6.6% had at least one OR that deviated more than 100% from its accompanying RR on the log scale. Of 53 RCTs that adjusted for baseline variables, 15 used logistic regression. Alternative methods to estimate RRs were only used in four RCTs. CONCLUSION: ORs and logistic regression are often used in RCTs and in many articles the OR did not approximate the RR. Although the authors did not explicitly misinterpret these ORs as RRs, misinterpretation by readers can seriously affect treatment decisions and policy making.

  17. Opinion Paper: 'Likelihood-ratio' and 'odds' applied to monitoring of patients as a supplement to 'reference change value' (RCV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sandberg, Sverre; Iglesias, Natàlia

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background: Interpretation of serial data in monitoring of patients is usually performed by use of the 'reference change value' (RCV). While this tool for interpretation of measured differences is simple and clear, there are a number of drawbacks attached to the uncritical use...... and odds used for diagnostic test evaluations is applied to monitoring by substituting measured concentrations with measured differences. Thus, two frequency distributions of differences are assumed, one for a stable, steady-state, situation and one for a certain change. Values exceeding a measured......-test odds depending on time. Conclusions: The concept presented here expands the earlier concept of RCVs by making it possible to have an estimate of the post-test odds for a certain difference to occur based on likelihood ratios and pre-test odds. Clin Chem Lab Med 2008;46....

  18. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

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    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  19. Predictors of positive health in disability pensioners: a population-based questionnaire study using Positive Odds Ratio

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    Edén Lena

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of ill-health have been studied far more than determinants of good and improving health. Health promotion measures are important even among individuals with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to find predictors of positive subjective health among disability pensioners (DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Methods Two questionnaire surveys were performed among 352 DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Two groups were defined: DPs with positive health and negative health, respectively. In consequence with the health perspective in this study the conception Positive Odds Ratio was defined and used in the logistic regression analyses instead of the commonly used odds ratio. Results Positive health was associated with age ≥ 55 years, not being an immigrant, not having fibromyalgia as the main diagnosis for granting an early retirement, no regular use of analgesics, a high ADL capacity, a positive subjective health preceding the study period, and good quality of life. Conclusion Positive odds ratio is a concept well adapted to theories of health promotion. It can be used in relation to positive outcomes instead of risks. Suggested health promotion and secondary prevention efforts among individuals with musculoskeletal disorders are 1 to avoid a disability pension for individuals

  20. Odds ratios for hip- and lower forearm fracture using peripheral bone densitometry; a case-control study of postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, M M A; Jørgensen, H L; Lauritzen, J B

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured at the lumbar spine and particularly at the hip remain the gold-standard for diagnosing osteoporosis. However, devices for assessing the peripheral skeleton present several advantages in terms of lower price and portability. A major......: Peripheral densitometry can discriminate between hip- and lower forearm fracture patients and age-matched controls. Significantly elevated odds ratios for incurring these fractures can be calculated using device- and site specific t-score cutoff values. The results from this case-control study need...

  1. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

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    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework.

  2. Odd Structures Are Odd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2017), s. 1567-1580 ISSN 0188-7009 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : graded vector space * monoidal structure * Odd endomorphism operad Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00006-016-0720-8

  3. Changing the Odds: Informing Policy with Research on How Adult Learners Succeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condelli, Larry; Kirshstein, Rita; Silver-Pacuilla, Heidi; Reder, Stephen; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    2010-01-01

    Research has identified the barriers adult learners face in attaining their education and English proficiency goals, entering and advancing in employment, succeeding in postsecondary education and training, and navigating service systems. Most adult learners face long odds in trying to meet these goals. What would it take to address these barriers…

  4. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models

  5. Transformation of Summary Statistics from Linear Mixed Model Association on All-or-None Traits to Odds Ratio.

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    Lloyd-Jones, Luke R; Robinson, Matthew R; Yang, Jian; Visscher, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci that are robustly associated with complex diseases. The use of linear mixed model (LMM) methodology for GWAS is becoming more prevalent due to its ability to control for population structure and cryptic relatedness and to increase power. The odds ratio (OR) is a common measure of the association of a disease with an exposure ( e.g. , a genetic variant) and is readably available from logistic regression. However, when the LMM is applied to all-or-none traits it provides estimates of genetic effects on the observed 0-1 scale, a different scale to that in logistic regression. This limits the comparability of results across studies, for example in a meta-analysis, and makes the interpretation of the magnitude of an effect from an LMM GWAS difficult. In this study, we derived transformations from the genetic effects estimated under the LMM to the OR that only rely on summary statistics. To test the proposed transformations, we used real genotypes from two large, publicly available data sets to simulate all-or-none phenotypes for a set of scenarios that differ in underlying model, disease prevalence, and heritability. Furthermore, we applied these transformations to GWAS summary statistics for type 2 diabetes generated from 108,042 individuals in the UK Biobank. In both simulation and real-data application, we observed very high concordance between the transformed OR from the LMM and either the simulated truth or estimates from logistic regression. The transformations derived and validated in this study improve the comparability of results from prospective and already performed LMM GWAS on complex diseases by providing a reliable transformation to a common comparative scale for the genetic effects. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Against the odds: the OMC as a selective amplifier for reforming Belgian pension policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhercke, B.

    2009-01-01

    Tackling pensions' problems means engaging with what Pierson (2001) has called 'immovable objects'. Additionally, the EU competence for drafting specific legislation in this area remains unfulfilled potential, while EU legislation in other policy areas creates indirect pressures on national pension

  7. Distributional justice in Swedish wind power development – An odds ratio analysis of windmill localization and local residents’ socio-economic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenfeldt, Johanna; Pettersson, Örjan

    2017-01-01

    With a fast rise in large-scale wind power development in Sweden and other countries in recent years, issues related to energy justice generally and distributional justice specifically have become concerns in windmill siting. Some research, for instance, has indicated that it is easier to build windmills in economically marginalized communities. The evidence for this, however, is still limited. Thus, this study aims to statistically evaluate the extent to which the decisions to approve or reject windmill proposals in Sweden can be explained by factors related to the socio-economic characteristics of people living in the areas surrounding windmill sites. The study is based on an odds ratio analysis of decisions on all windmill proposals in Sweden, in which geo-referenced socio-economic data on an individual level for all inhabitants within 3 and 10 km of the windmill sites are studied. The results show skewness in the distribution of windmills, with a higher likelihood of rejection in areas with more highly educated people and people working in the private sector, compared to a higher likelihood of approval in areas with more unemployed people. This skewness, while not necessarily unjust, warrants further policy and research attention to distributional justice issues when developing wind power. - Highlights: • The distributional justice of windmill siting in Sweden is statistically evaluated. • Windmill siting decisions are related to people's socio-economic characteristics. • The results indicate some distributional skewness for wind power development. • The study gives statistical rigour and generalisability to energy justice findings. • The results warrant follow-ups and policy guides for how to handle benefit-sharing.

  8. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Mª Dolores; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…

  9. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the A163G polymorphism in the OPG promoter region are related to peripheral measures of bone mass and fracture odds ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik L; Kusk, Philip; Madsen, Bente Elmfelt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the A163G polymorphism in the OPG promoter with peripheral measures of bone mass and with odds ratios for wrist and hip fracture in a case-control study of postmenopausal Danish women. The study included...

  10. A limitation of the diagnostic-odds ratio in determining an optimal cut-off value for a continuous diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhning, Dankmar; Holling, Heinz; Patilea, Valentin

    2011-10-01

    The article considers the diagnostic odds ratio, a special summarising function of specificity and sensitivity for a given diagnostic test, which has been suggested as a measure of diagnostic discriminatory power. In the situation of a continuous diagnostic test a cut-off value has to be chosen and it is a common practice to choose the cut-off value on the basis of the maximised diagnostic odds ratio. We show that this strategy is not to be recommended since it might easily lead to cut-off values on the boundary of the parameter range. This is illustrated by means of some examples. The source of the deficient behaviour of the diagnostic odds ratio lies in the convexity of the log-diagnostic odds ratio as a function of the cut-off value. This can easily be seen in practice by plotting a non-parametric estimate of the log-DOR against the cut-off value. In fact, it is shown for the case of a normal distributed diseased and a normal distributed non-diseased population with equal variances that the log-DOR is a convex function of the cut-off value. It is also shown that these problems are not present for the Youden index, which appears to be a better choice.

  11. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine policy and evidence-based medicine: are they at odds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenovic, Lucija; Shaw, Christopher A

    2013-03-01

    All drugs are associated with some risks of adverse reactions. Because vaccines represent a special category of drugs, generally given to healthy individuals, uncertain benefits mean that only a small level of risk for adverse reactions is acceptable. Furthermore, medical ethics demand that vaccination should be carried out with the participant's full and informed consent. This necessitates an objective disclosure of the known or foreseeable vaccination benefits and risks. The way in which HPV vaccines are often promoted to women indicates that such disclosure is not always given from the basis of the best available knowledge. For example, while the world's leading medical authorities state that HPV vaccines are an important cervical cancer prevention tool, clinical trials show no evidence that HPV vaccination can protect against cervical cancer. Similarly, contrary to claims that cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, existing data show that this only applies to developing countries. In the Western world cervical cancer is a rare disease with mortality rates that are several times lower than the rate of reported serious adverse reactions (including deaths) from HPV vaccination. Future vaccination policies should adhere more rigorously to evidence-based medicine and ethical guidelines for informed consent.

  12. Odd Viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Avron, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    When time reversal is broken the viscosity tensor can have a non vanishing odd part. In two dimensions, and only then, such odd viscosity is compatible with isotropy. Elementary and basic features of odd viscosity are examined by considering solutions of the wave and Navier-Stokes equations for hypothetical fluids where the stress is dominated by odd viscosity.

  13. A cross-validation procedure for general pedigrees and matched odds ratio fitness metric implemented for the multifactor dimensionality reduction pedigree disequilibrium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L.; Torstensen, Eric; Dudek, Scott; Martin, Eden R.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2009-01-01

    As genetic epidemiology looks beyond mapping single disease susceptibility loci, interest in detecting epistatic interactions between genes has grown. The dimensionality and comparisons required to search the epistatic space and the inference for a significant result pose challenges for testing epistatic disease models. The Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Pedigree Disequilibrium Test (MDR-PDT) was developed to test for multilocus models in pedigree data. In the present study we rigorously tested MDR-PDT with new cross-validation (CV) (both 5- and 10-fold) and omnibus model selection algorithms by simulating a range of heritabilities, odds ratios, minor allele frequencies, sample sizes, and numbers of interacting loci. Power was evaluated using 100, 500, and 1000 families, with minor allele frequencies 0.2 and 0.4 and broad-sense heritabilities of 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.1 for 2 and 3-locus purely epistatic penetrance models. We also compared the prediction error measure of effect with a predicted matched odds ratio for final model selection and testing. We report that the CV procedure is valid with the permutation test, MDR-PDT performs similarly with 5 and 10- fold CV, and that the matched odds ratio is more powerful than prediction error as the fitness metric for MDR-PDT. PMID:19697353

  14. Breed related odds ratio and anatomic distribution of canine mast cell tumours in Austria. Retrospective study of cases in the years 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, E F; Freeman, K; Kirtz, G; Hooijberg, E H; Sick, K

    2014-01-01

    An increased risk of mast cell tumours (MCT) in certain breeds has been described repeatedly in the literature. The incidence of MCTs for registered breeds in Austria, an estimate of the risk by means of the odds ratios based on breed as well as the anatomic localisation of MCTs were examined. In the first part of the study, the ranking of breeds in Austria based on 147,802 dogs with known breed (including mixed breed) was determined, based on those dogs included in the laboratory data base from 2000 to 2010. In the second part of the study, 476 dogs were identified with MCTs and analysed by age, sex, Patnaik grade of MCT and breed distribution. The odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated for all breeds with skin tumours. The age distribution showed a peak in the age group from 6.1 to 8.0 years; 70% of MCTs were localised to the head and trunk. No significant difference was found based on gender. The evaluation of the odds ratios showed that only four of the 20 of the most popular in Austria breeds (Boxer, Bernese Mountain Dog, Golden Retriever, Spaniel) had an increased risk; on the other hand, some breeds which have not been previously identified in the literature were indicated to have a significantly increased risk for MCT (e.g., Dogo Argentino, Tibetan Spaniel, Pyrenean Mountain Dog, Beauceron, and Austrian Smooth-haired Hound). Because disease risk may influence the popularity of some currently rare breeds, consultation with breeders and owners regarding the identification of the breeds newly identified in this study as an increased risk for development of mast cell tumours is indicated.

  15. Opium and bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the odds ratios for opium use and the risk of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Mahdi; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    The association between opium use and bladder cancer has been investigated in many studies, with varying reporting results reported. This study aims to estimate the total odds ratio for the association between bladder cancer and opium consumption using meta-analysis. The study was designed according to PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers searched for the relevant studies using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OVID, Embase, and Google Scholar. After systematic screening of the studies identified during the first step, Cochrane risk of bias tool was determined for the selected studies. The case-control and the cohort studies were investigated to assess risk of bladder cancer due to opium use. In addition, the cross-sectional studies were analysed separately to assess frequency of opium consumption. These estimates were combined using the inverse variance method. Fixed or random effect models were applied to combine the point odds ratios. The heterogeneity between the primary results was assessed using the Cochran test and I-square index. The suspected factors for heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression models. An Egger test was conducted to identify any probable publication bias. Forest plots illustrated the point and pooled estimates. All analyses were performed using Stata version 14 software and RevMan version 5.3. We included 17 primary studies (11 case-control, one cohort and five cross-sectional) in the final meta-analysis. The total odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for developing bladder cancer by opium use alone, and concurrent use of opium and cigarettes were estimated as 3.85 (3.05-4.87) and 5.7 (1.9-16.3) respectively. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for opium use with or without cigarette smoking was estimated as 5.3 (3.6-7.7). This meta-analysis showed that opium use similar to cigarette smoking and maybe with similar mechanisms can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. It is therefore expected to be a risk factor

  16. " Odd, Watson–Very Odd!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Odd, Watson – Very Odd!" S Mahadevan. Book Review Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 114-117. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/01/0114-0117. Author Affiliations.

  17. A cross-validation procedure for general pedigrees and matched odds ratio fitness metric implemented for the multifactor dimensionality reduction pedigree disequilibrium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L; Torstensen, Eric; Dudek, Scott; Martin, Eden R; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2010-02-01

    As genetic epidemiology looks beyond mapping single disease susceptibility loci, interest in detecting epistatic interactions between genes has grown. The dimensionality and comparisons required to search the epistatic space and the inference for a significant result pose challenges for testing epistatic disease models. The multifactor dimensionality reduction-pedigree disequilibrium test (MDR-PDT) was developed to test for multilocus models in pedigree data. In the present study we rigorously tested MDR-PDT with new cross-validation (CV) (both 5- and 10-fold) and omnibus model selection algorithms by simulating a range of heritabilities, odds ratios, minor allele frequencies, sample sizes, and numbers of interacting loci. Power was evaluated using 100, 500, and 1,000 families, with minor allele frequencies 0.2 and 0.4 and broad-sense heritabilities of 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.1 for 2- and 3-locus purely epistatic penetrance models. We also compared the prediction error (PE) measure of effect with a predicted matched odds ratio (MOR) for final model selection and testing. We report that the CV procedure is valid with the permutation test, MDR-PDT performs similarly with 5- and 10-fold CV, and that the MOR is more powerful than PE as the fitness metric for MDR-PDT. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Talking on a Wireless Cellular Device While Driving: Improving the Validity of Crash Odds Ratio Estimates in the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Young

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dingus and colleagues (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2016, 113, 2636–2641 reported a crash odds ratio (OR estimate of 2.2 with a 95% confidence interval (CI from 1.6 to 3.1 for hand-held cell phone conversation (hereafter, “Talk” in the SHRP 2 naturalistic driving database. This estimate is substantially higher than the effect sizes near one in prior real-world and naturalistic driving studies of conversation on wireless cellular devices (whether hand-held, hands-free portable, or hands-free integrated. Two upward biases were discovered in the Dingus study. First, it selected many Talk-exposed drivers who simultaneously performed additional secondary tasks besides Talk but selected Talk-unexposed drivers with no secondary tasks. This “selection bias” was removed by: (1 filtering out records with additional tasks from the Talk-exposed group; or (2 adding records with other tasks to the Talk-unexposed group. Second, it included records with driver behavior errors, a confounding bias that was also removed by filtering out such records. After removing both biases, the Talk OR point estimates declined to below 1, now consistent with prior studies. Pooling the adjusted SHRP 2 Talk OR estimates with prior study effect size estimates to improve precision, the population effect size for wireless cellular conversation while driving is estimated as 0.72 (CI 0.60–0.88.

  19. An international comparative family medicine study of the Transition Project data from the Netherlands, Malta, Japan and Serbia. An analysis of diagnostic odds ratios aggregated across age bands, years of observation and individual practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, J.K.; Okkes, I.; Oskam, S.; Boven, K. van; Zivotic, P.; Jevtic, M.; Dobbs, F.; Lamberts, H.; Transition, P.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This is a study of the process of diagnosis in family medicine (FM) in four practice populations from the Netherlands, Malta, Serbia and Japan. Diagnostic odds ratios (ORs) for common reasons for encounter (RfEs) and episode titles are used to study the process of diagnosis in

  20. An international comparative family medicine study of the Transition Project data from the Netherlands, Malta, Japan and Serbia. An analysis of diagnostic odds ratios aggregated across age bands, years of observation and individual practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, Jean K.; Okkes, Inge; Oskam, Sibo; van Boven, Kees; Zivotic, Predrag; Jevtic, Milan; Dobbs, Frank; Lamberts, Henk; van Boven, C.; Dijksterhuis, P. H.; Groen, A.; de Haan, J.; Honselaar-de Groot, A. M.; Janssen, D.; Polman, T. A. L.; Polderman, G. O.; Stolp, K. E. I.; Valken, N.; Veltman, M. T. M.; Woerdeman, M.; Calleja, Francis Paul; Sammut, Carmen; Sammut, Mario R.; Sammut, Daniel; Sammut, David; Bonnici, Jason; Buhagiar, John; Baldacchino, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This is a study of the process of diagnosis in family medicine (FM) in four practice populations from the Netherlands, Malta, Serbia and Japan. Diagnostic odds ratios (ORs) for common reasons for encounter (RfEs) and episode titles are used to study the process of diagnosis in international FM and

  1. Aberrations Involving Chromosome 1 as a Possible Predictor of Odds Ratio for Colon Cancer--Results from the Krakow Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Galas

    Full Text Available There is still an open question how to predict colorectal cancer risk before any morphological changes appear in the colon.The purpose was to investigate aberrations in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 in peripheral blood lymphocytes analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique as a tool to assess the likelihood of colorectal cancer.A hospital-based case-control study included 20 colon cancer patients and 18 hospital-based controls. Information about potential covariates was collected by interview. The frequency of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations in chromosome 1, 2 and 4 was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique.Colorectal cancer patients, as compared to controls, had a relatively higher frequency of chromosome 1 translocations (median: 3.5 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.006, stable aberrations (3.8 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.007 and total aberrations (p = 0.009. There were no differences observed for chromosomes 2 and 4. Our results showed an increase in the odds of having colon cancer by about 50-80% associated with an increase by 1/1000 cells in the number of chromosome 1 aberrations.The results revealed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, especially translocations in chromosome 1, seems to be a promising method to show a colon cancer risk. Additionally, our study suggests the reasonableness of use of biomarkers such as chromosome 1 aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in screening prevention programs for individuals at higher colon cancer risk to identify those who are at increased risk and require more frequent investigations, e.g. by sigmoidoscopy.

  2. Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  3. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Impulse control problems Substance use disorder Suicide Many children and teens with ODD also have other mental health disorders, such as: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Conduct disorder Depression Anxiety Learning and communication disorders Treating ...

  4. Identities at Odds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    This study offers an interaction analytic account of how linguistic identities in internationalized workplaces in Denmark are indexed against members’ institutional positions in particular interactional settings. Where language policy may not be explicitly articulated between members, it is still...

  5. Conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.A.; Levon, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Phenomenological approach is described, using it, energy spectra of odd-odd nucleus collective bands based on conflicting state of unpaired nucleons can be calculated. It is ascertained that in a conflicting bond unpaired nucleon acts as a spectator, i.e. energy spectra of collective bands in odd-odd nuclei are similar to the spectra of collective bands in heighbouring odd nuclei, which are based on the state of a strongly bound nucleon is included in the conflicting configuration

  6. Drug Policy and the Ultima Ratio in A Social and Democratic State, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hogg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a Member State of the UN and the EU, Spain's drug policy is heavily conditioned by these external superior ‘legal personalities’. Although, the Spanish legislature has enacted amendments to legislation on illicit substances over the last ten years to attenuate excessively punitive law, their interpretation and internal application of conventions on drug legislation has by in large overlooked the ultima ratio principle i.e. minimum intervention (Arana 2012. Spain’s criminal legislation is presented as well as the consequences of the prohibition of illicit substances in this jurisdiction. Finally, alternatives that have emerged in the Basque Autonomous Community to counter the effects of its criminalisation are briefly discussed and promoted as a means of abating external legal constraints that have serious social and legal ramifications. Como miembro de ONU y UE, la política de drogas española está fuertemente condicionada por la legislación emanada de estas entidades jurídicas. A pesar de eso, los legisladores españoles han introducido reformas en la legislación sobre sustancias ilícitas en los últimos diez años para atenuar una legislación excesivamente punitiva, su interpretación y aplicación interna de convenios sobre legislación en materia de drogas en gran parte no toma en cuenta el principio del ultimo ratio (Arana 2012. Se presenta la legislación penal española en materia de sustancias ilícitas y también los efectos que ésta tiene sobre la jurisdicción. Finalmente, las alternativas surgidas en la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca para contrarrestar los efectos de la criminalización, son brevemente discutidas y promovidas como una manera para amainar las limitaciones jurídicas que tienen importantes y serias ramificaciones sociales y legales. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200886

  7. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  8. Impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and quit ratios in 27 European Union countries from 2006 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Ariadna; Filippidis, Filippos T; Joossens, Luk; Fong, Geoffrey T; Vardavas, Constantine I; Baena, Antoni; Castellano, Yolanda; Martínez, Cristina; Fernández, Esteve

    2018-02-22

    Tobacco use is still highly prevalent in Europe, despite the tobacco control efforts made by the governments. The development of tobacco control policies varies substantially across countries. The Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) was introduced to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies across European countries OBJECTIVE: To assess the midterm association of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and quit ratios among 27 European Union (EU) Member States (EU27). Ecological study. We used the TCS in EU27 in 2007 and the prevalence of tobacco and quit ratios data from the Eurobarometer survey (2006 (n=27 585) and 2014 (n=26 793)). We analysed the relationship between the TCS scores and smoking prevalence and quit ratios and their relative changes (between 2006 and 2014) by means of scatter plots and multiple linear regression models. In EU27, countries with higher scores in the TCS, which indicates higher tobacco control efforts, have lower prevalence of smokers, higher quit ratios and higher relative decreases in their prevalence rates of smokers over the last decade. The correlation between TCS scores and smoking prevalence (r sp =-0.444; P=0.02) and between the relative changes in smoking prevalence (r sp =-0.415; P=0.03) was negative. A positive correlation was observed between TCS scores and quit ratios (r sp =0.373; P=0.06). The percentage of smoking prevalence explained by all TCS components was 28.9%. EU27 should continue implementing comprehensive tobacco control policies as they are key for reducing the prevalence of smoking and an increase tobacco cessation rates in their population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Odd things, in odd places, in odd races | Ferndale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odd things, in odd places, in odd races. L Ferndale, R Wise, S R Thomson. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Gastroenterology Vol. 5 (3) 2007: pp. 9-12. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sagr.v5i3.30737 · AJOL African Journals ...

  10. Random interactions, isospin, and the ground states of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Volya, Alexander; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    It was recently shown that the ground state quantum numbers of even-even nuclei have a high probability to be reproduced by an ensemble of random but rotationally invariant two-body interactions. In the present work we extend these investigations to odd-A and odd-odd nuclei, considering in particular the isospin effects. Studying the realistic shell model as well as the single-j model, we show that random interactions have a tendency to assign the lowest possible total angular momentum and isospin to the ground state. In the sd shell model this reproduces correctly the isospin but not the spin quantum numbers of actual odd-odd nuclei. An odd-even staggering effect in probability of various ground state quantum numbers is present for even-even and odd-odd nuclei, while it is smeared out for odd-A nuclei. The observed regularities suggest the underlying mechanism of bosonlike pairing of fermionic pairs in T=0 and T=1 states generated by the off-diagonal matrix elements of random interactions. The relation to the models of random spin interactions is briefly discussed

  11. Gastritis May Boost Odds of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2014-08-01

    Given the high prevalence of dementia and its devastating consequences, identifying risk factors for dementia is a public health priority. The present study aims to assess whether gastritis increases the odds of dementia. The data for this study, consisting of 2926 community-dwelling older adults, were obtained from the National survey entitled "Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians." Dementia was diagnosed using the Geriatric Mental State-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer-Assisted Taxonomy. Prevalence of dementia was considerably higher among older adults with gastritis (29.5%) compared to those without gastritis (13.2%). After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes, gastritis was significantly associated with more than twice odds of dementia (adjusted odds ratio = 2.42, P gastritis may increase the risk of dementia provide avenue for further inquiries into dementia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.D.; Gandhi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides. Collective model of odd-odd nuclei is applied to predict the magnetic dipole moments, (μ) of odd-odd lanthanides. A simplified version of expression for μ based on diagonalisation of Hamiltonian (subsequent use of eigenvectors to compute μ) is developed for cases of ground state as well as excited states using no configuration mixing and is applied to the cases of odd-odd lanthanides. The formulae applied to the eleven (11) cases of ground states show significant improvement over the results obtained using shell model. Configuration mixing and coriolis coupling is expected to cause further improvement in the results. On comparing the earlier work in this direction the present analysis has clarified that in the expression μ the projection factors have different signs for the case I=Ωp - Ωn and I=Ωn - Ωp, and sign of μ is negative in general in the second case while it is positive in all others of spin projection alignments. Although the general expression holds for excited states as well but in lanthanide region, the experimental reports of magnetic dipole moments of excite states (band heads of higher rational sequences) are not available except in case of five (5) neutron resonance states which cannot be handled on the basis of the present approach with no configuration mixing. Although in the present discussion, the model could not be applied to excited states but the systematics of change in its magnitude with increasing spin at higher rational states is very well understood. The particle part supressed under faster rotation of the nuclear core and thus finally at higher spin I, the value μ is given by μ=g c I (same as in case of even-even nuclei). These systematics are to be verified whenever enough data for higher excited states are available. (author). 11 refs

  13. Tobacco control environment: cross-sectional survey of policy implementation, social unacceptability, knowledge of tobacco health harms and relationship to quit ratio in 17 low-income, middle-income and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clara K; Corsi, Daniel J; Gilmore, Anna B; Kruger, Annamarie; Igumbor, Ehimario; Chifamba, Jephat; Yang, Wang; Wei, Li; Iqbal, Romaina; Mony, Prem; Gupta, Rajeev; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Mohan, V; Kumar, Rajesh; Rahman, Omar; Yusoff, Khalid; Ismail, Noorhassim; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Altuntas, Yuksel; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Yusufali, AfzalHussein; Dagenais, Gilles; Lear, Scott; Diaz, Rafael; Avezum, Alvaro; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Lanas, Fernando; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Teo, Koon; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-03-31

    This study examines in a cross-sectional study 'the tobacco control environment' including tobacco policy implementation and its association with quit ratio. 545 communities from 17 high-income, upper-middle, low-middle and low-income countries (HIC, UMIC, LMIC, LIC) involved in the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH) study from 2009 to 2014. Community audits and surveys of adults (35-70 years, n=12 953). Summary scores of tobacco policy implementation (cost and availability of cigarettes, tobacco advertising, antismoking signage), social unacceptability and knowledge were associated with quit ratios (former vs ever smokers) using multilevel logistic regression models. Average tobacco control policy score was greater in communities from HIC. Overall 56.1% (306/545) of communities had >2 outlets selling cigarettes and in 28.6% (154/539) there was access to cheap cigarettes (80% of participants disapproved youth smoking (95.7% HIC, 57.6% UMIC, 76.3% LMIC and 58.9% LIC). The average knowledge score was >80% in 48.4% of communities (94.6% HIC, 53.6% UMIC, 31.8% LMIC and 35.1% LIC). Summary scores of policy implementation, social unacceptability and knowledge were positively and significantly associated with quit ratio and the associations varied by gender, for example, communities in the highest quintile of the combined scores had 5.0 times the quit ratio in men (Odds ratio (OR) 5·0, 95% CI 3.4 to 7.4) and 4.1 times the quit ratio in women (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4 to 7.1). This study suggests that more focus is needed on ensuring the tobacco control policy is actually implemented, particularly in LMICs. The gender-related differences in associations of policy, social unacceptability and knowledge suggest that different strategies to promoting quitting may need to be implemented in men compared to women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Tobacco control environment: cross-sectional survey of policy implementation, social unacceptability, knowledge of tobacco health harms and relationship to quit ratio in 17 low-income, middle-income and high-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Daniel J; Gilmore, Anna B; Kruger, Annamarie; Igumbor, Ehimario; Chifamba, Jephat; Yang, Wang; Wei, Li; Iqbal, Romaina; Mony, Prem; Gupta, Rajeev; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Mohan, V; Kumar, Rajesh; Rahman, Omar; Yusoff, Khalid; Ismail, Noorhassim; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Altuntas, Yuksel; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Yusufali, AfzalHussein; Dagenais, Gilles; Lear, Scott; Diaz, Rafael; Avezum, Alvaro; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Lanas, Fernando; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Teo, Koon; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examines in a cross-sectional study ‘the tobacco control environment’ including tobacco policy implementation and its association with quit ratio. Setting 545 communities from 17 high-income, upper-middle, low-middle and low-income countries (HIC, UMIC, LMIC, LIC) involved in the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH) study from 2009 to 2014. Participants Community audits and surveys of adults (35–70 years, n=12 953). Primary and secondary outcome measures Summary scores of tobacco policy implementation (cost and availability of cigarettes, tobacco advertising, antismoking signage), social unacceptability and knowledge were associated with quit ratios (former vs ever smokers) using multilevel logistic regression models. Results Average tobacco control policy score was greater in communities from HIC. Overall 56.1% (306/545) of communities had >2 outlets selling cigarettes and in 28.6% (154/539) there was access to cheap cigarettes (tobacco advertisements) were in 63.0% (341/541) of communities (81.7% HIC, 52.8% UMIC, 65.1% LMIC and 57.6% LIC). In 70.4% (379/538) of communities, >80% of participants disapproved youth smoking (95.7% HIC, 57.6% UMIC, 76.3% LMIC and 58.9% LIC). The average knowledge score was >80% in 48.4% of communities (94.6% HIC, 53.6% UMIC, 31.8% LMIC and 35.1% LIC). Summary scores of policy implementation, social unacceptability and knowledge were positively and significantly associated with quit ratio and the associations varied by gender, for example, communities in the highest quintile of the combined scores had 5.0 times the quit ratio in men (Odds ratio (OR) 5·0, 95% CI 3.4 to 7.4) and 4.1 times the quit ratio in women (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4 to 7.1). Conclusions This study suggests that more focus is needed on ensuring the tobacco control policy is actually implemented, particularly in LMICs. The gender-related differences in associations of policy, social unacceptability and knowledge suggest that

  15. Deformed shapes in odd-odd nuclei near Z = 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, G.; Pai, H.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Basu, S.K.; Kundu, S.; Ghosh, T.K.; Bannerjee, K.; Rana, T.K.; Meena, J.K.; Chanda, S.; Bhowmik, R.K.; Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S.; Garg, R.

    2009-01-01

    The neutron deficient nuclei in the vicinity of the Z = 82 region are known for interesting structural phenomena arising due to different shape driving effects of the proton and neutron orbitals near the Fermi surface. It has been found that the heavier bismuth and thallium nuclei with A > 200 are spherical and the lighter nuclei with A < 194 have rotational bands indicating deformation. We report here our recent experimental investigation of γ-ray spectroscopy of odd-odd Bi and Tl nuclei in mass region A = 190

  16. Estimating the effect of the one-child policy on the sex ratio imbalance in China: identification based on the difference-in-differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbin; Yi, Junjian; Zhang, Junsen

    2011-11-01

    In China, the male-biased sex ratio has increased significantly. Because the one-child policy applies only to the Han Chinese but not to minorities, this unique affirmative policy allows us to identify the causal effect of the one-child policy on the increase in sex ratios by using a difference-in-differences (DD) estimator. Using the 1990 census, we find that the strict enforcement of the one-child policy led to 4.4 extra boys per 100 girls in the 1980s, accounting for about 94% of the total increase in sex ratios during this period. The robust tests indicate that the estimated policy effect is not likely confounded by other omitted policy shocks or socioeconomic changes. Moreover, we conduct the DD estimation using both the 2000 census and the 2005 mini-census. Our estimates suggest that the one-child policy resulted in about 7.0 extra boys per 100 girls for the 1991-2005 birth cohorts. The effect of the one-child policy accounts for about 57% and 54% of the total increases in sex ratios for the 1991-2000 and 2001-2005 birth cohorts, respectively.

  17. Structure and symmetries of odd-odd triaxial nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Colaba, Mumbai (India); Bhat, G.H. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Govt. Degree College Kulgam, Department of Physics, Kulgam (India); Sheikh, J.A. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Cluster University of Srinagar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2017-05-15

    Rotational spectra of odd-odd Rh and Ag isotopes are investigated with the primary motivation to search for the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking phenomenon in these nuclei. The experimental results obtained on the degenerate dipole bands of some of these isotopes using a large array of gamma detectors are discussed and studied using the triaxial projected shell (TPSM) approach. It is shown that, first of all, to reproduce the odd-even staggering of the known yrast bands of these nuclei, large triaxial deformation is needed. This large triaxial deformation also gives rise to doublet band structures in many of these studied nuclei. The observed doublet bands in these isotopes are shown to be reproduced reasonably well by the TPSM calculations. Further, the TPSM calculations for neutron-rich nuclei indicate that the ideal manifestation of the chirality can be realised in {sup 106}Rh and {sup 112}Ag, where the doublet bands have similar electromagnetic properties along with small differences in excitation energies. (orig.)

  18. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  19. Calculation of {beta}-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    In order to study {beta}-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider {beta}-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured {beta}-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on {beta}-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of {beta}-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the {beta}-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the {beta} spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  20. High spin states in odd-odd {sup 132}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Takehito [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Lu, J.; Furuno, K. [and others

    1998-03-01

    Excited states with spin larger than 5 {Dirac_h} were newly established in the {sup 132}Cs nucleus via the {sup 124}Sn({sup 11}B,3n) reaction. Rotational bands built on the {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}d{sub 5/2}, {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}g{sub 7/2} and {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} configurations were observed up to spin I {approx} 16 {Dirac_h}. The {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} band shows inverted signature splitting below I < 14 {Dirac_h}. A dipole band was firstly observed in doubly odd Cs nuclei. (author)

  1. Lifetimes and magnetic moments in odd-odd 70 As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, D.; Negoita, F.; Stanoiu, M.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive experimental and theoretical work on the structure of N∼Z, A = 60-80 nuclei revealed many interesting features: large prolate deformations (β = 0.4), strong shape variations as a function of particle number, excitation energy, spin and shape coexistence effects. They are related with drastic changes of properties observed in nuclei with Z≥33 when going from spherical nuclei with N = 50 to neutron deficient nuclei with N = 38 or 40. Both the rapid changes in structure and the shape coexistence appear to reflect the competition between the shell gaps which occur at large oblate and prolate deformations near nucleon numbers 36 and 38 for both protons and neutrons. For N∼Z nuclei the same shell gaps appear simultaneously for both protons and neutrons and reinforce each other. The microscopic structure of the nuclei in the mass region A = 60-80 is essentially determined by the 1g 9/2 , 2p 1/2 , 1f 5/2 and 2p 3/2 orbitals. Because no unique interpretation of the unusual features discovered in these nuclei exists, the systematic experimental study of structure of these nuclei is still an interesting subject. As part of a systematic experimental study undertaken to investigate the structure of neutron deficient, odd-odd As nuclei, 68,70,72 As, the level scheme of 70 As was investigated using heavy ion induced reactions and in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy techniques. At energies between 500 and 900 keV a multiplet of negative parity levels has been observed. At higher energies a high-spin positive parity sequence of levels starting with a E x = 1676 keV, J π 8 + level is strongly populated. Additional information is required in order to establish the structure of low and high-spin levels of both parities. The magnetic moments of the 8 + and 9 + levels have been measured using the time-integral perturbed angular distribution technique and the lifetimes of four levels have been determined using the recoil-distance method. From the measured lifetime for the 9

  2. UNPACKING THE DIFFERENTIAL IMPACT OF FAMILY PLANNING POLICIES IN CHINA: ANALYSIS OF PARITY PROGRESSION RATIOS FROM RETROSPECTIVE BIRTH HISTORY DATA, 1971-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Min; Falkingham, Jane; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2018-01-10

    Although China's family planning programme is often referred to in the singular, most notably the One-Child policy, in reality there have been a number of different policies in place simultaneously, targeted at different sub-populations characterized by region and socioeconomic conditions. This study attempted to systematically assess the differential impact of China's family planning programmes over the past 40 years. The contribution of Parity Progression Ratios to fertility change among different sub-populations exposed to various family planning policies over time was assessed. Cross-sectional birth history data from six consecutive rounds of nationally representative population and family planning surveys from the early 1970s until the mid-2000s were used, covering all geographical regions of China. Four sub-populations exposed to differential family planning regimes were identified. The analyses provide compelling evidence of the influential role of family planning policies in reducing higher Parity Progression Ratios across different sub-populations, particularly in urban China where fertility dropped to replacement level even before the implementation of the One-Child policy. The prevailing socioeconomic conditions in turn have been instrumental in adapting and accelerating family planning policy responses to reducing fertility levels across China.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical

  4. Conflicting Coupling of Unpaired Nucleons and the Structure of Collective Bands in Odd-Odd Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levon, A.I.; Pasternak, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei is discussed. A very simple explanation is suggested for the damping of the energy spacing of the lowest levels in the rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei with the 'conflicting' coupling of an odd proton and an odd neutron comparative to those of the bands based on the state of a strongly coupled particle in the neighboring odd nucleus entering the 'conflicting' configuration.

  5. China's one-child policy and "the mystery of missing women": Ethnic minorities and male-biased sex ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Zhang, X.; Heerink, N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 40 million women are ‘missing’ in China. We exploit a special provision in the Chinese one-child policy (OCP; allowing for preferential treatment of ethnic minority groups) to revisit the mystery of these missing women, and in particular to explore the

  6. Coulomb Excitation of Odd-Mass and Odd-Odd Cu Isotopes using REX-ISOLDE and Miniball

    CERN Multimedia

    Lauer, M; Iwanicki, J S

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the properties of the odd-mass and the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu nuclei applying the Coulomb excitation technique and using the REX-ISOLDE facility coupled to the Miniball array. The results from the Coulex experiments accomplished at REX-ISOLDE after its upgrade to 3 MeV/u during the last year have shown the power of this method and its importance in order to obtain information on the collective properties of even-even nuclei. Performing an experiment on the odd-mass and on the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu isotopes in the vicinity of N=40 should allow us to determine and interpret the effective proton and neutron charges in the region and to unravel the lowest proton-neutron multiplets in $^{68,70}$Cu. This experiment can take the advantage of the unique opportunity to accelerate isomerically separated beams using the RILIS ion source at ISOLDE.

  7. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budowle, Bruce; Ge, Jianye; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Gill-King, Harrell

    2011-06-27

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds.

  8. Degenerate odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A linear degenerate odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely on Grassmann variables is proposed. It is revealed that this bracket has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, second and third orders with respect to the Grassmann derivatives. It is shown that these Δ-like operators, together with the Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket, form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra

  9. Family size, fertility preferences, and sex ratio in China in the era of the one child family policy: results from national family planning and reproductive health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qu Jian; Hesketh, Therese

    2006-08-19

    To examine the impact of the one child family policy in China on fertility, preferred family size, and sex ratio. Secondary analysis of data from the Chinese cross sectional national family planning and reproductive health survey, 2001. Interviews of representative sample of women aged 15-49. Data were obtained from 39,585 women, with a total of 73,202 pregnancies and 56,830 live births. The average fertility rate in women over 35 (n = 17,078) was 1.94 (2.1 in rural areas and 1.4 in urban areas) and for women under 35 (n = 11,543) 1.73 (1.25 and 1.79). Smaller families were associated with younger age, higher level of education, and living in an urban area. The male to female ratio was 1.15 and rose from 1.11 in 1980-9 to 1.23 for 1996-2001. Most women wanted small families: 35% preferred one child and 57% preferred two. Since the one child family policy began, the total birth rate and preferred family size have decreased, and a gross imbalance in the sex ratio has emerged.

  10. The odd side of torsion geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and study a notion of `Sasaki with torsion structure' (ST) as an odd-dimensional analogue of Kähler with torsion geometry (KT). These are normal almost contact metric manifolds that admit a unique compatible connection with 3-form torsion. Any odd-dimensional compact Lie group is sho...

  11. Linear odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    A linear odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely in terms of Grassmann variables is suggested. It is revealed that the bracket, which corresponds to a semi-simple Lie group, has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, the second and the third orders with respect to Grassmann derivatives, in contrast with the canonical odd Poisson bracket having the only Grassmann-odd nilpotent differential Δ-operator of the second order. It is shown that these Δ-like operators together with a Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Odd viscosity in chiral active fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debarghya; Souslov, Anton; Abanov, Alexander G; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-17

    We study the hydrodynamics of fluids composed of self-spinning objects such as chiral grains or colloidal particles subject to torques. These chiral active fluids break both parity and time-reversal symmetries in their non-equilibrium steady states. As a result, the constitutive relations of chiral active media display a dissipationless linear-response coefficient called odd (or equivalently, Hall) viscosity. This odd viscosity does not lead to energy dissipation, but gives rise to a flow perpendicular to applied pressure. We show how odd viscosity arises from non-linear equations of hydrodynamics with rotational degrees of freedom, once linearized around a non-equilibrium steady state characterized by large spinning speeds. Next, we explore odd viscosity in compressible fluids and suggest how our findings can be tested in the context of shock propagation experiments. Finally, we show how odd viscosity in weakly compressible chiral active fluids can lead to density and pressure excess within vortex cores.

  13. Odd Behaviour of the Even Integer 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    article/fulltext/reso/012/10/0057-0066. Keywords. Arithmetic progression; odd and even; partial sum; square number; Pythagorean triple. Author Affiliations. Shailesh A Shirali1. Rishi Valley School, Rishi Valley 517 352, Madanapalle, AP, India.

  14. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  15. Odd invariant semidensity and divergence-like operators on an odd symplectic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    The divergence-like operator on an odd symplectic superspace which acts invariantly on a specially chosen odd vector field is considered. This operator is used to construct an odd invariant semidensity in a geometrically clear way. The formula for this semidensity is similar to the formula of the mean curvature of hypersurfaces in Euclidean space

  16. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…

  17. Alpha-cluster preformation factor within cluster-formation model for odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ahmed, Saad M.

    2017-06-01

    The alpha-cluster probability that represents the preformation of alpha particle in alpha-decay nuclei was determined for high-intensity alpha-decay mode odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei, 82 CSR) and the hypothesised cluster-formation model (CFM) as in our previous work. Our previous successful determination of phenomenological values of alpha-cluster preformation factors for even-even nuclei motivated us to expand the work to cover other types of nuclei. The formation energy of interior alpha cluster needed to be derived for the different nuclear systems with considering the unpaired-nucleon effect. The results showed the phenomenological value of alpha preformation probability and reflected the unpaired nucleon effect and the magic and sub-magic effects in nuclei. These results and their analyses presented are very useful for future work concerning the calculation of the alpha decay constants and the progress of its theory.

  18. On chiral-odd Generalized Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Paris (France); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive photoproduction process {gamma} + N {yields} {pi} + {rho} + N', in the kinematics where the meson pair has a large invariant mass and the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum, provided the vector meson is produced in a transversally polarized state. Estimated counting rates show that the experiment is feasible with real or quasi real photon beams expected at JLab at 12 GeV and in the COMPASS experiment. (Phys Letters B688,154,2010) In addition, a consistent classification of the chiral-odd pion GPDs beyond the leading twist 2 is presented. Based on QCD equations of motion and on the invariance under rotation on the light-cone of any scattering amplitude involving such GPDs, we reduce the basis of these chiral-odd GPDs to a minimal set. (author)

  19. The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)

  20. Odd Degree Polynomials on Real Banach Spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aron, R. M.; Hájek, Petr Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2007), s. 143-153 ISSN 1385-1292 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190502; GA ČR GA201/04/0090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : odd degree polynomials * zero sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.356, year: 2007

  1. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  2. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.; PISARSKI,R.D.; TYTGAT,M.H.G.

    1998-04-16

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N {r_arrow} {infinity}. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T{sub d}, is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero {theta}--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T{sub d}. Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the {eta}{prime} meson, and especially the {eta} meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as {eta} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define.

  3. Non-adiabatic description of proton emission from the odd-odd nucleus 130Eu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patial Monika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the non-adiabatic quasiparticle approach for calculating the rotational spectra and decay width of odd-odd proton emitters. The Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wave functions. Results for the two probable ground states (1+ and 2+ of the proton emitter 130Eu are discussed. With our calculations, we confirm the proton emitting state to be the Iπ = 1+ state, irrespective of the strength of the Coriolis interaction. This study provides us with an opportunity to look into the details of wave functions of deformed odd-odd nuclei to which the proton emission halflives are quite sensitive.

  4. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

  5. Magnetic dipole moments of deformed odd-odd nuclei up to 2p-1f shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, V.P.; Verma, A.K.; Gandhi, R.; Sharma, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The expression for magnetic moments for the states comprising ground state configurations of odd-odd nuclei has been simplified by excluding mixing of other nucleonic configurations. This is contrary to Sharma's and Davidson's results which had been obtained by diagonalizing state matrices for a set of parameters using Davidov and Filippov's non-axial rotor model. According to the relative directions of spins of unpaired odd nucleons, the nuclei have been classified under four categories-an exercise not attempted till now. The calculations have been done with various quenching factors depending upon the relative spin orientations of odd nucleons. For most of the nuclei, the results show considerable improvement over those of Gallagher and Moszkowski and of Sharma. (author)

  6. Proton-neutron interactions in the odd-odd nucleus 214Fr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.P.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Lane, G.J.; Fabricius, B.; Kibedi, T.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Baxter, A.M.; Schiffer, K.

    1993-01-01

    High spin states have been observed to excitation energies over 8 MeV in the odd-odd nucleus 214 Fr using in-beam γ-ray and electron spectroscopic techniques and heavy-ion induced reactions. Semi-empirical shell model calculations appear to provide a good description of the states observed, although some states expected within this model heave yet to be identified. (orig.)

  7. High-Spin States in Odd-Odd N=Z {sup 46}V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, C.D.; Bentley, M.A.; Appelbe, D.E.; Bark, R.A.; Cullen, D.M.; Erturk, S.; Maj. A.; Sheikh, J.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1999-12-31

    High-spin states up to the F{sub 7/2}-shell band termination at J{pi}=15+ have been observed for the first time in the odd-odd N=Z=23 nucleous {sup 46}V. The new level scheme has two separate structures corresponding to spherical and prolate shapes. A rotational band has very similar energies to the yrast sequence in {sup 46}Ti and is therefore assumed to be a T=1 configuration.

  8. Isovector and isoscalar pairing in odd-odd N = Z nuclei within a quartet approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrea, D.; Sandulescu, N.; Gambacurta, D.

    2017-07-01

    The quartet condensation model (QCM) is extended to the treatment of isovector and isoscalar pairing in odd-odd N=Z nuclei. In the extended QCM approach the lowest states of isospin T=1 and T=0 in odd-odd nuclei are described variationally by trial functions composed of a proton-neutron pair appended to a condensate of 4-body operators. The latter are taken as a linear superposition of an isovector quartet, built by two isovector pairs coupled to the total isospin T=0, and two collective isoscalar pairs. In all pairs the nucleons are distributed in time-reversed single-particle states of axial symmetry. The accuracy of the trial functions is tested for realistic pairing Hamiltonians and odd-odd N=Z nuclei with the valence nucleons moving above the ^{16}O, ^{40}Ca, and ^{100}Sn cores. It is shown that the extended QCM approach is able to predict with high accuracy the energies of the lowest T=0 and T=1 states. The present calculations indicate that in these states the isovector and isoscalar pairing correlations coexist, with the former playing a dominant role.

  9. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, I.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Merlo, L. [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy)

    2016-04-04

    In Alonso et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak-θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2)×U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  10. Conflict: How to Beat the Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia L.

    1993-01-01

    Conflict between people can arise over breakdowns in communication, work policies and practices, adversarial management, and personality conflict. A conflict-resolution plan involves defining the problem, collecting the facts and opinions, considering all solutions proposed, implementing the solutions, and evaluating the situation. (MLF)

  11. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Industry at odds over export coal prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarwood, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    The United Mine Workers' Union claims that Australia is not getting enough for its coal. Moreover, coal company executives argue that the open market policy was failing the industry and that the export customers were manipulating Australian producers. Consequently, the unions are calling for Federal Government intervention and support the establishment of a national coal authority to co-ordinate the marketing of coal and investment in the industry. ills

  13. K-mixing effects on the magnetic dipole transition probabilities of odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, V.P.; Mahesh, P.S.; Sharma, S.D.

    1976-01-01

    It has been found that asymmetric core collective model extended to odd-odd nuclei by Sharma and Davidson predicts very good results for magnetic moments of these nuclei even without configuration. These results are further improved when Coriolis perturbation effects are taken into account. The influence of Coriolis coupling on gamma-ray transition probabilities has been studied by Reich et al. In the frame-work of the Coriolis coupling model, M-1 transition probabilities are computed and compared with the results of earlier workers. The asymmetry of the core is expected to influence these results. (author)

  14. Odd-Paired: The Drosophila Zic Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, Deborah A; Stultz, Brian G

    2018-01-01

    Zinc finger in the cerebellum (Zic) proteins are a family of transcription factors with multiple roles during development, particularly in neural tissues. The founding member of the Zic family is the Drosophila odd-paired (opa) gene. The Opa protein has a DNA binding domain containing five Cys2His2-type zinc fingers and has been shown to act as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Opa has significant homology to mammalian Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 within the zinc finger domain and in two other conserved regions outside that domain. opa was initially identified as a pair-rule gene, part of the hierarchy of genes that establish the segmental body plan of the early Drosophila embryo. However, its wide expression pattern during embryogenesis indicates it plays additional roles. Embryos deficient in opa die before hatching with aberrant segmentation but also with defects in larval midgut formation. Post-embryonically, opa plays important roles in adult head development and circadian rhythm. Based on extensive neural expression, opa is predicted to be involved in many aspects of neural development and behavior, like other proteins of the Zic family. Consensus DNA binding sites have been identified for Opa and have been shown to activate transcription in vivo. However, there is evidence Opa may serve as a transcriptional regulator in the absence of direct DNA binding, as has been seen for other Zic proteins.

  15. Effect of odd hydrogen on ozone depletion by chlorine reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, T. M.; Cicerone, R. J.; Liu, S. C.; Chameides, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper discusses how the shape of the ozone layer changes under the influence of injected ClX for several choices of two key HOx reaction rates. The two HOx reactions are: OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. Results of calculations are presented which show that the two reaction rates determine the stratospheric concentrations of OH and HO2, and that these concentrations regulate the amount by which the stratospheric ozone column can be reduced due to injections of odd chlorine. It is concluded that the amount of ozone reduction by a given mixing ratio of ClX will remain very uncertain until the significance of several possible feedback effects involving HOx in a chlorine-polluted atmosphere are determined and measurements of the reaction rates and HOx concentrations are made at the relevant temperatures.

  16. Effective neutron-proton interaction in rare earth odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, Jean-Paul.

    1975-01-01

    The effective neutron-proton interaction V(np) in the rare earth odd-odd deformed nuclei is studied. The parameters of the effective interaction are determined from least square fits of calculated matrix elements compared to the ones extracted from experiment. These fits show the existence of a long range repulsive component as well the importance of the even term of the tensor part of V(np). Some informations are obtained concerning the influence of the choice of the sample of experimental data, of the average field and finally, of the radial shape of the effective interaction. Some predictions are made concerning as yet unconfirmed V(np) matrix elements [fr

  17. Quartetting in even-even and odd-odd N=Z nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, M.; Sandulescu, N.

    2018-02-01

    We report on a microscopic description of even-even N = Z nuclei in a formalism of quartets. Quartets are four-body correlated structures characterized by isospin T and angular momentum J. We show that the ground state correlations induced by a realistic shell model interaction can be well accounted for in terms of a restricted set of T = 0 low-J quartets, the J = 0 one playing by far a leading role among them. A conceptually similar description of odd-odd self-conjugate nuclei is given in terms of two distinct families of building blocks, one formed by the same T = 0 quartets employed for the even-even systems and the other by collective pairs with either T = 0 or T = 1. Some applications of this formalism are discussed for nuclei in the sd shell.

  18. Energy of the 4(+) isomer and new bands in the odd-odd nucleus 74Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, J.; Holcomb, J.W.; Johnson, T.D.; Riley, M.A.; Tabor, S.L.; Womble, P.C.; Winter, G.

    1993-01-01

    High-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 74 Br were investigated via the reactions 58 Ni ( 19 F,2pn) 74 Br and 65 Cu( 12 C,3n) 74 Br at beam energies of 62 and 50 MeV, respectively. On the basis of coincidence data new levels have been introduced and partly grouped into rotational bands. Some of these new states decay to known levels of negative-parity bands built on both the ground state and the long-lived 4 (+) isomer. Thus, an excitation energy of 13.8 keV has been deduced for the long-lived isomer in 74 Br. The level sequences observed are interpreted in terms of Nilsson configurations in conjunction with collective excitations

  19. Laos: development against all the odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    Laos, with a $90 per capita income, is one of the world's poorest 15 countries. In Asia, only Bhutan is poorer. The French, when they departed, left no infrastructure for development, and the Americans, during the Vietnam war, desolated most of the area known as the Plain of Jars by bombing. At present, 750,000 persons out of a total population of 3.3 million are officially termed "displaced." Nevertheless, the Pathet Lao government, with financial aid from the World Bank and from Sweden, has initiated development policies which are beginning to have some effect. Rice production is the first priority because last year the government had to buy 120,000 tons on the open market with precious foreign currency. Irrigation schemes are being vigorously promoted, and one of them is maintained by the American Friends Service. Literacy is another priority; Lao is the official language. The absence of good roads, however, continues to hamper communications, there is a shortage of transport, no railways, and large areas of arable land still remain unusable. The country is rich in mineral resources and forest products, especially teak, but much of the present development is confined to the area immediately around the capital, Vientiane.

  20. Scavenging ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Toonkel, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total 90 Sr fallout is adjusted for dry deposition, and scavenging ratios are calculated at Seattle, New York, and Fayetteville, Ark. Stable-lead scavenging ratios are also presented for New York. These ratios show large scatter, but average values are generally inversely proportional to precipitation. Stable-lead ratios decrease more rapidly with precipitation than do those of 90 Sr, a decrease reflecting a lesser availability of lead to the scavenging processes

  1. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  2. Highly-distorted and doubly-decoupled rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHarris, W.C.; Olivier, W.A.; Rios, A.; Hampton, C.; Chou, Wentsae; Aryaeinejad, R.

    1991-01-01

    Heavy-ion reactions induce large amounts of angular momentum; hence, they selectively populate rotationally-aligned particle states in compound nuclei. Such states tend to deexcite through similar states connected by large coriolis matrix elements, resulting in relatively few - but highly distorted - bands in the lower-energy portions of odd-odd spectra. The extreme cases of this are doubly-decoupled, K ∼ 1 (π 1/2 x ν 1/2) bands, whose γ transitions are the most intense in spectra from many light Re and Ir nuclei. The authors made a two-pronged assault on such bands, studying them via different HI reactions at different laboratories and using interacting-boson (IBFFA) calculations to aid in sorting them out. The authors are beginning to understand the types of (primarily coriolis) distortions involved and hope to grasp a handle on aspects of the p-n residual interaction, although the coriolis distortions are large enough to mask much of the latter. They also discuss similar but complementary effects in the light Pr region

  3. Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes $^{106, 108}$In

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstrom, A; Blazhev, A; Van de Walle, J; Weisshaar, D; Zielinska, M; Tveten, G M; Marsh, B A; Siem, S; Gorska, M; Engeland, T; Hurst, A M; Cederkall, J; Finke, F; Iwanicki, J; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Sletten, G; Mierzejewski, J; Reiter, P; Warr, N; Butler, P A; Fahlander, C; Stefanescu, I; Koester, U; Ivanov, O; Wenander, F; Voulot, D

    2010-01-01

    The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes In-106,In-108 have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu d(5/2) and pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu g7/2 multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed gamma-ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6(+) ground state in In-106. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in In-108 is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) val...

  4. Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes {sup 106,108}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, A.; Fahlander, C. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Box 118, Lund (Sweden); Cederkaell, J. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Box 118, Lund (Sweden); CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Engeland, T. [University of Oslo, Physics Department and Center of Mathematics for Applications, Oslo (Norway); Blazhev, A.; Eberth, J.; Finke, F.; Reiter, P.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D. [University of Cologne, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cologne (Germany); Butler, P.A.; Hurst, A.M. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Davinson, T. [University of Edinburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Goergen, A. [Service de Physique Nucleaire, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ivanov, O.; Stefanescu, I. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Iwanicki, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Koester, U. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Marsh, B.A. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics, Manchester (United Kingdom); CERN, AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mierzejewski, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Siem, S. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Sletten, G. [University of Copenhagen, Physics Department, Copenhagen (Denmark); Tveten, G.M. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Van de Walle, J. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Voulot, D.; Wenander, F. [CERN, AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes {sup 106,108}In have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu}d{sub 5/2} and {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu} g{sub 7/2} multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed {gamma} -ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6{sup +} ground state in {sup 106}In. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in {sup 108}In is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) values have been extracted where possible. A previously unknown low-lying state at 367keV in {sup 106}In is also reported. (orig.)

  5. Odds of Getting Adequate Physical Activity by Dog Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jesus; Epping, Jacqueline N; Owens, Chantelle J; Brown, David R; Lankford, Tina J; Simoes, Eduardo J; Caspersen, Carl J

    2015-06-16

    We aimed to determine the likelihood that adult dog owners who walk their dogs will achieve a healthy level of moderate-intensity (MI) physical activity (PA), defined as at least 150 mins/wk. We conducted a systematic search of 6 databases with data from 1990-2012 on dog owners' PA, to identify those who achieved MIPA. To compare dog-walkers' performance with non-dog walkers, we used a random effects model to estimate the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). We retrieved 9 studies that met our inclusion criterion and allowed OR calculations. These yielded data on 6980 dog owners aged 18 to 81 years (41% men). Among them, 4463 (63.9%) walked their dogs. Based on total weekly PA, 2710 (60.7%) dog walkers, and 950 (37.7%) non-dog walkers achieved at least MIPA. The estimated OR was 2.74 (95% CI 2.09-3.60). Across 9 published studies, almost 2 in 3 dog owners reported walking their dogs, and the walkers are more than 2.5 times more likely to achieve at least MIPA. These findings suggest that dog walking may be a viable strategy for dog owners to help achieve levels of PA that may enhance their health.

  6. Shifting Patterns in Cesarean Delivery Scheduling and Timing in Oregon before and after a Statewide Hard Stop Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoto, Ifeoma; Darney, Blair G; Lau, Bernard; Cheng, Yvonne W; Tomlinson, Mark W; Neilson, Duncan R; Friedman, Steven A; Rogovoy, Joanne; Caughey, Aaron B; Snowden, Jonathan M

    2017-11-12

    To assess the use and timing of scheduled cesareans and other categories of cesarean delivery and the prevalence of neonatal morbidity among cesareans in Oregon before and after the implementation of Oregon's statewide policy limiting elective early deliveries. Oregon vital statistics records, 2008-2013. Retrospective cohort study, with multivariable logistic regression, regression controlling for time trends, and interrupted time series analyses, to compare the odds of different categories of cesarean delivery and the odds of neonatal morbidity pre- and postpolicy. We analyzed vital statistics data on all term births in Oregon (2008-2013), excluding births in 2011. The odds of early-term scheduled cesareans decreased postpolicy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.70; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.74). In the postpolicy period, there were mixed findings regarding assisted neonatal ventilation and neonatal intensive care unit admission, with regression models indicating higher postpolicy odds in some categories, but lower postpolicy odds after controlling for time trends. Oregon's hard stop policy limiting elective early-term cesarean delivery was associated with lower odds of cesarean delivery in the category of women who were targeted by the policy; more research is needed on impact of such policies on neonatal outcomes. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. Prenatal food allergen exposures and odds of childhood peanut, tree nut, or sesame seed sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Joyce T; Missmer, Stacey A; Young, Michael C; Correia, Katharine F; Twarog, Frank J; Coughlin, Irene B; Hornstein, Mark D; Schneider, Lynda C

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of peanut (PN) and tree nut (TN) allergy in children has tripled in the past decade. Prenatal exposures, including maternal diet and medications, may account for some of this increase. In the United States, progesterone for luteal support in assisted reproduction is commonly formulated in PN or sesame seed (SS) oil. To determine whether prenatal exposure to PN or SS oil as progesterone in oil increases the child's odds of PN, TN, or SS allergy. Parents of 1,272 children evaluated by allergists from May 2005 through October 2009 completed questionnaires on conception, prenatal exposures, dietary history, and allergic history, with review of the child's medical record and skin prick and specific IgE test results. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable adjusted logistic regression models. Children of mothers with a history of infertility, in vitro fertilization, or use of progesterone in oil did not have increased odds of PN, TN, and/or SS sensitization. Maternal consumption of TNs during first 2 trimesters was associated with 60% higher odds of having a PN/TN/SS-sensitized child (95% confidence interval 1.01-2.51), with similarly increased odds with maternal SS ingestion. Odds of PN/TN/SS sensitization were doubled in children with asthma or environmental allergies. Neither maternal infertility nor exposure to PN or SS oils through progesterone support during assisted reproduction treatment was associated with increased odds of PN/TN/SS sensitization in the child. However, maternal ingestion of TNs and SS during pregnancy was associated with increased odds of PN/TN/SS sensitization in the child. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Even and odd symplectic and Kaehlerian structures on projective superspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Nersessyan, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Supergeneralization of CP(N) provided by even and odd Kaehlerian structures from Hamiltonian reduction are construct. Operator Δ which used in Batalin - Vilkovsky quantization formalism and mechanics which are bi-Hamiltonian under corresponding even and odd Poisson brackets are considered. 21 refs

  9. Regression Tests and the Efficiency of Fixed Odds Betting Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    The informational content of odds posted in sports betting market has been an ongoing topic of research. In this paper, I test whether fixed odds betting markets in soccer are informationally efficient. The contributions of the paper are threefold: first, I propose a simple yet flexible statistical

  10. Formulation of Hamiltonian mechanics with even and odd Poisson brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Nersesyan, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    A possibility is studied as to constrict the odd Poisson bracket and odd Hamiltonian by the given dynamics in phase superspace - the even Poisson bracket and even Hamiltonian so the transition to the new structure does not change the equations of motion. 9 refs

  11. Melham's conjecture on odd power sums of fibonacci numbers | Sun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozeki and Prodinger showed that the odd power sum of the first several consecutive Fibonacci numbers of even order is equal to a polynomial evaluated at a certain Fibonacci number of odd order. We prove that this polynomial and its derivative both vanish at 1, and will be an integer polynomial after multiplying it by a ...

  12. GEEORD: A SAS macro for analyzing ordinal response variables with repeated measures through proportional odds, partial proportional odds, or non-proportional odds models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Schwartz, Todd A; Preisser, John S; Perin, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    A SAS macro, GEEORD, has been developed for the analysis of ordinal responses with repeated measures through a regression model that flexibly allows the proportional odds assumption to apply (or not) separately for each explanatory variable. Previously utilized in an analysis of a longitudinal orthognathic surgery clinical trial by Preisser et al. [1,2], the basis of GEEORD is the generalized estimating equations (GEE) method for cumulative logits models described by Lipsitz et al. [3]. The macro extends the capabilities for modeling correlated ordinal data of GEECAT, a SAS macro that allows the user to model correlated categorical response data [4]. The macro applies to independent ordinal responses as a special case. Examples are provided to demonstrate the convenient application of GEEORD to two different datasets. The macro's features are illustrated in fitting models to ordinal response variables in univariate and repeated measures settings; this includes the capacity to fit the non-proportional odds model, the partial proportional odds model, and the proportional odds model. The macro additionally provides relevant tests of the proportional odds assumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of mathematical biology. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- ... his practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery, and he developed a mask using the concept of golden ratio. The mask is called the. Marquardt beauty mask (Figure 1) [1]. Keywords.

  14. BKP and CKP revisited: the odd KP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Müller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2009-01-01

    By restricting a linear system for the KP hierarchy to those independent variables t n with odd n, its compatibility (Zakharov-Shabat conditions) leads to the 'odd KP hierarchy'. The latter consists of pairs of equations for two dependent variables, taking values in an (typically noncommutative) associative algebra. If the algebra is commutative, the odd KP hierarchy is known to admit reductions to the BKP and the CKP hierarchy. We approach the odd KP hierarchy and its relation to BKP and CKP in different ways, and address the question of whether noncommutative versions of the BKP and the CKP equation (and some of their reductions) exist. In particular, we derive a functional representation of a linear system for the odd KP hierarchy, which in the commutative case produces functional representations of the BKP and CKP hierarchies in terms of a tau function. Furthermore, we consider a functional representation of the KP hierarchy that involves a second (auxiliary) dependent variable and features the odd KP hierarchy directly as a subhierarchy. A method to generate large classes of exact solutions to the KP hierarchy from solutions to a linear matrix ODE system, via a hierarchy of matrix Riccati equations, then also applies to the odd KP hierarchy, and this in turn can be exploited, in particular, to obtain solutions to the BKP and CKP hierarchies

  15. Efficient estimation for high similarities using odd sketches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pagh, Rasmus; Pham, Ninh Dang

    2014-01-01

    . This means that Odd Sketches provide a highly space-efficient estimator for sets of high similarity, which is relevant in applications such as web duplicate detection, collaborative filtering, and association rule learning. The method extends to weighted Jaccard similarity, relevant e.g. for TF-IDF vector...... comparison. We present a theoretical analysis of the quality of estimation to guarantee the reliability of Odd Sketch-based estimators. Our experiments confirm this efficiency, and demonstrate the efficiency of Odd Sketches in comparison with $b$-bit minwise hashing schemes on association rule learning...

  16. Single Particle energy levels in ODD-A Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasijo, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Singe particle energies for atomic nuclei with odd-A number of nucleons, i.e. nuclei possessing odd number of protons or odd number of neutrons, were calculated based on Nilsson's theory, and then the diagrams were made. the energy diagram is in the from of plot of energies as function of deformations, entities identifying the deviations from the spherical shape. The energy calculations were done using FORTRAN 77 language of PC (Personal Computer) version with Microsoft Fortran Power Station compiler, which was then combined with WORD version 6.0 and EXCEL version 5.0 of WINDOWS WORKGROUP to make the plot

  17. LOFT advanced control room operator diagnostic and display system (ODDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.G.; Robb, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Reactor Facility in Idaho includes a highly instrumented nuclear reactor operated by the Department of Energy for the purpose of establishing nuclear safety requirements. The results of the development and installation into LOFT of an Operator Diagnostic and Display System (ODDS) are presented. The ODDS is a computer-based graphics display system centered around a PRIME 550 computer with several RAMTEK color graphic display units located within the control room and available to the reactor operators. Use of computer-based color graphics to aid the reactor operator is discussed. A detailed hardware description of the LOFT data system and the ODDS is presented. Methods and problems of backfitting the ODDS equipment into the LOFT plant are discussed

  18. Constraints on a parity-even/time-reversal-odd interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oers, Willem T.H. van

    2000-01-01

    Time-Reversal-Invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement, one of the results of the CPLEAR experiment. What is the situation then with regard to time-reversal-invariance non-conservation in systems other than the neutral kaon system? Two classes of tests of time-reversal-invariance need to be distinguished: the first one deals with parity violating (P-odd)/time-reversal-invariance non-conserving (T-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with P-even/T-odd interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a P-odd/T-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. This in turn provides a limit on a P-odd/T-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is 10 -4 times the weak interaction strength. Limits on a P-even/T-odd interaction are much less stringent. The better constraint stems also from the measurement of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. Of all the other tests, measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering provide the next better constraint. The latter experiments were performed at TRIUMF (at 477 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (at 183 MeV). Weak decay experiments (the transverse polarization of the muon in K + →π 0 μ + ν μ and the transverse polarization of the positrons in polarized muon decay) have the potential to provide comparable or possibly better constraints

  19. The odd-proton effects on the potential energy surfaces of odd mass Tl, Au, Ir and Re isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    De Wieclawik, W; Larsson, S E; Leander, G; Vieu, C; Dionisio, J S

    1976-01-01

    The total potential energy surfaces of thallium, gold, iridium and rhenium odd mass isotopes are calculated microscopically as functions of the quadrupole deformation, epsilon /sub 2/, when the odd protons occupy definite orbitals. The nuclear shapes and the static equilibrium deformations of these nuclei are deduced from the results of these calculations for the proton orbitals nearest to the Fermi level. The influence of the hexadecapole deformation, epsilon /sub 4/, on these results is investigated too. Finally, a few experimental data available for these odd mass nuclei are correlated to the corresponding theoretical results. (16 refs).

  20. New Mexican Hispanic smokers have lower odds of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and less decline in lung function than non-Hispanic whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruse, Shannon; Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Liu, Yushi; Leng, Shuguang; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Celli, Bartolomé; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2011-12-01

    The epidemiology of cigarette smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well characterized in Hispanics in the United States. Understanding how ethnicity influences COPD is important for a number of reasons, from informing public health policies to dissecting the genetic and environmental effects that contribute to disease. The present study assessed differences in risk between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites for longitudinal and cross-sectional COPD phenotypes. Genetic ancestry was used to verify findings based on self-reported ethnicity. Hispanics in New Mexico are primarily differentiated from non-Hispanic whites by their proportion of Native American ancestry. The study was performed in a New Mexican cohort of current and former smokers. Self-reported Hispanic and non-Hispanic white ethnicity was validated by defining genetic ancestry proportions at the individual level using 48 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. Self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry were independently used to assess associations with cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of lung function. Multivariable models were adjusted for indicators of smoking behavior. Self-reported Hispanic ethnicity was significantly associated with lower odds of COPD (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.71; P = 0.007), and this protection was validated by the observation that Hispanic smokers have reduced risk of rapid decline in lung function (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.78; P = 0.003). Similar findings were noted when Native American genetic ancestry proportions were used as predictors instead of self-report of Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanic ethnicity is inversely associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal spirometric COPD phenotypes even after adjustment for smoking. Native American genetic ancestry may account for this "Hispanic protection."

  1. The Lowest Spin and Parity Levels on Two Particle System for Odd-oddNuclei 60Co and 46K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardhani, VIS; Siagian, Toga

    2000-01-01

    For obtaining the lowest spin and parity levels of odd-odd nuclei, theanalyzing of the nuclei 60 Co and 46 K has been done using delta forcemodel. The calculation is done by theoretically and compared with experiment.To get a result optimally, the data analyzed using least square method. It isshown that the lowest spin and parity level from calculation result and theexperiment result are similar. (author)

  2. Gamow-Teller transitions and proton-neutron pair correlation in N =Z odd-odd p -shell nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2017-10-01

    We have studied the Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions from N =Z +2 neighbors to N =Z odd-odd nuclei in the p -shell region by using isospin-projected and β γ -constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics combined with the generator coordinate method. The calculated GT transition strengths from 0+1 states to 1+0 states such as 6He(01+1 ) →6Li(11+0 ) , 10Be(01+1 ) →10B(11+0 ) , and 14C(01+1 ) →14N(12+0 ) exhaust more than 50% of the sum rule. These N =Z +2 initial states and N =Z odd-odd final states are found to dominantly have S =0 ,T =1 n n pairs and S =1 ,T =0 p n pairs, respectively. Based on the two-nucleon (N N ) pair picture, we can understand the concentration of the GT strengths as the spin-isospin-flip transition n n (S =0 ,T =1 )→p n (S =1 ,T =0 ) in L S coupling. The GT transition can be a good probe to identify the spin-isospin partner states with n n pairs and p n pairs of N =Z +2 and N =Z odd-odd nuclei, respectively.

  3. Preschool enrollment is associated with lower odds of childhood obesity among WIC participants in LA County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleilat, Maria; Harrison, Gail G; Whaley, Shannon; McGregor, Samar; Jenks, Eloise; Afifi, Abdelmonem

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States has increased rapidly during the past few decades. Research into social and behavioral determinants of obesity could lead to innovative strategies for prevention. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and preschool enrollment and number of hours in child care among low-income preschool-aged children who were participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). We conducted a case-control study including 556 3- to 4-year-old children who were either obese (BMI > 95th percentile of reference standard) or normal-weight (BMI 25-75th percentile). The population was largely (96%) Hispanic, an ethnic group that has one of the highest rates of overweight and obesity in adults and children in the US. In multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for a variety of psychosocial and cognitive home environment variables, key demographics and maternal variables, the odds ratio of being obese was 0.61 for children who attended preschool more than 4 days a week (95% CI: 0.41-0.90). Watching television or videos for an hour or more on a typical day (odds ratio 1.71 (95% CI 1.07-2.75)), and higher maternal BMI (odds ratio 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11)) were independently related to odds of obesity. The impact of preschool attendance and TV viewing are potentially instructive in terms of preventive interventions for children at this age.

  4. Memory effect for particle scattering in odd spacetime dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satishchandran, Gautam; Wald, Robert M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational memory effect for linearized perturbations off of Minkowski space in odd spacetime dimensions d by examining the effects of gravitational radiation from classical point particle scattering. We also investigate analogous memory effects for electromagnetic and scalar radiation. We find that there is no gravitational memory effect in all odd dimensions. For scalar and electromagnetic fields, there is no memory effect for d ≥7 ; for d =3 there is an infinite momentum memory effect, whereas for d =5 there is no momentum memory effect but the displacement of a test particle will grow unboundedly with time. Our results are further elucidated by analyzing the memory effect for any slowly moving source of compact spatial support in odd dimensions.

  5. Iron-Based Superconductors as Odd-Parity Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Parity is a fundamental quantum number used to classify a state of matter. Materials rarely possess ground states with odd parity. We show that the superconducting state in iron-based superconductors is classified as an odd-parity s-wave spin-singlet pairing state in a single trilayer FeAs/Se, the building block of the materials. In a low-energy effective model constructed on the Fe square bipartite lattice, the superconducting order parameter in this state is a combination of an s-wave normal pairing between two sublattices and an s-wave η pairing within the sublattices. The state has a fingerprint with a real-space sign inversion between the top and bottom As/Se layers. The results suggest that iron-based superconductors are a new quantum state of matter, and the measurement of the odd parity can help to establish high-temperature superconducting mechanisms.

  6. Tricomplex Dynamical Systems Generated by Polynomials of Odd Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisé, Pierre-Olivier; Rochon, Dominic

    In this paper, we give the exact interval of the cross section of the Multibrot sets generated by the polynomial zp + c where z and c are complex numbers and p > 2 is an odd integer. Furthermore, we show that the same Multibrots defined on the hyperbolic numbers are always squares. Moreover, we give a generalized 3D version of the hyperbolic Multibrot set and prove that our generalization is an octahedron for a specific 3D slice of the dynamical system generated by the tricomplex polynomial ηp + c where p > 2 is an odd integer.

  7. Odd-flavor Simulations by the Hybrid Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Takaishi, Tetsuya; Takaishi, Tetsuya; De Forcrand, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The standard hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm is known to simulate even flavors QCD only. Simulations of odd flavors QCD, however, can be also performed in the framework of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm where the inverse of the fermion matrix is approximated by a polynomial. In this exploratory study we perform three flavors QCD simulations. We make a comparison of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm and the R-algorithm which also simulates odd flavors systems but has step-size errors. We find that results from our hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm are in agreement with those from the R-algorithm obtained at very small step-size.

  8. Energy spectra of odd nuclei in the generalized model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Korzh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the generalized nuclear model, energy spectra of the odd nuclei of such elements as 25Mg, 41K, and 65Cu are determined, and the structure of wave functions of these nuclei in the excited and normal states is studied. High quality in determining the energy spectra is possible due to the accurate calculations of all elements of the energy matrix. It is demonstrated that the structure of the wave functions so determined provides the possibility to more accurately select the nuclear model and the method for calculating the nucleon cross-sections of the inelastic scattering of nucleons by odd nuclei.

  9. Totally odd K-4-subdivisions in 4-chromatic graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    We prove the conjecture made by Bjarne Toft in 1975 that every 4-chromatic graph contains a subdivision of K-4 in which each edge of K-4 corresponds to a path of odd length. As an auxiliary result we characterize completely the subspace of the cycle space generated by all cycles through two fixed...

  10. Global phenomenological descriptions of nuclear odd-even mass staggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Dennis; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm; Riisager, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined ...... into a global phenomenological expression, ready to use in a binding energy formula. The results deviate from previous parametrizations, and in particular found to be significantly superior to a recent two term, A−1 dependence.......We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined...... by the main nuclear shells, and a clear change in this dependency is found at Z=50 for both neutrons and protons. A further separation into odd and even neutron (proton) number produces very accurate local descriptions of the mass differences for each type of nucleons. These odd-even effects are combined...

  11. Odd Couples : A History of Gay Marriage in Scandinavia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rydström, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Odd Couples. A History of Gay Marriage in Scandinavia is het eerste omvangrijke boek over de geschiedenis van het geregistreerd partnerschap en het homohuwelijk in Scandinavië. Dit boek presenteert een grondig onderzoek naar de wisselwerking tussen het homoactivisme en traditionele partijpolitiek.

  12. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  13. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-01-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, θ A , induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tanβ, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by θ A . We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development

  14. RENORMALIZATION FACTOR AND ODD-OMEGA GAP SINGLET SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOLGOV, OV; LOSYAKOV, VV

    1994-01-01

    Abrahams et al. [Phys. Rev. B 47 (1993) 513] have considered the possibility of a nonzero critical temperature of the superconductor transition to the state with odd-omega pp function and shown that the condition for it is the following inequality for the renormalization factor. Z (k, omega(n)) <1.

  15. Partial dynamical symmetry in odd-mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral features of the odd-mass nucleus 195 Pt are analyzed by means of an interacting boson-fermion Hamiltonian with SO(6) partial dynamical symmetry. For the latter, selected eigenstates are solvable and preserve the symmetry exactly, while other states are mixed. The analysis constitutes a first example of this novel symmetry construction in a mixed Bose-Fermi system

  16. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the…

  17. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  18. Diffusion of Complete Streets policies Across US communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Eyler, Amy; Barbero, Colleen; Hipp, J Aaron; Walsh, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Complete Streets policies guide planning in communities by making the transportation system accommodating to all users including vehicle drivers, pedestrians, and bicyclists, as well as those using public transportation. While the number of Complete Streets policies has increased over the past decade, no research has explored the factors attributing to the widespread diffusion of these policies. The purpose of this study was to apply concepts of the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to data related to Complete Streets policies in order to identify potential patterns and correlates. The main outcome of this study was policy adoption. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory and results from previous literature, we identified several factors that had the potential to affect the rate of Complete Streets policy diffusion: rural/urban status, state obesity rate, state funding for transportation, state obesity prevention funding, percentage of people who walk or bike to work in the state, presence of a state Complete Streets policy, and the number of bordering communities with Complete Streets policy. We used event history analysis as the main analysis method. Data from 49 community-level policies were analyzed, with a "community" defined as a city, a county, or a regional/Metropolitan Planning Organization. Three variables were significant predictors of Complete Streets policy adoption: state obesity rate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.465; confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-1.96) percentage of people who bike or walk to work in the state (OR = 1.726; CI = 1.069-2.79), and presence of a border community with a Complete Streets policy (OR = 3.859; CI = 1.084-13.742). Communities with Complete Streets policies varied in geographic and sociodemographic factors. Information about communities that are more likely to adopt a policy can be a tool for advocates and policy makers interested in this topic. Because adoption does not imply implementation, further research is needed to study

  19. Log odds of positive lymph nodes are superior to other measures for evaluating the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peng; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Peng

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of the log odds of positive lymph nodes to predict prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Correlations between the log odds of positive lymph nodes, numbers of dissected lymph nodes, dissected lymph node stations, positive lymph nodes, positive lymph node ratio, and positive lymph node stations were retrospectively evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients (r), survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier, Cox hazard ratio model, and log-rank tests. The numbers of dissected lymph nodes, positive lymph nodes, dissected lymph node stations and positive lymph node stations significantly correlated with the log odds of positive lymph nodes (P log odds of positive lymph nodes -1.412 were 63.9% and 32.5%, respectively (P log odds of positive lymph nodes are independent risk factors for overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.660, 95% confidence interval 2.114-3.346, P log odds of positive lymph nodes and a tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system was established for predicting survival. The log odds of positive lymph nodes are superior to the positive lymph node ratio and p-N-stage for predicting prognosis of NSCLC. A new staging system that combines log odds of positive lymph nodes and the current TNM staging system predicts prognosis more accurately than the TNM system alone.

  20. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yang Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS. However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR: 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.04-2.66. In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88. The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  1. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Yang; Xu, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Shao, Yi; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group) and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group). Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.66). In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88). The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF CONDITIONS OF THE STOCK MARKET AND MONETARY POLICY ON THE BEHAVIOROF RISK INDICATORS SIZE, BOOK-TO-MARKET RATIO AND MOMENTUM, ON THE BRAZILIAN STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Mussa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Last years, empirical tests of APT (Arbitrage Pricing Theory models have been intensified on the national and international literature, mainly using firm´s characteristics to construct risk factors in addition to the market beta. The Fama-French 3-factors model and the Carhart 4-factors model are two samples intensively tested of this type of models, with evidences of relative success. On this scenario, it is important to deepen the studies of the factor´s behavior that compose these models. Following the way of international researches, the purpose of this article is to investigate the behavior of the factors: size, book-to-market ratio and momentum, on the Brazilian stock market, in conditions of i up and down markets ii expansive and restrictive monetary policy. The sample was composed by all stocks listed on BOVESPA, from June of 1995 to June of 2007. The methodology was the same used by Fama & French (1993 to construct the portfolios and risk factors. The results indicated that the stock market and monetary environment influence the regularities in the factor´s behavior, on the Brazilian Stock markets.

  3. The classification of p-compact groups for p odd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K.K.S.; Grodal, J.; Møller, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    A p-compact group, as defined by Dwyer and Wilkerson, is a purely homotopically defined p-local analog of a compact Lie group. It has long been the hope, and later the conjecture, that these objects should have a classification similar to the classification of compact Lie groups. In this paper we...... finish the proof of this conjecture, for p an odd prime, proving that there is a one-to-one correspondence between connected p-compact groups and finite reflection groups over the p-adic integers. We do this by providing the last, and rather intricate, piece, namely that the exceptional compact Lie...... groups are uniquely determined as p-compact groups by their Weyl groups seen as finite reflection groups over the p-adic integers. Our approach in fact gives a largely self-contained proof of the entire classification theorem for p odd....

  4. MODELLING OF ORDINAL TIME SERIES BY PROPORTIONAL ODDS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil AKTAŞ ALTUNAY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Categorical time series data with random time dependent covariates often arise when the variable categories are assigned as categorical. There are several other models that have been proposed in the literature for the analysis of categorical time series. For example, Markov chain models, integer autoregressive processes, discrete ARMA models can be utilized for modeling of categorical time series. In general, the choice of model depends on the measurement of study variables: nominal, ordinal and interval. However, regression theory is successful approach for categorical time series which is based on generalized linear models and partial likelihood inference. One of the models for ordinal time series in regression theory is proportional odds model. In this study, proportional odds model approach to ordinal categorical time series is investigated based on a real air pollution data set and the results are discussed.

  5. Fermions in odd space-time dimensions: back to basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguiano Jesus de, Ma.; Bashir, A.

    2005-01-01

    It is a well-known feature of odd space-time dimensions d that there exist two inequivalent fundamental representations A and B of the Dirac gamma matrices. Moreover, the parity transformation swaps the fermion fields living in A and B. As a consequence, a parity-invariant Lagrangian can only be constructed by incorporating both the representation. Based upon these ideas and contrary to long-held belief, we show that in addition to a discrete exchange symmetry for the massless case, we can also define chiral symmetry provided the Lagrangian contains fields corresponding to both the inequivalent representations. We also study the transformation properties of the corresponding chiral currents under parity and charge-conjugation operations. We work explicitly in 2 + 1 dimensions and later show how some of these ideas generalize to an arbitrary number of odd dimensions. (author)

  6. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yaqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part

  7. J/ψ dissociation in parity-odd bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the quarkonium dissociation rate in the P and CP-odd domains (bubbles) that were possibly created in heavy-ion collisions. In the presence of the magnetic field produced by the valence quarks of colliding ions, parity-odd domains generate electric field. Quarkonium dissociation is the result of quantum tunneling of quark or antiquark through the potential barrier in this electric field. The strength of the electric field in the quarkonium comoving frame depends on the quarkonium velocity with respect to the background magnetic field. We investigate momentum, electric field strength and azimuthal dependence of the dissociation rate. Azimuthal distribution of quarkonia surviving in the electromagnetic field is strongly anisotropic; the form of anisotropy depends on the relation between the electric and magnetic fields and quarkonium momentum P ⊥ . These features can be used to explore the properties of the electromagnetic field created in heavy ion collisions.

  8. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yaqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 (China); Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  9. Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Abrahms

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is puzzling behavior for political scientists. On one hand, terrorist attacks generally hail from the politically aggrieved. On the other hand, a growing body of scholarship finds the tactic politically counterproductive. Unlike guerrilla attacks on military targets, terrorist attacks on civilian targets lower the odds of governments making  concessions. This article proposes and tests a psychological theory to account for why militant groups engage in terrorism, given the political costs of attacking civilians.

  10. gamma -transition rates in transitional odd gold nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, V; Oms, J

    1981-01-01

    The results of two half-life measurements of excited states in /sup 185/Au are presented. One supports the proposed interpretation of the ground state configuration, the other one calls attention to the h 9/2 to h 11/2 M1 transitions in odd mass gold nuclei, which, in spite of considerable deformation changes of the h 9/2 state, all show the same retardation. (5 refs).

  11. Magnetic Dipole Sum Rules for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Leviatan, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), I-38050 Villazano, Trento (Italy)

    1997-08-01

    Sum rules for the total- and scissors-mode M1 strength in odd-A nuclei are derived within the single-j interacting boson-fermion model. We discuss the physical content and geometric interpretation of these sum rules and apply them to {sup 167}Er and {sup 161}Dy. We find consistency with the former measurements but not with the latter. {copyright} {ital 1997 } {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Magnetic Dipole Sum Rules for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A.; Leviatan, A.; Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Sum rules for the total- and scissors-mode M1 strength in odd-A nuclei are derived within the single-j interacting boson-fermion model. We discuss the physical content and geometric interpretation of these sum rules and apply them to 167 Er and 161 Dy. We find consistency with the former measurements but not with the latter. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Fluorinated monovacancies in graphene: Even-odd effect

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2012-11-01

    The electronic and structural properties of fluorinated monovacancies in graphene are studied using density functional theory. Our calculations show that an odd number of F atoms adsorbed on a monovacancy gives rise to a p-type metallic state with a local magnetic moment of 1μ B. In contrast, an even number of F atoms leads to a non-magnetic semiconducting state. We explain the behaviour in terms of local structure properties. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

  14. Signatures of shape phase transitions in odd-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum phase transitions between competing ground-state shapes of atomic nuclei with an odd number of protons or neutrons are investigated in a microscopic framework based on nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-plus-boson-core coupling scheme. The boson-core Hamiltonian, as well as the single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the unpaired nucleon, are completely determined by constrained self-consistent mean-field calculations for a specific choice of the energy density functional and paring interaction, and only the strength parameters of the particle-core coupling are adjusted to reproduce selected spectroscopic properties of the odd-mass system. We apply this method to odd-A Eu and Sm isotopes with neutron number N ≈90 , and explore the influence of the single unpaired fermion on the occurrence of a shape phase transition. Collective wave functions of low-energy states are used to compute quantities that can be related to quantum order parameters: deformations, excitation energies, E 2 transition rates, and separation energies, and their evolution with the control parameter (neutron number) is analyzed.

  15. Regulation and function of odd-paired in Tribolium segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Chong Pyo; Stellabotte, Frank; Brown, Susan J

    2017-09-01

    The pair-rule gene odd-paired (opa) is required for the patterning of alternate segment boundaries in the early Drosophila embryo. Mutant phenotypes of opa display a typical pair-rule phenotype in which most of each odd-numbered denticle belt is eliminated. However, among the nine Drosophila pair-rule genes, opa is the only gene that is not expressed in stripes with double segmental periodicity; its transcript and protein are expressed in a broad domain within segmenting embryos. While expression patterns of orthologs of opa have been analyzed in several arthropod species, their regulation and function in segmentation were largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the expression patterns, regulation, and function of the Tribolium ortholog of opa (Tc-opa). Tc-opa is expressed in segmental stripes in the early stages of segmentation and then is expressed in a broad domain at the growth zone of elongating germbands where new segments form. This broad expression of Tc-opa is processed into segmental stripes once the trunk has become segmented. Tc-opa expression is regulated positively and negatively by even-skipped and odd-skipped, respectively. However, knock-down of Tc-opa does not affect embryonic segmentation. Our findings suggest that Tc-opa expression is regulated by the pair-rule gene network even though its requirement for segmentation is uncertain in Tribolium.

  16. Pseudo-spin band in the odd-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 Lu

    CERN Document Server

    Venkova, T; Gast, W; Podsvirova, E O; Jäger, H M; Mihailescu, L; Bazzacco, D; Menegazzo, R; Lunardi, S; Alvarez, C R; Ur, C; Martínez, T; Angelis, G D; Axiotis, M; Napoli, D; Urban, W; Rzaca-Urban, T; Frauendorf, S

    2003-01-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 Lu have been populated in a sup 1 sup 7 sup 0 Er( sup 7 Li,5n) reaction and the emitted gamma-radiation was detected with the GASP array. Two sequences of a new identical band have been observed with the transition energies in the favoured and unfavoured sequences being identical within approx 3 keV at low spins and approx 1 keV at high spins over the whole observed spin range. An interpretation as a pseudo-spin singlet band of pi 1/2 sup - [541] x nu 1/2 sup - [420] configuration is proposed. It represents the best example of a pseudo-spin singlet band in normal deformed nuclei known until now.

  17. Alcohol Policies and Alcohol-Involved Homicide Victimization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Coleman, Sharon M; Lira, Marlene C; Hadland, Scott E; Cooper, Susanna E; Heeren, Timothy C; Swahn, Monica H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the alcohol policy environment and alcohol involvement in homicide victims in the United States, overall and by sociodemographic groups. To characterize the alcohol policy environment, the presence, efficacy, and degree of implementation of 29 alcohol policies were used to determine Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores by state and year. Data about homicide victims from 17 states from 2003 to 2012 were obtained from the National Violent Death Reporting System. APS scores were used as lagged exposure variables in generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to predict the individual-level odds of alcohol involvement (i.e., blood alcohol concentration [BAC] > 0.00% vs. = 0.00% and BAC ≥ 0.08% vs. ≤ 0.079%) among homicide victims. A 10 percentage point increase in APS score (representing a more restrictive policy environment) was associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide with BAC greater than 0.00% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.89, 95% CI [0.82, 0.99]) and BAC of 0.08% or more (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI [0.82, 1.02]). In stratified analyses of homicide victims, more restrictive policy environments were significantly protective of alcohol involvement at both BAC levels among those who were female, ages 21-29 years, Hispanic, unmarried, victims of firearm homicides, and victims of homicides related to intimate partner violence. More restrictive alcohol policy environments were associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide victimization overall and among groups at high risk of homicide. Strengthening alcohol policies is a promising homicide prevention strategy.

  18. History of postpartum depression and the odds of maternal corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele; Rosenberger, Ryan; Sarwar, Sajjad; Mangewala, Vikas; Klag, Natalie

    2015-12-01

    Corporal punishment is closely related to physical abuse of children and is associated with several negative characteristics and experiences in children and youths. This study examined the relative unique contribution of 6 variables (social support, socioeconomic status, depression, self-efficacy, knowledge of child development, and history of postpartum depression) to maternal corporal punishment of children. A sample of 76 mothers was dichotomized into those who never spanked or hit with an object and those who have spanked or hit with an object. The mothers were recruited from a community mental health agency, an urban community center, and a court of common pleas. The measures in the present study were administered prior to mothers' participation in a parent training program. Mothers referred by the court of common pleas were mandated to participate in the parent training program, and the mothers from the community mental health agency and the urban community center volunteered to participate in the parent training program. However, all participants voluntarily completed the research measures. Binary logistic regression identified postpartum depression as the only variable to significantly increase the odds of corporal punishment (odds ratio = 6.307, 95% confidence interval = 1.098-36.214, p = .039). The findings demonstrate increased odds of corporal punishment among a high-risk sample of women with postpartum depression. The generalizability of these findings may be limited to low socioeconomic class and White and African American mothers enrolled in parent-training programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Christiansen filter realized by an odd smooth cylindrical lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Goddard, N; Xie, Kang

    2010-01-01

    The Christiansen filter that is realized by odd smooth cylindrical lenses is analyzed in detail. Several popular filtering functions are discussed. The corresponding lens profile functions are obtained by an inverse scattering theory, which enables the filter to synthesize a desired prescribed response function. This kind of Christiansen filter has a passband narrower than that of the traditional Christiansen filter. Three Christiansen filters centered at 545 nm with full width at half-maximum of 2 nm are synthesized, and the approach to a better suppression of halos from the main transmission peak of the filters is presented in a systematic way.

  20. Oddness of least energy nodal solutions on radial domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Grumiau

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the Lane-Emden problem $$displaylines{ Delta u(x + |{u(x}mathclose|^{p-2}u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinOmega,cr u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinpartialOmega, }$$ where $2 < p < 2^{*}$ and $Omega$ is a ball or an annulus in $mathbb{R}^{N}$, $Ngeq 2$. We show that, for p close to 2, least energy nodal solutions are odd with respect to an hyperplane -- which is their nodal surface. The proof ingredients are a constrained implicit function theorem and the fact that the second eigenvalue is simple up to rotations.

  1. Monolayer structures of alkyl aldehydes: Odd-membered homologues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.K.; Clarke, S.M.; Bhinde, T.; Castro, M.A.; Millan, C.; Medina, S.

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline monolayers of three aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (C 7 , C 9 and C 11 ) at low coverages are observed by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction data is discussed and possible monolayer crystal structures are proposed; although unique structures could not be ascertained for all molecules. We conclude that the structures are flat on the surface, with the molecules lying in the plane of the layer. The C 11 homologue is determined to have a plane group of either p2, pgb or pgg, and for the C 7 homologue the p2 plane group is preferred.

  2. Low-spin states of odd-mass xenon isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The result of an IBFM-1 multilevel calculation with the 2d5/2, 1g7/2, 3s1/2, 2d3/2 and 1h11/2, single particle orbits is reported for the positive parity states of the odd-mass nucleus 125-129Xe. Also, an IBM- 1 calculation is ... Harun R Yazar1. Faculty of Arts and Science, Nev»sehir University, 50300 Nev»sehir, Turkey ...

  3. Odds of fault and factors for out-of-state drivers in crashes in four states of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Kristine; Lee, Brian H Y; Aultman-Hall, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Drivers outside their country of residence are at a safety disadvantage when compared to native counterparts. This research aimed to (1) investigate if out-of-state drivers in the United States experienced the same vulnerabilities as foreign drivers, and (2) examine the relations of out-of-state crashes to various human and environmental factors. Crash data from Florida, Maine, Minnesota, and Nevada was analyzed to model fault using logistic regressions. Univariate regressions showed that out-of-state drivers had increased odds of fault, ranging from 17% to 92%, for a single-vehicle crash compared to in-state drivers in all states except Florida, where there was no difference between groups. Odds were elevated for out-of-state drivers in two-vehicle crashes by 3% to 19% in all states except Florida and Minnesota, where, again, there was no difference between groups. Human and environmental factors such as age, sex, driving conditions, and seasons were examined with multivariate regressions for in- and out-of-state groups separately, and their odds ratios were compared. For single-vehicle crashes age, sex, road grade, surface condition, light conditions, and day of week were factors that increased at least one of the two groups' odds of fault in all states. Sex, surface condition, and light conditions increased the odds of fault for at least one of the groups in two-vehicle crashes in all four states. Factors that consistently increased odds of fault for both single- and two-vehicle crashes were males, non-vehicle owners, curves, and inclement weather. Although there were several factors in each state that increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers, no factors consistently increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers across all four states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on odd nitrogen in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Herman, J. R.; Maier, E. J. R.; McQuillan, C. J.

    1983-09-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbon breakdown in the atmosphere produces aldehydes of which a fraction are transferred into peroxyacetyl nitrates (PAN) in the presence of NO and NO 2. Since ethane is destroyed photochemically primarily above 1 km, PAN can be introduced into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere without the need to be transported from the boundary layer where most hydrocarbons are destroyed and where PAN may be lost due to thermal decomposition and heterogeneous loss. Mixing ratios of ethane in the lower troposphere increase by a factor of 4-8 from equatorial to northern mid-latitudes. This difference is directly translatable into a PAN latitude gradient. At mid-latitudes the concentration of PAN below 20 km is 0.1 ppb comparable to and in some instances larger than predicted HO 2NO 2 mixing ratios. Like HO 2NO 2 and HNO 3, PAN serves as a reservoir for odd nitrogen.

  5. Inequalities in socioeconomic status and race and the odds of undergoing a mammogram in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; de Oliveira, Evangelina Xavier Gouveia; Chor, Dóra; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino

    2016-09-15

    Access to mammograms, in common with other diagnostic procedures, is strongly conditioned by socioeconomic disparities. Which aspects of inequality affect the odds of undergoing a mammogram, and whether they are the same in different localities, are relevant issues related to the success of health policies. This study analyzed data from the 2008 PNAD - Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (11.607 million women 40 years of age or older), on having had at least one mammogram over life for women 40 years of age or older in each of Brazil's nine Metropolitan Regions (MR), according to socioeconomic position. The effects of income, schooling, health insurance and race in the different regions were investigated using multivariate logistical regression for each region individually, and for all MRs combined. The age-adjusted odds of a woman having had a mammogram according to race and stratified by two income strata (and two schooling strata) were also analyzed. Having a higher income increases four to seven times a woman's odds of having had at least one mammogram in all MRs except Curitiba. For schooling, the gradient, though less steep, is favorable to women with more years of study. Having health insurance increases two to three times the odds in all MRs. Multivariate analysis did not show differences due to race (except for the Fortaleza MR), but the stratified analysis by income and schooling shows effects of race in most MRs, with greater differences for women with higher socioeconomic status. This study confirms that income and schooling, as well as having health insurance, are still important determinants of inequality in health service use in Brazil. Additionally, race also contributes to the odds of having had a mammogram. The point is not to isolate the effect of each factor, but to evaluate how their interrelations may exacerbate differences, generating patterns of cumulative adversity, a theme that is still little explored in Brazil. This is much more

  6. Quadruple symmetric real signals spectral even and odd decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivkov Venelin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectral properties of quadruple symmetric real signals are analyzed in the study. Six number theorems are formulated and proofed analytically in a capacity of central results of the research. Lasted theorem could be used to construct complex Fourier spectrum for arbitrary real function by even - odd decomposition. The theorem is illustrated numerically. The initial signal with length N (analogous values length interval or number of discrete samples in the time domain is Fourier transformed through two spectral - real and imaginary parts with length N in the frequency domain. The real and imaginary parts of the complex Fourier spectrum of the initial signal, could be obtained by procedure, described in the paper. Spectral parts could be calculated by equivalent functions-signals. Even left and odd right equivalent functions-signals contain N/2 nonzero analogous values or discrete samples. This strategy allows constructing complex Fourier spectrum of the initial signal with length N in the time domain based on equivalent real and imaginary spectral parts with the length N/2 in the frequency domain. The study is an extension and resume of AMC 221(2013 pp. 344-350.

  7. An Odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme Finite State Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshra, Abeer; El-Sayed, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    A finite-state machine (FSM) is an abstract mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits. Considered as an abstract model of computation, FSM is weak; it has less computational power than some other models of computation such as the Turing machine. This paper discusses the finite-state automata based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and different implementations of DNA FSMs. Moreover, a comparison was made to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of presented DNA FSMS. Since it is a major goal for nanoscince, nanotechnology and super molecular chemistry is to design synthetic molecular devices that are programmable and run autonomously. Programmable means that the behavior of the device can be modified without redesigning the whole structure. Autonomous means that it runs without externally mediated change to the work cycle. In this paper we present an odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme FSM. Our paper makes use of a known design for a DNA nanorobotic device due to Reif and Sahu for executing FSM computations using DNAzymes. The main contribution of our paper is a description of how to program that device to do a FSM computation known as odd parity checking. We describe in detail finite state automaton built on 10-23 DNAzyme, and give its procedure of design and computation. The design procedure has two major phases: designing the language potential alphabet DNA strands, and depending on the first phase to design the DNAzyme possible transitions.

  8. Beyond mean-field calculations for odd-mass nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, B; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H

    2014-10-17

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to ^{25}Mg illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart.

  9. The odds of duplicate gene persistence after polyploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chain Frédéric JJ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication is an important biological phenomenon associated with genomic redundancy, degeneration, specialization, innovation, and speciation. After duplication, both copies continue functioning when natural selection favors duplicated protein function or expression, or when mutations make them functionally distinct before one copy is silenced. Results Here we quantify the degree to which genetic parameters related to gene expression, molecular evolution, and gene structure in a diploid frog - Silurana tropicalis - influence the odds of functional persistence of orthologous duplicate genes in a closely related tetraploid species - Xenopus laevis. Using public databases and 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained genetic and expression data from S. tropicalis orthologs of 3,387 X. laevis paralogs and 4,746 X. laevis singletons - the most comprehensive dataset for African clawed frogs yet analyzed. Using logistic regression, we demonstrate that the most important predictors of the odds of duplicate gene persistence in the tetraploid species are the total gene expression level and evenness of expression across tissues and development in the diploid species. Slow protein evolution and information density (fewer exons, shorter introns in the diploid are also positively correlated with duplicate gene persistence in the tetraploid. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a combination of factors contribute to duplicate gene persistence following whole genome duplication, but that the total expression level and evenness of expression across tissues and through development before duplication are most important. We speculate that these parameters are useful predictors of duplicate gene longevity after whole genome duplication in other taxa.

  10. The Beam Spin Asymmetry and T-odd Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Daniel; Gamberg, Leonard

    2013-10-01

    The focus of this research is to model the internal structure of the nucleon based on its momentum and spin-polarization properties. We focus on the beam-spin asymmetry (BSA) in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. When the produced pion's transverse momentum is on the order of quark intrinsic transverse momentum, TMD factorization suggest that the structure function for the BSA is a momentum convolution integral of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution and fragmentation functions. Theoretically there are four possible structure functions. We focus on the naive time reversal odd (T-odd) contribution. Namely, the g⊥ TMD PDF which relates the transverse spin polarization and transverse momentum of quarks for the case of an unpolarized nucleon and longitudinally polarized electron beam. We model the BSA in the spectator model framework (L. Gamberg et al., Phys. Rev. D 77, 094016 (2008)) and calculate g⊥ and extend our earlier numerical work on the BSA for π+ to results for π-, π0, production. We present these new results for the BSA and compare them with the recent results from CLAS, Hall B collaboration at JLAB (M. Aghasyan, H. Avakian et al., Phys. Lett. B 704, 397 (2011)).

  11. Playing the odds: Climate change risks transform utility plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennis, M.W. [Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Cost and uncertainty analyses conducted jointly by the Union of Concerned Scientists and World Resource Institute regarding climate change policy and regulations are presented in this paper. A utility model was developed to help determine whether action was required in the near term by the electric industry and policy makers to reduce carbon emissions. The cost and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from four case studies are tabulated. Analysis of the results shows that explicit consideration of climate change uncertainty can provide an economic justification for investing in low carbon resources at above market costs. A number of specific recommendations are made in the paper. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. 17 CFR 240.16a-5 - Odd-lot dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Odd-lot dealers. 240.16a-5....16a-5 Odd-lot dealers. Transactions by an odd-lot dealer (a) in odd-lots as reasonably necessary to carry on odd-lot transactions, or (b) in round lots to offset odd-lot transactions previously or...

  13. On the assessment of adverse drug reactions from spontaneous reporting systems: The influence of under-reporting on odds ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, P.G.M. van der; Puijenbroek, E.P. van; Buuren, S. van; Hofstede, J.W. van der

    2002-01-01

    A well-known problem in spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is under-reporting, that is, the problem that not all occurrences of ADRs are reported to the SRS. We look at the question of how to draw statistical conclusions from analyses of SRS data using reporting

  14. Possible Odd Parity State in {sup 128}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, L. [Department of Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Malmskog, S.G. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-07-15

    Gamma lines in the decay of I have been measured by means of a Ge(Li) detector. The following gamma ray energies have been obtained: 442.5 {+-} 0.05, 526.5 {+-} 0.5, 742.4 {+-}1.0, 969.0 {+-} 1.0, and 1136.5 {+-}2.0 keV. The 1136.5 keV transition defines a level in {sup 128}Xe at 1579 {+-} 2 keV. From the log ft = 7.8 {+-} 0.3 of the ({beta}{sup -} feeding, this level is believed to have an odd parity. Upper limits of gamma ray intensities for transitions around eV are used to set a limit for the population of the expected 0{sup +} level originating from the two-phonon quadrupole vibration.

  15. Global systematics of nuclear observables in odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucurescu, D.

    1996-01-01

    Different correlations between observables related to the unique parity orbital structures in the odd-A nuclei are studied. It is shown that the correlations between excitation energies within the unique parity orbital quasibands allow a tripartite classification of the evolution of the nuclear structure, similar to that observed in the adjacent even-even nuclei: all nuclei can be assigned to three different regimes, the precollective, anharmonic vibrator and strong coupling, respectively, interconnected by fast, critical phase-like transitions. It is shown that both an index which characterizes the signature splitting, and the B(E2) values within the quasibands can be organized in terms of a valence correlation scheme. (author)

  16. Subcoulomb fusion of 16O in odd Sm isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections for the formation of evaporation residues were measured for the reaction of 16 O with the odd 147 Sm and 149 Sm nuclei at near barrier energies. The results are well described by statistical model calculations. Fusion cross sections as a function of energy do not show any unusual behaviour that could be attributed to the presence of unpaired nucleons. An analysis based on a one-dimensional penetration model that includes the effect of permanent quadrupolar deformations shows that the extracted values of the parameter β 2 follow the systematics established by the rest of the even samarium isotopes. The dependence of β 2 on the mass of the target nucleus indicates that the influence exerted by collective aspects upon the subbarrier fusion process increases rapidly as a function of the number of neutrons added to the spherical semimagic 144 Sm nucleus. (Author) [es

  17. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  18. Technology diffusion in hospitals: a log odds random effects regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jos L T; Valdmanis, Vivian G

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the factors that affect the diffusion of hospital innovations. We apply a log odds random effects regression model on hospital micro data. We introduce the concept of clustering innovations and the application of a log odds random effects regression model to describe the diffusion of technologies. We distinguish a number of determinants, such as service, physician, and environmental, financial and organizational characteristics of the 60 Dutch hospitals in our sample. On the basis of this data set on Dutch general hospitals over the period 1995-2002, we conclude that there is a relation between a number of determinants and the diffusion of innovations underlining conclusions from earlier research. Positive effects were found on the basis of the size of the hospitals, competition and a hospital's commitment to innovation. It appears that if a policy is developed to further diffuse innovations, the external effects of demand and market competition need to be examined, which would de facto lead to an efficient use of technology. For the individual hospital, instituting an innovations office appears to be the most prudent course of action. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Association Between School Policies and Built Environment, and Youth's Participation in Various Types of Physical Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stephanie; Bélanger, Mathieu; Donovan, Denise; Caissie, Isabelle; Goguen, Julie; Vanasse, Allain

    2015-07-01

    School environmental characteristics may be associated with youth's participation in different types of physical activities (PAs). This study aimed to identify which school policies and built environmental characteristics were associated with participation in organized, nonorganized, individual, and group-based activities. This cross-sectional analysis included 776 students in grade 5 or 6 from 16 schools. The school environment was assessed through school-based questionnaires completed by school representatives. Types of PA and attainment of PA recommendations were obtained using self-administered student questionnaires. Associations between environment and student PA were examined using multilevel logistic regressions. Schools with favorable active commuting environments were positively associated with girls' participation in organized (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.74) and group-based PA (OR = 1.54, CI = 1.19-1.99) and with boys' odds of participating in individual activities (OR = 1.45, CI = 1.04-2.04). There was also a positive relationship between having a school environment favorable to active commuting and boys' odds of meeting PA recommendations (OR = 2.19, CI = 1.43-3.37). School policies supporting PA were positively associated with girls' odds of participating in nonorganized activities (OR = 1.18, CI = 1.00-1.40). School environments that favor active commuting may encourage participation in different types of PA. School policies promoting PA also may encourage girls to participate in organized activities. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  20. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Josephine, E-mail: jkang3@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Moran, Brian J. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 21 Century Oncology, Inc., Fort Myers, FL (United States); Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Salenius, Sharon A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 21 Century Oncology, Inc., Fort Myers, FL (United States); D' Amico, Anthony V. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  1. Higher-spin Chern-Simons theories in odd dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engquist, Johan [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.engquist@phys.uu.nl; Hohm, Olaf [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: o.hohm@phys.uu.nl

    2007-12-10

    We construct consistent bosonic higher-spin gauge theories in odd dimensions D>3 based on Chern-Simons forms. The gauge groups are infinite-dimensional higher-spin extensions of the anti-de Sitter groups SO(D-1,2). We propose an invariant tensor on these algebras, which is required for the definition of the Chern-Simons action. The latter contains the purely gravitational Chern-Simons theories constructed by Chamseddine, and so the entire theory describes a consistent coupling of higher-spin fields to a particular form of Lovelock gravity. It contains topological as well as non-topological phases. Focusing on D=5 we consider as an example for the latter an AdS{sub 4}xS{sup 1} Kaluza-Klein background. By solving the higher-spin torsion constraints in the case of a spin-3 field, we verify explicitly that the equations of motion reduce in the linearization to the compensator form of the Fronsdal equations on AdS{sub 4}.

  2. Srs2: the "Odd-Job Man" in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Victoria; Krejci, Lumir

    2010-03-02

    Homologous recombination plays a key role in the maintenance of genome integrity, especially during DNA replication and the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Just a single un-repaired break can lead to aneuploidy, genetic aberrations or cell death. DSBs are caused by a vast number of both endogenous and exogenous agents including genotoxic chemicals or ionizing radiation, as well as through replication of a damaged template DNA or the replication fork collapse. It is essential for cell survival to recognise and process DSBs as well as other toxic intermediates and launch most appropriate repair mechanism. Many helicases have been implicated to play role in these processes, however their detail roles, specificities and co-operativity in the complex protein-protein interaction networks remain unclear. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about Saccharomyces cerevisiae helicase Srs2 and its effect on multiple DNA metabolic processes that generally affect genome stability. It would appear that Srs2 functions as an "Odd-Job Man" in these processes to make sure that the jobs proceed when and where they are needed. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Emerging countries’ multinational companies investing in developed countries: at odds with the HOS paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreff, Wladimir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the new trend of outward foreign direct investment (FDI by multinational companies from emerging countries, in particular the BRICs, in developed countries to question the applicability of the traditional HOS theoretical framework to this trend. A literature review shows that labour costs do not play any significant role in the first attempts to provide an analytical explanation of this new trend. A HOS equation, amended in order to encompass FDI, is elaborated in order to explain outward FDI from developed to developing and emerging countries based on differences in labour endowment and therefore in wage rates. Step by step, the equation introduces the technological gap, institutions and government policies. Then it is shown that such equation when reversed to explain outward FDI from emerging to developed countries is at odds with the traditional HOS framework. Turning the HOS theory upside down does not help to explain reverse FDI outflows from emerging to developed countries. An alternative approach is called for, in which a labour cost advantage (a lower wage rate than abroad is a home market advantage for emerging countries to invest abroad. A final section provides some empirical examples that labour matters and a lower home wage rate is a decisive comparative advantage for Indian and Chinese multinationals investing in developed countries. Additional evidence shows that the technological gap and the home country’s institutions and government policy matter as well

  4. Awareness, Facilitators, and Barriers to Policy Implementation Related to Obesity Prevention for Primary School Children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Camelina; Moy, Foong Ming; Lim, Jennifer N W; Dahlui, Maznah

    2018-03-01

    To assess the awareness, facilitators, and barriers to policy implementation related to obesity prevention for primary school children. A cross-sectional study administered using an online questionnaire. Conducted in 447 primary schools in a state in Malaysia. One school administrator from each school served as a participant. The questionnaires consisted of 32 items on awareness, policy implementation, and facilitators and barriers to policy implementation. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the awareness, facilitators, and barriers of policies implementation. Association between schools' characteristics and policy implementation was assessed using logistic regression. The majority (90%) of school administrators were aware of the policies. However, only 50% to 70% of schools had implemented the policies fully. Reported barriers were lack of equipment, insufficient training, and limited time to complete implementation. Facilitators of policy implementation were commitment from the schools, staff members, students, and canteen operators. Policy implementation was comparable in all school types and locality; except the policy on "Food and Drinks sold at the school canteens" was implemented by more rural schools compared to urban schools (odds ratio: 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.69). Majority of the school administrators were aware of the existing policies; however, the implementation was only satisfactory. The identified barriers to policy implementation were modifiable and thus, the stakeholders should consider restrategizing plans in overcoming them.

  5. Electromagnetic properties of some odd-odd nuclei in the A≈ 100 region and IBFFM description of 106Ag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrejtscheff, W.; Kostov, L. K.; Petkov, P.; Brant, S.; Paar, V.; Lopac, V.; Boehm, G.; Eberth, J.; Wirowski, R.; Zell, K. O.

    1990-09-01

    Electromagnetic properties of odd-odd transitional nuclei with A≈ 100 are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Nanosecond isomers are studied in-beam by means of delayed γγ-coincidences and the generalized centroid-shift method. The reactions 98Mo+30MeV 7Li and 92,94Mo+ 50 MeV 12C are utilized. Following half-lives are determined: T {1}/{2} (547.2 keV in 102Rh) = 0.25±0.07ns, T {1}/{2} (243.1 keV in 102Rh) = 0.30±0.10ns, T {1}/{2}(181.1 keV in 99Tc) = 3.8 ± 0.3ns, T {1}/{2} (2902.0keV in 104Cd) = 0.6±0.1 ns, T {1}/{2} (118.7keV in 103Pd) =0.8±0.2 ns, T {1}/{2} (131.1 keV in 105Cd) = 1.5 ±0.3 ns, T {1}/{2} (211.8 keV in 104Ag) = 1.4±0.1 ns, T {1}/{2} (181.0 keV in 102Ag) = 3.5±0.2 ns. Additionally, several upper limits of level lifetimes are derived. The systematics of E1, M1 and E2 transition rates in 100,102,104Rh and 102,104,106Ag is presented and discussed. Fast M1 transitions within the 2qp π g˜{9}/{2}ν h˜{1}/{2} band appear to be associated with the strong coupling of the π g˜{9}/{2} proton and the rotational alignment of the h˜{11}/{2} neutron. Extensive IBFFM calculations of level energies and electromagnetic properties of 106Ag as a typical case demonstrate that this model could account for the complex structural pattern of this type of nuclei. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 98Mo( 7Li, 3n), ( 7Li2nα), E=30 MeV; 92,94Mo( 12C, pn), 94Mo( 12C, 2n), ( 12C, 2pn), E = 50 MeV; measured Eγ, Iγ, γγ( t). 102Rh, 99Tc, 102,104Ag, 104Cd,

  6. Research-active clinical nurses: against all odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Sandra L; Albert, Nancy M

    2017-03-01

    To develop a theoretical understanding of factors that impact decisions of clinical nurses to conduct a research study. Only a small percentage of all nurses are research-active and even fewer clinical nurses are research-active. Several researchers have explored barriers to research activity by clinical nurses, but few have examined why, in spite of all odds, some clinical nurses are research-active. As the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical understanding of the research-active nurse, a grounded theory approach was used. The sample interviewed for this study consisted of registered nurses (n = 26) who worked in a hospital or ambulatory setting, had daily direct patient contact and had participated as principal investigator on at least one completed clinical nursing research study that was not in fulfilment of an educational requirement. The interviews were digitally recorded and analysed by two researchers using the constant comparative method. The findings from this study suggest that the conduct of research by clinical nurses was the direct result of a clinical trigger, characteristics and beliefs of the nurse about research and their role in generating knowledge, and the presence of support conditions, such as a research mentor. Clinical nurses can and do conduct research, in spite of constraints due to a lack of time, money and/or knowledge, if they have access to research mentors and are practising in a research-supportive environment. Nurses at the bedside are in a unique position to identify problems most in need of solutions. Findings from this study provide a foundation upon which to develop and test various programmes that seek to increase the number of clinical nurses who are research-active. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.

  8. Abdominal adiposity and family income-to-poverty ratio in American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, Ike S; Annor, Francis B; Seale, J Paul; Eriksen, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    We examined (a) secular changes in abdominal fat accumulation (AFA) and family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR) across race/ethnicity, education and age in Mexican (MA), non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and (b) association between PIR and AFA among American women. Data (n = 9787) from 2001-2002 to 2009-2010 NHANES were used. Rates of AFA and poverty by race/ethnic, age and education categories were determined across study time points. Subjects with low and medium PIR values were classified as poor. Linear trends in AFA and PIR were evaluated. Study time-specific odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression models were used to estimate risk of AFA due to low to medium PIR. Statistical adjustments were made for race/ethnicity, education, age, and marital status. Increased trends in low to medium PIR and AFA in MA, NHW, and NHB American women were observed between 2001 and 2010. Poor women had much higher prevalence of AFA compared to richer women. For each of the studied periods, medium and low PIR were each associated with increased odds of AFA. The association between poverty and AFA was weakest in 2001-2002 (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05-2.11) compared to 2009-2010 (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.21-2.22). Compared to NHW, being of MA and NHB race/ethnicity was also each associated with increased odds of AFA, controlling for other independent variables. Increase in poverty and AFA, and positive association between decreased PIR and increased odds of AFA were observed in the period between 2001 and 2010 in MA, NHW, and NHB American women. A robust economic policy designed to alleviate poverty may be an important means of reducing the trajectory of AFA in American women. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rasio Utang Memediasi Pengaruh Kemampulabaan Dan Ukuran Aktiva Terhadap Kebijakan Dividen: Studi Empiris Pada Perusahaan Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia [Debt Ratio to Mediate Effect of Profitability and Asset Size on Dividend Policy: An Empirical Study on Oil Palm Plantation Companies Listed with the Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Lumbantobing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the influence of the debt policy, profitability, and size of asset toward company's dividend policy on oil palm plantation companies listed with the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the years 2011-2015. The secondary data used in this research were obtained directly from the company website and the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. The data collection was conducted by direct observation upon the research object. The data were analyzed using path analysis and logistical regression model. The result showed that profitability has a significant and negative effect on the debt ratio. Size of asset does not have a significant and positive effect on the debt ratio. Profitability and size of assets have significant and positive effects on dividend policy, which proves that the larger profitability and the size of assets, the greater the probabilty of paying dividends. Debt ratio does not have a significant and positive effect on dividend policy. Debt ratio has a significant positively partial mediating effect toward the influence of profitability on dividend policy. Otherwise, debt ratio does not have a significant negatively mediating effect toward the positive effect of size of asset on dividend policy.  BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini mengeksplorasi engaruh kebijakan utang, kemampulabaan dan ukuran aktiva terhadap kebijakan dividen perusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia periode tahun 2011-2015. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder yang diperoleh secara langsung dari website perusahaan dan Bursa Efek Indonesia. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi tidak langsung terhadap objek penelitian yaitu perusahaan kelapa sawit. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan path analysis dan model regresi logistik. Temuan penelitian ini menunjukkan bukti bahwa kemampulabaan signifikan berpengaruh negatif terhadap rasio utang. Ukuran aktiva tidak signifikan berpengaruh positif terhadap rasio

  10. Early Elective Delivery Disparities between Non-Hispanic Black and White Women after Statewide Policy Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Muoto, Ifeoma; Darney, Blair G; Caughey, Aaron B; Snowden, Jonathan M

    2017-12-19

    In 2011, Oregon implemented a policy that reduced the state's rate of early (before 39 weeks' gestation) elective (without medical need) births. This analysis measured differential policy effects by race, examining whether Oregon's policy was associated with changes in non-Hispanic Black-White disparities in early elective cesarean and labor induction. We used Oregon birth certificate data, defining prepolicy (2008-2010) and postpolicy (2012-2014) periods, including non-Hispanic Black and White women who gave birth during these periods (n = 121,272). We used longitudinal spline models to assess policy impacts by race and probability models to measure policy-associated changes in Black-White disparities. We found that the prepolicy Black-White differences in early elective cesarean (6.1% vs. 4.3%) were eliminated after policy implementation (2.8% vs. 2.5%); adjusted models show decreases in the odds of elective early cesarean among Black women after the policy change (adjusted odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-1.00; p = .050) and among White women (adjusted odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.93; p = .006). Adjusted probability models indicated that policy implementation resulted in a 1.75-percentage point narrowing (p = .011) in the Black-White disparity in early elective cesarean. Early elective induction also decreased, from 4.9% and 4.7% for non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White women to 3.8% and 2.5%, respectively; the policy was not associated with a statistically significant change in disparities. A statewide policy reduced racial disparities in early elective cesarean, but not early elective induction. Attention to differential policy effects by race may reveal changes in disparities, even when that is not the intended focus of the policy. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cveticanin, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics

  12. Impact of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital-Acquired Conditions Policy on Billing Rates for 2 Targeted Healthcare-Associated Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Alison Tse; Calderwood, Michael S; Jin, Robert; Soumerai, Stephen B; Vaz, Louise E; Goldmann, Donald; Lee, Grace M

    2015-08-01

    The 2008 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services hospital-acquired conditions policy limited additional payment for conditions deemed reasonably preventable. To examine whether this policy was associated with decreases in billing rates for 2 targeted conditions, vascular catheter-associated infections (VCAI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). Adult Medicare patients admitted to 569 acute care hospitals in California, Massachusetts, or New York and subject to the policy. DESIGN We used an interrupted times series design to assess whether the hospital-acquired conditions policy was associated with changes in billing rates for VCAI and CAUTI. Before the policy, billing rates for VCAI and CAUTI were increasing (prepolicy odds ratio per quarter for VCAI, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.11-1.23]; for CAUTI, 1.19 [1.16-1.23]). The policy was associated with an immediate drop in billing rates for VCAI and CAUTI (odds ratio for change at policy implementation for VCAI, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.69-0.81]; for CAUTI, 0.87 [0.79-0.96]). In the postpolicy period, we observed a decreasing trend in the billing rate for VCAI and a leveling-off in the billing rate for CAUTI (postpolicy odds ratio per quarter for VCAI, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.97-0.99]; for CAUTI, 0.99 [0.97-1.00]). The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services hospital-acquired conditions policy appears to have been associated with immediate reductions in billing rates for VCAI and CAUTI, followed by a slight decreasing trend or leveling-off in rates. These billing rates, however, may not correlate with changes in clinically meaningful patient outcomes and may reflect changes in coding practices.

  13. Investigation of the correlation between odd oxygen and secondary organic aerosol in Mexico City and Houston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Wood

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many recent models underpredict secondary organic aerosol (SOA particulate matter (PM concentrations in polluted regions, indicating serious deficiencies in the models' chemical mechanisms and/or missing SOA precursors. Since tropospheric photochemical ozone production is much better understood, we investigate the correlation of odd-oxygen ([Ox]≡[O3]+[NO2] and the oxygenated component of organic aerosol (OOA, which is interpreted as a surrogate for SOA. OOA and Ox measured in Mexico City in 2006 and Houston in 2000 were well correlated in air masses where both species were formed on similar timescales (less than 8 h and not well correlated when their formation timescales or location differed greatly. When correlated, the ratio of these two species ranged from 30 μg m−3/ppm (STP in Houston during time periods affected by large petrochemical plant emissions to as high as 160 μg m−3/ppm in Mexico City, where typical values were near 120 μg m−3/ppm. On several days in Mexico City, the [OOA]/[Ox] ratio decreased by a factor of ~2 between 08:00 and 13:00 local time. This decrease is only partially attributable to evaporation of the least oxidized and most volatile components of OOA; differences in the diurnal emission trends and timescales for photochemical processing of SOA precursors compared to ozone precursors also likely contribute to the observed decrease. The extent of OOA oxidation increased with photochemical aging. Calculations of the ratio of the SOA formation rate to the Ox production rate using ambient VOC measurements and traditional laboratory SOA yields are lower than the observed [OOA]/[Ox] ratios by factors of 5 to 15, consistent with several other models' underestimates of SOA. Calculations of this ratio using emission factors for organic compounds from gasoline and diesel exhaust do not reproduce the observed

  14. Significantly Increased Odds of Reporting Previous Shoulder Injuries in Female Marines Based on Larger Magnitude Shoulder Rotator Bilateral Strength Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Shawn R; Connaboy, Chris; Nindl, Bradley C; Allison, Katelyn F

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries to the extremities are a primary concern for the United States (US) military. One possible injury risk factor in this population is side-to-side strength imbalance. To examine the odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury in US Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force volunteers based on side-to-side strength differences in isokinetic shoulder strength. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Male (n = 219) and female (n = 91) Marines were included in this analysis. Peak torque values from 5 shoulder internal/external rotation repetitions were averaged and normalized to body weight. The difference in side-to-side strength measurements was calculated as the absolute value of the limb difference divided by the mean peak torque of the dominant limb. Participants were placed into groups based on the magnitude of these differences: 20%. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. When separated by sex, 13.2% of men reported an injury, while 5.5% of women reported an injury. Female Marines with >20% internal rotation side-to-side strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with female Marines with reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with those with lesser magnitude differences. Additionally, female sex appears to drastically affect the increased odds of reporting shoulder injuries (OR, 13.9-15.4) with larger magnitude differences (ie, >20%) compared with those with lesser magnitude differences (ie, <10% and 10%-20%). The retrospective cohort design of this study cannot delineate cause and effect but establishes a relationship between female Marines and greater odds of larger magnitude strength differences after returning from an injury.

  15. Local and global even-odd effects in prompt emission in fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giubega Georgiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the proton even-odd effects in prompt emission in fission for even-Z actinides revealed basic features of the global even-odd effect in prompt emission similar with those in fission fragment yields and some particular aspects, such as: (1 the even-odd effects in prompt emission are the result of two contributions: a dominant intrinsic even-odd effect due to the even-odd nuclear character of fragments reflected in their properties and a weak even-odd effect caused by the fragment distributions (over which the multi-parametric matrices are averaged; (2 oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units are present in different prompt emission quantities corresponding to even-Z and odd-Z fragmentations independent on the size of the even-odd effect in the charge yield Y(Z. These oscillations are due to the periodicity of nuclear properties of fragments; (3 a local even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities has been recently investigated. Similarities between prompt emission quantities and fragment yields were found in the case of the local even-odd effect, too. The local even-odd effect in both fragment charge yields and prompt emission quantities exhibit a pronounced increase at asymmetry values corresponding to fragmentations in which the heavy fragment (Z = 50 and/or N = 82 or the light one (Z = 28 is magic.

  16. Inclusive anti-bullying policies and reduced risk of suicide attempts in lesbian and gay youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate whether anti-bullying policies that are inclusive of sexual orientation are associated with a reduced prevalence of suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. A total of 31,852 11th-grade public school students (1,413 lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals; 4.4%) in Oregon completed the Oregon Healthy Teens survey in 2006-2008. The independent variable was the proportion of school districts in the 34 counties participating in the Oregon Healthy Teens survey that adopted anti-bullying policies inclusive of sexual orientation. The outcome measure was any self-reported suicide attempt in the past 12 months. We stratified results by sexual orientation. Lesbian and gay youths living in counties with fewer school districts with inclusive anti-bullying policies were 2.25 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.49) more likely to have attempted suicide in the past year compared with those living in counties where more districts had these policies. Inclusive anti-bullying policies were significantly associated with a reduced risk for suicide attempts among lesbian and gay youths, even after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity) and exposure to peer victimization (odds ratio, .18; 95% CI, .03-.92). In contrast, anti-bullying policies that did not include sexual orientation were not associated with lower suicide attempts among lesbian and gay youths (odds ratio, .38; 95% CI, .02-7.33). Inclusive anti-bullying policies may exert protective effects for the mental health of lesbian and gay youths, including reducing their risk for suicide attempts. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  18. Analysis of reactor-neutrino spectra fully based on gross theory of beta-decay emphasizing the special role of odd-odd FP nuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied the gross theory of β-decay to calculate the reactor antineutrino (νe spectra emitted from 235,238U and 239,241Pu samples under neutron irradiation by summing up all the contributions from a large number of decaying fission-products (FPs. Considering the special role of the odd(Z-odd(N FPs in spectrum-shaping, we utilized the experimentally-known spin-parity of each odd-odd FP through the treatment proposed by Nakata, Tachibana and Yamada. Owing to this treatment, the consistency between calculated and experimental spectra was remarkably improved in a way expected from the nature of the gross theory of β-decay.

  19. Analysis of reactor-neutrino spectra fully based on gross theory of beta-decay emphasizing the special role of odd-odd FP nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Takahiro; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    We applied the gross theory of β-decay to calculate the reactor antineutrino (νe) spectra emitted from 235,238U and 239,241Pu samples under neutron irradiation by summing up all the contributions from a large number of decaying fission-products (FPs). Considering the special role of the odd(Z)-odd(N) FPs in spectrum-shaping, we utilized the experimentally-known spin-parity of each odd-odd FP through the treatment proposed by Nakata, Tachibana and Yamada. Owing to this treatment, the consistency between calculated and experimental spectra was remarkably improved in a way expected from the nature of the gross theory of β-decay.

  20. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  1. Obesity and the Odds of Weight Gain following Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Z. Braunstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing body mass index (BMI is associated with increased risk of mortality; however, quantifying weight gain in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PC remains unexplored. Methods. Between 1995 and 2001, 206 men were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the survival difference of adding 6 months of ADT to radiation therapy (RT. BMI measurements were available in 171 men comprising the study cohort. The primary endpoint was weight gain of ≥10 lbs by 6-month followup. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess whether baseline BMI or treatment received was associated with this endpoint adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results. By the 6-month followup, 12 men gained ≥10 lbs, of which 10 (83% received RT + ADT and, of these, 7 (70% were obese at randomization. Men treated with RT as compared to RT + ADT were less likely to gain ≥10 lbs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.18 [95% CI: 0.04–0.89]; P=0.04, whereas this risk increased with increasing BMI (AOR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01–1.31]; P=0.04. Conclusions. Consideration should be given to avoid ADT in obese men with low- or favorable-intermediate risk PC where improved cancer control has not been observed, but shortened life expectancy from weight gain is expected.

  2. Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafee, Sherif S; Shaheen, Salem A; Al-Ramady, Amir M

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (81(217)Tl, Bismuth (83(217)Bi), Astatine (85(217)At), Francium (87(217)Fr), Actinium (89(217)Ac) and Protactinium (91(217)Pa) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory's website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for (221)Fr-, (221)Ac- and (221)Pa-α-decays.

  3. Process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL® marginally effects student achievement measures but substantially increases the odds of passing a course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Walker

    Full Text Available While the inquiry approach to science teaching has been widely recommended as an epistemic mechanism to promote deep content understanding, there is also increased expectation that process and other transferable skills should be integral part of science pedagogy. To test the hypothesis that coupling process skills to content teaching impacts academic success measures, we meta-analyzed twenty-one studies (n = 21 involving 7876 students that compared Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL, a pedagogy that provides opportunities for improving process skills during content learning through guided-inquiry activities, to standard lecture conditions. Based on conventional measures of class performance, POGIL had a small effect on achievement outcomes (effect size = 0.29, [95% CI = 0.15-0.43] but substantially improved the odds of passing a class (odds ratio = 2.02, [95% CI: 1.45-2.83]. That is, participants in the POGIL pedagogy had higher odds of passing a course and roughly performed 0.3 standard deviations higher on achievement measures than participants in standard lectures. In relative risk terms, POGIL reduced the risk of failing a course by 38%. These findings suggest providing opportunities to improve process skills during class instruction does not inhibit content learning but enhances conventional success measures. We compare these findings with those of recent large meta-analysis that examined the effects of global active learning methods on achievement outcomes and course failure rates in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields.

  4. Process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL®) marginally effects student achievement measures but substantially increases the odds of passing a course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lindsey; Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M

    2017-01-01

    While the inquiry approach to science teaching has been widely recommended as an epistemic mechanism to promote deep content understanding, there is also increased expectation that process and other transferable skills should be integral part of science pedagogy. To test the hypothesis that coupling process skills to content teaching impacts academic success measures, we meta-analyzed twenty-one studies (n = 21) involving 7876 students that compared Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL), a pedagogy that provides opportunities for improving process skills during content learning through guided-inquiry activities, to standard lecture conditions. Based on conventional measures of class performance, POGIL had a small effect on achievement outcomes (effect size = 0.29, [95% CI = 0.15-0.43]) but substantially improved the odds of passing a class (odds ratio = 2.02, [95% CI: 1.45-2.83]). That is, participants in the POGIL pedagogy had higher odds of passing a course and roughly performed 0.3 standard deviations higher on achievement measures than participants in standard lectures. In relative risk terms, POGIL reduced the risk of failing a course by 38%. These findings suggest providing opportunities to improve process skills during class instruction does not inhibit content learning but enhances conventional success measures. We compare these findings with those of recent large meta-analysis that examined the effects of global active learning methods on achievement outcomes and course failure rates in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.

  5. The Log Odds of Positive Lymph Nodes Stratifies and Predicts Survival of High-Risk Individuals Among Stage III Rectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina W; Wilkinson, Katheryn H; Sheka, Adam C; Leverson, Glen E; Kennedy, Gregory D

    2016-04-01

    The log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) is an empiric transform formula that incorporates positive and negative lymph node data into a single ratio for prognostic utility. We sought to determine the value of the log odds ratio as a prognostic indicator compared with established lymph node indices in advanced-stage rectal cancer patients who have undergone curative resection. Retrospective analysis of rectal cancer operations from 1995 to 2013 identified all stage III cancer patients who underwent curative resection. Patients were stratified into three groups according to calculated lymph node ratios (LNRs) and log odds ratios (LODDS). The relationship between LNR, LODDS, and 5-year overall survival (OS) were assessed. OS for all patients was 81.4%. Both LNR and LODDS stratifications identified differences in 5-year OS. LODDS stratification was significantly associated with OS (p = .04). Additional significant clinicopathologic demographic variables included sex (p = .02), venous invasion (p = .02), tumor location (p log odds ratio is a suitable predictor of 5-year overall survival in stage III rectal cancer. LODDS may be applied to stratify high-risk patients in the management of adjuvant therapy. Traditionally, clinicians have relied solely on the total number of positive lymph nodes affected when determining patient prognosis in rectal cancer. However, the current staging strategy does not account for "high-risk," biologically aggressive tumors that fall into the same risk categories as less clinically aggressive tumors. The log odds of positive lymph nodes is a logistic transform formula that uses pathologic lymph node data to stratify survival differences among patients within a single stage of disease. This formula allows clinicians to identify whether patients with clinically aggressive tumors fall into higher-risk groups, providing additional insight into how to better counsel patients and manage postoperative therapies. ©AlphaMed Press.

  6. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle ...

  7. Teacher ratings of ODD symptoms: measurement equivalence across Malaysian Malay, Chinese and Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2014-04-01

    The study examined the measurement equivalence for teacher ratings across Malaysian Malay, Chinese and Indian children. Malaysian teachers completed ratings of the ODD symptoms for 574 Malay, 247 Chinese and 98 Indian children. The results supported the equivalences for the configural, metric, and error variances models, and the equivalences for ODD latent variances and mean scores. Together, these findings suggest good support for measurement and structural equivalences of the ODD symptoms across these ethnic groups. The theoretical and clinical implications of the findings for cross-cultural equivalence of the ODD symptoms are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. United States aid policy and induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Eran; Avila, Patrick; Miller, Grant

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether the Mexico City Policy, a United States government policy that prohibits funding to nongovernmental organizations performing or promoting abortion, was associated with the induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa. Women in 20 African countries who had induced abortions between 1994 and 2008 were identified in Demographic and Health Surveys. A country's exposure to the Mexico City Policy was considered high (or low) if its per capita assistance from the United States for family planning and reproductive health was above (or below) the median among study countries before the policy's reinstatement in 2001. Using logistic regression and a difference-in-difference design, the authors estimated the differential change in the odds of having an induced abortion among women in high exposure countries relative to low exposure countries when the policy was reinstated. The study included 261,116 women aged 15 to 44 years. A comparison of 1994-2000 with 2001-2008 revealed an adjusted odds ratio for induced abortion of 2.55 for high-exposure countries versus low-exposure countries under the policy (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.76-3.71). There was a relative decline in the use of modern contraceptives in the high-exposure countries over the same time period. The induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa rose in high-exposure countries relative to low-exposure countries when the Mexico City Policy was reintroduced. Reduced financial support for family planning may have led women to substitute abortion for contraception. Regardless of one's views about abortion, the findings may have important implications for public policies governing abortion.

  9. U.S. Tuna Fisheries: a trifecta of sustainable practices at odds with climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKuin, B.; Campbell, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental concerns have given rise to eco-label initiatives in the seafood industry and a shift to more sustainable fishing practices in the U.S. Currently, the greenhouse gas emissions of fisheries are being considered in the sustainability criteria of the consumer advocacy group Seafood Watch. We looked at sustainable practices employed by U.S. tuna fisheries and find the term "sustainably sourced" changes when climate forcing is added to the criteria. Specifically, there are three sustainable practices at odds with climate change mitigation: 1) the use of selective fishing gear reduces bycatch but increases fuel use; 2) fishing within exclusive economic zones is more equitable to coastal fishermen, and allows the high seas to serve as an ecological bank, but fishing within these regions means fisheries are subject to more stringent fuel sulfur laws thereby diminishing the cooling effects of sulfate aerosols and increasing climate forcing; and 3) removing sulfur from fuels improves air quality but there are added emissions from the refinery process. We used ship registry data, historical sulfur levels in fuels, gear-specific fishery fuel use data collected from the literature, historical gear-specific tuna landings data, and a range of global warming potentials to estimate the climate forcing of U.S. tuna fisheries over the last fifteen years. We found that for tuna caught within exclusive economic zones, the net fuel-related climate forcing has more than doubled over the last fifteen years. We also normalized the fuel-related climate forcing results to a unit of tuna protein and compared these results to other farmed sources of protein. We found that tuna caught within exclusive economic zones has the highest climate impact of all land-based protein sources considered, with the exception of beef. Our results can inform policy makers and consumer advocacy groups which is an important step in communicating the climate impact of dietary choices to consumers.

  10. Motor Impairments in Transient Ischemic Attack Increase the Odds of a Subsequent Stroke: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Lodha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeTransient ischemic attack (TIA increases the risk for a subsequent stroke. Typical symptoms include motor weakness, gait disturbance, and loss of coordination. The association between the presence of motor impairments during a TIA and the chances of a subsequent stroke has not been examined. In the current meta-analysis, we examine whether the odds of a stroke are greater in TIA individuals who experience motor impairments as compared with those who do not experience motor impairments.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search of electronic databases as well as manual searches of the reference lists of retrieved articles. The meta-analysis included studies that reported an odds ratio relating motor impairments to a subsequent stroke, or the number of individuals with or without motor impairments who experienced a subsequent stroke. We examined these studies using rigorous meta-analysis techniques including random effects model, forest and funnel plots, I2, publication bias, and fail-safe analysis.ResultsTwenty-four studies with 15,129 participants from North America, Australia, Asia, and Europe qualified for inclusion. An odds ratio of 2.11 (95% CI, 1.67–2.65, p = 0.000 suggested that the chances of a subsequent stroke are increased by twofolds in individuals who experience motor impairments during a TIA compared with those individuals who have no motor impairments.ConclusionThe presence of motor impairments during TIA is a significantly high-risk clinical characteristic for a subsequent stroke. The current evidence for motor impairments following TIA relies exclusively on the clinical reports of unilateral motor weakness. A comprehensive examination of motor impairments in TIA will enhance TIA prognosis and restoration of residual motor impairments.

  11. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if…

  12. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  13. The odd-even effect in Sudoku puzzles: effects of working memory, aging, and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hye-Sang; Gibson, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    The odd-even effect in numerical processing has been explained as the easier processing of even numbers compared with odd numbers. We investigated this effect in Sudoku puzzles, a reasoning problem that uses numbers but does not require arithmetic operations. Specifically, we asked whether the odd-even effect occurred with Sudoku puzzles and whether individual differences in working memory (WM), aging, and experience with Sudoku modulated this effect. We manipulated the presence of odd and even numbers in Sudoku puzzles, measured WM with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and backward digit span task, tested older and younger adults, and collected Sudoku experience frequency. Performance on Sudoku was more accurate for even puzzles than odd ones. Younger, experienced, and higher-WM participants were more accurate on Sudoku, but these individual difference variables did not interact with the odd-even effect. Odd numbers may impose more cognitive load than even numbers, but future research is needed to examine how age, experience, or WM may influence the odd-even effect.

  14. Quantum information with even and odd states of orbital angular momentum of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perumangatt, Chithrabhanu, E-mail: chithrabhanu@prl.res.in [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Lal, Nijil [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); IIT Gandhinagar, Palaj, Ahmedabad, 382355 (India); Anwar, Ali [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Gangi Reddy, Salla [University of Electro-communications, Chofu, Tokyo, 1828585 (Japan); Singh, R.P. [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India)

    2017-06-15

    We address the possibility of using even/odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons for the quantum information tasks. Single photon qubit states and two photon entangled states in even/odd basis of OAM are considered. We present a method for the tomography and general projective measurement in even/odd basis. With the general projective measurement, we show the Bell violation and quantum cryptography with Bell's inequality. We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization, which can be applied in the implementation of quantum protocols like super dense coding. - Highlights: • We propose to use even and odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light for quantum information tasks. • We describe the OAM qubits and entangled states in even/odd basis and the corresponding projective operators. • We present a method for the tomography and the Bell's inequality violation for photons entangled in even/odd OAM states. • We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization and their applications.

  15. Technology diffusion in hospitals : A log odds random effects regression model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, J.L.T.; Valdmanis, V.G.

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies the factors that affect the diffusion of hospital innovations. We apply a log odds random effects regression model on hospital micro data. We introduce the concept of clustering innovations and the application of a log odds random effects regression model to describe the

  16. Technology diffusion in hospitals: A log odds random effects regression model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.T. Blank (Jos); V.G. Valdmanis (Vivian G.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis study identifies the factors that affect the diffusion of hospital innovations. We apply a log odds random effects regression model on hospital micro data. We introduce the concept of clustering innovations and the application of a log odds random effects regression model to

  17. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2007-01-01

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  18. Odd A nuclei description in terms of boson and fermion interacting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, M.

    1986-01-01

    The odd-A nuclei are considered in the IBFM model to consist of an even-even core (described by the interacting boson model) and of a few fermions. In the general case the Hamiltonian is numerically diagonalized after a number of approximations. The results of a typical calculation are compared to experiment. In special cases it is possible to obtain analytical expressions for experimentally measurable quantities. These limiting cases are the Bose-Fermi symmetries for odd-A nuclei and the supersymmetries describing simultaneously both even-even and odd-A nuclei. The Bose-Fermi Spin (6) and the U(6/4) supersymmetry models are described in details and compared to experiments. The more recent ''multi-j'' U(6/12) supersymmetry models, the extension of supersymmetry to the odd-odd nuclei and the generalized supersymmetry, are only briefly discussed [fr

  19. " Odd, Watson–Very Odd!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Strangely, ropes found at the scene of crime gave valuable clues to Sherlock Holmes also. At least in two cases, they helped him in the identification of the criminal.) But then where is the scaffolding? Where are the catalysts? Where are the secluded cham- bers where the primitive information mol- ecules that were evolving ...

  20. " Odd, Watson–Very Odd!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a few instances of the remarkable clarity of focus on the real issues, sometimes bordering on prescience ... believed role attributed to chemical evolu- tion. As the title suggests, the arguments are presented in the ... of interlocking components that can function only in a mutually dependent manner. Armed with our current ...

  1. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5335 Bank net collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least...

  2. Regional Comparison of Enteral Nutrition-Related Admission Policies in Skilled Nursing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgermaster, Marissa; Slattery, Eoin; Islam, Nafeesa; Ippolito, Paul R; Seres, David S

    2016-06-01

    Nursing home admission policies are one driver of increased and earlier gastrostomy placement, a procedure that is not always medically or ethically indicated among patients needing short-term nutrition support. This important clinical decision should be based upon patient prognosis, goals, and needs. We compared nursing home enteral nutrition-related admission policies in New York City and other regions of the United States. We also explored motivations for these policies. We conducted a telephone survey with skilled nursing facility administrators in New York City and a random sample of facilities throughout the United States about enteral nutrition-related admission policies. Survey data were matched with publically available data about facility characteristics from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The relationship between facility location and admission policies was described with regression models. Reasons for these policies were thematically analyzed. New York City nursing homes were significantly less likely to admit patients with nasogastric feeding tubes than were nursing homes nationwide, after we controlled for facility characteristics (odds ratio = 0.111; 95% CI, 0.032-0.344). Reasons for refusing nasogastric tubes fell into 5 categories: safety, capacity, policy, perception of appropriate level of care, and patient quality of life. Our findings indicate that enteral nutrition-related admission policies vary greatly between nursing homes in New York City and nationwide. Many administrators cited safety and policy as factors guiding their institutional policies and practices, despite a lack of evidence. This gap in research, practice, and policy has implications for quality and cost of care, length of hospital stay, and patient morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  3. Construct Validity of ADHD/ODD Rating Scales: Recommendations for the Evaluation of Forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872…

  4. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Gore, Charles; Cebolla, Beatriz; Spina, Alexander

    2017-07-26

    As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS). WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density. This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0-340). Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  5. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey V Lazarus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS. Methods WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI, health expenditure and physician density. Results This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0–340. Conclusion Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  6. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  7. Dividend Policy Controverses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Vidučić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dividend theory shares with capital structure theories the attribute of area of high controversy. Financial literature discusses whether there is an interdependency of dividends and share price, i.e. value of the firm. The main views may be defined with three theories of dividend policy. However, unambiguous solutions are still lacking. Literature on dividends highlights several concepts that may be important in defining the dividend policy. Dividend policy aims to define payout ratio, sort of dividend and way of maintaining dividend stability, since stability of dividend is found to be of interest in practice. Managers, namely, prefer stability of dividend policy and the amount of dividends taking in account the signalling effect. If stability of dividends is preferred by investors it follows that stable dividend policy will lead to minimization of cost of capital and maximization of share price.

  8. Against all odds: genocidal trauma is associated with longer life-expectancy of the survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Sagi-Schwartz

    Full Text Available Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220, 4-20 years old when the World War II started (1939, immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust. Hazard of death - a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma - was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95% = 0.910-0.960, suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10-15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95% = 0.842-0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months or 16-20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95% = 0.782-0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months. We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and "Posttraumatic Growth" associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II.

  9. Diet soft drink is associated with increased odds of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Eva K; Gan, Alfred Tl; Man, Ryan Ek; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Gupta, Preeti; Khoo, Krystal; Aravindhan, Amudha; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2018-01-23

    While consumption of soft drink may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, the relationship between soft drink consumption and diabetes complications is unknown. To explore the association between regular and diet soft drink consumption, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular oedema (DME). Clinical, cross-sectional study. Adult patients with diabetes recruited from a tertiary eye hospital (Melbourne, Australia) answered a Food Frequency Questionnaire. None, moderate and high soft drink consumption was defined as 4 cans/bottles (375 mL) per week, respectively. Due to missing data, data were imputed using the multiple imputation chained equation procedure. Multivariable logistic regression models determined the associations between soft drink consumption, and presence and severity of DR/DME. Presence and severity of DR/DME. Of the 609 participants (mean age ± standard deviation: 64.6 ± 11.6 years; males = 210), 285 (46.8%) and 190 (31.2%) consumed diet and regular soft drink, respectively. A total of 230 (37.8%), 36 (5.9%), 154 (25.3%), 28 (4.6%) and 146 (24.0%) had no DR, mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe NPDR and proliferative DR (PDR), respectively. High diet soft drink consumption was independently associated with increased likelihood of having PDR (odds ratio = 2.51, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-5.98), compared to no consumption. In contrast, regular soft drink was not associated with DR or DME. Consuming >4 cans (1.5 L)/week of diet soft drink is associated with a more than twofold risk of having PDR in patients with diabetes. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate the association and its underpinning mechanisms. © 2018 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  10. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  11. The role of municipal public policies in oral health socioeconomic inequalities in Brazil: A multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Violeta Rodrigues; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Celeste, Roger Keller

    2017-12-07

    It is known that fluoridation has a contextual effect on oral health socioeconomic inequalities, but broad public policies have not been investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of municipal public policies on oral health across different social strata. This was a cross-sectional study with 7328 12-year-old children and 5445 15-19-year-old adolescents from 177 Brazilian municipalities. Information at municipal level was collated for dental services, educational services, sanitation and water fluoridation. The main individual-level exposure was the disposable equivalent household income. The dichotomous outcomes were as follows: untreated dental caries (≥1 tooth), missing teeth (≥1 tooth) and filled teeth (≥1 tooth). Analyses were carried out using multilevel logistic regression. Interaction terms were tested between individual-level income and policy variables. The prevalence of untreated dental caries, missing and filled teeth was 47.0%, 15.1% and 47.5%, respectively. There was no significant interaction between income and policy indicators. Individuals living in municipalities with no water fluoridation had 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08-1.86) higher odds of having untreated dental caries; the odds ratio (OR) for those in municipalities with less education policies was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.07-1.73); those in municipalities with less sanitation had OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.78-1.40); and those in municipalities with less dental care had OR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.02-1.80). Fluoridation and policies about sanitation, education and dental care were similarly associated with oral health in different social strata. Other policies on social and economic fields may be further explored. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Even-odd effects in the prompt fission emission of even Z actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudora Anabella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of even-odd effects in the prompt emission of even Z actinides showed a sawtooth shape of ν(Z with staggering in the asymmetric fission region. Average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, e.g. ν(A, of even Z fragmentations are higher than those of odd Z fragmentations and they exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units in the asymmetric fission region. This periodicity is not due to the Z even-odd effect in fragment distributions. The even-odd effect in (TKE is increasing with increasing TKE and it decreases with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. The global even-odd effect in total average prompt emission quantities is decreasing with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. In the case of an even-odd fissioning nucleus, 234U(n,f, the global even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities exhibits a very slow variation with the incident neutron energy.

  13. ODD irritability is associated with obsessive-compulsive behavior and not ADHD in chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Lespérance, Paul; Achim, André; Tellier, Geneviève; Diab, Sabrina; Rouleau, Guy A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Richer, Francois

    2014-12-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are often associated with a variety of behavioral comorbidities including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and temper outbursts. ODD is often associated with ADHD but its links to other symptoms of TS/CT is not as clear. This study examined whether the various symptoms of ODD were differentially linked to the various comorbidities in TS. A clinical sample of 135 children diagnosed with TS was evaluated through parent questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Regressions and structural equation modeling confirmed that ODD is multidimensional in a TS/CT sample and showed that OCB was associated with the irritability symptoms of ODD whereas ADHD was associated with the Headstrong symptoms of ODD. Results suggest that increased attention to the different facets of ODD may help improve our understanding of emotional symptoms in TS/CT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ADHD, ODD, and CD: Do They Belong to a Common Psychopathological Spectrum? A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanti Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of Research. Numerous studies have reported comorbidities, overlapping symptoms, and shared risk factors among cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD. We present three adolescent males aged 13–16 years with conduct disorder having past history of ADHD and ODD. Principal Result. The symptom profile especially in domains of aggression, hostility, and emotionality as well as the manner of progression from ADHD to ODD and CD in the above cases shows a similar pattern. Conclusion. These common developmental pathways and overlapping symptoms suggest the possibility of a common psychopathological spectrum encompassing the three externalizing disorders.

  15. Low numeracy is associated with increased odds of 30-day emergency department or hospital recidivism for patients with acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Candace D; Collins, Sean P; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell; Self, Wesley H; Jenkins, Cathy; Miller, Karen; Arbogast, Patrick; Naftilan, Allen; Dittus, Robert S; Storrow, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    More than 25% of Medicare patients hospitalized for heart failure are readmitted within 30 days. The contributions of numeracy and health literacy to recidivism for patients with acute heart failure (AHF) are not known. A cohort of patients with acute heart failure who presented to 4 emergency departments between January 2008 and September 2011. Research assistants administered subjective measures of numeracy and health literacy; 30-day follow-up was performed by phone interview. Recidivism was defined as any unplanned return to the emergency department or hospital within 30 days of the index emergency department visit for AHF. Multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patient age, sex, race, insurance status, hospital site, days eligible for recidivism, chronic kidney disease, abnormal hemoglobin, and low ejection fraction evaluated the relation between numeracy and health literacy with 30-day recidivism. Of the 709 patients included in the analysis, 390 (55%) had low numeracy skills and 258 (37%) had low literacy skills. Low numeracy was associated with increased odds of recidivism within 30 days (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.98; P=0.048). For low health literacy, adjusted odds ratio of recidivism was 1.17 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.65; P=0.37). Low numeracy was associated with greater odds of 30-day recidivism. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether addressing numeracy and health literacy may reduce 30-day recidivism for patients with acute heart failure.

  16. [Impact of Increased Supply of Newly Licensed Nurses on Hospital Nurse Staffing and Policy Implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunmi; You, Sunju; Kim, Jinhyun

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the impact of increasing the supply of newly licensed nurses on improving the hospital nurse staffing grades for the period of 2009~2014. Using public administrative data, we analyzed the effect of newly licensed nurses on staffing in 1,594 hospitals using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) ordered logistic regression, and of supply variation on improving staffing grades in 1,042 hospitals using GEE logistic regression. An increase of one newly licensed nurse per 100 beds in general units had significantly lower odds of improving staffing grades (grades 6~0 vs. 7) (odds ratio=0.95, p=.005). The supply of newly licensed nurses increased by 32% from 2009 to 2014, and proportion of hospitals whose staffing grade had improved, not changed, and worsened was 19.1%, 70.1%, and 10.8% respectively. Compared to 2009, the supply variation of newly licensed nurses in 2014 was not significantly related to the increased odds of improving staffing grades in the region (OR=1.02, p=.870). To achieve a balance in the regional supply and demand for hospital nurses, compliance with nurse staffing legislation and revisions in the nursing fee differentiation policy are needed. Rather than relying on increasing nurse supply, retention policies for new graduate nurses are required to build and sustain competent nurse workforce in the future. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  17. Off-duty deviance: Organizational policies and evidence for two prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brian D; Hoffman, Brian J; Bommer, William H; Kennedy, Colby L; Hetrick, Andrea L

    2016-04-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that organizations are increasingly concerned with employee off-duty deviance (ODD), yet management research has rarely investigated this type of deviant behavior. We define ODD as behaviors committed outside the workplace or when off-duty that are deviant by organizational and/or societal standards, jeopardize the employee's status within the organization, and threaten the interests and well-being of the organization and its stakeholders. Three studies are presented to better understand the relevance of ODD to modern organizations and then to understand potential approaches to reduce the incidence of ODD. The first study provides a qualitative review of publicly available ODD policies within the Fortune 500; the results showed that 13.4% of the Fortune 500 had a publicly available ODD policy, with the majority prohibiting criminal forms of ODD to protect the firm's reputation. The next 2 studies examine the efficacy of different approaches to reduce criminal ODD: policy adoption and personnel selection. In the second study, a longitudinal, quasi-experimental design showed a significant-albeit modest-reduction in criminal ODD following the adoption of a conduct policy. In the third and final study, a criterion-related validity design supported the predictive validity of general mental ability and prior deviance in predicting criminal ODD. This compendium of studies provides an initial empirical investigation into ODD and offers implications relevant to the deviance literature, policy development, and personnel selection. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  19. Odd-even effect dependence on the excitation energy in low energy fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirea, M.

    2017-09-01

    An inversion of the odd-even effect was observed experimentally in cold fission: the odd-odd fragmentation yields are favored over the even-even ones for excitations energies of the fragments smaller than 4 MeV. This effect is linked to the important problem of quasiparticle excitations during the dynamical evolution of the nuclear system from its ground-state configuration up to scission. An explanation based on the Landau-Zener promotion mechanism generalized for superfluid systems is offered for the inversion of the odd-even effect. In principle, the even-even fission products cannot be produced at very low excitation energies due dynamical quasiparticle excitations produced in the avoided- level-crossing regions. These excitations are produced with a large probability when the nuclear system deforms slowly.

  20. Moduli of mathematical instanton vector bundles with odd c2 on projective space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, Aleksandr S

    2012-01-01

    We study the moduli space I n of mathematical instanton vector bundles of rank 2 with second Chern class n≥1 on the projective space P 3 , and prove the irreducibility of I n for arbitrary odd n≥1.

  1. Parity-violating anomalous currents in arbitrary odd dimensions from stochastic quantisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jiange; Liu Yiaoyang

    1990-01-01

    The stochastic quantization method is applied to evaluate the parity-violating anomalous currents in arbitrary odd dimensions. The complete anomalous vacuum currents which have gauge and Lorentz covariance are achieved. (author)

  2. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  3. A method to remove odd harmonic interferences in square wave reference digital lock-in amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Shengzhao; Zhou, Mei; Li, Yongcheng; Lin, Ling

    2013-02-01

    Digital lock-in amplifier using square wave reference is much easier to be implemented compared to digital lock-in amplifier using sinusoidal wave reference. However, because of the odd harmonics containing in the square wave reference, the interferences at the odd harmonics of the reference cannot be removed with conventional algorithm. A new square wave digital lock-in algorithm is presented in this paper. It cannot only be capable of removing the interferences of the odd harmonics in the signal, but also can detect the amplitudes and the phases of the interferences. The real and imaginary parts of the frequency component of interest and those of the odd harmonic interferences are calculated simultaneously. The results of simulation experiments show the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. The algorithm is computationally efficient and thus suitable for weak signal detection implemented in the general microprocessor.

  4. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  5. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  6. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  7. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    , the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  8. Systematics of the K suppi = 2+ gamma vibrational bands and odd-even staggering

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, J B

    2003-01-01

    The structure of the K suppi = 2+ gamma vibrational bands and the quasi-gamma bands of even-Z-even-N nuclei is investigated on a global scale, vis-a-vis the variation of band head, the moment of inertia of the band and the odd-even spin staggering. The variation with N and Z and with spin J of the odd-even spin energy staggering index is studied and a unified view of the same is presented. (author)

  9. Preschool children with ODD, CD and ADHD. Psychiatric assessment and stability of diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bunte - Rosingh, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned how to differentiate clinical from normative transient disruptive behaviors within the preschool age as most preschoolers exhibit at least some of the behaviors that fall under the rubric of disruptive behavior, for example losing temper and physical aggression. This point of concern is relevant for diagnosing preschool children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) (ODD and CD also called Disruptive Behavior Disorder; DBD) or Attention Deficit...

  10. Possibility of investigating P- and T-odd nuclear forces in atomic and molecular experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkov, O.P.; Flambaum, V.V.; Khriplovich, I.B.

    1984-01-01

    The P- and T-odd nucleon-nucleon potentials are found in the Kobayashi-Maskawa scheme. Analytic expressions for T-odd nuclear multipoles are obtained in the shell model. The electric dipole moments of the nuclei exceed that of the neutron by two to three orders of magnitude. The electric dipole moments are calculated for a number of atoms and molecules. The feasibility of experimental detection of T-invariance violation is discussed

  11. P-odd nuclear forces: a source of parity violation in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flambaum, V.V.; Khriplovich, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    We consider the electromagnetic P-odd interaction produced between an electron and a nucleus by parity-violating nuclear forces. New information on these forces can be obtained even now by experimentally investigating the optical activity of heavy atoms and diatomic molecules. In the case of the deuteron, the P-odd vector potential is expressed in terms of parameters that characterize parity violation in np scattering

  12. Burnout correlations for even- and odd-numbered peripheral rod clusters over low pressure range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaho, E.H.K.

    1995-01-01

    Burnout data with low pressure Freon-113 for even- and odd- numbered peripheral rod clusters with relatively large spacings were used to derive equations in terms of dimensionless parameters suggested by Barnett. The equations which are for three different flow regimes for each rod geometry (even or odd) were found to predict burnout data with maximum RMS deviation being 3.8%. (author). 11 figs., 3 tabs., 15 refs

  13. Efficient odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-11-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of biofuels or chemicals. Different composition of FFAs will be useful for further modification of the biofuel/biochemical quality. Microbial biosynthesis of even chain FFAs can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into E. coli. In this study, odd straight medium chain FFAs production was investigated by using metabolic engineered E. coli carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE, Ricinus communis), propionyl-CoA synthase (Salmonella enterica), and β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (four different sources) with supplement of extracellular propionate. By using these metabolically engineered E. coli, significant quantity of C13 and C15 odd straight-chain FFAs could be produced from glucose and propionate. The highest concentration of total odd straight chain FFAs attained was 1205 mg/L by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE2), and 85% of the odd straight chain FFAs was C15. However, the highest percentage of odd straight chain FFAs was achieved by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE3) of 83.2% at 48 h. This strategy was also applied successfully in strains carrying different TE, such as the medium length acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica. C11 and C13 became the major odd straight-chain FFAs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Microscopic core-quasiparticle coupling model for spectroscopy of odd-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, S.; Liu, W. P.; Li, Z. P.; Smith, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Background: Predictions of the spectroscopic properties of low-lying states are critical for nuclear structure studies but are problematic for nuclei with an odd nucleon due to the interplay of the unpaired single particle with nuclear collective degrees of freedom. Purpose: To predict the spectroscopic properties of odd-mass medium-heavy and heavy nuclei with a model that treats single-particle and collective degrees of freedom within the same microscopic framework. Method: A microscopic core-quasiparticle coupling (CQC) model based on the covariant density functional theory is developed that contains the collective excitations of even-mass cores and spherical single-particle states of the odd nucleon as calculated from a quadrupole collective Hamiltonian combined with a constrained triaxial relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Results: Predictions of the new model for excitation energies, kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia, and transition rates are shown to be in good agreement with results of low-lying spectroscopy measurements of the axially deformed odd-proton nucleus 159Tb and the odd-neutron nucleus 157Gd. Conclusions: A microscopic CQC model based on covariant density functional theory is developed for odd-mass nuclei and shown to give predictions that agree with measurements of two medium-heavy nuclei. Future studies with additional nuclei are planned.

  15. The odd-skipped family of zinc finger genes promotes Drosophila leg segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Irene; Green, Ryan B; Dunaevsky, Olga; Lengyel, Judith A; Rauskolb, Cordelia

    2003-11-15

    Notch signaling controls formation of joints at leg segment borders and growth of the developing Drosophila leg. Here, we identify the odd-skipped gene family as a key group of genes that function downstream of the Notch receptor to promote morphological changes associated with joint formation during leg development. odd, sob, drm, and bowl are expressed in a segmental pattern in the developing leg, and their expression is regulated by Notch signaling. Ectopic expression of odd, sob, or drm can induce invaginations in the leg disc epithelium and morphological changes in the adult leg that are characteristic of endogenous invaginating joint cells. These effects are not due to an alteration in the expression of other genes of the developing joint. While odd or drm mutant clones do not affect leg segmentation, and thus appear to act redundantly, bowl mutant clones do perturb leg development. Specifically, bowl mutant clones result in a failure of joint formation from the distal tibia to tarsal segment 5, while more proximal clones cause melanotic protrusions from the leg cuticle. Together, these results indicate that the odd-skipped family of genes mediates Notch function during leg development by promoting a specific aspect of joint formation, an epithelial invagination. As the odd-skipped family genes are involved in regulating cellular morphogenesis during both embryonic segmentation and hindgut development, we suggest that they may be required in multiple developmental contexts to induce epithelial cellular changes.

  16. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-26

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  18. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...

  19. Employee perception of a mandated helmet policy at Vail Resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher B; Brownson, Mark R; Levy, Brent J; Valley, Morgan A; Evans, Bruce; Lowenstein, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure support for a mandated helmet policy among resort employees along with the impact of such a policy on job satisfaction, and additionally, to measure the prevalence of barriers to helmet use among this population. In all, 728 Vail Resort employees were surveyed regarding their opinions on the helmet policy and on general helmet use. The majority of the 728 employees surveyed (66.5%; 95% CI: 63% to 70%) agreed with the helmet policy. Only 18% (95% CI: 16% to 21%) reported a negative effect on job satisfaction. Older employees (>25 years old) were more likely to disagree with the policy (odds ratio [OR] 3.1; 95% CI: 2.2 to 4.3) and report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 4.8; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.6). Skiers were much more likely than snowboarders to report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 5.2 to 18.1). Among resort employees, ski patrollers were more likely to disagree with the mandate (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 6.8 to 13.9) and report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 13.2; 95% CI: 8.3 to 21.). Forty-three percent of participants (95% CI: 39% to 46%) agreed with the statement that wearing a helmet encourages reckless behavior whereas 51.0% (95% CI: 47% to 54%) believed that wearing a helmet limits sensory perception. A mandatory helmet use policy was supported by most resort employees. However, ski patrollers and older, more experienced employees were more likely to report a negative effect on job satisfaction. Barriers to helmet use continue to persist in the ski industry and represent a target for further educational efforts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Concussion Increases Odds of Sustaining a Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal Injury After Return to Play Among Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M Alison; Peterson, Kaitlin; Biese, Kevin; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Bell, David R

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have identified abnormalities in brain and motor functioning after concussion that persist well beyond observed clinical recovery. Recent work suggests subtle deficits in neurocognition may impair neuromuscular control and thus potentially increase risk of lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after concussion. To determine the odds of sustaining an acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury during the 90-day period after return to play from concussion in a cohort of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I collegiate athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in this study were 87 cases of concussion among 75 athletes (58 men; 17 women) participating in NCAA Division I football, soccer, hockey, softball, basketball, wrestling, or volleyball at a single institution from 2011 to 2014. The 90-day period after return to play for each case of concussion was reviewed for acute noncontact lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. Each 90-day period after return to play was matched to the same 90-day period in up to 3 controls. Control athletes without a history of concussion in the previous year were matched to concussed athletes by sport team/sex, games played, and position. A total of 182 control (136 men; 46 women) 90-day periods were reviewed for acute injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the association between concussion and subsequent risk of acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. The incidence of acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury was higher among recently concussed athletes (15/87; 17%) compared with matched controls (17/182; 9%). The odds of sustaining an acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury during the 90-day period after return to play were 2.48 times higher in concussed athletes than controls during the same 90-day period (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.04-5.91; P = .04). Concussed athletes have increased odds of sustaining an acute lower extremity musculoskeletal

  1. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  2. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyuan Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. Methods To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows were obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C. The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same stage of pregnancy. For each lactation stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. Results The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and lactation stages of dairy cows (p<0.05. The concentrations of OBCFAs, especially odd-chain fatty acids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (p<0.05. The equations of ruminal microbial nucleic acid bases established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low standard errors and high R-squared values. Conclusion This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  3. ALGORITMA PARALEL ODD EVEN TRANSPOSITION PADA MODEL JARINGAN NON-LINIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernastuti .

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Odd-even-transposition adalah suatu algoritma paralel yang merupakan pengembangan dari algoritma sekuensial “bubble sort”. Algoritma odd-even-transposition ini didesain khusus untuk model jaringan array linier (homogen. Untuk n elemen data, kompleksitas waktu dari algoritma bubble sort adalah O(n2, sedangkan pada odd-even-transposition yang bekerja di atas n prosesor adalah (n. Ada peningkatan kecepatan waktu pada kinerja algoritma paralel ini sebesar n kali dibanding algoritma sekuensialnya. Hypercube dimensi k adalah model jaringan non-linier (non-homogen terdiri dari n = 2k prosesor, di mana setiap prosesor berderajat k. Model jaringan Fibonacci cube dan extended Lucas cube masing-masing merupakan model subjaringan hypercube dengan jumlah prosesor < 2k prosesor dan maksimum derajat prosesornya adalah k. Pada paper ini, diperlihatkan bagaimana algoritma odd-even-transposition dapat dijalankan juga pada model jaringan komputer cluster non-linier hypercube, Fibonacci cube, dan extended Lucas cube dengan kompleksitas waktu O(n. Odd-even-transposition is a parallel algorithm which is the development of sequential algorithm “bubble sort”. Odd-even transposition algorithm is specially designed for linear array network model (homogeneous. For n data elements, the time complexity of bubble sort algorithm is O(n2, while the odd-even-transposition that works with n processor is (n. There in an increase in the speed of time on the performance of this parallel algorithms for n times than its sequential algorithm. K-dimensional hypercube is a non-linear network model (non-homogeneous consists of n = 2k processors, where each processor has k degree . Network model of Fibonacci cube and extended Lucas cube are the hypercube sub-network model with the number of processors

  4. [Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat--characteristic and health properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Jarosława

    2014-08-22

    This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat). For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  5. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat – characteristic and health properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Adamska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat. For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  6. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the forerunner of alcohol dependence: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish

    2014-10-01

    There are common genetic, neurobiological and psycho-social substrates for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and substance dependence. ODD can be regarded as the mildest and earliest form of disruptive behavioral disorder and also represents the threshold of vulnerability for substance dependence. But it is a less researched area. The aim of this research was to study any possible association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. Data are presented from a non probability sample of 100 adult alcohol dependent subjects and equal number of biologically unrelated control subjects. Assessment was conducted by the instrument Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism for both the assessment of ODD and alcohol dependence. The results of this study demonstrated significant association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. The association remained significant even after the exclusion of the possible confounding effects of the presence of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Our study should encourage further research in this area and is expected to open up an opportunity for preventive research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Structure of Policy Networks for Injury and Violence Prevention in 15 US Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Carothers, Bobbi J.; Fowler, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in policy can reduce violence and injury; however, little is known about how partnerships among organizations influence policy development, adoption, and implementation. To understand partnerships among organizations working on injury and violence prevention (IVP) policy, we examined IVP policy networks in 15 large US cities. Methods: In summer 2014, we recruited 15 local health departments (LHDs) to participate in the study. They identified an average of 28.9 local partners (SD = 10.2) working on IVP policy. In late 2014, we sent survey questionnaires to 434 organizations, including the 15 LHDs and their local partners, about their partnerships and the importance of each organization to local IVP policy efforts; 319 participated. We used network methods to examine the composition and structure of the policy networks. Results: Each IVP policy network included the LHD and an average of 21.3 (SD = 6.9) local partners. On average, nonprofit organizations constituted 50.7% of networks, followed by government agencies (26.3%), schools and universities (11.8%), coalitions (11.2%), voluntary organizations (9.6%), hospitals (8.5%), foundations (2.2%), and for-profit organizations (0.7%). Government agencies were perceived as important by the highest proportion of partners. Perceived importance was significantly associated with forming partnerships in most networks; odds ratios ranged from 1.07 (95% CI, 1.02-1.13) to 2.35 (95% CI, 1.68-3.28). Organization type was significantly associated with partnership formation in most networks after controlling for an organization’s importance to the network. Conclusions: Several strategies could strengthen local IVP policy networks, including (1) developing connections with partners from sectors that are not well integrated into the networks and (2) encouraging indirect or less formal connections with important but missing partners and partner types. PMID:28426291

  8. Beyond Body Mass Index: Using Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition Indicators to Assess Odds of an Endometriosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hediger, Mary L; Chen, Zhen; Lauver, Diane R; Sun, Liping; Peterson, C Matthew; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery. Using a cross-sectional design, odds of an endometriosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for anthropometric and body composition measures (weight in kg; height in cm; mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences in cm; subscapular, suprailiac, and triceps skinfold thicknesses in mm; arm muscle and fat areas in cm 2 ; centripetal fat, chest-to-waist, chest-to-hip, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios; arm fat index; and BMI in kg/m 2 ). Physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week) and sedentariness (average minutes sitting on a weekday) were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Measures were modeled continuously and in quartiles based on sample estimates. Adjusted models were controlled for age (years, continuous), site (Utah/California), smoking history (never, former, or current smoker), and income (below, within 180%, and above of the poverty line). Findings were standardized by dividing variables by their respective standard deviations. We used adjusted models to examine whether odds of an endometriosis diagnosis were moderated by physical activity or sedentariness. Inverse relationships were observed between endometriosis and standardized: weight (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88); subscapular skinfold thickness (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.98); waist and hip circumferences (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98 and aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94, respectively); total

  9. Atmospheric odd oxygen production due to the photodissociation of ordinary and isotopic molecular oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.; Frederick, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations are performed to determine the contributions of the Schumann-Runge bands of ordinary and isotopic oxygen to the photodissociation of these molecules at different altitudes. The contributions to the dissociation rates of the satellite lines and of the first and higher vibrational states of the initial molecular states are found to be insignificant. At 70 km, (O-16)(O-18) is found to produce 10 times as much odd oxygen as would be produced if the isotope did not have selective absorption, and 6 percent of the odd oxygen produced is due to this isotope. It is noted that the excess odd oxygen produced is not enough to explain the excess quantity of ozone observed in the atmosphere, which cannot be accounted for in photochemical models. Comparison with previous results is made.

  10. High-harmonic spectroscopy of oriented OCS molecules: emission of even and odd harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, P M; Rupenyan, A; Wörner, H J

    2012-12-07

    We study the emission of even and odd high-harmonic orders from oriented OCS molecules. We use an intense, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulse superimposed with its phase-controlled second harmonic field to impulsively align and orient a dense sample of molecules from which we subsequently generate high-order harmonics. The even harmonics appear around the full revivals of the rotational dynamics. We demonstrate perfect coherent control over their intensity through the subcycle delay of the two-color fields. The odd harmonics are insensitive to the degree of orientation, but modulate with the degree of axis alignment, in agreement with calculated photorecombination dipole moments. We further compare the shape of the even and odd harmonic spectra with our calculations and determine the degree of orientation.

  11. Factors influencing elementary school teachers' ratings of ADHD and ODD behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Quittner, A L; Abikoff, H

    1998-12-01

    Examined factors that influence teachers' ratings of children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). 105 teachers watched 2 videotapes--1 depicting a normal child and the other a child with either ADHD or ODD--and rated each child using 2 different questionnaires. Results indicated that teachers accurately rated the child on the ADHD versus ODD tape as having significantly more inattention and hyperactivity but significantly less oppositionality. However, effect sizes indicated the presence of a unidirectional, negative halo effect of oppositional behaviors on ratings of hyperactivity and inattention. Teachers appeared less biased in their judgments when using a well-operationalized rating scale. Finally, knowledge, education, and experience with children with ADHD generally had no effect on the accuracy of teachers' ratings.

  12. On supergroups with odd Clifford parameters and non-anticommutative supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsova, Z. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: zhanna@cbpf.br; Rojas, M.; Toppan, F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: mrojas@cbpf.br; toppan@cbpf.br

    2007-07-01

    We investigate super groups with Grassmann parameters replaced by odd Clifford parameters. The connection with non-anti commutative supersymmetry is discussed. A Berezin-like calculus for odd Clifford variables is introduced. Fermionic covariant derivatives for super groups with odd Clifford variables are derived. Applications to supersymmetric quantum mechanics are made. Deformations of the original supersymmetric theories are encountered when the fermionic covariant derivatives do not obey the graded Leibniz property. The simplest non-trivial example is given by the N = 2 SQM with a real (1, 2, 1) multiplet and a cubic potential. The action is real. Depending on the overall sign ('Euclidean' or 'Lorentzian') of the deformation, a Bender-Boettcher pseudo-hermitian Hamiltonian is encountered when solving the equation of motion of the auxiliary field. A possible connection of our framework with the Drinfeld twist deformation of supersymmetry is pointed out. (author)

  13. On supergroups with odd Clifford parameters and non-anticommutative supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, Z.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate super groups with Grassmann parameters replaced by odd Clifford parameters. The connection with non-anti commutative supersymmetry is discussed. A Berezin-like calculus for odd Clifford variables is introduced. Fermionic covariant derivatives for super groups with odd Clifford variables are derived. Applications to supersymmetric quantum mechanics are made. Deformations of the original supersymmetric theories are encountered when the fermionic covariant derivatives do not obey the graded Leibniz property. The simplest non-trivial example is given by the N = 2 SQM with a real (1, 2, 1) multiplet and a cubic potential. The action is real. Depending on the overall sign ('Euclidean' or 'Lorentzian') of the deformation, a Bender-Boettcher pseudo-hermitian Hamiltonian is encountered when solving the equation of motion of the auxiliary field. A possible connection of our framework with the Drinfeld twist deformation of supersymmetry is pointed out. (author)

  14. Influences of vehicle size and mass and selected driver factors on odds of driver fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, "vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck" was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of "vehicle type" variable, further investigation of vehicle "stiffness" and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted.

  15. Odd sensation induced by moving-phantom which triggers subconscious motor program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Takao; Kimura, Toshitaka; Kadota, Koji; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2009-06-03

    Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined short-term sensorimotor adaptations to treadmills and moving sleds, but the relationship between the odd sensation and behavioral properties in a real stopped-escalator situation has never been examined. Understanding this unique action-perception linkage would help us to assess the brain function connecting automatic motor controls and the conscious awareness of action. Here we directly pose a question: Does the odd sensation emerge because of the unfamiliar motor behavior itself toward the irregular step-height of a stopped escalator or as a consequence of an automatic habitual motor program cued by the escalator itself. We compared the properties of motor behavior toward a stopped escalator (SE) with those toward moving escalator and toward a wooden stairs (WS) that mimicked the stopped escalator, and analyzed the subjective feeling of the odd sensation in the SE and WS conditions. The results show that moving escalator-specific motor actions emerged after participants had stepped onto the stopped escalator despite their full awareness that it was stopped, as if the motor behavior was guided by a "phantom" of a moving escalator. Additionally, statistical analysis reveals that postural forward sway that occurred after the stepping action is directly linked with the odd sensation. The results suggest a dissociation between conscious awareness and subconscious motor control: the former makes us perfectly aware of the current environmental situation, but the latter automatically emerges as a result of highly habituated visual input no matter how unsuitable

  16. The CP-odd nucleon interaction and the value of T-violation in nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Gudkov, V. P.

    1996-01-01

    The relations between the value of T- and P-violating correlations in neutron scattering and different models of CP violation are discussed. It is shown that a specific structure of CP-odd interactions gives the possibility to obtain the essential information about CP-odd interaction at the quark-gluon level from nuclear experimental data. The up-to-date estimations for CP- violating nucleon coupling constants show that CP violation in neutron scattering is sensitive to many models of CP viol...

  17. Stimulus-Parity Synaesthesia versus Stimulus-Dichotomy Synaesthesia: Odd, Even or Something Else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah C. White

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli—for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers—elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent. This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been “rediscovered.” Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth.

  18. The CP-odd nucleon interaction and the value of T-violation in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, V.P.

    1997-01-01

    The relations between the value of T- and P-violating correlations in neutron scattering and different models of CP violation are discussed. It is shown that a specific structure of CP-odd nucleon interactions gives the possibility to obtain the essential information about CP-odd interaction at the quark-gluon level from nuclear experimental data. The up-to-date estimations for CP-violating nucleon coupling constants show that each class of CP-violating models can give a measurable effect for the neutron scattering experiments. 57 refs

  19. Effects of single particle on shape phase transitions and phase coexistence in odd-even nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Ru; Hu, Jing; Li, Xiao-Xue; An, Si-Yu; Zhang, Yu

    2018-02-01

    A classical analysis of shape phase transitions and phase coexistence in odd-even nuclei has been performed in the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The results indicate that the effects of a single particle may influence different types of transitions in different ways. Especially, it is revealed that phase coexistence can clearly emerge in the critical region and thus be taken as a indicator of the shape phase transitions in odd-even nuclei. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375005)

  20. Second proton and neutron alignments in the doubly-odd nuclei 154,156Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, D.J.; Allen, J.L.; Brown, T.B.; Kondev, F.G.; Pfohl, J.; Riley, M.A.; Fischer, S.M.; Janssens, R.V.; Nisius, D.T.; Fallon, P.; Ma, W.C.; Simpson, J.

    1999-01-01

    High-spin states in the doubly-odd nuclei 154,156 Tb have been populated in two separate experiments using the 36 S+ 124 Sn reaction at different beam energies (160 and 175 MeV). The yrast structures of both nuclei were extended to much higher spin (I≤48ℎ) than previously known and several quasiparticle alignments have been identified. These include the second neutron alignment and a clear delineation of the second proton crossing in 156 Tb. Systematics of these crossings for odd-Z nuclei and comparisons with results of cranked shell model calculations are discussed. thinsp copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  1. Rotational high spin structures in doubly-odd in {sup 184}Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, F.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J.; Bourgeois, C.; Korichi, A. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Hojman, D.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Debray, M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Knipper, A. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Marguier, G. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Excited states in the doubly-odd {sup 184}Au nucleus have been studied by in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. This nucleus was produced through the fusion-evaporation reactions {sup 165}Ho({sup 24}Mg, 5n), {sup 170}Yb({sup 19}F, 5n) and {sup 161}Dy({sup 27}Al, 4n). Different rotational band structures have been observed and interpreted as specific couplings of proton and neutron single-particle excitations present in neighboring odd Au and Pt nuclei. (author). 34 refs.; Submitted to Physical Review, C (US).

  2. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafever, A. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  3. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  4. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  5. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keyuan; Hao, Xiaoyan; Li, Yang; Luo, Guobin; Zhang, Yonggen; Xin, Hangshu

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs) and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows were obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C). The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same stage of pregnancy. For each lactation stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and lactation stages of dairy cows (pacids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (pacid bases established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low standard errors and high R-squared values. This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  6. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  7. Stock Price Reactions to Short-Lived Public Information : The Case of Betting Odds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2005-01-01

    Stock markets and betting markets co-exist for professional soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange.For each firm, two pieces of information are released to the stock market on a weekly basis from August to June: experts expectations about game outcomes through the betting odds, and the

  8. Basic equations for odd spherical nuclei in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao Tien Khoa; Vdovin, A.I.; Voronov, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    The system of basic equations in the general form is obtained for odd spherical nuclei within the quasiparticle-model. The anharmonics of vibrations of even-even core and Pauli principle corrections are included into these equations. It has been shown that the derived system of equations contains all versions of approximate equations used in the calculation within the quasiparticle-phonon model

  9. Odd-frequency superconductivity induced in topological insulators with and without hexagonal warping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenko, A. S.; Golubov, A. A.; Silkin, V. M.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of the Fermi surface anisotropy on the odd-frequency spin-triplet pairing component of the induced pair potential. We consider a superconductor/ ferromagnetic insulator (S/FI) hybrid structure formed on the 3D topological insulator (TI) surface. In this case three ingredients

  10. T-odd correlations in B→K*l+l- decay beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, T.M.; Savci, M.; Yuece, C.; Oezpineci, A.

    2002-01-01

    T-odd correlations as physical observables in the B→K*l + l - decay are studied using the most general form of the effective Hamiltonian. It is observed that these quantities are very sensitive to the new physics. We estimate the potential of discovery of these quantities at future hadron colliders

  11. Decoherence of quantum excitation of even/odd coherent states in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    even/odd coherent states, ((ˆa†)m |α±〉), in a thermal environment by investigating the variation of negative part of the Wigner quasidistribution function vs. the rescaled time. For this purpose, at first we obtain the time-dependent Wigner function corresponding to the mentioned states in the framework of standard master ...

  12. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  13. Proportional Odds Logistic Regression - Effective Means of Dealing with Limited Uncertainty in Dichotomizing Clinical Outcomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valenta, Zdeněk; Pitha, J.; Poledne, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 24 (2006), s. 4227-4234 ISSN 0277-6715 R&D Projects: GA MZd NA7512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : proportional odds logistic regression * dichotomized outcomes * uncertainty Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.737, year: 2006

  14. Structure of negative parity yrast bands in odd mass 125−131Ce ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nated by rotational bands, built on the ground and low-lying excited states. The behaviour of these rotational bands can provide useful information about the un- derlying nuclear structure. The 125Ce nucleus is the lightest even–odd isotope of which the band structures have been published by Paul et al [2]. Excited states.

  15. Structure of negative parity yrast bands in odd mass 125−131Ce ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4. — journal of. April 2010 physics pp. 525–539. Structure of negative parity yrast bands in odd mass 125−131Ce nuclei. ARUN BHARTI∗, SURAM SINGH and S K KHOSA. Department of ... in 125Ce have been extensively studied up to very high spins in recent years [3,4]. ... The detailed theory of PSM is given in [12].

  16. Re-appraisal of the P, T-odd interaction constant Wd in YbF ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    arising from the violations of space inversion symmetry (P) and time reversal in- variance (T). The search for non-zero P, T-odd effects in these systems with the presently accessible (expected) level of experimental sensitivity would indicate the presence of the so-called 'new physics' beyond the Standard Model (SM) of elec ...

  17. An improvement of an inequality of Ochem and Rao concerning odd perfect numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Zelinsky, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Let $\\Omega(n)$ denote the total number of prime divisors of $n$ (counting multiplicity) and let $\\omega(n)$ denote the number of distinct prime divisors of $n$. Various inequalities have been proved relating $\\omega(N)$ and $\\Omega(N)$ when $N$ is an odd perfect number. We improve on these inequalities. In particular, we show that if $3 \

  18. Recurrence relations for fully correlated Gaussians with odd powers of interparticle coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank E.; Monkhorst, Hendrik J.

    It is shown that the recurrence relations previously derived by the present authors, connecting fully correlated Gaussians to which even powers of the interparticle distances have been appended, are also applicable when these distances appear as odd powers. Implications of this demonstration for the description of electron correlation in few-body systems are also reviewed.

  19. On the correspondence between the dynamics with odd and even brackets and generalized Nambu's mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhaldiani, N.; Voskresenskaya, O.

    1998-01-01

    We consider selected problems of Hamiltonization and integrability of a general dynamical system described by a system of ordinary differential equations; odd and even symplectic structures; a new approach to the linearization of non-linear systems by the extended Hamiltonian and Nambu's mechanics

  20. Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

  1. Effect of Behavior Management Training for Mothers With Children having ODD Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Amiri

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion Overall, the findings suggest that mothers' behavioral training reduces the symptoms of ODD in children and prevents inappropriate behavior in family environment. Learning and applying principles such as avoiding punishment along with distinction between discipline and punishment, are the main principles of the training program that can reduce behavioral problems in children and increase their desirable behaviors. 

  2. Stability and Change of ODD, CD and ADHD Diagnosis in Referred Preschool Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, Tessa L.; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim

  3. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  4. Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female…

  5. Time reversal odd effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this thesis the semi-iclusive deep inelastic scattering l+h→l'+h+X is studied in the framework of the parton model. Especially sum rules are checked which contain transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. Furthermore the influence of T-odd effects on the subleading order of a twist expansion are investigated. (HSI)

  6. Free energy on a cycle graph and trigonometric deformation of heat kernel traces on odd spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    We consider a possible ‘deformation’ of the trace of the heat kernel on odd dimensional spheres, motivated by the calculation of the free energy of a scalar field on a discretized circle. By using an expansion in terms of the modified Bessel functions, we obtain the values of the free energies after a suitable regularization.

  7. Energy level structure of odd-A Tm isotopes in A approx = 160 region

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng Guo Mo

    2002-01-01

    The energy levels of odd-A Tm isotopes in A approx = 160 region are calculated using the particle plus triaxial rotor model. The low lying bands of the isotopes are fit well by changing the energy gap and Coriolis attenuation factor. A possible relation between energy gap and neutron number is presented

  8. Thermodynamics and CP-odd transport in Holographic QCD with Finite Magnetic Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gursoy, U.; Drwenski, T.M.; Iatrakis, I.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a bottom-up holographic model of QCD at finite temperature T and magnetic field B, and study dependence of thermodynamics and CP-odd transport on these variables. As the magnetic field couples to the flavor sector only, one should take the Veneziano limit where the number of flavors and

  9. Atteindre les objectifs de développement durable [ODD] liés à la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2018 ... Il est de plus en plus question des objectifs de développement durable (ODD) à mesure que les gouvernements nationaux intègrent le Programme de développement durable à l'horizon 2030 à leurs propres processus d'élaboration de politiques. La reconnaissance de la nature multisectorielle des ODD ...

  10. Odd number of coupled antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains: Spin wave theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyoussef, A.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of the chain and perpendicular anisotropies on the energy gap for odd number of coupled quantum spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains is investigated using a spin wave theory. The energy gap opens above a critical anisotropic value. The known results of the isotropic case have been obtained. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs

  11. Decoherence of quantum excitation of even/odd coherent states in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    even/odd coherent states, ((\\^a)m|α±⟩), in a thermal environment by investigating the variation of negative part of the Wigner quasidistribution function vs. the rescaled time. For this purpose, at first we obtain the time-dependent Wigner function ...

  12. Partial dynamical symmetry and odd-even staggering in deformed nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leviatan A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial dynamical symmetry (PDS is shown to be relevant for describing the odd-even staggering in the γ-band of 156Gd while retaining solvability and good SU(3 symmetry for the ground and β bands. Several classes of interacting boson model Hamiltonians with SU(3 PDS are surveyed.

  13. Decoherence of quantum excitation of even/odd coherent states in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    added) even/odd coherent states, ((ˆa†)m |α±〉), in a thermal environment by investigating the variation of negative part of the Wigner quasidistribution function vs. the rescaled time. For this purpose, at first we obtain the time-dependent Wigner ...

  14. Asymptotic Dichotomy in a Class of Odd-Order Nonlinear Differential Equations with Impulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunwen Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the oscillatory and asymptotic behavior of a class of odd-order nonlinear differential equations with impulses. We obtain criteria that ensure every solution is either oscillatory or (nonoscillatory and zero convergent. We provide several examples to show that impulses play an important role in the asymptotic behaviors of these equations.

  15. Norra keeldus koostööst õdede importijaga / Odd-Erik Marthinsen ; interv. Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marthinsen, Odd-Erik

    2001-01-01

    Norra tööturuameti tööala asedirektor Odd-Erik Marthinsen: Norra riik palkab ametlikult haiglaõdedeks tööjõudu Poolast, Ungarist ja Filipiinidelt, ent mitte Eestist. Kommenteerivad. Finn Radmann, Toomas Vilosius, Ase Jakobsen. Parlamendisaadik (T. Vilosius)

  16. Remarks on the determination of the odd--even staggering parameter in the spectrum of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenkorn, S.; Stroke, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    From an analysis of the isotope shifts in the Cd 3261, 4678, and 4416 A lines, it is pointed out that a precise determination of the odd--even staggering parameter is limited less by experimental error than by the lack of reliable knowledge of the specific mass effect

  17. P-odd component of time-reversal symmetry violation. Manifestation in nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchuvil'sky, Yu.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The problem of fundamental symmetries and the effects breaking them is one of the basic challenges of modern physics. There are grounds to assume that the major contributor to these effects is placed beyond the standard model. Nuclear processes are usable tests on T-even P-odd, T-odd P-even, and T-odd P-odd effects. The first type of them is rather well-studied. The possibilities to measure an effect of the second type seem to be poor in the discussed processes. At the same time search for time-reversal P-odd (PT-) symmetry violation offers promise for experimental investigation due to existence of nuclear enhancement effects analogous to T-even P-odd ones. An investigation of the effect in nuclear processes is considered as a promising source of the information which is complementary to that obtained in the framework of K- and B-meson experiments and measurements of the electric dipole moments of elementary particles and atoms. The matter is that the amplitudes specific for PT-symmetry violation in NN-interaction (isovector meson exchange amplitude for example) turn out to be essential or even dominating in the discussed case. In the present talk the results of the analysis of capability of the wide range of experimental schemes are presented. This analysis demonstrates the significant advantage of the scheme based on the measurement of linear polarization of gamma radiation of oriented (by an incident particle, or by a preceding alpha-decay, or by cryogenic means) sample. Indeed, the discussed approach, on the one hand, allows one to remove cumbersome coincident schemes and, on the other hand, the formalism of the approach is usually characterized by a relatively large spin factor in the relation connecting the correlation effect in a nucleus with the elementary amplitude. The estimations demonstrate that in appropriate cases the upper limit to the PT-violation effect of about 10 -3 of the observed P-odd effect in the same nucleus may be obtained. This

  18. Correction the Bias of Odds Ratio resulting from the Misclassification of Exposures in the Study of Environmental Risk Factors of Lung Cancer using Bayesian Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Inability to measure exact exposure in epidemiological studies is a common problem in many studies, especially cross-sectional studies. Depending on the extent of misclassification, results may be affected. Existing methods for solving this problem require a lot of time and money and it is not practical for some of the exposures. Recently, new methods have been proposed in 1:1 matched case–control studies that have solved these problems to some extent. In the present study we have aimed to extend the existing Bayesian method to adjust for misclassification in matched case–control Studies with 1:2 matching. Methods: Here, the standard Dirichlet prior distribution for a multinomial model was extended to allow the data of exposure–disease (OR parameter to be imported into the model excluding other parameters. Information that exist in literature about association between exposure and disease were used as prior information about OR. In order to correct the misclassification Sensitivity Analysis was accomplished and the results were obtained under three Bayesian Methods. Results: The results of naïve Bayesian model were similar to the classic model. The second Bayesian model by employing prior information about the OR, was heavily affected by these information. The third proposed model provides maximum bias adjustment for the risk of heavy metals, smoking and drug abuse. This model showed that heavy metals are not an important risk factor although raw model (logistic regression Classic detected this exposure as an influencing factor on the incidence of lung cancer. Sensitivity analysis showed that third model is robust regarding to different levels of Sensitivity and Specificity. Conclusion: The present study showed that although in most of exposures the results of the second and third model were similar but the proposed model would be able to correct the misclassification to some extent.

  19. Interpreting the concordance statistic of a logistic regression model: Relation to the variance and odds ratio of a continuous explanatory variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Austin (Peter); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: When outcomes are binary, the c-statistic (equivalent to the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve) is a standard measure of the predictive accuracy of a logistic regression model. Methods. An analytical expression was derived under the assumption that a

  20. Odds of death after glioblastoma diagnosis in the United States by chemotherapeutic era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Yang, Shengping

    2014-01-01

    Bevacizumab (BZM) and temozolomide (TMZ) have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma. We sought evidence for the benefit of BZM in the general patient population at large. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results SEER database was queried for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma between 2000 and 2009, divided into a pre-TMZ era (January 2000–June 2003), a transitional era (July 2003–March 2005), a TMZ era (April 2005–October 2007), and a BZM-TMZ era (November 2007–December 2009). Binomial logit regression analyzed odds of death, taking into account age at diagnosis, tumor size, gender, race, marital status, radiotherapy, and extensive surgery. Compared with the pre-TMZ era, odds of death were decreased in the TMZ era by 12% (97.5% CI [confidence interval] 3–20%) 6 months after diagnosis and 36% (30–42%) a year after diagnosis; corresponding values for BZM-TMZ were 31% (24–37%) and 50% (45–55%). For era comparisons, decreases in odds of death were larger at 12 than 6 months; the opposite was true for extensive surgery and radiotherapy (P < 0.025, Wald χ 2 test, for each analysis). For both 6 and 12 month comparisons, odds of death in the BZM-TMZ era were lower than in the TMZ era (P < 0.025, Wald χ 2 test, for each analysis). The results provide evidence that TMZ positively impacted survival of glioblastoma patients and that the addition of BZM further improved survival, this lends support to the addition of BZM to the chemotherapeutic armamentarium. Evaluation of odds of death is an attractive alternative to Cox regression when proportional hazards assumptions are violated and follow-up is good

  1. The 16-vertex model and its even and odd 8-vertex subcases on the square lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Michael

    2017-09-01

    We survey and enlarge the known mappings of the 16-vertex model, with emphasis on mappings between the even and odd 8-vertex subcases of the general model, also giving new mappings between these models, valid on finite toroidal lattices. In particular, we find new mappings between the models by using their algebraic invariants with respect to the SL(2)× SL(2) symmetry of the 16-vertex model; we also find a larger set of weak-graph transformations. We show many examples of models with negative weights which map to models with only positive weights. Using the algebraic invariant relations of the even and odd 8-vertex models, we find the complete set of points in the complex field plane of the square lattice Ising model in a field which map to the even or odd 8-vertex models; these points also correspond to the set of free-fermionic points of the model. We do not find any new integrable points, but we find a new mapping between the odd 8-vertex model and the square lattice Ising model at magnetic field H= iπ/(2β) , valid on finite toroidal lattices. We also show directly through various examples that mappings via algebraic invariants do not fully exhaust the possible mappings a model may have with another model. We construct a new solution to the odd 8-vertex free-fermion model which is valid on the finite lattice, since the previous known solution resulted from a mapping valid only in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, we detail for the first time the phase transitions of the column staggered free-fermion 8-vertex model, and show that it can be mapped to the bi-partite staggered free-fermion model.

  2. Adequate vitamin D status is associated with the reduced odds of prevalent diabetic retinopathy in African Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Amy E; Sahli, Michelle W; Nie, Jing; LaMonte, Michael J; Lutsey, Pamela L; Klein, Barbara E K; Mares, Julie A; Meyers, Kirstin J; Andrews, Christopher A; Klein, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin D status has been hypothesized to protect against development of diabetic retinopathy via its anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest vitamin D favorably influences blood pressure and blood glucose control, strong risk factors for diabetic retinopathy. We examined the association between vitamin D status and prevalent diabetic retinopathy in participants with diabetes from a population-based cohort. Among participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study with diabetes at visit 3 (1993-1995), 1339 (906 Caucasians, 433 African Americans) had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25[OH]D) concentrations assessed at visit 2 (1989-1992) and nonmydriatic retinal photographs taken at visit 3. Dietary intake of vitamin D was assessed at visit 1 (1987-1989). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for diabetic retinopathy by categories of season-adjusted 25(OH)D (diabetes. We further adjusted for HBA1c and hypertension to examine if 25(OH)D influenced diabetic retinopathy via its effects on either glycemic control or blood pressure. ORs (95 % CIs) for retinopathy, adjusted for race and duration, were 0.77 (0.45-1.32), 0.64 (0.37-1.10), and 0.39 (0.20-0.75), p for trend = 0.001, for participants with 25(OH)D of 30-retinopathy. 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L were associated with lower odds of any retinopathy assessed 3 years later. We speculate this may be due in part to vitamin D's influence on blood glucose control.

  3. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  4. Effect of insemination site and diameter of the pre-ovulatory follicle on the odds of pregnancy in heifers using sexed or non-sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenhoff, L; Hall, E; Ranjbar Ni, S; House, J K

    2017-09-01

    To determine if insemination site or pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) affects the odds of pregnancy when heifers are inseminated with sexed semen. The study was conducted in 422 Holstein heifers enrolled into 531 inseminations. Inseminations were randomly allocated to 1 of 16 treatment combinations involving three variables: semen type (sexed vs non-sexed), insemination site (uterine horn vs uterine body) and one of four sires. Ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasound prior to FTAI to determine the follicle diameter and location. AI technician, times bred, age, weight and temperature-humidity index were also recorded. Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted 29 days post-insemination. Follicle diameter and body weight were categorised according to arbitrary cut-points. Each variable was analysed by logistic regression to determine the effect on pregnancy per AI and compare between sexed and non-sexed inseminations. Insemination site did not affect pregnancy per AI for either sexed (P = 0.528) or non-sexed (P = 0.886) inseminations. Heifers with an 18-22 mm follicle had better odds of pregnancy than heifers that did not (odds ratio (OR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.004-2.09), although no effect was detected for only sexed or only non-sexed inseminations. Heifers weighing 310-370 kg had a higher pregnancy per AI than heifers weighing > 370 kg for non-sexed inseminations (P = 0.004) and sexed semen from sire 4 caused lower odds of pregnancy than semen from sire 1 (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.89). Insemination site did not affect pregnancy per AI, but heifers with an 18-22 mm pre-ovulatory follicle at insemination had better odds of pregnancy for both sexed and non-sexed inseminations. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Comparing the odds of postpartum haemorrhage in planned home birth against planned hospital birth: results of an observational study of over 500,000 maternities in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nove Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to compare the odds of postpartum haemorrhage among women who opt for home birth against the odds of postpartum haemorrhage for those who plan a hospital birth. It is an observational study involving secondary analysis of maternity records, using binary logistic regression modelling. The data relate to pregnancies that received maternity care from one of fifteen hospitals in the former North West Thames Regional Health Authority Area in England, and which resulted in a live or stillbirth in the years 1988–2000 inclusive, excluding ‘high-risk’ pregnancies, unplanned home births, pre-term births, elective Caesareans and medical inductions. Results Even after adjustment for known confounders such as parity, the odds of postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml of blood lost are significantly higher if a hospital birth is intended than if a home birth is intended (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.8. The ‘home birth’ group included women who were transferred to hospital during labour or shortly after birth. Conclusions Women and their partners should be advised that the risk of PPH is higher among births planned to take place in hospital compared to births planned to take place at home, but that further research is needed to understand (a whether the same pattern applies to the more life-threatening categories of PPH, and (b why hospital birth is associated with increased odds of PPH. If it is due to the way in which labour is managed in hospital, changes should be made to practices which compromise the safety of labouring women.

  6. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  7. Standardized binomial models for risk or prevalence ratios and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Kinlaw, Alan C; MacLehose, Richard F; Cole, Stephen R

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiologists often analyse binary outcomes in cohort and cross-sectional studies using multivariable logistic regression models, yielding estimates of adjusted odds ratios. It is widely known that the odds ratio closely approximates the risk or prevalence ratio when the outcome is rare, and it does not do so when the outcome is common. Consequently, investigators may decide to directly estimate the risk or prevalence ratio using a log binomial regression model. We describe the use of a marginal structural binomial regression model to estimate standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a cohort study of coronary heart disease status in Evans County, Georgia, USA. The approach reduces problems with model convergence typical of log binomial regression by shifting all explanatory variables except the exposures of primary interest from the linear predictor of the outcome regression model to a model for the standardization weights. The approach also facilitates evaluation of departures from additivity in the joint effects of two exposures. Epidemiologists should consider reporting standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences in cohort and cross-sectional studies. These are readily-obtained using the SAS, Stata and R statistical software packages. The proposed approach estimates the exposure effect in the total population. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  8. Complications after hand surgery in patients with a raised International Normalized Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, R M; Paryavi, E; Zimmerman, N B; Means, K R

    2017-09-01

    A multicentre database was used to compare complications in 231 patients with an elevated International Normalized Ratio with 1626 control patients with a normal International Normalized Ratio. Patients with International Normalized Ratios measured within 48 hours of hand surgery were identified. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between anticoagulation and reoperation rates, emergency department visits and hospital readmissions for the first 30 days after operation. The group with a raised International Normalized Ratio had a significantly higher Charlson Comorbidity Score. An elevated International Normalized Ratio was associated with an odds ratio for a post-operative emergency department visit of 3.3 and an odds ratio of 4.7 for readmission. There was no statistically significant difference in early reoperations between the two groups. III.

  9. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  10. The effect of tobacco control policy on smoking cessation in relation to gender, age and education in Lithuania, 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Sakyte, Edita; Petkeviciene, Janina; Prattala, Ritva; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-02-25

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between tobacco control policies and trends in smoking cessation according to gender, age and educational level in Lithuania in 1994-2010. The data were obtained from nine cross-sectional postal surveys conducted biennially within the framework of Finbalt Health Monitor project during 1994-2010. Each survey was based on a nationally representative random sample drawn from the National population register. The sample consisted of 3000 citizens aged 20-64 in 1994-2008 surveys and 4000 in the 2010 survey. In total, 17161 individuals participated in all surveys. The development of tobacco control policy in Lithuania was assessed using the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). The association of the TCS scores with short-term and long-term quitting according to gender, age and education was examined using logistic regression analysis with control for secular trends. Over the last two decades, a large improvement in the development of tobacco control policy has been achieved in Lithuania. At the same time, this progress was associated with the increase in smoking cessation. A significant increase in both short-term and long-term quit ratios was found among people aged 20-44. An increase by 10 points on the TCS was associated with 17% increase in the odds of short-term quitting and with 15% increase in the odds of long-term quitting. The association between tobacco control policies and long-term quitting was stronger among younger than older people. No differential effect of tobacco control policies on smoking cessation was found in relation to gender and educational level. The improvement in Lithuanian tobacco control policies was associated with an increase in smoking cessation in long-term perspective. These policies have not only benefitted highly educated groups, but lower educated groups as well. Nonetheless, further development of comprehensive tobacco control policies is needed in order to decrease social inequalities in smoking

  11. Time reversal odd fragmentation functions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, P.J. [National Inst. for Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levelt, J. [Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    In semi-inclusive scattering of polarized leptons from unpolarized hadrons, one can measure a time reversal odd structure function. It shows up as a sin({phi}) asymmetry of the produced hadrons. This asymmetry can be expressed as the product of a twist-three {open_quotes}hadron {r_arrow} quark{close_quotes} profile function and a time reversal odd twist-two {open_quotes}quark {r_arrow} hadron{close_quotes} fragmentation function. This fragmentation function can only be measured for nonzero transverse momenta of the produced hadron. Its appearance is a consequence of final state interactions between the produced hadron and the rest of the final state.

  12. The refined analytic torsion and a well-posed boundary condition for the odd signature operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rung-Tzung; Lee, Yoonweon

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we discuss the refined analytic torsion on an odd dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold with boundary under some assumption. For this purpose we introduce two boundary conditions which are complementary to each other and well-posed for the odd signature operator B in the sense of Seeley. We then show that the zeta-determinants of B2 and eta-invariants of B subject to these boundary conditions are well defined by using the method of the asymptotic expansions of the traces of the heat kernels. We use these facts to define the refined analytic torsion on a compact manifold with boundary and show that it is invariant on the change of metrics in the interior of the manifold. We finally describe the refined analytic torsion under these boundary conditions as an element of the determinant line.

  13. An investigation of the solar cycle response of odd-nitrogen in the thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, David W.; Solomon, Stanley C.

    1992-01-01

    This annual report covers the first year of funding for the study of the solar cycle variations of odd-nitrogen (N((sup 2)D), N((sup 4)S), NO) in the Earth's thermosphere. The study uses the extensive data base generated by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites, and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer Satellite. The AE data are being used, for the first time, to define the solar variability effect on the odd-nitrogen species through analysis of the emissions at 520 nano-m from N((sup 2)D) and the emission from O(+)((sup 2)P). Additional AE neutral and ion density data are used to help define and quantify the physical processes controlling the variations. The results from the airglow study will be used in the next two years of this study to explain the solar cycle changes in NO measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer.

  14. The global distribution of thermospheric odd nitrogen for solstice conditions during solar cycle minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, J.-C.; Roble, R. G.; Rusch, D. W.; Stewart, A. I.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of odd nitrogen in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere is described. The global distributions of nitric oxide and atomic nitrogen are calculated for the solstice period for quiet and moderate magnetic activity during the solar minimum period. The effect of thermospheric transport by winds is investigated along with the importance of particle-induced ionization in the auroral zones. The results are compared with rocket and satellite measurements, and the sensitivity of the model to eddy diffusion and neutral winds is investigated. Downward fluxes of NO into the mesosphere are given, and their importance for stratospheric ozone is discussed. The results show that the summer-to-winter pole meridional circulation transports both NO and N(S-4) across the solar terminator into the polar night region where there is a downward vertical transport toward the mesosphere. The model shows that odd nitrogen densities at high winter latitudes are entirely controlled by particle precipitation and transport processes.

  15. Regularization of energy-momentum tensor correlators and parity-odd terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonora, Loriano [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA),Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Trieste (Italy); Pereira, Antônio Duarte [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA),Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Instituto de Física,Campus da Praia Vermelha, Avenida General Milton Tavares de Souza s/n,24210-346, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Bruno Lima de [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA),Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Trieste (Italy)

    2015-06-04

    We discuss the problem of regularizing correlators in conformal field theories. The only way to do it in coordinate space is to interpret them as distributions. Unfortunately except for the simplest cases we do not have tabulated mathematical results. The way out we pursue here is to go to momentum space and use Feynman diagram techniques and their regularization methods. We focus on the energy-momentum tensor correlators and, to gain insight, we compute and regularize 2-point functions in 2d with various techniques both in coordinate space and in momentum space, obtaining the same results. Then we do the same for 2-point functions in 4d. Finally we turn to 3-point function in 4d, and concentrate on the parity-odd part. We derive in particular the regularized trace and divergence of the energy-momentum tensor in a chiral fermion model. We discuss the problems related to the parity-odd trace anomaly.

  16. Exploring Topsnut-Graphical Passwords by Twin Odd-elegant Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hong-yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphical passwords are facing a good opportunity as 2-dimension codes are accepted by many people, since it has been applied in mobile devices, electronic equipments with touch screen, and so on. QR codes can be considered as a type of graphical passwords. Topsnut-graphical password differs from the existing graphical passwords, and has been investigated and developed. In this article, a new type of Topsnut-graphical passwords has been designed by technique of graph theory, called twin odd-elegant labelling. We make the twin odd-elegant graphs for one-key vs two or more locks (conversely, one-lock vs two or more keys. These Topsnut-GPWs show perfect matching characteristics of locks (TOE-lock-models and keys (TOE-key-models. We show examples for testing our methods which can be easily transformed into effective algorithms.

  17. Nuclear quantum shape-phase transitions in odd-mass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, S.; Li, Z. P.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2018-03-01

    Microscopic signatures of nuclear ground-state shape-phase transitions in odd-mass Eu isotopes are explored starting from excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a core-quasiparticle coupling Hamiltonian based on energy density functionals. As functions of the physical control parameter—the number of nucleons—theoretical low-energy spectra, two-neutron separation energies, charge isotope shifts, spectroscopic quadrupole moments, and E 2 reduced transition matrix elements accurately reproduce available data and exhibit more-pronounced discontinuities at neutron number N =90 compared with the adjacent even-even Sm and Gd isotopes. The enhancement of the first-order quantum phase transition in odd-mass systems can be attributed to a shape polarization effect of the unpaired proton which, at the critical neutron number, starts predominantly coupling to Gd core nuclei that are characterized by larger quadrupole deformation and weaker proton pairing correlations compared with the corresponding Sm isotopes.

  18. CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in the muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    In the most general weak interaction model with intermediate vector bosons, allowing CP breaking in the muon decay, CP- even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons is calculated taking into account the radiative corrections. It is shown that such corrections are essential only at the beginning of the spectrum reducing the observed transverse polarization effects. When the electron energy is close to its maximum and the emission angles are small, the transverse polarization considerably grows. Search for CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons should be carried out at energies Esub(e) approximately equal to O.975 Esub(e)sup(max) and emission angles THETA approximately equal to 25+35 deg [ru

  19. O(D,D) covariant Noether currents and global charges in double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong-Hyuck [Department of Physics, Sogang University,Seoul, 04107 (Korea, Republic of); Rey, Soo-Jong [School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,Seoul, 08862 (Korea, Republic of); Fields, Gravity & Strings, Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe,Institute for Basic Sciences, Daejeon, 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Rim, Woohyun; Sakatani, Yuho [School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,Seoul, 08862 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-20

    Double field theory is an approach for massless modes of string theory, unifying and geometrizing all gauge invariance in manifest O(D,D) covariant manner. In this approach, we derive off-shell conserved Noether current and corresponding Noether potential associated with unified gauge invariance. We add Wald-type counter two-form to the Noether potential and define conserved global charges as surface integral. We check our O(D,D) covariant formula against various string backgrounds, both geometric and non-geometric. In all cases we examined, we find perfect agreements with previous results. Our formula facilitates to evaluate momenta along not only ordinary spacetime directions but also dual spacetime directions on equal footing. From this, we confirm recent assertion that null wave in doubled spacetime is the same as macroscopic fundamental string in ordinary spacetime.

  20. Hyperfine structure of the odd parity level system in the terbium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanska, D; Furmann, B

    2017-01-01

    Within this work new experimental results concerning the hyperfine structure ( hfs ) in the terbium atom are presented, concerning the odd parity levels system, hitherto only scarcely investigated (apart from the ground term). hfs constants A and B for 113 levels were determined for the first time, and for another 16 levels, which already occurred in our earlier works, supplementary results were obtained; additionally, our earlier results for 93 levels were compiled. The hfs of the odd parity levels was investigated using the method of laser induced fluorescence in a hollow cathode discharge. The hfs of 165 spectral lines, where the levels in question were involved as the upper levels, was recorded. Literature values of hfs constants of the even-parity lower levels (including our own earlier results) greatly facilitated the present data evaluation. (paper)

  1. Effect of a smoking ban and school-based prevention and control policies on adolescent smoking in Spain: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Díez-Gañán, Lucía; Gandarillas, Ana; Mata, Nelva; Cantero, Jose Luis; Durbán, María

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the impact of a smoking ban in schools and of school-based smoking prevention and control policies on adolescent smoking. Annual surveys carried out between 2001 and 2005 that were representative of students in the 4th year of secondary education in the Madrid region, with 203 schools and 9127 students participating. The student questionnaire gathered information about personal and family variables. The contextual factors were: the periods before (years 2001-2002) and after the law; and through a survey of school management boards: compliance with the law, policy reflected in the school regulations, existence of complaints against smoking, and undertaking of educational activities regarding smoking. Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed with two dependent variables: current smoking and the proportion giving up smoking. Smoking declined in 2003, the first year after the law came into force (Odds ratio: 0.80; CI 95%: 0.66-0.96), and this decline was maintained in 2005. By contrast, smoking increased in those schools that did not undertake educational programmes regarding smoking (Odds ratio: 1.34; CI 95%: 1.13-1.59), and in those that received complaints about smoking (Odds ratio: 1.12; CI 95%: 0.96-1.29). This association is partly due to the effect of the increase in giving up smoking. The inclusion of contextual variables into the model with the individual factors reduces the variability of smoking between schools by 32.6%. In summary, the coming into force of a law banning smoking in schools, and the implementing of educational policies for the prevention and control of smoking are related to a lower risk of adolescent smoking.

  2. Odd man out : why are there fewer plant species in African rain forests ?

    OpenAIRE

    Couvreur, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Although tropical rain forests represent the most species-rich terrestrial ecosystem on the planet, the three main rain forest regions (Neotropics, South-East Asia and continental Africa) are not equally diverse. Africa has been labeled the "odd man out" because of its perceived lower species diversity when compared to the Neotropics or South-East Asia. Understanding why, within a biome, certain regions have higher or lower species diversity provides important insights into the evolution of b...

  3. Search for shape coexistence in odd - Z rare earth proton emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear shapes are very sensitive to the structural effects and can change with isospin and from one nucleus to its neighbour and in some cases configurations corresponding to different shapes may coexist at similar energies which may arise from intruder excitations. Search for such interesting phenomena of shape coexistence and rapidly changing shapes in the less explored region of rare earth odd Z nuclei from Z = 51 to 75 are the focus of present work

  4. Child ADHD and ODD behavior interacts with parent ADHD symptoms to worsen parenting and interparental communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Dawson, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults increases risk of parenting difficulties and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether disruptive child behavior and adult ADHD operate additively or synergistically to predict parenting and interparental relationship quality. As part of a larger study, 90 parent couples were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Before these interactions, parents reported their own ADHD symptoms. Afterwards, parents reported on their partner's parenting and interparental communication behavior. Observers coded the parenting and communication behavior of both partners during the tasks. Child ADHD/ODD-like behavior was found to predict less positive and more negative parenting and communication reported by partners and observers beyond adult ADHD symptoms and other covariates. Elevated adult ADHD symptoms only uniquely increased risk of observer-coded negative parenting. Child and adult ADHD behavior interacted synergistically to predict partner-reported negative parenting and interparental communication, such that parents reporting greater ADHD symptoms-especially inattentiveness-were rated by their partners as parenting and communicating more negatively when managing child ADHD/ODD-like behavior than parents with fewer ADHD symptoms or those managing typical child behavior. Child and adult ADHD behavior did not interact to predict observer-coded parenting or interparental communication, and patterns did not differ for mothers or fathers. Our results underscore the potential risk of parents with elevated ADHD symptoms parenting and communicating negatively, at least as perceived by their partners, during interactions with children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior.

  5. Testing the specificity of executive functioning impairments in adolescents with ADHD, ODD/CD and ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter Leno, Virginia; Chandler, Susie; White, Pippa; Pickles, Andrew; Baird, Gillian; Hobson, Chris; Smith, Anna B; Charman, Tony; Rubia, Katya; Simonoff, Emily

    2017-12-09

    Current diagnostic systems conceptualise attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as separate diagnoses. However, all three demonstrate executive functioning (EF) impairments. Whether these impairments are trans-diagnostic or disorder-specific remains relatively unexplored. Four groups of 10-16 year-olds [typically developing (TD; N = 43), individuals clinically diagnosed with ADHD (N = 21), ODD/CD (N = 26) and ASD (N = 41)] completed Go/NoGo and Switch tasks. Group differences were tested using analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) including age, IQ, sex, conduct problems and ADHD symptoms as co-variates. Results indicated some disorder-specificity as only the ASD group demonstrated decreased probability of inhibition in the Go/NoGo task compared to all other groups. However, shared impairments were also found; all three diagnostic groups demonstrated increased reaction time variability (RTV) compared to the TD group, and both the ODD/CD and the ASD group demonstrated increased premature responses. When controlling for ADHD symptoms and conduct problems, group differences in RTV were no longer significant; however, the ASD group continued to demonstrate increased premature responses. No group differences were found in cognitive flexibility in the Switch task. A more varied response style was present across all clinical groups, although this appeared to be accounted for by sub-threshold ODD/CD and ADHD symptoms. Only the ASD group was impaired in response inhibition and premature responsiveness relative to TD adolescents. The findings suggest that some EF impairments typically associated with ADHD may also be found in individuals with ASD.

  6. Odd azimuthal anisotropy of the Glasma for pA scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, Larry [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Box 351550, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); China Central Normal University, Wuhan (China); Skokov, Vladimir, E-mail: v.skokov@gsi.de [RIKEN/BNL, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    In this paper we analytically extract the odd azimuthal anisotropy in the Classical Yang–Mills equations for the Glasma for pA collisions. We compute the first non-trivial term in the expansion of the proton sources of color charge. The computation is valid in the limit of a large nucleus when the produced particle momenta are larger than the saturation momentum of the proton.

  7. Coupled channel alpha decay theory for even- and odd-mass light and heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Four major approaches to the theoretical calculation of alpha decay widths were examined for light and heavy, even- and odd-mass nuclei. Application of the microscopic shell model rate theory as well as macroscopic models utilizing the coupled-channel formalism were studied. Use of the R-matrix and S-matrix theories have been applied in order to overcome problems involving dependency on the connection radius and nuclear potential parameters of the relative and absolute alpha decay widths. 105 references

  8. Signatures of octupole correlations in neutron-rich odd-mass barium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2018-02-01

    Octupole deformation and the relevant spectroscopic properties of neutron-rich odd-mass barium isotopes are investigated in a theoretical framework based on nuclear density functional theory and the particle-core coupling scheme. The interacting-boson Hamiltonian that describes the octupole-deformed even-even core nucleus, as well as the single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of an unpaired nucleon, are completely determined by microscopic axially symmetric (β2,β3) -deformation constrained self-consistent mean-field calculations for a specific choice of the energy density functional and pairing interaction. A boson-fermion interaction that involves both quadrupole and octupole degrees of freedom is introduced, and their strength parameters are determined to reproduce selected spectroscopic data for the odd-mass nuclei. The model reproduces recent experimental results for both even-even and odd-mass Ba isotopes. In particular, for Ba,147145 our results indicate, in agreement with recent data, that octupole deformation does not determine the structure of the lowest states in the vicinity of the ground state, and only becomes relevant at higher excitation energies.

  9. STATISTICAL INTERACTIONS AND BAYES ESTIMATION OF LOG ODDS IN CASE-CONTROL STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satagopan, Jaya M.; Olson, Sara H.; Elston, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the estimation of the logarithm of disease odds (log odds) when evaluating two risk factors, whether or not interactions are present. Statisticians define interaction as a departure from an additive model on a certain scale of measurement of the outcome. Certain interactions, known as removable interactions, may be eliminated by fitting an additive model under an invertible transformation of the outcome. This can potentially provide more precise estimates of log odds than fitting a model with interaction terms. In practice, we may also encounter non-removable interactions. The model must then include interaction terms, regardless of the choice of the scale of the outcome. However, in practical settings, we do not know at the outset whether an interaction exists, and if so whether it is removable or non-removable. Rather than trying to decide on significance levels to test for the existence of removable and non-removable interactions, we develop a Bayes estimator based on a squared error loss function. We demonstrate the favorable bias-variance trade-offs of our approach using simulations, and provide empirical illustrations using data from three published endometrial cancer case-control studies. The methods are implemented in an R program, available freely at http://www.mskcc.org/biostatistics/~satagopj. PMID:25586327

  10. Description of odd-mass nuclei by multi-reference energy density functional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we are interested in the treatment of odd-mass atomic nuclei in energy density functional (EDF) models. More precisely, the goal of this thesis is to develop and to apply to odd-mass nuclei, the theoretical extensions of the EDF method that are: first, the projection technique, and secondly the configuration mixing by the generator coordinate method (GCM). These two extensions are part of the so-called multi-reference energy density functional (MR-EDF) formalism and allow one to take into account, within an EDF context, the 'beyond-mean-field' correlations between the nucleons forming the nucleus. Until now, the MR-EDF formalism has been applied, in its fully-fledged version, only to the calculation of even-even nuclei. In this thesis, we want to demonstrate the applicability of such a model also for the description of odd-mass nuclei. In the first part of this thesis, we describe the theoretical formalism of the EDF models, giving particular attention to the treatment of symmetries within our approach. In the second part of the manuscript, we apply our model to the nucleus 25 Mg and investigate different aspects of the method (e.g. numerical accuracy, convergence of the configuration mixing, comparison to known experimental data). The results obtained in this work are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of our approach for theoretical nuclear structure calculations. (author)

  11. Canonic FFT flow graphs for real-valued even/odd symmetric inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yingjie; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2017-12-01

    Canonic real-valued fast Fourier transform (RFFT) has been proposed to reduce the arithmetic complexity by eliminating redundancies. In a canonic N-point RFFT, the number of signal values at each stage is canonic with respect to the number of signal values, i.e., N. The major advantage of the canonic RFFTs is that these require the least number of butterfly operations and only real datapaths when mapped to architectures. In this paper, we consider the FFT computation whose inputs are not only real but also even/odd symmetric, which indeed lead to the well-known discrete cosine and sine transforms (DCTs and DSTs). Novel algorithms for generating the flow graphs of canonic RFFTs with even/odd symmetric inputs are proposed. It is shown that the proposed algorithms lead to canonic structures with N/2 +1 signal values at each stage for an N-point real even symmetric FFT (REFFT) or N/2 -1 signal values at each stage for an N-point RFFT real odd symmetric FFT (ROFFT). In order to remove butterfly operations, several twiddle factor transformations are proposed in this paper. We also discuss the design of canonic REFFT for any composite length. Performances of the canonic REFFT/ROFFT are also discussed. It is shown that the flow graph of canonic REFFT/ROFFT has less number of interconnections, less butterfly operations, and less twiddle factor operations, compared to prior works.

  12. The construction and use of log-odds substitution scores for multiple sequence alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F Altschul

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Most pairwise and multiple sequence alignment programs seek alignments with optimal scores. Central to defining such scores is selecting a set of substitution scores for aligned amino acids or nucleotides. For local pairwise alignment, substitution scores are implicitly of log-odds form. We now extend the log-odds formalism to multiple alignments, using Bayesian methods to construct "BILD" ("Bayesian Integral Log-odds" substitution scores from prior distributions describing columns of related letters. This approach has been used previously only to define scores for aligning individual sequences to sequence profiles, but it has much broader applicability. We describe how to calculate BILD scores efficiently, and illustrate their uses in Gibbs sampling optimization procedures, gapped alignment, and the construction of hidden Markov model profiles. BILD scores enable automated selection of optimal motif and domain model widths, and can inform the decision of whether to include a sequence in a multiple alignment, and the selection of insertion and deletion locations. Other applications include the classification of related sequences into subfamilies, and the definition of profile-profile alignment scores. Although a fully realized multiple alignment program must rely upon more than substitution scores, many existing multiple alignment programs can be modified to employ BILD scores. We illustrate how simple BILD score based strategies can enhance the recognition of DNA binding domains, including the Api-AP2 domain in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum.

  13. Odd-even parity splittings and octupole correlations in neutron-rich Ba isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, L.-J.; Yao, J. M.

    2018-02-01

    The odd-even parity splittings in low-lying parity-doublet states of atomic nuclei with octupole correlations have usually been interpreted as rotational excitations on top of octupole vibration in the language of collective models. In this paper, we report a deep analysis of the odd-even parity splittings in the parity-doublet states of neutron-rich Ba isotopes around neutron number N =88 within a full microscopic framework of beyond-mean-field multireference covariant energy density functional theory. The dynamical correlations related to symmetry restoration and quadrupole-octupole shape fluctuation are taken into account with a generator coordinate method combined with parity, particle-number, and angular-momentum projections. We show that the behavior of odd-even parity splittings is governed by the interplay of rotation, quantum tunneling, and shape evolution. Similar to 224Ra, a picture of rotation-induced octupole shape stabilization in the positive-parity states is exhibited in the neutron-rich Ba isotopes.

  14. A description of odd mass Xe and Te isotopes in the Interacting Boson–Fermion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Musleh, S. [National Center of Research, Gaza, Palestine (Country Unknown); Phys. Dep., Faculty of Women for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abu-Zeid, H.M. [Phys. Dep., Faculty of Women for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Scholten, O. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, 9747 AA, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    Recent interest in spectroscopic factors for single-neutron transfer in low-spin states of the even–odd Xenon {sup 125,127,129.131}Xe and even–odd Tellurium, {sup 123,125,127,129,131}Te isotopes stimulated us to study these isotopes within the framework of the Interacting Boson–Fermion Model. The fermion that is coupled to the system of bosons is taken to be in the positive parity 3s{sub 1/2}, 2d{sub 3/2}, 2d{sub 5/2}, 1g{sub 7/2} and in the negative 1h{sub 11/2} single-particle orbits, the complete 50–82 major shell. The calculated energies of low-spin energy levels of the odd isotopes are found to agree well with the experimental data. Also, B(E2), B(M1) values and spectroscopic factors for single-neutron transfer are calculated and compared with experimental data.

  15. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  16. Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) results of the collective quadrupolar excitations in odd and even Ru isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, C.L.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M.; Hanninger, G.N.; Ukita, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    The study of the odd 99,101 Ru nuclei complements the investigation of the collectivity of the first quadrupolar excitations in 100,102,104 Ru. Angular distributions for the 99,101 Ru(d, d') reactions at 13 MeV were obtained in the Pelletron Laboratory using nuclear emulsion plates on the focal plane of the Enge spectrograph. A Coulomb- Nuclear Interference analysis employing DWBA-DOMP predictions with global optical potential parameters was applied to the excitation of states which could belong to the multiplet built on the first quadrupolar excitation of the core. In the analysis, three states were identified for each of the isotopes and associated, respectively, with adopted levels in the Nuclear Data Sheets Compilation of Jπ = 5=2 + , 7=2 + and 9=2 + . Through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions, the values of (δ L N ) 2 and of the ratio C = δ L C /δ L N were obtained. (author)

  17. Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) results of the collective quadrupolar excitations in odd and even Ru isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, C.L.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M.; Hanninger, G.N. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Ukita, G.M. [Universidade de Santo Amaro, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Psicologia

    2004-09-15

    The study of the odd {sup 99,101}Ru nuclei complements the investigation of the collectivity of the first quadrupolar excitations in {sup 100,102,104}Ru. Angular distributions for the {sup 99,101}Ru(d, d') reactions at 13 MeV were obtained in the Pelletron Laboratory using nuclear emulsion plates on the focal plane of the Enge spectrograph. A Coulomb- Nuclear Interference analysis employing DWBA-DOMP predictions with global optical potential parameters was applied to the excitation of states which could belong to the multiplet built on the first quadrupolar excitation of the core. In the analysis, three states were identified for each of the isotopes and associated, respectively, with adopted levels in the Nuclear Data Sheets Compilation of J{pi} = 5=2{sup +}, 7=2{sup +} and 9=2{sup +}. Through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions, the values of ({delta}{sup L}{sub N}){sup 2} and of the ratio C = {delta}{sub L}{sup C} /{delta}{sub L}{sup N} were obtained. (author)

  18. Lower Numeracy Is Associated with Increased Odds of 30-Day Emergency Department and Hospital Recidivism for Patients with Acute Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Candace D.; Collins, Sean; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell; Self, Wesley H.; Jenkins, Cathy; Miller, Karen; Arbogast, Patrick; Naftilan, Allen; Dittus, Robert S.; Storrow, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 25% of Medicare patients hospitalized for heart failure are readmitted within 30 days. The contributions of numeracy and health literacy to recidivism for patients with acute heart failure (AHF) are not known. Methods and Results A cohort of patients with AHF who presented to four emergency departments between January 2008 and September 2011. Research assistants administered subjective measures of numeracy and health literacy; thirty-day follow up was performed by phone interview. Recidivism was defined as any unplanned return to the emergency department or hospital within 30-days of the index emergency department visit for AHF. Multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patient age, gender, race, insurance status, hospital site, days eligible for recidivism, chronic kidney disease, abnormal hemoglobin, and low ejection fraction evaluated the relationships between numeracy and health literacy with 30-day recidivism. Of the 709 patients included in the analysis, 390 (55%) had low numeracy skills and 258 (37%) had low literacy skills. Low numeracy was associated with increased odds of recidivism within 30 days (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.98, P=0.048). For low health literacy, adjusted OR of recidivism was 1.17 (95% CI 0.83-1.65, P=0.37). Conclusions Low numeracy was associated with greater odds of 30-day recidivism. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether addressing numeracy and health literacy may reduce 30-day recidivism for patients with acute heart failure. PMID:23230305

  19. Medicaid capital reimbursement policy and environmental artifacts of nursing home culture change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan C; Cohen, Neal; Lima, Julie C; Mor, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    To examine how Medicaid capital reimbursement policy is associated with nursing homes (NHs) having high proportions of private rooms and small households. Through a 2009/2010 NH national survey, we identified NHs having small households and high proportions of private rooms (≥76%). A survey of state Medicaid officials and policy document review provided 2009 policy data. Facility- and county-level covariates were from Online Survey, Certification and Reporting, the Area Resource File, and aggregated resident assessment data (minimum data set). The policy of interest was the presence of traditional versus fair rental capital reimbursement policy. Average Medicaid per diem rates and the presence of NH pay-for-performance (p4p) reimbursement were also examined. A total of 1,665 NHs in 40 states were included. Multivariate logistic regression analyses (with clustering on states) were used. In multivariate models, Medicaid capital reimbursement policy was not significantly associated with either outcome. However, there was a significantly greater likelihood of NHs having many private rooms when states had higher Medicaid rates (per $10 increment; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.13; 95% CI 1.049, 1.228), and in states with versus without p4p (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.045, 3.036). Also, in states with p4p NHs had a greater likelihood of having small households (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.045, 3.0636). Higher NH Medicaid rates and reimbursement incentives may contribute to a higher presence of 2 important environmental artifacts of culture change-an abundance of private rooms and small households. However, longitudinal research examining policy change is needed to establish the cause and effect of the associations observed.

  20. Systematic of signature inversion in (h11/2)p ⊗ (i13/2)n for odd–odd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rotational properties of a wave function, it follows that α = 0 for even-angular momentum states of a rotational band and α = 1 for odd-angular momentum states. We have analysed the (h11/2)p ⊗ ( i13/2)n orbitals of double-odd nuclei in rare-earth region. The favoured signature in odd–odd rotational bands is given by αf ...

  1. A Tobacco-Free Medical Campus Policy is Associated With Decreased Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Increased Satisfaction Among Military Medical Employees: Results of a Mixed-Methods Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Theresa J; Ellis, Shannon; Rivera, L Omar; Vasquez, Laura E; Francis, Molly M; Jin, Wana K; McRae, Kari A; Place, Ronald J

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco control is an ongoing concern for the U.S. Army. Although tobacco use is currently prohibited within all military hospitals and clinics, known as military treatment facilities (MTFs), no such facility had implemented a tobacco-free medical campus (TFMC) policy before 2012. This evaluation examined the effects of one Army installation's TFMC policy implementation at its medical facilities. Online questionnaires were distributed to medical campus employees, including Active Duty Soldiers, civilians, and contractors, before policy implementation (N = 1,210) and 12 months following policy implementation (N = 1,147). Chi-square analyses, independent t tests, and logistic regression models were utilized to examine pretest/post-test changes in employees' secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure; tobacco use, motivation to quit, and cessation; and health outcomes. Twenty-three focus groups, interviews, and informal discussions with 65 employees and patients were conducted 13 months after initial policy implementation to capture both the intended and unintended policy effects. After controlling for demographic characteristics, the study found that employees had more than twice the odds of exposure to SHS in the workplace at baseline than at 12-month follow-up (odds ratio: 2.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.73-2.46, p effect was that the policy caused smokers to change the location of where they used tobacco to off campus. Findings further revealed several unintended policy effects, including safety concerns and greater visibility of smokers in front of the MTF. The first Army MTF TFMC policy was associated with reported reductions in SHS exposure and improvements in some short-term health outcomes. The policy had no observed association with tobacco-use prevalence, motivation to quit, or cessation at 12-month follow-up. Focus group participants discussed several positive and negative policy effects. These policies should be expanded and studied in more depth across military

  2. Biological pattern and transcriptomic exploration and phylogenetic analysis in the odd floral architecture tree: Helwingia willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Yu, Guoliang; Bao, Manzhu; Zheng, Bo; Ning, Guogui

    2014-06-27

    Odd traits in few of plant species usually implicate potential biology significances in plant evolutions. The genus Helwingia Willd, a dioecious medical shrub in Aquifoliales order, has an odd floral architecture-epiphyllous inflorescence. The potential significances and possible evolutionary origin of this specie are not well understood due to poorly available data of biological and genetic studies. In addition, the advent of genomics-based technologies has widely revolutionized plant species with unknown genomic information. Morphological and biological pattern were detailed via anatomical and pollination analyses. An RNA sequencing based transcriptomic analysis were undertaken and a high-resolution phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on single-copy genes in more than 80 species of seed plants, including H. japonica. It is verified that a potential fusion of rachis to the leaf midvein facilitates insect pollination. RNA sequencing yielded a total of 111450 unigenes; half of them had significant similarity with proteins in the public database, and 20281 unigenes were mapped to 119 pathways. Deduced from the phylogenetic analysis based on single-copy genes, the group of Helwingia is closer with Euasterids II and rather than Euasterids, congruent with previous reports using plastid sequences. The odd flower architecture make H. Willd adapt to insect pollination by hosting those insects larger than the flower in size via leave, which has little common character that other insect pollination plants hold. Further the present transcriptome greatly riches genomics information of Helwingia species and nucleus genes based phylogenetic analysis also greatly improve the resolution and robustness of phylogenetic reconstruction in H. japonica.

  3. Systematics and analysis of the odd ytterbium nuclei properties with A=163-173

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Wawryszcruk, J.; Gromov, K.Ya.; Nesterenko, V.O.

    1989-01-01

    The reduced probabilities of interband M1- and E2-transitions and coefficients of mixing δ(E2/M1) in odd ytterbium nuclei with A=163-173 are calculated and analyzed within the nonadiabatical rotational model (NRM) with taking into account the quasiparticle-phonon interaction. The probability of E1-transitions is considered within NRM without quasiparticle-phonon interaction. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data. The structure of matrix elements of the considered transitions is analyzed in detail. 29 refs.; 3 figs.; 7 tabs

  4. Photoionization in the presence of circularly polarized fundamental and odd-order harmonic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I. A.; Nam, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyung Taec

    2017-05-01

    We present a study of the photoelectron spectra for the ionization process driven by counterrotating and corotating circularly polarized fundamental and odd-order harmonic fields. The main features of the spectra, such as symmetric lobed structures, are understood using simple arguments based on the strong field approximation (SFA) picture of ionization. A deviation from this picture is, most notably, the presence of the low-energy structures (LES) in the spectra. We show that the Rydberg states populated as a result of the combined absorption of the photons from the fundamental and harmonic fields are responsible for the origin of LES.

  5. Collective properties of the odd-mass I nuclei: 123,125,127I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroy, R. E.; Gordon, D. M.; Gai, M.; Fossan, D. B.; Gaigalas, A. K.

    1982-09-01

    The high-spin states of 123,125,127I have been investigated via the ASn(6Li, 3n)A+3I reactions to study the collective properties of the odd-mass I isotopes. In-beam measurements of γ-ray excitations, γ-γ coincidences, γ-ray angular distributions, and pulsed beam-γ timing were performed with Ge detectors to determine level energies, decay schemes, γ-ray multipolarities, Jπ assignments, and lifetime information. A similar study of the 117,119,121I isotopes is reported in the following paper. Two collective features have been identified in these odd-mass I nuclei. Systematic ΔJ=1 bands built on low-lying 92+ proton-hole (4p-1h) states were observed. The 92+ bandheads, that involve the excitation of a 1g92 proton across the Z=50 shell, drop to very low energies near the middle of the neutron shell. The properties of the 92+ proton-hole states for all of the odd-mass I isotopes are presented and related to the systematic information for the proton-hole states in the entire Z>50 transition region. Systematic ΔJ=2 bands built on 112- (1h112 quasiproton) states, on 72+ (1g72 quasiproton) states, and on 52+ (2d52 quasiproton) states were also observed. The ΔJ=2 band spacings generally follow the spacings of the Te-core ground-state bands with the exception of the 112- ΔJ=2 bands, for which the spacings decrease significantly relative to those for the Te cores as A decreases. These systematic properties are discussed in terms of several theoretical approaches to the onset of collectivity in transitional nuclei. An isomer at 2660 keV in 123I was observed to have a mean lifetime τ=38+/-3 ns. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 120-124Sn(6Li, 3n)123-127I measured γ-γ coincidences, γ(E, θ, t) deduced level schemes in odd-mass 123-127I, γ multipolarities, Jπ, T12. Enriched targets, Ge(Li) detectors.

  6. Mid-infrared-to-mid-ultraviolet supercontinuum enhanced by third-to-fifteenth odd harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, A V; Voronin, A A; Mitryukovskiy, S I; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Pugžlys, A; Andriukaitis, G; Flöry, T; Stepanov, E A; Fedotov, A B; Baltuška, A; Zheltikov, A M

    2015-05-01

    A high-energy supercontinuum spanning 4.7 octaves, from 250 to 6500 nm, is generated using a 0.3-TW, 3.9-μm output of a mid-infrared optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier as a driver inducing a laser filament in the air. The high-frequency wing of the supercontinuum spectrum is enhanced by odd-order optical harmonics of the mid-infrared driver. Optical harmonics up to the 15th order are observed in supercontinuum spectra as overlapping, yet well-resolved peaks broadened, as verified by numerical modeling, due to spatially nonuniform ionization-induced blue shift.

  7. Chern-Simons topological Lagrangians in odd dimensions and their Kaluza-Klein reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifying the behavior of generic Chern-Simons secondary invariants under infinitesimal variation and finite gauge transformation, it is proved that they are eligible to be a candidate term in the Lagrangian in odd dimensions (2k-1 for gauge theories and 4k-1 for gravity). The coefficients in front of these terms may be quantized because of topological reasons. As a possible application, the dimensional reduction of such actions in Kaluza-Klein theory is discussed. The difficulty in defining the Chern-Simons action for topologically nontrivial field configurations is pointed out and resolved

  8. Decays of a NMSSM CP-odd Higgs in the low-mass region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, Florian [Instituto de Física Teórica (UAM/CSIC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC),E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2017-03-09

    A popular regime in the NMSSM parameter space involves a light CP-odd Higgs A{sub 1}. This scenario has consequences for e.g. light singlino Dark Matter annihilating in the A{sub 1}-funnel. In order to confront the pseudoscalar to experimental limits such as flavour observables, Upsilon decays or Beam-Dump experiments, it is necessary to control the interactions of this particle with hadronic matter and derive the corresponding decays. The partonic description cannot be relied upon for masses close to m{sub A{sub 1}}∼1 GeV and we employ a chiral lagrangian, then extended to a spectator model for somewhat larger masses, to describe the interplay of the CP-odd Higgs with hadrons. Interestingly, a mixing can develop between A{sub 1} and neutral pseudoscalar mesons, leading to substantial hadronic decays and a coupling of A{sub 1} to the chiral anomaly. Additionally, quartic A{sub 1}-meson couplings induce tri-meson decays of the Higgs pseudoscalar. We investigate these effects and propose an estimate of the Higgs widths for masses below m{sub A{sub 1}}≲3 GeV. While we focus on the case of the NMSSM, our results are applicable to a large class of models.

  9. Surface Andreev Bound States and Odd-Frequency Pairing in Topological Superconductor Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yukio; Tamura, Shun

    2018-04-01

    In this review, we summarize the achievement of the physics of surface Andreev bound states (SABS) up to now. The route of this activity has started from the physics of SABS of unconventional superconductors where the pair potential has a sign change on the Fermi surface. It has been established that SABS can be regarded as a topological edge state with topological invariant defined in the bulk Hamiltonian. On the other hand, SABS accompanies odd-frequency pairing like spin-triplet s-wave or spin-singlet p-wave. In a spin-triplet superconductor junction, induced odd-frequency pairing can penetrate into a diffusive normal metal (DN) attached to the superconductor. It causes so called anomalous proximity effect where the local density of states of quasiparticle in DN has a zero energy peak. When bulk pairing symmetry is spin-triplet px-wave, the anomalous proximity effect becomes prominent and the zero bias voltage conductance is always quantized independent of the resistance in DN and interface. Finally, we show that the present anomalous proximity effect is realized in an artificial topological superconducting system, where a nanowire with spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman field is put on the conventional spin-singlet s-wave superconductor.

  10. Large odd-even staggering in the very light platinum isotopes from laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Le Blanc, F; Cabaret, L A; Crawford, J E; Duong, H T; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Krieg, M; Lee, J K P; Lettry, Jacques; Lunney, M D; Obert, J; Oms, J; Peru, S; Putaux, J C; Roussière, B; Sauvage, J; Sebastian, V; Zemlyanoi, S G

    1998-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on very neutron-deficient platinum isotopes with the COMPLIS experimental set-up on line with the ISOLDE-Booster facility. For the first time, Hg alpha -decay was exploited to extend the very light platinum chain. Using the 5d/sup 9/6s /sup 3/D/sub 3/ to 5d/sup 9/6p /sup 3/P /sub 2/ optical transition, hyperfine spectra of /sup 182,181,180,179,178/Pt and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were recorded for the first time. The variation of the mean square charge radius between these nuclei, the magnetic moments of the odd isotopes and the quadrupole moment of /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were thus measured. A large deformation change between /sup 183/Pt/sup 9/ and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/, an odd-even staggering of the charge radius and a deformation drop from A=179 are clearly observed. All these results are discussed and compared with microscopic theoretical predictions using Hartree-Fock- Bogolyubov calculations using the Gogny force. (20 refs).

  11. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion, and odds of spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Qiu, Chunfang; Barrios, Yasmin V; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-09-27

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in a pressing need to identify risk factors leading to effective interventions. Limited evidence suggests potential relationships between maternal sleep or vital exhaustion and preterm birth, yet the literature is generally inconclusive. We examined the relationship between maternal sleep duration and vital exhaustion in the first six months of pregnancy and spontaneous (non-medically indicated) preterm birth among 479 Peruvian women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (exhaustion were ascertained through in-person interviews. Spontaneous preterm birth cases were further categorized as those following either spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. In addition, cases were categorized as very (exhaustion was also associated with increased odds of preterm birth (aOR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.79-3.23) compared to no exhaustion (Ptrend exhaustion on the odds of spontaneous preterm birth. The results of this case-control study suggest maternal sleep duration, particularly short sleep duration, and vital exhaustion may be risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth. These findings call for increased clinical attention to maternal sleep and the study of potential intervention strategies to improve sleep in early pregnancy with the aim of decreasing risk of preterm birth.

  12. About mutually unbiased bases in even and odd prime power dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durt, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Mutually unbiased bases generalize the X, Y and Z qubit bases. They possess numerous applications in quantum information science. It is well known that in prime power dimensions N = pm (with p prime and m a positive integer), there exists a maximal set of N + 1 mutually unbiased bases. In the present paper, we derive an explicit expression for those bases, in terms of the (operations of the) associated finite field (Galois division ring) of N elements. This expression is shown to be equivalent to the expressions previously obtained by Ivanovic (1981 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 14 3241) in odd prime dimensions, and Wootters and Fields (1989 Ann. Phys. 191 363) in odd prime power dimensions. In even prime power dimensions, we derive a new explicit expression for the mutually unbiased bases. The new ingredients of our approach are, basically, the following: we provide a simple expression of the generalized Pauli group in terms of the additive characters of the field, and we derive an exact groupal composition law between the elements of the commuting subsets of the generalized Pauli group, renormalized by a well-chosen phase-factor.

  13. About mutually unbiased bases in even and odd prime power dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durt, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Mutually unbiased bases generalize the X, Y and Z qubit bases. They possess numerous applications in quantum information science. It is well known that in prime power dimensions N = p m (with p prime and m a positive integer), there exists a maximal set of N + 1 mutually unbiased bases. In the present paper, we derive an explicit expression for those bases, in terms of the (operations of the) associated finite field (Galois division ring) of N elements. This expression is shown to be equivalent to the expressions previously obtained by Ivanovic (1981 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 14 3241) in odd prime dimensions, and Wootters and Fields (1989 Ann. Phys. 191 363) in odd prime power dimensions. In even prime power dimensions, we derive a new explicit expression for the mutually unbiased bases. The new ingredients of our approach are, basically, the following: we provide a simple expression of the generalized Pauli group in terms of the additive characters of the field, and we derive an exact groupal composition law between the elements of the commuting subsets of the generalized Pauli group, renormalized by a well-chosen phase-factor

  14. The Fermi Golden Rule and its Form at Thresholds in Odd Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Arne; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2006-02-01

    Let H be a Schrödinger operator on a Hilbert space , such that zero is a nondegenerate threshold eigenvalue of H with eigenfunction Ψ0. Let W be a bounded selfadjoint operator satisfying 0. Assume that the resolvent (H-z)-1 has an asymptotic expansion around z=0 of the form typical for Schrödinger operators on odd-dimensional spaces. Let H(ɛ) =H+ɛW for ɛ>0 and small. We show under some additional assumptions that the eigenvalue at zero becomes a resonance for H(ɛ), in the time-dependent sense introduced by A. Orth. No analytic continuation is needed. We show that the imaginary part of the resonance has a dependence on ɛ of the form ɛ2+(ν/2) with the integer ν≥-1 and odd. This shows how the Fermi Golden Rule has to be modified in the case of perturbation of a threshold eigenvalue. We give a number of explicit examples, where we compute the ``location'' of the resonance to leading order in ɛ. We also give results, in the case where the eigenvalue is embedded in the continuum, sharpening the existing ones.

  15. Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich odd-$A$ Cd isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Kruecken, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Marginean, N M

    We propose to study excited states in the odd-${A}$ isotopes $^{123,125,127}$Cd by ${\\gamma}$-ray spectroscopy following "safe" Coulomb excitation. The experiment aims to determine the B(E2) values connecting excited states with the ground state as well as the long-lived (11/2$^{-}$) isomer. The proposed study profits from the unique capability of ISOLDE to produce beams containing Cd in the ground state or in the isomeric state. Our recent results on the neutron-rich even-A Cd nuclei appear to show that these nuclei may possess some collectivity beyond that calculated by modern shell-model predictions. Beyond-mean-field calculations also predict these nuclei to be weakly deformed. These facets are surprising considering their proximity to the doubly magic $^{132}$Sn. Coulomb-excitation studies of odd-${A}$ Cd isotopes may give a unique insight into the deformation-driving roles played by different orbits in this region. Such studies of the onset of collectivity become especially important in light of recent...

  16. Moderate consumption of white and fortified wine is associated with reduced odds of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Eva K; Xie, Jing; Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Lim, Lyndell L; Flood, Victoria M; Finger, Robert P; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between alcohol consumption and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this cross-sectional study, patients with type 2 diabetes answered questions on consumption of low and full-strength beer, white wine/champagne, red wine, fortified wines, and spirits. Never, moderate and high consumption of each alcoholic beverage, and overall alcoholic beverage consumption, were defined as 14 standard drinks/week, respectively. DR was categorized into none; non vision-threatening DR (VTDR) and VTDR. Multivariable logistic regression determined the associations between alcohol consumption and DR. Of the 395 participants (mean age±SD [standard deviation] 65.9±10.4years; males=253), 188 (47.6%) consumed alcohol and 235 (59.5%) had any DR. Compared to no alcohol consumption, moderate alcohol consumption (overall) was significantly associated with reduced odds of any DR (OR=0.47, 95% CI [confidence interval] 0.26-0.85). Moderate consumption of white wine/champagne or fortified wine was also associated with reduced odds of any DR (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.91, and OR=0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.62, respectively). Similar results were observed for non-VTDR and VTDR. The amount and type of alcohol are associated with risk of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the protective effect of alcohol consumption and DR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Origin of the tail in Green's functions in odd-dimensional space-times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2013-10-01

    It is well known that the scalar field Green's function in odd dimensions has a tail, i.e. a non-zero support inside the light cone, which in turn implies that the Huygens' principle is violated. However, the reason behind this behavior is still not quite clear. In this paper we shed more light on the physical origin of the tail by regularizing the term which is usually ignored in the literature since it vanishes due to the action of the delta function. With this extra term the Green's function does not satisfy the source-free wave equation (in the region outside of the source). We show that this term corresponds to a charge imprinted on the light-cone shell. Unlike the vector field charge, a moving scalar field charge is not Lorentz invariant and is contracted by a factor. If a scalar charge is moving at the speed of light, it appears to be zero in the static (with respect to the original physical charge) observer's frame. However, the field it sources is not entirely on the light cone. Thus, it is likely that this hidden charge sources the mysterious tail in odd dimensions.

  18. Black hole perturbations in vector-tensor theories: the odd-mode analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Ryotaro; Minamitsuji, Masato; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li

    2018-02-01

    In generalized Proca theories with vector-field derivative couplings, a bunch of hairy black hole solutions have been derived on a static and spherically symmetric background. In this paper, we formulate the odd-parity black hole perturbations in generalized Proca theories by expanding the corresponding action up to second order and investigate whether or not black holes with vector hair suffer ghost or Laplacian instabilities. We show that the models with cubic couplings G3(X), where X=‑AμAμ/2 with a vector field Aμ, do not provide any additional stability condition as in General Relativity. On the other hand, the exact charged stealth Schwarzschild solution with a nonvanishing longitudinal vector component A1, which originates from the coupling to the Einstein tensor GμνAμ Aν equivalent to the quartic coupling G4(X) containing a linear function of X, is unstable in the vicinity of the event horizon. The same instability problem also persists for hairy black holes arising from general quartic power-law couplings G4(X) ⊃ β4 Xn with the nonvanishing A1, while the other branch with A1=0 can be consistent with conditions for the absence of ghost and Laplacian instabilities. We also discuss the case of other exact and numerical black hole solutions associated with intrinsic vector-field derivative couplings and show that there exists a wide range of parameter spaces in which the solutions suffer neither ghost nor Laplacian instabilities against odd-parity perturbations.

  19. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  20. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  1. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  2. Gender Inequality and the Sex Ratio in Three Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Prabir C. Bhattacharya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study inequality and deprivations as reflected in the human sex ratio (commonly defined as the number of males per 100 females). The particular focus is on three emerging economies, viz., Russia, India and China. The paper compares and contrasts the experiences of these countries and discusses policy issues. It is noted that while the feminist perspective on the issues surrounding the sex ratio is important, it would be wrong to view these issues always or exclusiv...

  3. The New Face of EU Security Policies?:Analysing the Normative Patterns of EU Non-Proliferation Policies in the Southern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Kienzle, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the European Union has substantially intensified its non-proliferation policies in the southern Mediterranean. Although the analysis of these policies shows that the Union comes close to what the literature suggests is an ideal type normative power, this interpretation in itself is at odds with other security policies in the southern Mediterranean and with non-proliferation policies outside the region, most notably in Iran. Therefore, this article examines the causes and impl...

  4. Effects of Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and Cognitive Functioning on Social Acceptance and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Sara; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Tillman, Carin M.; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of symptoms of ADHD and ODD and cognitive functioning on social acceptance and positive bias in children. Method: The sample consisted of 86 children (49 girls) between 7 and 13 years old, recruited to reflect a wide range of ADHD symptoms. Parents and teachers reported on ADHD and ODD symptoms and social…

  5. Deconstructing family meals: Do family structure, gender and employment status influence the odds of having a family meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mienah Z; Alcalá, Héctor E; Albert, Stephanie L; Fischer, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    We assessed the odds of having a family dinner by parental gender, family structure and parental employment. This study used data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) (2006-2008). Multivariate analyses assessed the odds of two outcomes among parents: 1) eating at all with children and 2) having a family dinner. Single men had lower odds of eating at all with children and eating a family dinner in comparison to partnered/married males. Partnered/married women had increased odds of eating at all with children and eating a family dinner compared to their partnered/married male counterparts. While single women had increased odds of eating at all with children compared to partnered/married males, no difference was detected in the odds of having a family dinner. Among dual-headed households, women had lower odds of eating a family dinner when both parents were employed compared a dual-headed household with employed male/non-employed female. There were no differences among men regardless of their employment status or that of their partner/spouse. Family structure, parental gender and employment status all influence the odds of having a family dinner. Future research on family meals should consider all of these factors to better understand trends and disparities across household compositions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Understanding Municipal Officials' Involvement in Transportation Policies Supportive of Walking and Bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa L; Eyler, Amy A; Goins, Karin Valentine; Brownson, Ross C; Schmid, Thomas L; Lemon, Stephenie C

    Local transportation policies can impact the built environment and physical activity. Municipal officials play a critical role in transportation policy and planning decisions, yet little is known about what influences their involvement. To describe municipal officials' involvement in transportation policies that were supportive of walking and bicycling and to examine individual- and job-related predictors of involvement in transportation policies among municipal officials. A cross-sectional survey was administered online from June to July 2012 to municipal officials in 83 urban areas with a population of 50 000 or more residents across 8 states. A total of 461 municipal officials from public health, planning, transportation, public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, city management, and municipal legislatures responded to the survey. Participation in the development, adoption, or implementation of a municipal transportation policy supportive of walking or bicycling. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, conducted in September 2013, revealed that perceived importance of economic development and traffic congestion was positively associated with involvement in a municipal transportation policy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.70; OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.26-2.01, respectively). Higher perceived resident support of local government to address economic development was associated with an increased likelihood of participation in a transportation policy (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.24-2.32). Respondents who perceived lack of collaboration as a barrier were less likely to be involved in a transportation policy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.97). Municipal officials who lived in the city or town in which they worked were significantly more likely to be involved in a transportation policy (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.05-3.17). Involvement in a local transportation policy by a municipal official was associated with greater

  7. Can Smoke-Free Policies Reduce Tobacco Use Disparities of Sexual and Gender Minorities in Missouri?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemberg, Jenna; McElroy, Jane A; Ge, Bin; Everett, Kevin D

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the associations between smoke-free policies, current and former smoking status, personal smoking restrictions, and intention to quit among sexual and gender minority (SGM) and non-SGM individuals in Missouri. The current analysis derives from the Out, Proud and Healthy project. Chi-squares examined differences between SGM (N = 2210) and non-SGM (N = 586) respondents and former (N = 836) and current (N = 1960) smokers on smoking-related variables. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression identified variables associated with former (vs. current) smoking. SGM current smokers (25%) were significantly more likely than SGM former smokers (19%) to live in a community without a smoke-free policy. Among SGM current smokers, significantly greater intention to quit was seen in those living in a smoke-free community with a smoke-free policy of two or more years (94%) compared with those living in a community without a smoke-free policy (76%). Living in an area with smoke-free policies is related to greater intention to quit among SGM current smokers, greater support for smoke-free policies, and lower smoking prevalence for this community. The SGM community may collectively accrue greater public health benefits from the adoption of smoke-free policies than the non-SGM community. Prior to this study, no data are available regarding current and former smoking status among SGM individuals following the implementation of a local smoke-free policy. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between smoke-free policies, current and former smoking status, and intention to quit among SGM and non-SGM individuals in Missouri. This study finds evidence of lower current smoking prevalence and greater intentions to quit among SGM current smokers who live in communities with smoke-free policies. The SGM community may collectively accrue greater public health benefits from the adoption of smoke-free policies than

  8. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  9. ASJP_vol11_Special_Issue_2013 ODD SIZE NEW.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    fear-inducing act that threatens to harm the health, well-being or safety of a person in a domestic relationship ... Violence: A Policy and Management Framework for the Health Sector (Martin & Jacobs,. 2003). The HPCSA ... of abuse in the abusive home – oblivious to their level of risk, if not screened for DV. In the context of ...

  10. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Policy Support Among Public Housing Authority Residents in Rural and Tribal Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lisa M; Reidmohr, Alison A; Helgerson, Steven D; Harwell, Todd S

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that multi-unit housing (MUH) residents are at risk of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, which can transfer between units. The purpose of this study was to determine SHS exposure and examine attitudes towards smoking policies among public housing authority (PHA) residents in rural and tribal settings. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 895 adult tenants (41 % response rate) living in PHA multiunit buildings in Montana in 2013. Our primary outcome was tenant support of smoke-free policies; our secondary outcome was exacerbation of child asthma symptoms due to SHS exposure. In 2014, we used multiple logistic regression models to test associations between independent variables and outcomes of interest. The majority (80.6 %) of respondents supported having a smoke-free policy in their building, with support being significantly higher among nonsmokers [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.2, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.5-11.6] and among residents living with children (aOR 2.9, 95 % CI 1.3-6.2). Tribal residents were as likely to support smoke-free policies as non-tribal residents (aOR 1.4; 95 % CI 0.5-4.0). Over half (56.5 %) of respondents reported SHS exposure in their home; residents in a building with no smoke-free policy in place were significantly more likely to report exposure (aOR 3.5, 95 % CI 2.2-5.5). SHS exposure was not significantly associated with asthma symptoms. There is a significant reduction in exposure to SHS in facilities with smoke-free policies and there is strong support for such policies by both tribal and non-tribal MUH residents. Opportunities exist for smoke-free policy initiatives in rural and tribal settings.

  11. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naja Farah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Methods Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Results Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the “Refined Grains & Desserts” had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74 and carbohydrates (r = 0.22, those of the “Fast Food” had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34. After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97. Conclusions The

  12. Odd-parity perturbations of the self-similar LTB spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, Emily M; Nolan, Brien C, E-mail: emilymargaret.duffy27@mail.dcu.ie, E-mail: brien.nolan@dcu.ie [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2011-05-21

    We consider the behaviour of odd-parity perturbations of those self-similar LemaItre-Tolman-Bondi spacetimes which admit a naked singularity. We find that a perturbation which evolves from initially regular data remains finite on the Cauchy horizon. Finiteness is demonstrated by considering the behaviour of suitable energy norms of the perturbation (and pointwise values of these quantities) on natural spacelike hypersurfaces. This result holds for a general choice of initial data and initial data surface. Finally, we examine the perturbed Weyl scalars in order to provide a physical interpretation of our results. Taken on its own, this result does not support cosmic censorship; however, a full perturbation of this spacetime would include even-parity perturbations, so we cannot conclude that this spacetime is stable to all linear perturbations.

  13. Charge-odd and single-spin effects in two pion production in ep bar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galynskij, M.V.; Kuraev, E.A.; Shajkhatdenov, B.G.; Ratcliffe, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    We consider two-photon and Bremsstrahlung mechanisms for the production of two charged pions in high-energy electron (proton) scattering off a transversely polarised proton. Interference between the relevant amplitudes generates a charge-odd contribution to the cross section for the process. In a kinematics with a jet moving along electron spin-independent part may be used for determination of phase differences for pion-pion scattering in the states with orbital momentum 0 or 2 and 1 whereas in a kinematics with a jet moving along proton spin-dependent part may be used to explain the experimental data for single-spin correlations in the production of negatively charged pions. We also discuss the backgrounds and estimate the accuracy of the results at less than 10% level. In addition simplified formulae derived for specific kinematics, with small total transverse pion momentum, are given

  14. Maxwell-Chern-Simons vortices in a CPT-odd Lorentz-violating Higgs electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casana, R.; Ferreira, M.M.; Hora, E. da; Neves, A.B.F.

    2014-01-01

    We study BPS vortices in a CPT-odd and Lorentz-violating Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs (MCSH) electrodynamics attained from the dimensional reduction of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw-Higgs model. The Lorentz-violating parameter induces a pronounced behavior at origin (for the magnetic/electric fields and energy density) which is absent in the MCSH vortices. For some combination of the Lorentz-violating coefficients there always exists a sufficiently large winding number n 0 such that for all vertical stroke n vertical stroke ≥ vertical stroke n 0 vertical stroke the magnetic field flips sign, yielding two well-defined regions with opposite magnetic flux. However, the total magnetic flux remains quantized and proportional to the winding number. (orig.)

  15. The Fermi Golden Rule and its Form at Thresholds in Odd Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, A

    2005-01-01

    Let $H$ be a Schr\\"{o}dinger operator on a Hilbert space $\\cal H$, such that zero is a nondegenerate threshold eigenvalue of $H$ with eigenfunction $\\Psi_0$. Let $W$ be a bounded selfadjoint operator satisfying $\\langle\\Psi_0,W\\Psi_0\\rangle>0$. Assume that the resolvent $(H-z)^{-1}$ has an asymptotic expansion around $z=0$ of the form typical for Schr\\"{o}dinger operators on odd-dimensional spaces. Let $H(\\varepsilon)=H+\\varepsilon W$ for $\\varepsilon>0$ and small. We show under some additional assumptions that the eigenvalue at zero becomes a resonance for $H(\\varepsilon)$, in the time-dependent sense introduced by A. Orth. No analytic continuation is needed. We show that the imaginary part of the resonance has a dependence on $\\varepsilon$ of the form $\\varepsilon^{2+(\

  16. Odd-skipped related 2 regulates genes related to proliferation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Shinji; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Amano, Atsuo

    2010-01-01

    Cell proliferation is a biological process in which chromosomes replicate in one cell and equally divide into two daughter cells. Our previous findings suggested that Odd-skipped related 2 (Osr2) plays an important role in cellular quiescence and proliferation under epigenetic regulation. However, the mechanism used by Osr2 to establish and maintain proliferation is unknown. To examine the functional role of Osr2 in cell proliferation, we analyzed its downstream target genes using microarray analysis following adenovirus-induced overexpression of Osr2 as well as knockdown with Osr2 siRNA, which showed that Osr2 regulates a multitude of genes involved in proliferation and the cell cycle, as well as development. Additional proliferation assays also indicated that Osr2 likely functions to elicit cell proliferation. Together, these results suggest that Osr2 plays important roles in proliferation and development.

  17. Semimicroscopic description of the ODD iodine nuclei in the mass region 123<=A<=133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Rao, M.N.; Sala, O.; Krmpotic, F.

    A systematic study of the low-energy properties of odd-mass I nuclei is performed in terms of the Alaga model. Previous theoretical works are made up-to-date, according to the present level of experimental information, and extended to lighter isotopes. The residual interaction among the valence protons is approximated by both the pairing force and the surface delta interaction. The refinements introduced by the last interaction are of little importance in the description of low energy states. Excitation energies, one-body reaction amplitudes, dipole and quadrupole moments and B(M1) and B(E2) values are calculated and compared with the corresponding experimental data. Also, a few allowed β-transitions are briefly discussed

  18. Development of odd-Z-projectile reactions for transactinide element synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folden, III, Charles Marvin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The development of new odd-Z-projectile reactions leading to the production of transactinide elements is described. The cross section of the even-Z-projectile 208Pb(64Ni, n)271Ds reaction was measured at two new energies using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. In total, seven decay chains attributable to 271Ds were observed. These data, combined with previous results, establish an excitation function for the production of 271Ds. The maximum cross section was 20 +15 -11 pb at a center-of-target energy of 311.5 MeV in the laboratory frame.The data from the 271Ds experiments were used to estimate the optimum beam energy for the new odd-Z-projectile 208Pb(65Cu, n)272-111 reaction using the Fusion by Diffusion theory proposed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski. A cross section for this reaction was measured for the first time, at a center-of-target energy of 321.1 MeV in the laboratory frame. The excitation energy f or compound nuclei formed at the target center was 13.2 MeV. One decay chain was observed, resulting in a measured cross section of 1.7 +3.9 -1.4 pb. This decay chain is in good agreement with previously published data on the decay of 272-111.The new odd-Z-projectile 208Pb(55Mn, n)262Bh reaction was studied at three different projectile energies, and 33 decay chains of 262Bh were observed. The existence of a previously reported alpha-decaying isomeric state in this nuclide was confirmed. Production of the ground state was preferred at all three beam energies. The maximum cross section was 540 +180 -150 pb at a projectile center-of-target energy of 264.0 MeV. This cross section is much larger than that previously reported for the even-Z-projectile 209Bi(54Cr, n)262Bh reaction, which may be because the 54Cr projectile

  19. Distinction between even and odd steps in the magnetization of a Mn_12-acetate crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoko; Mertes, K. M.; Sarachik, M. P.; Paltiel, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Rumberger, E. M.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Christou, G.

    2002-03-01

    Data for the magnetization of a Mn_12-acetate crystal obtained for different sweep rates of a magnetic field applied along the anisotropy axis have been shown(K. M. Mertes, Y. Suzuki, M. P. Sarachik, Y. Paltiel, H. Shtrikman, E . Zeldov, E. M. Rumberger, D. N. Hendrickson, and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87), 227205 (2001). to collapse onto the single scaled curve predicted by Chudnovsky and Garanin(E. M. Chudnovsky and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 187203 (2001).) for the case when the dominant symmetry-breaking term that drives tunneling is a second order transverse anisotropy. A detailed analysis of the data indicates there is a clear distinction between even resonances, driven by transverse anisotropy, and odd resonances which require a contribution due to a transverse internal magnetic field. It will also be shown that scaling is not obtained if one assumes that the tunneling is driven solely by transverse fields.

  20. Odd-parity pertubations of spherically symmetric star clusters in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenzato, R.; Ipser, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The theory of odd-parity nonspherical peturbations of collisionless, isotropic, spherically symmetric star clusters is developed within general relativity for l> or =2. A variational principle is derived for the associated normal modes of oscillation. The variational expression reveals that an unstable normal mode has a pure exponentially growing time dependence--the corresponding complex ''eigenfrequency'' is purely imaginary--and hence that a normal mode can become unstable in a smooth fashion only thorugh zero frequency. Further, it is shown that no instabilities can set in through zero-frequency modes along smooth sequences of models with fewer high-energy stars than low-energy stars. Unless unstable normal modes suddenly appear in a nonsmooth fashion, the implications is that these models possess no unstable normal modes

  1. Gertrude Scharff-Goldhaber, 1911-1998: Nuclear Physicist Against the Odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Michael H.

    2016-08-01

    The author's mother, Gertrude Scharff-Goldhaber, was a prominent nuclear physicist who had to overcome steep odds to pursue her work. She lived and worked at a time when it was very uncommon for any woman to be a scientist and even more uncommon for a mother of young children. She also faced Nazi persecution and a series of other challenges in growing up in Germany. Drawing on personal conversations and testimony of her friends, this brief account includes a number of intimate details to illustrate some of the difficulties she faced and the zest for life and for understanding the world that pushed her forward anyway. Details of her work and a bibliography are included.

  2. Rotational structure of odd-proton {sup 103,105,107,109,111}Tc isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit [University of Jammu, Department of Physics and Electronics, Jammu (India); Government of J and K, Department of Higher Education, Jammu (India); Singh, Dhanvir; Bharti, Arun [University of Jammu, Department of Physics and Electronics, Jammu (India); Singh, Suram; Bhat, G.H. [Government of J and K, Department of Higher Education, Jammu (India); Sheikh, J.A. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India)

    2017-10-15

    A systematic study of the yrast band structure for the neutron-rich odd-mass {sup 103-111}Tc nuclei is carried out using Projected Shell Model. The rotational band structure has been studied up to a maximum spin of 59/2{sup +}. Excellent agreement with available experimental data for all isotopes is obtained. The energy spectra and electromagnetic transition strengths in terms of the configuration mixing of the angular-momentum projected multi-quasiparticle states are studied in detail. Signature splitting in the yrast rotational band is well described in the perspective of nuclear structure physics. The back-bending phenomenon is also well described for these nuclei in the present work. (orig.)

  3. The influence of odd-even car trial on fine and coarse particles in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Gulia, Sunil; Harrison, Roy M; Khare, Mukesh

    2017-06-01

    The odd-even car trial scheme, which reduced car traffic between 08.00 and 20.00 h daily, was applied from 1 to 15 January 2016 (winter scheme, WS) and 15-30 April 2016 (summer scheme, SS). The daily average PM 2.5 and PM 10 exceeded national standards, with highest concentrations (313 μg m -3 and 639 μg m -3 , respectively) during winter and lowest (53 μg m -3 and 130 μg m -3 ) during the monsoon (June-August). PM concentrations during the trials can be interpreted either as reduced or increased, depending on the periods used for comparison purposes. For example, hourly average net PM 2.5 and PM 10 (after subtracting the baseline concentrations) reduced by up to 74% during the majority (after 1100 h) of trial hours compared with the corresponding hours during the previous year. Conversely, daily average PM 2.5 and PM 10 were higher by up to 3-times during the trial periods when compared with the pre-trial days. A careful analysis of the data shows that the trials generated cleaner air for certain hours of the day but the persistence of overnight emissions from heavy goods vehicles into the morning odd-even hours (0800-1100 h) made them probably ineffective at this time. Any further trial will need to be planned very carefully if an effect due to traffic alone is to be differentiated from the larger effect caused by changes in meteorology and especially wind direction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. What are the odds? The neural correlates of active choice during gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eStuder

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Gambling is a widespread recreational activity and requires pitting the values of potential wins and losses against their probability of occurrence. Neuropsychological research showed that betting behavior on laboratory gambling tasks is highly sensitive to focal lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and insula. In the current study, we assessed the neural basis of betting choices in healthy participants, using functional magnetic resonance imaging of the Roulette Betting Task. In half of the trials participants actively chose their bets; in the other half the computer dictated the bet size. Our results highlight the impact of volitional choice upon the neural substrates of gambling: Neural activity in a distributed network - including key structures of the reward circuitry (midbrain, striatum - was higher during active compared to computer-dictated bet selection. In line with neuropsychological data, the anterior insula and vmPFC were more activated during self-directed bet selection, and responses in these areas were differentially modulated by the odds of winning in the two choice conditions. In addition, responses in the vmPFC and ventral striatum were modulated by the bet size. Convergent with electrophysiological research in macaques, our results further implicate the inferior parietal cortex (IPC in the processing of the likelihood of potential outcomes: Neural responses in the IPC bilaterally reflected the probability of winning during bet selection. Moreover, the IPC was particularly sensitive to the odds of winning in the active choice condition, where this information was used to guide bet selection. Our results indicate a neglected role of the IPC in human decision-making under risk and help to integrate neuropsychological data of risk-taking following vmPFC and insula damage with models of choice derived from human neuroimaging and monkey electrophysiology.

  5. Do Puerto Rican youth with asthma and obesity have higher odds for mental health disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Canino, Glorisa; Ramírez, Rafael; Prelip, Michael; Martin, Molly; Ortega, Alexander N

    2012-01-01

    Island Puerto Rican (PR) youth experience disproportionately high asthma and obesity rates compared with other racial/ethnic groups on the U.S. mainland. Previous research has demonstrated associations of chronic disease with psychiatric disorders. We examined the relationship among anxiety/depressive disorders, asthma, and obesity in an epidemiologic community sample of youth. The sample (n = 656) was derived from the second wave of an island-wide probabilistic representative household sample of PR youth stratified and based on whether or not they had a diagnosis of asthma and/or depressive/anxiety disorder. For this study, we used the subpopulation ages 10-19 years. Asthma and obesity were significantly related to higher odds of depressive/anxiety disorders in youth. Obesity moderated the relationship between asthma attacks and depressive/anxiety disorders. The relationship between asthma attack and higher odds for depressive/anxiety disorders was only present in the non-obese group. Among the obese, females show a significant increase from 11% to 36% in the prevalence of anxiety/depressive disorders. Asthma and obesity were highly prevalent and a significant association was found between asthma attack and depressive/anxiety disorders. The effects of asthma and obesity were not additive; the prevalence for psychiatric disorder for those having both conditions did not increase above the prevalence associated having only one of the conditions. Future studies should consider including longitudinal designs and examine the extent to which important variables not included in this study, such as body image dissatisfaction (particularly among females), teasing, and discrimination may moderate the relationship among obesity and depressive and anxiety disorders in youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. 50/50 Expressional Odds of Retention Signifies the Distinction between Retained Introns and Constitutively Spliced Introns in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intron retention, one of the most prevalent alternative splicing events in plants, can lead to introns retained in mature mRNAs. However, in comparison with constitutively spliced introns (CSIs, the relevantly distinguishable features for retained introns (RIs are still poorly understood. This work proposes a computational pipeline to discover novel RIs from multiple next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq datasets of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this pipeline, we detected 3,472 novel RIs from 18 RNA-Seq datasets and re-confirmed 1,384 RIs which are currently annotated in the TAIR10 database. We also use the expression of intron-containing isoforms as a new feature in addition to the conventional features. Based on these features, RIs are highly distinguishable from CSIs by machine learning methods, especially when the expressional odds of retention (i.e., the expression ratio of the RI-containing isoforms relative to the isoforms without RIs for the same gene reaches to or larger than 50/50. In this case, the RIs and CSIs can be clearly separated by the Random Forest with an outstanding performance of 0.95 on AUC (the area under a receiver operating characteristics curve. The closely related characteristics to the RIs include the low strength of splice sites, high similarity with the flanking exon sequences, low occurrence percentage of YTRAY near the acceptor site, existence of putative intronic splicing silencers (ISSs, i.e., AG/GA-rich motifs and intronic splicing enhancers (ISEs, i.e., TTTT-containing motifs, and enrichment of Serine/Arginine-Rich (SR proteins and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle proteins (hnRNPs.

  7. The Association of Team-Specific Workload and Staffing with Odds of Burnout Among VA Primary Care Team Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Christian D; Simonetti, Joseph A; Clinton, Walter L; Wood, Gordon B; Taylor, Leslie; Schectman, Gordon; Stark, Richard; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Fihn, Stephan D; Nelson, Karin M

    2017-07-01

    Work-related burnout is common in primary care and is associated with worse patient safety, patient satisfaction, and employee mental health. Workload, staffing stability, and team completeness may be drivers of burnout. However, few studies have assessed these associations at the team level, and fewer still include members of the team beyond physicians. To study the associations of burnout among primary care providers (PCPs), nurse care managers, clinical associates (MAs, LPNs), and administrative clerks with the staffing and workload on their teams. We conducted an individual-level cross-sectional analysis of survey and administrative data in 2014. Primary care personnel at VA clinics responding to a national survey. Burnout was measured with a validated single-item survey measure dichotomized to indicate the presence of burnout. The independent variables were survey measures of team staffing (having a fully staffed team, serving on multiple teams, and turnover on the team), and workload both from survey items (working extended hours), and administrative data (patient panel overcapacity and average panel comorbidity). There were 4610 respondents (estimated response rate of 20.9%). The overall prevalence of burnout was 41%. In adjusted analyses, the strongest associations with burnout were having a fully staffed team (odds ratio [OR] = 0.55, 95% CI 0.47-0.65), having turnover on the team (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.43-1.94), and having patient panel overcapacity (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40). The observed burnout prevalence was 30.1% lower (28.5% vs. 58.6%) for respondents working on fully staffed teams with no turnover and caring for a panel within capacity, relative to respondents in the inverse condition. Complete team staffing, turnover among team members, and panel overcapacity had strong, cumulative associations with burnout. Further research is needed to understand whether improvements in these factors would lower burnout.

  8. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  9. The mercantilist index of trade policy

    OpenAIRE

    James Anderson; J. Peter Neary

    1998-01-01

    International trade policies are often compared across countries and over time for a variety of purposes. Analysts use such measures as arithmetic or trade-weighted average tariffs, Non-Tariff Barrier (NTB) coverage ratios and measures of tariff dispersion. All such measures are without theoretical foundation. In this paper we develop and characterise a theoretically-based index number of trade policy which is appropriate to trade negotiations. We characterize an index of trade policy restric...

  10. Predictors of physical inactivity among elderly malaysians: recommendations for policy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Kaur, Gurpreet; Ho, Bee Kiau; Yao, Weng Keong; Salleh, Mohmad; Lim, Kuang Hock

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Regular moderate-intensity physical activity has significant benefits for health. To determine the socioeconomic predictors of physical inactivity among elderly Malaysian population. A nationwide community-based survey was conducted among 4831 respondents aged ≥60 years with a face-to-face questionnaire. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the elderly was 88.0%, highest in respondents aged older than 80 years (95.4%), females (90.1%), other Bumiputra (92.2%), earning household income less than RM1000 (87.9%), and residing in urban locality (88.4%). In the multivariate model, the predictors of physical inactivity were only sex, ethnicity, locality, and age group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3-3.6). The predictors of physical inactivity can identify the risk factors to develop policies that will reduce the public health burden of noncommunicable diseases. © 2014 APJPH.

  11. MONETARY POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    requirement, liquidity ratio, minimum rediscount rate, parity charges and selective credit policies. A Review of .... workers salaries and companies' profits were to be compulsorily deducted and paid to government. However, the ... Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Deregulated Monetary Policy on Economic. Development in ...

  12. What are the odds? Random drug testing of students: a practice perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlow, Rebecca

    2005-06-01

    Companion articles explore random drug testing programs in schools. The first article addresses random drug testing of students from a legal perspective. It describes legal issues and current case law regarding drug testing programs in schools and commonly asked questions regarding these programs. The second article addresses random drug testing of students from a practice perspective. It explores arguments for and against random drug testing programs and the role of the school nurse in policy and procedure development.

  13. What are the odds? Random drug testing of students: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Charles A

    2005-06-01

    Companion articles explore random drug testing programs in schools. The first article addresses random drug testing of students from a legal perspective. It describes legal issues and current case law regarding drug testing programs in schools and commonly asked questions regarding these programs. The second article addresses random drug testing of students from a practice perspective. It explores arguments for and against random drug testing programs and the role of the school nurse in policy and procedure development.

  14. Antibiotic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gyssens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear association between antibiotic use and resistance both on individual and population levels. In the European Union, countries with large antibiotic consumption have higher resistance rates. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatments, prolonged hospitalisations, increased costs and deaths. With few new antibiotics in the Research & Development pipeline, prudent antibiotic use is the only option to delay the development of resistance. Antibiotic policy consists of prescrib...

  15. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  16. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  17. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  18. Exploring the possibilities for stabilizing the sex ratio in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sex ratio is an important demographic indicator for a nation. A wide range of adverse social consequences have been observed because of a skewed sex ratio in India. If India as a nation is to achieve the Millennium Development Goal – 3 (which promotes gender equality and ensures the empowerment of women, the primary target should be involve all those involved, so that a collective and comprehensive approach can be developed to counter the public health menace of an asymmetrical sex ratio. In conclusion, the nation’s program managers should prioritize the issue of a skewed sex ratio and work towards developing a coordinated response.Key Words: Sex ratio, policy makers, India.

  19. Impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song-Lih; Lin, I-Feng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Tsai, Tzu-I

    2013-10-01

    To assess the impact of a set of comprehensive tobacco control policies implemented in Taiwan in 2009, including extensive smoke-free policy, advertisement ban, pictorial warning and price increase, on adolescent smoking prevalence. Five waves of cross-sectional surveys. Taiwan, 2004-11. Nationally representative sample of junior high schools aged 13-15 years, in a biennial survey, total sample size 101,100. Core questionnaire of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, including ever smoking, 30-day smoking and number of cigarettes smoked. The magnitude of prevalence change before and after the 2009 policy implementation was quantified by adjusted odds ratios estimated by piecewise logistic regression models. The 30-day smoking prevalence demonstrated an upward trend [odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.10] between 2004 and 2008. Significant decline in 30-day smoking prevalence after the 2009 law implementation was observed (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.71-0.99). Those living in non-city areas demonstrated a greater magnitude of change. In addition to changes in prevalence, we observed some delay in the age starting smoking, reduction in smokers who smoke fewer than one cigarette per day, and decrease in smokers who did not buy cigarettes. The decline in smoking prevalence was contributed primarily by the reduction in experimenters. The comprehensive tobacco control programme introduced in Taiwan in 2009 was associated with a reduction in adolescent smoking, particularly among those in earlier stages of smoking and those who resided in non-city areas. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Structure of negative parity yrast bands in odd mass 125− 131Ce ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The negative parity yrast bands of neutron-deficient 125-131Ce nuclei are studied by using the projected shell model approach. Energy levels, transition energies and (1)/(2) ratios are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. The calculations reproduce the band-head spins of negative parity ...

  1. Updated thinking on positivity ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-12-01

    This article presents my response to the article by Brown, Sokal, and Friedman (2013), which critically examined Losada's conceptual and mathematical work (as presented in Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy, 2004; and Fredrickson & Losada; 2005) and concluded that mathematical claims for a critical tipping point positivity ratio are unfounded. In the present article, I draw recent empirical evidence together to support the continued value of computing and seeking to elevate positivity ratios. I also underscore the necessity of modeling nonlinear effects of positivity ratios and, more generally, the value of systems science approaches within affective science and positive psychology. Even when scrubbed of Losada's now-questioned mathematical modeling, ample evidence continues to support the conclusion that, within bounds, higher positivity ratios are predictive of flourishing mental health and other beneficial outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Superconducting spin-triplet-MRAM with infinite magnetoresistance ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenk, Daniel; Ullrich, Aladin; Obermeier, Guenter; Mueller, Claus; Krug von Nidda, Hans-Albrecht; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); Morari, Roman [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); D. Ghitsu Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, Academiei Str. 3/3, MD2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Solid State Physics Department, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Zdravkov, Vladimir I. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); D. Ghitsu Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, Academiei Str. 3/3, MD2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Institute of Applied Physics and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Universitaet Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9A, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Sidorenko, Anatoli S. [D. Ghitsu Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, Academiei Str. 3/3, MD2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Tagirov, Lenar R. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); Solid State Physics Department, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    We fabricated a nanolayered hybrid superconductor-ferromagnet spin-valve structure, i.e. the superconducting transition temperature of this structure depends on its magnetic history. The observed spin-valve effect is based on the generation of the long range odd in frequency triplet component, arising from a non-collinear relative orientation of the constituent ferromagnetic layers. We investigated the effect both as a function of the sweep amplitude of the magnetic field, determining the magnetic history, and the applied transport current. Moreover, we demonstrate the possibility of switching the system from the normal o the superconducting state by applying field pulses, yielding an infinite magnetoresistance ratio.

  3. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7–9-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muirne C. S. Paap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7–9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS, a prospective longitudinal total population study of children’s developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N=9430. All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases and parent (6253 complete cases report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV, and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if

  4. On hamiltonian systems with even and odd Poisson brackets and on the duality of their conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.V.; Pashnev, A.I.; Soroka, V.A.; Tkach, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Taking as example the Witten supersymmetric mechanics it is shown that the hamiltonian system with equal number of even and odd canonical variables admits simultaneously the introduction of even and odd Poisson brackets. When using bracket operations of different graduation the canonical variable equations are not varied whereas the motion integrals with opposite Grassman graduation become dual transforming into each other at the transition to Poisson bracket with opposite graduation

  5. Santé, ODD, et politiques publiques — le rôle des établissements de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 juil. 2017 ... Santé, ODD, et politiques publiques — le rôle des établissements de recherche sur les politiques ... les progrès concernant la mise en oeuvre des politiques; et en tant qu'espaces pour le dialogue sur les politiques et l'établissement de liens entre les efforts nationaux et mondiaux portant sur les ODD.

  6. Against the odds: foster carers' perceptions of family, commitment and belonging in successful placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Nicholas; Rostill-Brookes, Helen; Larkin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines carer attributes associated with placement stability for teenagers growing up in long term foster care, focusing on unexpected placement success. We explored experiences and perceptions relating to family, belonging and commitment in a group of foster carers providing a stable placement for a young person who had not been expected to settle. These placements showed positive outcome, despite factors in the child's history that might have predicted otherwise. Seven foster carers were interviewed following a semi-structured guide, which covered their ideas about their relationship with the child in question, about the foster family, and the child's sense of belonging in foster and birth family. Analysis of carers' accounts of placements which had succeeded 'against the odds' revealed four major themes, described under the headings My Child--emotional bonding, the carers' enlarged view of family and their parental regard for the young person; Jam in the Sandwich--working within a 'compromised space' between Local Authority and birth family; Repair and Rebuild--the craft of fostering including managing the foster/birth family boundary; Sticking with It--resilience, tenacity and maintaining hopefulness. The carers' accounts offer pointers towards the ingredients of successful placements and prompt reflection on how these may be supported and promoted. They also highlight tensions inherent in the foster carer task relating to carers' parental functioning for young people in long-term foster care.

  7. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  8. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley White-Means

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.

  9. Radon odd radial harmonic Fourier moments in detecting cloned forgery image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Junliu; Gan, Yanfen; Xie, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, due to the progress of computing abilities and easy access to powerful photo editing software, more digital photos and images are created commonplace. Unfortunately, this technology progress may also bring with a big risk of the information security. Image region cloning is a popular and simple manner to create realistic forgery images. Most relevant researches have been carried out, but the methods based on those researches are only able to detect some simple duplicated successfully. So we present a new Radon Odd Radial Harmonic Fourier Moments (RORHFMs) method. Compared with other relevant methods, this method is more robust to resist post-processed operations, such as anti-translation, anti-rotation, anti-scaling, anti-mirror operations and resisted Gaussian noise contamination. We also introduce an auxiliary circle template to slide and detect the suspicious image in order to locate the cloned region. The invariant moment features of image are extracted and analyzed by our method. Each feature of similar region is arranged orderly by Lexicographic sorting for detecting. Pearson Correlation Coefficient is applied to calculate and classify the statistical data. Then, the statistical data is searched, analyzed. At last, the original coordinates of cloned and pasted region are detected and denoted. Extensive experiments verified better robustness of RORHFMs method than other relevant methods in detecting cloned forgery.

  10. Odd complaints and doubtful conditions: norms of hypochondria in Jane Austen and Catherine Belling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James Lindemann

    2014-06-01

    In her final fragmentary novel Sanditon, Jane Austen develops a theme that pervades her work from her juvenilia onward: illness, and in particular, illness imagined, invented, or self-inflicted. While the "invention of odd complaints" is characteristically a token of folly or weakness throughout her writing, in this last work imagined illness is also both a symbol and a cause of how selves and societies degenerate. In the shifting world of Sanditon, hypochondria is the lubricant for a society bent on turning health into a commodity. As a result, people's rationality and their moral character come under attack. Catherine Belling's recent subtle study, A Condition of Doubt: The Meanings of Hypochondria, unveils hypochondria's discursive and cultural character. Running sharply against the tenor of Austen's treatment, however, she argues in defense of the rationality of hypochondriacs; the notion that the condition may involve morally significant defects is not entertained; any connection to the commercialization of health care is muted. Here, I contrast Austen's morally and epistemically negative rendering of her hypochondriacal characters in Sanditon with Belling's efforts to create a sympathetic understanding of people with hypochondria. I will argue that, despite time gaps and genre differences, joint consideration of these texts can help bioethicists better appreciate how medicine can intensify, pathologize, and exploit anxieties about illness and death, thus adding to the challenges of living well in the face of mortality and morbidity.

  11. Maneuvering Together, Apart, and at Odds: Residents' Care Convoys in Assisted Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Candace L; Ball, Mary M; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Doyle, Patrick J; Burgess, Elisabeth O; Perkins, Molly M

    2018-02-01

    Frail and disabled individuals such as assisted living residents are embedded in "care convoys" comprised of paid and unpaid caregivers. We sought to learn how care convoys are configured and function in assisted living and understand how and why they vary and with what resident and caregiver outcomes. We analyzed data from a qualitative study involving formal in-depth interviews, participant observation and informal interviewing, and record review. We prospectively studied 28 residents and 114 care convoy members drawn from four diverse assisted living communities over 2 years. Care convoys involved family and friends who operated individually or shared responsibility, assisted living staff, and multiple external care workers. Residents and convoy members engaged in processes of "maneuvering together, apart, and at odds" as they negotiated the care landscape routinely and during health crises. Based on consensus levels, and the quality of collaboration and communication, we identified three main convoy types: cohesive, fragmented, and discordant. Care convoys clearly shape care experiences and outcomes. Identifying strategies for establishing effective communication and collaboration practices and promoting convoy member consensus, particularly over time, is essential to the creation and maintenance of successful and supportive care partnerships. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Shell-model method for Gamow-Teller transitions in heavy deformed odd-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-Jun; Sun, Yang; Ghorui, Surja K.

    2018-04-01

    A shell-model method for calculating Gamow-Teller (GT) transition rates in heavy deformed odd-mass nuclei is presented. The method is developed within the framework of the projected shell model. To implement the computation requirement when many multi-quasiparticle configurations are included in the basis, a numerical advancement based on the Pfaffian formula is introduced. With this new many-body technique, it becomes feasible to perform state-by-state calculations for the GT nuclear matrix elements of β -decay and electron-capture processes, including those at high excitation energies in heavy nuclei which are usually deformed. The first results, β- decays of the well-deformed A =153 neutron-rich nuclei, are shown as the example. The known log(f t ) data corresponding to the B (GT- ) decay rates of the ground state of 153Nd to the low-lying states of 153Pm are well described. It is further shown that the B (GT) distributions can have a strong dependence on the detailed microscopic structure of relevant states of both the parent and daughter nuclei.

  13. Data mining in bone marrow transplant records to identify patients with high odds of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taati, Babak; Snoek, Jasper; Aleman, Dionne; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing a bone marrow stem cell transplant (BMT) face various risk factors. Analyzing data from past transplants could enhance the understanding of the factors influencing success. Records up to 120 measurements per transplant procedure from 1751 patients undergoing BMT were collected (Shariati Hospital). Collaborative filtering techniques allowed the processing of highly sparse records with 22.3% missing values. Ten-fold cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of various classification algorithms trained on predicting the survival status. Modest accuracy levels were obtained in predicting the survival status (AUC = 0.69). More importantly, however, operations that had the highest chances of success were shown to be identifiable with high accuracy, e.g., 92% or 97% when identifying 74 or 31 recipients, respectively. Identifying the patients with the highest chances of survival has direct application in the prioritization of resources and in donor matching. For patients where high-confidence prediction is not achieved, assigning a probability to their survival odds has potential applications in probabilistic decision support systems and in combination with other sources of information.

  14. Evolution of nuclear structure in neutron-rich odd-Zn isotopes and isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wraith

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collinear laser spectroscopy was performed on Zn (Z=30 isotopes at ISOLDE, CERN. The study of hyperfine spectra of nuclei across the Zn isotopic chain, N=33–49, allowed the measurement of nuclear spins for the ground and isomeric states in odd-A neutron-rich nuclei up to N=50. Exactly one long-lived (>10 ms isomeric state has been established in each 69–79Zn isotope. The nuclear magnetic dipole moments and spectroscopic quadrupole moments are well reproduced by large-scale shell–model calculations in the f5pg9 and fpg9d5 model spaces, thus establishing the dominant term in their wave function. The magnetic moment of the intruder Iπ=1/2+ isomer in 79Zn is reproduced only if the νs1/2 orbital is added to the valence space, as realized in the recently developed PFSDG-U interaction. The spin and moments of the low-lying isomeric state in 73Zn suggest a strong onset of deformation at N=43, while the progression towards 79Zn points to the stability of the Z=28 and N=50 shell gaps, supporting the magicity of 78Ni.

  15. P-odd effects in the e-d scattering in the vector-like theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakh, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    P-odd effects in elastic electron-deuteron scattering, due to the weak neutral currents, are analyzed in the framework of the vector-like theories. Considered is the case of the most general form of the P-invariance breaking in the elastic e - d scattering amplitude in both the leptonic and hadronic vertices. It is found that in the vector-like theories the parity violation in the electro-deuteron elastic scattering is confined in the hadronic vertex, while in the Weinberg-Salam model it is confined in the leptonic vertex. In the vector-like theories the asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons by nonpolarized deuterons depends on the electromagnetic and weak form factors of a deuteron, whereas in the Weinberg-Salam model it does not depend on the structure of the deuteron. In the Weinberg-Salam model the asymmetry is independent on the T-violating form factors of the deuteron, whereas such a dependence is present in the vector-like theories

  16. Odd-parity magnetoresistance in pyrochlore iridate thin films with broken time-reversal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T. C.; Kozuka, Y.; Uchida, M.; Tsukazaki, A.; Arima, T.; Kawasaki, M.

    2015-01-01

    A new class of materials termed topological insulators have been intensively investigated due to their unique Dirac surface state carrying dissipationless edge spin currents. Recently, it has been theoretically proposed that the three dimensional analogue of this type of band structure, the Weyl Semimetal phase, is materialized in pyrochlore oxides with strong spin-orbit coupling, accompanied by all-in-all-out spin ordering. Here, we report on the fabrication and magnetotransport of Eu2Ir2O7 single crystalline thin films. We reveal that one of the two degenerate all-in-all-out domain structures, which are connected by time-reversal operation, can be selectively formed by the polarity of the cooling magnetic field. Once formed, the domain is robust against an oppositely polarised magnetic field, as evidenced by an unusual odd field dependent term in the magnetoresistance and an anomalous term in the Hall resistance. Our findings pave the way for exploring the predicted novel quantum transport phenomenon at the surfaces/interfaces or magnetic domain walls of pyrochlore iridates. PMID:25959576

  17. Spatial properties of odd and even low order harmonics generated in gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, G; Andreev, A; Gautier, J; Giannessi, L; Malka, V; Petralia, A; Sebban, S; Stremoukhov, S; Tissandier, F; Vodungbo, B; Zeitoun, Ph

    2015-01-14

    High harmonic generation in gases is developing rapidly as a soft X-ray femtosecond light-source for applications. This requires control over all the harmonics characteristics and in particular, spatial properties have to be kept very good. In previous literature, measurements have always included several harmonics contrary to applications, especially spectroscopic applications, which usually require a single harmonic. To fill this gap, we present here for the first time a detailed study of completely isolated harmonics. The contribution of the surrounding harmonics has been totally suppressed using interferential filtering which is available for low harmonic orders. In addition, this allows to clearly identify behaviors of standard odd orders from even orders obtained by frequency-mixing of a fundamental laser and of its second harmonic. Comparisons of the spatial intensity profiles, of the spatial coherence and of the wavefront aberration level of 5ω at 160 nm and 6ω at 135 nm have then been performed. We have established that the fundamental laser beam aberrations can cause the appearance of a non-homogenous donut-shape in the 6ω spatial intensity distribution. This undesirable effect can be easily controlled. We finally conclude that the spatial quality of an even harmonic can be as excellent as in standard generation.

  18. Correlation-enhanced odd-parity inter-orbital singlet pairing in LiFeAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourafkan, Reza; Kotliar, Gabi; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    The rich variety of iron-based superconductors and their complex electronic structure lead to a wide range of possibilities for gap symmetry and pairing components. We solved, in the two-Fe Brillouin zone, the full frequency-dependent linearized Eliashberg equations to investigate spin-fluctuations mediated Cooper pairing for LiFeAs . The magnetic excitations were calculated with the random phase approximation on a correlated electronic structure obtained with density functional theory and dynamical mean field theory. The interaction between electrons through Hund's coupling promotes both the intra-orbital dxz (yz) and the inter-orbital magnetic susceptibility. As a consequence, the leading pairing channel, conventional s+-, acquires sizeable inter-orbital dxy -dxz (yz) singlet pairing with odd parity under glide-plane symmetry. The combination of intra- and inter-orbital components makes the results consistent with available experiments on the angular dependence of the gaps observed on the different Fermi surfaces. We also explain the difference in pairing symmetry between LiFeAs and LiFeP.

  19. Ubiquitous log odds: a common representation of probability and frequency distortion in perception, action and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang eZhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In decision from experience, the source of probability information affects how probability is distorted in the decision task. Understanding how and why probability is distorted is a key issue in understanding the peculiar character of experience-based decision. We consider how probability information is used not just in decision making but also in a wide variety of cognitive, perceptual and motor tasks. Very similar patterns of distortion of probability/frequency information have been found in visual frequency estimation, frequency estimation based on memory, signal detection theory, and in the use of probability information in decision-making under risk and uncertainty. We show that distortion of probability in all cases is well captured as linear transformations of the log odds of frequency and/or probability, a model with a slope parameter and an intercept parameter. We then consider how task and experience influence these two parameters and the resulting distortion of probability. We review how the probability distortions change in systematic ways with task and report three experiments on frequency distortion where the distortions change systematically in the same task. We found that the slope of frequency distortions decreases with the sample size, which is echoed by findings in decision from experience. We review previous models of the representation of uncertainty and find that none can account for the empirical findings.

  20. Decoherence of odd compass states in the phase-sensitive amplifying/dissipating environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodonov, V.V., E-mail: vdodonov@fis.unb.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Caixa Postal 04455, 70919-970 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Valverde, C. [Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, BR 153, km 98, 75001-970 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Universidade Paulista, BR 153, km 7, 74845-090 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Souza, L.S. [Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, BR 153, km 98, 75001-970 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Baseia, B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.690-900 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58.051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    We study the evolution of odd compass states (specific superpositions of four coherent states), governed by the standard master equation with phase-sensitive amplifying/attenuating terms, in the presence of a Hamiltonian describing a parametric degenerate linear amplifier. Explicit expressions for the time-dependent Wigner function are obtained. The time of disappearance of the so called “sub-Planck structures” is calculated using the negative value of the Wigner function at the origin of phase space. It is shown that this value rapidly decreases during a short “conventional interference degradation time” (CIDT), which is inversely proportional to the size of quantum superposition, provided the anti-Hermitian terms in the master equation are of the same order (or stronger) as the Hermitian ones (governing the parametric amplification). The CIDT is compared with the final positivization time (FPT), when the Wigner function becomes positive. It appears that the FPT does not depend on the size of superpositions, moreover, it can be much bigger in the amplifying media than in the attenuating ones. Paradoxically, strengthening the Hamiltonian part results in decreasing the CIDT, so that the CIDT almost does not depend on the size of superpositions in the asymptotical case of very weak reservoir coupling. We also analyze the evolution of the Mandel factor, showing that for some sets of parameters this factor remains significantly negative, even when the Wigner function becomes positive.

  1. Lack of motor prediction, rather than perceptual conflict, evokes an odd sensation upon stepping onto a stopped escalator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, Hiroaki; Sakurada, Takeshi; Fukui, Takao

    2014-01-01

    When stepping onto a stopped escalator, we often perceive an “odd sensation” that is never felt when stepping onto stairs. The sight of an escalator provides a strong contextual cue that, in expectation of the backward acceleration when stepping on, triggers an anticipatory forward postural adjustment driven by a habitual and implicit motor process. Here we contrast two theories about why this postural change leads to an odd sensation. The first theory links the odd sensation to a lack of sensorimotor prediction from all low-level implicit motor processes. The second theory links the odd sensation to the high-level conflict between the conscious awareness that the escalator is stopped and the implicit perception that evokes an endogenous motor program specific to a moving escalator. We show very similar postural changes can also arise from reflexive responses to visual stimuli, such as contracting/expanding optic flow fields, and that these reflexive responses produce similar odd sensations to the stopped escalator. We conclude that the high-level conflict is not necessary for such sensations. In contrast, the implicitly driven behavioral change itself essentially leads to the odd sensation in motor perception since the unintentional change may be less attributable to self-generated action because of a lack of motor predictions. PMID:24688460

  2. Even–odd effect on the edge states for zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons under a perpendicular electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Guanghui; Zhou, Benhu; Zhou, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    We study the variation of electronic property for zigzag-edge phosphorene nanoribbons (ZPNRs) under a perpendicular electric field (PEF). Using the tight-binding Hamiltonian combined with the surface lattice Green’s function (GF) approach, we show that the response of edge states to PEF for a N -ZPNR with even- or odd- N (number of zigzag chains) is qualitatively different. The field opens a gap between two edge bands near the Fermi energy for even- N ribbons, but for odd- N ones where the two edge bands are always nearly degenerated. This difference is originally from that the Stark-effect-induced energies at the upper and lower edges for even- and odd- N ZPNRs are different due to the peculiar lattice structure of phosphorene. In consequence, the electronic densities are more localized at the edges driven by the field for even- N ZPNRs but not for odd- N ones. This even–odd effect is also reflected in conductance, which indicates that the odd- N ZPNRs may be more suitable for the usage of field-effect transistor. (paper)

  3. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  4. The odd couple: The relationship between state economic performance and carbon emissions economic intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsdottir, B.; Fisher, M.

    2011-01-01

    Historical time trends indicate that both carbon and energy intensity have declined in the United States over the last several decades, while economic performance, as measured by per capita GSP, has improved. This observation indicates that it may be possible to reduce carbon intensity without a reduction in economic performance. This paper assesses using panel analysis, the empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance, and examines the direction of causality between the two variables. Data for the analysis covered 48 states, excluding Hawaii, Alaska, and Washington DC, from 1980 to 2000. The results indicate significant bi-directional relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance, both using an aggregate indicator for carbon emissions intensity, decomposed using Laspeyres indexes and disaggregated by sector. This implies that it should be possible to implement statewide and sector-specific policies to reduce energy and carbon intensity and at the same time improve economic performance. - Highlights: → The empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance is assessed → The direction of causality between the two variables is examined. → Results indicate significant relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance. → Relationship is bi-directional, and holds for both aggregate analysis and by sector. → It is possible to implement policies to reduce carbon intensity and improve economic performance.

  5. Trends in HIV seroprevalence, AIDS and prevention policy among intravenous drug users and men who have sex with men, before and after 1990 in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piribauer, Franz; Duer, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    This study reports for the first time on secular trends in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS, and possible associations with prevention policy in Austria. We analysed HIV seroprevalence and AIDS cases among intravenous drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). In this study we found a diminished rate of increase in new cases of AIDS and a decline in HIV seroprevalence among IDU but not among MSM. Among clients visiting HIV counselling and testing centres in Austria between 1987 and 1990, seroprevalence among IDU was estimated at 27.9% as compared to 19.6% between 1990 and 1992 (odds ratio: 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45-0.85). Among MSM corresponding prevalence for these two periods was 12.1% and 10.9%, respectively, which was not a significant decline. In the period 1990 to 1994, the increase in AIDS cases per half-year levelled off for IDU (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99-1.01) but to a lesser extent among MSM (IRR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.01-1.02). The most effective prevention policy intervention was considered to be the national methadone maintenance program (MMTP), started in 1987, and the provision of sterile injection equipment. We observed that in the recent period there was a decline in the frequency of attendance among young (less than 28 years of age) MSM at counselling centres (odds ratio (OR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.08-1.49), accompanied by the observation that the rate of seroprevalence among this group did not decline. This is in contrast to young IDU where attendance did not decline but seroprevalence did. Although inference is limited from cross sectional studies, we argue for a reoriented and effectively monitored HIV prevention policy focused on young MSM

  6. The impact of log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) in colon and rectal cancer patient stratification: a single-center analysis of 323 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Andrea; Di Cesare, Tatiana; Cavaniglia, Daniele; Neri, Tiziano; Colletti, Michelle; Cosenza, Giulia; Liverani, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Log odds of positive nodes (LODDS), defined as the log of the ratio between the number of positive nodes and the number of negative nodes, has been recently introduced as a tool in predicting prognosis. This study aims to establish the effective and prognostic value of LODDS in predicting the survival outcome of CRC patients undergoing surgical resection. The study population is represented by 323 consecutive patients with primary colon or rectal adenocarcinoma thatunderwent curative resection. LODDS values were calculated by empirical logistic formula, log(pnod + 0.5)/(tnod - pnod + 0.5). It was defined as the log of the ratio between the number of positive nodes and the number of negative nodes. The patients were divided into three groups: LODDS0 (≤ - 1.36), LODDS1 (> - 1.36 ≤ - 0.53) and LODDS2 (> - 0.53). Kaplan-Meier curve analyses showed 3-year OS rates of the patients staged by LODDS classification. These values were 88.3, 74.8 and 61.8% for LODDS0, LODDS1 and LODDS2, respectively (P ≤ 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, LODDS is an independent prognostic factor of 3-year OS. This is in contrast to pN stage and lymph node ratio, which shows no statistical significance. ROC analyses showed that LODDS predicted OS better than lymph node ratio. LODDS classification has a better prognostic effect than pN stage and lymph node ratio. LODDS offers a finer stratification and accurately predicts survival of CRC patients.

  7. A minimally processed dietary pattern is associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome among Lebanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreddine, Lara; Tamim, Hani; Itani, Leila; Nasrallah, Mona P; Isma'eel, Hussain; Nakhoul, Nancy F; Abou-Rizk, Joana; Naja, Farah

    2018-01-01

    To (i) estimate the consumption of minimally processed, processed and ultra-processed foods in a sample of Lebanese adults; (ii) explore patterns of intakes of these food groups; and (iii) investigate the association of the derived patterns with cardiometabolic risk. Cross-sectional survey. Data collection included dietary assessment using an FFQ and biochemical, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Food items were categorized into twenty-five groups based on the NOVA food classification. The contribution of each food group to total energy intake (TEI) was estimated. Patterns of intakes of these food groups were examined using exploratory factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of derived patterns with cardiometabolic risk factors. Greater Beirut area, Lebanon. Adults ≥18 years (n 302) with no prior history of chronic diseases. Of TEI, 36·53 and 27·10 % were contributed by ultra-processed and minimally processed foods, respectively. Two dietary patterns were identified: the 'ultra-processed' and the 'minimally processed/processed'. The 'ultra-processed' consisted mainly of fast foods, snacks, meat, nuts, sweets and liquor, while the 'minimally processed/processed' consisted mostly of fruits, vegetables, legumes, breads, cheeses, sugar and fats. Participants in the highest quartile of the 'minimally processed/processed' pattern had significantly lower odds for metabolic syndrome (OR=0·18, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·77), hyperglycaemia (OR=0·25, 95 % CI 0·07, 0·98) and low HDL cholesterol (OR=0·17, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·60). The study findings may be used for the development of evidence-based interventions aimed at encouraging the consumption of minimally processed foods.

  8. Odd-skipped related-1 controls neural crest chondrogenesis during tongue development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Lan, Yu; Xu, Jingyue; Chang, Ching-Fang; Brugmann, Samantha A.; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-01-01

    The tongue is a critical element of the feeding system in tetrapod animals for their successful adaptation to terrestrial life. Whereas the oral part of the mammalian tongue contains soft tissues only, the avian tongue has an internal skeleton extending to the anterior tip. The mechanisms underlying the evolutionary divergence in tongue skeleton formation are completely unknown. We show here that the odd-skipped related-1 (Osr1) transcription factor is expressed throughout the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme in mouse, but not in chick, embryos during early tongue morphogenesis. Neural crest-specific inactivation of Osr1 resulted in formation of an ectopic cartilage in the mouse tongue, reminiscent in shape and developmental ontogeny of the anterior tongue cartilage in chick. SRY-box containing gene-9 (Sox9), the master regulator of chondrogenesis, is widely expressed in the nascent tongue mesenchyme at the onset of tongue morphogenesis but its expression is dramatically down-regulated concomitant with activation of Osr1 expression in the developing mouse tongue. In Osr1 mutant mouse embryos, expression of Sox9 persisted in the developing tongue mesenchyme where chondrogenesis is subsequently activated to form the ectopic cartilage. Furthermore, we show that Osr1 binds to the Sox9 gene promoter and that overexpression of Osr1 suppressed expression of endogenous Sox9 mRNAs and Sox9 promoter-driven reporter. These data indicate that Osr1 normally prevents chondrogenesis in the mammalian tongue through repression of Sox9 expression and suggest that changes in regulation of Osr1 expression in the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme underlie the evolutionary divergence of birds from other vertebrates in tongue morphogenesis. PMID:24167250

  9. Pseudoscalar top-Higgs coupling: exploration of CP-odd observables to resolve the sign ambiguity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileo, Nicolas [IFLP, CONICET - Dpto. de Física, Universidad Nacional de La Plata,C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Kiers, Ken [Physics and Engineering Department, Taylor University,236 West Reade Ave., Upland, IN 46989 (United States); Szynkman, Alejandro [IFLP, CONICET - Dpto. de Física, Universidad Nacional de La Plata,C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Crane, Daniel; Gegner, Ethan [Physics and Engineering Department, Taylor University,236 West Reade Ave., Upland, IN 46989 (United States)

    2016-07-12

    We present a collection of CP-odd observables for the process pp→t(→bℓ{sup +}ν{sub ℓ})t̄(→b̄ℓ{sup −}ν̄{sub ℓ})H that are linearly dependent on the scalar (κ{sub t}) and pseudoscalar (κ̃{sub t}) top-Higgs coupling and hence sensitive to the corresponding relative sign. The proposed observables are based on triple product (TP) correlations that we extract from the expression for the differential cross section in terms of the spin vectors of the top and antitop quarks. In order to explore other possibilities, we progressively modify these TPs, first by combining them, and then by replacing the spin vectors by the lepton momenta or the t and t̄ momenta by their visible parts. We generate Monte Carlo data sets for several benchmark scenarios, including the Standard Model (κ{sub t}=1, κ̃{sub t}=0) and two scenarios with mixed CP properties (κ{sub t}=1, κ̃{sub t}=±1). Assuming an integrated luminosity that is consistent with that envisioned for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, using Monte Carlo-truth and taking into account only statistical uncertainties, we find that the most promising observable can disentangle the “CP-mixed” scenarios with an effective separation of ∼19σ. In the case of observables that do not require the reconstruction of the t and t̄ momenta, the power of discrimination is up to ∼13σ for the same number of events. We also show that the most promising observables can still disentangle the CP-mixed scenarios when the number of events is reduced to values consistent with expectations for the Large Hadron Collider in the near term.

  10. Proportional odds model applied to mapping of disease resistance genes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Spyrides-Cunha

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers have been used extensively to map quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling disease resistance in plants. Mapping is usually done by establishing a statistical association between molecular marker genotypes and quantitative variations in disease resistance. However, most statistical approaches require a continuous distribution of the response variable, a requirement not always met since evaluation of disease resistance is often done using visual ratings based on an ordinal scale of disease severity. This paper discusses the application of the proportional odds model to the mapping of disease resistance genes in plants amenable to expression as ordinal data. The model was used to map two resistance QTL of maize to Puccinia sorghi. The microsatellite markers bngl166 and bngl669, located on chromosomes 2 and 8, respectively, were used to genotype F2 individuals from a segregating population. Genotypes at each marker locus were then compared by assessing disease severity in F3 plants derived from the selfing of each genotyped F2 plant based on an ordinal scale severity. The residual deviance and the chi-square score statistic indicated a good fit of the model to the data and the odds had a constant proportionality at each threshold. Single-marker analyses detected significant differences among marker genotypes at both marker loci, indicating that these markers were linked to disease resistance QTL. The inclusion of the interaction term after single-marker analysis provided strong evidence of an epistatic interaction between the two QTL. These results indicate that the proportional odds model can be used as an alternative to traditional methods in cases where the response variable consists of an ordinal scale, thus eliminating the problems of heterocedasticity, non-linearity, and the non-normality of residuals often associated with this type of data.Marcadores moleculares têm sido extensivamente usados para o mapeamento de loci de

  11. Even-odd alternation of near-infrared spectra of alkane-α,ω-diols in their solid states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Yuta; Murakami, Kohei; Yoshimura, Norio; Takayanagi, Masao

    2018-05-15

    Even-odd alternation of the melting points of α,ω-disubstituted linear alkanes such as alkane-α,ω-diols, alkane-α,ω-dinitriles and α,ω-diaminoalkanes is well known. Melting points for compounds with an even number of carbons in their alkyl chains are systematically higher than those for compounds with an odd number of carbons. In order to clarify the origin of this alternation, near-infrared absorption spectra of linear alkane-α,ω-diols with 3 to 9 carbon atoms in their alkyl chains were measured in the liquid and solid states. The band due to the first overtone of the OH stretching mode was investigated. The temperature-dependent spectra of all alkane-α,ω-diols in their liquid states were found to be similar; no even-odd alternation was observed. In the solid state, however, spectra of alkane-α,ω-diols with even and odd numbers of carbon atoms differed greatly. Spectra of alkane-α,ω-diols with an odd number of carbon atoms in their solid states were similar to those in the liquid states, although the variation of spectra observed upon lowering the temperature of liquid seemed to continue when the liquids were frozen. In contrast, spectra of alkane-α,ω-diols with an even number of carbon atoms in their liquid and solid states were found to be quite different. New bands appeared upon freezing. The observed even-odd alternation of the spectra observed for alkane-α,ω-diols in their solid states is presumably caused by their even-odd alternation of crystal structures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clot dynamics and mortality: The MA-R ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Stephanie A; Zarzaur, Ben L; Pohlman, Timothy H; Brewer, Brian L; Magnotti, Louis J; Croce, Martin A; Lim, Garrett H; Martin, Ali C

    2017-10-01

    The coagulopathy of trauma, illustrated by a short R-time, is common and well understood. The physiology behind this may be early thrombin burst with rapid clot formation. Rapid consumption of fibrinogen, however, may result in weak clot and substrate depletion, resulting in low MA. While these characteristics are interesting, utilizing thromboelastography (TEG) to identify those at risk of subsequent bleeding diathesis, especially in those who do not demonstrate early signs of physiologic derangement, is challenging. We have developed a novel ratio utilizing TEG values to describe patients at specific risk of traumatic coagulopathy. The purpose of this study was to create a single TEG value, which would reflect both the hypercoagulability and hypocoagulability of TIC. We hypothesized that this ratio, at admission, would be indicative of TIC and predictive of both blood product transfusion volumes and subsequent mortality. Patients admitted via the highest activation criteria at one of two Level I trauma centers were included if they received at least 1 unit of packed red blood cells in the first 24 hours of admission. The admission TEG was collected, and a ratio was calculated by dividing the MA by the R-time (MA-R). MA-R quartiles were developed, and multivariable logistic regression was utilized to determine odds of mortality. Three hundred thirty patients with admission TEG were included. In all patients, median age was 35 years (interquartile range, 25-54 years), Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 20 (interquartile range, 13-29), 76% were male, and 43% had penetrating trauma. The MA-R groups were based on quartiles. Multivariable analysis, controlling for mechanism of injury, ISS, and admission pH, showed that increasing ratios were associated with decreased odds of death. The lowest MA-R ratios were also significantly associated with higher ISS, higher rates of blunt injury, and higher plasma utilization without a significant difference in packed red blood cell

  13. Fiscal policy under alternative monetary policy regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Roldan; Carmelo Monteagudo-Cuerva

    2013-01-01

    In the particular policy framework of a monetary union, the management of fiscal policy becomes an issue of special relevance, because the fiscal discipline imposed by the monetary agreements could limit the scope of stabilization fiscal policies, and its implications on economic growth. Therefore, is not trivial to manage fiscal policy in such particular economic framework. In this paper we will review the implications of fiscal policy in open economies. But we will pay special attention to ...

  14. Particle-phonon coupling in the odd-A Rb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishan, K.; Basu, S.K.; Sen, S.

    1976-01-01

    The level properties of 83 Rb and 85 Rb have been calculated in a quasiparticle-phonon coupling model which couples the proton quasiparticle motion in the 1fsub(5/2), 2psub(1/2), 2psub(3/2) and 1gsub(9/2) orbitals to the vibrations of the neighbouring even core. The calculated level spectra, spectroscopic factors and B(E2) values for several levels are found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. Branching ratios for transitions originating from several levels are also reproduced. (author)

  15. Gender Ratios for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcut, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analysed data from 1133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had…

  16. Friction and work function oscillatory behavior for an even and odd number of layers in polycrystalline MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavini, Francesco; Calò, Annalisa; Gao, Yang; Albisetti, Edoardo; Li, Tai-De; Cao, Tengfei; Li, Guoqing; Cao, Linyou; Aruta, Carmela; Riedo, Elisa

    2018-04-24

    A large effort is underway to investigate the properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials for their potential to become building blocks in a variety of integrated nanodevices. In particular, the ability to understand the relationship between friction, adhesion, electric charges and defects in 2D materials is of key importance for their assembly and use in nano-electro-mechanical and energy harvesting systems. Here, we report on a new oscillatory behavior of nanoscopic friction in continuous polycrystalline MoS2 films for an odd and even number of atomic layers, where odd layers show higher friction and lower work function. Friction force microscopy combined with Kelvin probe force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that an enhanced adsorption of charges and OH molecules is at the origin of the observed increase in friction for 1 and 3 polycrystalline MoS2 layers. In polycrystalline films with an odd number of layers, each crystalline nano-grain carries a dipole due to the MoS2 piezoelectricity, therefore charged molecules adsorb at the grain boundaries all over the surface of the continuous MoS2 film. Their displacement during the sliding of a nano-size tip gives rise to the observed enhanced dissipation and larger nanoscale friction for odd layer-numbers. Similarly, charged adsorbed molecules are responsible for the work function decrease in odd layer-number.

  17. Odd-Z Transactinide Compound Nucleus Reactions Including the Discovery of 260Bh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Sarah L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Several reactions producing odd-Z transactinide compound nuclei were studiedwith the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The goal was to produce the same compound nucleus ator near the same excitation energy with similar values of angular momentum via differentnuclear reactions. In doing so, it can be determined if there is a preference in entrancechannel, because under these experimental conditions the survival portion of Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's"Fusion By Diffusion" model is nearly identical forthe two reactions. Additionally, because the same compound nucleus is produced, theexit channel is the same. Four compound nuclei were examined in this study: 258Db, 262Bh, 266Mt, and 272Rg. These nuclei were produced by using very similar heavy-ion induced-fusion reactions which differ only by one proton in the projectile or target nucleus (e.g.: 50Ti + 209Bi vs. 51V + 208Pb). Peak 1n exit channel cross sections were determined for each reaction in each pair, and three of the four pairs' cross sections were identical within statistical uncertainties. This indicates there is not an obvious preference of entrancechannel in these paired reactions. Charge equilibration immediately prior to fusionleading to a decreased fusion barrier is the likely cause of this phenomenon. In addition to this systematic study, the lightest isotope of element 107, bohrium, was discovered in the 209Bi(52Cr,n) reaction. 260Bh was found to decay by emission of a 10.16 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 35$+19\\atop{-9}$ ms. The cross section is 59 pb at an excitation energy of 15.0 MeV. The effect of the N = 152 shell is also seen in this isotope's alpha particle energy, the first evidence of such an effect in Bh. All reactions studied are also compared to model predictions by Swiatecki

  18. m-Health Policy Readiness and Enabling Factors: Comparisons of Sub-Saharan Africa and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seohyun; Begley, Charles E; Morgan, Robert; Chan, Wenyaw; Kim, Sun-Young

    2018-02-12

    As an innovative solution to poor access to care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), m-health has gained wide attention in the past decade. Despite enthusiasm from the global health community, LMICs have not demonstrated high uptake of m-health promoting policies or public investment. To benchmark the current status, this study compared m-health policy readiness scores between sub-Saharan Africa and high-income Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries using an independent two-sample t test. In addition, the enabling factors associated with m-health policy readiness were investigated using an ordinal logistic regression model. The study was based on the m-health policy readiness scores of 112 countries obtained from the World Health Organization Third Global Survey on e-Health. The mean m-health policy readiness score for sub-Saharan Africa was statistically significantly lower than that for OECD countries (p = 0.02). The enabling factors significantly associated with m-health policy readiness included information and communication technology development index (odds ratio [OR] 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.2), e-health education for health professionals (OR 4.43; 95% CI 1.60-12.27), and the location in sub-Saharan Africa (OR 3.47; 95% CI 1.06-11.34). The findings of our study suggest dual policy goals for m-health in sub-Saharan Africa. First, enhance technological and educational support for m-health. Second, pursue global collaboration for building m-health capacity led by sub-Saharan African countries with hands-on experience and knowledge. Globally, countries should take a systematic and collaborative approach in pursuing m-health policy with the focus on technological and educational support.

  19. Resonances in odd-odd 182Ta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brits, C. P.; Wiedeking, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Giacoppo, F.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Hagen, T. W.; Ingeberg, V. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Malatji, K. L.; Nyhus, H. T.; Papka, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Zeiser, F.

    2017-09-01

    Enhanced γ-decay on the tail of the giant electric dipole resonance, such as the scissors or pygmy resonances, can have significant impact on (n,γ) reaction rates. These rates are important input for modeling processes that take place in astrophysical environments and nuclear reactors. Recent results from the University of Oslo indicate the existence of a significant enhancement in the photon strength function for nuclei in the actinide region due to the scissors resonance. Further, the M1 strength distribution of the scissors resonances in rare earth nuclei has been studied extensively over the years. To investigate the evolution and persistence of the scissor resonance in other mass regions, an experiment was performed utilizing the NaI(Tl) γ-ray detector array (CACTUS) and silicon particle telescopes (SiRi) at the University of Oslo Cyclotron laboratory. Particle-γ coincidences from the 181Ta(d,p)182Ta and 181Ta(d,d')181Ta reactions were used to measure the nuclear level density and photon strength function of the well-deformed 181Ta and 182Ta systems, to investigate the existence of resonances below the neutron separation energy. Note to the reader: the title of this article has been corrected on September 19, 2017.

  20. Resonances in odd-odd 182Ta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brits C.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced γ-decay on the tail of the giant electric dipole resonance, such as the scissors or pygmy resonances, can have significant impact on (n,γ reaction rates. These rates are important input for modeling processes that take place in astrophysical environments and nuclear reactors. Recent results from the University of Oslo indicate the existence of a significant enhancement in the photon strength function for nuclei in the actinide region due to the scissors resonance. Further, the M1 strength distribution of the scissors resonances in rare earth nuclei has been studied extensively over the years. To investigate the evolution and persistence of the scissor resonance in other mass regions, an experiment was performed utilizing the NaI(Tl γ-ray detector array (CACTUS and silicon particle telescopes (SiRi at the University of Oslo Cyclotron laboratory. Particle-γ coincidences from the 181Ta(d,p182Ta and 181Ta(d,d'181Ta reactions were used to measure the nuclear level density and photon strength function of the well-deformed 181Ta and 182Ta systems, to investigate the existence of resonances below the neutron separation energy.

  1. Extension of the consistent Q formalism to odd-A nuclei in the W-Pt region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, D.D.; Van Isacker, P.; Jolie, J.; Bruce, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the approach of the Consistent Q Formalism, which has proved successful in the Interacting Boson Model description of even-even nuclei, can be extended to odd A nuclei within the framework of the Interacting Boson-Fermion Model. The proposed method describes the transition between the SU(3) and O(6) symmetry limits of the U(6/12) boson fermion group, and can be applied to the odd neutron W, Os, Pt nuclei. As in the even-even case, a number of parameter-free predictions emerge for the transitional region concerning energies, B(E2) values and also single particle structure factors, and some of these are compared to existing data for the odd Os nuclei. 15 references.

  2. Media independence and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Dandoune, Salma

    2012-01-01

    independence and dividend policies in emerging markets. Using a dataset from twenty three emerging markets, we show a significantly negative relationship between dividend policies (payout ratio and decision to pay dividend) and media independence. We argue that independent media reduces information asymmetries...... for stock market participants. Consequently, stock market participants in emerging markets with more independent media do not demand as high and as much dividends as their counterparts in emerging markets with less independent media. We also show that press independence is more important in defining......Can media pressurize managers to disgorge excess cash to shareholders? Do firms in countries with more independent media follow different dividend policies than firms with less independent media? This paper seeks to answer these questions and aims to document the relationship between media...

  3. Obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios from logistic regression models in cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de; Velasque, Luciane de Souza

    2015-03-01

    In the last decades, the use of the epidemiological prevalence ratio (PR) instead of the odds ratio has been debated as a measure of association in cross-sectional studies. This article addresses the main difficulties in the use of statistical models for the calculation of PR: convergence problems, availability of tools and inappropriate assumptions. We implement the direct approach to estimate the PR from binary regression models based on two methods proposed by Wilcosky & Chambless and compare with different methods. We used three examples and compared the crude and adjusted estimate of PR, with the estimates obtained by use of log-binomial, Poisson regression and the prevalence odds ratio (POR). PRs obtained from the direct approach resulted in values close enough to those obtained by log-binomial and Poisson, while the POR overestimated the PR. The model implemented here showed the following advantages: no numerical instability; assumes adequate probability distribution and, is available through the R statistical package.

  4. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description......This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  5. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  6. Effects of a 2014 Statewide Policy Change on Cash-Value Voucher Redemptions for Fruits/Vegetables Among Participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Janice O; Ekanayake, Ruwani M; Santorelli, Melissa L

    2017-10-01

    Purpose In 2014, the New Jersey Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began requiring WIC-authorized stores to stock at least two fresh fruits and two fresh vegetables. We aimed to evaluate the effect of this policy change on fruit and vegetable purchases among WIC-participating households and to assess variation by household access to a healthy food store such as a supermarket or large grocery store. Description Households with continuous WIC enrollment from June 2013 to May 2015 were included (n = 16,415). Participants receive monthly cash-value vouchers (CVVs) to purchase fruits and vegetables. For each household, the CVV redemption proportion was calculated for the period before and after the policy by dividing the total dollar amount redeemed by the total dollar amount issued. Complete redemption was defined as a proportion ≥90% and the change in complete redemption odds was assessed after adjusting for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation. Assessment We observed a small increase following the policy change [odds ratio (OR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.17]; however, the effect varied by healthy food access (p = 0.03). The odds increased for households with access to at least one healthy food store (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.20) while no effect was observed for households without such access (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.76-1.10). Conclusion Policy change was associated with a small increase in purchasing, but only among households with healthy food access. The state is addressing this gap through technical assistance interventions targeting WIC-authorized small stores in communities with limited access.

  7. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  8. [Sex ratio in Down syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, N V

    2002-01-01

    Data from 55 publications providing the sex ratio (SR), i.e. ratio between male and female cases of Down syndrome (DS), are presented. In general, SR was skewed toward an excess of males in the majority of studied populations, either in populations with a high level of cases ascertainment (epidemiological studies) or in selected groups. No significant correlation involving the age of either patients or mothers was found. Some other factors which might influence the sex ratio in DS at birth are mentioned. Meta-analysis of data from epidemiological studies suggests the phenomenon is not restricted to free trisomy 21 alone but appears in translocation cases, both in mutant and inherited translocation carriers (SR = 1.31 and 1.36, respectively). In contrast to nonmosaic 47, +21 cases, where SR is close to 1.3, an excess of females was observed in mosaics 46/47, +21 (SR = 0.83). No male predominance was found among patients with DS not tested cytogenetically (SR = 0.98), which may be explained by female predominance in false-positive cases. In populations with a fraction of clinically diagnosed cases of 30% and over, SR has intermediate value of 1.1. The ratio showed a tendency to increase since 1940's, reaching a mean value of 1.35 in 1980's varying from 1.3 to 1.62 in different populations), which might be a consequence of the growing use of karyotyping to confirm diagnosis and of a real increase in proportion of males. In the 1990's, the ratio fell to 1.22 varying from 1.03 to 1.27. As SR is assumed to reflect a proportion of paternal contribution, the discrepancy between the proportions of paternal errors in cytogenetic studies on parental origin of the extra chromosome (24% in the 1980's) and in molecular studies (5-10% in the 1990's) discussed in the literature might be explained by temporal changes alone. Genetic mechanisms of male predominance in trisomy 21 are reviewed, among them models for joint segregation of chromosome 21 and Y chromosome in spermatogenesis

  9. The four-loop six-gluon NMHV ratio function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Stanford, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); von Hippel, Matt [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); McLeod, Andrew J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-01-11

    We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q- differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result against multi- Regge predictions at NNLL and N3LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We also study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. Furthermore, we provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.

  10. Symmetry analysis of odd- and even-frequency superconducting gap symmetries for time-reversal symmetric interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilhufe, R. Matthias; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2018-01-01

    Odd-frequency superconductivity describes a class of superconducting states where the superconducting gap is an odd function in relative time and Matsubara frequency. We present a group theoretical analysis based on the linearized gap equation in terms of Shubnikov groups of the second kind. By discussing systems with spin-orbit coupling and an interaction kernel which is symmetric under the reversal of relative time, we show that both even- and odd-frequency gaps are allowed to occur. Specific examples are discussed for the square lattice, the octahedral lattice, and the tetragonal lattice. For irreducible representations that are even under the reversal of relative time the common combinations of s - and d -wave spin singlet and p -wave spin triplet gaps are revealed, irreducible representations that are odd under reversal of relative time give rise to s - and d -wave spin triplet and p -wave spin singlet gaps. Furthermore, we discuss the construction of a generalized Ginzburg-Landau theory in terms of the associated irreducible representations. The result complements the established classification of superconducting states of matter.

  11. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Beating the Odds: Finding Schools Exceeding Achievement Expectations with High-Risk Students. Summary. REL 2014-032

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    State education leaders are often interested in identifying schools that have demonstrated success with improving the literacy of students who are at the highest level of risk for reading difficulties. The identification of these schools that are "beating the odds" is typically accomplished by comparing a school's observed performance on…

  13. Beating the Odds: Finding Schools Exceeding Achievement Expectations with High-Risk Students. REL 2014-032

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    State education leaders are often interested in identifying schools that have demonstrated success with improving the literacy of students who are at the highest level of risk for reading difficulties. The identification of these schools that are "beating the odds" is typically accomplished by comparing a school's observed performance on…

  14. The Porter-Whitesides Discrepancy: Revisiting Odd-Even Effects in Wetting Properties of n-Alkanethiolate SAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjia Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the Porter-Whitesides discrepancy in wetting properties of n-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs. About 25 years ago, Whitesides and coworker failed to observe any odd-even effect in wetting, however, Porter and his coworker did, albeit in select cases. Most previous studies agreed with Whitesides’ results, suggesting the absence of the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity of n-alkanethiolate SAMs. Recent reports have, however, found the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity of n-alkanethiolate SAMs on smooth substrates, indicating that hydrophobicity, and analogous interfacial properties, of n-alkanethiolate SAMs significantly depends on the properties of substrate. Unfortunately, the Whitesides and Porter papers do not report on the quality of the surfaces used. Based on recent work, we inferred that the original discrepancy between Whitesides and Porter can be attributed to the quality of the surface. Odd-even effect of SAMs in charge transport, capacitance, friction, and SAM structure are also discussed in this review to inform the general discussion. The discrepancy between Porter's group and Whitesides’ group could be due to surface roughness, morphology, oxidation, and adventitious contaminants.

  15. The Maize MID-COMPLEMENTING ACTIVITY homolog CELL NUMBER REGULATOR13/NARROW ODD DWARF, coordinates organ growth and tissue patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogenesis occurs from cell division, expansion and differentiation. How these cellular processes are coordinated remains elusive. The maize leaf provides an excellent system to study cellular differentiation because it has several different tissues and cell types. The narrow odd dwarf (nod) mut...

  16. RP-HPLC/MS-APCI analysis of odd-chain TAGs from Rhodococcus erythropolis including some regioisomers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Schreiberová, O.; Krulikovská, T.; Masák, J.; Sigler, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 163, 4-5 (2010), s. 373-380 ISSN 0009-3084 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Rhodococcus erythropolis * RP-HPLC/MS-APCI * Odd-chain triacylglycerols Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2010

  17. Evaluation of the odd-even effect in limits of detection for electron microprobe analysis of natural minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Surendra P., E-mail: spv@cie.unam.mx [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/no., Col Centro, A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Pandarinath, Kailasa [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/no., Col Centro, A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Velasco-Tapia, Fernando [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Carretera Linares-Cerro Prieto km. 8, Linares, N.L. 67700 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Rios, Rodolfo [Facultad de Ingenieria e Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Dr. Manuel Nava No. 8, Zona Universitaria, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78240 (Mexico)

    2009-04-13

    Limit of detection (LOD), being a fundamental quality parameter for analytical techniques, has been recently investigated and a systematic behavior has been observed for most odd-even element pairs for many techniques. However, to the best of our knowledge very few LOD data are available in published literature for electron microprobe analysis; these consist of three papers, two being on rare-earth elements and the third covering a large number of elements of atomic number between 21 and 92. These data confirm the systematic behavior of LODs for many odd-even pairs. To initiate to full this gap, we determined LODs for several major rock-forming chemical elements from Na to Fe with atomic numbers between 11 and 26, during the microprobe analysis of common minerals (olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, quartz, and opaques) in volcanic rocks. The odd-even effect of nuclear stability seems to be present in LOD data for most odd-even pairs investigated. Nevertheless, the experimental strategy concerning the reference materials, calibration procedure, and blank measurements, should be substantially modified to better evaluate the systematic behavior of LOD values in microprobe analysis.

  18. Resonance phase and sings of P-odd and P-even effects, observable in the reactions with neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Smotritskij, L M

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that introduction of the resonance phase for two quasistationary states with a similar spin and counter parity makes it possible to correlate the sing dependence of both the P-odd and P-even effects, experimentally observed in the reactions with neutrons. The common description of such effects enables determination of the theory unknown (free) parameters from the experiment

  19. CBCL Clinical Scales Discriminate ADHD Youth with Structured-Interview Derived Diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kaiser, Roselinde; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between the clinical scales of the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in a large sample of youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The sample consisted of 101 girls and 106 boys ages 6 to 17 with ADHD. Conditional…

  20. Plasma total odd-chain fatty acids in the monitoring of disorders of propionate, methylmalonate and biotin metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coker, M.; de Klerk, J. B.; Poll-The, B. T.; Huijmans, J. G.; Duran, M.

    1996-01-01

    Total plasma odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids were analysed in patients with methylmalonic acidaemia (vitamin B12-responsive and unresponsive), combined methylmalonic acidaemia/homocystinuria (CblC), propionic acidaemia (both neonatal-onset and late-onset), biotinidase deficiency and

  1. Inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity and temporal information processing in ADHD and ADHD plus ODD: Evidence of a separate entity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luman, M.; van Noesel, S.J.P.; Papanikolau, A.; Oostenbruggen-Scheffer, J.; Veugelers, D.; Sergeant, J.A.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared children with ADHD-only, ADHD+ODD and normal controls (age 8-12) on three key neurocognitive functions: response inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity, and temporal information processing. The goal was twofold: (a) to investigate neurocognitive impairments in children with

  2. Effect of exact Coulomb-exchange calculations on band-head spectra of odd-proton nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Meng-Hock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous calculations of band-head energy spectra of odd-mass heavy nuclei in the Hartree-Fock-plus-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (HF-BCS framework showed that the agreement with data is better for odd-neutron as compared to odd-proton nuclei. The reason for a poorer agreement with data for the latter have been ascribed to the possible usage of the Slater approximation in calculating the Coulomb-exchange term. In this work, we report the effect of exact Coulomb-exchange calculations on band-head energy spectra of two odd-proton nuclei (namely 237Np and 241Am as compared to the results obtained using the Slater approximation. We performed self-consistent blocking calculations while taking the breaking of time-reversal symmetry at the mean-field level into account due to the unpaired nucleon. The SkM* and SIII parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction have been employed to approximate the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction while a seniority force is used for the pairing channel. Contrary to what was expected, our preliminary results show no improvement on the band-head spectra as compared to data when the Coulomb-exchange term is calculated exactly.

  3. Reproducibility of isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of an accelerator as part of a mass spectrometer has improved the sensitivity for measuring low levels of long-lived radionuclides by several orders of magnitude. However, the complexity of a large tandem accelerator and beam transport system has made it difficult to match the precision of low energy mass spectrometry. Although uncertainties for accelerator measured isotope ratios as low as 1% have been obtained under favorable conditions, most errors quoted in the literature for natural samples are in the 5 to 20% range. These errors are dominated by statistics and generally the reproducibility is unknown since the samples are only measured once

  4. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  5. Policy Archaeology: A New Policy Studies Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurich, James Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Discusses policy archaeology, a radically different approach to policy studies in education drawn from the poststructuralist work of Foucault. Policy archaeology examines the social construction of problems before they become visible, focusing on five social regularities (race, gender, class, governmentality, and professionalization) comprising…

  6. Intellectual capital disclosure and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Farooq, Omar

    2015-01-01

    not only have high payout ratios, but also have a greater likelihood of increasing and paying dividends. Our findings are consistent with our hypothesis that lower information asymmetries of firms with high intellectual capital disclosure lead to more favourable dividend policies. In opposition......The purpose of this article is to document the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and dividend policies of biotechnology firms listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during the period between 2001 and 2010. The firms’ intellectual capital disclosures were computed from the annual...... financial reports, while data on dividend policies was retrieved from Worldscope. This paper defines dividend policies by three variables: (1) Dividend payout ratio, (2) Decision to pay dividend, and (3) Increase in dividend payout. The results show that firms with higher intellectual capital disclosures...

  7. Environmental policy performance revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy......-country variation in organic food consumption is explained by differences in the packages of policy instruments applied, controlling for numerous systemic and individual-level alternative explanations. The analysis suggests that for environmental and political reasons, governments should apply more demand......-side instruments when introducing environmental policies....

  8. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  9. Chlorine Isotope Ratios in M Giants and S Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Zachary; Pilachowski, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Chlorine is an odd-Z, light element that has been poorly studied in stars. Recently, the first stellar abundance measurements of the isotopologue 35Cl were made and the 35Cl/37Cl ratio was derived in RZ Ari (Maas et al. 2016). Additional abundance measurements are necessary to understand the Galactic chemical evolution and complex nucleosynthesis of Cl. The Cl isotope ratio in particular is important in distinguishing contributions from different nucleosynthesis sites to the surface abundances of stars. For example, current nucloesynthesis models predict that both isotopes of Cl are produced primarily during core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) with the energy and progenitor mass impacting the isotopic ratio of the ejected material. In addition to CCSNe, 37Cl is formed by the s-process both in massive stars and in AGB stars, and 35Cl may be produced from neutrino spallation. Understanding the formation of the Cl isotopes is also important to studies of the interstellar medium (ISM). A range of Cl isotope ratios mainly between 2 - 3.5 have been measured in star forming regions, in the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars, and in proto-stellar cores using Cl bearing molecules. Additional measurements of the Cl isotope ratio in nearby stars will test nucleosynthesis models and allow comparisons with the range of isotope ratios observed in the ISM.We build on the results of Maas et al. (2016) by measuring the Cl isotope ratio in six M giants and four S stars using R~50,000 resolution spectra from Phoenix on Gemini South. We find no significant difference between the average Cl isotope ratios in the M stars and S stars and our measurements are consistent with the range of values seen in the ISM. We also find the average Cl ratio to be larger than the predicted isotope ratio of 1.8 for the solar neighborhood. Finally, two S stars, GG Pup and WY Pyx, show anomalously strong HCl features with equivalent widths ~3-5 times larger than the HCl features of other stars of

  10. Associations Between Minimum Wage Policy and Access to Health Care: Evidence From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1996–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Ralston, James D.; Martin, Diane P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether minimum wage policy is associated with access to medical care among low-skilled workers in the United States. Methods. We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze a data set consisting of individual-level indicators of uninsurance and unmet medical need from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and state-level ecological controls from the US Census, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and several other sources in all 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1996 and 2007. Results. Higher state-level minimum wage rates were associated with significantly reduced odds of reporting unmet medical need after control for the ecological covariates, substate region fixed effects, and individual demographic and health characteristics (odds ratio = 0.853; 95% confidence interval = 0.750, 0.971). Minimum wage rates were not significantly associated with being uninsured. Conclusions. Higher minimum wages may be associated with a reduced likelihood of experiencing unmet medical need among low-skilled workers, and do not appear to be associated with uninsurance. These findings appear to refute the suggestion that minimum wage laws have detrimental effects on access to health care, as opponents of the policies have suggested. PMID:21164102

  11. Associations between minimum wage policy and access to health care: evidence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1996-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrier, Kelly P; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Ralston, James D; Martin, Diane P

    2011-02-01

    We examined whether minimum wage policy is associated with access to medical care among low-skilled workers in the United States. We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze a data set consisting of individual-level indicators of uninsurance and unmet medical need from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and state-level ecological controls from the US Census, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and several other sources in all 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1996 and 2007. Higher state-level minimum wage rates were associated with significantly reduced odds of reporting unmet medical need after control for the ecological covariates, substate region fixed effects, and individual demographic and health characteristics (odds ratio = 0.853; 95% confidence interval = 0.750, 0.971). Minimum wage rates were not significantly associated with being uninsured. Higher minimum wages may be associated with a reduced likelihood of experiencing unmet medical need among low-skilled workers, and do not appear to be associated with uninsurance. These findings appear to refute the suggestion that minimum wage laws have detrimental effects on access to health care, as opponents of the policies have suggested.

  12. Adolescents' alcohol use and strength of policy relating to youth access, trading hours and driving under the influence: findings from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria; Azar, Denise; Faulkner, Agatha; Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah; Livingston, Michael; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Room, Robin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2018-01-22

    To determine (i) whether the strength of Australian alcohol control policy in three domains (youth access, trading hours and drink driving) changed during the 2000s; and (ii) estimate associations between these policies and adolescent drinking after adjusting for television alcohol advertising exposures, alcohol outlet density, alcohol price changes, exposure to negative articles about alcohol in daily newspapers and adult drinking prevalence. Repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted triennially from 2002 to 2011. Multi-level modelling examined the association between alcohol control policies and drinking prevalence after adjusting for covariates. Four Australian capital cities between 2002 and 2011. Students aged 12-17 years participating in a triennial national representative school-based survey (sample size range/survey: 9805-13 119). Outcome measures were: past month drinking and risky drinking (5+ drinks on a day) in the past 7 days. Policy strength in each of three domains (youth access, trading hours, drink-driving) were the key predictor variables. Covariates included: past 3-month television alcohol and alcohol-control advertising, alcohol outlet density, alcohol price change, negatively framed newspaper alcohol articles, adult drinking prevalence and student demographic characteristics. During the study period, the strength of youth access policies increased by 10%, trading hours policies by 14% and drink-driving policies by 58%. Past-month and risky drinking prevalence decreased (e.g. past-month: 2002: 47.4% to 2011: 26.3%). Multivariable analyses that included all policy variables and adjusted for year, student and other covariates showed past-month drinking to be associated inversely with stronger trading hours policies [odds ratio (OR) = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69, 0.94], but not youth access (OR = 0.92 95% CI = 0.81, 1.04) or drink-driving (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.93, 1.09). Risky drinking was associated inversely with

  13. Is Canada odd? A comparison of European and Canadian approaches to choice and regulation of the public/private divide in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Haugan, Amanda

    2010-07-01

    Choice is often touted as a means for change within health care systems. Yet 'choice', in this context, takes at least three distinct forms: choice between providers within a publicly funded health care system; choice between competing insurers within a universal plan; and, lastly, choice as between privately financed health care and universal public coverage. In Canada, it is this last form of choice that is under active debate; particularly in light of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Chaoulli, which found a regulation banning private health insurance for medically necessary care was unconstitutional. The argument is frequently made that Canada is an outlier from other countries in having regulation that effectively precludes this kind of choice. This issue is likely to become of concern again in upcoming constitutional challenges where applicants are looking to overturn through judicial challenges Canada's medicare system. This article tests that argument of whether Canada truly is 'odd' from a comparative policy perspective by exploring regulation of choice of privately financed health care in several European countries - the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, England and France. We highlight commonalities as well as differences, showing the extent to which these countries employ regulation to fetter growth of a large privately financed sector. The article's thesis is that Canada, in employing more intrusive forms of regulation, is not an outlier per se but at one point in a regulatory spectrum.

  14. Birth Outcomes of Latin Americans in Two Countries with Contrasting Immigration Admission Policies: Canada and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We delved into the selective migration hypothesis on health by comparing birth outcomes of Latin American immigrants giving birth in two receiving countries with dissimilar immigration admission policies: Canada and Spain. We hypothesized that a stronger immigrant selection in Canada will reflect more favourable outcomes among Latin Americans giving birth in Canada than among their counterparts giving birth in Spain. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional bi-national comparative study. We analyzed birth data of singleton infants born in Canada (2000–2005) (N = 31,767) and Spain (1998–2007) (N = 150,405) to mothers born in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. We compared mean birthweight at 37–41 weeks gestation, and low birthweight and preterm birth rates between Latin American immigrants to Canada vs. Spain. Regression analysis for aggregate data was used to obtain Odds Ratios and Mean birthweight differences adjusted for infant sex, maternal age, parity, marital status, and father born in same source country. Results Latin American women in Canada had heavier newborns than their same-country counterparts giving birth in Spain, overall [adjusted mean birthweight difference: 101 grams; 95% confidence interval (CI): 98, 104], and within each maternal country of origin. Latin American women in Canada had fewer low birthweight and preterm infants than those giving birth in Spain [adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94 for low birthweight, and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93 for preterm birth, respectively]. Conclusion Latin American immigrant women had better birth outcomes in Canada than in Spain, suggesting a more selective migration in Canada than in Spain. PMID:26308857

  15. Working for Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colebatch, H.K.; Hoppe, Robertus; Noordegraaf, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Though democratic government calls for well-designed and implemented policy, there is surprisingly little expert guidance available for policy makers and politicians. Working for Policy fills that gap, addressing the nature of policy work and offering necessary guidance. The contributors bring

  16. Education Policy Outlook: Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Golden, Gillian; Giovinazzo, Manon; Peterka, Judith; Ullmann, Marie

    2017-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Austria is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  17. Systematic Positive Expected Returns in the UK Fixed Odds Betting Market: An Analysis of the Fink Tank Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Buraimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report striking evidence of semi-strong inefficiency in the UK fixed-odds football betting market using a reputable newspaper tipster which offers probabilities of match outcomes rather than simple result indicators. Betting on the Fink Tank probabilities of home wins across 10 bookmakers, when there are positive expected returns, would have generated positive returns in each of the seasons from 2006–07 to 2011–12 for a variety of different betting strategies. These returns could have been enhanced by employing the best odds from a greater number of bookmakers. However, the fact that pure arbitrage bets have existed for years and appear to last for several hours or days suggest they are in practice not exploitable to a magnitude that poses any threat to bookmakers.

  18. Posibilidades, oportunidades, momios: un comentario sobre la traducción del término odds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. TAPIA-GRANADOS

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente comentario se discuten las traducciones de odds que circulan en la literatura bioestadística y epidemiológica en castellano, se arguye a favor y en contra de ciertas traducciones y se aboga por una mayor precisión en el uso de la terminología epidemiológica, que a menudo es confusa tanto en inglés como en español.The present commentary discusses several translations of the term odds into Spanish, and argues in favor of some translations and against others. The need for more precision in the use of terminology, that is often used in misleading ways, both in English and in Spanish, is emphasized.

  19. Studies on fractionation of ytterbium isotopes in Yb(III)-acetate/Yb-amalgam system. Even-odd effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, W.; Poninski, M.; Fiedler, R.

    1997-12-31

    The fractionation of ytterbium isotopes with the even and odd numbers of neutrons was investigated in a Yb(III)-acetate/Yb-amalgam exchange systems. The light isotope was preferentially fractionated to the amalgam phase. The values of the unit separation gain per mass difference,{epsilon}, were found to be -0.00054 for {sup 176/171}Yb and -0.00069 for {sup 176/174}Yb The difference which amounted to 0.00015 is an evidence for the occurrence of the so called `even-odd` effect. It was also found that the chemical isotope shift of ytterbium was monitored by optical isotope shift its atomic spectra. (author). 23 refs, 7 figs, 4 tabs.

  20. Even-odd alternation of the formation of dimer isomers in irradiated polycrystalline alkanes: evidence from product analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudson, T.; Tilquin, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recent ESR studies on n-alkanes from n-C 11 to n-C 25 have shown that a prominent chain end (-CH 2 -CH 2 ) alkyl radical is formed in odd members of the series. In this preliminary discussion of our study, we shall report the capillary chromatogram in the dimer isomers range for n-alkanes ranging from n-C 11 to n-C 17 irradiated at 80 kGy. Dimer isomers, produced in part by the combination of chain end radicals, are eluted at the end chromatogram. The combination of two chain end radicals gives the dimer (D 11 ) isomer eluted at the last place. It is shown that dimers produced by the combination of chain end alkyl radicals are more important for the odd members of the series than for the even members. (author)