Rosenbloom, Tova; Pereg, Avihu; Perlman, Amotz
The policy of a public organization, such as police, may shape the norms and the behavior of the citizens. In line with this, police officers are expected by the public to comply with traffic laws and serve as an example for the citizenry. This study used on-site observations of civilian and police driver, comparing police officers' compliance with traffic laws to that of civilians. We compared driver compliance with traffic laws for drivers in 3 groups of vehicles: traffic police cars, non-traffic police cars, and civilian cars. Four hundred sixty-six vehicles were observed and compared by vehicle type and whether a uniform was worn by the driver. We observed safety belt usage, signaling before turning, cellular phone usage, and giving way to traffic (measured by merging time). We found evidence that generally drivers in police cars use seat belts while driving more that drivers in civilian cars do. In particular, more traffic police car drivers used seat belts than non-traffic police car drivers do. In addition, drivers in civilian cars and non-traffic police cars waited longer periods of time before merging right into traffic compared to traffic police car drivers. Our findings supported the notion that on-duty police officers, and traffic police officers in particular, adhere more closely to traffic laws compared to civilian drivers. As the general public compliance with traffic laws is affected by the police perceived legitimacy, the publication of these results can both boost public cooperation with the police and encourage police officers to continue providing positive role models to the public.
Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva
Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.
Motorists deal with traffic police officers on a daily basis. In Russia, the operations of the traffic police are not transparent. Mass surveys show that contacts with traffic police officers represent a key source of corruption in this country. This article discusses the links between corruption in the traffic police and road safety. Corruption in the traffic police has a positive impact on road safety in Russia, a middle-income country. It suppresses economic growth and thus reduces the int...
Full Text Available In the traditional traffic police scheduling and dispatching, the applications of the position information are restricted. This paper presented a model of the traffic police on-duty behavior analysis based on time series, in order to improve the efficiency of traffic police scheduling and dispatching system. Firstly, it proposes the steps for the behavior analysis of individual traffic police on-duty. Secondly, it elaborates division method of individual traffic police on-duty behavior from background element definition and semantic concept description. Thirdly the paper builds a model concerning individual traffic police on duty behavior by applying state automaton. Finally it describes the implementation methods of key technologies on individual traffic police on duty behavior.
Nair, A J; Nandini, M; Adappa, S; Mahabala, C
Currently, in India, air pollution is widespread in urban areas where vehicles are major contributors. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of exposure in traffic police officers exposed to vehicle exhaust for less than 8 h/day. The specific objective of the study was to determine the levels of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) in these officers. The effect of exposure for 8 h/day is known, but shorter durations of chronic exposure need to be investigated, and there is a need to explore the policy options in this exposed population. This cross-sectional study, included non-smoking traffic police officers between 30 and 50 years of age working for more than 2 years in busy traffic junctions. The cases were sex matched with controls of same age group, working in offices at a teaching hospital. Venous blood was collected at the end of 3 h of duty for estimation of COHb among both the groups. The COHb levels were expressed as percentage values. Differences between the COHb levels among the traffic police officers and office workers were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test and considered significant at p 2.5% compared with no office workers at this level and 41.2% of the police officers had COHb levels >4%. Overall, 53.8% of officers with COHb >2.5% reported headaches compared with 15.8% of officers with COHb <2.5%.
Qian, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Li; Li, Cheng-Chao; Huang, Dong
95 hair samples from traffic polices and 110 hair samples from ordinary people were collected from 6 areas of Guilin, China, and Hg, Pb contents in hairs were determined. The result shows that the heavier the traffic was, the higher hair Hg, Pb contents of traffic polices are. Hair Hg, Pb contents of traffic polices also increase with their working time. Average hair Hg, Pb contents of outdoor polices are higher than those of indoor polices. The average hair Hg content (1.340 microg x g(-1)) of traffic polices is 1.74 times as high as the Chinese average value (0.77 microg x g(-1)), while the average hair Pb content (2.877 microg x g(-1)) is below the Chinese average value (6.60 microg x g(-1)). The use of unleaded petrol reduced the air Pb pollution, but Hg pollution still exists. The average hair Hg content (1.504 microg x g(-1)) in male traffic polices is higher than that (1.176 microg x g(-1)) of female traffic polices,while the average hair Pb content (2.852 microg x g(-1) in male traffic polices lower than that (2. 902 microg x g(-1)) of female traffic polices.
Amit H Makwana
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and air quality crisis in cities is mainly due to vehicular emission. Thus the persons who are continuously exposed are at an increased risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic police personnel compared to matched unexposed control group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the spirometric parameters of 100 traffic police personnel, aged 20-55 years, working in Saurashtra region, as compared to matched control group, consisting of 100 unexposed males. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities was done with SPIROEXCEL. The statistical analysis was carried out with Graph pad instat 3. Results: Traffic police personnel had significantly declined forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1, slow vital capacity (SVC and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV when compared with predictive normal values, which is probably due to exposure to vehicular exhaust. Comparison of test values between groups showed significantly reduced FVC, MVV and increased FEV1/FVC ratio and insignificantly declined FEV1 and SVC in cases as compared to controls. Traffic personnel with longer duration of exposure showed significantly reduced lung functions than those with shorter duration. Smokers showed lower test values as compared to non-smokers with significance only in unexposed group. Conclusion: The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments and traffic police personnel should be offered personal protective or preventive measures.
Singh, V K; Mehta, A K
Traffic branch personnel of Pune traffic police were screened for presence of noise induced hearing loss. A very significant number (81.2%) showed sensorineural hearing loss. The various factors responsible for noise induced hearing loss are discussed.
Advances in computing sciences have not been applied to traffic control. This paper describes the development of an intelligent controller. A controller with advanced control logic can significantly improve traffic flows at intersections. In this vei...
The paper looks at some of the services that will be offered by ATM in future and their general characteristics. The paper then reviews ATM technology and the various traffic and control functions. Finally the performance comparisons of both the static and dynamic rate Leaky Bucket schemes is presented. The conclusions are that the dynamic rate scheme can control several traffic parameters as compared to the static one, but the complexity in its realization might mean higher costs. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs
Full Text Available Motorists deal with traffic police officers on a daily basis. In Russia, the operations of the traffic police are not transparent. Mass surveys show that contacts with traffic police officers represent a key source of corruption in this country. This article discusses the links between corruption in the traffic police and road safety. Corruption in the traffic police has a positive impact on road safety in Russia, a middle-income country. It suppresses economic growth and thus reduces the intensity of road use. In the current situation, Russian motorists have no incentive for fighting corruption: constantly growing fines and penalties for traffic offences increase the attractiveness of paying bribes compared to individual and/or collective protests. A vicious circle emerges as a result: corruption becomes self-sustainable. The official statistical data and results of a nationally representative sociological survey provide the data for the analysis. An instrumental variables analysis and multiple regression modelling are used in this study.
Rakesh Kumar Soni
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to measure the daily routine preference, daytime sleepiness, and psychological distress experiences, because of split shift system job in a sample in traffic police personnel of Raipur city, India. To measure such parameters we used the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (OPSQ, General Health Questionnaire and the Distress. To evaluate differences between age, body mass index, period of service length and drug / alcohol use for all the subjects (traffic police personnel the t-test and chi-square test were used. Total Hundred male traffic police personnel participated and out of which most of them were found to belong in the evening active category. This study also indicates increased prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and (EDS high level of psychological distress as measured by the GHQ-12 among few police workers. Moreover, a number of participants reported significant distress levels, when measured with distress thermometer. In nutshell, the study sample suggests adaptive coping strategies of traffic police personnel working in split shift system profession can be attributed to their evening (E-type circadian preferences.
Rajan R. Patil
Full Text Available Since occupation is a major determinant of health, traffic police personnel face multiple occupational hazards. They are continuously exposed to vehicular emissions and work in a noisy and polluted environment. The objective of the present review is to explore the impact of occupational health hazards on the health of traffic police personnel. Published research papers on traffic police reporting occupational health issues were accessed and reviewed. Attempts were made to access papers that reported negative associations in order to present a balanced review. The majority of the studies have reported a decrease in the lung function and increased respiratory morbidity. The research on the cytogenetic abnormalities or genotoxic effect of vehicular emissions arising due to long-term exposure to benzene and other polyaromatic hydrocarbons has provided conflicting results, since more or less equal numbers of studies have given evidence for and against the causal association. There is a vast accumulation of epidemiological evidence on the casual association between vehicular pollution and its carcinogenic effect. Multiple studies have concluded that traffic police are highly stressed. A number of occupational factors have been attributed to stress among traffic police. Occupational health studies help us to understand the effects of vehicular pollution and its adverse influence on workers. They also provide opportunity for defined exposures measurements and precise risk assessment. The findings from these studies are easily generalizable and can help us understand the impact of air pollution on the general population.
Juillard, Catherine; Kouo Ngamby, Marquise; Ekeke Monono, Martin; Etoundi Mballa, Georges Alain; Dicker, Rochelle A; Stevens, Kent A; Hyder, Adnan A
Road traffic injury surveillance systems are a cornerstone of organized efforts at injury control. Although high-income countries rely on established trauma registries and police databases, in low- and middle-income countries, the data source that provides the best collection of road traffic injury events in specific low- and middle-income country contexts without mature surveillance systems is unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the information available on road traffic injuries in 3 data sources used for surveillance in the sub-Saharan African country of Cameroon, providing potential insight on data sources for road traffic injury surveillance in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed the number of events captured and the information available in Yaoundé, Cameroon, from 3 separate sources of data on road traffic injuries: trauma registry, police records, and newspapers. Data were collected from a single-hospital trauma registry, police records, and the 6 most widely circulated newspapers in Yaoundé during a 6-month period in 2009. The number of road traffic injury events, mortality, and other variables included commonly in injury surveillance systems were recorded. We compared these sources using descriptive analysis. Hospital, police, and newspaper sources recorded 1,686, 273, and 480 road traffic injuries, respectively. The trauma registry provided the most complete data for the majority of variables explored; however, the newspaper data source captured 2, mass casualty, train crash events unrecorded in the other sources. Police data provided the most complete information on first responders to the scene, missing in only 7%. Investing in the hospital-based trauma registry may yield the best surveillance for road traffic injuries in some low- and middle-income countries, such as Yaoundé, Cameroon; however, police and newspaper reports may serve as alternative data sources when specific information is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier
O'Connell, Stephen P.
One possible hurdle to implementing the Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) approach is uncertainty about how to turn target tasks into materials that can be used in the classroom. This article discusses the steps taken to create materials for one target task (communicating with a police officer during a traffic stop) in a manner that provides a…
Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Kleshchinov, Nikolai; Ermolina, Marina; Lund, Johan; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Nilssen, Odd; Ytterstad, Børge
To estimate and compare reliability of traffic mortality data of the police and the healthcare sector in Arkhangelsk, Russia. The study matched traffic mortality data of the police and the regional healthcare statistics centre for the period from 2005 to 2010. Individual investigations of unmatched cases were performed, and the underlying causes of the non-matches were established. The obtained distribution of non-matches by causes served as basis for estimating the true numbers of traffic fatalities in the two sources, in appliance with corresponding fatality definitions and registration rules. A data accuracy index (DAI) was calculated for each source by using an adapted version of the formula for calculating accuracy of a diagnostic test. This was used as a measure for data reliability. Time trends in annual DAIs were estimated for each source by χ(2)-test for linear trend. During the 6-year period, the police and the healthcare statistics centre registered 217 and 237 traffic fatalities in Arkhangelsk, respectively. Matching of data from the two sources resulted in 162 matched cases, 55 unmatched cases in the police data, and 75 unmatched cases in the healthcare data. More than a half (56%) of the non-matches were attributed to incompatibility of the definitions in the two data registration systems; 39% were attributed to failures in the healthcare data. Other non-matches were due to scarce identifying information (2%) or were not classifiable (2%). None of the non-matches were clearly attributable to failures in the police data. The 6-year DAI was 98% for the police data and 80% for the healthcare data. The DAI for the police data was stable over 2005-2010 (ranging from 96% to 100%). The DAI for the healthcare data increased from 66% in 2005 to 98% in 2010 (Ptrend<0.001). The findings suggest that traffic mortality data of the police were more reliable, compared to the healthcare data. However, reliability of the healthcare data was improving during the study
Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic Injuries (RTIs as a health problem imposes governments to implement different interventions. Target achievement in this issue required effective and efficient measures. Efficiency evaluation of traffic police as one of the responsible administrators is necessary for resource management. Therefore, this study conducted to measure Iran’s rural traffic police efficiency. Methods This was an ecological study. To obtain pure efficiency score, three-stage DEA model was conducted with seven inputs and three output variables. At the first stage, crude efficiency score was measured with BCC-O model. Next, to extract the effects of socioeconomic, demographic, traffic count and road infrastructure as the environmental variables and statistical noise, the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA model was applied and the output values were modified according to similar environment and statistical noise conditions. Then, the pure efficiency score was measured using modified outputs and BCC-O model. Results In total, the efficiency score of 198 police stations from 24 provinces of 31 provinces were measured. The annual means (standard deviation of damage, injury and fatal accidents were 247.7 (258.4, 184.9 (176.9, and 28.7 (19.5, respectively. Input averages were 5.9 (3.0 patrol teams, 0.5% (0.2 manpower proportions, 7.5 (2.9 patrol cars, 0.5 (1.3 motorcycles, 77,279.1 (46,794.7 penalties, 90.9 (2.8 cultural and educational activity score, 0.7 (2.4 speed cameras. The SFA model showed non-significant differences between police station performances and the most differences attributed to the environmental and random error. One-way main road, by road, traffic count and the number of household owning motorcycle had significant positive relations with inefficiency score. The length of freeway/highway and literacy rate variables had negative relations, significantly. Pure efficiency score was with mean of 0.95 and SD of 0.09. Conclusions
Rahimi, Habibollah; Soori, Hamid; Nazari, Seyed Saeed Hashemi; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Azar, Adel; Momeni, Eskandar; Javartani, Mehdi
Road traffic Injuries (RTIs) as a health problem imposes governments to implement different interventions. Target achievement in this issue required effective and efficient measures. Efficiency evaluation of traffic police as one of the responsible administrators is necessary for resource management. Therefore, this study conducted to measure Iran's rural traffic police efficiency. This was an ecological study. To obtain pure efficiency score, three-stage DEA model was conducted with seven inputs and three output variables. At the first stage, crude efficiency score was measured with BCC-O model. Next, to extract the effects of socioeconomic, demographic, traffic count and road infrastructure as the environmental variables and statistical noise, the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model was applied and the output values were modified according to similar environment and statistical noise conditions. Then, the pure efficiency score was measured using modified outputs and BCC-O model. In total, the efficiency score of 198 police stations from 24 provinces of 31 provinces were measured. The annual means (standard deviation) of damage, injury and fatal accidents were 247.7 (258.4), 184.9 (176.9), and 28.7 (19.5), respectively. Input averages were 5.9 (3.0) patrol teams, 0.5% (0.2) manpower proportions, 7.5 (2.9) patrol cars, 0.5 (1.3) motorcycles, 77,279.1 (46,794.7) penalties, 90.9 (2.8) cultural and educational activity score, 0.7 (2.4) speed cameras. The SFA model showed non-significant differences between police station performances and the most differences attributed to the environmental and random error. One-way main road, by road, traffic count and the number of household owning motorcycle had significant positive relations with inefficiency score. The length of freeway/highway and literacy rate variables had negative relations, significantly. Pure efficiency score was with mean of 0.95 and SD of 0.09. Iran's traffic police has potential opportunity to reduce
Barrimah, Issam; Midhet, Farid; Sharaf, Fawzi
In Saudi Arabia, road traffic accidents (RTA) are becoming a serious public health problem. Police reports are designed for legal purposes with very little information on the health consequences. Also, health system data include detailed health information, but not related or linked to the data obtained police reports. Examining the consistency of these sources is vital to build an accurate surveillance system that can track the risk factors and the health consequences, as well as establishing and evaluating prevention interventions. This study is intended to: ▪ Examine the consistency of health -registration data with the data gathered by the traffic police department.▪ Elucidate the magnitude, risk factors and outcome of RTI in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia,▪ Compare the pattern of accidents in Qassim with those at different regions of the Kingdom. Health care information was collected on visits of victims of road traffic accidents to emergency and outpatients' departments of the major hospitals in Qassim region during the year 2010. The information included the patients' demographics, and clinical characteristics. Traffic Police Department information was also collected on all accidents that occurred in the study region. A Questionnaire was also developed and pilot tested to collect data from a random sample of population attending hospital outpatient and Primary Health Care clinics. Data included previous involvement in road traffic accident, and information about any injury; fatality or disability due to these RTI. During the study period, road traffic death rate based on death registration data was almost twice as high as the rate reported by the police (P police-reported data during the study period, as opposed to a non-significant increase of 8% according to health registration data during the same period. Population Survey Information showed the overall age-sex-adjusted rate for non-fatal RTI was 20.7 (95% CI, 20.0 - 21.3)/100 persons/year. The rate
Swarup Suresh Kulkarni
Full Text Available Traffic is significant issue in our nation, particularly in urban ranges. Aftereffect of this, activity clog issue happens. Crisis vehicle like rescue vehicle, fire unit, squad cars confront bunches of issue to achieve their goal on account of congested driving conditions, coming about loss of human lives. To minimize this issue we approach new idea name as ”Traffic control framework for blockage control and stolen Vehicle location”. In this framework activity freedom done by transforming Red flag into Green flag. We demonstrate idea of what is called ”Green wave”. Alongside this, we distinguish stolen vehicle by utilizing extremely advantageous RFID innovation. In the event that stolen vehicle is been distinguished, the framework gives ready sign through ringer. Framework sends Message with the assistance of GSM to Police station. In this framework we Use diverse RFID labels for recognizing rescue vehicle, stolen Vehicles. On the off chance that Red flag is on and IR sensor is initiated, then framework gives ringer alarm to movement police. This is novel framework which encourage great answer for comprehend traffic clog.
.... Vehicle count, flow speed, headway, queue length and occupancy are some of the information that can be collected. The processed traffic data is then sent to a control center for further analysis and used by traffic operators attempting to analyze traffic on the highway.
Gregory DeAngelo; Benjamin Hansen
Simultaneity complicates the estimation of the causal effect of police on crime. We overcome this obstacle by focusing on a mass layoff of Oregon State Police in February of 2003. Due solely to budget cuts, 35 percent of the roadway troopers were laid off, which dramatically reduced citations. The subsequent decrease in enforcement is associated with a significant increase in injuries and fatalities. The effects are similar using control groups chosen either geographically or through data-dri...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research undertaken in developing countries has assessed discrepancies in police reporting of Road Traffic Injury (RTI for urban settings only. The objective of this study was to assess differences in RTI reporting across police, ambulance, and hospital Emergency Department (ED datasets on an interurban road section in Pakistan. Methods The study setting was the 196-km long Karachi-Hala road section. RTIs reported to the police, Edhi Ambulance Service (EAS, and five hospital EDs in Karachi during 2008 (Jan to Dec were compared in terms of road user involved (pedestrians, motorcyclists, four-wheeled vehicle occupants and outcome (died or injured. Further, records from these data were matched to assess ascertainment of traffic injuries and deaths by the three datasets. Results A total of 143 RTIs were reported to the police, 531 to EAS, and 661 to hospital EDs. Fatality per hundred traffic injuries was twice as high in police records (19 per 100 RTIs than in ambulance (10 per 100 RTIs and hospital ED records (9 per 100 RTIs. Pedestrian and motorcyclist involvement per hundred traffic injuries was lower in police records (8 per 100 RTIs than in ambulance (17 per 100 RTIs and hospital ED records (43 per 100 RTIs. Of the 119 deaths independently identified after matching, police recorded 22.6%, EAS 46.2%, and hospital ED 50.4%. Similarly, police data accounted for 10.6%, EAS 43.5%, and hospital ED 54.9% of the 1 095 independently identified injured patients. Conclusions Police reporting, particularly of non-fatal RTIs and those involving vulnerable road users, should be improved in Pakistan.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are the eighth-leading cause of death worldwide, with low- and middle-income countries sharing a disproportionate number of fatalities. African countries, like Rwanda, carry a higher burden of these fatalities and with increased economic growth, these numbers are expected to rise. We aim to describe the epidemiology of RTIs in Kigali Province, Rwanda and create a hotspot map of crashes from police data. Methods Road traffic crash (RTC report data from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 was collected from Kigali Traffic Police. In addition to analysis of descriptive data, locations of RTCs were mapped and analyzed through exploratory spatial data analysis to determine hotspots. Results A total of 2589 of RTCs were reported with 4689 total victims. The majority of victims were male (94.7 % with an average age of 35.9 years. Cars were the most frequent vehicle involved (43.8 %, followed by motorcycles (14.5 %. Motorcycles had an increased risk of involvement in grievous crashes and pedestrians and cyclists were more likely to have grievous injuries. The hotspots identified were primarily located along the major roads crossing Kigali and the two busiest downtown areas. Conclusions Despite significant headway by the government in RTC prevention, there continue to be high rates of RTIs in Rwanda, specifically with young males and a vulnerable road user population, such as pedestrians and motorcycle users. Improvements in police data and reporting by laypersons could prove valuable for further geographic information system analysis and efforts towards crash prevention and targeting education to motorcycle taxis could help reduce RTIs in a severely affected population.
Staton, Catherine A; De Silva, Vijitha; Krebs, Elizabeth; Andrade, Luciano; Rulisa, Stephen; Mallawaarachchi, Badra Chandanie; Jin, Kezhi; RicardoVissoci, Joao; Østbye, Truls
Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a leading cause of death. In low and middle income countries (LMIC) data to conduct hotspot analyses and safety audits are usually incomplete, poor quality, and not computerized. Police data are often limited, but there are no alternative gold standards. This project evaluates high road utilizer surveys as an alternative to police data to identify RTC hotspots. Retrospective police RTC data was compared to prospective data from high road utilizer surveys regarding dangerous road locations. Spatial analysis using geographic information systems was used to map dangerous locations and identify RTC hotspots. We assessed agreement (Cohen's Kappa), sensitivity/specificity, and cost differences. In Rwanda police data identified 1866 RTC locations from 2589 records while surveys identified 1264 locations from 602 surveys. In Sri Lanka, police data identified 721 RTC locations from 752 records while survey data found 3000 locations from 300 surveys. There was high agreement (97 %, 83 %) and kappa (0.60, 0.60) for Rwanda and Sri Lanka respectively. Sensitivity and specificity are 92 % and 95 % for Rwanda and 74 % and 93 % for Sri Lanka. The cost per crash location identified was $2.88 for police and $2.75 for survey data in Rwanda and $2.75 for police and $1.21 for survey data in Sri Lanka. Surveys to locate RTC hotspots have high sensitivity and specificity compared to police data. Therefore, surveys can be a viable, inexpensive, and rapid alternative to the use of police data in LMIC.
Orosz, Gábor; Wilson, R Eddie; Stépán, Gábor
This introductory paper reviews the current state-of-the-art scientific methods used for modelling, analysing and controlling the dynamics of vehicular traffic. Possible mechanisms underlying traffic jam formation and propagation are presented from a dynamical viewpoint. Stable and unstable motions are described that may give the skeleton of traffic dynamics, and the effects of driver behaviour are emphasized in determining the emergent state in a vehicular system. At appropriate points, references are provided to the papers published in the corresponding Theme Issue.
Gaididei, Yuri B.; Gorria, Carlos; Berkemer, Rainer
A stochastic modulation of the safety distance can reduce traffic jams. It is found that the effect of random modulation on congestive flow formation depends on the spatial correlation of the noise. Jam creation is suppressed for highly correlated noise. The results demonstrate the advantage...... of heterogeneous performance of the drivers in time as well as individually. This opens the possibility for the construction of technical tools to control traffic jam formation....
Shin, Ji-Sun; Cui, Cheng-You; Lee, Tae-Hong; Lee, Hee-Hyol
Traffic signal control is an effective method to solve the traffic jam. and forecasting traffic density has been known as an important part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The several methods of the traffic signal control are known such as random walk method, Neuron Network method, Bayesian Network method, and so on. In this paper, we propose a new method of a traffic signal control using a predicted distribution of traffic jam based on a Dynamic Bayesian Network model. First, a forecasting model to predict a probabilistic distribution of the traffic jam during each period of traffic lights is built. As the forecasting model, the Dynamic Bayesian Network is used to predict the probabilistic distribution of a density of the traffic jam. According to measurement of two crossing points for each cycle, the inflow and outflow of each direction and the number of standing vehicles at former cycle are obtained. The number of standing vehicle at k-th cycle will be calculated synchronously. Next, the probabilistic distribution of the density of standing vehicle in each cycle will be predicted using the Dynamic Bayesian Network constructed for the traffic jam. And then a control rule to adjust the split and the cycle to increase the probability between a lower limit and ceiling of the standing vehicles is deduced. As the results of the simulation using the actual traffic data of Kitakyushu city, the effectiveness of the method is shown.
Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
of reliable predictors of safe or unsafe driving behaviour. Given this background, the aim of this study was to test whether driver sub-groups identified based on self-reported driving behaviour and skill differed in registered traffic law offences and accidents, and whether group membership was predictive...... from the Danish Driving License Register. Results show that the driver sub-groups differed significantly in registered traffic offences but not in registered accidents. In a logistic regression analysis, the sub-group “Violating unsafe drivers” was found predictive of having a traffic offence, even...... when socio-demographic variables and exposure were controlled for. The most important predictive factor, however, was having a criminal record for non-traffic offences, while gender, living without a partner, and being self-employed also had a significant effect. The study confirms the use of the DBQ...
Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling
The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.
This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)
Ciufudean, Calin; Filote, Constantin
This paper proposes a new time-placed net model for traffic control systems, respectively railway control traffic systems. This model can be interpreted as a holonic one, and contains three modules: Transport Planning Module, Transport Control Module and Priority Control Module. For railway traffic systems we introduce a strategy in a timed-place Petri net model to solve collision and traffic jam problems.
Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of self-propelled...
Senthilkumar, K.; Ellappan, Vijayan; Arun, A. R.
This paper shows the work on traffic analysis and control till date. It shows an approach to regulate traffic the use of image processing and MATLAB systems. This concept uses computational images that are to be compared with original images of the street taken in order to determine the traffic level percentage and set the timing for the traffic signal accordingly which are used to reduce the traffic stoppage on traffic lights. They concept proposes to solve real life scenarios in the streets, thus enriching the traffic lights by adding image receivers like HD cameras and image processors. The input is then imported into MATLAB to be used. as a method for calculating the traffic on roads. Their results would be computed in order to adjust the traffic light timings on a particular street, and also with respect to other similar proposals but with the added value of solving a real, big instance.
Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the
Cui, Cheng-You; Shin, Ji-Sun; Miyazaki, Michio; Lee, Hee-Hyol
Real-time traffic signal control is an integral part of urban traffic control system. It can control traffic signals online according to variation of traffic flow. In this paper, we propose a new method for the real-time traffic signal control system. The system uses a Cellular Automaton model and a Bayesian Network model to predict probabilistic distributions of standing vehicles, and uses a Particle Swarm Optimization method to calculate optimal traffic signals. A simulation based on real traffic data was carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real-time traffic signal control system CAPSOBN using a micro traffic simulator.
these functions, it is rec. 2-75a2 Example.- ommended combining them on local control. The ATIS may be "Attention all aircraft. False air traffic...all aircraft. False air traffic control instructions used to specify the desired frequency. have been received in the area of Long Beach Airport
Detrick, Amanda F.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Certain states with religious systems of governance maintain and deploy morality police forces as a mechanism of social control. What role do morality police play in the social control programs of Islamic states? How are those forces employed, and what are the effects of those forces on society? These issues were explored through a comparative study of morality policing programs under three Islamic regimes: the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,...
In this dissertation we make use of the theories of stochastic processes and operations research to develop models and methods to be applied for the analysis and control of road traffic networks. Within this field three subjects are considered: individual routing, urban traffic light networks and
Dynamic traffic control measures, such as ramp metering and dynamic speed limits, can be used to better utilize the available road capacity. Due to the increasing traffic volumes and the increasing number of traffic jams the interaction between the control measures has increased such that local
Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.; Groen, F.C.A.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.
Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of
Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Groen, F.C.A.
Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of
We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.
De Silva, Vijitha; Tharindra, Hemajith; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Andrade, Luciano; Mallawaarachchi, Badra Chandanie; Østbye, Truls; Staton, Catherine A
Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a leading cause of death and disability. In low- and middle-income countries, vulnerable road users are commonly involved in injurious RTCs. This study describes epidemiological and built environment analysis (BEA) of in Galle, Sri Lanka. After ethical and police permission, police data were collected and descriptive statistics tabulated. Spatial analysis identified hot spots and BEA was conducted at each location. Seven hundred and fifty-two victim data from 389 reported RTCs were collected. Most victims were male (91%) 21-50 years of age (>70%). Forty-nine percent of RTCs were non-grievous. Crashes commonly included motorcycles (33.9%), three-wheelers (18.3%) or cars (14.4%). Most victims were drivers (33.4%) or pedestrians (21.3%). Factors contributing to RTCs include aggressive driving (44.5%) or speeding (42.7%). All hotspots were in urban areas, and most were at intersections (63%). Further analysis of hot spots is necessary to identify areas for intervention.
Janecek, J. J.; Zargham, Mehdi R.
Automatic control of traffic signals in many cities are often based on a constant green-to-red cycle. The time period for green light (or red light) to be on is fixed, and is determined based on a stochastic model. In some situations, a human operator, or a fixed timer, may change the time period dyring time intervals where there is heavy traffic--typically during commuting times. Although in today's traffic controllers, the time period for green light can be changed in certain circumstances, in general they are not able to adjust dynamically to traffic changes. This paper presents the design of a controller that considers the intersection of two two-way streets and is able to adjust to environmental changes. Simulation of the proposed controller has produced results more in line with what we expected. In many cases, the proposed system has produced better results than systems that are based on a constant green-to-red cycle.
This report presents findings on three different activities conducted in the Traffic Control Device Evaluation Program during the 2016 fiscal year. The first two activities are evaluations of full-matrix color light-emitting diode changeable message ...
To celebrate FAA and its LaGuardia Airport employees past, : present, and future this booklet outlines the airports history and accomplishments and includes copies of some of the photographs in the : air traffic control towers history g...
knowlodg of the world from our experience, undverstanding, end acquisition of’ information. These divisions do not fit practical considerations nuatly...Clearly in air tra.ffic control the coan-troller relies liavily on long term memory for hei general knowlodge of the principles, methods and techniques of...air traffic control and for his specific knowledge about the way those prinoiples are translated into practice in a partioalar air space under his own
Rus, Linda; Cheesebro, Kathy; Nagra, Erica; Neff, Alaina
Educating nurses on the multitude of new and updated best practices, changes in regulatory standards, new equipment, and enhanced technology creates an "information traffic jam." Multiple practice changes occurring simultaneously pose challenges for nurses to retain information to practice safely and effectively. An absence of coordination between various nursing and allied health teaching initiatives compounds this problem. A nursing practice calendar was developed to facilitate the prioritization, communication, and education of hospital-wide initiatives affecting nursing practice.
Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev
Full Text Available Proposed a structure of traffic accidents control system included three main parts: pre-processing, decision support and monitoring. For decision support systems we propose a method that allows to make decisions on the basis of fuzzy situational management. The advantage of the method: it allows to formalize a set of typical traffic situations, using the theory of fuzzy sets and to carry out selection of the desired management action.
Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.
Barbosa, R.R.R.; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko
Industrial control systems play a major role in the operation of critical infrastructure assets. Due to the polling mechanisms typically used to retrieve data from field devices, industrial control network traffic exhibits strong periodic patterns. This paper presents a novel approach that uses
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and implement fuzzy logic based traffic light Control system to solve the traffic congestion issues. In this system four input parameters: Arrival, Queue, Pedestrian and Emergency Vehicle and two output parameters: Extension in Green and Pedestrian Signals are used. Using Fuzzy Rule Base, the system extends or terminates the Green Signal according to the Traffic situation at the junction. On the presence of emergency vehicle, the system decides which signal(s should be red and how much an extension should be given to Green Signal for Emergency Vehicle. The system also monitors the density of people and makes decisions accordingly. In order to verify the proposed design algorithm MATLAB simulation is adopted and results obtained show concurrency to the calculated values according to the Mamdani Model of the Fuzzy Control System.
López Alvarado, Mauricio
Since the 1990s, Mexican police organizations made it evident that they were incapable of handling public security and had unprecedented levels of corruption and police-related crimes. To face these cases of police incompetence and misconduct, reforms to the law enforcement system were designed and
Majority of accidents experienced with railway transportation involve collision with automobiles or other vehicles and collision with other trains. These collisions can be averted by putting safety measures in place. Part of the measures can be achieved by using computerized railway station traffic control systems that use ...
Up till today, it is somehow very disturbing that despite the constitutional power granted to the police to maintain public peace, safety and general security in Nigeria the quality of security has nothing to be proud of and it has no doubt generated a great deal of controversies. In the past two decades events confirm a total ...
The purpose of this project was to develop an automated tool that facilitates testing of traffic controller functionality using controller interface device (CID) technology. Benefits of such automated testers to traffic engineers include reduced test...
Full Text Available A atividade policial na democracia impõe a questão sobre o controle dos policiais, ou seja, como assegurar que eles, em sua tarefa de assegurar a ordem pública, não violarão os direitos dos cidadãos. A organização policial inclina-se em direção aos mecanismos formais de controle como as normas e os procedimentos, mas essas formas de regulação de conduta podem ser insuficientes, devido à ampla margem de liberdade que os guardas desfrutam nas ruas. Tomando-se como referência os discursos de oficiais policiais militares da Bahia, este artigo discute a prática policial na sociedade democrática e a percepção elaborada pelos policiais dos mecanismos de controle de seus pares e conclui enfatizando os obstáculos que podem ser encontrados na tarefa de controle dos policiais, empecilhos cuja superação torna-se difícil porque têm origem na própria atividade policial.In a democracy, police activity requires control of the police officers, to make sure that in their task of ensuring public order they will not violate the citizens' rights. The police organization leans toward the formal mechanisms of control, such as rules and procedures, but these forms of conduct regulation may be insufficient, due to the large margin of freedom the officers have on the streets. Examining the discourse of military police officers from the state of Bahia, this article discusses the police practice in a democratic society, and the officers' perception of the mechanisms used to control their colleagues. In the conclusion, the paper emphasizes the obstacles that can be found in the task of controlling police officers, obstacles that are difficult to overcome because they have their origin in the police activity.
Van Katwijk, R.T.
The objective of this thesis is to create a distributed, multi-agent, approach to traffic control. This PhD thesis' focus is on the control of a network instrumented by traffic signals.A thorough literature study has been performed, reviewing the current state of the art in traffic signal control.
Air travel in recent years has been plagued by record delays, with over $8 billion in direct operating costs being attributed to 100 million flight delay minutes in 2007. Major contributing factors to delay include weather, congestion, and aging infrastructure; the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) aims to alleviate these delays through an upgrade of the air traffic control system. Changes to large-scale networked systems such as air traffic control are complicated by the need for coordinated solutions over disparate temporal and spatial scales. Individual air traffic controllers must ensure aircraft maintain safe separation locally with a time horizon of seconds to minutes, whereas regional plans are formulated to efficiently route flows of aircraft around weather and congestion on the order of every hour. More efficient control algorithms that provide a coordinated solution are required to safely handle a larger number of aircraft in a fixed amount of airspace. Improved estimation algorithms are also needed to provide accurate aircraft state information and situational awareness for human controllers. A hierarchical framework is developed to simultaneously solve the sometimes conflicting goals of regional efficiency and local safety. Careful attention is given in defining the interactions between the layers of this hierarchy. In this way, solutions to individual air traffic problems can be targeted and implemented as needed. First, the regional traffic flow management problem is posed as an optimization problem and shown to be NP-Hard. Approximation methods based on aggregate flow models are developed to enable real-time implementation of algorithms that reduce the impact of congestion and adverse weather. Second, the local trajectory design problem is solved using a novel slot-based sector model. This model is used to analyze sector capacity under varying traffic patterns, providing a more comprehensive understanding of how increased automation
Seignette, P.; Dijkman, J.J.; Grijpink, J.H.A.M.; Plomp, M.G.A.
This article presents the results of the chain analysis of the traffic control chain according to the method of Chain-computerisation. The traffic control chain co-operation aims at maintaining car mobility with minimal delay. Car mobility is threatened by disruptions of traffic flows that are
Zongyao, Wang; Cong, Sui; Cheng, Shao
Fixed point learning has become an important tool to analyse large scale distributed system such as urban traffic network. This paper presents a fixed point learning based intelligence traffic network control system. The system applies convergence property of fixed point theorem to optimize the traffic flow density. The intelligence traffic control system achieves maximum road resources usage by averaging traffic flow density among the traffic network. The intelligence traffic network control system is built based on decentralized structure and intelligence cooperation. No central control is needed to manage the system. The proposed system is simple, effective and feasible for practical use. The performance of the system is tested via theoretical proof and simulations. The results demonstrate that the system can effectively solve the traffic congestion problem and increase the vehicles average speed. It also proves that the system is flexible, reliable and feasible for practical use.
Most current traffic signal systems are operated using a very archaic traffic-detection simple binary : logic (vehicle presence/non presence information). The logic was originally developed to provide input for old : electro-mechanical controllers th...
High quality vehicle detection is essential to properly operate actuated phases at traffic signals and to facilitate effective : management of technician and engineering resources. INDOT operates over 2600 traffic signal controllers, approximately 20...
air traffic coNtrol SpecialiStS: Why Be aN air traffic coNtroller? “Gen-X,” “Gen- Y ,” “Baby Boomer,” “ Millennial ,” “The Greatest Generation ”: Labels... Millennials ” (Gimbel, 2007), descriptions of generational differences are a staple in the human resources (HR) trade press and corporate training. The...controllers, recruited from Gen-X and Millennials , than to the “Post-Strike” generation (largely Baby Boomers) and non-material factors such as the
Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P.; Johnston, A. R.
An improved Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) speed control system employing a microprocessor and transistor chopper motor current controller is described and its performance is presented in terms of velocity versus time curves. The on board computer hardware and software systems are described as is the software development system. All of the programming used in this controller was implemented using FORTRAN. This microprocessor controller made possible a number of safety features and improved the comfort associated with starting and shopping. In addition, most of the vehicle's performance characteristics can be altered by simple program parameter changes. A failure analysis of the microprocessor controller was generated and the results are included. Flow diagrams for the speed control algorithms and complete FORTRAN code listings are also included.
This paper considers an automated static road traffic control system of an intersection for the purpose of minimizing the effects of traffic jam and hence its attendant consequences such as prolonged waiting time, emission of toxic hydrocarbons from automobiles, etc. Using real-time road traffic data, a dynamic round-robin ...
Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.
Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.
Demmou, H.; Hermitte, L.; Sahraoui, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d`Analyse et d`Architecture des Systemes; Olivero, P. [ZELT, 31 - Toulouse (France)
The aim of this paper is to present an approach for traffic light signals control and traffic congestion prediction based on the neural network technique. We propose to define and implement a modular and integrated functional structure to realize these two very important tasks when facing traffic problems. A methodology for Neural Network approach is proposed. The approach is intended for transportation systems and mainly for urban traffic control. The main objectives of the work are two fold; the first is to develop a generic methodology for Neural Network approach; the second is to enhance such development for transportation issues mainly in urban traffic congestion detection, congestion prediction, supervision and control. (authors) 5 refs.
Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.
Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E
Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System, traffic control. 236.828 Section 236.828..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.828 System, traffic control. A block signal system under which train movements are authorized by block...
Salari, Hedayat; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Arab, Mohammad; Esfandiari, Atefeh; Akbari Sari, Ali
Injuries and fatalities from road traffic Injuries are global public health concerns, and a major problem in the Iran. This study aimed to explore strategies to control road traffic Injuries (RTI) in Iran. We conducted a qualitative study to explore possible ways to reduce the occurrence of road traffic Injuries in Iran in 2016. Interviewees were purposively sampled from various sectors due to multidisciplinary nature of RTIs. Participants were mainly representatives from the police, Ministry of Road, Municipal, emergency services and Ministry of Health. Besides, public health authorities, researchers, and university professors were interviewed. We conducted in-depth interviews using generic guides. Data was analyzed using MAXQDA 10 software. Through content analysis, we interpreted core themes relevant to the accomplishment of our study objectives. Themes that emerged from our study include; road traffic management, governance, education, improving accident database, enforcement, driving license restrictions, and construction of pedestrian overpass. This study revealed key informants' views regarding available and affordable solutions to reduce RTIs in Iran. Many applicable strategies are identified in the control of RTIs in Iran. Although some solutions such as highway construction and/or expanding rail transportation have been suggested as effective measures for reducing accident, but they are costly and may not be fully applied in developing countries like Iran.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...... assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...
This study explored the coping resources that air traffic controllers used to cope with work-related stress, and determined if there are statistically significant differences in the coping resources of air traffic control staff from different demographic sub-groups. Air travel has increased and is expected to continue to increase as ...
Therefore, poor management of this congestion may lead to a lot of flight delays, increase of operational errors by air traffic control personnel (controllers), and passengers' dissatisfaction . The growing trend of traffic congestion and many prob- lems emerging from it made aviation industry specialists look for appropriate ...
Herrera, J.F.R.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Casado, L.G.; Haijema, R.
Traffic lights can be controlled dynamically through rules reacting on the number of waiting vehicles at each light. A rule can be captured by a so-called Traffic Control Table (TCT). The Value Iteration method from Stochastic Dynamic Programming has been used for simple networks to derive a TCT.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers. 842.207 Section 842.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.207 Air traffic controllers. (a) An employee who separates from...
An analysis of scores for an extensive battery of psychological tests administered to a large number of air traffic controller (ATC) trainees indicated that such tests can make a useful contribution in the selection of personnel for ATC training. Fiv...
Avionics devices designed to provide pilots with graphically displayed traffic information will enable pilots to acquire and verify the identity of any intruder aircraft within the general area, either before or in accordance with a controller-issued...
Schnieder, Eckehard (ed.) [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verkehrssicherheit und Automatisierungstechnik
Traffic control aims the comprehensive guidance of complex traffic flows. The book provides a solid foundation, from design to realization with highly detailed technical systems. It presents a functionally oriented traffic process control strategy as its main topic, valuable for further technology change. Four main topics treat tasks and structures of traffic process control systems: single vehicle control and information management; traffic flow control; node control; operation and network management. The book addresses students and specialists of traffic science, who already have basic knowledge of the road- and rail sector and control engineering in relation systems theory. (GL) [German] Ziel der Verkehrsleittechnik ist die Beherrschung komplexer Verkehrsstroeme des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs. Vom Entwurf bis zur Realisierung mit technischen Einrichtungen, die eine grosse Detailfuelle aufweisen, wird eine solide Grundlage vermittelt. Das vorliegende Buch stellt dafuer eine funktional orientierte Verkehrsleittechnik in den Mittelpunkt, die ueber den Technologiewandel hinaus gilt. Vier Abschnitte behandeln die Aufgaben und Strukturen von Verkehrsleitsystemen: Einzelfahrzeugsteuerung und -informationsmanagement; Verkehrsflusssteuerung; Knotensteuerung; Betriebs- und Netzmanagement. Das Buch richtet sich an Studierende und Fachleute des Verkehrswesens. Voraussetzungen sind Kenntnisse des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs und der Regelungstechnik bzw. Systemtheorie. (orig.)
High quality sensing and control systems are essential for providing efficient signalized arterial operations. INDOT operates over 2600 traffic signal controllers, approximately 2000 of which use some form of vehicle detection. The private sector con...
Gaididei, Yu B.; Gorria, C.; Berkemer, R.
The possibility of controlling traffic dynamics by applying high-frequency time modulation of traffic flow parameters is studied. It is shown that the region of the car density where the uniform (free) flow is unstable changes in the presence of time modulation compared with the unmodulated case....
Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona
This study assessed the ability of people with visual impairments to reliably detect oncoming traffic at crossing situations with no traffic control. In at least one condition, the participants could not hear vehicles to afford a safe crossing time when sound levels were as quiet as possible. Significant predictors of detection accounted for a…
This project developed a quantile regression method for predicting future traffic flow at a signalized intersection by combining both historical and real-time data. The algorithm exploits nonlinear correlations in historical measurements and efficien...
Traffic congestion is not a modern phenomenon, but the growth of motor traffic driven by the supply of petroleum is. This coincides with concern about climate change caused by carbon emissions to which transport makes a substantial and increasing contribution. It seems that private cars in particular cannot be useful without coming to dominate human activity and even whole economies, creating dependence, congestion and severance which paradoxically negate many of the benefits of mobility. Ele...
Yan, Zheng; Kantola, Raimo; Shen, Yue
The Internet has dramatically changed our daily life. But it is also bogged down by unwanted traffic, which is malicious, harmful or unexpected for its receivers. In order to control the unwanted traffic over the Internet, especially the mobile Internet, in this paper, we propose a generic unwanted traffic control (UTC) solution through trust management. It can control unwanted traffic from its source to destinations in a personalized manner according to trust evaluation at a Global Trust Operator, traffic and behavior analysis at hosts and traffic observation in the Internet. Thus, it can conduct UTC by integrating distributed and centralized functions and supporting both defensive and offensive approaches. Simulation based evaluation shows that the solution is effective with regard to accuracy and efficiency for botnet intrusion and DDoS intrusion via reflectors. It is also robust against a number of malicious system attacks, such as hide evidence attack, bad mouthing attack, on-off attack, malicious attack by an Internet Service Provider and combinations of the above, playing in conjunction with traffic intrusions. Meanwhile, the solution can provide a personalized UTC based on unwanted traffic detection behaviors.
Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of this study is to research applied models of air traffic controllers’ errors prevention in terminal control areas (TMA under uncertainty conditions. In this work the theoretical framework descripting safety events and errors of air traffic controllers connected with the operations in TMA is proposed. Methods: optimisation of terminal control area formal description based on the Threat and Error management model and the TMA network model of air traffic flows. Results: the human factors variables associated with safety events in work of air traffic controllers under uncertainty conditions were obtained. The Threat and Error management model application principles to air traffic controller operations and the TMA network model of air traffic flows were proposed. Discussion: Information processing context for preventing air traffic controller errors, examples of threats in work of air traffic controllers, which are relevant for TMA operations under uncertainty conditions.
Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun
This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well...
Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi
In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.
Throughout the past six decades, the predominant mode of student transport has shifted from walkingto riding in a school bus or personal vehicle which has impacted both the safety and efficiency of school zone traffic control strategies. In order to ...
In this paper we present the results of : applying data mining techniques to identify patterns and : anomalies in air traffic control operational errors (OEs). : Reducing the OE rate is of high importance and remains a : challenge in the aviation saf...
This project was established to provide a means of conducting limited scope evaluations of numerous traffic : control device issues. During the fifth, and final, year of the project, researchers conducted four activities: : improving the interface fo...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We investigate solutions to problems of air traffic control subject to real-world limitations on the computational/communication cost of finding that solution. The...
Aslani, Mohammad; Mesgari, Mohammad Saadi; Wiering, Marco
The transportation demand is rapidly growing in metropolises, resulting in chronic traffic con-gestions in dense downtown areas. Adaptive traffic signal control as the principle part of in-telligent transportation systems has a primary role to effectively reduce traffic congestion by making a
Barchielli, Alessandro; Balzi, Daniela
to evaluate the informative capability of merging data from police and medical data-sets in the assessment of adverse health effects and costs for the health system of road traffic accidents in an urban area (Florence City). record linkage between the road traffic accidents data-base of Municipal Police and routinely collected medical data (emergency department access and hospital admission data-bases). Municipal Police data-base collects information (i.e: dynamics and localization of road traffic accident, emergency department or hospital of access, etc.) about road traffic accidents casualties occurred in Florence City (completeness: about 97% of events). Florence City, year 2002. information about emergency department access or hospital admission were found for 74.8% (4,001/5,350) of people classified as "injured" in the Municipal Police data-base: 72.8% (3,895 subjects) treated in an emergency department and 12.3% (656 subjects) hospitalised. Among patients with medical information, 81.9% was treated in emergency departments for less severe injuries, 1.8% had a fracture treated in the emergency department and 16.3% was hospitalised. Fractures (42.7% of all hospitalisations) and head injuries (33.5%) were the most frequent discharge diagnoses. On the basis of diagnosis and of the length of hospital stay, we estimate that about 1% road traffic accidents casualties (fatalities not included) had very severe outcome or disability. The cost for the health system of treatment of people injured in road traffic accidents can be estimated at about 2.2 millions of euros (1.3% of total hospitalisations cost per year for residents in Florence). The characteristics of medical data-sets suggest an underestimation of the actual number of emergency department accesses. It is unlikely that this underestimation notably affects the results for the low severity of the majority of emergency departments accesses. record linkage between Municipal Police and routinely collected medical
Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu
in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.
Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad
Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.
Gazis, Denos C
... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...
Brian R. Basham
Full Text Available The past few decades has seen a high degree of scrutiny on police and police instructional techniques, with various researchers recommending engagement with adult learning principles. However, what is lacking in contemporary research is any discussion about the role of police instructors and whether they are able to engage with adult learning principles. This critical essay commences that discussion and offers suggestions on how to transition the police instructor to become an effective police educator. It is argued that police instructors undertake several informal roles that are in contrast to the role of an educator; and place the police instructor in an abnormal position of power. Further, it is proposed that the current required training qualification for police instructors is an inappropriate and ineffectual qualification for police educators. This critique concludes by offering some suggestions that are likely to overcome potential barriers to increasing the competency of police instructors.
Kirschfink, H. [Heusch (Dr.-Ing. H.) Boesefeldt (Dipl.-Ing. J.) Beratende Ingenieure fuer Verkehrstechnik und Datenverarbeitung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)
The contribution describes direct and indirect traffic control measures. A general architecture of traffic control systems for motorways is outlined whose key requirement is the availability of current data. Intelligent methods of traffic flow analysis for data complementation and assessment are described. The key role of the computer center in the general architecture is stressed, and new developments in traffic jam management are outlined. [German] Schwerpunkt dieses Aufsatzes ist die Beschreibung direkter und indirekter Steuerungsmassnahmen im Rahmen kollektiver Verkehrsbeeinflussungsmassnahmen. Es wird eine generelle Architektur von Verkehrsbeeinflussungsanlagen auf Autobahnen skizziert, deren grundlegende Voraussetzung die Verfuegbarkeit aktueller Daten ist. Ausserdem werden intelligente Verkehrsflussanalyse-Verfahren zur Datenvervollstaendigung und -abschaetzung beschrieben. Es wird die tragende Rolle der Verkehrsrechnerzentrale innerhalb der Gesamtarchitektur beruecksichtigt und auf neuere Entwicklungen auf dem Gebiet des Staumanagements hingewiesen. (orig.)
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT... AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICES AND NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES Airport Traffic Control Towers § 170.13 Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) establishment criteria. (a) The following criteria along with general...
Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a common problem in many countries, especially in big cities. At present, China’s urban road traffic accidents occur frequently, the occurrence frequency is high, the accident causes traffic congestion, and accidents cause traffic congestion and vice versa. The occurrence of traffic accidents usually leads to the reduction of road traffic capacity and the formation of traffic bottlenecks, causing the traffic congestion. In this paper, the formation and propagation of traffic congestion are simulated by using the improved medium traffic model, and the control strategy of congestion dissipation is studied. From the point of view of quantitative traffic congestion, the paper provides the fact that the simulation platform of urban traffic integration is constructed, and a feasible data analysis, learning, and parameter calibration method based on RBF neural network is proposed, which is used to determine the corresponding decision support system. The simulation results prove that the control strategy proposed in this paper is effective and feasible. According to the temporal and spatial evolution of the paper, we can see that the network has been improved on the whole.
Hart, S. G.; Mcpherson, D.; Kreifeldt, J.; Wemple, T. E.
A terminal area air traffic control simulation was designed to study ways of accommodating increased air traffic density. The concepts that were investigated assumed the availability of the microwave landing system and data link and included: (1) multiple curved descending final approaches; (2) parallel runways certified for independent and simultaneous operation under IFR conditions; (3) closer spacing between successive aircraft; and (4) a distributed management system between the air and ground. Three groups each consisting of three pilots and two air traffic controllers flew a combined total of 350 approaches. Piloted simulators were supplied with computer generated traffic situation displays and flight instruments. The controllers were supplied with a terminal area map and digital status information. Pilots and controllers also reported that the distributed management procedure was somewhat more safe and orderly than the centralized management procedure. Flying precision increased as the amount of turn required to intersect the outer mark decreased. Pilots reported that they preferred the alternative of multiple curved descending approaches with wider spacing between aircraft to closer spacing on single, straight in finals while controllers preferred the latter option. Both pilots and controllers felt that parallel runways are an acceptable way to accommodate increased traffic density safely and expeditiously.
Gold, Christian; Körber, Moritz; Lechner, David; Bengler, Klaus
The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of traffic density and verbal tasks on takeover performance in highly automated driving. In highly automated vehicles, the driver has to occasionally take over vehicle control when approaching system limits. To ensure safety, the ability of the driver to regain control of the driving task under various driving situations and different driver states needs to be quantified. Seventy-two participants experienced takeover situations requiring an evasive maneuver on a three-lane highway with varying traffic density (zero, 10, and 20 vehicles per kilometer). In a between-subjects design, half of the participants were engaged in a verbal 20-Questions Task, representing speaking on the phone while driving in a highly automated vehicle. The presence of traffic in takeover situations led to longer takeover times and worse takeover quality in the form of shorter time to collision and more collisions. The 20-Questions Task did not influence takeover time but seemed to have minor effects on the takeover quality. For the design and evaluation of human-machine interaction in takeover situations of highly automated vehicles, the traffic state seems to play a major role, compared to the driver state, manipulated by the 20-Questions Task. The present results can be used by developers of highly automated systems to appropriately design human-machine interfaces and to assess the driver's time budget for regaining control. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Growing concerns over the scalability of air traffic operations, air transportation fuel emissions and prices, as well as the advent of communication and sensing technologies motivate improvements to the air traffic management system. To address such improvements, in this thesis a hybrid dynamical model as an abstraction of the air traffic system is considered. Wind and hazardous weather impacts are included using a stochastic model. This thesis focuses on the design of algorithms for verification and control of hybrid and stochastic dynamical systems and the application of these algorithms to air traffic management problems. In the deterministic setting, a numerically efficient algorithm for optimal control of hybrid systems is proposed based on extensions of classical optimal control techniques. This algorithm is applied to optimize the trajectory of an Airbus 320 aircraft in the presence of wind and storms. In the stochastic setting, the verification problem of reaching a target set while avoiding obstacles (reach-avoid) is formulated as a two-player game to account for external agents' influence on system dynamics. The solution approach is applied to air traffic conflict prediction in the presence of stochastic wind. Due to the uncertainty in forecasts of the hazardous weather, and hence the unsafe regions of airspace for aircraft flight, the reach-avoid framework is extended to account for stochastic target and safe sets. This methodology is used to maximize the probability of the safety of aircraft paths through hazardous weather. Finally, the problem of modeling and optimization of arrival air traffic and runway configuration in dense airspace subject to stochastic weather data is addressed. This problem is formulated as a hybrid optimal control problem and is solved with a hierarchical approach that decouples safety and performance. As illustrated with this problem, the large scale of air traffic operations motivates future work on the efficient
Schoute, Albert L.; Bouwens, Peter J.; Bouwens, P.J.; De Backer, E.
Traffic control of vehicles on pre-planned paths may be based on critical sections where vehicles have to control their velocity mutually in order to avoid collisions. By analysing the geometry of critical sections carefully deadlock situations can be recognised and situations where vehicles may
This paper presents the design, construction, and test of an electronic signal controller for urban vehicular traffic control. The design is based on a series of fixed-time signal plans for different time zones of the day and can accommodate sixty-four signal plans. Finite state machine concept was used in the design of the signal ...
One of the major challenges in optimization-based control of large-scale intelligent infrastructural networks such as traffic networks is to find efficient multilevel optimization schemes through which decisions can be made by agents or controllers of different interacting layers. The hierarchical
Aircraft landing planning (ALP) is one of the most important challenging problems in the domain of air traffic control (ATC). Solving this ... ance between air transportation demand, the capacity of routes, sectors, terminal control ... attain intelligent flight planning with minimum flight delays. In the second section of this paper, ...
Computationally efficient dynamic fuel consumption, emissions, and dispersion of emissions models are developed. Fast and practically feasible model-based controller is proposed. Using the developed models, the controller steers the traffic flow in such a way that a balanced trade-off between the
Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.
The operation and the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low speed automated mixed traffic vehicles (AMTVs) were analyzed. Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies were evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed traffic interference on the average vehicle speed was examined with a vehicle pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed were evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort. Some preliminary data on the cost and operation of an experimental AMTV system are included. These data were the result of a separate task conducted at JPL, and were included as background information.
Li, Zhipeng; Li, Wenzhong; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing; Sun, Jian
In this paper, we propose a heterogeneous car following model in terms of an extension to the original optimal velocity model characterizing two classes of different self-stabilizing control vehicles. Linear stability analysis method is utilized to the extended model, for purpose to explore how the varying percentages of the vehicles with short-duration self-stabilizing control influence the stability of the heterogeneous traffic flow. We obtain the neutral stability lines for different percentages of two classes of vehicles, with finding that the traffic flow trends to stable with the decrease of the percentage for short-duration self-stabilizing control vehicles. Moreover, we explore a special case that the same numbers of two different classes of vehicles with self-stabilizing control. We theoretically derive the stability condition of the special case, and conclude the effect of the average value and the standard deviation of two time gaps, on the heterogeneous traffic stability. At last, direct simulations are conducted to verify the conclusion of theoretical analysis.
John L. McLin
Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a worsening problem in metropolitan areas which will require integrated regional traffic control systems to improve traffic conditions. This paper presents a regional traffic control system which can detect incident conditions and provide integrated traffic management during nonrecurrent congestion events. The system combines advanced artificial intelligence techniques with a traffic performance model based on HCM equations. Preliminary evaluation of the control system using traffic microsimulation demonstrates that it has the potential to improve system conditions during traffic incidents. In addition, several enhancements were identified which will make the system more robust in a real traffic control setting. An assessment of the control system elements indicates that there are no substantial technical barriers in implementing this system in a large traffic network.
IJtsma (Student TU Delft), Martijn; Borst, C.; Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Mulder, M.; van Paassen, M.M.; Tsang, P.S.; Vidulich, M.A.
Through smart scheduling and triggering of automation support, adaptive automation has the potential to balance air traffic controller workload. The challenge in the design of adaptive automation systems is to decide how and when the automation should provide support. This paper describes the design
Lu, S.; Li, J.; Van Zuylen, H.
Different aspects of the traffic control system in the CBD of Changsha have been evaluated. A general issue is the safety conditions, which are evaluated qualitatively. The second issue is the low saturation flow observed on the intersections, that appear to be 20 to 30% lower than the ones in
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
variability and the impact of control. Proc. ACM/SIGCOMM pp 301–313. Feldman A, Gilbert A, Willinger W 1999b Data networks as cascades: Investigating the multifractal nature of internet wan traffic. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theor. 45: 971–991. Frisch U, Parisi G 1985 Fully developed turbulence and intermittency. Proc. Int. Summer ...
Kurt Derr; Milos Manic
Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.
Kurt Derr; Milos Manic
Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.
Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.
Freed, Michael; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)
Experiments intended to assess performance in human-machine interactions are often prohibitively expensive, unethical or otherwise impractical to run. Approximations of experimental results can be obtained, in principle, by simulating the behavior of subjects using computer models of human mental behavior. Computer simulation technology has been developed for this purpose. Our goal is to produce a cognitive model suitable to guide the simulation machinery and enable it to closely approximate a human subject's performance in experimental conditions. The described model is designed to simulate a variety of cognitive behaviors involved in routine air traffic control. As the model is elaborated, our ability to predict the effects of novel circumstances on controller error rates and other performance characteristics should increase. This will enable the system to project the impact of proposed changes to air traffic control procedures and equipment on controller performance.
Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation for a different aircraft, based on the specific aircraft data that can be incorporated in the model and the equations of motions which can be consequently solved. The aircraft flight design involves various technical steps and requires the use of sophisticated software having modeling and simulation capabilities. Within the flight simulation model, the aerodynamic model can be regarded as the most complex and most important. With appropriate aerodynamic modeling the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft's center of gravity can be numerically solved with accuracy. These forces and moments are further used to solve the equations of motion. The development of control and computing technology makes it possible for advanced flight control strategy. The advanced control techniques tend to make the control design and their implementation much more complicated with more control loops or channels; in this line, the autopilot of modern aircrafts includes a variety of automatic control systems that aid and support the flight navigation, flight management, and perform the enhancing and/or augmenting of the stability characteristics of the airplane. Therefore in this context it is very important to choose the dynamic that will satisfy the performance and robustness specifications.
Jackson, Dontae L.
In the world of aviation, air traffic controllers are an integral part in the overall level of safety that is provided. With a number of controllers reaching retirement age, the Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) was created to provide a stronger candidate pool. However, AT-CTI Instructors have found that a number of AT-CTI students are unable to memorize types of aircraft effectively. This study focused on the basic learning styles (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic) of students and created a teaching method to try to increase memorization in AT-CTI students. The participants were asked to take a questionnaire to determine their learning style. Upon knowing their learning styles, participants attended two classroom sessions. The participants were given a presentation in the first class, and divided into a control and experimental group for the second class. The control group was given the same presentation from the first classroom session while the experimental group had a group discussion and utilized Middle Tennessee State University's Air Traffic Control simulator to learn the aircraft types. Participants took a quiz and filled out a survey, which tested the new teaching method. An appropriate statistical analysis was applied to determine if there was a significant difference between the control and experimental groups. The results showed that even though the participants felt that the method increased their learning, there was no significant difference between the two groups.
Hiraguri, Takefumi; Ichikawa, Takeo; Iizuka, Masataka; Kubota, Shuji
This paper proposes two traffic control schemes to support the communication quality of multimedia streaming services such as VoIP and audio/video over IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN systems. The main features of the proposed scheme are bandwidth control for each flow of the multimedia streaming service and load balancing between access points (APs) of the wireless LAN by using information of data link, network and transport layers. The proposed schemes are implemented on a Linux machine which is called the wireless traffic controller (WTC). The WTC connects a high capacity backbone network and an access network to which the APs are attached. We evaluated the performance of the proposed WTC and confirmed that the communication quality of the multimedia streaming would be greatly improved by using this technique.
Jan 1, 2017 ... The signal processing unit is the microcontroller itself. This unit takes inputs from the sensors in the detector unit and sends output signals to the control unit that consists of the motor drivers, the motors, visual display units and the alarm system. The track switching stage depicted in the circuit diagram.
Katwijk, R.T. van; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.
As more and more traffic control instruments are installed, the probability increases that conflicts will arise or that coordination opportunities are lost when various traffic control measures are applied in the same area. Traffic control instruments can thus no longer be considered separately, but
Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom; Karpiak, Kevin; Garriott, William
We offer an anthropological response to criminologists’ call for a penal theory of police, with a specific focus on the public condonation of police punishment. We support such a penal theory but criticize the criminologist’s explanation of the relative quiescence of “the public” in the face of
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sleepiness-related factors associated with road traffic accidents.A population based case-control study was conducted in 2 French agglomerations. 272 road accident cases hospitalized in emergency units and 272 control drivers matched by time of day and randomly stopped by police forces were included in the study. Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents.As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57-63.50, p<0.05. The increased risk of traffic accidents was 3.35 times higher in subjects who reported very poor quality sleep during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.30-8.63, p<0.05, 1.69 times higher in subjects reporting sleeping 6 hours or fewer per night during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.00-2.85, p<0.05, 2.02 times higher in subjects reporting symptoms of anxiety or nervousness in the previous day (CI 95%: 1.03-3.97, p<0.05, and 3.29 times higher in subjects reporting taking more than 2 medications in the last 24 h (CI 95%: 1.14-9.44, p<0.05. Chronic daytime sleepiness measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, expressed heavy snoring and nocturnal leg movements did not explain traffic accidents.Physicians should be attentive to complaints of poor sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of anxiety-nervousness and/or drug consumption in regular car drivers.
Corsenac, Philippe; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Delorme, Bernard; Tricotel, Aurore; Castot, Anne; Moore, Nicholas; Philip, Pierre; Laumon, Bernard; Orriols, Ludivine
Opioids have been shown to impair psychomotor and cognitive functioning in healthy volunteers with no history of opioid abuse. Few or no significant effects have been found in opioid-dependant patients in experimental or driving simulation studies. The risk of road traffic crash among patients under buprenorphine or methadone has not been subject to epidemiological investigation so far. The objective was to investigate the association between the risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash and the use of buprenorphine and methadone. Data from three French national databases were extracted and matched: the national health care insurance database, police reports, and the national police database of injurious crashes. Case-control analysis comparing responsible versus non responsible drivers was conducted. 72,685 drivers involved in an injurious crash in France over the July 2005-May 2008 period, were identified by their national health care number. The 196 drivers exposed to buprenorphine or methadone on the day of crash were young, essentially males, with an important co-consumption of other substances (alcohol and benzodiazepines). Injured drivers exposed to buprenorphine or methadone on the day of crash, had an increased risk of being responsible for the crash (odds ratio (OR)=2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40 and 2.91). Users of methadone and buprenorphine were at increased risk of being responsible for injurious road traffic crashes. The increased risk could be explained by the combined effect of risky behaviors and treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Aziz, H M Abdul [ORNL; Young, Stan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Patil, Sagar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)
Networked traffic flow is a common scenario for urban transportation, where the distribution of vehicle queues either at controlled intersections or highway segments reflect the smoothness of the traffic flow in the network. At signalized intersections, the traffic queues are controlled by traffic signal control settings and effective traffic lights control would realize both smooth traffic flow and minimize fuel consumption. Funded by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems (EEMS) program of the Vehicle Technologies Office of the US Department of Energy, we performed a preliminary investigation on the modelling and control framework in context of urban network of signalized intersections. In specific, we developed a recursive input-output traffic queueing models. The queue formation can be modeled as a stochastic process where the number of vehicles entering each intersection is a random number. Further, we proposed a preliminary B-Spline stochastic model for a one-way single-lane corridor traffic system based on theory of stochastic distribution control.. It has been shown that the developed stochastic model would provide the optimal probability density function (PDF) of the traffic queueing length as a dynamic function of the traffic signal setting parameters. Based upon such a stochastic distribution model, we have proposed a preliminary closed loop framework on stochastic distribution control for the traffic queueing system to make the traffic queueing length PDF follow a target PDF that potentially realizes the smooth traffic flow distribution in a concerned corridor.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a real-time Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL and monitoring system for traffic control of pilgrims coming towards the city of Makkah in Saudi Arabia based on Data Distribution Service (DDS specified by the Object Management Group (OMG. DDS based middleware employs Real-Time Publish/Subscribe (RTPS protocol that implements many-to-many communication paradigm suitable in massive traffic control applications. Using this middleware approach, we are able to locate and track huge number of mobile vehicles and identify all passengers in real-time who are coming to perform annual Hajj. For validation of our proposed framework, various performance matrices are examined over WLAN using DDS. Results show that DDS based middleware can meet real-time requirements in large-scale AVL environment.
Meisenholder, G. W.; Johnston, A. R.
The paper describes an automated mixed traffic vehicle (AMTV), a driverless low-speed tram designed to operate in mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The vehicle is a six-passenger electric tram equipped with sensing and control which permit it to function on existing streets in an automatic mode. The design includes established wire-following techniques for steering and near-IR headway sensors. A 7-mph cruise speed is reduced to 2 mph or a complete stop in response to sensor (or passenger) inputs. The AMTV performance is evaluated by operation on a loop route and by simulation. Some necessary improvements involving sensors, sensor pattern, use of an audible signal, and control lag are discussed. It is suggested that appropriate modifications will eliminate collision incidents.
Van den Berg, M.
Motivation The growth of our road infrastructure cannot keep up with the growing mobility of people, and the corresponding increase in traffic demand. This results in daily congestion on the freeways. It is an illusion that the problem of congestion can be solved completely within a few years, but
A statistical study of training- and job-performance measures of several hundred Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCS) representing Enroute, Terminal, and Flight Service Station specialties revealed that training-performance measures reflected: : 1....
Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.
A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic
One of the most important time-critical air traffic control messages for a pilot is one : that required an immediate maneuver for traffic avoidance. This study examines the time : required for an air traffic controller to successfully transmit such a...
Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a traffic prediction algorithm that can be integrated in a street lighting monitoring and control system. The prediction algorithm must enable the reduction of energy costs and improve energy efficiency by decreasing the light intensity depending on the traffic level. The algorithm analyses and processes the information received at the command center based on the traffic level at different moments. The data is collected by means of the Doppler vehicle detection sensors integrated within the system. Thus, two methods are used for the implementation of the algorithm: a neural network and a k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbor prediction algorithm. For 500 training cycles, the mean square error of the neural network is 9.766 and for 500.000 training cycles the error amounts to 0.877. In case of the k-NN algorithm the error increases from 8.24 for k=5 to 12.27 for a number of 50 neighbors. In terms of a root means square error parameter, the use of a neural network ensures the highest performance level and can be integrated in a street lighting control system.
LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison J; Allisey, Amanda F; Page, Kathryn M; Reavley, Nicola J; Martin, Angela; Tchernitskaia, Irina; Noblet, Andrew J; Purnell, Lauren J; Witt, Katrina; Keegel, Tessa G; Smith, Peter M
In this paper, we present the protocol for a cluster-randomised trial to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of a workplace mental health intervention in the state-wide police department of the south-eastern Australian state of Victoria. n. The primary aims of the intervention are to improve psychosocial working conditions and mental health literacy, and secondarily to improve mental health and organisational outcomes. The intervention was designed collaboratively with Victoria Police based on a mixed methods pilot study, and combines multi-session leadership coaching for the senior officers within stations (e.g., Sergeants, Senior Sergeants) with tailored mental health literacy training for lower and upper ranks. Intervention effectiveness will be evaluated using a two-arm cluster-randomised trial design, with 12 police stations randomly assigned to the intervention and 12 to the non-intervention/usual care control condition. Data will be collected from all police members in each station (estimated at >20 per station). Psychosocial working conditions (e.g., supervisory support, job control, job demands), mental health literacy (e.g., knowledge, confidence in assisting someone who may have a mental health problem), and mental health will be assessed using validated measures. Organisational outcomes will include organisational depression disclosure norms, organisational cynicism, and station-level sickness absence rates. The trial will be conducted following CONSORT guidelines. Identifying data will not be collected in order to protect participant privacy and to optimise participation, hence changes in primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed using a two-sample t-test comparing summary measures by arm, with weighting by cluster size. This intervention is novel in its integration of stressor-reduction and mental health literacy-enhancing strategies. Effectiveness will be rigorously evaluated, and if positive results are observed, the intervention
Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing
To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.
Reutov, A. A.
The article examines the possibilities of the step control simulation of conveyor speed within Mathcad, Simulink, Stateflow software. To check the efficiency of the control algorithms and to more accurately determine the characteristics of the control system, it is necessary to simulate the process of speed control with real values of traffic for a work shift or for a day. For evaluating the belt workload and absence of spillage it is necessary to use empirical values of load flow in a shorter period of time. The analytical formulas for optimal speed step values were received using empirical values of load. The simulation checks acceptability of an algorithm, determines optimal parameters of regulation corresponding to load flow characteristics. The average speed and the number of speed switching during simulation are admitted as criteria of regulation efficiency. The simulation example within Mathcad software is implemented. The average conveyor speed decreases essentially by two-step and three-step control. A further increase in the number of regulatory steps decreases average speed insignificantly but considerably increases the intensity of the speed switching. Incremental algorithm of speed regulation uses different number of stages for growing and reducing load traffic. This algorithm allows smooth control of the conveyor speed changes with monotonic variation of the load flow. The load flow oscillation leads to an unjustified increase or decrease of speed. Work results can be applied at the design of belt conveyors with adjustable drives.
Full Text Available The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III.
Solangi, U.S.; Memon, T.D.; Noonari, A.S.; Ansari, O.A.
The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language) code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III. (author)
Full Text Available Intelligent recognition of traffic police command gestures increases authenticity and interactivity in virtual urban scenes. To actualize real-time traffic gesture recognition, a novel spatiotemporal convolution neural network (ST-CNN model is presented. We utilized Kinect 2.0 to construct a traffic police command gesture skeleton (TPCGS dataset collected from 10 volunteers. Subsequently, convolution operations on the locational change of each skeletal point were performed to extract temporal features, analyze the relative positions of skeletal points, and extract spatial features. After temporal and spatial features based on the three-dimensional positional information of traffic police skeleton points were extracted, the ST-CNN model classified positional information into eight types of Chinese traffic police gestures. The test accuracy of the ST-CNN model was 96.67%. In addition, a virtual urban traffic scene in which real-time command tests were carried out was set up, and a real-time test accuracy rate of 93.0% was achieved. The proposed ST-CNN model ensured a high level of accuracy and robustness. The ST-CNN model recognized traffic command gestures, and such recognition was found to control vehicles in virtual traffic environments, which enriches the interactive mode of the virtual city scene. Traffic command gesture recognition contributes to smart city construction.
Henry, J.J.; Farges, J.L. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 31 - Toulouse (France). Dept. Commande des Systemes et Dynamique de Vol (DSCD)
This paper describes a set of researches on traffic control. These researches, carried on at the systems Control and Flight Dynamics department of ONERA-Toulouse, aim at applying Automatic Control methods to the control of urban traffic through signals. The models used for traffic light control and the state estimation and dynamic optimization methods are presented. A practical application, named PRODYN, is a direct result of those researches. (authors) 14 refs.
The work described in this report was carried out in the context of the European project ASTORIA (Advanced Simulation Toolbox for Real-World Industrial Application in Passenger Management and Adaptive Control), and concerns the development of an advanced toolbox for complex transportation systems. Our work was focused on the methodology for prototyping a set of neural networks corresponding to specific strategies for traffic control and congestion management. The tool used for prototyping is SNNS (Stuggart Neural Network Simulator), developed at the University of Stuggart, Institute for Parallel and Distributed High Performance Systems, and the real data from the field were provided by ZELT. This report is structured into six parts. The introduction gives some insights about traffic control and its approaches. The second chapter discusses the various control strategies existing. The third chapter is an introduction to the field of neural networks. The data analysis and pre-processing is described in the fourth chapter. In the fifth chapter, the methodology for prototyping the neural networks is presented. Finally, conclusions and further work are presented. (author) 14 refs.
Full Text Available Leadership skills and experience in leadership have a special significance for every police force at every level of the organization. Legal daily tasks performed every day by the police, the different ways used in the performance of specific legal tasks assigned and, without doubt, the way of the leadership of the police services in the process of taking these measures, affect often the police to be not rare in the focus of criticism. This is done especially by the part of society known as uncooperative with the police. Ensuring good leadership in the police is a must for a civilized society; it is an assurance to protect the freedoms and rights of every individual, the stability and security of society as a whole. Education and schooling of police leaders is undoubtedly an important component for providing good leadership to the police. The same service for every citizen and social group should characterize the daily work of every police leader. Police undoubtedly belongs to all people and not of any political party. Therefore, each leader must have the imagination for dynamic developments within the police and society in general. The participation of leaders in various police actions would be an incentive for workers and other commanding staff. Leadership from office is a poison to sound relations in the unit (James, 1960, 261. A tool that helps the leader in his/her work, especially in the realization of the objectives set by him/herself - is how he/she supervises or controls the results of the police organization.
Li, Jinjian; Dridi, Mahjoub; El-Moudni, Abdellah
The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP) to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes. PMID:27999333
When a cluster of vehicles with various speeds moves through the series of signals, the cluster breaks down by stopping at signals and results in smaller groups of vehicles. We present the nonlinear-map model of the motion of vehicles controlled by the signals. We study the breakup of a cluster of vehicles through the series of signals. The cluster of vehicles is divided into various groups by controlling the cycle time of signals. The vehicles within each group move with the same mean velocity. The breakup of the traffic cluster depends highly on the signal control. The dependence of dividing on both cycle time and vehicular speed is clarified. Also, we investigate the effect of the irregular interval between signals on dividing.
Baumueller, J.; Reuter, U. [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology
The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)
Paielli, Russell A.
"Trajectory specification" is the explicit bounding and control of aircraft tra- jectories such that the position at each point in time is constrained to a precisely defined volume of space. The bounding space is defined by cross-track, along-track, and vertical tolerances relative to a reference trajectory that specifies position as a function of time. The tolerances are dynamic and will be based on the aircraft nav- igation capabilities and the current traffic situation. A standard language will be developed to represent these specifications and to communicate them by datalink. Assuming conformance, trajectory specification can guarantee safe separation for an arbitrary period of time even in the event of an air traffic control (ATC) sys- tem or datalink failure, hence it can help to achieve the high level of safety and reliability needed for ATC automation. As a more proactive form of ATC, it can also maximize airspace capacity and reduce the reliance on tactical backup systems during normal operation. It applies to both enroute airspace and the terminal area around airports, but this paper focuses on arrival spacing in the terminal area and presents ATC algorithms and software for achieving a specified delay of runway arrival time.
Comparison is made between roundabouts with traffic light and without traffic light and signalized intersections on the basis of their performance to simplify traffic congestion. Computer simulations are used to propose critical arrival rates to separate between the three mentioned modes to decrease congestion at intersection ...
IMPLEMENTATION FOR MARINE AIR-TRAFFIC- CONTROLLER TRAINING by Anthony J. Ambriz June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Neil C. Rowe Second Reader: Arijit Das THIS...thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DATABASE SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR MARINE AIR-TRAFFIC- CONTROLLER TRAINING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...electronic database for air-traffic- controller (ATC) training within the Marine Corps. The Marine Corps currently has individual electronic training database
Přikryl, Jan; Tichý, T.; Bělinová, Z.; Kapitán, J.
Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 26-30 ISSN 1899-8208 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01030603 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : traffic * ITS * telematics * urban traffic control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/prikryl-comparision by simulation of different approaches to the urban traffic control.pdf
Grunwald, Arthur J.
This report describes the basic design considerations for perspective air traffic control displays. A software framework has been developed for manual viewing parameter setting (MVPS) in preparation for continued, ongoing developments on automated viewing parameter setting (AVPS) schemes. Two distinct modes of MVPS operations are considered, both of which utilize manipulation pointers imbedded in the three-dimensional scene: (1) direct manipulation of the viewing parameters -- in this mode the manipulation pointers act like the control-input device, through which the viewing parameter changes are made. Part of the parameters are rate controlled, and part of them position controlled. This mode is intended for making fast, iterative small changes in the parameters. (2) Indirect manipulation of the viewing parameters -- this mode is intended primarily for introducing large, predetermined changes in the parameters. Requests for changes in viewing parameter setting are entered manually by the operator by moving viewing parameter manipulation pointers on the screen. The motion of these pointers, which are an integral part of the 3-D scene, is limited to the boundaries of the screen. This arrangement has been chosen in order to preserve the correspondence between the spatial lay-outs of the new and the old viewing parameter setting, a feature which contributes to preventing spatial disorientation of the operator. For all viewing operations, e.g. rotation, translation and ranging, the actual change is executed automatically by the system, through gradual transitions with an exponentially damped, sinusoidal velocity profile, in this work referred to as 'slewing' motions. The slewing functions, which eliminate discontinuities in the viewing parameter changes, are designed primarily for enhancing the operator's impression that he, or she, is dealing with an actually existing physical system, rather than an abstract computer-generated scene. The proposed, continued research
Caprani, Colin C; Enright, Bernard; Carey, Colm
Long span bridges are critical parts of a nation’s infrastructure network and congested traffic loading is the governing form of traffic loading. Groups of trucks travelling in conveys are created when fast-er moving vehicles, such as cars, change lane. In this research the authors investigate how the control of these lane-changing events can help reduce the traffic load effects on long span bridges. Real traffic data is used to simulate a traffic stream on a virtual road and bridge using a m...
We study the dynamical behavior of a shuttle bus moving through a traffic signal. The dynamics of the bus is expressed in terms of the nonlinear maps. The bus dynamics is controlled by varying the loading parameter, the cycle time of signal, and the degree of speedup. We show the dependence of the tour time on both loading parameter and cycle time. The fluctuation of boarding passengers is highly reduced by varying the cycle time. When the bus speeds up to retrieve the delay induced by loading the passengers, the bus behavior also changes highly. The shuttle bus schedule is connected with the complex motion of the shuttle bus. The region map (phase diagram) is shown to control the complex motion of the bus.
Scantlebury, Arabella; Fairhurst, Caroline; Booth, Alison; McDaid, Catriona; Moran, Nicola; Parker, Adwoa; Payne, Rebecca; Scott, William J; Torgerson, David; Webber, Martin; Hewitt, Catherine
Police officers frequently come into contact with individuals with mental health problems. Specialist training in this area for police officers may improve how they respond to individuals with mental health problems; however, evidence to support this is sparse. This study evaluated the effectiveness of one bespoke mental health training package for frontline police officers relative to routine training. Pragmatic, two-armed cluster randomised controlled trial in one police force in England. Police stations in North Yorkshire were randomised with frontline police officers receiving either a bespoke mental health training package or routine training. The primary outcome was the number of incidents which resulted in a police response reported to the North Yorkshire Police control room up to six months after delivery of training. Secondary outcomes included: likelihood of incidents using Section 136 of the Mental Health Act; likelihood of incidents having a mental health tag applied; and number of individuals with a mental health warning marker involved in incidents. The appropriateness of mental health tags applied to a random sample of incidents was checked by an independent mental health professional. Routinely collected data were used. Twelve police stations were recruited and randomised (Intervention group n = 6; Control group n = 6), and 249 officers received the bespoke mental health training intervention. At follow-up, a median of 397 incidents were assigned to trial stations in the intervention group, and 498 in the control group. There was no evidence of a difference in the number of incidents with a police response (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.92, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.38, p = 0.69), or in the number of people with mental health warning markers involved in incidents (adjusted IRR 1.39, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.10, p = 0.13) between the intervention and control groups up to six months following the intervention; however, incidents assigned to stations in the
Djuana, E.; Rahardjo, K.; Gozali, F.; Tan, S.; Rambung, R.; Adrian, D.
A city could be categorized as a smart city when the information technology has been developed to the point that the administration could sense, understand, and control every resource to serve its people and sustain the development of the city. One of the smart city aspects is transportation and traffic management. This paper presents a research project to design an adaptive traffic lights control system as a part of the smart system for optimizing road utilization and reducing congestion. Research problems presented include: (1) Congestion in one direction toward an intersection due to dynamic traffic condition from time to time during the day, while the timing cycles in traffic lights system are mostly static; (2) No timing synchronization among traffic lights in adjacent intersections that is causing unsteady flows; (3) Difficulties in traffic condition monitoring on the intersection and the lack of facility for remotely controlling traffic lights. In this research, a simulator has been built to model the adaptivity and integration among different traffic lights controllers in adjacent intersections, and a case study consisting of three sets of intersections along Jalan K. H. Hasyim Ashari has been simulated. It can be concluded that timing slots synchronization among traffic lights is crucial for maintaining a steady traffic flow.
Idris, Husni; Enea, Gabriele; Burke, Kelly; Wing, David
NASA developed the traffic aware strategic aircrew requests concept for a cockpit automation that identifies route improvements and advises the aircrew to request the change from the air traffic controller. In order to increase the chance of air traffic control approval, the automation ensures that the route is clear of known traffic, weather, and airspace restrictions. Hence the technology is anticipated to provide benefits in areas such as flight efficiency, flight schedule compliance, passenger comfort, and pilot and controller workload. In support of a field trial of a prototype of the technology, observations were conducted at the Atlanta and Jacksonville air traffic control centers to identify the main factors that affect the acceptability of aircrew requests by air traffic controllers. Observers shadowed air traffic controllers as the test flight pilot made pre-scripted requests to invoke acceptability issues and then they interviewed voluntarily fifty controllers with experience ranging from one to thirty-five years. The most common reason for rejecting requests is conflicting with traffic followed by violating air traffic procedures, increasing sector workload, and conflicting with major arrival and departure flows and flow restrictions. Quantitative parameters such as the distance that a route should maintain from sector boundaries and special use airspace were identified and recommended for inclusion in the automation.
Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Remington, Roger
Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. In two experiments, we examined the utility of external aids for facilitating air traffic management in a simulated air traffic control task with prospective memory requirements. Participants accepted and handed-off aircraft and detected aircraft conflicts. The prospective memory task involved remembering to deviate from a routine operating pro...
Marakhimov, A. R.; Igamberdiev, H. Z.; Umarov, Sh. X.
This paper considers the problem of building adaptive fuzzy-logic traffic control systems (AFLTCS) to deal with information fuzziness and uncertainty in case of heavy traffic streams. Methods of formal description of traffic control on the crossroads based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are proposed. This paper also provides efficient algorithms for implementing AFLTCS and develops the appropriate simulation models to test the efficiency of suggested approach. PMID:27517081
Tichý, Tomáš; Krajčír, Dušan
Modern and economic development of contemporary towns is without question highly dependent upon traffic infrastructure progress. Automobile transport intensity is dramatically rising in large towns and other Czech and European cities. At the same time number of traffic congestions and accidents is increasing, standing times are becoming longer and ecological stress is also escalated. To solve this situation seems to be the most effective solution to design intelligent traffic light intersection control system, variable message signs, preference of public transportation, road line traffic control and next telematics subsystems. This control system and subsystems should improve permeability of traffic road network with a respect for all demands on recent trends of traffic development in towns and regions.
Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two of the typical methods used at present to study the traffic congestion propagation properties. The latter was more widespread as it is more consistent with the actual traffic flow and more visual than the former. In this paper, an improved cellular automata (CA model was presented to analyze traffic congestion propagation properties and to evaluate control strategies. In order to apply them to urban traffic flow simulation, the CA models have been improved and expanded on. Computer simulations were built for congestion not only extending to the upstream intersection, but also the upstream intersection and the entire road network, respectively. Congestion propagation characteristics after road traffic accidents were obtained, and controls of different severities and durations were analyzed. The results provide the theoretical foundation and practical means for the control of congestion.
The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has recently begun changing their standard traffic signal control systems from the 170 controller running the Wapiti W4IKS firmware to 2070 controllers operating the Northwest Signal Supply Corporation...
Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Bruggraaff, E.; Roe, R.
This chapter describes a competence-based assessment system, called CBAS, for air traffic control (ATC) simulator and on-the-job training (OJT), developed at Air Traffic Control The Netherlands (LVNL). In contrast with simulator training, learning processes in OJT are difficult to assess, because
Borst, C.; Bijsterbosch, V.A.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.
Future air traffic control will have to rely on more advanced automation to support human controllers in their job of safely handling increased traffic volumes. A prerequisite for the success of such automation is that the data driving it are reliable. Current technology, however, still warrants
The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) provides basic principles for use of traffic : control devices (TCD). However, most TCDs are not explicitly required, and the decision to use a given : TCD in a given situation is typically made b...
Sohn, S Y
One of the major tasks of police stations is the management of local road traffic accidents. Proper prevention policy which reflects the local accident characteristics could immensely help individual police stations in decreasing various severity levels of road traffic accidents. In order to relate accident variation to local driving environmental characteristics, we use both cluster analysis and Poisson regression. The fitted result at the level of each cluster for each type of accident severity is utilized as an input to quality function deployment. Quality function deployment (QFD) has been applied to customer satisfaction in various industrial quality improvement settings, where several types of customer requirements are related to various control factors. We show how QFD enables one to set priorities on various road accident control policies to which each police station has to pay particular attention.
Mäkinen, T. Zaidel, D.M. Andersson, G. Biecheler-Fretel, M.-B. Christ, R. Cauzard, J.-P. Elvik, R. Goldenbeld, C. Gelau, C. Heidstra, J. Jayet, M.-C. Nilsson, G. Papaioanou, P. Quimby, A. Rehnova, V. & Vaa, T.
The objectives of the project were to identify important issues of traffic law enforcement in the EU, examine traditional and innovative enforcement approaches and tools, and assess their potential to improve compliance for increased safety on roads. The following main issues were addressed: the
Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera Losada, J.
Some organic arable and vegetable farms in the Netherlands use cm-precise guidance of machinery to restrict wheel traffic to fixed traffic lanes and to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimized soil structure in between the lanes. Contrary to controlled traffic farming (CTF) the traffic
Langdon, F. J.; Scholes, W. E.
This building research survey is an analysis of the social nuisance caused by urban motor ways and their noise. The Traffic Noise Index is used to indicate traffic noises and their effects on architectural designs and planning, while suggesting the need for more and better window insulation and acoustical barriers. Overall concern is for--(1)…
The increase of mobility of the past decades has led to substantial congestion on the freeways. Traffic jams emerge both on a daily basis at the same location, as well as during accidents when a part of the freeways is temporarily blocked. In those cases, traffic management centers intervene into
Nwokem et al.
concentration, unfair scheduling resulting in high chances of crashes and deadlocks often renders this method inefficient. Another approach to traffic management is the automated Traffic. Light System (TLS). This scheme which is based on static scheduling, replaces the human being in the MTM. The TLS usually has the ...
Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.
Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle
The complexity of the present system for managing air traffic has led to "discreteness" in approaches to creating new concepts: new concepts are created as point designs, based on experience, expertise, and creativity of the proposer. Discrete point designs may be highly successful but they are difficult to substantiate in the face of equally strong substantiation of competing concepts, as well as the state of the art in concept evaluation via simulations. Hybrid concepts may present a compromise - the golden middle. Yet a hybrid of sometimes in principle incompatible concepts forms another point design that faces the challenge of substantiation and validation. We are faced with the need to re-design the air transportation system ab initio. This is a daunting task, especially considering the problem of transitioning from the present system to any fundamentally new system. However, design from scratch is also an opportunity to reconsider approaches to new concept development. In this position paper we propose an approach, Optimized Parametric Functional Design, for systematic development of concepts for management and control of airspace systems, based on optimization formulations in terms of required system functions and states. This reasoning framework, realizable in the context of ab initio system design, offers an approach to deriving substantiated airspace management and control concepts. With growing computational power, we hope that the approach will also yield a methodology for actual dynamic control of airspace
Heijningen, A.W.P. van; Kleijweg, J.C.M.
Traffic is sensed using a signal from a wave reflection detection device to classify road users into different types. Classification is performed dependent on statistical properties of reflections. Preferably reflections are resolved into reflections for different combinations of position and speed,
Lin, Htin; Aye, Khin Muyar; Tun, Hla Myo; Theingi, Naing, Zaw Min
Vehicular travel is increasing throughout the world, particularly in large urban areas. Therefore the need arises for simulation and optimizing traffic control algorithms to better accommodate this increasing demand. This paper presents a microcontroller simulation of intelligent traffic light controller using fuzzy logic that is used to change the traffic signal cycles adaptively at a two-way intersection. This paper is an attempt to design an intelligent traffic light control systems using microcontrollers such as PIC 16F84A and PIC 16F877A. And then traffic signal can be controlled depending upon the densities of cars behind green and red lights of the two-way intersection by using sensors and detectors circuits.
Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Vafamand, Navid; Liaghat, Alireza
Urban traffic network model is illustrated by state-charts and object-diagram. However, they have limitations to show the behavioral perspective of the Traffic Information flow. Consequently, a state space model is used to calculate the half-value waiting time of vehicles. In this study......, a combination of the general type-2 fuzzy logic sets and the Modified Backtracking Search Algorithm (MBSA) techniques are used in order to control the traffic signal scheduling and phase succession so as to guarantee a smooth flow of traffic with the least wait times and average queue length. The parameters...
....29 of this subchapter: (a) Military Police at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army Airfield installations will record traffic accident investigations on DA Form 3946 (Military Police Traffic Accident Report) and DA Form 3975 (Military Police Report). (b) All privately owned motor vehicle accidents on Fort Stewart or...
Idris, Husni; Enea, Gabriele
In support of the Flight Trial (FT-2) of NASA's prototype of the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept, observations were conducted at the air traffic facilities to identify and assess the main factors that affect the acceptability of pilot requests by air traffic controllers. Two observers shadowed air traffic controllers at the Atlanta (ZTL) and Jacksonville (ZJX) air traffic control centers as the test flight pilot made pre-scripted requests to invoke acceptability issues and then they interviewed the observed and other controllers voluntarily. Fifty controllers were interviewed with experience ranging from one to thirty-five years. All interviewed controllers were enthusiastic about the technology and accounting for sector boundaries in pilot requests, particularly if pilots can be made aware of high workload situations. All interviewed controllers accept more than fifty percent of pilot requests; forty percent of them reject less than ten percent of requests. The most common reason for rejecting requests is conflicting with traffic followed by violating letters of agreement (LOAs) and negatively impacting neighboring sector workload, major arrival and departure flows and flow restrictions. Thirty-six requests were made during the test, eight of which were rejected due to: the aircraft already handed off to another sector, violating LOA, opposing traffic, intruding into an active special use airspace (SUA), intruding into another center, weather, and unfamiliarity with the requested waypoint. Nine requests were accepted with delay mostly because the controller needed to locate unfamiliar waypoints or to coordinate with other controllers.
Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Heuvel, F.F.M. van den
The present study addressed the relationships among professional efficacy, emotional exhaustion, and job characteristics (job demands and job control) in the context of a two-wave panel study among 828 Dutch police officers. Based on the demand-control model, we expected that high demands/high
The built-in logic functions in traffic controllers have very limited capability to store information, to analyze input data, to estimate performance measures, and to adopt control strategy decisions. These capabilities are imperative to support traf...
Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; Tutert, Bas
On the basis of policy-based target groups, we developed a prioritization strategy for traffic streams and applied it with the adaptive urban traffic control (UTC) ImFlow. Our main aim was to gain understanding of the possibilities of a policy driven prioritization in an urban context. We conclude
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Traffic Control System Emergency Operation Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 60...
Three groups of subjects completed Composite Mood Adjective Check Lists (CMACL) before and after selected shifts at two air traffic control (ATC) facilities as part of a multi-discipline study of stress in ATC work. : At one facility, a high traffic ...
Abdul Rahman, S.M.B.
Various methods have been introduced in the past in efforts to optimize airspace sector design and the allocation of air traffic controllers. This is done with the aim to accommodate growth, increase productivity and most importantly to ensure safety of air traffic. To accomplish this, a more
Adaptive traffic signal control technologies have been increasingly deployed in real world situations. The objective of this project was to develop a decision-making tool to guide traffic engineers and decision-makers who must decide whether or not a...
Full Text Available Police policy documents often articulate strategies and approaches that police organizations want to implement in their efforts to break down barriers with minority groups. However, most police policy documents are written for police audiences and not for members of the public. Police policy documents serve as a reflection of the aspirations of the agency and not necessarily the practice of the officers. Differential policing has been a salient experience for members of transgender communities because, as individuals who express gender in ways that deviate from the norm, they have experienced numerous documented cases of police mismanaged practice. In Australia, achieving police reform in the area of policing of diverse community groups has been difficult as new initiatives implemented to educate police officers about diverse groups such as transgender communities are scarce. My study sought to analyze a police policy document to assess how one police agency’s policy aspires to shape police contact/experiences with transgender people and how this document might shape intergroup identity differences between transgender people and the police. It is argued that the policy document will negatively affect police perceptions of transgender people and may enhance adverse perceptions of intergroup difference between police and transgender people. I also argue that using this document to achieve police reform in the area of policing of transgender people will be problematic as the policy document lacks substantial procedural guidelines regarding interaction with transgender people and may not favorably constrain discretionary police power.
This paper presents smart system that bypasses the normal functioning algorithm of traffic lights, triggers a green light when the lights are red or reset the timer of the traffic lights when they are about to turn red. Different pieces of hardware like microcontroller units, transceivers, resistors, diodes, LEDs, a digital compass and accelerometer will be coupled together and programed to create unified complex intelligent system.
Merwe, K. van de; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Plaat, A. van der; Erikson, F.
The aim of this paper is to describe the influence of automation support on Air Traffic Controller performance, workload and Situation Awareness (SA). Controllers handle traffic through means of tactical control involving heading, speed and altitude instructions. Future Air Traffic Management (ATM)
Pandey, Sujeet; Shrivastav, Vivek Kumar; Sharma, Rashmi
In this work, Verilog is used as hardware description language for implementation of traffic light controller. It shows Red, Green and Yellow color at a predefined interval. Technology scaling is used as energy efficient technique. We have used 90nm, 65nm, 40nm and 28nm technology based FPGA...... and then we have analyzed power consumption for traffic light controller on different FPGA. Leakage power is in range of 97.5-99% of total power consumption by traffic light controller on Virtex-7 FPGA. Signal power, clock power and IOs power are almost negligible. Power dissipation is measured on XPOWER...
Daniela Čekanová; Žaneta Miženková; Ľubomír Fábry; Róbert Rozenberg
The aim of the article is to analyze the psychological aspects of an air traffic controller who controls aircraft, communicates with the crew and encounters the incidents of different nature or even accidents. The work of the air traffic controller requires a high level of responsibility and tension which can often lead to stress and trauma. The first part of this article is highlighting the complexity of the profession and passes to the next section, which explains the context of workload, s...
Rubén Hernández-Murillo; John Knowles
State-wide reports on police traffic stops and searches summarize very large populations, making them potentially powerful tools for identifying racial bias, particularly when statistics on search outcomes are included. But when the reported statistics conflate searches involving different levels of police discretion, standard tests for racial bias are not applicable. This paper develops a model of police search decisions that allows for non-discretionary searches and derives tests for racial...
Full Text Available Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior.
Mercer, Joey S.; Bienert, Nancy; Gomez, Ashley; Hunt, Sarah; Kraut, Joshua; Martin, Lynne; Morey, Susan; Green, Steven M.; Prevot, Thomas; Wu, Minghong G.
A Human-In-The-Loop air traffic control simulation investigated the impact of uncertainties in trajectory predictions on NextGen Trajectory-Based Operations concepts, seeking to understand when the automation would become unacceptable to controllers or when performance targets could no longer be met. Retired air traffic controllers staffed two en route transition sectors, delivering arrival traffic to the northwest corner-post of Atlanta approach control under time-based metering operations. Using trajectory-based decision-support tools, the participants worked the traffic under varying levels of wind forecast error and aircraft performance model error, impacting the ground automations ability to make accurate predictions. Results suggest that the controllers were able to maintain high levels of performance, despite even the highest levels of trajectory prediction errors.
Lee, Paul U.; Prevot, Thomas
Controller workload is a key factor in limiting en route air traffic capacity. Past efforts to quantify and predict workload have resulted in identifying objective metrics that correlate well with subjective workload ratings during current air traffic control operations. Although these metrics provide a reasonable statistical fit to existing data, they do not provide a good mechanism for estimating controller workload for future air traffic concepts and environments that make different assumptions about automation, enabling technologies, and controller tasks. One such future environment is characterized by en route airspace with a mixture of aircraft equipped with and without Data Communications (Data Comm). In this environment, aircraft with Data Comm will impact controller workload less than aircraft requiring voice communication, altering the close correlation between aircraft count and controller workload that exists in current air traffic operations. This paper outlines a new trajectory-based complexity (TBX) calculation that was presented to controllers during a human-in-the-loop simulation. The results showed that TBX accurately estimated the workload in a mixed Data Comm equipage environment and the resulting complexity values were understood and readily interpreted by the controllers. The complexity was represented as a "modified aircraft account" that weighted different complexity factors and summed them in such a way that the controllers could effectively treat them as aircraft count. The factors were also relatively easy to tune without an extensive data set. The results showed that the TBX approach is well suited for presenting traffic complexity in future air traffic environments.
Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Yingzhi; Shen, Xianbao; Wang, Xintong; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin
To guarantee good traffic and air quality during the 16th Asian Games in Guangzhou, China, the government carried out two traffic control Drills before the Games and adopted traffic control measures during the Games. Vehicle activities before and during the first and second Drills, and during the Games, were surveyed. Based on the data under investigation, the impacts of control measures on traffic volumes and driving characteristics were analyzed during the first and second Drills, and the Games. The emission reduction of traffic control measures was also evaluated during the three stages using the MOBILE-China model. The results show that there were significant effects of implementing temporary traffic control measures on transportation activity and vehicular emissions. During the first and second Drills, and the Games, the average traffic volumes in monitored roads decreased, and the average speed of vehicles increased significantly The co-effects of traffic flow reduction, traffic congestion improvement, and the banning of high-emitting vehicles helped to greatly reduce the estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Guangzhou during the first and second Drills, and the Games. Estimated vehicular emissions were reduced by 38-52% during the first Drill and 28-36% for the second Drill. During the Asian Games, vehicular emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter Guangzhou in the future. In addition, the effects of temporary transportation control measures will provide important awareness to other cities that will be hosting large-scale activities similar to the Asian Games.
Full Text Available An approach to the management of vehicles at a railway crossing in order to improve the road safety is considered. To do this, it is suggested to introduce the dynamic motion control modes on the road, which consist in reducing the speed at a certain distance from the railway crossing and depends on its condition. The value of the recommended speed is displayed on the managed road signs and is calculated in real-time traffic controller at the railway crossing control point. The mark location is determined based on traffic intensity equalization that affects both the traffic intensity of the railway crossing and the road section on the approach to it. To analyze such events directed to improve the traffic on level crossings it is suggested to use the elements of utility theory to further develop the traffic control algorithm. For this purpose there was built a decision tree for the existing conditions at the railway crossing and at the introduction of the dynamic management, which indicates the result of decision taken by the change in the selected criteria of efficiency of traffic management at the railway crossing. Such an approach can reduce the number of road accidents and to increase the capacity of vehicular traffic at a particular road section to the technical means of attracting the driver's attention to the complex road by forced reduction in speed not only before the railway crossing, but also in at the approach to it.
Xing, Jing; Manning, Carol A
This report reviewed a number of measures of complexity associated with visual displays and analyzed the potential to apply these methods to assess the complexity of air traffic control (ATC) displays...
This Executive Summary provides an overview of the technical and institutional issues associated with the evaluation of the federally-sponsored Anaheim Advanced Traffic Control : System Field Operations Test. The primary FOT objective was the impleme...
The General Accounting Office (GAO) at the request of Congress reviewed (1) : the maturity of Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Air Traffic Control : (ATC) modernization software acquisition processes, and (2) the steps/actions : FAA has unde...
King, Raymond E; Schroeder, David J; Manning, Carol A; Retzlaff, Paul D; Williams, Clara A
...) as a psychological screening tool for conditionally selected FAA Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCSs). A sample of 1,014 ATCSs in training voluntarily completed the MMPI-2 as part of a research program...
This paper describes a process that is currently being applied to the : development and assessment of an advanced air traffic control (ATC) system, the : Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). This process deviates from established : practices of AT...
Van Meeuwen, Ludo
Van Meeuwen, L. W. (2013). Visual problem solving and self-regulation in training air traffic control (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies, Open Universiteit, Heerlen, The Netherlands.
Meeuwen van, Ludo
Van Meeuwen, L. W. (2013). Visual problem solving and self-regulation in training air traffic control (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies, Open Universiteit, Heerlen, The Netherlands.
Lo, Julia C.; Sehic, Emdzad; Brookhuis, Karel A.; Meijer, Sebastiaan A.
Previous research on situation awareness (SA) predominantly focused on its explicit, reasoned, conscious features rather than on the implicit, intuitive, unconscious aspects that are often identified with expert operators. This research investigated implicit levels of SA of train traffic controllers
There has been a growing interest among academicians, researchers and policy-makers in promoting community policing as a modern way to deal with crimes and community problems. Community policing is a philosophy of policing based on the concept that police officers and citizens working together in creative ways to control crimes. The purpose of this research is to get the perspectives of kids/teens regarding crime and police since this segment of society is most vulnerable to crimes. This will...
The operational conditions of such intersections profoundly affect the well being of the transportation of goods and passengers in cities. There are several methods available for operational analysis including mathematical models and traffic simulation models; however the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) has been widely
ABSTRACT. Evaluating the performance of a multi-lane intersection is important to identify the best scheme as congestion is becoming a worldwide serious problem. A Multi-stream Minimum Acceptable. Space (MMAS) Cellular Automata (CA) model is used for the simulation of vehicular traffic at double-lane roundabouts ...
Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.
Voigt, Rob; Camp, Nicholas P; Prabhakaran, Vinodkumar; Hamilton, William L; Hetey, Rebecca C; Griffiths, Camilla M; Jurgens, David; Jurafsky, Dan; Eberhardt, Jennifer L
Using footage from body-worn cameras, we analyze the respectfulness of police officer language toward white and black community members during routine traffic stops. We develop computational linguistic methods that extract levels of respect automatically from transcripts, informed by a thin-slicing study of participant ratings of officer utterances. We find that officers speak with consistently less respect toward black versus white community members, even after controlling for the race of the officer, the severity of the infraction, the location of the stop, and the outcome of the stop. Such disparities in common, everyday interactions between police and the communities they serve have important implications for procedural justice and the building of police-community trust.
Full Text Available With the development of urbanization construction, urban travel has become a quite thorny and imminent problem. Some previous researches on the large urban traffic systems easily change into NPC problems. We purpose a multi-agent inductive control model based on the distributed approach. To describe the real traffic scene, this model designs four different types of intelligent agents, i.e. we regard each lane, route, intersection and traffic region as different types of intelligent agents. Each agent can achieve the real-time traffic data from its neighbor agents, and decision-making agents establish real-time traffic signal plans through the communication between local agents and their neighbor agents. To evaluate the traffic system, this paper takes the average delay, the stopped time and the average speed as performance parameters. Finally, the distributed multi-agent is simulated on the VISSIM simulation platform, the simulation results show that the multi-agent system is more effective than the adaptive control system in solving the traffic congestion.
Full Text Available The paper deals with Admission Control methods (AC as a possible solution for traffic management in IMS networks (IP Multimedia Subsystem - from the point of view of an efficient redistribution of the available network resources and keeping the parameters of Quality of Service (QoS. The paper specifically aims at the selection of the most appropriate method for the specific type of traffic and traffic management concept using AC methods on multiple nodes. The potential benefit and disadvantage of the used solution is evaluated.
Muhammad Febrian Rachmadi
Full Text Available Traffic is one of the most important aspects in human daily life because traffic affects smoothness of capital flows, logistics, and other community activities. Without appropriate traffic light control system, possibility of traffic congestion will be very high and hinder peopleâ€™s life in urban areas. Adaptive traffic light control system can be used to solve traffic congestions in an intersection because it can adaptively change the durations of green light each lane in an intersection depend on traffic density. The proposed adaptive traffic light control system prototype uses Beagleboard-xM, CCTV camera, and AVR microcontrollers. We use computer vision technique to obtain information on traffic density combining Viola-Jones method with Kalman Filter method. To calculate traffic light time of each traffic light in intersection, we use Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problem (DCSP. From implementations and experiments results, we conclude that BeagleBoard-xM can be used as main engine of adaptive traffic light control system with 91.735% average counting rate. Lalu intas adalah salah satu aspek yang paling penting dalam kehidupan sehari-hari manusia karena lalu lintas memengaruhi kelancaran arus modal, logistik, dan kegiatan masyarakat lainnya. Tanpa sistem kontrol lampu lalu lintas yang memadai, kemungkinan kemacetan lalu lintas akan sangat tinggi dan menghambat kehidupan masyarakat di perkotaan. Sistem kontrol lampu lalu lintas adaptif dapat digunakan untuk memecahkan kemacetan lalu lintas di persimpangan karena dapat mengubah durasi lampu hijau di setiap persimpangan jalan tergantung pada kepadatan lalu lintas. Prototipe sistem kontrol lampu lalu lintas menggunakan BeagleBoard-XM, kamera CCTV, dan mikrokontroler AVR. Peneliti menggunakan teknik computer vision untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang kepadatan lalu lintas dengan menggabungkan metode Viola-Jones dan metode Filter Kalman. Untuk menghitung waktu setiap lampu lalu lintas
Full Text Available The concept of remote and mobile Air Traffic Control Tower (ATC TWR and its development has started in Europe, Australia and also in the USA, in order to improve the efficiency of Air Traffic Management (ATM systems in terms of air transportation safety. These new technologies are applicable in many countries in peace time, but on mobility reasons these are promoted to achieve commitments in the operational area. This article describes the devices and range of equipment of mobile and remote tower, and their specifications, which can even serve a medium sized airport, furthermore examines, whether how can those provide the air traffic services at an operational airfield.
Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.
... marking pattern from broken to dotted until the next resurfacing occurs, but resource constraints will... budgetary constraints have made it difficult to retime all of their traffic signals on a 5-year cycle. The... countermeasures for run-off-the-road crashes. Eliminating fixed-object hazards such as non-crashworthy sign...
Cooper, Hannah L F
War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.
Evgenii E. Nechaev
Full Text Available This article discusses various options for air traffic management at low flight intensity airports and airports located remotely in the North, where air traffic control service is not necessary.There are some examples of already implemented concepts in foreign countries: such as remote control tower, which allows to control air traffic, being at a considerable distance from the airport. Such a remote control tower is already put into operation at the Örnsköldsvik airport (Sweden. The prospects of this system development in other countries are observed in this article. A remote control tower will also appear in the United States in the nearest future. Also the paper considers the pros and cons of this system and its effect on flight safety.Moreover, there are given the examples of using non-towered and uncontrolled airports, where air traffic control service is not provided. This kind of airports is partly used in the USA and in New Zealand. The article describes flight procedures in the area of uncontrolled airports, including visual flight rules and instrument flight rules.We also analyze the possibilities of remote control towers and uncontrolled airports adaptation in the Russian Federation. It is a very important problem for Russia because most airports do not provide more than 10 movements per day. But air traffic control service exists in all airports.
Agerholm, Niels; Olesen, Anne Vingaard
Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems......, ATCS were installed in the eight signalised intersections of a 1.7 km stretch of the ring road in the medium-sized Danish city of Aalborg. To measure the effect of ATCS a with/without study was carried out. GPS data from a car following the traffic, recorded transportation times for buses in service......, and GPS data from a range of cars driving on the ring road formed the basis for the study. The result of ATCS implementation was a significant 17% reduction in transportation time on the ring road in the most congested period, the afternoon peak. Less significant effects were found regarding the morning...
Full Text Available The deployment of light emitting diodes (LEDs based traffic system control created the problem of dim displays when ambient light is similar to traffic lights. It causes some drivers' disability of seeing and obeying traffic signs. This makes drivers violate traffic rules. In this paper, an attempt to use hybrid lighting technology to mitigate this problem was developed. Incandescent lightings with deployed halogen bulbs provided an instantaneous source of highly efficacious illumination which is brighter than the drivers' ambient lights (both daylight, electrical lights and their reflections, which can help drivers get access to enough warning and help them initiate traffic safety warning as necessary. The halogen lightings also offered the required high current draw needed in electrical circuitry to help brighten the LED displays. The problem of heat generated was eliminated by aerating the T-junction traffic light control unit designed for this technology. The result of hybrid lighting system design was found to be high luminosity and capability of gaining driver attention in real-time. It also allowed enhanced sign's image detection and processing for smart based technologies by providing the “light punch” needed for a wide range of visual concerns.
Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette
Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.
Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm
and maintaining permanent traffic lanes within the fields. Furthermore, field efficiency is affected by CTF due to significant increases in idle time of in-field transport and the way the fields are traversed in material handling operations. During fertilisation, when tramline length and the driving distance......, makes existing models inadequate for evaluating field efficiency. In this paper, the development of a discrete-event model for the prediction of travelled distances of a machine operating in material handling operations using the concept of CTF is presented. The model is based on the mathematical...
Full Text Available Urban traffic self-adaptive control problem is dynamic and uncertain, so the states of traffic environment are hard to be observed. Efficient agent which controls a single intersection can be discovered automatically via multiagent reinforcement learning. However, in the majority of the previous works on this approach, each agent needed perfect observed information when interacting with the environment and learned individually with less efficient coordination. This study casts traffic self-adaptive control as a multiagent Markov game problem. The design employs traffic signal control agent (TSCA for each signalized intersection that coordinates with neighboring TSCAs. A mathematical model for TSCAs’ interaction is built based on nonzero-sum markov game which has been applied to let TSCAs learn how to cooperate. A multiagent Markov game reinforcement learning approach is constructed on the basis of single-agent Q-learning. This method lets each TSCA learn to update its Q-values under the joint actions and imperfect information. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is analyzed theoretically. The simulation results show that the proposed method is convergent and effective in realistic traffic self-adaptive control setting.
Full Text Available We propose a new multiobjective control algorithm based on reinforcement learning for urban traffic signal control, named multi-RL. A multiagent structure is used to describe the traffic system. A vehicular ad hoc network is used for the data exchange among agents. A reinforcement learning algorithm is applied to predict the overall value of the optimization objective given vehicles' states. The policy which minimizes the cumulative value of the optimization objective is regarded as the optimal one. In order to make the method adaptive to various traffic conditions, we also introduce a multiobjective control scheme in which the optimization objective is selected adaptively to real-time traffic states. The optimization objectives include the vehicle stops, the average waiting time, and the maximum queue length of the next intersection. In addition, we also accommodate a priority control to the buses and the emergency vehicles through our model. The simulation results indicated that our algorithm could perform more efficiently than traditional traffic light control methods.
Mladenovic, Milos N; McPherson, Tristram
The convergence of computing, sensing, and communication technology will soon permit large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles. This will in turn permit a radical transformation of traffic control technology. This paper makes a case for the importance of addressing questions of social justice in this transformation, and sketches a preliminary framework for doing so. We explain how new forms of traffic control technology have potential implications for several dimensions of social justice, including safety, sustainability, privacy, efficiency, and equal access. Our central focus is on efficiency and equal access as desiderata for traffic control design. We explain the limitations of conventional traffic control in meeting these desiderata, and sketch a preliminary vision for a next-generation traffic control tailored to address better the demands of social justice. One component of this vision is cooperative, hierarchically distributed self-organization among vehicles. Another component of this vision is a priority system enabling selection of priority levels by the user for each vehicle trip in the network, based on the supporting structure of non-monetary credits.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the psychological aspects of an air traffic controller who controls aircraft, communicates with the crew and encounters the incidents of different nature or even accidents. The work of the air traffic controller requires a high level of responsibility and tension which can often lead to stress and trauma. The first part of this article is highlighting the complexity of the profession and passes to the next section, which explains the context of workload, stress and trauma. Long-term stress and traumatic experience of ATC maybe harmful or contribute to early resignation from work. The selection of suitable candidates and their preparation for the profession of air traffic controller is so demanding that their work and psychological aspects require increased attention from the side of the research.
Full Text Available The growing number of wireless devices nowadays often results in congestion of wireless channels. In research, this topic is referred to as networking in dense wireless spaces. The literature on the topic shows that the biggest problem is the high number of concurrent sessions to a wireless access point. The obvious solution is to reduce the number of concurrent sessions. This paper proposes a simple method called Bulk-n-Pick which minimizes the number of prolonged concurrent sessions by separating bulk from sync traffic. Aiming at educational applications, under the proposed design, web applications would distribute the main bulk of content once at the beginning of a class and then rely on small messages for real time sync traffic during the class. For realistic performance analysis, this paper first performs real-life experiments with various counts of wireless devices, bulk sizes, and levels of sync intensity. Based on the experiments, this paper shows that the proposed Bulk-n-Pick method outperforms the traditional design even when only two concurrent bulk sessions are allowed. The experiment shows that up to 10 concurrent bulk sessions are feasible in practice. Based on these results, a method for online performance optimization is proposed and validated in a trace-based emulation.
Ajao Lukman Adewale
Full Text Available The control of density traffic at cross junction road usually manned by human efforts or implementation of automatic traffic light system. This system seem and proves to be inefficient with some challenges. The major constraints of this traffic control are as a result of the inability of most traffic control systems to assign appropriate waiting time for vehicles based on the lane density. Also with little or no consideration for pedestrians, emergency and security agents priorities. In view of this, an intelligent density traffic control system using (fuzzy logic which is capable of providing priority to the road users based on the density and emergency situations was developed and presented in this paper. This system will obtain the approximate amount of vehicle and presence of pedestrians respectfully on each lane with help of Infrared Sensors (IR and siren detection system for emergency and security road users. The working principle of this system depending on the logic inputs rules given into the processing unit by the (sensors, S1 and S2 which helps the system to generates a timing sequence that best suit the number of vehicles and pedestrians available on the lane at point in time.
Mercer, Joey; Gomez, Ashley; Gabets, Cynthia; Bienert, Nancy; Edwards, Tamsyn; Martin, Lynne; Gujral, Vimmy; Homola, Jeffrey
To determine the capabilities and limitations of human operators and automation in separation assurance roles, the second of three Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) part-task studies investigated air traffic controllers ability to detect and resolve conflicts under varying task sets, traffic densities, and run lengths. Operations remained within a single sector, staffed by a single controller, and explored, among other things, the controllers responsibility for conflict resolution with or without their involvement in the conflict detection task. Furthermore, these conditions were examined across two different traffic densities; 1x (current-day traffic) and a 20 increase above current-day traffic levels (1.2x). Analyses herein offer an examination of the conflict resolution strategies employed by controllers. In particular, data in the form of elapsed time between conflict detection and conflict resolution are used to assess if, and how, the controllers involvement in the conflict detection task affected the way in which they resolved traffic conflicts.
Mueller, Eric R.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Stevens, Derek
A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted with 15 retired air traffic controllers to investigate two research questions: (a) what procedures are appropriate for the use of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) detect-and-avoid systems, and (b) how long in advance of a predicted close encounter should pilots request or execute a separation maneuver. The controller participants managed a busy Oakland air route traffic control sector with mixed commercial/general aviation and manned/UAS traffic, providing separation services, miles-in-trail restrictions and issuing traffic advisories. Controllers filled out post-scenario and post-simulation questionnaires, and metrics were collected on the acceptability of procedural options and temporal thresholds. The states of aircraft were also recorded when controllers issued traffic advisories. Subjective feedback indicated a strong preference for pilots to request maneuvers to remain well clear from intruder aircraft rather than deviate from their IFR clearance. Controllers also reported that maneuvering at 120 seconds until closest point of approach (CPA) was too early; maneuvers executed with less than 90 seconds until CPA were more acceptable. The magnitudes of the requested maneuvers were frequently judged to be too large, indicating a possible discrepancy between the quantitative UAS well clear standard and the one employed subjectively by manned pilots. The ranges between pairs of aircraft and the times to CPA at which traffic advisories were issued were used to construct empirical probability distributions of those metrics. Given these distributions, we propose that UAS pilots wait until an intruder aircraft is approximately 80 seconds to CPA or 6 nmi away before requesting a maneuver, and maneuver immediately if the intruder is within 60 seconds and 4 nmi. These thresholds should make the use of UAS detect and avoid systems compatible with current airspace procedures and controller expectations.
Laemmer, Stefan; Donner, Reik [TU Dresden, Andreas-Schubert-Str. 23, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Helbing, Dirk [ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstr. 41, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)
The effective control of flows in urban traffic networks is a subject of broad economic interest. During the last years, efforts have been made to develop decentralised control strategies that take only the actual state of present traffic conditions into account. In this contribution, we introduce a permeability model for the local control of conflicting material flows on networks, which incorporates a self-organisation of the flows. The dynamics of our model is studied under different situations, with a special emphasis on the development of a phase synchronised switching behaviour at the nodes of the traffic network. In order to improve the potential applicability of our concept, we discuss how a proper demand anticipation and the definition of a priority function can be used to further optimise the performance of the presented strategy.
The management of large-scale transportation infrastructure is becoming a very complex task for the urban areas of this century which are covering bigger geographic spaces and facing the inclusion of connected and self-controlled vehicles. This new system paradigm can leverage many forms of sensing and interaction, including a high-scale mobile sensing approach. To obtain a high penetration sensing system on urban areas more practical and scalable platforms are needed, combined with estimation algorithms suitable to the computational capabilities of these platforms. The purpose of this work was to develop a transportation framework that is able to handle different kinds of sensing data (e.g., connected vehicles, loop detectors) and optimize the traffic state on a defined traffic network. The framework estimates the traffic on road networks modeled by a family of Lighthill-Whitham-Richards equations. Based on an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton-Jacobi equation and using a semi-analytic formula, I will show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are linear, albeit with unknown integer variables. This general framework solve exactly a variety of problems arising in transportation networks: traffic estimation, traffic control (including robust control), cybersecurity and sensor fault detection, or privacy analysis of users in probe-based traffic monitoring systems. This framework is very flexible, fast, and yields exact results. The recent advances in sensors (GPS, inertial measurement units) and microprocessors enable the development low-cost dedicated devices for traffic sensing in cities, 5 which are highly scalable, providing a feasible solution to cover large urban areas. However, one of the main problems to address is the privacy of the users of the transportation system, the framework presented here is a viable option to guarantee the privacy of the users by design.
International audience; Overview Police as an institution cannot be said to have inspired in-depth conceptualization effortsfrom criminology and criminal justice so far. Scholars in this area show a clear preference for empirically exploring what individual police officers do or think, and the policing concept they most readily converge towards tends to hinge on the use of force, a notion developed by ethnomethodologist, Egon Bittner. This concept holds that what constitutes policing as such ...
LIKE many complex and time-critical domains, air traffic control (ATC) is facing a fundamental modernization that builds on the use of more advanced automation (represented by SESAR in Europe and NextGen in the United States). The current function allocation-based relationship between controller and
Zou, Yuan-Yang; Hu, Yu
This paper presents a linear program model with linear complementarity constraints (LPLCC) to solve traffic signal optimization problem. The objective function of the model is to obtain the minimization of total queue length with weight factors at the end of each cycle. Then, a combination algorithm based on the nonlinear least regression and sequence quadratic program (NLRSQP) is proposed, by which the local optimal solution can be obtained. Furthermore, four numerical experiments are proposed to study how to set the initial solution of the algorithm that can get a better local optimal solution more quickly. In particular, the results of numerical experiments show that: The model is effective for different arrival rates and weight factors; and the lower bound of the initial solution is, the better optimal solution can be obtained.
Loft, Shayne; Finnerty, Dannielle; Remington, Roger W
The aim was to examine whether prospective memory error and response costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation could be reduced by providing spatial context. Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action at an appropriate point in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. For this study, three conditions of participants performed an air traffic control task that required them to accept and hand off aircraft and to prevent conflicts. The prospective memory task required participants to remember to press an alternative key rather than the routine key when accepting target aircraft. A red line separated the display into upper and lower regions. Participants in the context condition were told that the prospective memory instruction would apply only to aircraft approaching from one region (upper or lower). Those in the standard condition were not provided this information. In the control condition, participants did not have to perform the prospective memory task. In the context condition, participants made fewer prospective memory errors than did those in the standard condition and made faster acceptance decisions for aircraft approaching from irrelevant compared with relevant regions. Costs to hand-off decision time were also reduced in the context condition. Spatial context provided no benefit to conflict detection. Participants could partially localize their allocation of attentional resources to the prospective memory task to relevant display regions. The findings are potentially applicable to air traffic control, whereby regularities in airspace structure and standard traffic flows allow controllers to anticipate the location of specific air traffic events.
The emergence of police ordinances and police authorities in the early modern period has traditionally been seen as a way to discipline society in order to increase the power of the absolutist state. However, recent investigations of early modern policing in German and French regions show...
Full Text Available The article focuses on the issue of pedagogy competence of an ATCO-trainer as a constituent of hisoverall professional competency/capacity to provide quality SIMU- training of the air traffic controllers. Thecurrent University curriculum for abinitio controllers does not provide developing of the pedagogicalcompetence. But it is requested very much when an air traffic controller is employed as a controller-trainerfor SIMU-training. It is suggested to include pedagogical science as a course in the University programme
French, Jennifer R.
As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.
According to Arase and Iwuofor (2007) training is an invaluable tool for the effective policing of any society. An untrained or ill-trained police officer lacks the requisite knowledge, skill and attitude for effective crime control and is also a threat to the society. Regular training programmes should be organized to enhance ...
Kraut, Joshua M.; Mercer, Joey; Morey, Susan; Homola, Jeffrey; Gomez, Ashley; Prevot, Thomas
In a human-in-the-loop simulation, two air traffic controllers managed identical airspace while burdened with higher than average workload, and while using advanced tools and automation designed to assist with scheduling aircraft on multiple arrival flows to a single meter fix. This paper compares the strategies employed by each controller, and investigates how the controllers' strategies change while managing their airspace under more normal workload conditions and a higher workload condition. Each controller engaged in different methods of maneuvering aircraft to arrive on schedule, and adapted their strategies to cope with the increased workload in different ways. Based on the conclusions three suggestions are made: that quickly providing air traffic controllers with recommendations and information to assist with maneuvering and scheduling aircraft when burdened with increased workload will improve the air traffic controller's effectiveness, that the tools should adapt to the strategy currently employed by a controller, and that training should emphasize which traffic management strategies are most effective given specific airspace demands.
Mogford, Richard; Kopardekar, Parimal
The document is a set of briefing slides summarizing the work the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project is doing on predicting air traffic controller and airline pilot human error when using new decision support software tools and when involved in testing new air traffic control concepts. Previous work in this area is reviewed as well as research being done jointly with the FAA. Plans for error prediction work in the AATT Project are discussed. The audience is human factors researchers and aviation psychologists from government and industry.
Li Dong Bin
Full Text Available We analyzed the safety risks of the transition program for Air Traffic Control (ATC automation system upgrade by using the event tree analysis method in this paper. We decomposed the occurrence progress of the three transition phase and built the event trees corresponding to the three stages, and then we determined the probability of success of each factor and calculated probability of success of the air traffic control automation system upgrade transition. In the conclusion, we illustrate the transition program safety risk according to the results.
Bayar, Bilgehan; Sajadi Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Viti, Francesco; Voos, Holger
This paper assesses the impact of different spacing policies for Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems on traffic and environment. The largest deal of existing studies focus on assessing the performance in terms of safety, while only few deal with the effect of ACC on the traffic flow and the environment. In particular, very little is know on traffic stability and energy consumption. In this study, the vehicles equipped with ACC are modelled and controlled by two different spacing policies. B...
Jha, Mohit; Shukla, Shailja
Traffic is the chief puzzle problem which every country faces because of the enhancement in number of vehicles throughout the world, especially in large urban towns. Hence the need arises for simulating and optimizing traffic control algorithms to better accommodate this increasing demand. Fuzzy optimization deals with finding the values of input parameters of a complex simulated system which result in desired output. This paper presents a MATLAB simulation of fuzzy logic traffic controller f...
Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper, the impact of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC systems on traffic performance is examined using microscopic agent-based simulation. Using a developed traffic simulation model of a freeway with an on-ramp - created to induce perturbations and to trigger stop-and-go traffic, the CACC system’s effect on the traffic performance is studied. The previously proposed traffic simulation model is extended and validated. By embedding CACC vehicles in different penetration levels, the results show significance and indicate the potential of CACC systems to improve traffic characteristics and therefore can be used to reduce traffic congestion. The study shows that the impact of CACC is positive but is highly dependent on the CACC market penetration. The flow rate of the traffic using CACC is proportional to the market penetration rate of CACC equipped vehicles and the density of the traffic.Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses microscopic simulation experiments followed by a quantitative statistical analysis. Simulation enables researchers manipulating the system variables to straightforwardly predict the outcome on the overall system, giving researchers the unique opportunity to interfere and make improvements to performance. Thus with simulation, changes to variables that might require excessive time, or be unfeasible to carry on real systems, are often completed within seconds.Findings: The findings of this paper are summarized as follow:•\tProvide and validate a platform (agent-based microscopic traffic simulator in which any CACC algorithm (current or future may be evaluated.•\tProvide detailed analysis associated with implementation of CACC vehicles on freeways.•\tInvestigate whether embedding CACC vehicles on freeways has a significant positive impact or not.Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of this research is that it has been conducted solely in a computer laboratory. Laboratory
Full Text Available Intersection regions widely exist in road networks as crucial connections, and the congestion effects on traffic in the networks cannot be ignored. In general, a conventional intersection region includes a merging region and more than two ramps, whose congestion brings a serious negative effect on traffic service quality and satisfaction of drivers. Specifically, intersection region congestion is caused by congestion in merging regions. However, current control methods regarding coordination of the variable speed limits and ramp metering in order to solve merging region congestion are insufficient to handle congestion occurring in the intersection region. Therefore, a new method of coordinated control is proposed in this paper based on mainline control using the variable speed limits and coordinated ramp metering. The coordinated control method is formulated considering the degree of crowdedness indexes and implemented based on the queue length, with the goal to relieve congestion in conventional intersection regions caused by merging region congestion. The coordinated control method is further evaluated based on an actual traffic network. The results show that the proposed method is effective in terms of improving traffic service quality and relieving intersection region congestion.
Fecko, Mariusz A.; Wong, Larry; Kang, Jaewong; Cichocki, Andrzej; Kaul, Vikram; Samtani, Sunil
To efficiently use alternate paths during periods of congestion, we have devised prioritized Dynamic Routing Control Agent (pDRCA) that (1) selects best links to meet the bandwidth and delay requirements of traffic, (2) provides load-balancing and traffic prioritization when multiple topologies are available, and (3) handles changes in link quality and traffic demand, and link outages. pDRCA provides multiplatform load balancing to maximize SATCOM (both P2P and multi-point) and airborne links utilization. It influences link selection by configuring the cost metrics on a router's interface, which does not require any changes to the routing protocol itself. It supports service differentiation of multiple traffic priorities by providing more network resources to the highest priority flows. pDRCA does so by solving an optimization problem to find optimal links weights that increase throughput and decrease E2E delay; avoid congested, low quality, and long delay links; and exploit path diversity in the network. These optimal link weights are sent to the local agents to be configured on individual routers per traffic priority. The pDRCA optimization algorithm has been proven effective in improving application performance. We created a variety of different test scenarios by varying traffic profile and link behavior (stable links, varying capacity, and link outages). In the scenarios where high priority traffic experienced significant loss without pDRCA, the average loss was reduced from 49.5% to 13% and in some cases dropped to 0%. Currently, pDRCA is integrated with an open-source software router and priority queues on Linux as a component of Open Tactical Router (OTR), which is being developed by ONR DTCN program.
Zhao Yi Fan
Full Text Available paper presents a new use of double queues asymmetric gated service polling system in the intelligent traffic light control system.Usually there are more vehicles in main road than minor road,so there are more green light time be needed in the main road.From the computer simulation and theory analysis,we can find that the application of double queues asymmetric gated service polling theory in intelligent traffic system can balance intersections load and set suitable passing time for vehicles to assure the roads open.
Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: email@example.com [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.
Vismari, Lucio Flavio; Batista Camargo Junior, Joao
In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.
A. A. SHAFIE
Full Text Available Traffic signal light can be optimized using vehicle flow statistics obtained by Smart Video Surveillance Software (SVSS. This research focuses on efficient traffic control system by detecting and counting the vehicle numbers at various times and locations. At present, one of the biggest problems in the main city in any country is the traffic jam during office hour and office break hour. Sometimes it can be seen that the traffic signal green light is still ON even though there is no vehicle coming. Similarly, it is also observed that long queues of vehicles are waiting even though the road is empty due to traffic signal light selection without proper investigation on vehicle flow. This can be handled by adjusting the vehicle passing time implementing by our developed SVSS. A number of experiment results of vehicle flows are discussed in this research graphically in order to test the feasibility of the developed system. Finally, adoptive background model is proposed in SVSS in order to successfully detect target objects such as motor bike, car, bus, etc.
An electronic signal direction indicator (ESDI) for the control of road traffic has been designed, constructed and studied. The construction was done using 555 timer IC, a transistor-transistor logic compatible device that can operate in several modes as the major active element. The ESDI system circuit is reliable, satisfactorily ...
The major purpose of this work was to asses dynamic simulation of air traffic control systems as a technique for evaluating such systems in a statistically sound and objective manner. A large set of customarily used measures based on the system missi...
This report is a general review of some of the current themes and practices regarding rotating shift work; to inform air traffic controllers, technicians, and managers of these issues; and to offer some ideas that may be helpful in dealing with diffi...
This study was part of a research program in shift work and fatigue in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment. The purpose of the study was to investigate three different shift schedules in use at ATC facilities with respect to potential disruptio...
Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.
Van Meeuwen, L. W., Brand-Gruwel, S., De Bock, J. J. P. R., Kirschner, P. A., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010, September). Self-directed Learning Skills in Air-traffic Control Training; An Eye-tracking Approach. Paper presented at the European Association for Aviation Psychology, Budapest.
Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano
Van Meeuwen, L. W., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., Kirschner, P. A., & De Bock, J. J. P. R. (2010, May). Self-directed learning skills in air-traffic control; A cued retrospective reporting study. Presented at the Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye-tracking. Lund, Sweden.
The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program for air traffic control (ATC) experimentation and evaluation with the ATS-6 satellite was part of the Integrated ATS-6 L-Band Experiment. All tests were perfor...
Hoedemaeker, D.M.; Brouwer, R.F.T.; Malone, K.; Klunder, G.; et al
In this subproject, the impact of Cruise Control (CC) was analysed with respect to traffic safety, energy consumption, and environmental pollution. In order to work on this topic from a European perspective, a team of European experts in the fields of driver assistance systems, human factors,
Two formal validation studies of the Air Traffic Control Specialist Pre Training Screen (ATCS/PTS), a 5 day computer administered test battery, are described. The ATCS/PTS was designed to replace the 9 week US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Ac...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations ...
Grayson, R. L.
The significance of coordination in the air traffic control system is discussed. An attempt is made to determine the circumstances that appear to encourage coordination failures as well as examine the human and system factors involved in these failures. Possible means of reducing the rate of such failures are also considered.
Roe, R.A.; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Geven, E.
A brief historical review of test methods used for selecting air traffic controllers (ATCOs) shows that in contrast to e.g. ability tests and job samples, personality tests have been used rather infrequently. The lesser popularity of personality tests may be explained from the belief that
van der Pol, E.; Oliehoek, F.A.; Bosse, T.; Bredeweg, B.
This video demonstration contrasts two approaches to coordination in traffic light control using reinforcement learning: earlier work, based on a deconstruction of the state space into a linear combination of vehicle states, and our own approach based on the Deep Q-learning algorithm.
Full Text Available To resolve the problem of future airspace management under great traffic flow and high density condition, 4D trajectory estimation has become one of the core technologies of the next new generation air traffic control automation system. According to the flight profile and the dynamics models of different aircraft types under different flight conditions, a hybrid system model that switches the aircraft from one flight stage to another with aircraft state changing continuously in one state is constructed. Additionally, air temperature and wind speed are used to modify aircraft true airspeed as well as ground speed, and the hybrid system evolution simulation is used to estimate aircraft 4D trajectory. The case study proves that 4D trajectory estimated through hybrid system model can image the flight dynamic states of aircraft and satisfy the needs of the planned flight altitude profile.KEY WORDSair traffic management, 4D trajectory estimation, hybrid system model, aircraft dynamic model
...) in Hamburg is reviewed. Job analysis, test battery development, and validation research for the controller occupation in the United Kingdom is presented next, followed by a description of the Swedish "MRU Project" on controller...
Heidstra, J. Goldenbeld, C. Gelau, C. Mäkinen, T. Jayet, M.-C. & Evers, C.
To ensure some minimal standard for traffic system operation and safety, a system of traffic laws and regulations is necessary. Enforcement of these traffic laws is believed to influence driving behaviour through a mechanism of deterrence: the threat of legal punishment should convince road users to
capability to train the controller and/or controller team. Neophyte controllers can be given the chance to develop without any attendant fear of the...the increasing use of the shared airspace, especially in Europe where the density of industrialized countries is high and the shared airspace is
Martin, Daniel; Nixon, Jim
Controllers and pilots must work together to ensure safe and efficient helicopter flight within the London control zone. Subjective ratings of pilot perception of controller responsibility for five key flight tasks were obtained from thirty helicopter pilots. Three types of airspace were investigated. Results indicate that there is variation in pilot understanding of controller responsibility compared to the formal regulations that define controller responsibility. Significant differences in the perception of controller responsibility were found for the task of aircraft separation in class D airspace and along helicopter routes. Analysis of the patterns of response suggests that task type rather than the airspace type may be the key factor. Results are framed using the concept of a shared mental model. This research demonstrates that pilots flying in complex London airspace have an expectation of controller responsibility for certain flight tasks, in certain airspace types that is not supported by aviation regulation. Practitioner Summary: The responsibility for tasks during flight varies according to the flight rules used and airspace type. Helicopter pilots may attribute responsibility to controllers for tasks when controllers have no responsibility as defined by regulation. This variation between pilot perceptions of controller responsibility could affect safety within the London control zone.
Gustavo Soares de Souza
Full Text Available The cultivation of sugarcane with intensive use of machinery, especially for harvest, induces soil compaction, affecting the crop development. The control of agricultural traffic is an alternative of management in the sector, with a view to preserve the soil physical quality, resulting in increased sugarcane root growth, productivity and technological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical quality of an Oxisol with and without control traffic and the resulting effects on sugarcane root development, productivity and technological quality. The following managements were tested: no traffic control (NTC, traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and sugarcane trailer (TC1 and traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and trailer and use of an autopilot (TC2. Soil samples were collected (layers 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m in the plant rows, inter-row center and seedbed region, 0.30 m away from the plant row. The productivity was measured with a specific weighing scale. The technological variables of sugarcane were measured in each plot. Soil cores were collected to analyze the root system. In TC2, the soil bulk density and compaction degree were lowest and total porosity and macroporosity highest in the plant row. Soil penetration resistance in the plant row, was less than 2 MPa in TC1 and TC2. Soil aggregation and total organic carbon did not differ between the management systems. The root surface and volume were increased in TC1 and TC2, with higher productivity and sugar yield than under NTC. The sugarcane variables did not differ between the managements. The soil physical quality in the plant row was preserved under management TC1 and TC2, with an improved root development and increases of 18.72 and 20.29 % in productivity and sugar yield, respectively.
The study was about the design and development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS) that would ease storage and retrieval of traffic offence cases in the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) and the Traffic department of Nigeria Police force. The method used to manage traffic cases is manual; information ...
Gustavo Soares de Souza
Full Text Available Machinery traffic in sugarcane (Saccharumsp. plantations reduces soil physical quality, and hinders both root development and crop yield. We evaluated the physical quality of an Oxisol and the development of sugarcane roots under controlled traffic. The treatments assessed were: without controlled machinery traffic (WCT, controlled traffic by adjusting the tractor and infield wagons to a 3.0 m track width with the operator guiding the machinery (CT1 and the previous treatment using real time kinematic / global positioning system (RTK / GPS precision auto steer (CT2. Soil samples were collected from the planting rows, seedbed and inter-row center to determine the least limiting water range (LLWR and soil porosity from scanned 2-D images. The root dry mass was sampled from monoliths, separated from the soil by washing through a 2-mm sieve and dried in an oven. A higher LLWR was observed in the planting row under CT1 and CT2 than under WCT. The planting row had a predominance of complex pores with a diameter > 500 µm in the 0.15-0.27 m depth layer under CT1 and CT2. In the planting rows under WCT, the root dry mass was only 44 % of that measured under CT2. Benefits regarding soil physical quality and growth roots were observed when the tractor-wagon track width was adjusted based on the sugarcane spacing using either precision auto steering or manual operation of the machinery.
The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.
Full Text Available Currently, a number of crowdsourcing-based mobile applications have been implemented in mobile networks and Internet of Things (IoT, targeted at real-time services and recommendation. The frequent information exchanges and data transmissions in collaborative crowdsourcing are heavily injected into the current communication networks, which poses great challenges for Mobile Wireless Networks (MWN. This paper focuses on the traffic scheduling and load balancing problem in software-defined MWN and designs a hybrid routing forwarding scheme as well as a congestion control algorithm to achieve the feasible solution. The traffic scheduling algorithm first sorts the tasks in an ascending order depending on the amount of tasks and then solves it using a greedy scheme. In the proposed congestion control scheme, the traffic assignment is first transformed into a multiknapsack problem, and then the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA is utilized to solve this problem. Numerical results on practical network topology reveal that, compared with the traditional schemes, the proposed congestion control and traffic scheduling schemes can achieve load balancing, reduce the probability of network congestion, and improve the network throughput.
Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.
Quantitative Safety Assessments (QSA) are essential to safety benefit verification and regulations of developmental changes in safety critical systems like the Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems. Effectiveness of the assessments is particularly desirable today in the safe implementations of revolutionary ATC overhauls like NextGen and SESAR. QSA of ATC systems are however challenged by system complexity and lack of accident data. Extending from the idea "safety is a control problem" in the literature, this research proposes to assess system safety from the control perspective, through quantifying a system's "control capacity". A system's safety performance correlates to this "control capacity" in the control of "safety critical processes". To examine this idea in QSA of the ATC systems, a Control-capacity Based Safety Assessment Framework (CBSAF) is developed which includes two control capacity metrics and a procedural method. The two metrics are Probabilistic System Control-capacity (PSC) and Temporal System Control-capacity (TSC); each addresses an aspect of a system's control capacity. And the procedural method consists three general stages: I) identification of safety critical processes, II) development of system control models and III) evaluation of system control capacity. The CBSAF was tested in two case studies. The first one assesses an en-route collision avoidance scenario and compares three hypothetical configurations. The CBSAF was able to capture the uncoordinated behavior between two means of control, as was observed in a historic midair collision accident. The second case study compares CBSAF with an existing risk based QSA method in assessing the safety benefits of introducing a runway incursion alert system. Similar conclusions are reached between the two methods, while the CBSAF has the advantage of simplicity and provides a new control-based perspective and interpretation to the assessments. The case studies are intended to investigate the
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
tifractal character of the process by analysing its inter-departure process when fed with the multifractal traces. The result of the existence of a global-scaling expo- nent for multifractal cascades and its application in queueing theory are discussed. We propose tracking and control algorithms for controlling network congestion.
This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.
facilities by interphone and radio as for the ATCS/PTS indicated that a prediction about directed by the radar controller on a position. In con- probable...scores ( Guion , in March 1992 and the ATCS/PTS became opera- 1992). For example, given the nature of the criterion tional as the FAA’s 2nd stage selection...sciences. San Ackerman, P. D. (1991). Discussion of selection of air Francisco, CA: Freeman. traffic controllers: Complexity, requirements, and Guion , R
Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria Lee
Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been reported to reflect the person's cognitive and emotional stress levels, and may offer an objective measure of human-operator's workload levels, which are recorded continuously and unobtrusively to the task performance. The present paper compares the HRV data collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation of airport ramp-traffic control operations with the controller participants' own verbal self-reporting ratings of their workload.
controllers. Hardwired logic implementation using standard logic gates offers the least cost alternative but requires considerable design and circuit realization effort. In addition, it lacks flexibility when modifications to system operation are required.
Mercer, Joey; Hunt-Espinosa, Sarah; Bienert, Nancy; Laraway, Sean
A Human-In-The-Loop simulation was conducted in January of 2013 in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA's Ames Research Center. The simulation airspace included two en route sectors feeding the northwest corner of Atlanta's Terminal Radar Approach Control. The focus of this paper is on how uncertainties in the study's trajectory predictions impacted the controllers ability to perform their duties. Of particular interest is how the controllers interacted with the delay information displayed in the meter list and data block while managing the arrival flows. Due to wind forecasts with 30-knot over-predictions and 30-knot under-predictions, delay value computations included errors of similar magnitude, albeit in opposite directions. However, when performing their duties in the presence of these errors, did the controllers issue clearances of similar magnitude, albeit in opposite directions?
The Federal Air Surgeon requested continued investigation of visual disorders and vision corrective devices as to their relevance to the medical certification of airmen and controllers. The en route Air Traffic Control Specialist (ATCS) works with a ...
Requena Hidalgo, Jesús
Las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación y la información son la expresión de un movimiento desde la "sociedad disciplinaria" a la "sociedad de control", un orden social distinto. Hoy, la clásica representación del poder, basada en la idea del panóptico unidireccional, ya no sirve para explicar la forma en que es ejercida la vigilancia. La policía, como institución y como actividad, se ha visto obligada a incorporar técnicas y tecnologías nuevas, acordes a la nueva racionalidad. Junto a las ...
CONTROL And re Bcnoit Proiiram Director and Editor VOLUME II I’ This AGARDograph was prepared at the request of the Guidance and Control Panel of...each member nation. The mission of AGARD is carried out through the Panels which are composed of experts appointed by the National Delegates, the...with coarse/fine eva l uati on a r e employed wher e the inher t equipment error can be kept below 180 m r e ardle ss of the di s ta ce ; i n t he se
Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.
This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.
Botnets play an important role in modern Internet-related cybercrime. A botnet consists of a group of infected computers, referred to as bots. The bots are remotely controlled and deployed in malicious activities, such as DDoS attacks, spam, and espionage. Clever design of the botnet C&C (Command
N. U. Ahmed
operation of the controller and evaluate the benefits of using a genetic algorithm approach to speed up the optimization process. Our results show that the use of the genetic algorithm proves particularly useful in reducing the computation time required to optimize the operation of a system consisting of multiple token-bucket-regulated sources.
William I. Robinson
Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.
attitude.” “It is important to be able to think on your feet. They need to be able to communicate. Introverts may have a hard time with this job...maturity levels, Marine leadership and experience is an asset.” “Great controllers use personal initiative and have a natural aggressiveness...The MCAS Miramar ATCF Branch and Training Chiefs work closely with crew leadership personnel and OJTIs when assigning 7251s to a crew. Their
Fabio Andrés Espinosa Valcárcel
número de autos presentes en imágenes capturadas por un conjunto de cámaras estratégicamente ubicadas en cada intersección. Usando esta información, el sistema selecciona la secuencia de acciones que optimicen el flujo vehicular dentro de la zona de control, en un escenario simulado. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el sistema disminuye en un 20% los tiempos de retraso para cada vehículo y que además es capaz de adaptarse rápida y eficientemente a los cambios de flujo.
A model of an air traffic controller performing a separation assurance task was produced. The model was designed to be simple to use and deploy in a simulator, but still provide realistic behavior. The model is based upon an evaluation of the safety function of the controller for separation assurance, and utilizes fast and frugal heuristics and belief networks to establish a knowledge set for the controller model. Based on this knowledge set, the controller acts to keep aircraft separated. Validation results are provided to demonstrate the model s performance.
Full Text Available Strategic 4D trajectory conflict-free planning is recognized as one of the core technologies of next-generation air traffic control and automation systems. To resolve potential conflicts during strategic 4D conflict-free trajectory planning, a protection-zone conflict-control model based on air traffic control separation constraints was proposed, in which relationships between expected arrival time and adjusted arrival time at conflicting waypoints for aircraft queues were built and transformed into dynamic linear equations under the definition of max-plus algebra. A method for strategic deconfliction of 4D trajectory was then proposed using two strategies: arrival time adjustment and departure time adjustment. In addition, departure time and flight duration perturbations were introduced to analyze the sensitivity of the planned strategic conflict-free 4D trajectories, and a robustness index for the conflict-free 4D trajectories was calculated. Finally, the proposed method was tested for the Shanghai air traffic control terminal area. The outcomes demonstrated that the planned strategic conflict-free 4D trajectories could avoid potential conflicts, and the slack time could be used to indicate their robustness. Complexity analysis demonstrated that deconfliction using max-plus algebra is more suitable for deconfliction of 4D trajectory with random sampling period in fix air route.
This article examines the development of community-based policing in the United States and the Netherlands. These two countries were selected because the United States has been the forerunner of research into the police and one of the first countries to attempt to introduce on a wide-scale, and
Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)
A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Full Text Available By questioning the lopsided attention on task-oriented factors in air traffic controller-pilot communication, the current study places an equal weighting on both task-oriented and relationship-building communications, and investigates how each type of communication influences sustainable performance in airline operation team. Results show that both task-oriented and relationship-building communications in terms of sustainability of team process predicted greater communication satisfaction at work. Also, both task interdependence and shared leadership influenced both types of air traffic controller-pilot communication. However, only relationship-building communication had a direct influence on perceived work performance whereas task-oriented communication had not. Along with task-oriented factors, this study raises the relationship-oriented factors as important resources for the sustainable team performance in airline industry.
We present the stochastic model for the jam formation at the tollgates of which the number is adjusted by synchronizing with the jam's length. We study the jam formation and its fluctuation in front of the adjustable tollgates on a highway. Controlling the number of tollgates has an important effect on the jam formation. The jams are classified into three kinds: (a) localized jam, (b) synchronized jam, and (c) growing jam. The jamming transitions from the localized jam, through the synchronized jam, to the growing jam occur with increasing inflow probability. At an intermediate inflow, the jam fluctuates largely by synchronizing with the number of tollgates. When the inflow probability is higher than the sum of outflow probabilities at tollgates, the jam continues to grow and diverge with time. The dependence of the fluctuating jam on the inflow probability is clarified.
Fink, J M; Wagner, J P; Congleton, J J; Rock, J C
This study evaluated police officers' exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units. Exposure measurements were taken at approximated ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in patrol vehicles. Comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers' published maximum power density specifications and actual measured power densities taken at the antenna faces of those units. Four speed-enforcement agencies and one transportation research institute provided 54 radar units for evaluation; 17 different models, encompassing 4 frequency bands and 3 antenna configurations, were included. Four of the 986 measurements taken exceeded the 5 mW/cm2 limit accepted by the International Radiation Protection Association and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, though none exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, American National Standards Institute, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, or Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 10 mW/cm2. The four high measurements were maximum power density readings taken directly in front of the radar. Of the 812 measurements taken at the officers' seated ocular and testicular positions, none exceeded 0.04 mW/cm2; the highest of these (0.034 mW/cm2) was less than 1% of the most conservative current safety standards. High exposures in the limited region directly in front of the radar aperture are easily avoided with proper training. Results of this study indicate that police officer exposure to microwave radiation is apparently minimal. However, because of uncertainty in the medical and scientific communities concerning nonionizing radiation, it is recommended that law enforcement agencies implement a policy of prudent avoidance, including purchasing units with the lowest published maximum power densities, purchasing dash/rear deck-mounted units with antennae mounted outside the patrol vehicle, and training police officers to use the "stand-by" mode
Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip
as exploring current strengths and opportunities for further development. One of the central issues that the report identifies are problems in terms of proactive verbal and friendly engagement from police ‘front line’ staff. The report goes on to provide a series of recommendations for the future development......”. But Professor Stott and his team go on to highlight an important breakdown in the nationally coordinated policing reforms that took place following the riots in Gothenburg in 2001, referred to as the Special Police Tactic. They assert that “the police can benefit from nationally unified clear and coherent...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....
Lauderdale, Todd A.; Wu, Yuefeng; Tretto, Celeste
This project seeks to develop statistical-based machine learning models to characterize the types of errors present when using current systems to predict future aircraft states. These models will be data-driven - based on large quantities of historical data. Once these models are developed, they will be used to infer situations in the historical data where an air-traffic controller intervened on an aircraft's route, even when there is no direct recording of this action.
Barellini, A; Bogi, L; Licitra, G; Silvi, A M; Zari, A
Air traffic control (ATC) primary radars are 'classical' radars that use echoes of radiofrequency (RF) pulses from aircraft to determine their position. High-power RF pulses radiated from radar antennas may produce high electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding area. Measurement of electromagnetic fields produced by RF-pulsed radar by means of a swept-tuned spectrum analyser are investigated here. Measurements have been carried out both in the laboratory and in situ on signals generated by an ATC primary radar.
policy and is ultimately a political decision. Nonetheless, there are several criteria which the policymaker should consider in the establishment of...operations, genero aviation, helicopters, and business aviation aircraft. o The Air Traffic Control system in the yeai ?uuO and beyond will continue to be an...practices. To evaluate the potential economic (and political ) risks and r], possible benefits of peak hour pricing, actual experience ar, not theory is
more protocols (especially at different layers of the OSI model ), implementing an inference engine to extract inter- and intrapacket dependencies, and...ARL-TR-7543 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Automatic Traffic-Based Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Model ...ICMP) Model Generation for ns-3 by Jaime C Acosta and Felipe Jovel Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate, ARL Felipe Sotelo and Caesar
direction in textual form which requires deciphering and arithmetic to determine vertical separation. Since vertical separation is as imperative to flight...handling information via different sources (e.g., radar screen with a series of automated visual cues, paper or electronic flight progress strips, radio...empirical analysis of the applicability of 3D stereoscopic in air traffic control. Paper presented at the Computational Intelligence in Robotics and
Influencing speeding behaviour through preventative police enforcement. Paper presented at the VIth International Road Safety Organisation PRI World Congress on `Marketing traffic safety', 3-6 October 1994, Cape Town, South Africa.
This paper considers the effect of speed on road safety and how to influence speeding behaviour. The results that can be achieved through police enforcement combined with information campaigns are discussed with reference to projects carried out in the Netherlands. The cost implications are
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.
Valdenilson Ribeiro Ribas
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that stress and emotional reactions can affect immune responses in animals and humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate hematological and immunological effects of stress on air traffic controllers. METHODS: Thirty air traffic controllers and 15 aeronautical information service operators were evaluated. The groups were divided as information service operators with 10 years or more of experience (AIS>10 and with less than 10 years in the profession (AIS10 and with less than 10 years in the profession (ATCo10 group presented a significantly lower phagocytosis rate of monocytes at 2:00 p.m. compared to 8:00 a.m. Moreover, the ATCo>10 group presented lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, platelet and leukocyte levels, and increased cortisol concentrations at 8:00 a.m. compared to the other groups. Additionally, this group had lower phagocytosis rate of monocytes, and hemoglobin, platelet, leukocyte, basophils and nitric oxide levels at 2:00 p.m. compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: Stress seems to greatly affect immune responses of air traffic controllers with more than ten years of experience.
Full Text Available The airspace in Central Europe is already one of the busiest airspaces in the world and the forecasts predict further traffic increases. The current air transport system is reaching its capacity limits, not only at airports but also in parts of the en-route area. This is mainly due to the workload constraints of air traffic controllers. In the past, many technical system functionalities were developed with the aim of reducing controller workload and thus enabling the safe handling of the predicted traffic growth. But these new functionalities alone will not provide adequate relief to air traffic controllers. Their working procedures and the airspace structure will have to be adapted accordingly. In order to obtain real operational benefits, these technical innovations must be integrated into an overall concept which – in addition to the above-mentioned factors – also takes account of ergonomic aspects and human-machine interfaces. When developing such an overall concept, additional evaluation and validation measures are indispensable to ensure that the desired operational benefits are achieved. This is why DFS has for many years used fast- and real-time simulations to assess and optimise any changes to be made to the air traffic control system. The working methods of DFS in this context are in keeping with the European Operational Concept Validation Methodology of 2007, in short E-OCVM. This paper outlines the development and validation activities of DFS using the MSP D/L project as an example. The project deals with the introduction of the new role of air traffic controllers as multi-sector planners (MSP and new system functionalities, such as air/ground data link (D/L. The project included the development of an operational concept for using the new functionalities as well as for defining working procedures and the airspace structure. This concept was subsequently evaluated by means of a fast-time simulation and two real-time simulations
Legal and administrative measures to support police enforcement of traffic rules. The "Escape" Project, Deliverable 5. Project funded by the European Commission under the Transport RTD Programme of the 4th Framework Programme.
Goldenbeld, C. Heidstra, J. Christ, R. Mäkinen, T. & Hakkert, A.S.
This report addresses the question of how legal and administrative systems may support the operation or effectiveness of the total system of traffic law enforcement. In this first chapter we present road safety and traffic enforcement as the efforts of several interlinked organisations and
Winberg, M.R.; Wixom, V.E.
This report presents the results of engineering scale dust control experiments using soil fixative for contamination control during handling of transuranic waste. These experiments focused on controlling dust during retrieval operations of buried waste where waste and soil are intimately mixed. Sources of dust generation during retrieval operations include digging, dumping, and vehicle traffic. Because contaminants are expected to attach to soil particles and move with the generated dust, control of the dust spread may be the key to contamination control. Dust control techniques examined in these experiments include the use of soil fixatives to control generation of fugitive dusts during vehicle traffic operations. Previous experiments conducted in FY 1990 included testing of the soil fixative, ENTAC. These experiments showed that ENTAC was effective in controlling dust generation but had several undesirable properties such as slow cure times and clogged the pumps and application nozzles. Therefore, other products would have to be evaluated to find a suitable candidate. As a result, two soil fixatives were tested in these present experiments, COHEREX-PM, an asphalt emulsion product manufactured by Witco Corporation and FLAMBINDER, a calcium lignosulfonate product manufactured by Flambeau Corporation. The results of the experiments include product performance and recommended application methods for application in a field deployable contamination control unit to be built in FY 1993
N. N. Hurski
Full Text Available A model of the straight course of movement of the mobile machine with a traction electric motor DC. Traffic management controller provides a closed classical scheme with feedback. The mathematical model of the electric DC motor with the energy dissipation in the rotor bearings. Design scheme of mobile machines include speed dial controller, traction electric motor, gearbox, transmission and progressively moving mass on the elasticdissipative wheel. The results of the simulation of the machine in the form of temporary processes of change control signals, voltage and current in the windings of the motor and traction power developed on the wheel.
Houborg, Esben; Kammersgaard, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael Mulbjerg
studies show ambiguous results. Criminal records do not indicate that particular people are singled out. Interviews with police officers indicate that appearance of persons and non-offending behavior can play a role in suspicion formation and legal action. The ambiguity of the results can be seen...
Full Text Available Background: Regularly available data is shown to be inadequate for developing, implementing, and evaluating injury prevention and control programs in India. The present study was undertaken in the hospitals of Bangalore and Pune, to examine the feasibility of gathering information on injuries using multiple sources. Materials and Methods: Stakeholders meeting and training programs were held for the hospital staff, police personnel, and traffic and transport staff, to identify their roles and responsibilities. Prospective data on morbidity and mortality due to injuries were collected by trained staff from Emergency Departments on a pre-tested questionnaire. The information gathered was cross-checked with the hospital and police records. Results: The stakeholders meeting and training programs were able to motivate the departments to provide the correct data. Data on 32188 patients could be extracted from hospital and police records during the study period. Injuries accounted for 16% of the emergency cases. Unintentional injuries were 64%, and 32% were intentional. Road traffic injuries accounted for 44% of all the injuries. One-third of the injured were children and young adults below 25 years. Among the injured, two wheeler riders were 29% and pedestrians were 23%. Conclusion: It was possible to improve the data on injuries by adequate training and a data linking mechanism between the Police, Hospital, and Transport Departments. The problem of road traffic injuries could be highlighted and addressed by a good data capture mechanism.
This report provides an overview of the technical and institutional issues associated with the : evaluation of the federally-sponsored Anaheim Advanced Traffic Control System Field Operations Test. The primary FOT objective was the implementation and...
Highway construction is among the most dangerous industries in the US. Internal traffic control design, along with how construction : equipment and vehicles interact with the traveling public, have a significant effect on how safe a highway construct...
The Office of Inspector General (OIG) reviewed a complaint from Congressman Deal on behalf of a constituent. The constituent alleged waste and mismanagement occurred in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Air Route Traffic Control Centers Criti...
Previous research demonstrated that an empirically-keyed, response-option scored biographical data (biodata) : scale predicted supervisory ratings of air traffic control specialist (ATCS) job performance (Dean & Broach, : 2011). This research f...
The report describes the impact of thunderstorms on the Denver Air Traffic Control (ATC) operation and the potential role of the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) in reducing that impact. : The investigation was conducted in two stages. First, d...
This report documents Rhythm Engineerings adaptive traffic control system field installation performed : by New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) along Veterans Memorial Hwy in Long : Island, NY. This report reviews the reason for t...
An analysis was made of an eight-year interval change in several indicators of coronary heart disease (CHD) susceptibility as measured on 475 male air traffic control (ATC) personnel. The initial measurements were obtained from these personnel as ATC...
The written air traffic control specialist (ATCS) aptitude test battery was evaluated for evidence of predictive bias within the framework of the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (29 CFR 1607...
Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus
In this study we assess the economic profitability of implementing various precision farming (PF) technologies and controlled traffic farming (CTF) on 4 main crops in Denmark. The study provides insight into technological requirements, and identifies related costs and benefits to farmers and the ......In this study we assess the economic profitability of implementing various precision farming (PF) technologies and controlled traffic farming (CTF) on 4 main crops in Denmark. The study provides insight into technological requirements, and identifies related costs and benefits to farmers...... and the Danish society as a whole. At the farm level, the findings from the study indicate that an implementation of CTF systems may have a significant impact on fuel savings due to a reduced overlap with auto guidance systems and easier movement with tractors and tools in the field. The PF site-specific weed....... The obtained results reflect the long term economic effect of implementing new production methods in Denmark where soil fertility increases over time due to reduced traffic increasing yields. Over all, the Danish GDP is estimated to increase by 34 million € due to the implementation of PF and CTF on larger...
Full Text Available CAC (Call Admission Control plays a significant role in providing QoS (Quality of Service in mobile wireless networks. In addition to much research that focuses on modified Mobile IP to get better efficient handover performance, CAC should be introduced to Mobile IP-based network to guarantee the QoS for users. In this paper, we propose a CAC scheme which incorporates multiple traffic types and adjusts the admission threshold dynamically using fuzzy control logic to achieve better usage of resources. The method can provide QoS in Mobile IPv6 networks with few modifications on MAP (Mobility Anchor Point functionality and slight change in BU (Binding Update message formats. According to the simulation results, the proposed scheme presents good performance of voice and video traffic at the expenses of poor performance on data traffic. It is evident that these CAC schemes can reduce the probability of the handoff dropping and the cell overload and limit the probability of the new call blocking.
Ludmila Ribeiro; Victor Neiva e Oliveira; Alexandre Magno Alves Diniz
In recent years, Brazilian military police forces have adopted community policing programs in order to increase confidence in the institution and reduce crime rates. The objective of this study was to verify what the police frontline personnel understands by community policing and how they perceive the results of its implementation. A survey was conducted with 592 military policemen involved in operational activities in 32 military police companies of Belo Horizonte. The results point to a va...
Freitas, Ângela M; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; Russomano, Thaís; Freitas, Marcos de; Silvello, Silvio Luis da Silva; Costa, Jaderson Costa da
To evaluate symptoms of stress and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in air traffic control (ATC) officers in Brazil. Fifty-two ATC officers participated, based at three air traffic control units, identified as A, B and C. Stress symptoms were assessed using the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults, and EDS by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The sample mean age was 37 years, 76.9% of whom were male. Excessive daytime sleepiness was identified in 25% of the ATC officers, with 84.6% of these based at air traffic control unit A, which has greater air traffic flow, operating a 24-hour alternating work shift schedule. A total of 16% of the ATC officers had stress symptoms, and of these, 62% showed a predominance of physical symptoms. The high percentage of ATC officers with EDS identified in group A may be related to chronodisruption due to night work and alternating shifts.
Chen, Chun-hsi Vivian; Kao, Rui Hsin
Public security, traffic management and service for the people are the three major functions of policing. To assure the quality of police service, which is contingent on the people who render the service, has become the core of policing. This study aims to investigate the relationship between work values and service-oriented organizational…
Guenette, Kris; Hernandez-Ramirez, Guillermo
The employment of controlled traffic farming (CTF) can yield improvements to soil quality attributes through the confinement of equipment traffic to tramlines with the field. There is a need to quantify and explain the spatial heterogeneity of soil quality attributes affected by CTF to further improve our understanding and modelling ability of field scale soil dynamics. Soil properties such as available nitrogen (AN), pH, soil total nitrogen (STN), soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density, macroporosity, soil quality S-Index, plant available water capacity (PAWC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (Km) were analysed and compared among trafficked and un-trafficked areas. We contrasted standard geostatistical methods such as ordinary kriging (OK) and covariate kriging (COK) as well as the hybrid method of regression kriging (ROK) to predict the spatial distribution of soil properties across two annual cropland sites actively employing CTF in Alberta, Canada. Field scale variability was quantified more accurately through the inclusion of covariates; however, the use of ROK was shown to improve model accuracy despite the regression model composition limiting the robustness of the ROK method. The exclusion of traffic from the un-trafficked areas displayed significant improvements to bulk density, macroporosity and Km while subsequently enhancing AN, STN and SOC. The ability of the regression models and the ROK method to account for spatial trends led to the highest goodness-of-fit and lowest error achieved for the soil physical properties, as the rigid traffic regime of CTF altered their spatial distribution at the field scale. Conversely, the COK method produced the most optimal predictions for the soil nutrient properties and Km. The use of terrain covariates derived from light ranging and detection (LiDAR), such as of elevation and topographic position index (TPI), yielded the best models in the COK method at the field scale.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Community outreach activities attended by Pittsburgh Police Officers, starting from January 1 2016. Includes Zone, Event Name, Location, Date and Time.
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...
Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie
and private organisations doing business-in-society. The case concerns the reformation of the Danish Police. In 2007 the Danish Police started implementing an extensive reform that affected all parts of the organisation. Despite thorough planning of the process including several change management initiatives...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...
Sigurdsson, J F; Gudjonsson, G H
This study investigates the effects of alcohol, drug intoxication and withdrawal symptoms on the mental state of criminal suspects and the nature of their confession. A total of 359 sentenced prisoners were approached on admission and 96% agreed to participate in the study. They completed a specially designed Confession Questionnaire, which asked them questions about their reasons for confessing to the police, their attitude towards their confession, their mental state at the time of the confession and the extent to which they had been under the influence of alcohol and drug intoxication at the time of crime and police interview. The confession rate for the sample was very high (92%), with serious traffic violators having the highest confession rate (95%) and sex offenders the lowest (83%). The findings illustrate that the "perception of proof", "internal need to confess" and "external pressure" are the main reasons why suspects confess. However, subjects were identified who had experienced a typical "prisoner's dilemma" phenomenon during the police interview because of a co-defendant. Alcohol and drug intoxication was very commonly reported both at the time of the offence and the police interview, but these were related to the nature of their offence. Although intoxication and withdrawal symptoms did not appear to seriously impair their coping during the police interview it was consistently reported as having made them confused.
Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C; de Pedro, Teresa
These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver's attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.
Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C.; de Pedro, Teresa
These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results. PMID:22219692
Full Text Available These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC, which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.
Full Text Available The contribution discusses a transportation network rough description that corresponds to satisfactory level of an adaptive traffic control algorithms implementation , supported by video-detection system. The decision making algorithms have to provide us with not only vehicles’ approach time prediction, at the intersections but also finding possible solution for avoiding critical queues at the intersections. Majority of traditional traffic control systems are based on number of cars recorded by inductive loops, however they do not define any proper occupation states at any traffic lane. The time window indicated for passing the defined number of cars loses the distance gaps visible between the cars on the traffic lane. That is why remarkable part from the defined number of cars will not cross the intersection in the defined green light time. Procedures used for searching an optimal solution using the inductive measurements can, in the majority cases, be undoubtedly noticed as a theoretical analysis only.
Full Text Available In recent years, Brazilian military police forces have adopted community policing programs in order to increase confidence in the institution and reduce crime rates. The objective of this study was to verify what the police frontline personnel understands by community policing and how they perceive the results of its implementation. A survey was conducted with 592 military policemen involved in operational activities in 32 military police companies of Belo Horizonte. The results point to a vast plasticity of the concept, which came to mean any type of activity carried out by police officers and by the community without the formal cooperation of the police, making the category "community policing" a new name for old police practices.
Full Text Available Institutions and authorities involved in organizing, structuring and signaling traffic are represented, on one hand, by the Romanian Police through its structures of traffic police as the main body with responsibilities in the field and, on the other, by the administrators of public roads depending on material and territorial competence.
Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar
Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death among productive age group. Using systems approach framework (SAF), current preventive strategies for RTI control were reviewed in Pakistan. A review of the literature was done using four international search engines. Only ten studies on preventive strategies for RTI stemming from Pakistan were found. The first Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) surveillance system for road traffic injuries was established in urban city (Karachi) in Pakistan has shown promise for injury control and should be scaled up to other cities. Enforcement of traffic laws on seat-belt and helmet wearing is poor. National Highway and Motorway Police Ordinance (2000) was one of the few legislative measure so far taken in Pakistan. Using SAF, efforts are required to implement interventions targeting human, vehicle design and also making environment safer for road users.
In this study, I propose a systematic method of detecting aircraft deviation due to air traffic controller (ATC) intervention. The aircraft deviations associated with ATC interventions are detected using a heuristic algorithm developed from analyzing the actual positions of an aircraft to its filed flight plan when the aircraft trajectories were identified as having an encounter in a loss-of-separation incident. An actual (closed-loop) flight trajectory of the Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center (ZOB ARTCC) was collected from the FlightAware database. This was compared with the corresponding planned (open-loop) trajectory dataset generated by the Microsoft(c) Flight Simulator X (FSX). I implemented a conflict-detection algorithm in Matlab to identify open-loop flight trajectories that encounters in loss-of-separation. I analyzed the differences between the closed-loop and open-loop flight trajectories of aircrafts that were identified to have encounters in loss of separation. The analysis identified operationally significant deviations in the closed-loop trajectory data with respect to the horizontal paths of the aircrafts. I then developed and validated a heuristic algorithm, the ATC intervention detection algorithm, based on the findings from the analysis. When used with a test dataset to validate the algorithm, it achieved an 85.7% detection rate in detecting horizontal deviations made by the ATC in resolving identified conflicts, and a false-alarm rate of 68%. In addition to the ATC intervention detection algorithm, I present in this paper an analysis of deviated flight trajectories in an effort to display how the presented methodology can be utilized to provide insight into air traffic controller resolution strategies.
BAZZAN, A. L. C.
Full Text Available The area of multiagent systems is new and challenging. From the moment a system includes more than one agent, artificial intelligence techniques become inadequate for they do not consider interactions with other agent, need for coordination and other factors. In this text those aspects are discussed, and an introduction to the area of autonomous agents and multiagent systems is offered. Afterwards, two application of this kind of systems are described, both in the area of transportation and emergency sistuations. In the former we discuss traffic control and simulation and in the latter, we focus on the simulation tool RoboCup Rescue
de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R; Ferreira, Bemildo
In this article we present a model of some functions and activities of the Brazilian Air traffic Control System (ATS) in the period in which occurred a mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the ATM. Modeling in some detail activities during the collision and related them to overall behavior and antecedents that stress the organization uncover some drift into failure mechanisms that erode safety defenses provided by the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), enabling a mid-air collision to be happen.
Barellini, A.; Bogi, L.; Licitra, G.; Silvi, A. M.; Zari, A.
Air traffic control (ATC) primary radars are 'classical' radars that use echoes of radiofrequency (RF) pulses from aircraft to determine their position. High-power RF pulses radiated from radar antennas may produce high electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding area. Measurement of electromagnetic fields produced by RF-pulsed radar by means of a swept-tuned spectrum analyser are investigated here. Measurements have been carried out both in the laboratory and in situ on signals generated by an ATC primary radar. (authors)
Bonzano, Andrea; Cunningham, Padraig
This is a preprint of an article published in Proceedings of 13th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ed. Henri Prade, John Wile, pp58-62, August 1998. In this paper we present a Case-Based Reasoning system that helps air traffic controllers to solve aircraft conflicts. In particular, we focus on the hierarchical aspect of the CBR system which is able to solve multiple aircraft conflicts, i.e. conflicts that involve three or more aircraft. It is not practical to bui...
This report serves as a comprehensive guide to traffic signal timing and documents the tasks completed in association with its development. The focus of this document is on traffic signal control principles, practices, and procedures. It describes th...
Davison, Hayley J.; Histon, Jonathan M.; Ragnarsdottir, Margret Dora; Major, Laura M.; Hansman, R. John
This paper investigates the influence of structure on air traffic controllers cognitive processes in the TRACON, En Route, and Oceanic environments. Radar data and voice command analyses were conducted to support hypotheses generated through observations and interviews conducted at the various facilities. Three general types of structure-based abstractions (standard flows, groupings, and critical points) have been identified as being used in each context, though the details of their application varied in accordance with the constraints of the particular operational environment. Projection emerged as a key cognitive process aided by the structure-based abstractions, and there appears to be a significant difference between how time-based versus spatial-based projection is performed by controllers. It is recommended that consideration be given to the value provided by the structure-based abstractions to the controller as well as to maintain consistency between the type (time or spatial) of information support provided to the controller.
Full Text Available There is an appearance that women are uninterested in applying for positions in specialist areas of policing such as tactical operations, traffic and highway patrol, and counterterrorism. It cannot be assumed however that the low numbers of women is indicative of a lack of interest or will to be involved in these areas as there may be unidentified structural impediments preventing them from gaining access to these jobs. This paper critically discusses the issues relevant to women’s involvement in specialist policing roles and what can be done by police leaders to encourage greater employment of women in specialist policing roles.
Paielli, Russell A.; Erzberger, Hainz
An operational error is an incident in which an air traffic controller allows the separation between two aircraft to fall below the minimum separation standard. The rates of such errors in the US have increased significantly over the past few years. This paper proposes new detection methods that can help correct this trend by improving on the performance of Conflict Alert, the existing software in the Host Computer System that is intended to detect and warn controllers of imminent conflicts. In addition to the usual trajectory based on the flight plan, a "dead-reckoning" trajectory (current velocity projection) is also generated for each aircraft and checked for conflicts. Filters for reducing common types of false alerts were implemented. The new detection methods were tested in three different ways. First, a simple flightpath command language was developed t o generate precisely controlled encounters for the purpose of testing the detection software. Second, written reports and tracking data were obtained for actual operational errors that occurred in the field, and these were "replayed" to test the new detection algorithms. Finally, the detection methods were used to shadow live traffic, and performance was analysed, particularly with regard to the false-alert rate. The results indicate that the new detection methods can provide timely warnings of imminent conflicts more consistently than Conflict Alert.
Roy, Sandip; Sridhar, Banavar
Air transportation networks are being disrupted with increasing frequency by failures in their cyber- (computing, communication, control) systems. Whether these cyber- failures arise due to deliberate attacks or incidental errors, they can have far-reaching impact on the performance of the air traffic control and management systems. For instance, a computer failure in the Washington DC Air Route Traffic Control Center (ZDC) on August 15, 2015, caused nearly complete closure of the Centers airspace for several hours. This closure had a propagative impact across the United States National Airspace System, causing changed congestion patterns and requiring placement of a suite of traffic management initiatives to address the capacity reduction and congestion. A snapshot of traffic on that day clearly shows the closure of the ZDC airspace and the resulting congestion at its boundary, which required augmented traffic management at multiple locations. Cyber- events also have important ramifications for private stakeholders, particularly the airlines. During the last few months, computer-system issues have caused several airlines fleets to be grounded for significant periods of time: these include United Airlines (twice), LOT Polish Airlines, and American Airlines. Delays and regional stoppages due to cyber- events are even more common, and may have myriad causes (e.g., failure of the Department of Homeland Security systems needed for security check of passengers, see ). The growing frequency of cyber- disruptions in the air transportation system reflects a much broader trend in the modern society: cyber- failures and threats are becoming increasingly pervasive, varied, and impactful. In consequence, an intense effort is underway to develop secure and resilient cyber- systems that can protect against, detect, and remove threats, see e.g. and its many citations. The outcomes of this wide effort on cyber- security are applicable to the air transportation infrastructure
IN AN EFFORT TO ADD MORE AND MORE FEATURES (PREEMPTION, MALFUNCTION MANAGEMENT, WEATHER MONITORING, AND DYNAMIC LANE ASSIGNMENT, AMONG OTHERS) TO TRAFFIC SIGNAL SYSTEMS, THE TRAFFIC SIGNAL CABINET HAS BECOME VERY : COMPLICATED (FIGURE 1). FURTHERMORE...
F. Titouna; S. Benferhat; K. Aksa; C. Titouna
A traffic light gives security from traffic congestion,reducing the traffic jam, and organizing the traffic flow. Furthermore,increasing congestion level in public road networks is a growingproblem in many countries. Using Intelligent Transportation Systemsto provide emergency vehicles a green light at intersections canreduce driver confusion, reduce conflicts, and improve emergencyresponse times. Nowadays, the technology of wireless sensornetworks can solve many problems and can offer a good...
Allan Charlles Mendes de Sousa
Full Text Available Control the machinery traffic through autopilot and use the combined spacing of two rows are possible solutions to mitigate soil compaction problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate traffic control using autopilot in order to soften the problem of soil compaction in mechanically-harvested sugarcane areas. The study was conducted in two experimental areas belonging to Usina Santa Fe, in New Europe, São Paulo, Brazil. The design was a randomized block design, with 3 treatments: T1 = sugarcane planted in single spacing and without autopilot (1.50 m; T2 = sugarcane planted in single line spacing and managed on autopilot; T3 = sugarcane planted under combined spacing of two rows (1.50 × 0.90 m and managed with autopilot, with 4 replications. Was collected samples in the wheel row (WR and the seedbed (SB, which was located next to the plant row to, in layers from 0.00 to 0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m. It was observed that the seed bed area showed higher porosity in the treatments with autopilot in the second year of evaluation. There were no differences in pore sizes and shapes between the treatments in the two years studied. The large and complex pores were observed to be reduced in the second evaluation year.
Teperi, Anna-Maria; Leppänen, Anneli
In this study an intervention to improve work processes in air traffic control (ATC) is evaluated. The background was the Finnish air traffic controllers' strike of 1999. The old ways of thinking and acting did not support development of ATC prompting a need for a new kind of working culture in the organisation. Several actions were started. In one of these, ATC work processes were modelled by personnel and development plans concerning work were delivered to top management. Different actors (management, trade union, stakeholders) were interviewed before (n=16) and after the project (n=7). The intervention supported systematic co-operation between different actors in the organisation. However, a follow-up revealed that only a few participants had adopted the idea of continuous work development. Mastery of human factors is crucial in a high reliability work environment such as ATC. But how is the analytical and co-operative aspect kept alive in an organisation that is run by strict international regulation and has a strong technical competence, but is not that strong in collaborative and human aspects? Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Wei, Ming; Sun, Bo; Wang, Han; Xu, Zhihuo
The evaluation of traffic emissions control efficiency from various levels is a key issue while selecting an optimal plan for the sustainable development of urban transportation. The conventional multi-criteria evaluation methods cannot deal with the determination and uncertainty of each indicator, and ignore influence of the decision-maker's risk attitude on the evaluation results. This study proposed the use of a multi-attribute decision-making model to evaluate the traffic pollution control operational efficiency by integrating 11 hybrid-type indicators related to the plan implementation, traffic flow, and emissions. It also revealed the relationship between the preference of each decision-maker on these evaluation indicators and the threshold changes in the emissions control efficiency ranking. Case studies performed on the four plans showed that the evaluation value of emissions control efficiency for each plan was related to the decision-maker's risk attitude, and the efficiency ranking was decided by their threshold contact degrees.
Globalisation, immigration, and advancements in digital and information technologies present a range of complex socio-political, demographic, cultural and technological challenges for policing. Playing out across an increasingly diverse Australian society, these influences are progressively more likely to have a significant impact on policing, requiring a nuanced and flexible policing style with its attendant challenges for police education. Local challenges posed by regional and internationa...
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from vehicles have been increasing every year because of the growing number of vehicles, and they cause serious environmental problems such as air pollution and global warming. To alleviate these problems, this paper proposes a new traffic signal control method for reducing vehicle NOx and CO2 emissions on arterial roads. To this end, we first model the amount of vehicle emissions as a function of the traffic delay and the number of stops at intersections. This step is necessary because it is difficult to obtain the amount of emissions directly using traffic control systems. Second, we introduce a signal control model in which the control parameters are continuously updated on the basis of predictions of arrival traffic flows at intersections. The signal timings are calculated in such a manner so as to minimize the weighted sum of the two emissions, which depend on the traffic flow. To evaluate the validity of this method, simulation experiments are carried out on an arterial road. The experiments show that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing methods in reducing both the emissions and travel time.
Huang, Helai; Yin, Qingyi; Schwebel, David C; Li, Li; Hu, Guoqing
Data from the Chinese police service suggest substantial reductions in road traffic injuries since 2002, but critics have questioned the accuracy of those data, especially considering conflicting data reported by the health department. To address the gap between police and health department data and to determine which may be more accurate, we conducted a simulation study based on the modified Smeed equation, which delineates a non-linear relation between road traffic mortality and the level of motorization in a country or region. Our goal was to simulate trends in road traffic mortality in China and compare performances in road traffic safety management between China and 13 other countries. Chinese police data indicate a peak in road traffic mortalities in 2002 and a significant and a gradual decrease in population-based road traffic mortality since 2002. Health department data show the road traffic mortality peaked in 2012. In addition, police data suggest China's road traffic mortality peaked at a much lower motorization level (0.061 motor vehicles per person) in 2002, followed by a reduction in mortality to a level comparable to that of developed countries. Simulation results based on health department data suggest high road traffic mortality, with a mortality peak in 2012 at a moderate motorization level (0.174 motor vehicles per person). Comparisons to the other 13 countries suggest the health data from China may be more valid than the police data. Our simulation data indicate China is still at a stage of high road traffic mortality, as suggested by health data, rather than a stage of low road traffic mortality, as suggested by police data. More efforts are needed to integrate safety into road design, improve road traffic management, improve data quality, and alter unsafe behaviors of pedestrians, drivers and passengers in China.
Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas; Chiappe, Dan; Morales, Greg; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Robert Jay
Previously, we showed that air traffic controllers (ATCos) rated UAS pilot verbal response latencies as acceptable when a 1.5 s delay was added to the UAS pilot responses, but a 5 s delay was rated as mostly unacceptable. In the present study we determined whether a 1.5 s added delay in the UAS pilots' verbal communications would affect ATCos interactions with UAS and other conventional aircraft when the number and speed of the UAS were manipulated. Eight radar-certified ATCos participated in this simulation. The ATCos managed a medium altitude sector containing arrival aircraft, en route aircraft, and one to four UAS. The UAS were conducting a surveillance mission and flew at either a "slow" or "fast" speed. We measured both UAS and conventional pilots' verbal communication latencies, and obtained ATCos' acceptability ratings for these latencies. Although the UAS pilot response latencies were longer than those of conventional pilots, the ATCos rated UAS pilot verbal communication latencies to be as acceptable as those of conventional pilots. Because the overall traffic load within the sector was held constant, ATCos only performed slightly worse when multiple UAS were in their sector compared to when only one UAS was in the sector. Implications of these findings for UAS integration in the NAS are discussed.
Li, Ye; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Wei; Xing, Lu
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has been considered one of the critical components of automated driving. ACC adjusts vehicle speeds automatically by measuring the status of the ego-vehicle and leading vehicle. Current commercial ACCs are designed to be comfortable and convenient driving systems. Little attention is paid to the safety impacts of ACC, especially in traffic oscillations when crash risks are the highest. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of ACC parameter settings on rear-end collisions on freeways. First, the occurrence of a rear-end collision in a stop-and-go wave was analyzed. A car-following model in an integrated ACC was developed for a simulation analysis. The time-to-collision based factors were calculated as surrogate safety measures of the collision risk. We also evaluated different market penetration rates considering that the application of ACC will be a gradual process. The results showed that the safety impacts of ACC were largely affected by the parameters. Smaller time delays and larger time gaps improved safety performance, but inappropriate parameter settings increased the collision risks and caused traffic disturbances. A higher reduction of the collision risk was achieved as the ACC vehicle penetration rate increased, especially in the initial stage with penetration rates of less than 30%. This study also showed that in the initial stage, the combination of ACC and a variable speed limit achieved better safety improvements on congested freeways than each single technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sherman, Susan G; Footer, Katherine; Illangasekare, Samantha; Clark, Erin; Pearson, Erin; Decker, Michele R
Worldwide, female sex workers (FSWs) have high rates of HIV. Many factors that escalate their risk lay outside of their control, primarily in the environments in which they practice sex. An understudied yet powerful risk environment is that of police. We qualitatively explored sex workers' interactions with police in their personal and professional lives. Thirty-five FSWs were purposively sampled in Baltimore, MD, in 2012. Women discussed experiences of police verbal harassment, sexual exploitation, extortion, and a lack of police responsiveness to 911 calls in emergencies, largely partner violence. Women's mistrust of police was often developed at an early age and further reinforced by interactions in their personal and professional lives. The study underscores the need for targeting police in reducing sex workers' HIV and other risks. The case for police's role in generating risk is evident, which could be addressed through structural interventions targeting both police practices and policies.
D. V. Kapskiy
Full Text Available The results of the analysis of Minsk city transport system performance. It is shown that the growth of car ownership has caused a number of problems, among which the low-speed communication, bad driving modes, the presence of elevated levels of congestion and accidents. The corresponding figures for accidents in Minsk and some cities in the world that allow to characterize the transport system of the city of Minsk, as satisfactory. To improve the system and improve the quality of traffic necessary to create intelligent transport system of the city of Minsk. Intelligent Transportation System, being a global trend, enables dramatically improve road quality. Automated traffic control system and other subsystems as part of the Intelligent Transportation Systems are tools for achieving the goals for improving the safety and comfort of road users. It is proposed as a base for its creation to choose an automated traffic control system, which has a corresponding functional, structural, organizational and institutional provisions for its development. The technological requirements for the functioning of an integrated system, which relate to the level of efficiency, including accidents on sections of the road network included in the created system. Modernization of the automated traffic control system and its transformation into an intelligent transport system will reduce emergency, economic and environmental, and social costs in the road traffic is not less than 15 % from their current level, despite the steady growth of car ownership in the city. It is planned to create a complete intelligent transportation system.
corruption , and impunity common in Africa, having its roots in part in co- ercive colonial policing practices. One continent- wide analysis argues...that the police in most Af- rican countries are “significantly brutal, corrupt , inefficient, unresponsive and unaccountable to the generality of the...and collabo- ration with criminals and citizens’ daily encounters paying bribes to police to allow them through traffic check points17 or to
Villar, Anna Carolina Nascimento Waack Braga; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo
To investigate the auditory skills of closure and figure-ground and factors associated with health, communication, and attention in air traffic controllers, and compare these variables with those of other civil and military servants. Study participants were sixty adults with normal audiometric thresholds divided into two groups matched for age and gender: study group (SG), comprising 30 air traffic controllers and control group (CG), composed of 30 other military and civil servants. All participants were asked a number of questions regarding their health, communication, and attention, and underwent the Speech-in-Noise Test (SIN) to assess their closure skills and the Synthetic Sentence Identification Test - Ipsilateral Competitive Message (SSI-ICM) in monotic listening to evaluate their figure-ground abilities. Data were compared using nonparametric statistical tests and logistic regression analysis. More individuals in the SG reported fatigue and/or burnout and work-related stress and showed better performance than that of individuals in the CG for the figure-ground ability. Both groups performed similarly and satisfactorily in the other hearing tests. The odds ratio for participants belonging in the SG was 5.59 and 1.24 times regarding work-related stress and SSI-ICM (right ear), respectively. Results for the variables auditory closure, self-reported health, attention, and communication were similar in both groups. The SG presented significantly better performance in auditory figure-ground compared with that of the CG. Self-reported stress and right-ear SSI-ICM were significant predictors of individuals belonging to the SG.
Two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted in coordinated fashion to investigate the allocation of separation assurance functions between ground and air and between humans and automation. The experiments modeled a mixed-operations concept in which aircraft receiving ground-based separation services shared the airspace with aircraft providing their own separation service (i.e., self-separation). Ground-based separation was provided by air traffic controllers without automation tools, with tools, or by ground-based automation with controllers in a managing role. Airborne self-separation was provided by airline pilots using self-separation automation enabled by airborne surveillance technology. The two experiments, one pilot-focused and the other controller-focused, addressed selected key issues of mixed operations, assuming the starting point of current-day operations and modeling an emergence of NextGen technologies and procedures. In the controller-focused experiment, the impact of mixed operations on controller performance was assessed at four stages of NextGen implementation. In the pilot-focused experiment, the limits to which pilots with automation tools could take full responsibility for separation from ground-controlled aircraft were tested. Results indicate that the presence of self-separating aircraft had little impact on the controllers' ability to provide separation services for ground-controlled aircraft. Overall performance was best in the most automated environment in which all aircraft were data communications equipped, ground-based separation was highly automated, and self-separating aircraft had access to trajectory intent information for all aircraft. In this environment, safe, efficient, and highly acceptable operations could be achieved for twice today's peak airspace throughput. In less automated environments, reduced trajectory intent exchange and manual air traffic control limited the safely achievable airspace throughput and
Li, Michelle A; Alls, Jeffrey D; Avancini, Rita M; Koo, Karen; Godt, Dorothea
Interactions between somatic and germline cells are critical for the normal development of egg and sperm. Here we show that the gene traffic jam (tj) produces a soma-specific factor that controls gonad morphogenesis and is required for female and male fertility. tj encodes the only large Maf factor in Drosophila melanogaster, an orthologue of the atypical basic Leu zipper transcription factors c-Maf and MafB/Kreisler in vertebrates. Expression of tj occurs in somatic gonadal cells that are in direct contact with germline cells throughout development. In tj mutant gonads, somatic cells fail to inter-mingle and properly envelop germline cells, causing an early block in germ cell differentiation. In addition, tj mutant somatic cells show an increase in the level of expression for several adhesion molecules. We propose that tj is a critical modulator of the adhesive properties of somatic cells, facilitating germline-soma interactions that are essential for germ cell differentiation.
Full Text Available A quantum random walk optimization model and algorithm in network cluster server traffic control and task scheduling is proposed. In order to solve the problem of server load balancing, we research and discuss the distribution theory of energy field in quantum mechanics and apply it to data clustering. We introduce the method of random walk and illuminate what the quantum random walk is. Here, we mainly research the standard model of one-dimensional quantum random walk. For the data clustering problem of high dimensional space, we can decompose one m-dimensional quantum random walk into m one-dimensional quantum random walk. In the end of the paper, we compare the quantum random walk optimization method with GA (genetic algorithm, ACO (ant colony optimization, and SAA (simulated annealing algorithm. In the same time, we prove its validity and rationality by the experiment of analog and simulation.
Eyüp Bayram ŞEKERLİ
Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is generating a scale to measure organizational learning capabilities of high reliability organizations which operate with intense environmental risks. Research sample consists air traffic controllers of İstanbul Atatürk, Ankara Esenboğa, Antalya, Dalaman, İzmir Adnan Menderes and Bodrum International Airports. Content validity examination resulted 67 items and principal component factor analysis applied to 243 valid questionnaires and specified constructional validity with 18 items, 4 main dimensions named as “learning focus”, “open communication”, “learning support” and “leader support”. Furthermore, confirmatory factor analysis to test structural validity resulted good indis value as χ²/df=1.68
Rask, Anne Merete; Larsen, S.U.; Andreasen, Christian
Many public authorities rely on the use of non-chemical weed control methods, due to stringent restrictions on herbicide use in urban areas. However, these methods usually require more repeated treatments than chemical weed management, resulting in increased costs of weed management. In order...... to investigate the efficacy of four non-chemical weed control methods and glyphosate treatment, experiments were carried out on traffic islands in the growing seasons 2005 and 2006. Three trial sites were each divided into six treatment areas, which were either treated with glyphosate, flame, steam, hot air....../flame, hot water or left untreated. The treatments were carried out at regular, predetermined intervals throughout the growing season in 2004, whereas in 2005 and 2006 how many treatments that were required to keep weed cover below a predetermined acceptance level of 2% were investigated. Percentage weed...
Braga, Anthony A.; Hureau, David M.; Papachristos, Andrew V.
Background: A small but growing body of research evidence suggests that place-based police interventions generate significant crime control gains. While place-based policing strategies have been adopted by a majority of U.S. police departments, very few agencies make a priori commitments to rigorous evaluations. Objective: Recent methodological…
This report summarizes the need for an Integrated Marine Traffic Informaiton and Control System (IMTIC) in the St. Lawrence Seaway. The analytic emphasis is on the Welland Canal to Gulf of St. Lawrence portion of the Seaway system. The Upper Great La...
Certain air traffic control(ATC) centers experienced a series of major outages, : some of which were caused by the Display Channel Complex or DCC-a mainframe : computer system that processes radar and other data into displayable images on : controlle...
Camp, Gino; Paas, Fred; Rikers, Remy; van Merrienboer, Jeroen
The differential effects on training and training outcome of four methods of problem selection were investigated in a computer-based training for air traffic control. In one method, training problems were given to the participants in a fixed predetermined sequence, from simple to complex. In the
Pinto, J.; Klomp, R.E.; Borst, C.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.
The concept of trajectory-based operations as proposed by SESAR and NextGen seeks to increase airspace efficiency and capacity by introducing time as an explicit control variable. Such form of operations lean heavily on the introduction of higher levels of automation to support the human air traffic
Quaglietta, E.; Goverde, R.M.P.; Albrecht, T.; Jaekel, B.; Marliere, G.; Pellegrini, P.; Rodriguez, J.; Dollevoet, T.; Ambrogio, B.; Carcasole, D.; Giaroli, M.; Nicholson, G.
Automatic real-time control of railway traffic perturbations has recently received the attention of practitioners. The aim is to make use of mathematical algorithms to maintain the required service availability during unplanned disturbances to operations. In the literature many tools for real-time
Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon
Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…
Traffic congestion has greatly affected not only the nation's economy and environment but also every citizen's quality of life. A recent study shows that every American traveler spent an extra 38 hours and 26 gallons of fuel per year due to traffic c...
Full Text Available Abstract. The article considers the basic concepts concerningthe possibility of increasing the efficiency and capacity of theroad traffic network in the cities of Ukraine. The paper alsoanalyzes some of the measures to improve road traffic managementthrough the further development of an automated trafficcontrol system.
Nadia Adnan Shiltagh
Full Text Available Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs are a type of sensor network that contains sensor nodes equipped with cameras, microphones; therefore the WMSNS are able to produce multimedia data such as video and audio streams, still images, and scalar data from the surrounding environment. Most multimedia applications typically produce huge volumes of data, this leads to congestion. To address this challenge, This paper proposes Modify Spike Neural Network control for Traffic Load Parameter with Exponential Weight of Priority Based Rate Control algorithm (MSNTLP with EWBPRC. The Modify Spike Neural Network controller (MSNC can calculate the appropriate traffic load parameter μ for each parent node and then use in the EWPBRC algorithm to estimate the transmission rate of parent nodes and then assign a suitable transmission rate for each child node. A comparative study between (MSNTLP with EWBPRC and fuzzy logic controller for traffic load parameter with Exponential Weight of Priority Based Rate Control algorithm (FTLP with EWBPRC algorithm shows that the (MSNTLP with EWBPRC is more efficient than (FTLP with EWBPRC algorithm in terms of packet loss, queue delay and throughput. Another comparative study between (MSNTLP with EWBPRC and EWBPRC with fixed traffic load parameter (µ shows that the MSNTLP with EWBPRC is more efficient than EWBPRC with fixed traffic load parameter (µ in terms of packet loss ratio and queue delay. A simulation process is developed and tested using the network simulator _2 (NS2 in a computer having the following properties: windows 7 (64-bit, core i7, RAM 8GB, hard 1TB.
Marzano, Lisa; Smith, Mark; Long, Matthew; Kisby, Charlotte; Hawton, Keith
Police officers are frequently the first responders to individuals in crisis, but generally receive little training for this role. We developed and evaluated training in suicide awareness and prevention for frontline rail police in the UK. To investigate the impact of training on officers' suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Fifty-three participants completed a brief questionnaire before and after undertaking training. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with 10 officers to explore in greater depth their views and experiences of the training program and the perceived impact on practice. Baseline levels of suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge were mixed but mostly positive and improved significantly after training. Such improvements were seemingly maintained over time, but there was insufficient power to test this statistically. Feedback on the course was generally excellent, notwithstanding some criticisms and suggestions for improvement. Training in suicide prevention appears to have been well received and to have had a beneficial impact on officers' attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Further research is needed to assess its longer-term effects on police attitudes, skills, and interactions with suicidal individuals, and to establish its relative effectiveness in the context of multilevel interventions.
Full Text Available Globalisation, immigration, and advancements in digital and information technologies present a range of complex socio-political, demographic, cultural and technological challenges for policing. Playing out across an increasingly diverse Australian society, these influences are progressively more likely to have a significant impact on policing, requiring a nuanced and flexible policing style with its attendant challenges for police education. Local challenges posed by regional and international migration, and national and international challenges posed by the cross-jurisdictional nature of crime in a global society are key sociological and criminological factors that police education programs must keep pace with. In a time of such global fluidity, it is argued that designers of police curricula must reassess the underlying principles that have historically shaped police education in Australia. This is a critical discussion that examines two key areas associated with globalisation and proposes the adoption of a definition of global literacies as a guiding principle for police education in the twenty-first century. The study concludes by offering three specific recommendations for the redevelopment of future police curricula.
HyungBin Moon; Hyunhong Choi; Jongsu Lee; Ki Soo Lee
This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward int...
Hockaday, Stephen; Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon (Editor)
The objective of the workshop was to explore the role of human factors in facilitating the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) to advanced air traffic control (ATC) automation concepts. AI is an umbrella term which is continually expanding to cover a variety of techniques where machines are performing actions taken based upon dynamic, external stimuli. AI methods can be implemented using more traditional programming languages such as LISP or PROLOG, or they can be implemented using state-of-the-art techniques such as object-oriented programming, neural nets (hardware or software), and knowledge based expert systems. As this technology advances and as increasingly powerful computing platforms become available, the use of AI to enhance ATC systems can be realized. Substantial efforts along these lines are already being undertaken at the FAA Technical Center, NASA Ames Research Center, academic institutions, industry, and elsewhere. Although it is clear that the technology is ripe for bringing computer automation to ATC systems, the proper scope and role of automation are not at all apparent. The major concern is how to combine human controllers with computer technology. A wide spectrum of options exists, ranging from using automation only to provide extra tools to augment decision making by human controllers to turning over moment-by-moment control to automated systems and using humans as supervisors and system managers. Across this spectrum, it is now obvious that the difficulties that occur when tying human and automated systems together must be resolved so that automation can be introduced safely and effectively. The focus of the workshop was to further explore the role of injecting AI into ATC systems and to identify the human factors that need to be considered for successful application of the technology to present and future ATC systems.
Full Text Available ALINEA is a simple, efficient, and easily implemented ramp metering strategy. Virtual reference feedback tuning (VRFT is most suitable for many practical systems since it is a “one-shot” data-driven control design methodology. This paper presents an application of VRFT to a ramp metering problem of freeway traffic system. When there is not enough prior knowledge of the controlled system to select a proper parameter of ALINEA, the VRFT approach is used to optimize the ALINEA's parameter by only using a batch of input and output data collected from the freeway traffic system. The extensive simulations are built on both the macroscopic MATLAB platform and the microscopic PARAMICS platform to show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed data-driven controller tuning approach.
...), Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), and Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS). For each display, we documented the background and default colors, color-coding, color usage, associated purposes of color use, and color complexity...
This article explores discretionary decision-making in a specific traffic police unit. This study was undertaken from a social constructivism perspective, using a single holistic case study design. The research involved presenting scenarios to traffic officials at different stages, first at the end of their training, and then again six ...
From all the studies, the elements of effective police enforcement are rather well known: publicity, visibility, target times and places. If actual enforcement of a traffic rule is necessary, the earlier steps are necessary to inform and convince the public of the safety benefits of the traffic
Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.
This study evaluated the effects of communications delays and winds on air traffic controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth (DFW) airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from Detect and Avoid (DAA) self-separation algorithms (Stratway+) displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Control System. This guidance consisted of amber "bands" on the heading scale of the UAS navigation display indicating headings that would result in a loss of well clear between the UAS and nearby traffic. Winds tested were successfully handled by the DAA algorithms and did not affect the controller acceptability ratings of the HMDs. Voice communications delays for the UAS were also tested and included one-way delay times of 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS. Information from this study will also be of value to the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 228 - Minimum Performance Standards for UAS.
Mesken, J. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Rothengatter, T.
Anger is related to aggression in traffic, which in turn may lead to risky driving (e.g. Lajunen, Parker & Stradling, 1998; Deffenbacher, Huff, Lynch, Oetting & Salvatore, 2000; Parker, Lajunen & Summa!a, 2002; Deffenbacher, Lynch, Filetti, Dahlen & Oetting, 2003). Anger may also lead directly to risk taking behaviour. Although evidence for the link between anger and risk exists in areas outside traffic (Lerner & Keltner, 2001; Lerner, Gonalez, Small & Fischoff, 2003), the research that has b...
Davis, L. C.
Mixed traffic flow consisting of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and manually driven vehicles is analyzed using car-following simulations. Simulations of merging from an on-ramp onto a freeway reported in the literature have not thus far demonstrated a substantial positive impact of ACC. In this paper cooperative merging for ACC vehicles is proposed to improve throughput and increase distance traveled in a fixed time. In such a system an ACC vehicle senses not only the preceding vehicle in the same lane but also the vehicle immediately in front in the other lane. Prior to reaching the merge region, the ACC vehicle adjusts its velocity to ensure that a safe gap for merging is obtained. If on-ramp demand is moderate, cooperative merging produces significant improvement in throughput (20%) and increases up to 3.6 km in distance traveled in 600 s for 50% ACC mixed flow relative to the flow of all-manual vehicles. For large demand, it is shown that autonomous merging with cooperation in the flow of all ACC vehicles leads to throughput limited only by the downstream capacity, which is determined by speed limit and headway time.
Sonati, Jaqueline; De Martino, Milva; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Érika; Moreira, Edméia; Sanchez, Fernando; De Martino, Gustavo; Sonati, Renato
Air traffic controllers (ATC) work shifts and their work schedules vary according to the characteristics of each airport. The human body adapts to shiftwork differently. These adjustments affect the health-disease process, predisposing ATC to risk conditions associated with sleep deprivation and lack of night sleep, which can lead to conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, mood disorders, anxiety, and obesity. This study investigated the characteristics of health, sleep, and quality of life of ATC exposed to 8-h alternate work shifts and 6-h rotational work shifts. The study was cross-sectional with convenience samples consisting of 84 ATC from two international airports in Brazil. We applied questionnaires to collect data about socioeconomic conditions, quality of life, sleep, and physical activity levels. We also collected health data regarding nutritional status, body composition, and blood pressure. We analyzed the differences between ATC from the two airports considering the variables of sleep, quality of life, and health. Differences were found between the groups in terms of body fat percentage (30.7% and 27.8%), scores of overall quality of life (56.2 and 68), concentration (3.37 and 3.96), energy (3.12 and 3.62), and sleep time on working days (5:20 h and 6:15 h). ATC under 8-h alternate shifts showed lower scores for quality of life, higher body fat, and less sleep time on working days, which characterizes inadequate shiftwork for this population.
The implementation of Controller Pilot Datalink Communications (CPDLC) in domestic en route airspace is a key enabling technology in the Next Generation Air Transportation System. The Federal Aviation Administration plans to implement en route CPDLC ...
Green, Steven M.; Denbraven, Wim; Williams, David H.
The development and evaluation of the profile negotiation process (PNP), an interactive process between an aircraft and air traffic control (ATC) that integrates airborne and ground-based automation capabilities to determine conflict-free trajectories that are as close to an aircraft's preference as possible, are described. The PNP was evaluated in a real-time simulation experiment conducted jointly by NASA's Ames and Langley Research Centers. The Ames Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) was used to support the ATC environment, and the Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) piloted cab was used to simulate a 4D Flight Management System (FMS) capable aircraft. Both systems were connected in real time by way of voice and data lines; digital datalink communications capability was developed and evaluated as a means of supporting the air/ground exchange of trajectory data. The controllers were able to consistently and effectively negotiate nominally conflict-free vertical profiles with the 4D-equipped aircraft. The actual profiles flown were substantially closer to the aircraft's preference than would have been possible without the PNP. However, there was a strong consensus among the pilots and controllers that the level of automation of the PNP should be increased to make the process more transparent. The experiment demonstrated the importance of an aircraft's ability to accurately execute a negotiated profile as well as the need for digital datalink to support advanced air/ground data communications. The concept of trajectory space is proposed as a comprehensive approach for coupling the processes of trajectory planning and tracking to allow maximum pilot discretion in meeting ATC constraints.
... government and its partisan interests, and do not want to be misunderstood in their intention to serve the people, then simply increasing the capacity of public order policing will not help. On the contrary, we might end up (again) with a permanent occupying army. Instead the police have to become more explicitly partisan ...
Paper presented at the 1988 TRB Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA. The first part of this paper deals with the control and signalling system for motorways, directed to a more efficient use of available road capacity and to the improvement of road safety. The second part gives some insight into
Liu, Wen-hua; Li, Li-ping; Zhou, Zhi-ming; Liang, Jin-feng; Zhu, Yao; Wang, Gang; Deng, Shao-jie
To analyze the characteristics of road traffic accidents in Bao'an District, Shenzhen from 2004 to 2011, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of traffic accidents. The traffic injury cases recorded by Shenzhen traffic police from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed, including the time (year, month, date); the space (crossings and road segments, road type); the injury of patients (injuries, death). A total of 422 730 accidents from road traffic occurred in Bao'an District, Shenzhen from 2004 to 2011, with 63 809 people injured and 2 790 people died, and the mortality ratio was 22.87:1. Traffic accidents occurred in Bao'an District showed an increasing trend, especially in 2010, and the highest number up to 90 358, while the most deaths occurred in 2007, up to 473 people. As to the single month, the highest traffic accident rate was in August, accounting for 9.77% of the total, while the lowest was in February, accounting for 5.39% of the total; mortality rate in December reached 9.02%. As to one single day, the peaks of accidents occurred in two periods: 9:00-11:00 and 15:00-18:00, and 3:00-6:00 had the smallest number. Traffic injuries often occurred in the intersection, straight line, main road and the section only marked marking. According to the characteristics of regional traffic injury, we should enhance the populace traffic safe awareness, efficiently arrange the human resources, such as emergency personnel, traffic management personnel, set scientific preventive measures, and modify the emergency system and service mode. All of these are essential measures for the prevention and control of traffic injuries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances is high in biological specimens from injured drivers, while the prevalence of these psychoactive substances in samples from drivers in normal traffic is low. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and psychoactive substances in drivers admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries after road traffic accidents with that in drivers in normal traffic, and calculate risk estimates for the substances, and combinations of substances found in both groups. Methods Injured drivers were recruited in the hospital emergency department and drivers in normal conditions were taken from the hospital catchment area in roadside tests of moving traffic. Substances found in blood samples from injured drivers and oral fluid samples from drivers in moving traffic were compared using equivalent cut off concentrations, and risk estimates were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results In 21.9% of the injured drivers, substances were found: most commonly alcohol (11.5% and stimulants eg. cocaine or amphetamines (9.4%. This compares to 3.2% of drivers in normal traffic where the most commonly found substances were z-hypnotics (0.9% and benzodiazepines (0.8%. The greatest increase in risk of being injured was for alcohol combined with any other substance (OR: 231.9, 95% CI: 33.3- 1615.4, p Conclusion The prevalence of psychoactive substances was higher among injured drivers than drivers in normal moving traffic. The risk of accident is greatly increased among drivers who tested positive for alcohol, in particular, those who had also ingested one or more psychoactive substances. Various preventive measures should be considered to curb the prevalence of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances as these drivers constitute a significant risk for other road users as well as themselves.
Fatemeh. Dehghani; Shahram. Darooei
Network on chip has emerged as a long-term and effective method in Multiprocessor System-on-Chip communications in order to overcome the bottleneck in bus based communication architectures. Efficiency and performance of network on chip is so dependent on the architecture and structure of the network. In this paper a new structure and architecture for adaptive traffic control in network on chip using Code Division Multiple Access technique is presented. To solve the problem of synchronous acce...
by the specific criterion. Performance Measures Job performance is a multifaceted construct that can be measured in a variety of ways (peer...forces (Phase I) and schoolhouse (Phase II) study that NCAPS dimensions calculated specifically for the Marine Air Traffic Control community can...attention: the contributions of goal neglect, response competition, and task set to Stroop interference. Journal of experimental psychology: General, 132(1
Warner, Henriette Wallén; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo
The first aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale in a Swedish sample of drivers. The second aim was to examine if this scale can be used to predict drivers' speeding behaviour. A sample of Swedish car owners (N=223) completed a questionnaire including questions based on the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale as well as questions about their speeding behaviour. The results showed a five factor solution including own skills, own behaviour, other drivers, vehicle/environment and fate. Own behaviour and vehicle/environment could be used to predict drivers' speeding behaviour on roads with a 90 km/h speed limit while none of the variables included in the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale could be used to predict drivers' speeding behaviour on roads with a 50 km/h speed limit. On 90 km/h roads own behaviour was positively related to drivers' speeding behaviour while vehicle/environment was negatively related to their speeding behaviour. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yanjun; Zhang, Qiqian; Zhu, Chenping; Hu, Minghua; Duong, Vu
Recent human dynamics research has unmasked astonishing statistical characteristics such as scaling behaviors in human daily activities. However, less is known about the general mechanism that governs the task-specific activities. In particular, whether scaling law exists in human activities under high pressure remains an open question. In air traffic management system, safety is the most important factor to be concerned by air traffic controllers who always work under high pressure, which provides a unique platform to study human activity. Here we extend fluctuation scaling method to study air traffic controller's communication activity by investigating two empirical communication datasets. Taken the number of controlled flights as the size-like parameter, we show that the relationships between the average communication activity and its standard deviation in both datasets can be well described by Taylor's power law, with scaling exponent α ≈ 0.77 ± 0.01 for the real operational data and α ≈ 0.54 ± 0.01 for the real-time training data. The difference between the exponents suggests that human dynamics under pressure is more likely dominated by the exogenous force. Our findings may lead to further understanding of human behavior.
Arlete Ana Motter
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of the operators and the role of the strips in the workload of air traffic controllers in light of the ergonomic analysis of work. It was developed during the data collection for the doctoral thesis defended in 2007 at the Post-graduate in Production Engineering at UFSC. Submitted to and approved by the Ethics Committee in Research of the Tuiuti University of Paraná. A number of 35 military operators of both sexes (80% male and 20% female participated, all belonging to the Brazilian Air Force, which carried out their functions in the Second Integrated Center of Air Defense and Air Traffic Control (CINDACTA II, located in Curitiba-PR. It was used the methodology of analysis of work ergonomics. The results made it possible to know the content of the prescribed electronic strip and the complexity of work in real activity, such as the manual entry of the strip and the AFIL flight plan. It was verified that the operators build operational strategies in terms of organization of the strips in order to facilitate their work. The conclusion is that in the work of air traffic controller there are several interacting variables, and when the content of the work required is different from what is established, the workload increases, which may endanger the health of workers as well as aircraft safety.
Lynch, Raymond J; Englesbe, Michael J; Sturm, Lisa; Bitar, Amira; Budhiraj, Karn; Kolla, Sandeep; Polyachenko, Yuliya; Duck, Mary G; Campbell, Darrell A
Surgical site infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in the postoperative period. Opening of the operating room door disrupts its filtered atmosphere, increasing contamination above the wound. We conducted a study of traffic in the operating room as a risk for infections. This is an observational study of recorded behaviors in the operating room. Data collected included number of people entering/exiting, the role of these individuals, and the cause for the event. A total of 3071 door openings were recorded in 28 cases. Traffic varied from 19 to 50 events per hour across specialties. The preincision period represented 30% to 50% of all events. Information requests accounted for the majority of events. Door openings increase in direct proportion to case length, but have an exponential relationship with the number of persons in the operating room. There is a high rate of traffic across all specialties, compromising the sterile environment of the operating room.
Mitarai, Namiko; Pedersen, Steen
Messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes a sequence of amino acids by using codons. For most amino acids, there are multiple synonymous codons that can encode the amino acid. The translation speed can vary from one codon to another, thus there is room for changing the ribosome speed while keeping the amino...... acid sequence and hence the resulting protein. Recently, it has been noticed that the choice of the synonymous codon, via the resulting distribution of slow- and fast-translated codons, affects not only on the average speed of one ribosome translating the mRNA but also might have an effect on nearby...... ribosomes by affecting the appearance of 'traffic jams' where multiple ribosomes collide and form queues. To test this 'context effect' further, we here investigate the effect of the sequence of synonymous codons on the ribosome traffic by using a ribosome traffic model with codon-dependent rates, estimated...
Abd Alrhman, Heba Elyas Khider
This study was conducted in Khartoum state to determine the magnitude of air pollution, resulting from traffic density, due to lead and lead compounds which had been used as additives for gasoline in the form of tetra-ethyl and tetra methyl lead. The level of lead in ambient air and SPM was determined in 14 samples taken randomly at the intersections and entrances to the bridges using personal sampler (Cassella. UK). The mean concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was found to be 5.77+4.04 mg/m 3 . with range between 0.85-12.50 mg/m 3 including three sites above the limit of 10 mg/m 3 allowed. The samples were analyzed with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer for their lead content. The average concentration of lead in the sites is found to be 0.1937±0.1768 mg/m 3 . With range between 0.000-0.5166 mg/m 3 . The concentrations in seven sites were above the limit of 0.15 mg/m 3 permitted internationally. The impact of lead pollution on traffic police men was measured by analyzing blood lead concentration of 30 members exposed to traffic air pollution, from the three cities and (10 samples) from non-exposed ( control). It was found to be 2.4601±1.4065μg/100 ml and 0.3944±1.2471 μg/ 100 ml respectively. The data analysis by used SPSS program. There is no significant difference between the two groups. A questionnaire was designed to find out some data about the exposed members including their knowledge of impact, range of age, duration of their service as traffic police, their previous work, and complaints from some of the health effects. The findings were: average age mean of 35.9 ±7.7 years, 47.48% worked for periods of more than 20 years, 74.19% did not work before joining the traffic police, 51.6% of them believe that there is a problem of high level of air pollution, 45.2% medium and 3.2%, pollution is low. As habits 38.71% are smokers. As for health complains, 61.29% have various complains of headaches, fatigue, abdominal, hypertension and anemia
Villar, Anna C N W B; Korn, Gustavo P; Azevedo, Renata R
To characterize the vocal quality and acoustic parameters of voices of air traffic controllers (ATCs) without any vocal complaints before and after a shift. The voices of a group of 45 ATCs were recorded before and after a 2-hour shift, regardless of their operational position or number of previously worked shifts; both genders were included, participants had a mean age of 25 years, and they had a mean length of occupational experience of 4 years and 2 months. Each of these professionals was recorded phonating a sustained /a/ vowel and counting from 1 to 20, and the recordings were acoustically analyzed using the Praat software. A perceptual-auditory analysis of the recordings was then performed by three speech therapists specializing in voice, who evaluated the characteristics of each emission using a visual analog scale (VAS). The acoustic analysis was performed on the sustained /a/ vowel. The measures of intensity; frequency; maximum phonation time (MPT); and the first, second, third, and fourth formants were considered in this analysis. There were no significant differences between the random pre- and postshift samples, either in the acoustic or in the perceptual-auditory analysis. The perceptual-auditory analysis revealed that 44% (n = 20) of ATCs showed alterations in vocal quality during the sustained /a/ vowel emission, and this dysphonia was also observed in connected speech in 25% (n = 5) of this group. Perceptual-auditory analysis of the /a/ vowel revealed that a high percentage of ATCs had vocal alterations (44%), even among a group of subjects without vocal complaints. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Teijeira, Alvaro; Rouzaut, Ana; Melero, Ignacio
Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels (LVs), which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e., LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1, and VEGFR-3). Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid edema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. LVs are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes (LN). Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals). This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins, and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to LN is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behavior of leukocytes and condition the LV for subsequent trans-migratory events.
Full Text Available Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels, which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e: LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1 and VEGFR-3. Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid oedema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. Lymphatic vessels are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes. Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals. This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to lymph nodes is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behaviour of leukocytes and condition the lymphatic vessel for subsequent trans-migratory events.
The development of a prototype knowledge-based expert system (KBES) for selecting appropriate traffic control strategies and management techniques around highway work zones was initiated. This process was encompassed by the steps that formulate the p...
Zachary, Wayne; Ryder, Joan; Stokes, James; Glenn, Floyd; Le Mentec, Jean-Christophe; Santarelli, Thomas
...) program conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory. Phases III and IV focused on modeling and simulating concept learning within the context of a simulated Air Traffic Control (ATC) work environment...
Serafín Aldea Muñoz
Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.
Carretta, Thomas R; King, Raymond E
.... The current study examined the utility of the FAA Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT) battery for incrementing the predictiveness of the ASVAB versus several enlisted ATC training criteria...
Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke; Chapman, Kathy; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Wiggers, John
Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12 years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique – either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required.
McKinnon, Iain; Grubin, Don
There have been few previous studies on the health needs of police detainees. London's Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) uses health screening procedures which have not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of health problems and 'mental vulnerability' in detainees in police custody, and the efficacy of current health screening procedures. Custody records from five London Boroughs were reviewed. Prevalence data for health problems and mental vulnerability was obtained from the anonymised records of 307 detainees who were referred to the Forensic Medical Examiner (FME). Data were analysed for the identification of physical and psychiatric morbidity. Injuries, epilepsy and asthma were the most common physical health problems noted. Drug and alcohol issues were also frequently encountered along with depression and self-harming behaviour and suicidal ideation. Morbidity was lower than that reported in other, interview based studies. Less than 2% of detainees were thought to require an Appropriate Adult to be present during police interview. A significant amount of health morbidity is present among detainees in police custody. Our findings suggest that current police screening procedures detect only a proportion of this. Further research is warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of health screening in police custody. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Mesken, J. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Rothengatter, T.
Anger is related to aggression in traffic, which in turn may lead to risky driving (e.g. Lajunen, Parker & Stradling, 1998; Deffenbacher, Huff, Lynch, Oetting & Salvatore, 2000; Parker, Lajunen & Summa!a, 2002; Deffenbacher, Lynch, Filetti, Dahlen & Oetting, 2003). Anger may also lead directly to
Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per
BACKGROUND: Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential...
Mitarai, Namiko; Pedersen, Steen
Messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes a sequence of amino acids by using codons. For most amino acids, there are multiple synonymous codons that can encode the amino acid. The translation speed can vary from one codon to another, thus there is room for changing the ribosome speed while keeping the amino acid sequence and hence the resulting protein. Recently, it has been noticed that the choice of the synonymous codon, via the resulting distribution of slow- and fast-translated codons, affects not only on the average speed of one ribosome translating the mRNA but also might have an effect on nearby ribosomes by affecting the appearance of ‘traffic jams’ where multiple ribosomes collide and form queues. To test this ‘context effect’ further, we here investigate the effect of the sequence of synonymous codons on the ribosome traffic by using a ribosome traffic model with codon-dependent rates, estimated from experiments. We compare the ribosome traffic on wild-type (WT) sequences and sequences where the synonymous codons were swapped randomly. By simulating translation of 87 genes, we demonstrate that the WT sequences, especially those with a high bias in codon usage, tend to have the ability to reduce ribosome collisions, hence optimizing the cellular investment in the translation apparatus. The magnitude of such reduction of the translation time might have a significant impact on the cellular growth rate and thereby have importance for the survival of the species. (paper)
Schreiter, T.; Landman, R.L.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
Few Active Traffic Management measures proposed in the past consider the distinction of different vehicle classes. Examples of vehicle-class specific measures are truck lanes and high-occupancy/toll (HOT) lanes. We propose that the distinction of different vehicle classes, with different flow
Full Text Available Poorly managed traffic incidents have largely contributed to congestion and delay in the city of Dar es Salaam. A thorough understanding of travel delays caused by incidents is therefore essential for effective countermeasures against the increasing congestion. The method used to determine delays in this research is based on the deterministic queuing theory. Information on incidents was obtained from traffic surveys, traffic police and road users. Counting of the number of vehicles passing the incident location was done on incident and incident-free days. The cumulative traffic counts on incident and incident-free days were then calculated and used to plot the queuing diagram used to determine incident induced delay. This method turned out to be a useful tool for estimating incident induced delay in areas with less sophisticated equipment i.e. where there are no sensors, CCTV cameras, etc. The method provided good estimates of incident induced delay which may help planners and transportation officials in better understanding incident related congestion and in selecting more effective countermeasures against incident related traffic congestion in the city. It was found out that the effects of incidents were different for the different zones, types of incidents and the periods the incident occurred. In addition to the incident duration and the number of vehicles affected, the impact of incidents also depended on availability of alternative routes, number of lanes on the road, discipline of the driver in manoeuvring at incident location and traffic control at the scene.
Vy Han; John R. Marshall
History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED) by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’...
Sciortino, Stanley; Vassar, Mary; Radetsky, Michael; Knudson, M Margaret
Police reports of severely injured pedestrians help identify hazardous traffic areas in San Francisco, but they under-report non-fatal collisions. We set out to: identify injured pedestrians who were missing from police collision reports, see what biases exist in injury reporting and assess the utility of broad categories of police severe injury (including fatal) for mapping and analysis. We linked data on injured pedestrians from police collision reports listed in the Statewide Integrated Traffic Reporting System (SWITRS, n = 1991) with records of pedestrians treated at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH, n = 1323) for 2000 and 2001. Data were analyzed using bivariate statistics, logistic regression and mapping. : We found that police collision reports underestimated the number of injured pedestrians by 21% (531/2442). Pedestrians treated at SFGH who were African-American were less likely then whites (odds ratio = 0.55, p-value report. Over 70% of pedestrians deemed by the police to have a severe injury received treatment at SFGH, regardless of the collision's distance from SFGH. The sensitivity of a police-designated severe injury (including fatal) was 69% and the specificity was 89% when compared with a known SFGH assessment. But, sensitivity declined when we included pedestrians without a SFGH record. Though collision reports have demonstrated limitations, broad categories of police severity may be sensitive enough to map locations where numerous severe injuries occur, for timely countermeasure selection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects 30–60% of humans worldwide. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e., the life-long presence of Toxoplasma cysts in neural and muscular tissues, leads to prolongation of reaction times in infected subjects. It is not known, however, whether the changes observed in the laboratory influence the performance of subjects in real-life situations. Methods The seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in subjects involved in traffic accidents (N = 146 and in the general population living in the same area (N = 446 was compared by a Mantel-Haenszel test for age-stratified data. Correlation between relative risk of traffic accidents and level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre was evaluated with the Cochran-Armitage test for trends. Results A higher seroprevalence was found in the traffic accident set than in the general population (Chi2MH = 21.45, p 95= 1.76–4.01 times higher risk of an accident than the toxoplasmosis-negative subjects. The OR significantly increased with level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre (p 95 = 1.14–3.03 for the 99 subjects with low antibody titres (8 and 16, higher (OR = 4.78, C.I.95 = 2.39–9.59 for the 37 subjects with moderate titres (32 and 64, and very high (OR = 16.03, C.I.95 = 1.89–135.66 for the 6 subjects with titres higher than 64. Conclusion The subjects with latent toxoplasmosis have significantly increased risk of traffic accidents than the noninfected subjects. Relative risk of traffic accidents decreases with the duration of infection. These results suggest that 'asymptomatic' acquired toxoplasmosis might in fact represent a serious and highly underestimated public health problem, as well as an economic problem.
In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the
... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The... the point where it factually establishes a criminal offense, an investigation by the military police... exchanged between Department of Defense (DOD) law enforcement agencies, military police, USACIDC, local...
Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.
A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…
Pedersen Hans Henrik
Full Text Available Growing of vegetables is often characterised by intensive field traffic and use of heavy machines. By implementing controlled traffic farming (CTF, compaction of the growth zone can be avoided. An experiment was established in an onion field on a coarse sandy loam. Treatments were applied in the field that for five years had been managed by seasonal CTF (SCTF, where harvest is performed by random traffic due to lack of suitable harvest machines. The main treatment was compaction with a fully loaded potato harvester. The split treatment in the crossed split plot design was mechanical loosening. Bulk density, macroporosity, penetration resistance, water retention characteristics and yield were measured. Mechanical loosening caused improvements in the physical soil measurements and more roots were found in the upper soil layers. The highest yield was however found in the CTF simulation plots (19% higher than in the SCTF simulated plots. Using wide span tractors as a harvest platform will enable CTF in vegetable production. Avoidance of compaction will enable reduced tillage intensity and productivity can be improved both through higher yield of the area that is cropped and by a larger percentage of fields can be cropped area as less area will be needed for tracks.
Full Text Available Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM systems utilize digital technologies, satellite systems, and various levels of automation to facilitate seamless global air traffic management. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B, the core component of CNS/ATM, broadcasts important monitoring information, such as the location, altitude, and direction of aircraft, to the ground. However, ADS-B data are transmitted in an unencrypted (or unprotected communication channel between ADS-B sensors and Air Traffic Control (ATC. Consequently, these data are vulnerable to security threats, such as spoofing, eavesdropping, and data modification. In this paper, we propose a method that protects the ADS-B data transmitted between ADS-B sensors and ATC using Simple Public Key Infrastructure (SPKI certificates and symmetric cryptography. The SPKI certificates are used to grant transmission authorization to the ADS-B sensors, while symmetric cryptography is used to encrypt/decrypt the ADS-B data transmitted between the ADS-B sensors and ATC. The proposed security framework comprises an ADS-B sensor authentication module, an encrypted data processing module, and an ADS-B sensor information management module. We believe that application of the proposed security framework to CNS/ATM will enable it to effectively obviate security threats, such as ground station flood denial, ground station target ghost injection, and ADS-B data modification.
Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed
This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility.
Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Baber, Chris; Wells, Linda; Gibson, Huw; Salmon, Paul; Jenkins, Daniel
Command and control is a generic activity involving the exercise of authority over assigned resources, combined with planning, coordinating and controlling how those resources are used. The challenge for understanding this type of activity is that it is not often amenable to the conventional experimental/methodological approach. Command and control tends to be multi-faceted (so requires more than one method), is made up of interacting socio and technical elements (so requires a systemic approach) and exhibits aggregate behaviours that emerge from these interactions (so requires methods that go beyond reductionism). In these circumstances a distributed cognition approach is highly appropriate yet the existing ethnographic methods make it difficult to apply and, for non-specialist audiences, sometimes difficult to meaningfully interpret. The Event Analysis for Systemic Teamwork method is put forward as a means of working from a distributed cognition perspective but in a way that goes beyond ethnography. A worked example from Air Traffic Control is used to illustrate how the language of social science can be translated into the language of systems analysis. Statement of Relevance: Distributed cognition provides a highly appropriate conceptual response to complex work settings such as Air Traffic Control. This paper deals with how to realise those benefits in practice without recourse to problematic ethnographic techniques.
Koper, Christopher S; Lum, Cynthia; Hibdon, Julie
Recent technological advances have much potential for improving police performance, but there has been little research testing whether they have made police more effective in reducing crime. To study the uses and crime control impacts of mobile computing technology in the context of geographically focused "hot spots" patrols. An experiment was conducted using 18 crime hot spots in a suburban jurisdiction. Nine of these locations were randomly selected to receive additional patrols over 11 weeks. Researchers studied officers' use of mobile information technology (IT) during the patrols using activity logs and interviews. Nonrandomized subgroup and multivariate analyses were employed to determine if and how the effects of the patrols varied based on these patterns. Officers used mobile computing technology primarily for surveillance and enforcement (e.g., checking automobile license plates and running checks on people during traffic stops and field interviews), and they noted both advantages and disadvantages to its use. Officers did not often use technology for strategic problem-solving and crime prevention. Given sufficient (but modest) dosages, the extra patrols reduced crime at the hot spots, but this effect was smaller in places where officers made greater use of technology. Basic applications of mobile computing may have little if any direct, measurable impact on officers' ability to reduce crime in the field. Greater training and emphasis on strategic uses of IT for problem-solving and crime prevention, and greater attention to its behavioral effects on officers, might enhance its application for crime reduction. © The Author(s) 2016.
Standardization of light signals for road traffic control. Contribution in: Speed enforcement, visibility, and effects of traffic control measures on drivers, Transportation Research Record No. 811, p. 14-15, Transportation Research Board, National Academies of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1981.
A recent technical report on road-traffic-control signals prepared by the International Commission on Illumination is briefly discussed. The report represents a first step toward international standardisation of traffic signal lights in order to benefit trade and transportation. The principal
Reports a continuing longitudinal study begun in 1967 of attitudinal and behavioral change among recruits in the Philadelphia Police Department. Behavioral components are secrecy and mandatory mutual assistance. Comparisons are made with attitudes of detectives and experienced Patrolmen. (DB)
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...
To accommodate the growing air traffic demand, flights will need to be planned and navigated with a much higher level of precision than today's aircraft flight path. The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) stands to benefit significantly in safety and efficiency from such movement of aircraft along precisely defined paths. Air Traffic Operations (ATO) relying on such precision--the Precision Air Traffic Operations or PATO--are the foundation of high throughput capacity envisioned for the future airports. In PATO, the preferred method is to manage the air traffic by assigning a speed profile to each aircraft in a given fleet in a given airspace (in practice known as (speed control). In this research, an algorithm has been developed, set in the context of a Hybrid Control System (HCS) model, that determines whether a speed control solution exists for a given fleet of aircraft in a given airspace and if so, computes this solution as a collective speed profile that assures separation if executed without deviation. Uncertainties such as weather are not considered but the algorithm can be modified to include uncertainties. The algorithm first computes all feasible sequences (i.e., all sequences that allow the given fleet of aircraft to reach destinations without violating the FAA's separation requirement) by looking at all pairs of aircraft. Then, the most likely sequence is determined and the speed control solution is constructed by a backward trajectory generation, starting with the aircraft last out and proceeds to the first out. This computation can be done for different sequences in parallel which helps to reduce the computation time. If such a solution does not exist, then the algorithm calculates a minimal path modification (known as path control) that will allow separation-compliance speed control. We will also prove that the algorithm will modify the path without creating a new separation violation. The new path will be generated by adding new
Kupfer, Michael; Mercer, Joey; Cabrall, Chris; Homola, Jeff; Callantine, Todd
Within the Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) is developing advanced automation concepts that help to transform the National Airspace System into NextGen, the Next Generation Air Transportation System. High-fidelity human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations are used as a means to investigate and develop roles, responsibilities, support tools, and requirements for human operators and automation. This paper describes the traffic scenario design process and strategies as used by AOL researchers. Details are presented on building scenarios for specific simulation objectives using various design strategies. A focus is set on creating scenarios based on recorded real world traffic for terminal-area simulations.
Liang, Zijun; Flötteröd, Yun-Pang; Chen, Hong; Sohr, Alexander; Bei, Xiaoxu; Bottazzi, Maximiliano; Trumpold, Jan
In this paper, real-time vehicular data from video traffic detection (VTD) are used for minimizing the travel delay at intersections and a real-time traffic optimization model, based on the SUMO traffic simulation software, is established accordingly. The proposed model is implemented in a small industrial control computer which serves as the communication interface between the traffic signal control system, the traffic simulation and optimization model and the real-time video traffic detecti...
in the wall cavity, or by a single layer of gypsumboard on one side and a double layer on the other. Use of sound - deadening board and/or resilient...Acoustic (Reverberation). The cab ceiling must be stained, rather than painted , to maintain acoustic properties. Color/Gloss/Texture. Fixtures and...closed and create flanking paths for sound . -i. Acoustic (Structure-Borne). Decks transmit impact noise from foot traffic. Vertical Deflection/Vibration
This thesis addresses the conflict problem in railway traffic. Although the railway traffic management nowadays can partly be carried out by a traffic control system (or a traffic management system), the control system is insufficient to make operational decisions once the occurrence of disturbance gets frequent, particularly at the junctions with dense traffic. Traffic conflicts may arise along with the disturbances. The traffic controllers (and dispatchers) are often required to handle thes...
Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Mehmandar, Mohammad Reza; Mirbagheri, Babak; Hariri, Gholam Reza; Delpisheh, Ali; Soori, Hamid
Risk factors of human-related traffic crashes are the most important and preventable challenges for community health due to their noteworthy burden in developing countries in particular. The present study aims to investigate the role of human risk factors of road traffic crashes in Iran. Through a cross-sectional study using the COM 114 data collection forms, the police records of almost 600,000 crashes occurred in 2010 are investigated. The binary logistic regression and proportional odds regression models are used. The odds ratio for each risk factor is calculated. These models are adjusted for known confounding factors including age, sex and driving time. The traffic crash reports of 537,688 men (90.8%) and 54,480 women (9.2%) are analysed. The mean age is 34.1 ± 14 years. Not maintaining eyes on the road (53.7%) and losing control of the vehicle (21.4%) are the main causes of drivers' deaths in traffic crashes within cities. Not maintaining eyes on the road is also the most frequent human risk factor for road traffic crashes out of cities. Sudden lane excursion (OR = 9.9, 95% CI: 8.2-11.9) and seat belt non-compliance (OR = 8.7, CI: 6.7-10.1), exceeding authorised speed (OR = 17.9, CI: 12.7-25.1) and exceeding safe speed (OR = 9.7, CI: 7.2-13.2) are the most significant human risk factors for traffic crashes in Iran. The high mortality rate of 39 people for every 100,000 population emphasises on the importance of traffic crashes in Iran. Considering the important role of human risk factors in traffic crashes, struggling efforts are required to control dangerous driving behaviours such as exceeding speed, illegal overtaking and not maintaining eyes on the road.
Costa, Marcos; Júnior, Horácio Accioly; Oliveira, José; Maia, Eulália
To diagnose the occurrence and stage of stress among military police enlisted personnel and officers in the city of Natal (the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), and to determine the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms. This cross-sectional descriptive study investigated a sample of 264 individuals from a population of 3,193 military personnel from the Natal police command. The data were collected between June 2004 and January 2005 using Lipp's Adult Stress Symptoms Inventory (Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp). The research assessed: (1) presence of stress, (2) the stage of stress (alert, resistance, near-burnout, and burnout), (3) the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms, and (4) the relationship between stress and police unit, rank, gender, drinking, smoking, educational level, marital status, age, years of police service, and salary. No stress symptoms were found in 52.6% of the sample; 47.4% had symptoms. Of the 47.4% of the police personnel with stress symptoms, they were distributed as: 3.4% in the alert stage, 39.8% in the resistance stage, 3.8% in the near-burnout stage, and 0.4% in the burnout stage. Psychological symptoms were recorded in 76.0% of the police personnel with stress, and physical symptoms in 24.0% of them. Of the variables investigated, only gender was related to stress (P = 0.0337), with the female police personnel being more likely to suffer from stress. The levels of stress and symptoms do not indicate a critical situation of fatigue. However, it is recommended that the police take preventive actions, including implementing an effective program for the diagnosis of, training on, and control of stress.
Petrie, Dennis J; Doran, Christopher M; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Sanson-Fisher, Rob
To estimate the alcohol-attributable crime and traffic accidents for rural communities in Australia, controlling for potential bias. For 20 rural communities in New South Wales, Australia, crime and traffic accident data was obtained from police records along with risky alcohol use estimated from a postal questionnaire. The relationship between community levels of risky drinking and crime and traffic accidents that occur in alcohol-related times is analysed controlling for the underlying level of crime by using the rate of incidents that occur in non-alcohol-related times. For the 20 rural communities, it was estimated that risky alcohol use is likely to have attributed to between 1.4 and 7.7 common assaults per 1000 population and between 0.6 and 1.8 serious traffic injuries or fatalities per 1000 population, every year. Rural communities in Australia are experiencing a sizeable amount of potentially avoidable harm due to risky alcohol use. Reducing the population levels of those drinking at risk of acute harm or improving the settings in which drinking takes place may have benefits for these communities, especially in terms of crime and traffic accidents. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Catur Siswipraptini, Puji; Hendro Martono, Wisnu; Hartanti, Dian
The density of vehicles causes congestion seen at every junction in the city of jakarta due to the static or manual traffic timing lamp system consequently the length of the queue at the junction is uncertain. The research has been aimed at designing a sensor based traffic system based on the queue length detection of the vehicle to optimize the duration of the green light. In detecting the length of the queue of vehicles using infrared sensor assistance placed in each intersection path, then apply Greedy algorithm to help accelerate the movement of green light duration for the path that requires, while to apply the traffic lights regulation program based on greedy algorithm which is then stored on microcontroller with Arduino Mega 2560 type. Where a developed system implements the greedy algorithm with the help of the infrared sensor it will extend the duration of the green light on the long vehicle queue and accelerate the duration of the green light at the intersection that has the queue not too dense. Furthermore, the design is made to form an artificial form of the actual situation of the scale model or simple simulator (next we just called as scale model of simulator) of the intersection then tested. Sensors used are infrared sensors, where the placement of sensors in each intersection on the scale model is placed within 10 cm of each sensor and serves as a queue detector. From the results of the test process on the scale model with a longer queue obtained longer green light time so it will fix the problem of long queue of vehicles. Using greedy algorithms can add long green lights for 2 seconds on tracks that have long queues at least three sensor levels and accelerate time at other intersections that have longer queue sensor levels less than level three.
Needle, Jerome A.; Stapleton, Wm Vaughan
Although the organizational structure and activities of youth gangs have been studied, little research has focused on law enforcement strategies to handle youth gang behavior. To examine how police handle youth gangs and law violation and to identify effective prevention and control strategies, the police gang control and youth personnel…
Full Text Available The connection of an internal network to an external network such as Internet has made it vulnerable to attacks. One class of network attack is unauthorized penetration into network due to the openness of networks. It is possible for hackers to sum access to an internal network, this pose great danger to the network and network resources. Our objective and major concern of network design was to build a secured network, based on software firewall that ensured the integrity and confidentiality of information on the network. We studied several mechanisms to achieve this; one of such mechanism is the implementation of firewall system as a network defence. Our developed firewall has the ability to determine which network traffic should be allowed in or out of the network. Part of our studied work was also channelled towards a comprehensive study of hardware firewall security system with the aim of developing this software based firewall system. Our software firewall goes a long way in protecting an internal network from external unauthorized traffic penetration. We included an anti virus software which is lacking in most firewalls.
Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Barfod, Michael Bruhn
important than physical factors in order to increase the crash reporting, with responsiveness as the most important and tangibles as the least important dimensions. Nevertheless, most stakeholders viewed a mixture of human and physical factors as crucial to increase crash reporting rates. Originality...
Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.
Ervyn Norza Céspedes
Full Text Available Este documento presenta la descripción estadística de los logros operativos de la Policía Nacional en el año 2010, los cuales se ajustan a las estrategias gubernamentales e institucionales encaminadas al despliegue efectivo de acciones preventivas, disuasivas y de control. Asimismo, contiene los aspectos relevantes de la principal estrategia operativa de la Policía Nacional, denominada Plan Nacional de Vigilancia por Cuadrantes, y los alcances del control social formal ejercido por la Policía sobre los delincuentes y la delincuencia; además, pasa por una revisión de los postulados teóricos y empíricos, tanto del control social como de las características de los victimarios, la impunidad y las herramientas para combatir el delito.
Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo
Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority.
Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Møller, Peter; Jantzen, Kim; Jönsson, Bo A G; Albin, Maria; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Gudmundsson, Anders; Loft, Steffen; Rissler, Jenny
Particulate air pollution increases risk of cancer and cardiopulmonary disease, partly through oxidative stress. Traffic-related noise increases risk of cardiovascular disease and may cause oxidative stress. In this controlled random sequence study, 18 healthy subjects were exposed for 3h to diesel exhaust (DE) at 276 μg/m(3) from a passenger car or filtered air, with co-exposure to traffic noise at 48 or 75 dB(A). Gene expression markers of inflammation, (interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase (decycling-1)) and DNA repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)) were unaltered in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No significant differences in DNA damage levels, measured by the comet assay, were observed after DE exposure, whereas exposure to high noise levels was associated with significantly increased levels of hOGG1-sensitive sites in PBMCs. Urinary levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine were unaltered. In auxiliary ex vivo experiments whole blood was incubated with particles from the exposure chamber for 3h without effects on DNA damage in PBMCs or intracellular reactive oxygen species production and expression of CD11b and CD62L adhesion molecules in leukocyte subtypes. 3-h exposure to DE caused no genotoxicity, oxidative stress or inflammation in PBMCs, whereas exposure to noise might cause oxidatively damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
V. A. Lakhno
Full Text Available Purpose. This scientific work considers the further development of mathematical models and algorithms for automatic decision support for dispatching management of the city passenger traffic. Methodology. Systems of dispatching management for the city passenger transport are to provide the carrying out of the routes according schedules with minimal deviations from the planned ones through the using of appropriate control actions. The systems’ algorithm focuses on the selection of control actions that compensate the disturbances. It is proposed to use the index of the waiting time minimum for passengers of buses and taxis at stops as a criterion for evaluating of dispatching control systems work. Findings. Based on the conducted analysis of the research within the existing theory of traffic flow of vehicles, it was proposed the model for the system of dispatching management for urban passenger moving units considering the effect of the most important stochastic factors on the schedule of buses and taxis movement in large cities. The obtained system of equations that models the parameter of movement on the bus routes allows you to assess quickly the influence of disturbing effects on the service quality indicators of passengers and, if necessary, to draw up the optimal schedule. Originality. The authors propose a new model for decision support of dispatching management for the city passenger transport. They take into account the effect of the most important stochastic factors, such as the overflowing buses and taxis, their descent from the lines, delays, deviations from the speed limit on the route, etc., on indicators of service quality, as well as optimizing the schedule. Practical value. The results allow to improve approaches to building models using in the systems of dispatching management of urban bus routes, as well as to improve the selection of control actions for similar systems in large cities of Ukraine.
The limited ability of police to assist victims of domestic violence is often viewed as an institutional failure; a consequence of a lack of resources or inadequate training. This article presents key findings from a qualitative study of perceptions of and attitudes towards domestic violence in the South African township of ...
B.R. van Gelderen (Benjamin R.)
textabstractDuring my work as a police officer, I encountered many emotional demanding situations in which my colleagues and I often seemed to act unfelt emotions or suppressed emotions that would better not be displayed at that particular moment. For instance, during my first weeks of duty I
Full Text Available The book is divided in two parts: the introduction and conclusion (by Marina Caparini and Otwin Marenin and several case studies of individual police organizations in Central and Eastern Europe. In the introduction, Caparini and Marenin emphasise the importance of the police in a democratic society. The main function of the police – the provision of security – is one of the basic demands laid against the state by its society. Democratic policing is described in the first part of the introduc...
Cameron D. Lippard
Full Text Available Research has established that Blacks face disproportionate amounts of traffic stops, searches, and arrests by police compared to Whites. However, few studies have ventured past the Black-White dichotomy and considered how Hispanics or other minorities may face the same disparities, especially in places where the Hispanic population has dramatically increased in recent years. Using traffic stop and post-stop data compiled by the North Carolina Department of Justice from 2005 to 2009, this study explored whether Hispanics, Blacks, as well as other racial minorities experienced a higher likelihood of traffic stops, citations, searches, and arrests compared to Whites within sample of city, county, and state law enforcement agencies. We found that generally all racial and ethnic minority groups face higher rates of traffic stops than Whites by almost every law enforcement agency sampled. We also found that rates of post-stop activities including searches, citations, and arrests are higher for all racial and ethnic minority groups examined compared to Whites, especially for Hispanics. Hispanic and non-White disparities in traffic stops also cannot be explained away when controlling for population size, type of law enforcement agency, or the reason stated for the traffic stop (e.g., DWI, speeding, or investigation. More important, however, is that the rate of searches for racial and ethnic minorities did not necessarily match the rates of citations and arrests minorities receive, suggesting that some stops could be racially or ethnically motivated.
Full Text Available This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward introduction of such technologies and conduct simulation analysis to compare changes in the acceptance of various scenarios. The study divides cybercrime policing into prevention and investigation. The sample included 500 members of the public and 161 police officers. The results show that the public thinks an increase in yearly taxes and invasion of privacy are the most important factors. Conversely, the police think factors enhancing the efficiency of policing are most important. Moreover, when smart policing technologies are introduced, the public and police perceive more utility in the prevention and investigation of cybercrime, respectively. Few studies in this field separate the prevention and investigation of crimes, or compare perceptions of the public and police toward the introduction of smart policing technologies. This study’s quantitative analysis provides insights lacking in previous literature.
Training and education constitutes the backbone of a significant amount of police activity and expenditure in developing the most important resources involved in policing work. It also involves an array of actors and agencies, such as educational institutions which have a long and important relationship with police organisations. This book examines the role of education and training in the development of police in the contemporary world. Bringing together specialist scholars and practitio...
Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali
Full Text Available To The Editor: It is estimated that 1.26 million people worldwide died in 2000 from road traffic accidents, 90% of them in low and middle-income countries. In 2000, the road traffic injury mortality rate for the world was 20.8 per 100,000 populations (30.8 in males, 11.0 in females .The Arab population constitutes 3.6% of the world’s population and it owns 1% of the world’s vehicles. Its human losses as a result of road traffic accidents (RTA account for 4.8% of that of the world’s losses . It is estimated that the annual cost of road crashes is about 1% of the Gross National Product (GNP in developing countries, 1.5 in transitional countries and 2% in highly motorised countries .In Libya the situation is worse. It is a sad fact that road traffic accidents are the number one killer in Libya. As a matter of fact I consider it to be an ‘epidemic’ in all sectors of the Libyan society. There is not a day that goes by in Libya without us hearing about families, young men, women and children getting killed in horrific car accidents.It is alarming that young children are knocked down on a daily basis by speeding young drivers, whose understanding of driving skills may have been acquired from "playstation games"! (You can watch some of the shameful video clips sent by some of these drivers on this link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doWEDjiHlVoI feel it is our responsibility as physicians observing the situation to raise awareness about the scale of the problem, possible causes, and how to tackle it. POSSIBLE CAUSES:• A driving licence in Libya is not issued on the basis of how much you know. Therefore the majority of drivers know little or nothing about the law.• Wearing seat belts is not compulsory in most parts of Libya. In some places, especially in the Eastern part of Libya, you could be penalised for wearing one. I was stopped many years ago by the traffic police in the Eastern part of Libya because I was wearing sunglasses
Full Text Available In social groups where relatedness among interacting individuals is low, cooperation can often only be maintained through mechanisms that repress competition among group members. Repression-of-competition mechanisms, such as policing and punishment, seem to be of particular importance in human societies, where cooperative interactions often occur among unrelated individuals. In line with this view, economic games have shown that the ability to punish defectors enforces cooperation among humans. Here, I examine a real-world example of a repression-of-competition system, the police institutions common to modern human societies. Specifically, I test evolutionary policing theory by comparing data on policing effort, per capita crime rate, and similarity (used as a proxy for genetic relatedness among citizens across the 26 cantons of Switzerland. This comparison revealed full support for all three predictions of evolutionary policing theory. First, when controlling for policing efforts, crime rate correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens. This is in line with the prediction that high similarity results in higher levels of cooperative self-restraint (i.e. lower crime rates because it aligns the interests of individuals. Second, policing effort correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens, supporting the prediction that more policing is required to enforce cooperation in low-similarity societies, where individuals' interests diverge most. Third, increased policing efforts were associated with reductions in crime rates, indicating that policing indeed enforces cooperation. These analyses strongly indicate that humans respond to cues of their social environment and adjust cheating and policing behaviour as predicted by evolutionary policing theory.
Full Text Available Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012.Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample.This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings pertaining to the use of urine drug
Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas
Background Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as “patients” not “criminals,” Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Methods and Findings Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. Conclusions This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings
Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas
Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings pertaining to the use of urine drug testing by police
Hejazi, Rokhshad; Shamsudin, Mad Nasir; Radam, Alias; Rahim, Khalid Abdul; Ibrahim, Zelina Zaitun; Yazdani, Saeed
Traffic accidents are the reason for 25% of unnatural deaths in Iran. The main objective of this study is to find a simple model for the estimation of economic costs especially in Islamic countries (like Iran) in a straightforward manner. The model can show the magnitude of traffic accident costs with monetary equivalent. Data were collected from different sources that included traffic police records, insurance companies and hospitals. The conceptual framework, in our study, was based on the method of Ayati. He used this method for the estimation of economic costs in Iran. We promoted his method via minimum variables. Our final model has only three available variables which can be taken from insurance companies and police records. The running model showed that the traffic accident costs were US$2.2 million in 2007 for our case study route.
Full Text Available Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting.This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites.After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52, absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26, high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54, high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55, and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56. Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82 and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99.Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.
Sandoval, Ruben; Martinez, Douglas R.
Recently, incidents of police abuse against Hispanics have increased so rapidly that the phenomenon has been called an epidemic. Of special concern to Hispanic leaders is the lack of Federal intervention in these police brutality cases. A list of 56 documented cases involving police brutality against Hispanics is included. (Author/NQ)
This duty is distilled into standard policing to enforce law and order in the wake of a secured/safe environment. The standard of ... The paper recommended some important strategies for effective policing which includes re-orientation of the police, proper training, provision of firearms, motivation and public responsibility.
Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.
In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…
Aydinli and Hasan Yon, “ Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism ,” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011...Hasan Yon. “ Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism .” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011): 55... Transgovernmentalism , Intergovernmentalism, Regionalism, Effectiveness, International Police Cooperation Organizations 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY
Although speed plays a large part in the occurrence of crashes, drivers often exceed the speed limit. The police use various methods when carrying out their speed surveillance. In the Netherlands positive effects have been found of speed surveillance with radar cars (without stopping). It is to be
Schumann, Cornelia; Asmal, Laila; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Emsley, Robin
Little is known about the reasons why people with schizophrenia have contact with police, especially prior to the first episode of illness. To investigate the prevalence and correlates of police contact in first-episode schizophrenia. The prevalence and type of police contact was established among all 110 patients presenting to psychiatric services in one catchment area during a first episode of schizophrenia and among 65 non-mentally ill controls, by participant and collateral interview and from records. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were also recorded and the two groups compared. The first episode of schizophrenia patients had more contact with police than controls, despite the higher prevalence of conduct disorder symptoms among the controls. The patients were not, however, more likely to be incarcerated or arrested. Among the patients, over half of the police call-outs occurred during the period of untreated psychosis. Positive psychotic symptoms were independently associated with police contact, after allowing for socio-demographics. As over a third of people in a first episode of schizophrenia had been in contact with the police - more than twice the proportion among non-psychotic controls - and contact was associated with untreated positive psychotic symptoms, better early detection and treatment of psychosis seems indicated. In the meantime, police services may be playing an important role in reducing the duration of untreated psychosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kaiseler, Mariana; Queirós, Cristina; Passos, Fernando; Sousa, Pedro
This study investigated the influence of stress appraisal and coping on work engagement levels (Absorption, Vigour, and Dedication) of police recruits. Participants were 387 men, ages 20 to 33 yr. (M = 24.1, SD = 2.4), in their last month of academy training before becoming police officers. Partially in support of predictions, work engagement was associated with Stressor control perceived, but not Stress intensity experienced over a self-selected stressor. Although the three dimensions of work engagement were explained by Stressor control and coping, Absorption was the dimension better explained by these variables. Police recruits reporting higher Absorption, Vigour, and Dedication reported using more Active coping and less Behavioural disengagement. Results showed that stress appraisal and coping are important variables influencing work engagement among police recruits. Findings suggested that future applied interventions fostering work engagement among police recruits should reinforce perceptions of control over a stressor as well as Active coping strategies.
Full Text Available In a democracy, it is generally understood that the police serve at the will of the people and are accountable through police governance. This usually consists of elected and/or appointed officials whose primary legal authority is to set policy and appoint the police leaders whom they hold accountable for ensuring that effective policing operations are carried out. It is widely held in common law jurisdictions that the governing body is limited in their role and cannot get involved in “operational policing issues.” In June 2010, the G20 world leaders’ conference was held in Toronto, Canada. The events surrounding the police actions during this conference caused a great deal of concern and led the Toronto Police Services Board, who are the governing authority for the Toronto Police Service, to commission a review to look at their own role. The findings in relation to “board” involvement in the operational side of policing challenged a long held belief regarding the limited role of governance in police operations. These findings will be examined in relation to the lack of board expertise and the challenges faced by police leaders to adapt and develop their attitudes, skills and abilities to respond to any expansion of governance authority.
Allison Louise Skinner
Full Text Available Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community. In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.
Skinner, Allison L; Haas, Ingrid J
Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.
López, Griselda; de Oña, Juan; Garach, Laura; Baena, Leticia
One of the main objectives of all public administrations is reducing traffic crashes. To this end, Road Safety Inspections (RSI) stand out as a key measure. Signaling roads is one of the foremost tasks of RSI. A road that is improperly or poorly signaled can lead to incorrect placement or maneuvers of vehicles and ambiguous situations that can increase the risk of crashes. This paper analyses the relationship between road crashes in two-lane rural highways and certain deficiencies in signaling. The results show that deficiencies such as "incomplete removal of road works markings" or "no guide sign or in incorrect position" are the ones associated with a higher probability of crashes in two-lane rural highways. In view of these results, governmental agencies should verify that the original conditions of a highway are re-established after any construction work is completed. They should also continuously follow up on the signaling of this type of highway in order to maintain optimal conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that some low-level aspects of the usual IEC 61850 mapping to Ethernet are not well suited to microgrids due to their dynamic nature and geographical distribution as compared to substations. It is proposed that the integration of IEEE time-sensitive networking (TSN concepts (which are currently implemented as audio video bridging (AVB technologies within an IEC 61850 / Manufacturing Message Specification framework provides a flexible and reconfigurable platform capable of overcoming such issues. A prototype test platform and bump-in-the-wire device for tunneling horizontal traffic through AVB are described. Experimental results are presented for sending IEC 61850 GOOSE (generic object oriented substation events and SV (sampled values messages through AVB tunnels. The obtained results verify that IEC 61850 event and sampled data may be reliably transported within the proposed framework with very low latency, even over a congested network. It is argued that since AVB streams can be flexibly configured from one or more central locations, and bandwidth reserved for their data ensuring predictability of delivery, this gives a solution which seems significantly more reliable than a pure MMS-based solution.
The core baseline of Intelligence-led Policing is the aim of increasing efficiency and quality of police work, with a focus on crime analysis and intelligence methods as tools for informed and objective decisions both when conducting targeted, specialized operations and when setting strategic...... priorities. This book critically addresses the proliferation of intelligence logics within policing from a wide array of scholarly perspectives. It considers questions such as: •How are precautionary logics becoming increasingly central in the dominant policing strategies? •What kind of challenges...... and the blurred and confrontational lines that can be observed between prevention, intelligence and investigation in police work....
Full Text Available The repression of competition by mechanisms of policing is now recognized as a major force in the maintenance of cooperation. General models on the evolution of policing have focused on the interplay between individual competitiveness and mutual policing, demonstrating a positive relationship between within-group diversity and levels of policing. We expand this perspective by investigating what is possibly the simplest example of reproductive policing: copy number control (CNC among non-conjugative plasmids, a class of extra-chromosomal vertically transmitted molecular symbionts of bacteria. Through the formulation and analysis of a multi-scale dynamical model, we show that the establishment of stable reproductive restraint among plasmids requires the co-evolution of two fundamental plasmid traits: policing, through the production of plasmid-coded trans-acting replication inhibitors, and obedience, expressed as the binding affinity of plasmid-specific targets to those inhibitors. We explain the intrinsic replication instabilities that arise in the absence of policing and we show how these instabilities are resolved by the evolution of copy number control. Increasing levels of policing and obedience lead to improvements in group performance due to tighter control of local population size (plasmid copy number, delivering benefits both to plasmids, by reducing the risk of segregational loss and to the plasmid-host partnership, by increasing the rate of cell reproduction, and therefore plasmid vertical transmission.
Kentzoglanakis, Kyriakos; García López, Diana; Brown, Sam P; Goldstein, Richard A
The repression of competition by mechanisms of policing is now recognized as a major force in the maintenance of cooperation. General models on the evolution of policing have focused on the interplay between individual competitiveness and mutual policing, demonstrating a positive relationship between within-group diversity and levels of policing. We expand this perspective by investigating what is possibly the simplest example of reproductive policing: copy number control (CNC) among non-conjugative plasmids, a class of extra-chromosomal vertically transmitted molecular symbionts of bacteria. Through the formulation and analysis of a multi-scale dynamical model, we show that the establishment of stable reproductive restraint among plasmids requires the co-evolution of two fundamental plasmid traits: policing, through the production of plasmid-coded trans-acting replication inhibitors, and obedience, expressed as the binding affinity of plasmid-specific targets to those inhibitors. We explain the intrinsic replication instabilities that arise in the absence of policing and we show how these instabilities are resolved by the evolution of copy number control. Increasing levels of policing and obedience lead to improvements in group performance due to tighter control of local population size (plasmid copy number), delivering benefits both to plasmids, by reducing the risk of segregational loss and to the plasmid-host partnership, by increasing the rate of cell reproduction, and therefore plasmid vertical transmission.
Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura
Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…
Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress and associated physical and mental health related issues are not addressed in Indian police personnel with adequate importance. Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted among police personnel (both male and female in Calicut urban police district, Kerala state, India. Police personnel from all designations (ranks, except from the all India services (Indian Police Service were included in the study. Data were collected using a specifically designed datasheet covering socio-demographic profile, physical and mental health related details which was prepared by researchers. Occupational stress was measured using Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-OP and Organisational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-ORG. Result: The study found that both operational and organisational stress was significant among the police officers. Organisational stress was experienced in moderate level by 68% and in high level by 14%. Operational stress scores were in the moderate range in 67% and in high range in 16.5%. The younger age group (21-35 years and lower level rank police personnel had higher stress. Stress was higher among female police personnel compared to males. While 23% of them had been diagnosed with physical illnesses, a significant four per cent of them with mental illness, and 29% of them reported substance abuse. Conclusion: The results point to the high level of stress among Indian police personnel and the need for urgent interventions from the government to address the occupational stress.
The Texas Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (TMUTCD) provides the definition of regular traffic generators based on four population types but not for major traffic generators (MTGs). MTG signs have been considered to supplement the overall si...
Van Eck, Richard N.; Fu, Hongxia; Drechsel, Paul V. J.
Air traffic control (ATC) operations are critical to the U.S. aviation infrastructure, making ATC training a critical area of study. Because ATC performance is heavily dependent on visual processing, it is important to understand how to screen for or promote relevant visual processing abilities. While conventional wisdom has maintained that such…
Guenette, Kris; Hernandez-Ramirez, Guillermo
Achieving resiliency in agroecosystems may be accomplished through the incorporation of contemporary management systems and the diversification of crop rotations with pulse crops, such as controlled traffic farming (CTF) and faba beans (Vicia faba L.). As these practices become more common in the Canadian Prairies, it is imperative to have a well-rounded understanding of how faba beans interact with the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in conditions found in contemporary management systems. Simulated field conditions emulated soil compaction found in both the trafficked and un-trafficked areas of a CTF system, in which the presence of high water availability was shown to offset the negative results of large applications of compactive effort. Furthermore, low water availability exacerbated differences in plant responses between compaction treatments. The simulated treatment of 1.2 gcm-3 coupled with high water content yielded the most optimal results for most measured parameters, with a contrasting detrimental treatment of 1.4 gcm-3 at low water availability. The simulated field conditions were further bridged through an analysis of two commercial sites in Alberta, Canada that compared both trafficked and un-trafficked soil properties. Soil properties such as available nitrogen (AN), pH, soil total nitrogen (STN), soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density, macroporosity, soil quality S-Index, plant available water capacity (PAWC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (Km) were analysed and compared among trafficked and un-trafficked areas. The measured soil physical and hydraulic properties of bulk density, macroporosity, S-Index, PAWC and Km were shown to be heavily influenced by the CTF traffic regime, while soil nutrient properties of AN, pH, STN SOC were determined to be dependent on both management and landscape features.
Full Text Available Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS/Global Positioning System (GPS positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to
Zuo, Wenwei; Guo, Chi; Liu, Jingnan; Peng, Xuan; Yang, Min
Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI) exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API) of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to meet the
The major objective of this research is to examine the variation patterns of road traffic accident in Lagos State. The study used mostly secondary data; accident records and vehicular situation were obtained from the Nigeria police force and Federal Road Safety Commission. The data were obtained for a period of thirty two ...
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Dec 1, 2014 ... In Nigeria, the law enforcement agencies responsible for the inspection of. Traffic Highways are the Federal Road. Safety Commission (FRSC), Vehicle. Inspection Officers (VIO) and the. Nigerian Police Force. These agencies are bound to the use of brick and mortar inspection techniques which make use ...
Full Text Available In recent decades, increased attention has been focused on the impact of disabilities and medicinal drug use on road safety. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes, and estimate the attributable fraction.We extracted and matched data from three French nationwide databases: the national health care insurance database, police reports, and the national police database of injurious crashes. Drivers identified by their national health care number involved in an injurious crash in France, between July 2005 and May 2008, were included in the study. Medicines were grouped according to the four risk levels of the French classification system (from 0 [no risk] to 3 [high risk]. We included 72,685 drivers involved in injurious crashes. Users of level 2 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31 [1.24-1.40] and level 3 (OR = 1.25 [1.12-1.40] prescription medicines were at higher risk of being responsible for a crash. The association remained after adjustment for the presence of a long-term chronic disease. The fraction of road traffic crashes attributable to levels 2 and 3 medications was 3.3% [2.7%-3.9%]. A within-person case-crossover analysis showed that drivers were more likely to be exposed to level 3 medications on the crash day than on a control day, 30 days earlier (OR = 1.15 [1.05-1.27].The use of prescription medicines is associated with a substantial number of road traffic crashes in France. In light of the results, warning messages appear to be relevant for level 2 and 3 medications and questionable for level 1 medications. A follow-up study is needed to evaluate the impact of the warning labeling system on road traffic crash prevention.
Seidler, Andreas; Hegewald, Janice; Seidler, Anna Lene; Schubert, Melanie; Wagner, Mandy; Dröge, Patrik; Haufe, Eva; Schmitt, Jochen; Swart, Enno; Zeeb, Hajo
Few studies have examined the relationship between traffic noise and depression providing inconclusive results. This large case-control study is the first to assess and directly compare depression risks by aircraft, road traffic and railway noise. The study population included individuals aged ≥40 years that were insured by three large statutory health insurance funds and were living in the region of Frankfurt international airport. Address-specific exposure to aircraft, road and railway traffic noise in 2005 was estimated. Based on insurance claims and prescription data, 77,295 cases with a new clinical depression diagnosis between 2006 and 2010 were compared with 578,246 control subjects. For road traffic noise, a linear exposure-risk relationship was found with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.17 (95% CI=1.10-1.25) for 24-h continuous sound levels ≥70dB. For aircraft noise, the risk estimates reached a maximum OR of 1.23 (95% CI=1.19-1.28) at 50-55dB and decreased at higher exposure categories. For railway noise, risk estimates peaked at 60-65dB (OR=1.15, 95% CI=1.08-1.22). The highest OR of 1.42 (95% CI=1.33-1.52) was found for a combined exposure to noise above 50dB from all three sources. This study indicates that traffic noise exposure might lead to depression. As a potential explanation for the decreasing risks at high traffic noise levels, vulnerable people might actively cope with noise (e.g. insulate or move away). Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seidler, Andreas; Wagner, Mandy; Schubert, Melanie; Dröge, Patrik; Römer, Karin; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Swart, Enno; Zeeb, Hajo; Hegewald, Janice
Several studies point to an elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases induced by traffic noise. We examined the association between aircraft, road traffic and railway noise and heart failure or hypertensive heart disease (HHD) in a large case-control study. The study population consisted of individuals that were insured by three large statutory health insurance funds in the Rhine-Main area of Germany. Based on insurance claims and prescription data, 104,145 cases of heart failure or HHD diagnosed 2006-10 were identified and compared with 654,172 control subjects. Address-specific exposure to aircraft, road and railway traffic noise in 2005 was estimated. Odds Ratios were calculated using logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, local proportion of persons receiving unemployment benefits, and individual socioeconomic status (available for 39% of the individuals). A statistically significant linear exposure-risk relationship with heart failure or hypertensive heart disease was found for aircraft traffic noise (1.6% risk increase per 10dB increase in the 24-h continuous noise level; 95% CI 0.3-3.0%), road traffic noise (2.4% per 10dB; 95% CI 1.6-3.2%), and railway noise (3.1% per 10dB; 95% CI 2.2-4.1%). For individuals with 24-h continuous aircraft noise levels traffic noise from various sources, even low risk increases for frequent diseases are relevant for the population as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Medical examination is a right for every person detained in police custody in France. Examination of detainees usually takes place in the police station so that the doctor can assess the conditions in which the detainee is being held. In some cases, such as type I diabetes care, detainees need to be examined and treated in a hospital. Doctors are subject to a duty of care and prevention. Description of recent traumatic injuries is part of the doctor's mission. They should prescribe any ongoing treatment which needs to be continued, as well as any emergency treatment required. Custody officers may monitor the detainee and administer medication. Doctor's opinion should be given in a national standard document. If the doctor considers that the custody conditions are disgraceful, they may refuse to express an opinion as to whether the detainee is fit for custody.
Delahaye , Daniel; Alliot , Jean-Marc; Schoenauer , Marc; Farges , Jean-Loup
International audience; In this paper, we show how genetic algorithms can be used to compute automatically a traffic assignment of aircraft on the air network to increase Air Traffic Control capacity in high density areas.
Thamires Marques de Lima
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study. RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively. Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.
Lo, Julia C; Pluyter, Kari R; Meijer, Sebastiaan A
The aim of this study was to examine individual markers of resilience and obtain quantitative insights into the understanding and the implications of variation and expertise levels in train traffic operators' goals and strategic mental models and their impact on performance. The Dutch railways are one of the world's most heavy utilized railway networks and have been identified to be weak in system and organizational resilience. Twenty-two train traffic controllers enacted two scenarios in a human-in-the-loop simulator. Their experience, goals, strategic mental models, and performance were assessed through questionnaires and simulator logs. Goals were operationalized through performance indicators and strategic mental models through train completion strategies. A variation was found between operators for both self-reported primary performance indicators and completion strategies. Further, the primary goal of only 14% of the operators reflected the primary organizational goal (i.e., arrival punctuality). An incongruence was also found between train traffic controllers' self-reported performance indicators and objective performance in a more disrupted condition. The level of experience tends to affect performance differently. There is a gap between primary organizational goals and preferred individual goals. Further, the relative strong diversity in primary operator goals and strategic mental models indicates weak resilience at the individual level. With recent and upcoming large-scale changes throughout the sociotechnical space of the railway infrastructure organization, the findings are useful to facilitate future railway traffic control and the development of a resilient system. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Pérez Zaballos, María Teresa; Ramos de Miguel, Ángel; Pérez Plasencia, Daniel; Zaballos González, María Luisa; Ramos Macías, Ángel
To evaluate 1) if air traffic controllers (ATC) perform better than non-air traffic controllers in an open-set speech-in-noise test because of their experience with radio communications, and 2) if high-frequency information (>8000 Hz) substantially improves speech-in-noise perception across populations. The control group comprised 28 normal-hearing subjects, and the target group comprised 48 ATCs aged between 19 and 55 years who were native Spanish speakers. The hearing -in-noise abilities of the two groups were characterized under two signal conditions: 1) speech tokens and white noise sampled at 44.1 kHz (unfiltered condition) and 2) speech tokens plus white noise, each passed through a 4th order Butterworth filter with 70 and 8000 Hz low and high cutoffs (filtered condition). These tests were performed at signal-to-noise ratios of +5, 0, and -5-dB SNR. The ATCs outperformed the control group in all conditions. The differences were statistically significant in all cases, and the largest difference was observed under the most difficult conditions (-5 dB SNR). Overall, scores were higher when high-frequency components were not suppressed for both groups, although statistically significant differences were not observed for the control group at 0 dB SNR. The results indicate that ATCs are more capable of identifying speech in noise. This may be due to the effect of their training. On the other hand, performance seems to decrease when the high frequency components of speech are removed, regardless of training.
Ruslan N. Shevchenko
Full Text Available Abuse of official authority negatively affects both the day-to-day professional activities of traffic police officers and the image of law enforcement agencies in general. In the course of the study, three main categories of causes of abuse of traffic police officers by their official powers were identified: moral, psychological, economic and organizational and legal. Among the measures to counteract the abuse of officers of the State Traffic Inspectorate, the following should be noted with their official powers: increasing the prestige of service in the internal affairs bodies, regular increase in the monetary allowance, selecting only highly recommended candidates for service with unequivocal recommendation of psychologists and polygraph specialists about their professional suitability for service, Internal motivation of the traffic police, aimed at ensuring that they value and value their service in the State Traffic Inspectorate.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Collision geocoding is the process of assigning geographic descriptors, usually latitude and longitude coordinates, to a traffic collision record. On California police reports, relative collision location is recorded using a highway postmile marker or a street intersection. The objective of this study was to create a geocoded database of all police-reported, fatal and severe injury collisions in the California Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS for years 1997-2006 for use by public agencies. Results Geocoding was completed with a multi-step process. First, pre-processing was performed using a scripting language to clean and standardize street name information. A state highway network with postmile values was then created using a custom tool written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA in ArcGIS software. Custom VBA functionality was also used to incorporate the offset direction and distance. Intersection and address geocoding was performed using ArcGIS, StreetMap Pro 2003 digital street network, and Google Earth Pro. A total of 142,007 fatal and severe injury collisions were identified in SWITRS. The geocoding match rate was 99.8% for postmile-coded collisions and 86% for intersection-coded collisions. The overall match rate was 91%. Conclusions The availability of geocoded collision data will be beneficial to clinicians, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners in the fields of traffic safety and public health. Potential uses of the data include studies of collision clustering on the highway system, examinations of the associations between collision occurrence and a variety of variables on environmental and social characteristics, including housing and personal demographics, alcohol outlets, schools, and parks. The ability to build maps may be useful in research planning and conduct and in the delivery of information to both technical and non-technical audiences.