Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Jeergal, Prabhakar; Venkatesh, Sowmya
Police personnel play an important role in collecting and producing evidence. Knowledge about the various aspects of forensic as well as dental sciences and related evidence in them provide a golden opportunity to forensic odontologists to actively participate in the identification of the accused or victim. They can also act as an expert witness in court to produce forensic dental evidence. To evaluate the awareness and knowledge about the utilization of forensic odontology during evidence collection by the crime scene investigation (CSI) officers. Four hundred police officers were included in this survey. A questionnaire was designed to assess the awareness and knowledge about forensic odontology and application of the known knowledge in identifying and considering the dental evidences. Data were analyzed using the software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Chicago, Il, USA) version 17.0 by comparing the overall awareness of forensic odontology among the trained SI officers and trainee police personnel. The collected results showed that there is a requirement for changes in the current practice of evidence collection and highlighted the need for better communication between the police personnel and forensic odontologists. A significantly higher number of police officers in both the trained and trainee groups reported knowledge about the subject (P odontology, there is a lack of communication and facilities in their system; hence, steps must be taken to educate the police personnel about the application of forensic odontology.
Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred
Human genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomic lifestyle prediction is expected to increase the ability of police to find unknown perpetrators of crime who are not identifiable using current forensic DNA profiling.
Blaauw, E.; Lulf, R.
Various Dutch reports show that medical usage among those detained in police cells is many times higher than among the average population. Many visits by forensic physicians (some 36%) are due to the fact that many police custody detainees are addicted. Also, many visits are carried out as a result
Belur, J.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D.; Daruwalla, N.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V.
Police investigations involve determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so what type of crime, who has committed it and whether there is the evidence to charge the perpetrators. Drawing on fieldwork in Delhi and Mumbai, this paper explores how police investigations unfolded in the specific context of women’s deaths by burning in India. In particular, it focuses on the use of discretion despite its denial by those exercising it. In India, there are distinctive statutes relating to women’s suspicious deaths, reflecting the widespread expectation that the bride’s family will pay a dowry to the groom’s family and the tensions to which this may on occasion give rise in the early years of a marriage. Often, there are conflicting claims influencing how the woman’s death is classified. These in turn affect police investigation. The nature and direction of police discretion in investigating women’s deaths by burning reflect in part the unique nature of the legislation and the particular sensitivities in relation to these types of death. They also highlight processes that are liable to be at work in any crime investigation. It was found that police officers exercised unacknowledged discretion at seven specific points in the investigative process, with potentially significant consequences for the achievement of just outcomes: first response, recording the victim’s ‘dying declaration’, inquest, registering of the ‘First Information Report’, collecting evidence, arrest and framing of the charges. PMID:26376482
Choo, Yun-Huoy; Abraham, Ajith; Srihari, Sargur
Computational Intelligence techniques have been widely explored in various domains including forensics. Analysis in forensic encompasses the study of pattern analysis that answer the question of interest in security, medical, legal, genetic studies and etc. However, forensic analysis is usually performed through experiments in lab which is expensive both in cost and time. Therefore, this book seeks to explore the progress and advancement of computational intelligence technique in different focus areas of forensic studies. This aims to build stronger connection between computer scientists and forensic field experts. This book, Computational Intelligence in Digital Forensics: Forensic Investigation and Applications, is the first volume in the Intelligent Systems Reference Library series. The book presents original research results and innovative applications of computational intelligence in digital forensics. This edited volume contains seventeen chapters and presents the latest state-of-the-art advancement ...
Maceachern, Alison D; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Jackson, Sharon
Child protection is an area of police work which has expanded in the last decade, leading to an increase in the number of police officers working in departments which specialise in investigating cases of child abuse. Police officers in this field may be at greater risk of experiencing secondary traumatic stress but there remains a paucity of research in this area of policing. Analogies can be drawn to existing research in policing and with social service workers involved in child protection. The paper finishes off with implications for police forces to ensure safe working environments and appropriate counselling for employees.
Waldir Miguel dos Santos Júnior
Full Text Available This work aims to identify the importance of police investigation to the democratic rule of law, from revisiting the origins of the police investigation work will seek to demonstrate that research can and should extricate the inquisitorial logic enshrined in the Brazilian criminal proceedings under the influence of European law. From there, the work tries to demonstrate the requirements of democratic rule of law research. Therefore, the adversarial system will be analyzed, to comply with the democratic demands. Is emphasizing as fundamental rights guarantee the work will seek to demonstrate the incompatibility of research based exclusively on the inquisitorial tradition and the building of a democratic criminal proceedings, since such a perspective was the result of a whole inquisitive heritage and Brazil is marked by characteristic of paradigm of the welfare state and / or Police therefore contrary to the tenets of democratic rule of law.
Computer forensics investigation is relatively new in Nigeria but promises to serve as a watch dog in curbing and checkmating cyber-crimes and ensuring cyber security. This paper aimed at examining the concepts of cyber-crime, cyber security and the implications of computer forensics investigation on cyber security in ...
Full Text Available In business today, one of the most important segments that enable any business to get competitive advantage over others is appropriate, effective adaptation of Information Technology into business and then managing and governing it on their will. To govern IT organizations need to identify value of acquiring services of forensic firms to compete cyber criminals. Digital forensic firms follow different mechanisms to perform investigation. Time by time forensic firms are facilitated with different models for investigation containing phases for different purposes of the entire process. Along with forensic firms, enterprises also need to build a secure and supportive platform to make successful investigation process possible. We have underlined different elements of organizations in Pakistan; need to be addressed to provide support to forensic firms.
Morelato, Marie; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Ribaux, Olivier; Kirkbride, Paul; Roux, Claude
To date, forensic science has predominantly focused on generating evidence for judicial proceedings. While many recognise its broader and important contribution to the initial stages of the forensic process, resources do not seem to be employed efficiently. It is often discovered retrospectively that necessary information was previously available in a database or within existing files. Such information could have been proactively used in order to solve a particular case, a number of linked cases or better understand the criminal activity as a whole. This article reviews this broader contribution of forensic science, with a particular emphasis on drug intelligence at the Australian Federal Police (AFP) in Australia. Using the AFP as a model organisation, an overview of the current situation and the contribution of physical and chemical profiling are first discussed. The situation in Europe, and in particular in Switzerland, is also presented. It is argued that a change of attitude towards a more intelligence-led perspective is required in forensic science in general, and in drug profiling in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aardoom, H A; Huisman-Wolfs, M M; Nijs, H G T
To describe the epidemiological characteristics of ambulant psychiatric patients who were either brought to the police station or who came by themselves, but who were not kept in a cell, as a basis for the development of a reception protocol. Descriptive. The data from the medical records from 2000 kept by the forensic doctors employed by the district health services for the Southern South Holland region were inventoried. On request by the police, the forensic doctors examined 203 clients. The majority of these were middle-aged men who did have a place of residence. The reason for police involvement was bizarre or confused behaviour in public. Half of the patients had received or were receiving some form of psychiatric treatment from the mental health service. In approximately half of the cases the forensic doctor found a solution together with the police. In the other half of the cases the forensic doctor asked the crisis intervention team at the mental health service for an evaluation. Two thirds of these patients were hospitalised and one third was sent away. Because examination by both the forensic doctor and the mental health service psychiatrist and other procedures were lengthy (up to 6 hours), patients had to spend a long time in a holding cell at the police station that was not designed for stays of this length of time, and often lacked toilet facilities. The forensic doctor treated about half the clients without the need of assistance from the crisis intervention psychiatrist. The temporary accommodation for these confused clients was inadequate.
Kennedy, Kieran M; Green, Peter G; Payne-James, J Jason
Complaints management is an integral component of good clinical governance and an essential contributor to patient safety. Little is known about complaints against health-care professionals (HCPs) in police custodial settings and sexual assault referral centres. This study explored the frequency with which complaints are made against such HCPs working in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It explored the nature of those complaints and the procedures by which they are investigated. Relevant information was requested from all police services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland; professional regulatory bodies; and the Independent Police Complaints Commission under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Eighty-nine per cent of police services responded to the FOIA request. However, only a minority of these provided detailed information. Many police services cited the provision of health-care services by external providers as the reason for not holding information upon complaints. There was no evidence of any upward trend in the numbers of complaints over the study period. Delayed response to a request for attendance, incivility, medication issues and issues regarding the quality of reports and evidence were amongst the most common types of complaints described. A small number of responders provided copies of the disciplinary procedures used to manage complaints against HCPs. Significant heterogeneity exists in respect of complaints handling procedures across custodial and forensic medical/health-care services and sexual offence examiner services. An opportunity to identify learning for improvement is being missed as a result of the absence of standardised complaints handling procedures.
Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin
Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.
Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred
textabstractHuman genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomi...
A. Vidaki (Athina); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)
textabstractHuman genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We
Nuzzolese, Emilio; Di Vella, Giancarlo
Age estimation is useful in forensic investigations to aid in the process of identifying unknown victims as well as living individuals. In many countries age estimation is commonly used to assist immigration authorities in deciding whether refugees or illegal migrants have reached that designated age that separates a juvenile from an adult. This is particularly important for the protection of unaccompanied minors. Italy is a country of great appeal for immigration as people from other Mediterranean countries can easily reach Italian coasts. In Italy, as in other western world countries, unaccompanied asylum seekers deemed to be under 18 face a very different path through the immigration system. They cannot be deported and are sent through a juvenile system where they have access to education programmes and may be granted a residence permit. The Section of Legal Medicine of the University of Bari was approached by Judges and Immigration Police with the question to assess the age of unaccompanied asylum seekers who claim to be below 18 years of age. The contribution of forensic odontologists for age estimation was recognised and since November 2006 age estimation of asylum seekers in Bari (Italy) relies on clinical and dental examination together with skeletal maturation as seen on radiographs of the left hand and wrist, the pelvis for iliac crests and root development and mineralisation of third molars as seen on an orthopantomogram.
Full Text Available A polygraph is an instrument that measures and records physiological changes inside the body. In the absence of a valid physical evidence, polygraphy may be a useful technique to verify truthfulness or detect deception. The present study was conducted to determine the truthfulness of a suspect in a murder case that was referred to PFSA for a polygraph examination. The stomach contents of the examinee and the hyoid bone of the vicvtim were submitted to the department of toxicology and forensic pathology at the PFSA, respectively. In the present study, integrated zone comparison technique (IZCT and forensic assessment interview technique (FAINT designed for specific and multi issue testing were used to examine the suspect. Computerized Academy for Scientific Investigative training (ASIT Algorithm and weighted scoring were applied in IZCT and FAINT scoring, respectively. The suspect of this murder case was brought to PFSA for polygraph examination. During the initial interview, the suspect denied any involvement in the said case. However, after complete polygraph examination, the suspect was proven to have been deceptive and later on confessed to police officials. The polygraph examination of the suspect proved him deceptive which was later confirmed by his confession. His stomach did not contain any toxic/ sedative material.
Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Bruenisholz, Eva; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi
Forensic science is increasingly used to help exonerate the innocent and establishing links between individuals and criminal activities. With increased reliance on scientific services provided by multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational in the private and government sectors (health, justice, legal, police) practitioners, the potential for miscommunication resulting unjust outcomes increases. The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational information sharing is to prevent the 'justice silo effect'; where practitioners from different organisations operate in isolation with minimal or no interaction. This paper presents the findings from the second part of the Interfaces Project, an Australia-wide study designed to assess the extent of the justice silos. We interviewed 121 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians. The first paper published in 2013 presented two key findings: first investigative meetings were rare in adult sexual assault cases; second many medical practitioners were semi-invisible in case decision-making with this low level of visibility being due to lawyers, forensic scientists or police not being aware of the role/expertise medical practitioners offer. These findings led to the development of a flowchart model for adult sexual assault that highlights the range of agencies and practitioners typically involved in sexual assault. The rationale for the flowchart is to produce a visual representation of a typical sexual assault investigative process highlighting where and who plays a role in order to minimise the risk of justice silos. This is the second paper in a series of two. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Vacca, J. R. and Rudolph, K. (2011. System Forensics, Investigation, and Response. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. 339 + xv pages, ISBN: 978-0-7637-9134-6, US$89.95.Reviewed by Nate Keith, MBA, (email@example.comI recently expressed an interest to a respected colleague in finding a way to â€œgive backâ€ to the forensic community. He suggested writing a review for a text he recently received and provide feedback to the community. It is my intent to present an objective analysis of System Forensics, Investigation, and Response.Written by John R. Vacca and K Rudolph, this book is part of the Jones and Bartlett Learning Information Systems Security & Assurance Series.Â Both Vacca and Rudolph have considerable experience in the information technology field as is demonstrated by the back cover notes:Â â€œJohn R. Vacca is an information technology consultant and internationally known best-selling author based in Pomeroy, Ohio.Â Since 1982, he has written 62 books and more than 600 articles in the areas of advanced storage, computer security, and aerospace technology.(see PDF for full review
Marshall, Angus McKenzie
The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s
Valjarevic , Aleksandar; Venter , Hein
Part 2: FORENSIC MODELS; International audience; Digital forensic readiness enables an organization to prepare itself to perform digital forensic investigations in an efficient and effective manner. The benefits include enhancing the admissibility of digital evidence, better utilization of resources and greater incident awareness. However, a harmonized process model for digital forensic readiness does not currently exist and, thus, there is a lack of effective and standardized implementations...
Park, Heum; Cho, Sunho; Kwon, Hyuk-Chul
We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from digital data and cyber space. Accordingly, it is difficult to determine relational crime types and collect evidence. Therefore, we considered the classifications of cyber crime, the collection of evidence in cyber space and the application of laws to cyber crime. In order to efficiently investigate cyber crime, it is necessary to integrate those concepts for each cyber crime-case. Thus, we constructed a cyber forensics domain ontology for criminal investigation in cyber space, according to the categories of cyber crime, laws, evidence and information of criminals. This ontology can be used in the process of investigating of cyber crime-cases, and for data mining of cyber crime; classification, clustering, association and detection of crime types, crime cases, evidences and criminals.
Kowalski, Grzegorz; Główka, Jakub; Maciaś, Mateusz; Puchalski, Sławomir
Forensic investigation on the crime scene is an activity that requires not only knowledge about the ways of searching for evidence, collecting and processing them. In some cases the area of operation might not be properly secured and poses threat to human health or life. Some devices or materials may be left intentionally or not to injure potential investigators. Besides conventional explosives, threats can be in form of CBRN materials, which have not only immediate effect on the exposed personnel, but can contaminate further people, when being transferred for example on clothes or unsecured equipment. In this case a risk evaluation should be performed, that can lead to conclusions that it is too dangerous for investigators to work. In that kind of situation remote devices, which are able to examine the crime scene and secure samples, can be used. In the course of R&D activities PIAP developed a system, which is based on small UGV capable of carrying out inspection of suspicious places and securing evidence, when needed. The system consists of remotely controlled mobile robot, its control console and a set of various inspection and support tools, that enable detection of CBRN threats as well as revelation, documentation and securing of the evidence. This paper will present main features of the system, like mission adjustment possibilities and communication aspects, and also examples of the forensic accessories.
Shormanov, V K; Chupak, V V; Pobedonstseva, M N; Maslov, S V; Kibets, N A; Tikhopoeva, N N
The objective of the present study was to develop the universal approach to the quantitative determination of acetylsalicylic acid in biological tissues and fluids to be applied in the practice of forensic chemical expertise with the use of thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, low-pressure column chromatography, and spectrophotometry. A system of solvents consisting of acetone and ethyl acetate (7:3) was proposed as a universal agent for extracting acetylsalicylic acid from the cadaveric tissues and blood. It was shown that acetylsalicylic acid and its principal metabolite, salicylic acid, can be purified from the endogenous admixtures present in the biological materials by column chromatography on silica gel L 40/100 mcm. Salicylic acid in extracts from biological materials was identified and quantified with the use of thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and electronic spectrophotometry. The method for forensic chemical investigation of acetylsalicylic acid has been developed and applied in the analysis of the material provided for expertise.
Ribaux, Olivier; Walsh, Simon J; Margot, Pierre
The debate in forensic science concentrates on issues such as standardisation, accreditation and de-contextualisation, in a legal and economical context, in order to ensure the scientific objectivity and efficiency that must guide the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and reporting forensic evidence. At the same time, it is recognised that forensic case data is still poorly integrated into the investigation and the crime analysis process, despite evidence of its great potential in various situations and studies. A change of attitude is needed in order to accept an extended role for forensic science that goes beyond the production of evidence for the court. To stimulate and guide this development, a long-term intensive modelling activity of the investigative and crime analysis process that crosses the boundaries of different disciplines has been initiated. A framework that fully integrates forensic case data shows through examples the capital accumulated that may be put to use systematically.
Boyd, Amy E.
Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)
A Strategic Analysis of the Quality in Police Investigation : Comparing Police Investigators’ to Investigation Trainers’ Responses in Qualitative Interviews, With a Brief Discussion of Educational Consequences after July 22
The purpose of this study was to statistically investigate whether there were any differences between police investigators and investigation trainers with regard to how they reflect upon quality in police investigation. The samples consisted of 27 investigation trainers from the Norwegian Police University College and 90 police investigators from all of the 27 police districts in Norway. Data were collected through open-ended interviews based on the SWOT paradigm, and coded on SWOT and IGLO. ...
Forensic DNA Phenotyping refers to the prediction of appearance traits of unknown sample donors, or unknown deceased (missing) persons, directly from biological materials found at the scene. "Biological witness" outcomes of Forensic DNA Phenotyping can provide investigative leads to trace unknown persons, who are unidentifiable with current comparative DNA profiling. This intelligence application of DNA marks a substantially different forensic use of genetic material rather than that of current DNA profiling presented in the courtroom. Currently, group-specific pigmentation traits are already predictable from DNA with reasonably high accuracies, while several other externally visible characteristics are under genetic investigation. Until individual-specific appearance becomes accurately predictable from DNA, conventional DNA profiling needs to be performed subsequent to appearance DNA prediction. Notably, and where Forensic DNA Phenotyping shows great promise, this is on a (much) smaller group of potential suspects, who match the appearance characteristics DNA-predicted from the crime scene stain or from the deceased person's remains. Provided sufficient funding being made available, future research to better understand the genetic basis of human appearance will expectedly lead to a substantially more detailed description of an unknown person's appearance from DNA, delivering increased value for police investigations in criminal and missing person cases involving unknowns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lone, Jon Anders; Garnås, Alexander; Myklebust, Trond; Bjørklund, Roald; Hoff, Thomas; Bjørkli, Cato
This is the final text version of the article, it may contain minor differences from the publisher’s pdf version. The present study aimed to identify organizational climate dimensions that are salient for police investigation performance and to explicate the mechanisms of the relationship between organizational climate and investigation performance. We conducted 38 semistructured interviews with participants at three job levels of police investigative work (chiefs of police, n = 11, senior...
Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.
Scheidat, Tobias; Merkel, Ronny; Krummel, Volker; Gerlach, Andreas; Weisensee, Michala; Zeihe, Jana; Dittmann, Jana
In daily police practice, forensic investigation of criminal cases is mainly based on manual work and the experience of individual forensic experts, using basic storage and data processing technologies. However, an individual criminal case does not only consist of the actual offence, but also of a variety of different aspects involved. For example, in order to solve a financial criminal case, an investigator has to find interrelations between different case entities as well as to other cases. The required information about these different entities is often stored in various databases and mostly requires to be manually requested and processed by forensic investigators. We propose the application of semantic technologies to the domain of forensic investigations at the example of financial crimes. Such combination allows for modelling specific case entities and their interrelations within and between cases. As a result, an explorative search of connections between case entities in the scope of an investigation as well as an automated derivation of conclusions from an established fact base is enabled. The proposed model is presented in the form of a crime field ontology, based on different types of knowledge obtained from three individual sources: open source intelligence, forensic investigators and captive interviews of detained criminals. The modelled crime field ontology is illustrated at two examples using the well known crime type of explosive attack on ATM and the potentially upcoming crime type data theft by NFC crowd skimming. Of these criminal modi operandi, anonymized fictional are modelled, visualized and exploratively searched. Modelled case entities include modi operandi, events, actors, resources, exploited weaknesses as well as flows of money, data and know how. The potential exploration of interrelations between the different case entities of such examples is illustrated in the scope of a fictitious investigation, highlighting the potential of the
Pandey, Gaurav; Tharmavaram, Maithri; Rawtani, Deepak; Kumar, Sumit; Agrawal, Y
Forensic science is a wide field comprising of several subspecialties and uses methods derived from natural sciences for finding criminals and other evidence valid in a legal court. A relatively new area; Nano-forensics brings a new era of investigation in forensic science in which instantaneous results can be produced that determine various agents such as explosive gasses, biological agents and residues in different crime scenes and terrorist activity investigations. This can be achieved by applying Nanotechnology and its associated characterization techniques in forensic sciences. Several characterization techniques exist in Nanotechnology and nano-analysis is one such technique that is used in forensic science which includes Electron microscopes (EM) like Transmission (TEM) and Scanning (SEM), Raman microscopy (Micro -Raman) and Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs) like Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Atomic force microscopy enables surface characterization of different materials by examining their morphology and mechanical properties. Materials that are immeasurable such as hair, body fluids, textile fibers, documents, polymers, pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), etc. are often encountered during forensic investigations. This review article will mainly focus on the use of AFM in the examination of different evidence such as blood stains, forged documents, human hair samples, ammunitions, explosives, and other such applications in the field of Forensic Science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin
Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amor Lazzez; Thabet Slimani
Nowadays, web applications are popular targets for security attackers. Using specific security mechanisms, we can prevent or detect a security attack on a web application, but we cannot find out the criminal who has carried out the security attack. Being unable to trace back an attack, encourages hackers to launch new attacks on the same system. Web application forensics aims to trace back and attribute a web application security attack to its originator. This may significantly reduce the sec...
Overill, Richard Edward; Chow, Kam-Pui
A method for obtaining a quantitative measure of the relative weight of each individual item of evidence in a digital forensic investigation by means of a Bayesian network is described. The resulting evidential weights can then be used to determine a near-optimal cost-effective triage scheme for the investigation in question.
officers are implicated with deliberate extrajudicial killings, are rarely punished in civil cases. In most cases, the suspected officers are...addition, some cases involve convicted offenders being unduly released from prisons back to the community where they continue with their deviant acts. 6...judicial processes, as well as the correctional facilities such as the prisons . The role of the police in the CJS is to investigate crime, arrest
Full Text Available Disaster forensic investigation analyses the unfolding of a disaster and attempts to identify its multiple causes of damage which can lead to (i improved disaster prevention and management from lessons learnt, and (ii more effective mitigation measures in the aftermath of a disaster. The way in which damage data are collected after a flood event as well as the types of collected data influences their usability within forensic investigations. In order to explore whether or not existing data can be used for disaster forensic analysis, the European Project IDEA (Improving Damage assessments to Enhance cost-benefit Analyses is investigating existing gaps in damage information so as to identify possible paths towards improving data quality. This paper focuses in detail on a forensic analysis of the interlinked damage to economic activities and infrastructure in the Severn floods of 2007 in the UK. Besides investigating the usability of existing data, this research investigated: (i the relative weight of direct and indirect costs to business and infrastructure companies; (ii to what extent damage to infrastructure has impacted on indirect damage to businesses. Finally recommendations for improving the data for use in forensic investigation are offered.
Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J; Toole, Kaitlyn; Kips, Ruth; Young, Emma
Nuclear forensic science, or "nuclear forensic", aims to answer questions about nuclear material found outside of regulatory control. In this Feature, we provide a general overview of nuclear forensics, selecting examples of key "nuclear forensic signatures" which have allowed investigators to determine the identity of unknown nuclear material in real investigations.
Coppock, Tom; Gan, Diane
An important area for forensic investigations is live memory analysis captured from a running machine. The RAM may provide an in depth picture of the system when it was seized which could reveal many vital pieces of evidence otherwise unobtainable on the computer hard disk. Research in this area is relatively low on all platforms, but especially for Mac OS X. The aim of this work was to investigate volatile memory analysis for a Mac and to develop a tool, called VolaGUI, to assist forensic ex...
Denis, Céline; Paret, Céline; Chariot, Patrick
to identify characteristics of victims of sexual assault or domestic violence who consulted in a Department of Forensic Medicine without a formal complaint to the police. observational study (03/01/2014-08/31/2015) of individuals (age>15years) consulting in a Department of Forensic Medicine near Paris, France, after a sexual assault or domestic violence. Among the individuals who were examined in the department of Forensic Medicine, we compared the individuals who had not complained to the police to those who had complained to the police. A hundred and nine individuals have consulted without a prior complaint to the police, including 73 persons after domestic violence (i.e. 4% of all persons examined with or without a complaint to the police) and 36 persons after a sexual assault (i.e. 8% of all persons examined). Regarding domestic violence, the proportion of persons presenting recent traumatic injuries was lower among those who did not complain to the police than among those who did (64% vs. 78%, P=0.008). Regarding sexual violence, the persons who did not complain to the police were more frequently uncertain about the assault (42% vs. 13%, P<0.001), reported more frequently a recent alcohol or drug intake (42% vs. 26%, P=0.039) and less frequently showed extragenital traumatic injuries than the persons who did complain to the police (22% vs. 43%, P=0.016). the persons examined who had not complained to the police accounted for less than one in 20. The extension of the activity of a Department of Forensic Medicine to persons who do not want to be involved in a judicial process is not sufficient for the majority of victims to consult a forensic physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The abolition of the European borders has benefited a large number of people, allowing ordinary European citizens to move freely around and within the European Union. This, however, means that criminal organizations and terrorist groups have also gained their 'paradise'. Consequently, European attempts to combat crime had to overcome individual national actions by developing co-operation between the Member States. Police cooperation, as its integral part, was established on the bilateral and multilateral level. Nevertheless, the balance between strengthening of the police powers, on the one hand, and rights of individuals, on the other, has been disturbed. Has the EU overstepped the line and infringed basic human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular considering right to privacy and defense of suspects? In order to find the answer the authors focused on the development of the police powers alongside the protection of the defendants' rights concerning three levels, i.e. national level of Member States, bilateral co-operation and multilateral co-operation in EU.
Verolme, Ellen; Mieremet, Arjan
Forensic investigations are primarily meant to obtain objective answers that can be used for criminal prosecution. Accident analyses are usually performed to learn from incidents and to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Although the primary goal may be different, the steps in which information is gathered, interpreted and weighed are similar in both types of investigations, implying that forensic techniques can be of use in accident investigations as well. The use in accident investigations usually means that more information can be obtained from the available information than when used in criminal investigations, since the latter require a higher evidence level. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of forensic techniques for accident investigations by presenting a number of cases from one specific field of expertise: image analysis. With the rapid spread of digital devices and new media, a wealth of image material and other digital information has become available for accident investigators. We show that much information can be distilled from footage by using forensic image analysis techniques. These applications show that image analysis provides information that is crucial for obtaining the sequence of events and the two- and three-dimensional geometry of an accident. Since accident investigation focuses primarily on learning from accidents and prevention of future accidents, and less on the blame that is crucial for criminal investigations, the field of application of these forensic tools may be broader than would be the case in purely legal sense. This is an important notion for future accident investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Valjarevic, Aleksandar; Venter, Hein S
Performing a digital forensic investigation (DFI) requires a standardized and formalized process. There is currently neither an international standard nor does a global, harmonized DFI process (DFIP) exist. The authors studied existing state-of-the-art DFIP models and concluded that there are significant disparities pertaining to the number of processes, the scope, the hierarchical levels, and concepts applied. This paper proposes a comprehensive model that harmonizes existing models. An effort was made to incorporate all types of processes proposed by the existing models, including those aimed at achieving digital forensic readiness. The authors introduce a novel class of processes called concurrent processes. This is a novel contribution that should, together with the rest of the model, enable more efficient and effective DFI, while ensuring admissibility of digital evidence. Ultimately, the proposed model is intended to be used for different types of DFI and should lead to standardization. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Full Text Available the rutting and fatigue behaviour of HMA wearing courses in South Africa. The findings of the forensic investigation were used, in conjunction with the outcomes of a state of the art survey, to define the scope of a multi-year HMA research programme currently...
This report outlines the forensic investigation of the collapse of Bridge No. SN 019-5010 in DeKalb County, : Illinois on August 19, 2008. The bridge consisted of three 42 feet precast prestressed concrete deck beams : simply-supported by concrete pi...
Full Text Available IoT-Forensics is a novel paradigm for the acquisition of electronic evidence whose operation is conditioned by the peculiarities of the Internet of Things (IoT context. As a branch of computer forensics, this discipline respects the most basic forensic principles of preservation, traceability, documentation, and authorization. The digital witness approach also promotes such principles in the context of the IoT while allowing personal devices to cooperate in digital investigations by voluntarily providing electronic evidence to the authorities. However, this solution is highly dependent on the willingness of citizens to collaborate and they may be reluctant to do so if the sensitive information within their personal devices is not sufficiently protected when shared with the investigators. In this paper, we provide the digital witness approach with a methodology that enables citizens to share their data with some privacy guarantees. We apply the PRoFIT methodology, originally defined for IoT-Forensics environments, to the digital witness approach in order to unleash its full potential. Finally, we show the feasibility of a PRoFIT-compliant digital witness with two use cases.
Nieto, Ana; Rios, Ruben; Lopez, Javier
IoT-Forensics is a novel paradigm for the acquisition of electronic evidence whose operation is conditioned by the peculiarities of the Internet of Things (IoT) context. As a branch of computer forensics, this discipline respects the most basic forensic principles of preservation, traceability, documentation, and authorization. The digital witness approach also promotes such principles in the context of the IoT while allowing personal devices to cooperate in digital investigations by voluntarily providing electronic evidence to the authorities. However, this solution is highly dependent on the willingness of citizens to collaborate and they may be reluctant to do so if the sensitive information within their personal devices is not sufficiently protected when shared with the investigators. In this paper, we provide the digital witness approach with a methodology that enables citizens to share their data with some privacy guarantees. We apply the PRoFIT methodology, originally defined for IoT-Forensics environments, to the digital witness approach in order to unleash its full potential. Finally, we show the feasibility of a PRoFIT-compliant digital witness with two use cases.
Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J C; Odesanmi, William Olufemi
This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management.
Andrade, Jhonattan Javier Barriga; Gan, Diane; University of East London Staff
The aim of this work was to probe a Linux server and then to identify the digital footprint left behind. This investigation focuses mainly on passive attacks using Linux BackTrack5 tools, including Metasploit, Nessus, Whatweb, Nmap, PHP-Backdoor and Weevely. These are commonly used tools which can determine the security flaws and vulnerabilities present that could be exploited. The results of the forensic evidence collection will then be analysed to determine how to identify passive attacks i...
Schmitz, Peter MU
Full Text Available and criminal cases. Some literature broaden this field into forensic geosciences or geoforensics, which includes pedology, mineralogy, petrology, geophysics, natural geography, remote sensing, location data and Geographical Information Systems (GIS... involved with the Wemmerpan serial killer case by mapping all the locations for court purposes and to demonstrate the use of GIS in investigations. As part of this demonstration the CSIR invited Dr Kim Rossmo to South Africa in 1999 with the aim to see...
Sacchi, Eva; Nicosia, Umberto
Paleontology and facies analysis proved to be useful tools in activities of intelligence and investigation on some criminal cases, as well as in in-court activities, thus defining the "forensic paleontology" area of study. The definition was given by analyzing its possible specific applications and excluding some marginal activities. The reliability of forensic paleontology was then assessed in light of the results achieved in some actual cases and in an ad hoc simulation. The investigated cases concerned intelligence and ordinary law enforcement activities. Special attention was paid to crimes against the cultural heritage. Ex post re-examination of the cases substantiated the value of this scientific branch in investigations, while stressing the possible difficulties in explaining its results to lay persons. Therefore, careful preparation of technical and linguistic preliminary notes for judges, prosecutors, and lawyers as well as a special training for consultants are recommended before presenting results as exhibits in in-court cross-examinations. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
M. Tariq Banday
Full Text Available Electronic Mail (E-Mail, which is one of the most widely used applications of Internet, has become a global communication infrastructure service.Â However, security loopholes in it enable cybercriminals to misuse it by forging its headers or by sending it anonymously for illegitimate purposes, leading to e-mail forgeries. E-mail messages include transit handling envelope and trace information in the form of structured fields which are not stripped after messages are delivered, leaving a detailed record of e-mail transactions.Â A detailed header analysis can be used to map the networks traversed by messages, including information on the messaging software and patching policies of clients and gateways, etc. Cyber forensic e-mail analysis is employed to collect credible evidence to bring criminals to justice. This paper projects the need for e-mail forensic investigation and lists various methods and tools used for its realization. A detailed header analysis of a multiple tactic spoofed e-mail message is carried out in this paper. It also discusses various possibilities for detection of spoofed headers and identification of its originator. Further, difficulties that may be faced by investigators during forensic investigation of an e-mail message have been discussed along with their possible solutions.
Hibler, Neil S; Scheflin, Alan W
This is an article written for mental health professionals interested in using investigative hypnosis with law enforcement agencies in the effort to enhance the memory of witnesses and victims. Discussion focuses on how to work with law enforcement agencies so as to control for factors that can interfere with recall. Specifics include what police need to know about how to conduct case review, to prepare interviewees, to conduct interviews, and what to do with the results. Case examples are used to illustrate applications of this guidance in actual investigations.
Sakoda, S; Zhu, B L; Ishida, K; Oritani, S; Fujita, M Q; Maeda, H
The aim of this study was to examine the factors which may disturb dental identification of unknown human remains and the practical value of dental evidence in routine forensic casework, including the changes due to dental treatment and postmortem interference. In the investigation of changes due to dental treatment on 696 patients' dental history at two clinics, increase of the number of dental restorations was the greatest in the initial 1-2 years. This finding suggests that dental treatments performed in early period after initial examination contributes more to forensic dental identification than those performed afterwards. The lower anterior teeth (incisors and canines) remained relatively unchanged for years compared with other teeth. The molars appeared to be more frequently restored at a relatively younger age and more frequently missing in the elderly. The investigation of 260 unknown remains in 971 forensic autopsy cases during a period of seven years (1992-1998) at our institute indicated the particular usefulness of dental evidence in cases where the candidates were identified from some other evidence, and usually in cases having a postmortem period corresponding to the obligatory preservation term for the clinical dental records and radiographic films. There were non-identity in the status of dental treatments between ante-mortem dental findings due to additional treatments received after the last day of examination recorded in the corresponding clinical dental records. Postmortem damage from decomposition and fire was more frequently observed in the anterior teeth. These observations indicate that precise documentation of dental evidence including postmortem deterioration and the establishment of a well-organized dental database of missing persons together with a suitable screening system is required to more effectively utilize dental evidence in routine forensic casework.
Holt, Thomas J; Bossler, Adam M
Cybercrime has created substantial challenges for law enforcement, particularly at the local level. Most scholars and police administrators believe that patrol officers need to become more effective first responders to cybercrime calls. The evidence illustrates, however, that many patrol officers are neither adequately prepared nor strongly interested in taking an active role in addressing cybercrime at the local level. This study, therefore, examined the factors that predicted patrol officer interest in cybercrime training and investigations in two southeastern U.S. cities. The study specifically examined the relationship between demographics, cybercrime exposure, computer training, computer proficiency, Internet and cybercrime perceptions, and views on policing cybercrime with officer interest in cybercrime investigation training and conducting cybercrime investigations in the future. Officer views on policing cybercrime, particularly whether they valued cybercrime investigations and believed that cybercrime would dramatically change policing, along with their computer skills, were the strongest predictors of interest in cybercrime efforts. Officers who had received previous computer training were less interested in additional training and conducting investigations. These findings support the argument that more command and departmental meetings focusing on the value of investigating these types of crime need to be held in order to increase officer interest.
Sakelliadis, E I; Vlachodimitropoulos, D G; Goutas, N D; Panousi, P I; Logiopoulou, A-P I; Delicha, E M; Spiliopoulou, C A
According to Greek legislation the medico-legal investigation of deaths occurring in prisons is mandatory. Furthermore, in cases of suicide or of suspected suicide the contribution of medico-legal investigation is of grave importance. The current paper addresses the medico-legal investigation of suicide cases in Greek correctional facilities and aims to describe the current situation. Our study consists of the meticulous research in the data records of major Greek correctional facilities, for the time period 1999-2010. Official permission was obtained by the Hellenic Ministry of Justice, which provided us the access to the records. Data was also collected from the Piraeus Forensic Service, from the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the University of Athens and finally from our own records. Measures were taken to respect the anonymity of the cases. Data was collected for the social, penal, medical history as well as for the medico-legal investigation. It appears that 85.7% of suicide cases were transferred to the Prisoner's Hospital (p < 0.0001), the forensic pathologist who conducted the PME did not perform scene investigation in none of the 70 suicide cases. In a total of 70 cases, histopathological examination, was requested only in 30 cases (42.9%). Hanging was the preferred method for those who committed suicide, followed by the poisoning due to psychoactive substances. Understanding the mistakes made during the forensic investigation of suicide cases inside correctional facilities is necessary, in order to prevent them from occurring again in the future, by implementing appropriate new policies and guidelines. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Many scientists find the interface with criminal/civil investigations and the resulting litigation quite challenging. The great variety found among such cases and their (sometimes) shockingly grim aspects, can be most daunting. Moreover, the aid these scientists can expect when attempting to learn their responsibilities (while good) tends to focus only on the roles they will play in the courts. The reality is that they also must serve in a second domain that of investigator/consultant to law enforcement personnel and attorneys. Since training, structure and guidelines are lacking in this area, the relevant problems must be addressed (and solved) directly by the scientist. To do so, he/she must (1) learn about the parallels between laboratory investigations and forensic investigations and organize links, (2) compensate for the differences between them, (3) organize scientific personnel for collaborations in support of the needs of the practitioners, (4) adapt laboratory procedures for forensic application, (5) establish criteria for these applications and (6) develop and articulate what can and cannot be expected of these procedures. Brief case reviews will be presented to illustrate each of these issues.
Full Text Available Shavers, B. (2013. Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard: Using Digital Forensics and Investigative Techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects. Waltham, MA: Elsevier, 290 pages, ISBN-978-1-59749-985-9, US$51.56. Includes bibliographical references and index.Reviewed by Detective Corporal Thomas Nash (firstname.lastname@example.org, Burlington Vermont Police Department, Internet Crime against Children Task Force. Adjunct Instructor, Champlain College, Burlington VT.In this must read for any aspiring novice cybercrime investigator as well as the seasoned professional computer guru alike, Brett Shaver takes the reader into the ever changing and dynamic world of Cybercrime investigation. Shaver, an experienced criminal investigator, lays out the details and intricacies of a computer related crime investigation in a clear and concise manner in his new easy to read publication, Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard. Using Digital Forensics and Investigative techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects. Shaver takes the reader from start to finish through each step of the investigative process in well organized and easy to follow sections, with real case file examples to reach the ultimate goal of any investigation: identifying the suspect and proving their guilt in the crime. Do not be fooled by the title. This excellent, easily accessible reference is beneficial to both criminal as well as civil investigations and should be in every investigator’s library regardless of their respective criminal or civil investigative responsibilities.(see PDF for full review
The forensic evaluation of trauma in occupational injuries and fatalities can provide the benefit of a more thorough analysis of incident causation. Forensic nursing science applied during workplace investigations can assist investigators to determine otherwise unknown crucial aspects of the incident circumstances that are important to event reconstruction, the enforcement of occupational health and safety requirements, and the direction of workplace prevention initiatives. Currently, a medical and forensic medical knowledge gap exists in the subject-matter expertise associated with occupational accident investigations. This gap can be bridged with the integration of forensic nursing in the investigation of workplace fatalities and serious injuries.
Hawksworth, David L; Wiltshire, Patricia E J
This is the first overview to be published of the whole field of forensic mycology. It is based on all available information located in the literature, together with 13 examples from recent casework. Background information on fungi is given, and this is followed by an outline of the value, and potentially wide application, of mycology in criminal investigation. Applications include roles in: providing trace evidence; estimating time since death (post-mortem interval); ascertaining time of deposition; investigating cause of death, hallucinations, or poisonings; locating buried corpses; and biological warfare. Previous work has been critically evaluated, with particular attention to its evidential value, and suitability for presentation in a court of law. The situations where mycology might assist an investigation are summarised, and issues relating to the further development of the subject are presented. A comprehensive bibliography with 120 citations is provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Varga, Z.; Wiss, T.; Fanghaenel, T.
Since the fall of the Iron Curtain illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material has become an issue of concern both on the political and the scientific level. Seized material may be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of material from the same source in the future. Nuclear materials (uranium or plutonium) are of particular worry due to the nuclear proliferation risk associated with the material. Nuclear forensic investigations are aimed at the fact that nuclear material carries (inherent) information on its history, including on its origin and the processes applied for its production. Important conclusions can be drawn from decay products, activation products and fission products. Chemical impurities and the isotopic composition of certain major and minor constituents may provide additional information. Comparison of the measured results with nuclear material databases may yield evidence on the production site. The paper will describe the methodologies developed for addressing the above issues, focussing on radiochemical methods. Examples of nuclear forensic casework will illustrate the experience gathered in these areas. (orig.)
Trabelsi, Zouheir; Al-Hemairy, Mohamed; Baggili, Ibrahim; Amin, Saad
This paper investigates the effect of common network attacks on the performance, and security of several biometric readers. Experiments are conducted using Denial of Service attacks (DoSs) and the ARP cache poisoning attack. The experiments show that the tested biometric readers are vulnerable to DoS attacks, and their recognition performance is significantly affected after launching the attacks. However, the experiments show that the tested biometric readers are secure from the ARP cache poisoning attack. This work demonstrates that biometric readers are easy targets for malicious network users, lack basic security mechanisms, and are vulnerable to common attacks. The confidentiality, and integrity of the log files in the biometric readers, could be compromised with such attacks. It then becomes important to study these attacks in order to find flags that could aid in a network forensic investigation of a biometric device.
Resnikoff, Tatiana; Ribaux, Olivier; Baylon, Amélie; Jendly, Manon; Rossy, Quentin
A growing body of scientific literature recurrently indicates that crime and forensic intelligence influence how crime scene investigators make decisions in their practices. This study scrutinises further this intelligence-led crime scene examination view. It analyses results obtained from two questionnaires. Data have been collected from nine chiefs of Intelligence Units (IUs) and 73 Crime Scene Examiners (CSEs) working in forensic science units (FSUs) in the French speaking part of Switzerland (six cantonal police agencies). Four salient elements emerged: (1) the actual existence of communication channels between IUs and FSUs across the police agencies under consideration; (2) most CSEs take into account crime intelligence disseminated; (3) a differentiated, but significant use by CSEs in their daily practice of this kind of intelligence; (4) a probable deep influence of this kind of intelligence on the most concerned CSEs, specially in the selection of the type of material/trace to detect, collect, analyse and exploit. These results contribute to decipher the subtle dialectic articulating crime intelligence and crime scene investigation, and to express further the polymorph role of CSEs, beyond their most recognised input to the justice system. Indeed, they appear to be central, but implicit, stakeholders in intelligence-led style of policing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mohammed Nasser Alhuqbani
This study investigated the English language needs, motivations and attitudes of a random sample of 223 police cadets studying at King Fahd Security College in Saudi Arabia. The analysis of the questionnaire results showed that only cadets with degrees in humanities received English instructions. The cadets selected speaking and listening as the most important skills and studying English for security purposes. As regards their motivations, the significant correlation between almost all the in...
Forensic investigators have statutory powers to take DNA samples directly from suspects' bodies in certain circumstances but sometimes the powers fall short, legally or practically Police may then look for samples that have become separated from their suspects for one reason or another. No jurisdiction currently bars or even regulates this practice, which is instead loosely governed by laws on property, consent and evidence. This article argues that this lack of regulation undermines the entire system of forensic procedure laws.
van Gelderen, Benjamin R; Bakker, Arnold B; Konijn, Elly A; Demerouti, Evangelia
The aim of the present research among Dutch police officers was to examine whether fluctuations in emotional job demands predict exhaustion through the suppression of discrete emotions. A first diary study (N =25) tested how the suppression of discrete emotions is related to exhaustion at the end of the work shift of police call-center service workers. Results revealed that suppressing anger was positively related to exhaustion at the end of a work shift, whereas suppressing happiness was not. A second study (N=41) among criminal investigation officers showed that the emotions anger, abhorrence, and sadness were among the most common negative emotions that were suppressed as part of the emotional labor of this specialized occupational group. Results of a third (diary) study (N=39) confirmed that emotional dissonance and more particularly the suppression of abhorrence mediated the relationship between emotional job demands and exhaustion at the end of a work shift.
Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer
Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.
Multani, Rupinder Kaur; Sangeri, Kishore Kumar; Ramalakshmi, M; Pavithra, S; Rajesh, M; Singh, Laiphrakpam Girindra
Supernumerary tooth is an additional entity to the normal series and is seen in all the quadrants of the jaw. The prevalence rates of supernumerary teeth in the permanent dentition, reported in the literature, vary between 0.1% and 6.9%. The presence of supernumerary teeth may be part of developmental disorders. As supernumerary tooth is a rare condition, it can be used as identification tool for crime investigation. A total of 30 volunteers with a supernumerary tooth were analyzed and casts were made after taking alginate impression. All the casts were coded and were given to five observers for correct identification of those volunteers with respective prepared cast. Personal identification and the cast identification of volunteers were done (cast of the volunteers). The matching identification is followed as below: Of five observers 1(st) observer able to detect 25 (83%), 2(nd) observer 27 (90%), 3(rd) observer 26 (87%), 4(th) observer 25 (83%) and 5(th) observer 28 (91%). As positive matching identification was 87%, supernumerary tooth can be used for crime investigation and used as greatest weapon in criminal identification.
Harcourt, Peter Rex; Marclay, Francois; Clothier, Brett
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is introducing enhancements to doping investigations in its 2015 Code, which include improved sharing of information between antidoping organisations (including sporting bodies) and enhanced accountability of athlete support staff. These additions will improve the control of links between sports doping and organised crime. In February 2013 the Australian Crime Commission released a report that linked several professional sporting codes, professional athletes with links to organised crime, performance enhancing drugs and illicit substances. Following this report the Australian Football League (AFL) partnered the Australian national antidoping organisation to investigate peptide use in Australian football. This review compared the model proposed by Marclay, a hypothetical model for anti-doping investigations that proposed a forensic intelligence and analysis approach, to use the forensic capabilities of the AFL investigation to test the model's relevance to an actual case. The investigation uncovered the use of peptides used to enhance athlete performance. The AFL investigation found a high risk of doping where athlete support staff existed in teams with weak corporate governance controls. A further finding included the need for the investigation to provide a timely response in professional team sports that were sensitive to the competition timing. In the case of the AFL the team was sanctioned prior to the finals as an interim outcome for allowing the risk of use of performance-enhancing substances. Doping violation charges are still being considered. Antidoping strategies should include the investigation of corporate officers in team doping circumstances, the mandatory recording of all athlete substance use during competition and training phases, the wider sharing of forensic intelligence with non-sporting bodies particularly law enforcement and collaboration between antidoping and sporting organisations in doping investigations
Forensic intelligence can be viewed as comprising two parts, one directly concerning intelligence delivery in forensic casework, the other considering performance aspects of forensic work, loosely termed here as business intelligence. Forensic casework can be viewed as processes that produce an intelligence product useful to police investigations. Traditionally, forensic intelligence production has been confined to discipline-specific activity. This paper examines the concepts, processes and intelligence products delivered in forensic casework, the information repositories available from forensic examinations, and ways to produce within- and across-discipline casework correlations by using information technology to capitalise on the information sets available. Such analysis presents opportunities to improve forensic intelligence services as well as challenges for technical solutions to deliver appropriate data-mining capabilities for available information sets, such as digital photographs. Business intelligence refers primarily to examination of efficiency and effectiveness of forensic service delivery. This paper discusses measures of forensic activity and their relationship to crime outcomes as a measure of forensic effectiveness.
Ludwig, Anika; Fraser, Jim
New scientific, technological and legal developments, particularly the introduction of national databases for DNA and fingerprints, have led to increased use of forensic science in the investigation of crime. There is an assumption, and in some instances specific assertions, that such developments bring improvements either in broad criminal justice terms or more narrowly in terms of economic or practical efficiencies. The underlying presumption is that the new technological opportunities will be understood and effectively implemented. This research investigates whether such increases in activity have also been accompanied by improvements in the effective use of forensic science. A systematic review of thirty-six reports published (predominantly in England and Wales) since the 1980s, which have considered the use of forensic science in the investigation of volume crimes, was carried out. These reports have identified a number of recurrent themes that influenced how effectively forensic science was used in investigations. The themes identified included forensic knowledge and training of investigators, communication and information exchange between specialists and investigators, timeliness of forensic results, interagency relationships and deployment of crime scene examiner resources. The research findings suggest that these factors continue to hinder the effective use of forensic science despite technological advances and this paper considers their potential causes. © 2013.
Stan, Cristian Adrian
Torture and death in custody have incurred rapid development as juridical subject in recent years in Europe, with the implementation of the European Convention of Human Rights. Evaluation of sufferance severity, which is the consequence of pathology with chronic evolution, the predictability of decompensation of a subclinical pathology, and translating these medical information on a scale measuring the severity of detention consequences, are all challenges for the modern detention healthcare system, in which most allegations of torture are due to lack of appropriate medical treatment administered to inmates. Where ethics are concerned, the main data difficulties are addressed in ethical conflicts between officials and experts of the parties and also between experts and judiciary officials who handle cases of torture or death in detention; this is why standardization is very important in such cases both in clinical expertise and in autopsies or exhumations. We must improve the forensic expertise methodology, the process of collecting data with statistical purposes, and sound evaluation criteria, all in a strong connection with the need for a balanced legal framework applied in the case of civil compensations granted after death in custody, and the biunique relation between medico-legal expertise and case investigation has to be standardized.
Full Text Available Tiger population has dramatically decreased due to illegal consumption and commercialisation of their body parts. Frequently, hair samples are the only evidence found in the crime scene. Thus, they play an important role in species identification for wildlife forensic investigation. In this study, we provide the first in-depth report on a variety of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of tiger guard hairs (24 hairs per individual from four individuals. The proposed method could reduce subjectivity of expert opinions on species identification based on hair morphology. Variations in 23 hair morphological characteristics were quantified at three levels: hair section, body region, and intra-species. The results indicate statistically significant variations in most morphological characteristics in all levels. Intra-species variations of four variables, namely hair length, hair index, scale separation and scale pattern, were low. Therefore, identification of tiger hairs using these multiple features in combination with other characteristics with high inter-species variations (e.g. medulla type should bring about objective and accurate tiger hair identification. The method used should serve as a guideline and be further applied to other species to establish a wildlife hair morphology database. Statistical models could then be constructed to distinguish species and provide evidential values in terms of likelihood ratios.
Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever
Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…
Astrup, B S; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange
with special reference to the cause of death and survival time, Forensic Sci. Int. 130 (2002) 160-166; L. Uhlin-Hansen, C-reactive protein (CRP), a comparison of pre- and post-mortem blood levels, Forensic Sci. Int. 124 (2001) 32-35]. We have analysed the routine use of CRP in non-selected cases. Scarcity...... of blood available for analysis is a common problem in forensic investigation, and in response to this we have developed a method using liver as a source. In 50 consecutive autopsy cases, we have evaluated method, validated results and discussed their interpretation. In three cases the analysis......, and liver is a good post-mortem alternative when blood is not available. We conclude that CRP measurements are easy, viable and inexpensive in a forensic setting, and that the number of cases with CRP elevation is high in a non-selected forensic material. In cases of doubt, marked elevation of CRP...
Miller Coyle, Heather; Lee, Cheng-Lung; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lee, Henry C; Palmbach, Timothy M
Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of species, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all dependent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of plant evidence is careful collection, documentation, and preservation for later scientific analysis. This article reviews proper procedures and recent cases where botanical evidence played a role in establishing either manner or time of death. Plant evidence can be useful for determining if a death was due to an accident, suicide, or homicide, or what time of year burial may have taken place. In addition, plant evidence can be used to determine if a crime scene is a primary or secondary scene and to locate missing bodies.
Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer
One hundred years ago Georg Popp became the first scientist to present in court a case where the geological makeup of soils was used to secure a criminal conviction. Subsequently there have been significant advances in the theory and practice of forensic geoscience: many of them subsequent to the seminal publication of "Forensic Geology" by Murray and Tedrow [Murray, R., Tedrow, J.C.F. 1975 (republished 1986). Forensic Geology: Earth Sciences and Criminal Investigation. Rutgers University Press, New York, 240 pp.]. Our review places historical development in the modern context of how the allied disciplines of geology (mineralogy, sedimentology, microscopy), geophysics, soil science, microbiology, anthropology and geomorphology have been used as tool to aid forensic (domestic, serious, terrorist and international) crime investigations. The latter half of this paper uses the concept of scales of investigation, from large-scale landforms through to microscopic particles as a method of categorising the large number of geoscience applications to criminal investigation. Forensic geoscience has traditionally used established non-forensic techniques: 100 years after Popp's seminal work, research into forensic geoscience is beginning to lead, as opposed to follow other scientific disciplines.
Du Mont, Janice; White, Deborah; McGregor, Margaret J
Across many jurisdictions, a key institutional response to sexual assault is centred on the collection of medico-legal evidence through a medical forensic examination (MFE). Despite the increased routinization of this practice, such evidence often is not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. As there has been little systematic investigation of the perspectives of victims regarding the MFE, we conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with 19 women aged 17-46 years who had been sexually assaulted and had undergone an MFE in the previous six months at one of four specialized hospital-based sexual assault centres in Ontario, Canada. Extracts from the transcribed interviews were coded into two broad themes, 'Expectations' and 'Experiences', from which a series of lower order constructs were derived. We found that most women went to a centre to have their physical and emotional needs addressed rather than medico-legal evidence collected and were overwhelmingly satisfied with their interactions with specially trained nurse examiners. However, some women were confused about the purpose of the MFE, believing that their access to treatment hinged upon undergoing this process. Moreover, though optional, several indicated that they had been instructed to have an MFE by the police and/or nurse examiner. Most women who chose to have evidence collected did so with the hope that it would hold the assailant accountable and generate social recognition of the harm done to them. While many stated that they were distressed during the MFE, some reported feeling simultaneously empowered by the fact that the experience fostered a "sense of doing something". These findings point to the value of collecting medico-legal evidence in settings staffed with supportive practitioners who also attend to women's health related concerns. Implications with respect to issues of informed consent, revictimization, and empowerment, as well as the relative weight given to the MFE in the
Yang-Sook Yoo, RN, PhD
Conclusion: Therefore, it is necessary to regularly evaluate the mental health of those who are vulnerable to PTS. Based on these results, various interventions could be implemented for promoting overall health of the forensic science investigators.
John C. Ebert
Full Text Available Anson, S., Bunting, S., Johnson, R., & Pearson, S. (2012. Mastering Windows Network Forensics and Investigation, 2nd ed. Indianapolis: John Wiley & Sons. 674 pages, ISBN: 978-1-118-16382-5, $59.99 USA/$71.99 CAN.Reviewed by John C. Ebert, Metropolitan State University (email@example.comThe book is available as a paperback and e-book. The e-book versions allow you to preview several chapters at any of a number of online vendors. The e-book prices vary from the same as the soft cover version ($59.99 to about $38.99. Some of the vendor's e-books retain the color illustrations found in the print version, but others produce them in grey scale, so you might want to look out for that. The book is divided into four parts (17 chapters plus two appendices.I am compelled to give the book illustrations a highly unfavorable assessment regarding their readability qualities. Their content is otherwise fine and meaningful. Time and again the illustrations are so miniscule that even those of us with the best of vision will be seriously challenged. I hold out the recommendation to review your e-book options over the hardcopy edition. At least in an e-book you have the hope of doing a page-zoom. Review your e-book providers carefully; some I reviewed had "fuzzy graphics." Notwithstanding the problem illustrations, I still recommend this book for its in-the-trenches information and the desktop reference it will become.(see PDF for full review
Yoo, Yang-Sook; Cho, Ok-Hee; Cha, Kyeong-Sook; Boo, Yun-Jeong
Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand factors that influence post-traumatic stress (PTS) in Korean forensic science investigators. Methods: A total of 111 forensic science investigators were recruited in Korea. PTS was measured using the tool modified by Choi (2001) from the original developed by Foa, Riggs, Dancu, and Rothbaum (1993) based on DSM-IV. Factors influencing PTS included demographic and job-related characteristics, emotional intelligence, and death anxiety. Resul...
Nuzzolese, E; Di Vella, G
The advent of dental digital radiology and new portable X-ray devices allows the execution of periapical X-ray images not only in the dental surgery but also in hitherto difficult locations such as field military hospitals, archaeological excavation sites, morgues and in cases of house arrest. In this work authors evaluated the feasibility of Nomad Examiner (Aribex inc.) handheld X-ray device combined with a digital sensor and a portable pc in forensic odontology applications. Employed for the first time forensically during the 2004 Tsunami victim identification process, the Nomad Examiner has now passed all security and conformity requirements of US and EU regulations. Examples of the practical use and the technical features of this device are seen when employed in odontological assessment of skeletonised and carbonized individuals and the assessment of individuals under house arrest complaining dental lesions. Results from the use this portable device demonstrate the benefits of a dental radiological assessment during an autopsy with the aim of human identification and the importance of a complete dental assessment (clinical and radiological) when evaluating dental traumatic lesions of individuals who cannot visit a dental surgery. In the first example forensic dentist would work alongside a forensic pathologist. On the other hand in the second example an odontologist - dentist could be appointed as an expert witness directly by a Court.
Frans Fluttert; prof Berno van Meijel; Mieke Grypdonck; Bjørkly Stal; Mirjan van Leeuwen
Aims and objectives. The Forensic Early Warning Signs of Aggression Inventory (FESAI) was developed to assist nurses and patients in identifying early warning signs and constructing individual early detection plans (EDP) for the prevention of aggressive incidents. The aims of this research were as
Smith, Lisa L; Bull, Ray; Holliday, Robyn
The most widely accepted model of juror decision making acknowledges the importance of both the case-specific information presented in the courtroom, as well as the prior general knowledge and beliefs held by each juror. The studies presented in this paper investigated whether mock jurors could differentiate between evidence of varying strengths in the absence of case information and then followed on to determine the influence that case context (and therefore the story model) has on judgments made about the strength of forensic DNA evidence. The results illustrated that mock jurors correctly identified various strengths of evidence when it was not presented with case information; however, the perceived strength of evidence was significantly inflated when presented in the context of a criminal case, particularly when the evidence was of a weak or ambiguous standard. These findings are discussed in relation to the story model, and the potential implications for real juries. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Hainsworth, S V; Fitzpatrick, M E
Forensic engineering is the application of engineering principles or techniques to the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not perform as intended. In particular, forensic engineering can involve providing solutions to forensic problems by the application of engineering science. A criminal aspect may be involved in the investigation but often the problems are related to negligence, breach of contract, or providing information needed in the redesign of a product to eliminate future failures. Forensic engineering may include the investigation of the physical causes of accidents or other sources of claims and litigation (for example, patent disputes). It involves the preparation of technical engineering reports, and may require giving testimony and providing advice to assist in the resolution of disputes affecting life or property.This paper reviews the principal methods available for the analysis of failed components and then gives examples of different component failure modes through selected case studies.
The emergence of police ordinances and police authorities in the early modern period has traditionally been seen as a way to discipline society in order to increase the power of the absolutist state. However, recent investigations of early modern policing in German and French regions show...
S. Walsh (Susan); L.C. Chaitanya (Lakshmi); L. Clarisse (Lindy); L. Wirken (Laura); J. Draus-Barini (Jolanta); L. Kovatsi (Leda); H. Maeda (Hitoshi); T. Ishikawa (Takaki); T. Sijen (Titia); P. de Knijff (Peter); W. Branicki (Wojciech); F. Liu (Fan); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)
textabstractForensic DNA Phenotyping or 'DNA intelligence' tools are expected to aid police investigations and find unknown individuals by providing information on externally visible characteristics of unknown suspects, perpetrators and missing persons from biological samples. This is especially
Mohammed Nasser Alhuqbani
Full Text Available This study investigated the English language needs, motivations and attitudes of a random sample of 223 police cadets studying at King Fahd Security College in Saudi Arabia. The analysis of the questionnaire results showed that only cadets with degrees in humanities received English instructions. The cadets selected speaking and listening as the most important skills and studying English for security purposes. As regards their motivations, the significant correlation between almost all the instrumental and integrative variables provided evidence to the integration of the two types of motivations which substantiates the importance of both types in English learning. Statements describing negative attitudes toward the English culture did not statistically correlate with the other statements that constitute the cadets’ positive attitudes toward English learning, which confirmed their positive attitudes toward both English learning and its culture. The significant correlations between the cadets’ English perceived needs and their instrumental motivations supported the argument that ESP learners study English for utilitarian purposes.
Imaging techniques have been applied to a number of applications, such as translation and classification problems in medicine and defence. This paper examines the application of imaging techniques in digital forensics investigation using neural networks. A review of applications of digital image processing is presented, whiles a Pedagogical analysis of computer forensics is also highlighted. A data set describing selected images in different forms are used in the simulation and experimentation.
Levy, Bruce P
The use of laboratory information management systems (LIMSs) in forensic pathology and death investigation systems has lagged behind the greater pathology community. Yet the logistical needs of a modern medical examiner or coroner office could be well served by a robust forensic LIMS, and the data stored in a forensic LIMS could be effectively mined for the protection of the public's health and safety.In spring 2007, the National Association of Medical Examiners conducted a survey of its members to determine the use of and satisfaction with forensic LIMS. This survey was repeated in the fall of 2011. The responses to the 2 surveys were compared to note any trends or changes to LIMS use by medical examiners and coroners.Although the use of LIMS has increased in the 4 1/2 years between surveys, 18% of death investigation systems still do not have a forensic LIMS. The percentage of offices with home-developed systems has increased, whereas the user's satisfaction with these systems has decreased. This may be due to limited budgets to either purchase or develop systems. The integration of images into these systems has increased, but not nearly to the level that should be present in an image-dependent field. Users of these systems are cognizant of the features that a forensic LIMS should have to ensure the smooth operation of a death investigation office.
Linacre, A; Gusmão, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N
The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Practical Guide to Forensic Nursing Amar Angela F and Sekula L Kathleen A Practical Guide to Forensic Nursing 392pp £38.85 Sigma Theta Tau International Kindle edition 9781940446349 1940446341 [Formula: see text].
This fascinating publication describes in depth the roles and responsibilities of forensic nurses in the US, who are often involved in the scientific investigation of violent and sexual crimes. However, these duties differ from those of nurses in forensic or secure settings in the UK, who work primarily with offenders who have mental health problems and who are in hospital, prison or police cells.
Cha, Kyeong-Sook; Cho, Ok-Hee; Yoo, Yang-Sook
This study investigated the current status of infection management for forensic science investigators in South Korea. This study included 104 forensic science investigators, of which 97.1% were exposed to the blood or body fluids of corpses during handling. Of these investigators, 98% claimed they wore gloves, and 12.9% used double-layered gloves. A total of 70.6% of the participants with relevant work experience wore masks to reduce infection risk; 43% wore gowns and goggles when at risk of contracting an infection. Furthermore, 59.8% of the investigators with pertinent work experience sought appropriate first aid and treatment when they experienced contaminated skin cuts or stab wounds. Working conditions and other problems should be analyzed consistently with the cooperation of employees, occupational health practitioners, and relevant organizations to prevent work-associated infections among forensic science investigators. © 2015 The Author(s).
Yoo, Yang-Sook; Cho, Ok-Hee; Cha, Kyeong-Sook; Boo, Yun-Jeong
The aim of this study was to understand factors that influence post-traumatic stress (PTS) in Korean forensic science investigators. A total of 111 forensic science investigators were recruited in Korea. PTS was measured using the tool modified by Choi (2001) from the original developed by Foa, Riggs, Dancu, and Rothbaum (1993) based on DSM-IV. Factors influencing PTS included demographic and job-related characteristics, emotional intelligence, and death anxiety. PTS scores were positively correlated with personality type, fatigue from work, and death anxiety. PTS scores were negatively correlated with length of career as a forensic science investigator and emotional intelligence. The factors that had the greatest influence on PTS were death anxiety, years spent as a forensic science investigator, personality type, emotional intelligence, fatigue, and homicide experience. The explanatory power of these six factors was 44.0%. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly evaluate the mental health of those who are vulnerable to PTS. Based on these results, various interventions could be implemented for promoting overall health of the forensic science investigators. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
HyungBin Moon; Hyunhong Choi; Jongsu Lee; Ki Soo Lee
This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward int...
Tech Directions, 2010
Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…
Full Text Available Nelson, B., Phillips, A., Enfinger, F., & Steuart, C. (2008. Guide to computer forensics and investigations (3rd ed.. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. 693 pages, ISBN: 1-4180-6733-4 (paper.Reviewed by Keyu Jiang (firstname.lastname@example.org and Ruifeng Xuan (email@example.com, Department of Information Networking and Telecommunications, Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS 67601Nelson, Phillips, Enfinger, and Steuartâ€™s book is about the science of computer forensics and its implications in crime investigations. This book is not intended to provide comprehensive training in computer forensics, but introduce the science the science of computer forensics and its implications in crime investigations.Â It focused on establishing a solid foundation for those who are new to this field.Â Nelson, Philips, Enfiger, and Steuart are experienced experts in different areas of computer forensics.Â Different expertise makes this book could benefit many groups of people at different educational level and industrial background.(see PDF for full review
Madadi, Parvaz; Kelly, Lauren E; Ross, Colin J; Kepron, Charis; Edwards, James N; Koren, Gideon
There is a paucity of data to aid in assessing whether postmortem methadone findings in breastfed infants are clinically and/or toxicologically significant. Two cases are reported in which methadone was detected in deceased neonates whose mothers were enrolled in methadone maintenance programs and were breastfeeding. In addition to a complete autopsy and toxicological testing for alcohol, prescription medications, and drugs of abuse, pharmacogenetic analysis was performed for variants in genes related to methadone metabolism and response. In both cases, the postmortem methadone concentration measured in neonatal heart blood was higher than the maximum serum methadone concentration reported in living breastfed infants whose mothers were receiving methadone. However, additional analysis of antemortem blood indicated postmortem redistribution of methadone. Pharmacogenetic results were suggestive of a potential predisposition to methadone toxicity based on studies in adults; the significance of these findings in breastfed neonates requires further research. The medical cause of death was unascertained in both cases. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Linacre, A.; Gusmão, L.; Hecht, W.
The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be...... in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only.......: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present...
Milliet, Quentin; Delémont, Olivier; Margot, Pierre
This article presents a global vision of images in forensic science. The proliferation of perspectives on the use of images throughout criminal investigations and the increasing demand for research on this topic seem to demand a forensic science-based analysis. In this study, the definitions of and concepts related to material traces are revisited and applied to images, and a structured approach is used to persuade the scientific community to extend and improve the use of images as traces in criminal investigations. Current research efforts focus on technical issues and evidence assessment. This article provides a sound foundation for rationalising and explaining the processes involved in the production of clues from trace images. For example, the mechanisms through which these visual traces become clues of presence or action are described. An extensive literature review of forensic image analysis emphasises the existing guidelines and knowledge available for answering investigative questions (who, what, where, when and how). However, complementary developments are still necessary to demystify many aspects of image analysis in forensic science, including how to review and select images or use them to reconstruct an event or assist intelligence efforts. The hypothetico-deductive reasoning pathway used to discover unknown elements of an event or crime can also help scientists understand the underlying processes involved in their decision making. An analysis of a single image in an investigative or probative context is used to demonstrate the highly informative potential of images as traces and/or clues. Research efforts should be directed toward formalising the extraction and combination of clues from images. An appropriate methodology is key to expanding the use of images in forensic science. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work
Linacre, A.; Gusmão, L.; Hecht, W.
: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present......The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be......, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA...
Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio
Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Bailey, Melanie; Warmenhoven, John; Chrislopher, Matt; Kirkby, Karen; Palitsin, Vladimir; Grime, Geoff; Jeynes, Chris; Jones, Brian; Wenn, Roger
Full text: University of Surrey has, for the past four years, collaborated with police institutions from across Europe and the rest of the world lo scope potential applications of ion beam analysis (IBA) in forensic science. In doing this we have consulted practitioners across a range of forensic disciplines, and critically compared IBA with conventional characterisation techniques to investigate the areas in which IBA can add evidential value. In this talk, the results of this feasibility study will be presented, showing the types of sample for which IBA shows considerable promise. We will show how a combination of PIXE with other IBA techniques (EBS, PIGE, MeV-SIMS) can be used to give unprecedented characterisation of forensic samples and comment on the significance of these results for forensic casework. We will also show cases where IBA not appear to add any significant improvement over conventional techniques. (author)
Brian R. Basham
Full Text Available The past few decades has seen a high degree of scrutiny on police and police instructional techniques, with various researchers recommending engagement with adult learning principles. However, what is lacking in contemporary research is any discussion about the role of police instructors and whether they are able to engage with adult learning principles. This critical essay commences that discussion and offers suggestions on how to transition the police instructor to become an effective police educator. It is argued that police instructors undertake several informal roles that are in contrast to the role of an educator; and place the police instructor in an abnormal position of power. Further, it is proposed that the current required training qualification for police instructors is an inappropriate and ineffectual qualification for police educators. This critique concludes by offering some suggestions that are likely to overcome potential barriers to increasing the competency of police instructors.
We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Gelderen, B.R.; Bakker, A.B.; Konijn, E.A.; Demerouti, E.
The aim of the present research among Dutch police officers was to examine whether fluctuations in emotional job demands predict exhaustion through the suppression of discrete emotions. A first diary study (N = 25) tested how the suppression of discrete emotions is related to exhaustion at the end
Adán Carrizo González-Castell
Full Text Available The present paper addresses the concept of police infiltration, as well as the necessity of its use for fighting corruption and organized crime. In doing so, we analyze not only Spanish law, but also existing international legislation in the European Union, with particular emphasis on international cooperation in this field.
McKinnon, Iain; Grubin, Don
There have been few previous studies on the health needs of police detainees. London's Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) uses health screening procedures which have not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of health problems and 'mental vulnerability' in detainees in police custody, and the efficacy of current health screening procedures. Custody records from five London Boroughs were reviewed. Prevalence data for health problems and mental vulnerability was obtained from the anonymised records of 307 detainees who were referred to the Forensic Medical Examiner (FME). Data were analysed for the identification of physical and psychiatric morbidity. Injuries, epilepsy and asthma were the most common physical health problems noted. Drug and alcohol issues were also frequently encountered along with depression and self-harming behaviour and suicidal ideation. Morbidity was lower than that reported in other, interview based studies. Less than 2% of detainees were thought to require an Appropriate Adult to be present during police interview. A significant amount of health morbidity is present among detainees in police custody. Our findings suggest that current police screening procedures detect only a proportion of this. Further research is warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of health screening in police custody. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The... the point where it factually establishes a criminal offense, an investigation by the military police... exchanged between Department of Defense (DOD) law enforcement agencies, military police, USACIDC, local...
Full Text Available The unprecedented development of cybernetics was concretized by the emergence of computer technology in ways difficult to predict. In this context, the international underworld and organized crime have expanded the area of criminal acts, but equally there were new investigation possibilities for the police and judicial authorities, limiting the role of intuition and flair, of human spontaneity, the center of gravity falling on their ability to use new technology intelligence they have at their disposal.
Through a forensic investigation conducted by a Jewish doctor at the end of the 14th century, this paper aims to determine the quality of the training as well as the ensuing practical knowledge that the doctor possessed. Based on the "authorities" (auctoritates) quoted in his investigation, it appears that the doctor, who likely did not attend medical school, acquired the theoretical knowledge that was taught in such institutions and that was required to obtain a medical licence in Provence.
Giordani, L.; Rizzio, E.; Brandone, A.
Police investigations of the Italian Ministry of Treasury Police involving the illicit sale of tobacco lead to the confiscation of large quantities of smuggled cigarettes. Thousands of tons of cigarettes of different manufacturers are sequestrated yearly in many regions of Italy and different criminal organizations have been identified as unlawful importers. In order to verify whether the recovered smuggled lots of cigarettes come from the official manufacturers, or they have produced illicitly, usually chemical analysis are carried out. By the determination of trace elements content, specific information can be obtained by comparing different brands of cigarettes and different batches of tobacco. Samples of tobacco of cigarettes manufactured by the Italian State Monopoly, taken as 'reference samples', have been compared with those of illicit origin. Elements such as Co, Br, Cr and Sc have been found to be useful for the selective characterization. The results, submitted to statistical elaboration, provided important information on the origin of smuggled cigarettes. (author)
Sztulman, H; Rousseaux, N
The pursuit and reception of a confession during police interrogation and cross examination lead to a dynamic interaction between interrogator and interrogated which can be examined under the light of psychoanalytical concepts. This reference framework enables a reading of the different positions occupied by the interrogator with regard to the interrogated, and allows to understand certain mechanisms in the arrival of a confession as well as some of its effects.
Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%, and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations.
Tonmyr, L; Gonzalez, A
Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008 using logistic regression. The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%), and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations.
Morling, Niels; Allen, Robert W; Carracedo, Angel
The International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) has established a Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) with the purpose of formulating international recommendations concerning genetic investigations in paternity testing. The PTC recommends that paternity testing be performed in accordance...
While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.
Bamber, Andrew R; Kiho, Liina; Upton, Sam; Orchard, Michael; Sebire, Neil J
Risk factors for Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) are well described, and such cases are now investigated according to standard protocols. In London, Project Indigo of the Metropolitan Police provides a unique, detailed framework for such data collection. We investigate such data to provide a contemporary account of SUDI in a large city and further link data to publically available datasets to investigate interactions with social factors. Retrospective analysis of data routinely collected by the Metropolitan Police Service in all cases of non-suspicious SUDI deaths in London during a six year period. SUDI deaths are associated with markers of social deprivation in London. A significant proportion of such deaths are associated with potentially modifiable risk factors such as cigarette smoking and co-sleeping, such behaviour also being associated with social factors, including accommodation issues. Routinely collected data provide valuable insight into patterns and associations of mortality, with SUDI remaining a significant issue in London. Risk factors include social disadvantage, which may manifest in part by affecting behavioural patterns such as co-sleeping and public health interventions to reduce rates require significant social modification.
Full Text Available Introduction: Medico-legal expertise and identification of victims during the war and post war conflicts mean for The Republic of Serbia the most important humanitarian, scientific and ethical problem. Aim: Forensic investigations on territory of Kosovo and Metohija are currently going on. Material and methods: In this paper we observe all cases of Serbs and other non-Albanians who were exhumed and identified during first five years after armed conflict (2000-2005., in few mass graves and in many single grave sites. Results. In the mentioned period of time, 280 dead bodies were exhumed and forensic team did autopsies, 111 dead bodies were identified. Conclusion: Well done forensic expertise is a prerequisite to the successful identification, but also the criminal processing of cases in the category of war crimes, which all together give a distinctive character. The research, published and presented in this paper at the identified human corpses, through the general data, identified violations, determining the cause and manner of death, as well as its origin, with all the available documentation of circumstances that led to the death is also the scientific and historical evidence of the tragic fate of the missing persons and victims.
Quaak, Frederike C A; de Graaf, Mei-Lan M; Weterings, Rob; Kuiper, Irene
The forensic science community has a growing interest in microbial population analysis, especially the microbial populations found inside and on the human body. Both their high abundance, microbes outnumber human cells by a factor 10, and their diversity, different sites of the human body harbour different microbial communities, make them an interesting tool for forensics. Faecal material is a type of trace evidence which can be found in a variety of criminal cases, but is often being ignored in forensic investigations. Deriving a human short tandem repeat (STR) profile from a faecal sample can be challenging. However, the microbial communities within faecal material can be of additional criminalistic value in linking a faecal trace to the possible donor. We present a microarray technique in which the faecal microbial community is used to differentiate between faecal samples and developed a decision model to predict the possible common origin of questioned samples. The results show that this technique may be a useful additional tool when no or only partial human STR profiles can be generated.
Krause-Parello, Cheryl A; Gulick, Elsie E
The use of therapy animals during forensic interviews for child sexual abuse allegations is a recommendation by the Therapy Animals Supporting Kids Program to help ease children's discomfort during the forensic interview process. Based on this recommendation, this study incorporated a certified therapy canine into the forensic interview process for child sexual abuse allegations. This study investigated changes in salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin A, blood pressure, and heart rate as a result of forensic interview phenomenon (e.g., outcry) incorporating animal-assisted intervention versus a control condition in children (N = 42) interviewed for alleged child sexual abuse. The results supported significantly greater heart rate values for the control group (n = 23) who experienced sexual contact and/or indecency than the experience of aggravated sexual assault compared to no difference in HR for the intervention group (n = 19). The results suggest that the presence of the canine in the forensic interview may have acted as a buffer or safeguard for the children when disclosing details of sexual abuse. In the intervention group, children's HR was lower at the start of the forensic interview compared to the control group. Finding an effect of having a certified handler-canine team available during the forensic interview on physiological measures of stress has real-world value for children, child welfare personnel, and clinical therapists. It is suggested that animal-assisted intervention be expanded to children facing other types of trauma and to treatment programs for child survivors of sexual abuse.
Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom; Karpiak, Kevin; Garriott, William
We offer an anthropological response to criminologists’ call for a penal theory of police, with a specific focus on the public condonation of police punishment. We support such a penal theory but criticize the criminologist’s explanation of the relative quiescence of “the public” in the face of
Crispino, F.; Rossy, Q.; Ribaux, O.; Roux, C.
From recent calls for positioning forensic scientists within the criminal justice system, but also policing and intelligence missions, this paper emphasizes the need for the development of educational and training programs in the area of forensic intelligence, It is argued that an imbalance exists between perceived and actual understanding of forensic intelligence by police and forensic science managers, and that this imbalance can only be overcome through education. The challenge for forensi...
Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.
This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.
Šumberová, Kateřina; Ducháček, Michal
Plant seeds exhibit many species-specific traits, thus potentially being especially helpful for forensic investigations. Seeds of a broad range of plant species occur in soil seed banks of various habitats and may become attached in large quantities to moving objects. Although plant seeds are now routinely used as trace evidence in forensic practice, only scant information has been published on this topic in the scientific literature. Thus, the standard methods remain unknown to specialists in such botanical subjects as plant ecology and plant geography. These specialists, if made aware of the forensic uses of seeds, could help in development of new, more sophisticated approaches. We aim to bridge the gap between forensic analysts and botanists. Therefore, we explore the available literature and compare it with our own experiences to reveal both the potential and limits of soil seed bank and seed dispersal analysis in forensic investigations. We demonstrate that habitat-specific and thus relatively rare species are of the greatest forensic value. Overall species composition, in terms of species presence/absence and relative abundance can also provide important information. In particular, the ecological profiles of seeds found on any moving object can help us identify the types of environments through which the object had travelled. We discuss the applicability of this approach to various European environments, with the ability to compare seed samples with georeferenced vegetation databases being particularly promising for forensic investigations. We also explore the forensic limitations of soil seed bank and seed dispersal vector analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, R.; Johnson, P.; Martin, P.
The recent incorporation of forensic DNA identification technology into the criminal justice systems of a growing number of countries has been fast and far reaching. In developing and using DNA profiling for forensic purposes many criminal jurisdictions across the world have followed a common trajectory: from its case-by-case use to support the investigation and prosecution of a small number of homicides and sexual assaults, to the recovery of biological samples and the comparison of DNA prof...
Inokuchi, Go; Ishihara, Kenji; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Iwase, Hirotaro
The death investigation system in Japan is in the midst of a great transformation. As part of efforts to revise this system, in this study we analyzed the reasons the police refer unnatural death cases for forensic autopsy and, from an understanding of the trends of such referrals, we discuss the future direction of handling unnatural deaths in our country. For 1618 forensic autopsy cases handled by the First Investigation Division of Chiba Prefectural Police that were referred to our institution for forensic autopsy between 2003 and 2012, we tallied the number of autopsies by sex, age group, and reason for forensic autopsy for each year and investigated trends in the referrals over time. The results revealed that the number of autopsies increased annually from 2003 to 2012, with a marked increase from 2010. The number of autopsies increased particularly for cases of suspected criminal deaths, where it was unclear to the police before the forensic autopsy whether or not the death resulted from a criminal act. Our findings suggest that the number of forensic autopsies will continue to increase into the future in Chiba prefecture, and is a trend that is inevitable if we are to prevent criminal death cases from being overlooked. Although referrals for forensic autopsy in Japan are made only when criminal activity is suspected, the original purpose of death investigations is not only to avoid overlooking crimes, but also to flag public health issues. Therefore, together with the police, we need to review the original purpose and conduct more in-depth discussions about when referrals are necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Nina B; Hansen, Maj; Nielsen, Louise H; Bramsen, Rikke H; Elklit, Ask; Campbell, Rebecca
This study examined level of acute psychological distress and perceived social support in 64 victims of rape and the association with police case decisions and victims' willingness to participate in the investigation. The results of independent-sample t tests revealed that victims' unwillingness to participate in the investigation was significantly associated with a higher level of psychological distress in the acute phase following the assault. The results suggest that victims of rape who disengage with the police investigation may do so because of a high level of acute psychological distress. Clinical implications are discussed.
Williams, R; Wienroth, M
This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns. The paper concludes with a discussion of the concept of "proportionality" as a resource for balancing the social and ethical risks and benefits of the use of forensic genetics in support of criminal justice. Copyright © 2017 Central Police University.
Bonicelli, Andrea; Xhemali, Bledar; Kranioti, Elena F.
Age estimation remains one of the most challenging tasks in forensic practice when establishing a biological profile of unknown skeletonised remains. Morphological methods based on developmental markers of bones can provide accurate age estimates at a young age, but become highly unreliable for ages over 35 when all developmental markers disappear. This study explores the changes in the biomechanical properties of bone tissue and matrix, which continue to change with age even after skeletal maturity, and their potential value for age estimation. As a proof of concept we investigated the relationship of 28 variables at the macroscopic and microscopic level in rib autopsy samples from 24 individuals. Stepwise regression analysis produced a number of equations one of which with seven variables showed an R2 = 0.949; a mean residual error of 2.13 yrs ±0.4 (SD) and a maximum residual error value of 2.88 yrs. For forensic purposes, by using only bench top machines in tests which can be carried out within 36 hrs, a set of just 3 variables produced an equation with an R2 = 0.902 a mean residual error of 3.38 yrs ±2.6 (SD) and a maximum observed residual error 9.26yrs. This method outstrips all existing age-at-death methods based on ribs, thus providing a novel lab based accurate tool in the forensic investigation of human remains. The present application is optimised for fresh (uncompromised by taphonomic conditions) remains, but the potential of the principle and method is vast once the trends of the biomechanical variables are established for other environmental conditions and circumstances. PMID:28520764
Bella, M A Bihina; Eloff, J H P
Digital forensics has been proposed as a methodology for doing root-cause analysis of major software failures for quite a while. Despite this, similar software failures still occur repeatedly. A reason for this is the difficulty of obtaining detailed evidence of software failures. Acquiring such evidence can be challenging, as the relevant data may be lost or corrupt following a software system's crash. This paper proposes the use of near-miss analysis to improve on the collection of evidence for software failures. Near-miss analysis is an incident investigation technique that detects and subsequently analyses indicators of failures. The results of a near-miss analysis investigation are then used to detect an upcoming failure before the failure unfolds. The detection of these indicators - known as near misses - therefore provides an opportunity to proactively collect relevant data that can be used as digital evidence, pertaining to software failures. A Near Miss Management System (NMS) architecture for the forensic investigation of software failures is proposed. The viability of the proposed architecture is demonstrated through a prototype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ciavaglia, Sherryn A; Tobe, Shanan S; Donnellan, Stephen C; Henry, Julianne M; Linacre, Adrian M T
Python snake species are often encountered in illegal activities and the question of species identity can be pertinent to such criminal investigations. Morphological identification of species of pythons can be confounded by many issues and molecular examination by DNA analysis can provide an alternative and objective means of identification. Our paper reports on the development and validation of a PCR primer pair that amplifies a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene that has been suggested previously as a good candidate locus for differentiating python species. We used this DNA region to perform species identification of pythons, even when the template DNA was of poor quality, as might be the case with forensic evidentiary items. Validation tests are presented to demonstrate the characteristics of the assay. Tests involved the cross-species amplification of this marker in non-target species, minimum amount of DNA template required, effects of degradation on product amplification and a blind trial to simulate a casework scenario that provided 100% correct identity. Our results demonstrate that this assay performs reliably and robustly on pythons and can be applied directly to forensic investigations where the presence of a species of python is in question. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martha Liliana Acevedo Neira
Full Text Available El análisis genético de fragmentos óseos tomados de un cuerpo en descomposición permitió confirmar la muerte de alias “Édgar Tovar”, comandante y responsable del narcotráfico del frente 48 de las Farc. El perfilgenético obtenido de los restos humanos fue comparado con la información del ADN nuclear y de cromosoma Y, del padre de Ángel Gabriel Lozada García,obteniendo una probabilidad estadística de paternidad de 99.991% y una coincidencia total en la información contenida en los marcadores de cromosomaY analizados, lo que sumado a labores investigativas de la Policía Nacional se consideró suficiente para determinar la identificación del cuerpo.
Walsh, S J; Moss, D S; Kliem, C; Vintiner, G M
The primary aim of any DNA Database is to link individuals to unsolved offenses and unsolved offenses to each other via DNA profiling. This aim has been successfully realised during the operation of the New Zealand (NZ) DNA Databank over the past five years. The DNA Intelligence Project (DIP), a collaborative project involving NZ forensic and law enforcement agencies, interrogated the forensic case data held on the NZ DNA databank and collated it into a functional intelligence database. This database has been used to identify significant trends which direct Police and forensic personnel towards the most appropriate use of DNA technology. Intelligence is being provided in areas such as the level of usage of DNA techniques in criminal investigation, the relative success of crime scene samples and the geographical distribution of crimes. The DIP has broadened the dimensions of the information offered through the NZ DNA Databank and has furthered the understanding and investigative capability of both Police and forensic scientists. The outcomes of this research fit soundly with the current policies of 'intelligence led policing', which are being adopted by Police jurisdictions locally and overseas.
The current study provides an in-depth exploration of the narratives of children who witnessed their father killing their mother. This exploration was conducted using a thematic analysis of the children's forensic interviews based on seven investigative interviews that were conducted with children following the domestic homicide. Investigative interviews were selected for study only for substantiated cases and only if the children disclosed the domestic homicide. All of the investigative interviews were conducted within 24h of the domestic homicide. Thematic analysis revealed the following four key categories: the domestic homicide as the dead end of domestic violence, what I did when daddy killed mommy, that one time that daddy killed mommy, and mommy will feel better and will go back home. The discussion examines the multiple layers of this phenomenon as revealed in the children's narratives and its consequences for professionals within the legal and clinical contexts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military police...
Full Text Available This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward introduction of such technologies and conduct simulation analysis to compare changes in the acceptance of various scenarios. The study divides cybercrime policing into prevention and investigation. The sample included 500 members of the public and 161 police officers. The results show that the public thinks an increase in yearly taxes and invasion of privacy are the most important factors. Conversely, the police think factors enhancing the efficiency of policing are most important. Moreover, when smart policing technologies are introduced, the public and police perceive more utility in the prevention and investigation of cybercrime, respectively. Few studies in this field separate the prevention and investigation of crimes, or compare perceptions of the public and police toward the introduction of smart policing technologies. This study’s quantitative analysis provides insights lacking in previous literature.
Hagaman, Ashley K; Khadka, S; Lohani, S; Kohrt, B
Yearly, 600,000 people complete suicide in low- and middle-income countries, accounting for 75% of the world's burden of suicide mortality. The highest regional rates are in South and East Asia. Nepal has one of the highest suicide rates in the world; however, few investigations exploring patterns surrounding both male and female suicides exist. This study used psychological autopsies to identify common factors, precipitating events, and warning signs in a diverse sample. Randomly sampled from 302 police case reports over 24 months, psychological autopsies were conducted for 39 completed suicide cases in one urban and one rural region of Nepal. In the total police sample (n = 302), 57.0% of deaths were male. Over 40% of deaths were 25 years or younger, including 65% of rural and 50.8% of female suicide deaths. We estimate the crude urban and rural suicide rates to be 16.1 and 22.8 per 100,000, respectively. Within our psychological autopsy sample, 38.5% met criteria for depression and only 23.1% informants believed that the deceased had thoughts of self-harm or suicide before death. Important warning signs include recent geographic migration, alcohol abuse, and family history of suicide. Suicide prevention strategies in Nepal should account for the lack of awareness about suicide risk among family members and early age of suicide completion, especially in rural and female populations. Given the low rates of ideation disclosure to friends and family, educating the general public about other signs of suicide may help prevention efforts in Nepal.
Kanetake, Jun; Sakaue, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Jun; Takahashi, Shirushi; Kanawaku, Yoshimasa; Hashiyada, Masaki; Funayama, Masato
A human male mandible was found under the eaves of a house. There were no associated items that allowed for personal identification. An anthropologist, who voluntarily joined our forensics team to give an expert opinion, found two small linear marks of 0.6 cm on the surface of the right condylar process. He thought these marks had been produced by a sharp object, and at the very least were not the result of bite marks by rodents or other animals. At first, the police did not appreciate the significance of the marks. One month later, however, other remains with similar marks were found near the scene, strongly suggesting that the case was a mutilation murder with a sharp weapon. After a vigorous search, the police obtained information that a young man in his twenties had gone missing in the area one year previously. After checking up on his relationships, a suspect was identified and arrested. The suspect subsequently confessed and was convicted as guilty of the crime. There are only a few forensic anthropologists in Japan. Consequently, almost all cases requiring bone examination have been handled by forensic pathologists, but it is hard for forensic pathologists to cover all fields comprehensively. The present case might have been solved without help from the anthropologist. However, we believe that forensic pathologists, especially less experienced ones, should seek advice from an expert in the field of forensic anthropology in order to carry a multidisciplinary forensic investigation. Given the current situation in, it is difficult in many institutes of forensics to obtain direct help from forensic anthropologists. The authors believe that collaborative networking via the Internet between forensic experts in each field cannot only obtain further information on complicated cases, but would also be helpful in training young forensic pathologists.
Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J.; Colella, Michael; Robel, Martin; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Wong, Henri; Davis, Joel; Loi, Elaine; Reinhard, Mark; Hutcheon, Ian
In early 2009, a state policing agency raided a clandestine drug laboratory in a suburb of a major city in Australia. While searching the laboratory, they discovered a small glass jar labelled 'Gamma Source' and containing a green powder. The powder was radioactive. This paper documents the detailed nuclear forensic analysis undertaken to characterize and identify the material and determine its provenance. Isotopic and impurity content, phase composition, microstructure and other characteristics were measured on the seized sample, and the results were compared with similar material obtained from the suspected source (ore and ore concentrate material). While an extensive range of parameters were measured, the key 'nuclear forensic signatures' used to identify the material were the U isotopic composition, Pb and Sr isotope ratios, and the rare earth element pattern. These measurements, in combination with statistical analysis of the elemental and isotopic content of the material against a database of uranium ore concentrates sourced from mines located worldwide, led to the conclusion that the seized material (a uranium ore concentrate of natural isotopic abundance) most likely originated from Mary Kathleen, a former Australian uranium mine
Ray, I.L.F.; Schubert, A.W.; Schenkel, R.; Koch, L.W.
Since 1994 the Institute for Transuranium Elements has been involved with the examination of cases of illegal trafficking in nuclear materials, and to date over twenty-five samples have been investigated. In many of the cases the material was relatively easy to identify since it consisted of unirradiated UO 2 fuel pellets, with characteristic dimensions and form which could be compared directly with information contained in the Institute's database of commercial fuel. However several of the seized illegal samples were in powder form, or contaminated samples of other materials, and these required a more detailed investigation. Three cases which represent different aspects of the Nuclear Forensic Science investigations will be presented. These are: 1. A mixture of plutonium and uranium oxide powders confiscated at Munich airport. 2. A quantity of high weapons grade plutonium metal found by chance in a garage on the German-Swiss border, also in 1994. 3. Stainless steel scrap contaminated with enriched uranium, detected in a scrap metal yard in Karlsruhe in 1997. A description of these cases will be given along with the methods used in the investigations. The trafficking in contaminated scrap metal is likely to be one of the foremost problems in the field of nuclear forensic science in the future. In addition to TIMS and SIMS the Institute has electron microscopes which have been modified for working with contaminated samples. The transmission electron microscope, a Hitachi H700, is connected directly via the specimen entry port to a glovebox chain, and has facilities for EDX and SEM. The scanning electron microscope, a Philips XL40, has the complete column and vacuum system mounted inside a glovebox. This is also equipped with EDX and has a 'Gunshots Residue Programme' for the automatic identification and location of specific types of particle
Failures in criminal investigation may lead to wrongful convictions. Insight in the criminal investigation process is needed to understand how these investigative failures may rise and how measures can contribute to the prevention of this kind of failures. Some of the main findings of an empirical study of the criminal investigation process in four cases of major investigations are presented here. This criminal investigation process is analyzed as a process of framing, using Goffman's framing (Goffman, 1975) and interaction theories (Goffman, 1990). It shows that in addition to framing, other substantive and social factors affect the criminal investigation.
The science graduates had a much better understanding of forensics than the other respondents. We conclude by advising the recruitment of more science graduates into the Nigeria Police force and introduction of elaborate forensic science and medicine lectures into the curricular in the Police training Schools. Keywords: ...
Bitzer, Sonja; Albertini, Nicola; Lock, Eric; Ribaux, Olivier; Delémont, Olivier
In an attempt to grasp the effectiveness of forensic science in the criminal justice process, a number of studies introduced some form of performance indicator. However, most of these indicators suffer from different weaknesses, from the definition of forensic science itself to problems of reliability and validity. We suggest the introduction of the concept of utility of the clue as an internal evaluation indicator of forensic science in the investigation. Utility of the clue is defined as added value of information, gained by the use of traces. This concept could be used to assess the contribution of the trace in the context of the case. By extension, a second application of this concept is suggested. By formalising and considering, a priori, the perceived utility of using traces, we introduce the notion of expected utility that could be used as decision factor when choosing which traces to use, once they have been collected at the crime scene or from an object in the laboratory. In a case-based approach, utility can be assessed in the light of the available information to evaluate the investigative contribution of forensic science. In the decision-making process, the projection or estimation of the utility of the clue is proposed to be a factor to take into account when triaging the set of traces. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turnbough, M; Eisenberg, A; Shade, L L; Shewale, J G
For the past two decades, forensic DNA analysis has rapidly expanded in both utility and value to criminal investigations. As the number of crime scene and convict/arrestee samples has continued to grow, many forensic DNA laboratories find themselves struggling to test samples in a timely fashion. Agencies employ various methods for calculating their sample intake and processing capacity, yet database and casework sample backlogs continue to present a major challenge. One issue many forensic laboratories face is limited availability of resources for training new analysts. High-quality training enables analysts to effectively perform various aspects of DNA profiling, and as such, it is essential to ensuring consistent, high-quality results. This is well documented in the guidelines established in the FBI's Quality Assurance Standards for Forensic DNA Testing Laboratories in the United States as well as internationally by agencies like INTERPOL. A facility dedicated to training analysts on both theoretical and practical aspects of automated sample processing accelerates the establishment and expansion of high-throughput forensic DNA laboratories. The present article will discuss various aspects of training and agencies that provide such training programs. Copyright © 2012 Central Police University.
Rawlins, B.G.; Kemp, S.J.; Hodgkinson, E.H.; Riding, J.B.; Vane, C.H.; Poulton, C.; Freeborough, K. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom)
Earth scientists are often asked to establish or constrain the likely provenance of very small quantities of earth-related material as part of a forensic investigation. We tested the independent and collective interpretations of four experts with differing analytical skills in the prediction of sample provenance for three samples from different environmental settings. The methods used were X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the assessment of pollen assemblages, and structural characterization of organic matter at the molecular level. Independent interpretations were less accurate than those where multiple techniques were combined. Collective interpretation was very effective in the assessment of provenance for two of the three sites where the mineralogy and plant communities were distinctive. At the other site, although the mineralogical analysis correctly identified the Triassic mudstone soil parent material, Carboniferous spores from domestic coal were initially interpreted as deriving directly from bedrock. Such an interpretation could be a common pitfall owing to anthropogenic redistribution of material such as coal.
Canetta, Elisabetta; Adya, Ashok K
Pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA), such as those used in packaging and adhesive tapes, are very often encountered in forensic investigations. In criminal activities, packaging tapes may be used for sealing packets containing drugs, explosive devices, or questioned documents, while adhesive and electrical tapes are used occasionally in kidnapping cases. In this work, the potential of using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in both imaging and force mapping (FM) modes to derive additional analytical information from PSAs is demonstrated. AFM has been used to illustrate differences in the ultrastructural and nanomechanical properties of three visually distinguishable commercial PSAs to first test the feasibility of using this technique. Subsequently, AFM was used to detect nanoscopic differences between three visually indistinguishable PSAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The extent of wildlife crime is unknown but it is on the increase and has observable effects with the dramatic decline in many species of flora and fauna. The growing awareness of this area of criminal activity is reflected in the increase in research papers on animal DNA testing, either for the identification of species or for the genetic linkage of a sample to a particular organism. This review focuses on the use of species testing in wildlife crime investigations. Species identification relies primarily on genetic loci within the mitochondrial genome; focusing on the cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase 1 genes. The use of cytochrome b gained early prominence in species identification through its use in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, while the gene sequence for cytochrome oxidase was adopted by the Barcode for Life research group. This review compares how these two loci are used in species identification with respect to wildlife crime investigations. As more forensic science laboratories undertake work in the wildlife area, it is important that the quality of work is of the highest standard and that the conclusions reached are based on scientific principles. A key issue in reporting on the identification of a particular species is a knowledge of both the intraspecies variation and the possible overlap of sequence variation from one species to that of a closely related species. Recent data showing this degree of genetic separation in mammalian species will allow greater confidence when preparing a report on an alleged event where the identification of the species is of prime importance. The aim of this review is to illustrate aspects of species testing in wildlife forensic science and to explain how a knowledge of genetic variation at the genus and species level can aid in the reporting of results. PMID:21232099
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations of...
Knapik, Joseph J; Graham, Bria; Cobbs, Jacketta; Thompson, Diane; Steelman, Ryan; Jones, Bruce H
United States Army military police (MP) training is a 19-week course designed to introduce new recruits to basic soldiering skills, Army values and lifestyle, and law enforcement skills and knowledge. The present investigation examined injury rates and injury risk factors in MP training. At the start of training, 1,838 male and 553 female MP recruits were administered a questionnaire containing items on date of birth, height, weight, tobacco use, prior physical activity, injury history, and menstrual history. Injuries during training were obtained from electronic medical records and the training units provided data on student graduation and attrition. Successfully graduating from the course were 94.3% of the men and 83.7% of the women. Experiencing at least one injury during training were 34.2% of the men and 66.7% of the women (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval = 1.79-2.13). Recruits were at higher injury risk if they reported that they were older, had smoked in the past, or had performed less frequent exercise or sports prior to MP training. Men were at higher injury risk if they reported a prior injury and women were at higher risk if they reported missing at least six menstrual cycles in the last year or had previously been pregnant. The present investigation was the first to identify injury rates and identify specific factors increasing injury risk during MP training.
Brust, H.; Koeberg, M.; van der Heijden, A.; Wiarda, W.; Mügler, I.; Schrader, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.
Ammonium nitrate (AN) is frequently encountered in explosives in forensic casework. It is widely available as fertilizer and easy to implement in explosive devices, for example by mixing it with a fuel. Forensic profiling methods to determine whether material found on a crime scene and material
Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Rockenbauer, Eszter
The analysis and profiling of short tandem repeat (STR) loci is routinely used in forensic genetics. Current methods to investigate STR loci, including PCR-based standard fragment analyses and capillary electrophoresis, only provide amplicon lengths that are used to estimate the number of STR rep...
Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Oliveira, N C L; Crovella, S
Investigations of any type of crime invariably starts at the crime scene by collecting evidence. Thus, the purpose of this research was to collect and analyze an entomological trace from an environment that is similar to those of indoor crime scenes. Hematophagous mosquitoes were collected from two residential units; saliva of volunteers that were residents in the units was also collected for genetic analysis as reference samples. We examined the allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) and amelogenin. A total of 26 female hematophagous mosquitoes were identified as Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus; we were able to obtain 11 forensically valid genetic profiles, with a minimum of 0.028203 ng/μL of human DNA. Thus, the results of this study showed that it was possible to correlate human genetic information from mosquitoes with the volunteer reference samples, which validates the use of this information as forensic evidence. Furthermore, we observed mixed genetic profiles from one mosquito. Therefore, it is clearly important to collect these insects indoors where crimes were committed, because it may be possible to find intact genetic profiles of suspects in the blood found in the digestive tract of hematophagous mosquitoes for later comparison to identify an offender and/or exclude suspects.
Choi, Soojin; Yoh, Jack J.
The possibility verification of the first attempt to apply LIBS to arson investigation was performed. LIBS has capabilities for real time in-situ analysis and depth profiling. It can provide valuable information about the fire debris that are complementary to the classification of original sample components and combustion residues. In this study, fire debris was analyzed to determine the ignition source and existence of a fire accelerant using LIBS spectra and depth profiling analysis. Fire debris chemical composition and carbon layer thickness determines the possible ignition source while the carbon layer thickness of combusted samples represents the degree of sample carbonization. When a sample is combusted with fire accelerants, a thicker carbon layer is formed because the burning rate is increased. Therefore, depth profiling can confirm the existence of combustion accelerants, which is evidence of arson. Also investigation of fire debris by depth profiling is still possible when a fire is extinguished with water from fire hose. Such data analysis and in-situ detection of forensic signals via the LIBS may assist fire investigation at crime scenes.
Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K.; Nicholl, A.; Horta, J.
Full text: Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) has worked in the area of nuclear forensic science since 1992 when the first seized sample was analysed. From the beginning the analytical tools for seized materials were adapted from safeguards measurements and from materials science. Especially in the view of the origin determination the spectrum of parameters to be taken into account had to be widened. In addition to the development of a comprehensive database on nuclear materials for power reactor fuels, experimental investigations were started to identify characteristic parameters. These systematic investigations comprised the development of methodologies for age determination of Pu and highly enriched uranium, surface roughness determination of UO 2 pellets and n( 18 O)/n( 16 O) measurements in uranium oxides. However, a more profound understanding on the nature of the characteristic chemical impurities and their propagation throughout the entire process appeared necessary in particular for uranium materials. Therefore a systematic research programme was launched in order to better understand which chemical impurities might be considered as characteristic for the origin of the base material. On the other hand some impurities are introduced intentionally during the processing of the material. These impurities might be characteristic for the process used or for the plant where the material was processed. We carried out impurity measurements on uranium ores, on intermediate products (Ammoniumdiuranate or yellow cake) and on (natural) uranium oxides, hence 'vertically' throughout the process in individual facilities. n( 18 O)/n( 16 O) ratio measurements have been proven to provide useful additional information on the geographic origin of the materials. We therefore investigated the n( 18 O)/n( 16 O) isotope ratios in these different compounds, in order to obtain further experimental evidence for a consistent set of materials reportedly originating from the same
Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B
The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int. Copyright © 2015 Central Police University.
Berezovskiĭ, D P; Shatov, D V; Kovalev, B V; Dodokhova, M A; Panenko, E S; Kornienko, I V
Statistical data on the incidence and spectrum of thrombotic complications presented in this paper are based on the materials collected by the Department of Expertise of Living Subjects, Rostov Regional Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise, during 2004-2010. The cases of interest were analysed by age, sex, time of injury, character of traumatic impact, and time of surgical intervention. It is concluded that such cases require forensic medical expertise by standardized methods.
Hefke, Gwynneth; Davison, Sean; D'Amato, Maria Eugenia
The utilization of binary markers in human individual identification is gaining ground in forensic genetics. We analyzed the polymorphisms from the first commercial indel kit Investigator DIPplex (Qiagen) in 512 individuals from Afrikaner, Indian, admixed Cape Colored, and the native Bantu Xhosa and Zulu origin in South Africa and evaluated forensic and population genetics parameters for their forensic application in South Africa. The levels of genetic diversity in population and forensic parameters in South Africa are similar to other published data, with lower diversity values for the native Bantu. Departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed in HLD97 in Indians, Admixed and Bantus, along with 6.83% null homozygotes in the Bantu populations. Sequencing of the flanking regions showed a previously reported transition G>A in rs17245568. Strong population structure was detected with Fst, AMOVA, and the Bayesian unsupervised clustering method in STRUCTURE. Therefore we evaluated the efficiency of individual assignments to population groups using the ancestral membership proportions from STRUCTURE and the Bayesian classification algorithm in Snipper App Suite. Both methods showed low cross-assignment error (0-4%) between Bantus and either Afrikaners or Indians. The differentiation between populations seems to be driven by four loci under positive selection pressure. Based on these results, we draw recommendations for the application of this kit in SA. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
A forensic hydrological investigation of a major flash flood was conducted for the Blanco River in south-central Texas. The unprecedented flood occurred during the early morning hours of May 24th leaving 12 dead in the towns of Wimberley and San Marcos. Hundreds of homes were damaged or destroyed, two reinforced concrete bridges were washed off their piers, and nearly 100 high water rescues were made the following day. The present work characterizes the meteorological setup leading to the event, describes the flood hydrology using the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model, and reports on an extensive field campaign seeking to document high water marks throughout the 1200 km2 basin. Results indicate high precipitable water values, large CAPE, and strong mid and upper level winds aided in impressive divergence over the region. This allowed for storms to continually produce heavy rainfall over the same areas. Large regions of the catchment received greater than 200 mm across the upper portion of the basin with 24 hr maximums around 330 mm. GSSHA simulations indicate good performance when compared to a stage hydrograph recorded mid-catchment. The remaining USGS gauges failed early on during the rising limb of the hydrograph. Model estimates indicate peak streamflow was approximately 5500 cms with stage values nearing 13 m as the flood wave moved through the town of Wimberley. Approximately 125 locations were examined for high water marks along the mainstem of the river using RTK GPS. Stage values ranged from 12 - 18 m.
Muhammad, Syahidah A; Frew, Russell D; Hayman, Alan R
Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the δ(13)C and δ(2)H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin, i.e., the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples.
Syahidah Akmal Muhammad
Full Text Available Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the δ13C and δ2H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin i.e. the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples.
Jahanirad, Mehdi; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul
The VoIP services provide fertile ground for criminal activity, thus identifying the transmitting computer devices from recorded VoIP call may help the forensic investigator to reveal useful information. It also proves the authenticity of the call recording submitted to the court as evidence. This paper extended the previous study on the use of recorded VoIP call for blind source computer device identification. Although initial results were promising but theoretical reasoning for this is yet to be found. The study suggested computing entropy of mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (entropy-MFCC) from near-silent segments as an intrinsic feature set that captures the device response function due to the tolerances in the electronic components of individual computer devices. By applying the supervised learning techniques of naïve Bayesian, linear logistic regression, neural networks and support vector machines to the entropy-MFCC features, state-of-the-art identification accuracy of near 99.9% has been achieved on different sets of computer devices for both call recording and microphone recording scenarios. Furthermore, unsupervised learning techniques, including simple k-means, expectation-maximization and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) provided promising results for call recording dataset by assigning the majority of instances to their correct clusters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper we posit that current investigative techniques—particularly as deployed by law enforcement, are becoming unsuitable for most types of crime investigation. The growth in cybercrime and the complexities of the types of the cybercrime coupled with the limitations in time and resources, both computational and human, in addressing cybercrime put an increasing strain on the ability of digital investigators to apply the processes of digital forensics and digital investigations to obtain timely results. In order to combat the problems, there is a need to enhance the use of the resources available and move beyond the capabilities and constraints of the forensic tools that are in current use. We argue that more intelligent techniques are necessary and should be used proactively. The paper makes the case for the need for such tools and techniques, and investigates and discusses the opportunities afforded by applying principles and procedures of artificial intelligence to digital forensics intelligence and to intelligent forensics and suggests that by applying new techniques to digital investigations there is the opportunity to address the challenges of the larger and more complex domains in which cybercrimes are taking place.
Viner, T C; Hamlin, B C; McClure, P J; Yates, B C
The application of medical knowledge to the purpose of law is the foundation of forensic pathology. A forensic postmortem examination often involves the expertise of multiple scientific disciplines to reconstruct the full story surrounding the death of an animal. Wildlife poses additional challenges in forensic investigations due to little or no associated history, and the disruptive effects of decomposition. To illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of wildlife forensic medicine, the authors outline a case of secondary pentobarbital/phenytoin toxicosis in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The eagle was the single fatality in a group of 8 birds that fed on euthanized domestic cat remains that had been improperly disposed of in a landfill. Cooperation between responding law enforcement officers, pathologists, and other forensic scientists led to the successful diagnosis and resolution of the case. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Police policy documents often articulate strategies and approaches that police organizations want to implement in their efforts to break down barriers with minority groups. However, most police policy documents are written for police audiences and not for members of the public. Police policy documents serve as a reflection of the aspirations of the agency and not necessarily the practice of the officers. Differential policing has been a salient experience for members of transgender communities because, as individuals who express gender in ways that deviate from the norm, they have experienced numerous documented cases of police mismanaged practice. In Australia, achieving police reform in the area of policing of diverse community groups has been difficult as new initiatives implemented to educate police officers about diverse groups such as transgender communities are scarce. My study sought to analyze a police policy document to assess how one police agency’s policy aspires to shape police contact/experiences with transgender people and how this document might shape intergroup identity differences between transgender people and the police. It is argued that the policy document will negatively affect police perceptions of transgender people and may enhance adverse perceptions of intergroup difference between police and transgender people. I also argue that using this document to achieve police reform in the area of policing of transgender people will be problematic as the policy document lacks substantial procedural guidelines regarding interaction with transgender people and may not favorably constrain discretionary police power.
Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics....
The core baseline of Intelligence-led Policing is the aim of increasing efficiency and quality of police work, with a focus on crime analysis and intelligence methods as tools for informed and objective decisions both when conducting targeted, specialized operations and when setting strategic...... priorities. This book critically addresses the proliferation of intelligence logics within policing from a wide array of scholarly perspectives. It considers questions such as: •How are precautionary logics becoming increasingly central in the dominant policing strategies? •What kind of challenges...... and the blurred and confrontational lines that can be observed between prevention, intelligence and investigation in police work....
Kaplan, Sigal; Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
This study explores the factors underlying the reporting intentions of cycling crashes by looking at barriers to reporting from other contexts and eliciting them via a survey and a structural equation model (SEM). The barriers consist of the attitude that crash reporting is useless, the preference...... complete responses that were used for SEM estimation. The empirical analysis revealed that: (i) distrust in the police and medical consultation aversion are related to the reporting intentions both directly and indirectly through the attitude that crash reporting is useless and the preferences to allocate...... time to other activities; (ii) medical consultation aversion has a higher weight than the distrust in the police in demotivating cycling crash reporting intentions; (iii) the reasons are all strongly related to cyclists' characteristics and last cycling crash characteristics; and (iv) information...
Prahlow, Joseph A; Cameron, Thomas; Arendt, Alexander; Cornelis, Kenneth; Bontrager, Anthony; Suth, Michael S; Black, Lisa; Tobey, Rebbecca; Pollock, Sharon; Stur, Shawn; Cotter, Kenneth; Gabrielse, Joel
Objectives With the widespread use of DNA testing, police, death investigators, and attorneys need to be aware of the capabilities of this technology. This review provides an overview of scenarios where DNA evidence has played a major role in homicide investigations in order to highlight important educational issues for police, death investigators, forensic pathologists, and attorneys. Methods This was a nonrandom, observational, retrospective study. Data were obtained from the collective files of the authors from casework during a 15-year period, from 2000 through 2014. Results A series of nine scenarios, encompassing 11 deaths, is presented from the standpoint of the police and death investigation, the forensic pathology autopsy performance, the subsequent DNA testing of evidence, and, ultimately, the final adjudication of cases. Details of each case are presented, along with a discussion that focuses on important aspects of sample collection for potential DNA testing, especially at the crime scene and the autopsy. The presentation highlights the diversity of case and evidence types in which DNA testing played a valuable role in the successful prosecution of the case. Conclusions By highlighting homicides where DNA testing contributed to the successful adjudication of cases, police, death investigators, forensic pathologists, and attorneys will be better informed regarding the types of evidence and situations where such testing is of potential value.
Zorić Vojkan M.
Full Text Available The novels of the Criminal Procedure Code (CPC Republic of Serbia have introduced the concept of prosecutorial investigation in relation to that of evidence, special evidentiary actions and other software for the operation of the criminal prosecution. The meaning of novels is to conduct harmonization of standards with solutions of modern criminal law practice, particularly with regard to EU standards Serbia applying for membership in the Union. Preventing the most serious forms of crime is the focus of authorized bodies Serbia and in this context combating and preventing all forms of forgery, as is the case with forgeries frescoes and selling them on the world market. In exposed paper the method determining age of the frescoes is proposed. It is based on the use of closed Markov’s graphs with three cells. The measurements of contents of water molecules in surrounding area can be done only for the space in which the frescoes is located. This means that followed exposed method is non destructive.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34019
Byerly, B.L.; Floyd Stanley; Khal Spencer; Colletti, Lisa; Garduno, Katherine; Kuhn, Kevin; Lujan, Elmer; Martinez, Alex; Porterfield, Donivan; Jung Rim
In this study, a certified plutonium metal reference material (CRM 126) with a known production history is examined using analytical methods that are commonly employed in nuclear forensics for provenancing and attribution. The measured plutonium isotopic composition and actinide assay are consistent with values reported on the reference material certificate. Model ages from U/Pu and Am/Pu chronometers agree with the documented production timeline. The results confirm the utility of these analytical methods and highlight the importance of a holistic approach for forensic study of unknown materials. (author)
Reinhard, Karl J; Welner, Michael; Okoye, Matthias I; Marotta, Melissa; Plank, Gary; Anderson, Brianna; Mastellon, Theresa
Forensic anthropology can provide detailed information regarding the perpetrator's treatment of a homicide victim. This data may inform The Depravity Standard (DS), a forensic science inventory used to assess the severity of a homicide's intent, actions, victimology, and attitudes. Skeletal data enabled the reconstruction of a homicide case involving mutilation and possible torture. Using The Depravity Standard (DS) the skeletal data underwent evaluation in order to provide evidence of depravity. The osteological data alone offered sufficient evidence for a number of criteria of depravity, demonstrating the importance and application of osteology in resolving specific questions about the depravity of a homicide. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wildlife forensic science is a relatively recent development to meet the increasing need of the criminal justice system where there are investigations in alleged transgressions of either international or national legislation. This application of science draws on conservation genetics and forensic geneticists from mainstream forensic science. This review is a broad overview of the history of forensic wildlife science and some of the recent developments in forensic wildlife genetics with the application of DNA developments to nonhuman samples encountered in a forensic science investigation. The review will move from methods to look at the entire genome, when there is no previous knowledge of the species studied, through methods of species identification, using DNA to determine a possible geographic origin, through to assigning samples to a particular individual or a close genetic relative of this individual. The transfer of research methods into the criminal justice system for the investigation of wildlife crimes has been largely successful as is illustrated in the review. The review concludes with comments on the need for standardization and regulation in wildlife forensic science. Copyright © 2011 Central Police University.
Rossy, Quentin; Ribaux, Olivier
There is an increasing awareness that the articulation of forensic science and criminal investigation is critical to the resolution of crimes. However, models and methods to support an effective collaboration between the partners are still poorly expressed or even lacking. Three propositions are borrowed from crime intelligence methods in order to bridge this gap: (a) the general intelligence process, (b) the analyses of investigative problems along principal perspectives: entities and their relationships, time and space, quantitative aspects and (c) visualisation methods as a mode of expression of a problem in these dimensions. Indeed, in a collaborative framework, different kinds of visualisations integrating forensic case data can play a central role for supporting decisions. Among them, link-charts are scrutinised for their abilities to structure and ease the analysis of a case by describing how relevant entities are connected. However, designing an informative chart that does not bias the reasoning process is not straightforward. Using visualisation as a catalyser for a collaborative approach integrating forensic data thus calls for better specifications. © 2013.
Zeinstra, C G; Meuwly, D; Ruifrok, A Cc; Veldhuis, R Nj; Spreeuwers, L J
This paper surveys the literature on forensic face recognition (FFR), with a particular focus on the strength of evidence as used in a court of law. FFR is the use of biometric face recognition for several applications in forensic science. It includes scenarios of ID verification and open-set identification, investigation and intelligence, and evaluation of the strength of evidence. We present FFR from operational, tactical, and strategic perspectives. We discuss criticism of FFR and we provide an overview of research efforts from multiple perspectives that relate to the domain of FFR. Finally, we sketch possible future directions for FFR. Copyright © 2018 Central Police University.
Cecilia Hansen Löfstrand
Full Text Available This article draws upon two separate studies on policing in Sweden, both investigating “ethnic diversity” as a discourse and a practice in the performance of policing functions: one interview study with minority police officers from a county police authority and one ethnographic study of private security officers. To examine how “diversity policing” and the “policing of diversity” are performed by policing actors, their strategic reliance on an ethnically diverse workforce is examined. The official discourse in both contexts stressed “diversity policing” as a valuable resource for the effective execution of policing tasks and the legitimation of policing functions. There was, however, also another, more unofficial discourse on ethnicity that heavily influenced the policing agents’ day-to-day work. The resulting practice of “policing diversity” involved situated activities on the ground through which “foreign elements” in the population were policed using ethnicized stereotypes. Diversity in the policing workforce promoted the practice of ethnic matching, which, ironically, in turn perpetuated stereotypical thinking about Swedish “others”. A conceptual framework is developed for understanding the policing strategies involved and the disjuncture found between the widely accepted rationalities for recruiting an ethnically diverse workforce and the realities for that workforce’s effective deployment at the street level.
Saunders, G.N.; Schuurman, M.J.; Rans, C.D.
When teaching Engineering to students it is important that we not only teach about
how to engineer new things but also look at the failures and performance problems
from an engineering point-of-view. The field that studies this part of engineering is
known as Forensic Engineering. The
Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan
Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…
Leinbach, Patricia; Leinbach, Carl
In this paper, we are proposing the use of forensic case studies as a means to provide students with interesting problem solving opportunities that capitalise on the popularity of several TV series and shows. It also satisfies their natural curiosity about how answers are found to seemingly complex real life problems. We begin with a very brief…
Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.
Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)
The issue that has been analyzed in this work is the potential effect of crime films and TV series on people's perceptions of forensic medicine and science, and especially on the forming of expectations towards forensic science experts. This syndrome is being called the "CSI effect" after the popular franchise Crime Scene Investigation (CSI). Questionnaire surveys that have been conducted included "experts": 50 experts in various specialities, 77 prosecutors, 119 judges, 64 lay judges, 161 police staff and 80 members of general public. In-depth interviews have been conducted with 20 police staff, and also a focus group has been carried out with 15 law students. In the opinion of the respondents, people's perceptions and expectations of forensic science--as it can be observed during criminal trials--are largely inflated by the entertainment media. Among the surveyed persons, the category that declares watching crime series most rarely, is forensic science experts. Around half of the surveyed experts pointed out to excessive expectations towards they work instigated by TV crime series. The most common expectations towards forensic medicine experts are: immediate conclusiveness of post mortem examinations (going as far as indicating the cause of death at the crime scene), precision of death time estimation and a routine use of sophisticated methods known from TV.
Hector Quintus Beyers
Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.
Marjanski Vladimir Ž.
Full Text Available People injuries after bites of a dog and/or cat are contemporary and all the time issue. The consequences that stem out of this relationship of people and dogs and/or cats are numerous - medical, utility-environmental, sociological, legal and economic. The subject of this paper is to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of wounds caused by dog and cat bites, their forensic examination and analysis of civil liability of subjects/entities responsible for damages resulting from bite of dogs and cats. Forensic examination is carried out by reconstruction of events, identification of the dog/cat, determination of pathological condition in the dog/cat and the injured party and the estimatimation of alternative explanations. Within the analysis of civil liability, legal basis of liability, the persons responsible for compensation, types of damages and reasons for the disclaimer are determined.
Now approximately 30years old, the field of digital forensics is arguably facing some of its greatest challenges to date. Whilst currently supporting law enforcement in numerous criminal cases annually, questions are beginning to emerge regarding whether it can sustain this contribution, with digital crime remaining prevalent. In his first live interview in September 2015, Head of MI5, Andrew Parker indicated that individuals are now engaging in computing acts which are beyond the control of authorities, confirming earlier remarks made by British Prime Minister David Cameron in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo attacks. Such comments cast doubt on the future effectiveness of the digital forensic discipline and its ability to effectively investigate those who implement the latest forms of technology to carry out illicit acts. This article debates the controversial question, could we be facing an era where digital crime can no longer be effectively policed? Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cooper, Hannah L F
War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.
Biedermann, A; Taroni, F; Delemont, O; Semadeni, C; Davison, A C
The forensic investigation of the origin and cause of a fire incident is a particularly demanding area of expertise. As the available evidence is often incomplete or vague, uncertainty is a key element. The present study is an attempt to approach this through the use of Bayesian networks, which have been found useful in assisting human reasoning in a variety of disciplines in which uncertainty plays a central role. The present paper describes the construction of a Bayesian network (BN) and its use for drawing inferences about propositions of interest, based upon a single, possibly non replicable item of evidence: detected residual quantities of a flammable liquid in fire debris.
Sirdifield, Coral; Brooker, Charlie
The purpose of this paper is to assess the health needs of detainees in police custody in Northumbria, England, and to identify any gaps in, or possible improvements to, the current model of healthcare provision. The current model of service provision was investigated using a combination of existing literature, and interviews with key members of staff. In addition, researchers examined the custody records of a stratified random sample of 1,917 records from 2010 and 2011. Data were collected from the risk assessments completed by Custody Sergeants, and any associated records of medical assessments by Forensic Medical Examiners (FME). Detainees experience a wide range of health problems. Delivery of healthcare in custody could be improved through increasing the skill-mix in this setting, computerising FME records and improving communication between agencies. Research limitations/implications - The police did not always record the reason why a forensic medical examiner was called out, thus this aspect of data collection was limited. This health needs assessment will help to determine the way in which resources for health care in custody, currently held by the police, are reallocated once the funding transfers to the NHS in the near future.
Marzano, Lisa; Smith, Mark; Long, Matthew; Kisby, Charlotte; Hawton, Keith
Police officers are frequently the first responders to individuals in crisis, but generally receive little training for this role. We developed and evaluated training in suicide awareness and prevention for frontline rail police in the UK. To investigate the impact of training on officers' suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Fifty-three participants completed a brief questionnaire before and after undertaking training. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with 10 officers to explore in greater depth their views and experiences of the training program and the perceived impact on practice. Baseline levels of suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge were mixed but mostly positive and improved significantly after training. Such improvements were seemingly maintained over time, but there was insufficient power to test this statistically. Feedback on the course was generally excellent, notwithstanding some criticisms and suggestions for improvement. Training in suicide prevention appears to have been well received and to have had a beneficial impact on officers' attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Further research is needed to assess its longer-term effects on police attitudes, skills, and interactions with suicidal individuals, and to establish its relative effectiveness in the context of multilevel interventions.
Zulkifly, Nuranis-Raihan; Wahab, Roswanira Abd; Layang, Elizabeth; Ismail, Dzulkiflee; Desa, Wan Nur Syuhaila Mat; Hisham, Salina; Mahat, Naji A
Handprints and dismembered hands are commonly found during crime scene investigations and disaster victim identifications, respectively. It has been indicated that the accuracy of handprint and hand measurements for estimating stature maybe population specific. Since Iban is the largest ethnic population in Sarawak, Malaysia and because the application of anthropometry of hand and handprint within this population as well as other populations within the Southeast Asian countries remain unreported, this present study that investigated the reliability and accuracy of these two anthropometric aspects acquires forensic significance. Upon measuring the height, 21 measurements were recorded on each hand and the corresponding handprint of 50 male and 52 female consented adult Iban subjects. Using univariate statistics as well as simple and multiple regression analyses, interpretation of the measurements examined here was attempted. Results revealed that lengths of hand and handprint are the more reliable traits for estimating stature in both the male and female Iban subjects (p population in Sarawak that may prove useful for crime scene investigations and disaster victim identifications in Malaysia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
..., an investigation by the military police, U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) or other... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.5 Police...
Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Kirkbride, K Paul; Esseiva, Pierre; Margot, Pierre; Roux, Claude
The development of forensic intelligence relies on the expression of suitable models that better represent the contribution of forensic intelligence in relation to the criminal justice system, policing and security. Such models assist in comparing and evaluating methods and new technologies, provide transparency and foster the development of new applications. Interestingly, strong similarities between two separate projects focusing on specific forensic science areas were recently observed. These observations have led to the induction of a general model (Part I) that could guide the use of any forensic science case data in an intelligence perspective. The present article builds upon this general approach by focusing on decisional and organisational issues. The article investigates the comparison process and evaluation system that lay at the heart of the forensic intelligence framework, advocating scientific decision criteria and a structured but flexible and dynamic architecture. These building blocks are crucial and clearly lay within the expertise of forensic scientists. However, it is only part of the problem. Forensic intelligence includes other blocks with their respective interactions, decision points and tensions (e.g. regarding how to guide detection and how to integrate forensic information with other information). Formalising these blocks identifies many questions and potential answers. Addressing these questions is essential for the progress of the discipline. Such a process requires clarifying the role and place of the forensic scientist within the whole process and their relationship to other stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thakur Mohan Shrestha
Full Text Available Peace, security, rule of law, and sustainable development are driving principles in a democratic notion of developing country like Nepal. "3Is': Injustice, Insecurity and Imbalance have been reflecting in the post transitional Nepal. The study came with the objectives of investigating the peoples' perceptions on the adaptation of policing, the challenges and expectation. The information was collected from 1111(N respondents all over the country from different ways of life, applying mixed method questionnaire survey and interview. The research show the need of system based policing like 'intelligence-led'; 'police public partnership', and 'proactive' respectively. The influence of politicization, political instability, external influence, lack of role model leadership, open border, rampant corruption, nepotism-favoritism, lack of research are the major challenges in the security organizations. Furthermore, most educated and high profile personalities have less interest to encourage their generation in police services. People are expecting proficient and accountable police forces. Keywords: Policing, Challenges, People's Expectation
Teing, Yee-Yang; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Dargahi, Tooska; Conti, Mauro
Researchers envisioned Storage as a Service (StaaS) as an effective solution to the distributed management of digital data. Cooperative storage cloud forensic is relatively new and is an under-explored area of research. Using Symform as a case study, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of cooperative cloud storage services. In particular, we consider both mobile devices and personal computers running various popular operating systems, namely Windows 8.1, Mac OS X Mavericks 10.9.5, Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS, iOS 7.1.2, and Android KitKat 4.4.4. Potential artefacts recovered during the research include data relating to the installation and uninstallation of the cloud applications, log-in to and log-out from Symform account using the client application, file synchronization as well as their time stamp information. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artifacts that are likely to remain after the use of cooperative storage cloud on client devices. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Full Text Available This article examines the birth of the criminal police in Portugal in the context of prevailing scientific traditions that emphasised the biological traits of the criminal as individual, as human type or as social group. Although doctors, physical anthropologists and lawyers announced the coming of a new age of power informed by science and state rationality, in the battle against crime, these discursive intentions stayed far behind the actual practices carried on by criminal police. Science in action was a pretext for disputes inside the different bodies of administration and led to conflicts of jurisdiction with inadequate procedures for cri forensic investigation. Hence the discourse of rationality and surveillance was an argument for keeping the traditional practices and customary powers of police. minal identification in matters like fingerprints analysis, anthropometric archives and forensic investigation. Hence the discourse of rationality and surveillance was an argument for keeping the traditional practices and customary powers of police.Este artículo examina el nacimiento de la policía criminal en Portugal, en el contexto de las tradiciones científicas dominantes que hacían énfasis en los rasgos biológicos del criminal en tanto que individuo, tipo humano o grupo social. Aunque los médicos, antropólogos físicos y abogados anunciaron la llegada de una nueva era de poder informado por la ciencia y racionalidad estatal, en la batalla contra el crimen esas intenciones discursivas quedaron muy atrás de las prácticas realmente utilizadas por la policía criminal. La Ciencia en Acción era un pretexto para disputas en el seno de diferentes cuerpos de la administración y llevó a conflictos de jurisdicción con procedimientos inadecuados para la identificación criminal por medios como el análisis de huellas dactilares, archivos antropométricos e investigación forense. Así, el discurso de la racionalidad y la vigilancia fue un
Ceelen, M.; Dorn, T.; Buster, M.; Stirbu, I.; Donker, G.; Das, K.
Epidemiological research on the physical health status of police detainees is scarce. The present study fills this gap by first studying the somatic reasons for consultation (n = 4396) and related prescriptions (n = 4912) as assessed by the forensic medical service during police detainment.
Freire-Aradas, A; Phillips, C; Lareu, M V
Individual age estimation is a key factor in forensic science analysis that can provide very useful information applicable to criminal, legal, and anthropological investigations. Forensic age inference was initially based on morphological inspection or radiography and only later began to adopt molecular approaches. However, a lack of accuracy or technical problems hampered the introduction of these DNA-based methodologies in casework analysis. A turning point occurred when the epigenetic signature of DNA methylation was observed to gradually change during an individual´s lifespan. In the last four years, the number of publications reporting DNA methylation age-correlated changes has gradually risen and the forensic community now has a range of age methylation tests applicable to forensic casework. Most forensic age predictor models have been developed based on blood DNA samples, but additional tissues are now also being explored. This review assesses the most widely adopted genes harboring methylation sites, detection technologies, statistical age-predictive analyses, and potential causes of variation in age estimates. Despite the need for further work to improve predictive accuracy and establishing a broader range of tissues for which tests can analyze the most appropriate methylation sites, several forensic age predictors have now been reported that provide consistency in their prediction accuracies (predictive error of ±4 years); this makes them compelling tools with the potential to contribute key information to help guide criminal investigations. Copyright © 2017 Central Police University.
Full Text Available Background: Decades ago, documentation of forensics evidences such as bitemarks, bloodstains and others which required sophisticated photographic techniques and equipments such as infrared (IR and ultraviolet (UV photography, became a problem since they only use film that must be developed. Therefore, direct evaluation of the photographic result could not be directly visualized. The equipments prices were relatively high. Moreover, most of the equipments were still not available and relatively expensive; and converted IR digital camera could not use for regular photography. Recently, digital camera made image documentation and editing easier. Purpose: This review was aimed to explore the different characteristics and benefits of regular digital camera in IR forensic photography as well as to simplify the equipments needed. Reviews: IR photography becomes easier since certain digital cameras could capture the IR image by using IR filters or to be switched to IR camera. The regular non-SLR digital camera had certain advantages compared to SLRs, such in focusing. However, since not every digital camera has the ability to capture IR light, laser pointer or TV remote could be used as a tester. Conclusion: Knowledge about IR Bite mark photography, characteristics of regular digital camera and its accesories could reduce the budget for an ideal standard forensic photographic equipments by modifications.Latar belakang: Puluhan tahun silam, dokumentasi bukti forensik seperti teraan gigit, bercak darah dan sebagainya yang memerlukan teknik dan peralatan yang canggih seperti fotografi infra merah (IR dan ultraviolet (UV merupakan masalah karena memakai film yang harus diproses terlebih dahulu untuk mengetahui hasilnya. Akibatnya, hasil pemotretan tidak bisa langsung dievaluasi, selain itu harganya relatif mahal, kamera digital yang diubah menjadi kamera IR tidak bisa untuk pemotretan biasa. Saat ini kamera digital dan program komputer mempermudah
Full Text Available In today’s world, globalization and the increased use of information technology have resulted to the significant increases of economic crimes in recent years. Accordingly, financial crimes, such as money laundering misconducts have increased significantly. The police play active roles in the fight against money laundering and related crimes in Turkey. However, professional support is essential in order to effectively combat money laundering. In other words, not only a good level of economics, finance, accounting knowledge is critical; but also, a decent level of law information is crucial in the detection and prevention of these crimes. Increasing the effectiveness of forensic accounting profession, especially in the USA, has an important role in the prevention and detection of money laundering. Since forensic accountants have skills and capacities of litigation support, investigative accounting and expertise.
Gilmore, Simon; Peakall, Rod; Robertson, James
Short tandem repeat (STR) markers are the DNA marker of choice in forensic analysis of human DNA. Here we extend the application of STR markers to Cannabis sativa and demonstrate their potential for forensic investigations. Ninety-three individual cannabis plants, representing drug and fibre accessions of widespread origin were profiled with five STR makers. A total of 79 alleles were detected across the five loci. All but four individuals from a single drug-type accession had a unique multilocus genotype. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant genetic variation among accessions, with an average of 25% genetic differentiation. By contrast, only 6% genetic difference was detected between drug and fibre crop accessions and it was not possible to unequivocally assign plants as either drug or fibre type. However, our results suggest that drug strains may typically possess lower genetic diversity than fibre strains, which may ultimately provide a means of genetic delineation. Our findings demonstrate the promise of cannabis STR markers to provide information on: (1) agronomic type, (2) the geographical origin of drug seizures, and (3) evidence of conspiracy in production of clonally propagated drug crops.
International audience; Overview Police as an institution cannot be said to have inspired in-depth conceptualization effortsfrom criminology and criminal justice so far. Scholars in this area show a clear preference for empirically exploring what individual police officers do or think, and the policing concept they most readily converge towards tends to hinge on the use of force, a notion developed by ethnomethodologist, Egon Bittner. This concept holds that what constitutes policing as such ...
Mayer, Klaus; Wallenius, Maria; Luetzenkirchen, Klaus; Horta, Joan; Nicholl, Adrian; Rasmussen, Gert; Belle, Pieter van; Varga, Zsolt; Buda, Razvan; Erdmann, Nicole; Kratz, Jens-Volker; Trautmann, Norbert; Fifield, L. Keith; Tims, Stephen G.; Froehlich, Michaela B.; Steier, Peter
Here we present a nuclear forensic study of uranium from German nuclear projects which used different geometries of metallic uranium fuel. Through measurement of the 230 Th/ 234 U ratio, we could determine that the material had been produced in the period from 1940 to 1943. To determine the geographical origin of the uranium, the rare-earth-element content and the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio were measured. The results provide evidence that the uranium was mined in the Czech Republic. Trace amounts of 236 U and 239 Pu were detected at the level of their natural abundance, which indicates that the uranium fuel was not exposed to any major neutron fluence. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.
Moreno, Alejandro; Crosby, Sondra; Xenakis, Stephen; Iacopino, Vincent
The Kyrgyz government declared a policy of "zero tolerance" for torture and began reforms to stop such practice, a regular occurrence in the country's daily life. This study presents the results of 10 forensic evaluations of individuals alleging torture; they represent 35% of all criminal investigations into torture for the January 2011-July 2012 period. All individuals evaluated were male with an average age of 34 years. Police officers were implicated as perpetrators in all cases. All individuals reported being subjected to threats and blunt force trauma from punches, kicks, and blows with objects such as police batons. The most common conditions documented during the evaluations were traumatic brain injury and chronic seizures. Psychological sequelae included post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder, which was diagnosed in seven individuals. In all cases, the physical and psychological evidence was highly consistent with individual allegations of abuse. These forensic evaluations, which represent the first ever to be conducted in Kyrgyzstan in accordance with Istanbul Protocol standards, provide critical insight into torture practices in the country. The evaluations indicate a pattern of brutal torture practices and inadequate governmental and nongovernmental forensic evaluations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Talbot-Wright, B.; Baechler, S.; Morelato, M.; Ribaux, O.; Roux, C.
Forensic intelligence has recently gathered increasing attention as a potential expansion of forensic science that may contribute in a wider policing and security context. Whilst the new avenue is certainly promising, relatively few attempts to incorporate models, methods and techniques into practical projects are reported. This work reports a practical application of a generalised and transversal framework for developing forensic intelligence processes referred to here as the Transversal mod...
Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M
Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.
Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation. (c...
Abduo, Jaafar; Bennamoun, Mohammed
Frequently, human dentition is utilized for victim identification. This report introduces a new human identification technique based on the principle of 3-dimensional (3D) image registration of the dentition. With the aid of a dry human skull, postmortem (PM) and antemortem (AM) scenarios were assumed. The skull in its initial state composed the PM scenario. Virtual 3D PM images were reconstructed from medical CT images. The AM scenario was achieved by reconstructing the missing hard and soft tissues of the skull by dental waxes. Virtual 3D AM images were obtained by laser surface scanning. The virtual PM and AM images were registered at 2 levels: arch level and tooth level. At arch level, the deviation between the 2 images was 0.147 mm for the maxilla and 0.166 mm for the mandible. At tooth level, the deviation average ranged from 0.077 to 0.237 mm. Qualitatively, even image fit was observed for the arches, intact teeth, and teeth with minimal deficiencies. As the tooth defect increased, the alignment discrepancy increased. It is concluded that 3D image registration ensured an accurate superimposition of the 3D images and can be used as a robust tool for forensic identification.
Hoog, A., & Strzempka, K. (2011). iPhone and iOS Forensics: Investigation, Analysis and Mobile Security for Apple iPhone, iPad and iOS Devices. Waltham, MA: Syngress. 336 pages, ISBN: 978-1-59749-659-9, US$69.95.Reviewed by Christopher Schulte, EnCE & ACE, LuciData Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota ()These are exciting times for Digital Forensics practitioners. While our examinations of mobile devices (including cell phones and tablet computers) continue to bring ne...
Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Lalu, Kaisa
in Denmark with another cost profile. Data on cause of death investigation systems and costs were derived from Departments of Forensic Medicine, Departments of Pathology, and the National Police. Finnish and Danish autopsy rates were calculated in unnatural (accident, suicide, homicide and undetermined...
Biedermann, A; Taroni, F; Delemont, O; Semadeni, C; Davison, A C
This paper extends a previous discussion of the use of Bayesian networks for evaluating evidence in the forensic investigation of fire incidents. Bayesian networks are proposed for two casework examples and the practical implications studied in detail. Such networks were found to provide precious support in addressing some of the wide range of issues that affect the coherent evaluation of evidence.
Steven A. Koehler
Full Text Available Sudden infant deaths syndrome (SIDS, the sudden and unexpected death of a normal and healthy infant, has remained a medical and forensic mystery. Despite years of research all attempts to ascertain the exact cause and manner of death have failed. The information collected during the course of the comprehensive investigation by the various investigation agencies and analysis of the data has not been in vain. The epidemiological, demographic, and pathological data have identified distinctive features and risk factors associated with infants that died from SIDS. Epidemiological data has provided the unique characteristics of infants that died of SIDS that differentiates them from non-SIDS infants. Analysis of information from the death scene investigation has identified key risk factor behaviour associated with SIDS, namely the prone sleeping position. Pathological examination of the internal organs, specifically the brain, has shown some differences between SIDS and non-SIDS infants. However, to gain a complete picture of SIDS data, all countries around the world must provide information, even basic information, to understand this syndrome better. Developing countries must understand their role and importance in developing plans to investigate, collect, and disseminate SIDS data to the rest of the world. This paper provides general guidelines for the investigation of SIDS in developing countries.
Keatley, A.C.; Scott, T.B.; Davis, S.; Jones, C.P.; Turner, P.
Minor element composition and rare earth element (REE) concentrations in nuclear materials are important as they are used within the field of nuclear forensics as an indicator of sample origin. However recent studies into uranium ores and uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) have shown significant elemental and isotopic heterogeneity from a single mine site such that some sites have shown higher variation within the mine site than that seen between multiple sites. The elemental composition of both uranium and gangue minerals within ore samples taken along a single mineral vein in South West England have been measured and reported here. The analysis of the samples was undertaken to determine the extent of the localised variation in key elements. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyse the gangue mineralogy and measure major element composition. Minor element composition and rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured by Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA). The results confirm that a number of key elements, REE concentrations and patterns used for origin location do show significant variation within mine. Furthermore significant variation is also visible on a meter scale. In addition three separate uranium phases were identified within the vein which indicates multiple uranium mineralisation events. In light of these localised elemental variations it is recommended that representative sampling for an area is undertaken prior to establishing the REE pattern that may be used to identify the originating mine for an unknown ore sample and prior to investigating impact of ore processing on any arising REE patterns. - Highlights: • Demonstrating significant variation at meter scale distances. • Importance of understanding heterogeneity in aid of nuclear forensics interpretation. • Understanding local features prior to determining feed through of elements to UOCs. • Key elements, REE concentrations and patterns show significant variation
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne
This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.
MacLean, Charles E; Lamparello, Adam
Forensic DNA Phenotyping ("FDP"), estimating the externally visible characteristics ("EVCs") of the source of human DNA left at a crime scene, is evolving from science fiction toward science fact. FDP can already identify a source's gender with 100% accuracy, and likely hair color, iris color, adult height, and a number of other EVCs with accuracy rates approaching 70%. Patent applications have been filed for approaches to generating 3D likenesses of DNA sources based on the DNA alone. Nonetheless, criminal investigators, particularly in the United States, have been reticent to apply FDP in their casework. The reticence is likely related to a number of perceived and real dilemmas associated with FDP: is FDP racial profiling, should we test unknown and unseen physical conditions, does testing for behavioral characteristics impermissibly violate the source's privacy, ought testing be permitted for samples from known sources or DNA databases, and should FDP be limited to use in investigations only or is FDP appropriate for use in a criminal court. As this article explains, although those dilemmas are substantive, they are not insurmountable, and can be quite easily managed with appropriate regulation and protocols. As FDP continues to develop, there will be less need for criminal investigators to shy away from FDP. Cold cases, missing persons, and victims in crimes without other evidence will one day soon all be well served by FDP.
Byard, Roger W
Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.
Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…
fired under bad circumstances either having stolen some item of value from his employer or offended, harassed, accosted, or raped a co-worker, classmate...for special access programs. , 3.10. Employs specialized investigative techniques to include forensic and t:>ehavioral sciencell and hypnosis . 3.11
Pasquale, Liliana; Yu, Yijun; Salehie, Mazeiar; Cavallaro, Luca; Tun, Thein Than; Nuseibeh, Bashar
A digital forensics process aims to collect and analyze the evidence essential to demonstrate a potential hypothesis of a crime. We propose the use of forensic requirements to automate a digital forensics process. We augment traditional reactive digital forensics processes - used to perform an investigation - with proactive evidence collection and analysis activities, which provide immediate investigative suggestions before an investigation starts. These activities dynamically adapt depending...
This article examines the development of community-based policing in the United States and the Netherlands. These two countries were selected because the United States has been the forerunner of research into the police and one of the first countries to attempt to introduce on a wide-scale, and
Full text: The Exhibit Handling System, operated by the Anti-Terrorist Branch, has evolved from experiences whilst dealing with long term domestic terrorism and the subsequent prosecution of the offenders. Stringent U.K. criminal law in regard to exhibits and forensic evidence required a strict system in order to provide continuity and integrity to every item that came into possession of the Police. This system also applies to items that are eventually deemed 'unused', as nearly all evidence is disclosed to the defence. I believe that if a system can withstand the close examination that British Criminal Law provides, it will probably be suitable in most countries. The system relies on each item being supplied with a documented trail of all persons who have had possession of it and who have opened the security packaging for examination purposes. In contaminated environments the initial process within the system has to be adapted in order that strict monitoring of the items can be carried out during the packaging process. It is also recognized that access to many exhibits will be heavily restricted and therefore protocols are in place to interrogate the evidence at the packaging stage in order to avoid unnecessary spread of contamination. The protocols are similar for both radiological and nuclear incidents as well as chemical and biological. Regardless of the type of incident the system can be adapted on the advice of the relevant scientific authority. In the U.K. for radiological and nuclear incidents that authority would be the A.W.E. Aldermaston. The integrity and continuity regime should be continued within laboratories which are conducting examinations of exhibits recovered. It is also important that Nuclear Forensic Laboratories do not overlook possibilities of traditional evidence, such as DNA, Fingerprints and fibre traces. Good record photography of items which are unlikely to be released by the laboratory is essential. Finally, cross-contamination has in
The supplementary designation "criminalistics" in the title of certain forensic medical institutes in the first half of this century is to be regarded as a reaction to faulty developments in our specialty, which almost led to the elimination of forensic medicine as an independent scientific discipline in the 1960s. The ability to think in terms of criminalistics and the corresponding working procedures has always been a crucial precondition for the forensic physician, since forensic medicine is the application of medical knowledge for juridical purposes. Forensic medicine originated with the appraisal of cases of violent death by doctors, i.e., reconstruction of the facts in the case. To use the term "criminalistics" in the form of a supplementary designation is thus not required. An attempt is nevertheless made to define "medical criminalistics" as a small but important component of criminalistics. They are subdivided into two phases: the first part begins at the scene of the crime or the place of discovery (local evidence). Here, the trained eye of the forensic physician is indispensable to the criminal investigation department and the prosecutor. Medical criminalistic thinking and working procedures continue at the autopsy. Here, forensic autopsy differs from that practiced by the pathologist. Without knowledge of the situation at the discovery location, the forensic physician runs the risk of not recognizing facts that are important for reconstruction and thus becoming a "destroyer of clues". The second part of medical criminalistics is the actual detection of medical clues, i.e., the investigation of medical clues with special methods, including histological and toxicological investigations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip
as exploring current strengths and opportunities for further development. One of the central issues that the report identifies are problems in terms of proactive verbal and friendly engagement from police ‘front line’ staff. The report goes on to provide a series of recommendations for the future development......”. But Professor Stott and his team go on to highlight an important breakdown in the nationally coordinated policing reforms that took place following the riots in Gothenburg in 2001, referred to as the Special Police Tactic. They assert that “the police can benefit from nationally unified clear and coherent...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....
Houck, M M
Forensic hair examination and comparison is often undervalued as evidence. Significant information can be developed from a thorough microscopic examination and comparison of human and animal hairs that can assist criminal and civil investigations. Animal hairs can be distinguished easily from human hairs and often can be specified to a genus, species, or even breed. Human hairs often can be identified as to their body area origin and the racial ancestry of the person from whom they originated. Additionally, damage, disease, or cosmetic treatments can be identified and described. Finally, suitable hairs can be compared microscopically with known hair samples to determine if they could have come from the same source. This application is now being augmented by mitochondrial DNA analysis, which enhances the information already available from a microscopic examination of evidentiary hairs. Training and qualification of forensic hair examiners is crucial to the quality and reliability of forensic hair examinations. Many of the weaknesses in forensic hair examinations seen to date are a result of inadequate training of forensic hair examiners and a lack of understanding about the fundamental nature of the examination of hairs. Mitochondrial DNA offers a chance for the rehabilitation and validation of microscopical examination of human, and potentially animal, hairs. Copyright © 2005 Central Police University.
Donati, Francesco; Stampella, Alessandra; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco
Homologous blood transfusion is an illicit practice used by athletes to improve the delivery of oxygen to tissues and, as such, it is banned in sports. The current method of detection is based on the flow cytofluorimetric phenotypic identification of red blood cells mismatch of minor blood group antigens between the donor and the recipient. The selectivity of this method to clearly identify transfused samples is related to the number of blood group antigens tested. Despite the fact that several different antigens are investigated, two individuals sharing the expression of the same minor blood group antigens pattern cannot be distinguished. We tested the possibility to use a different approach based on DNA forensic human identification techniques. Analysis of the DNA short tandem repeats (STRs) demonstrated its suitability in detecting mixed whole blood samples simulating homologous blood transfusion in 100% of the samples tested, ensuring the capability of clearly detecting mixed blood cell populations also on samples where the fraction of the minoritary population is as low as 2.5%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Speller, Camilla F; Nicholas, George P; Yang, Dongya Y
The ability to accurately identify bird species is crucial for wildlife law enforcement and bird-strike investigations. However, such identifications may be challenging when only partial or damaged feathers are available for analysis. By applying vigorous contamination controls and sensitive PCR amplification protocols, we found that it was feasible to obtain accurate mitochondrial (mt)DNA-based species identification with as few as two feather barbs. This minimally destructive DNA approach was successfully used and tested on a variety of bird species, including North American wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), blue heron (Ardea herodias) and pygmy owl (Glaucidium californicum). The mtDNA was successfully obtained from 'fresh' feathers, historic museum specimens and archaeological samples, demonstrating the sensitivity and versatility of this technique. By applying appropriate contamination controls, sufficient quantities of mtDNA can be reliably recovered and analyzed from feather barbs. This previously overlooked substrate provides new opportunities for accurate DNA species identification when minimal feather samples are available for forensic analysis.
Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott
The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…
Modern scientific technology now plays an increasingly important role in the process of law enforcement. Neutron activation, as developed for elemental analysis offers, in many cases, the suitable answer to forensic problems. The author discusses the use NAA has been put to in forensic science. (Auth.)
Houborg, Esben; Kammersgaard, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael Mulbjerg
studies show ambiguous results. Criminal records do not indicate that particular people are singled out. Interviews with police officers indicate that appearance of persons and non-offending behavior can play a role in suspicion formation and legal action. The ambiguity of the results can be seen...
Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity
Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world. PMID:27688352
Christiansen, Sofie Lindgren; Hertz, Christin Løth; Ferrero, Laura
%) individuals carried variants with a likely functional effect. Ten (40%) of these variants were located in genes associated with cardiomyopathies and 15 (60%) of the variants in genes associated with cardiac channelopathies. Nineteen individuals carried variants with unknown functional effect. Our findings...... indicate that broad genetic investigation of SUD victims increases the diagnostic outcome, and the investigation should comprise genes involved in both cardiomyopathies and cardiac channelopathies.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 21 September 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.118....
Babu Rs, A; Rose, D
Forensic odontology explores the field of human identification through dental tissues in cases where there is the destruction of body tissues in criminal investigations and mass disasters. Forensic odontology involves dentists participating in legal and criminal issues. Parameters such as age and gender identification are important in identifying the person or persons. Over the last two decades, the molecular aspect of forensic sciences has increased, and these molecular techniques now provide a novel approach to forensic odontology. Molecular advancements in science like DNA analysis have extended the range of forensic dentistry, as teeth possess the character of resistance toward physical or chemical aggressions. Teeth provide the abundant space for DNA, and hence teeth represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The present paper focusses on molecular advancements in the field of forensic odontology.
Leach, Chelsea; Powell, Martine B; Sharman, Stefanie J; Anglim, Jeromy
Children's disclosures of sexual abuse during forensic interviews are fundamental to the investigation of cases. Research examining the relationship between age and disclosure has shown mixed results; the aim of the current study was to clarify and extend our knowledge by modeling linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of age on disclosure. Child sexual abuse reports made by children, their caregivers, or mandated reporters over a 12-month period to police in one state of Australia were examined. Of the 527 children (age range 3-16 years) offered a forensic interview, 81% disclosed abuse during it. The other 19% did not disclose or refused the interview. Age had both linear and quadratic effects, whereby disclosure increased with age until 11 years, after which disclosure decreased with age to 16 years. The effect of age on disclosure was moderated by five variables: abuse severity, the child-suspect relationship, suspects' violence histories, delay of report to police, and children's previous disclosures. Particular groups of children had lower likelihoods of disclosing abuse in forensic interviews than others, such as adolescents who alleged abuse against suspects with histories of violent offending. By identifying these groups, targeted strategies may be developed to help increase their disclosure rates.
Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.
Leth, Peter Mygind
Modern diagnostic imagining techniques are gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Denmark has been involved in the development of this use of imaging techniques from the beginning. The Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Southern Denmark acquired a helical computed tomography (CT...... AND METHODS: This thesis investigated 900 forensic cases that were CT-scanned and autopsied at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, from 2006-2011. The scanner was a Siemens Somatom Spirit dual-slice CT-scanner with a Siemens Syngo MultiModality workstation. Contrast enhancement...
Digital forensics and multimedia forensics are rapidly growing disciplines whereby electronic information is extracted and interpreted for use in a court of law. These two fields are finding increasing importance in law enforcement and the investigation of cybercrime as the ubiquity of personal computing and the internet becomes ever-more apparent. Digital forensics involves investigating computer systems and digital artefacts in general, while multimedia forensics is a sub-topic of digital forensics focusing on evidence extracted from both normal computer systems and special multimedia devices, such as digital cameras. This book focuses on the interface between digital forensics and multimedia forensics, bringing two closely related fields of forensic expertise together to identify and understand the current state-of-the-art in digital forensic investigation. Both fields are expertly attended to by contributions from researchers and forensic practitioners specializ ng in diverse topics such as forensic aut...
Ludmila Ribeiro; Victor Neiva e Oliveira; Alexandre Magno Alves Diniz
In recent years, Brazilian military police forces have adopted community policing programs in order to increase confidence in the institution and reduce crime rates. The objective of this study was to verify what the police frontline personnel understands by community policing and how they perceive the results of its implementation. A survey was conducted with 592 military policemen involved in operational activities in 32 military police companies of Belo Horizonte. The results point to a va...
Brown, A G
From 1997 to 2002 the United Nations International Criminal Tribune for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) undertook the exhumation of mass graves in NE Bosnia as part of the war crimes investigations aimed at providing evidence for the prosecution of war criminals in The Hague. This involved the location and exhumation of seven former mass graves (primary sites) dug following the fall of Srebrenica in July 1995. These primary mass graves were secretly and hurriedly exhumed three months later and most of the bodies or body parts transported and reburied in a large number of secondary sites many of which were subsequently exhumed by ICTY. The aim of the pollen and soil/sediment studies was to provide an 'environmental profile' of the original site of the samples and use this to match the relocated bodies to the original mass graves. This was part of completing the chain of evidence, providing evidence of the scale and organization of the original atrocities and the subsequent attempts to conceal the evidence related to them. All the primary sites were located in areas of contrasting geology, soils and vegetation, and this allowed matching of the sediment transported in intimate contact with the bodies to the original burial sites, which in some cases were also the execution sites. In all, over 24 sites were investigated, over 240 samples collected and analyzed under low power microscopy and 65 pollen sub-samples fully analyzed. The pollen and sediment descriptions were used in conjunction with the mineralogy (using XRD) of primary and secondary sites in order to provide matches. These matches were then compared with matching evidence from ballistic studies and clothing. The evidence has been used in court and is now in the public domain. It is believed this is the first time 'environmental profiling' techniques have been used in a systematic manner in a war crimes investigation.
Although thousands of search engines and databases are available online, finding answers to specific forensic science questions can be a challenge even to experienced Internet users. Because there is no central repository for forensic science information, and because of the sheer number of disciplines under the forensic science umbrella, forensic scientists are often unable to locate material that is relevant to their needs. The author contends that using six publicly accessible search engines and databases can produce high-quality search results. The six resources are Google, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google Books, WorldCat, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Carefully selected keywords and keyword combinations, designating a keyword phrase so that the search engine will search on the phrase and not individual keywords, and prompting search engines to retrieve PDF files are among the techniques discussed. Copyright © 2015 Central Police University.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the origin, spread and characteristic features of religious and socio-cultural life of the oppositional (“catacomb” religious movement of podgornovtsi during the period of the 1930–1960s. This study is based on recently declassiﬁ ed documents of Soviet state security organs. The paper considers the personality of the founder of the movement Stefan Podgornyi and the transformation of the movement from the anti-canonical Orthodoxy to a quasireligious variety of the anti-Communist opposition. This transformation was caused by the persecution of the Orthodox Church in the 1920s, the forced collectivisation, destruction of the traditional way of village life, as well as the oﬃcial position of Moscow Patriarchate as to the recognition of the Soviet state. The paper discusses forms and methods of the police investigation and repressions against podgornovtsi. Based on documents from archives of Ukrainian state security organs (it should be noted that the movement was particularly popular in the Ukraine, the paper shows features of the religious “doctrine” of the movement, its rites, worldview, social and political beliefs and everyday life of the adherents of the movement, as well as their relationships with German military organs and postwar repressions against the movement. It is concluded that the spread of this movement in the USSR was a logical result of persecution of the canonical Orthodoxy and the restriction of religious freedom. Communities of podgornovtsi embodied such characteristic features of “religious underground” as deliberate withdrawal from any social and political events of the state, maximal distancing from social life and the corresponding upbringing of children, apocalyptic sentiment, denial to perform social duties, including military service and voting in elections.
Luttenberger, Silas; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner
The aim of this article is to show forensic investigation methods for mobile phones to students in a university forensic lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. Open source tools as well as commercial forensic tools for forensic investigation of modern mobile (smart) phones are used. It is demonstrated how important data stored in the mobile device are investigated. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university.
Shuherk, Cassie Marie
Bullet and cartridge case evidence may potentially link weapons and crimes through the comparison of toolmark patterns. This analysis relies on the clarity of the toolmarks and the ability of the examiner to identify patterns on the evidence. These patterns may be distorted by debris such as soil, blood, cyanoacrylate, and construction materials. Despite the potential importance of bullet and cartridge case evidence, few investigations of proper cleaning methods have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the effects of various cleaning solutions and application methods on copper and brass bullets and cartridge cases. Additionally, this research investigated the efficacy of these cleaning protocols on the common evidence contaminants blood and cyanoacrylate. No cleaning method was found to be universally effective on both contaminant types and nondestructive to the metal surface. Ultrasonication was the most efficient application method employed when used in conjunction with an appropriate cleaning solution. Acetone proved to be safe and successful at removing heavy cyanoacrylate deposits from brass cartridge cases without damaging the metal. Although sulfuric acid removed most of the cyanoacrylate from the brass cartridge case, ultrasonication of the fumed cartridge cases in sulfuric acid caused the nickel-plated primer caps to turn black. Additionally, etching occurred when sulfuric acid was allowed to dry on the cartridge case surface. Citric acid, salt-flour-vinegar paste, TergazymeRTM, and water did not effectively remove the cyanoacrylate from the cartridge cases, but the solutions were safe to use on the brass and sometimes resulted in a shinier surface. Regardless of the cleaning method employed, the bloodstained bullets retained most or all of the underlying brown tarnish. Ultrasonication with sulfuric acid was successful at removing some blood-initiated tarnishing; however, the removal of residues was not complete, making it difficult
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Community outreach activities attended by Pittsburgh Police Officers, starting from January 1 2016. Includes Zone, Event Name, Location, Date and Time.
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...
Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie
and private organisations doing business-in-society. The case concerns the reformation of the Danish Police. In 2007 the Danish Police started implementing an extensive reform that affected all parts of the organisation. Despite thorough planning of the process including several change management initiatives...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...
Full Text Available This paper studies whether low-grade inertial sensors can be adequate source of data for the accident characterization and the estimation of vehicle trajectory near crash. Paper presents outcomes of an experiment carried out in accredited safety performance assessment facility in which full-size passenger car was crashed and the recordings of different types of motion sensors were compared to investigate practical level of accuracy of consumer grade sensors versus reference equipment and cameras. Inertial navigation system was developed by combining motion sensors of different dynamic ranges to acquire and process vehicle crash data. Vehicle position was reconstructed in three-dimensional space using strap-down inertial mechanization. Difference between the computed trajectory and the ground-truth position acquired by cameras was on decimeter level within short time window of 750 ms. Experiment findings suggest that inertial sensors of this grade, despite significant stochastic variations and imperfections, can be valuable for estimation of velocity vector change, crash severity, direction of impact force, and for estimation of vehicle trajectory in crash proximity.
Cocks, Jeannie; du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Steffens, Francois; Saayman, Gert
In a country notorious for violent crime, it seems that South African medico-legal laboratories make minimal application of technology in the death investigation process and little attention is given to trace evidence. Non-destructive, non-invasive, portable and cost-effective tools are required. This study was conducted at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory. The surface area of the bodies and clothing of victims of fatal interpersonal violence were examined using a torch, magnifying lamp, portable digital microscope and alternate light source to gauge their potential for trace evidence detection. Most studies apply these and similar tools to inert surfaces, with few focusing on their application to human skin. There was a statistically significant difference in the detection of many of the evidence types between the naked-eye observation of the pathologists and the technologies. The different imaging technologies were compared as to their cost, evidence detection ability and ease of use. The most common evidence types discovered on the bodies and clothing of victims of fatal interpersonal violence, as well as the propensity of each tool to detect these, was evaluated in order to devise the best option for incorporation into the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory routine. The digital microscope performed best overall followed by the magnifying lamp, torch and the Polilight(®). This study aimed to justify the investment of more time, effort and funding into trace evidence recovery in the South African mortuary environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raghav Kumar; Appaji Athota; Trisha Rastogi; Sunil Kumar Karumuri
In any mass disaster condition, identification of the person is most important. For this purpose, the forensic investigators use different methods for identifying the dead. They consider skeletal remains of the dead as the initial step in identification. Radiographs carry great evidence to act as antemortem records and also assist in identifying the person, age, gender, race, etc. Forensic dentistry is also emerging as a new branch in forensics. So, the forensic dentist must be aware of diffe...
Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Claassen, F.C.; Engelen, M.C.; Beek, van T.A.
Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS
Full Text Available In recent years, Brazilian military police forces have adopted community policing programs in order to increase confidence in the institution and reduce crime rates. The objective of this study was to verify what the police frontline personnel understands by community policing and how they perceive the results of its implementation. A survey was conducted with 592 military policemen involved in operational activities in 32 military police companies of Belo Horizonte. The results point to a vast plasticity of the concept, which came to mean any type of activity carried out by police officers and by the community without the formal cooperation of the police, making the category "community policing" a new name for old police practices.
Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje
Full Text Available The paper is a review of different issues that a forensic psychologists encounter at work. Forensic assessment might be needed in civil law cases, administrative procedures and in criminal law cases. The paper focuses on referrals in criminal law cases regarding matters such as assessing competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility and violence risk assessment. Finally, the role of expert testimony on eyewitness memory, which is not used in practice in Slovenia yet, is presented.
Garfinkel, Simson L.
A reprint from American Scientist the magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society Since the 1980s, computers have had increasing roles in all aspects of human life—including an involvement in criminal acts. This development has led to the rise of digital forensics, the uncovering and examination of evidence located on all things electronic with digital storage, including computers, cell phones, and networks. Digital forensics researchers and practitione...
van Asten, Arian C
In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.
Rossy, Q.; Ioset, S.; Dessimoz, D.; Ribaux, O.
Since 2008, Intelligence units of six states of the western part of Switzerland have been sharing a common database for the analysis of high volume crimes. On a daily basis, events reported to the police are analysed, filtered and classified to detect crime repetitions and interpret the crime environment. Several forensic outcomes are integrated in the system such as matches of traces with persons, and links between scenes detected by the comparison of forensic case data. Systematic procedure...
Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine
Full Text Available The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC, international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc., forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics, forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants, psychiatry and hypnotics, forensic anthropology and archeology, forensic odontology, fingerprints and impressions, firearms and tool marks, white collar crimes (counterfeit and forgery; questioned documents, digital forensics; cyber-crimes, criminal justice and crime scene investigation, as well as many other disciplines where science and medicine interact with the law.
... and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or t...
Morelato, Marie; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Ribaux, Olivier; Kirkbride, Paul; Roux, Claude
Traditional forensic drug profiling involves numerous analytical techniques, and the whole process is typically costly and may be time consuming. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of prioritising techniques utilised at the Australian Federal Police (AFP) for the chemical profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). The outcome would provide the AFP with the ability to obtain more timely and valuable results that could be used in an intelligence perspective. Correlation coefficients were used to obtain a similarity degree between a population of linked samples (within seizures) and a population of unlinked samples (between different seizures) and discrimination between the two populations was ultimately achieved. The results showed that gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was well suited as a single technique to detect links between seizures and could be used in priority for operational intelligence purposes. Furthermore, the method was applied to seizures known or suspected (through their case information) to be linked to each other to assess the chemical similarity between samples. It was found that half of the seizures previously linked by the case number were also linked by the chemical profile. This procedure was also able to highlight links between cases that were previously unsuspected and retrospectively confirmed by circumstantial information. The findings are finally discussed in the broader forensic intelligence context, with a focus on how they could be successfully incorporated into investigations and in an intelligence-led policing perspective in order to understand trafficking markets. © 2014.
3 D. WHAT IS COMPUTER FORENSICS ..........................................................6 E. SURVEY OF AGENCIES AND VENDORS PROVIDING COMPUTER...lead to the formulation of computer forensic material for a potential Computer Forensic Course at NPS. 6 D. WHAT IS COMPUTER FORENSICS...Individualization 8. Reconstruction 63 What is Computer Forensics? Computer Forensics involves the identification, extraction, preservation and
José Roberto Pujol-Luz
Full Text Available Apresentamos uma história do desenvolvimento da Entomologia Forense no Brasil e uma avaliação do estado da arte e perspectivas. Esses estudos no Brasil iniciaram-se em 1908 com os trabalhos pioneiros de Roquette-Pinto e Oscar Freire, que notaram a grande diversidade da fauna de insetos necrófagos e a impossibilidade de aplicação direta de métodos desenvolvidos na Europa. Nas últimas duas décadas a Entomologia Forense tem avançado rapidamente no Brasil, mas ainda existem lacunas importantes no conhecimento, especialmente com relação à taxonomia, biologia e ecologia dos principais grupos de moscas e besouros necrófagos e também falta de integração entre os entomologistas e a polícia judiciária. Atualmente existem no Brasil mais de 20 pesquisadores desenvolvendo pesquisas relacionadas com Entomologia Forense e algumas dezenas de peritos criminais com treinamento nessa área, em quase todos os estados brasileiros. Neste trabalho são também apresentadas algumas diretrizes para políticas de desenvolvimento deste campo de pesquisas no Brasil.The history of the development of forensic entomology in Brazil, its current status and perspectives are reviewed. Those studies in Brazil began in 1908 with the pioneer works conducted by Roquette-Pinto and Oscar Freire, who noted the high diversity of the native fauna of necrophagous insects and the impossibility of direct application of the methods developed in Europe. In the last two decades, forensic entomology advanced rapidly in Brazil, but there still are some important limitations, especially in relation to the taxonomy, biology and ecology of necrophagous insects and the lack of interaction between researchers and police investigators. Today there are in Brazil over 20 researchers involved with forensic entomology and tens of police investigators with some training in this field. Guidelines for the development of this field of investigation in Brazil are also presented.
Oiye, Erica N; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda M; Okumura, Leonardo L; Saczk, Adelir A; Ciancaglini, Pietro; de Oliveira, Marcelo F
The illegal use of formalin (commercial formaldehyde) in cosmetic products harms the health of individuals exposed to this substance. Over the last years, the commercial availability of these products, especially those containing irregular dosage of formaldehyde, has increased in Brazil. This work analyzes some products for hair treatment available in the Brazilian market and verifies their safety. The adopted analytical methodology involved sample derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (UV-VIS) at λ = 365 nm. The limit of quantification is 2.5 × 10 -3% w/w, and the recovery tests were around 93%. Some of the samples contained high and illegal formaldehyde levels ranging from 9% to 19% (w/w) and others presented suitable concentrations of the analyte. On the basis of the results, this work discusses the efficiency and practicality of this analytical method for forensic purposes. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Shepherd, Andrew; Sanders, Caroline; Shaw, Jenny
Understandings of personal recovery have emerged as an alternative framework to traditional ideas of clinical progression, or symptom remission, in clinical practice. Most research in this field has focussed on the experience of individuals suffering with psychotic disorders and little research has been conducted to explore the experience of individuals with a personality disorder diagnosis, despite the high prevalence of such difficulties. The nature of the personality disorder diagnosis, together with high prevalence rates in forensic settings, renders the understanding of recovery in these contexts particularly problematic. The current study seeks to map out pertinent themes relating to the recovery process in personality disorder as described by individuals accessing care in either community or forensic settings. Individual qualitative interviews were utilised to explore the lived experience of those receiving a personality disorder diagnosis and accessing mental health care in either community or forensic settings. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify shared concepts and understanding between participants. Fourty-one individual participant interviews were conducted across forensic and community settings. Recovery was presented by participants as a developing negotiated understanding of the self, together with looked for change and hope in the future. Four specific themes emerged in relation to this process: 1. Understanding early lived experience as informing sense of self 2. Developing emotional control 3. Diagnosis as linking understanding and hope for change 4. The role of mental health services. Through considering personal recovery in personality disorder as a negotiated understanding between the individual, their social networks and professionals this study illustrates the complexity of working through such a process. Clarity of understanding in this area is essential to avoid developing resistance in the recovery process. Understanding of
Šumberová, Kateřina; Ducháček, M.
Roč. 270, Jan 2017 (2017), s. 121-128 ISSN 0379-0738 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14045; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : forensic marker * vehicle * ecological species group (eco-group) Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant science s, botany Impact factor: 1.989, year: 2016
In the present talk the fundamentals of the nuclear forensic investigations will be discussed followed by the detailed standard operating procedure (SOP) for the nuclear forensic analysis. The characteristics, such as, dimensions, particle size, elemental and isotopic composition help the nuclear forensic analyst in source attribution of the interdicted material, as the specifications of the nuclear materials used by different countries are different. The analysis of elemental composition could be done by SEM-EDS, XRF, CHNS analyser, etc. depending upon the type of the material. Often the trace constituents (analysed by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, AAS, etc) provide valuable information about the processes followed during the production of the material. Likewise the isotopic composition determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry provides useful information about the enrichment of the nuclear fuel and hence its intended use
Globalisation, immigration, and advancements in digital and information technologies present a range of complex socio-political, demographic, cultural and technological challenges for policing. Playing out across an increasingly diverse Australian society, these influences are progressively more likely to have a significant impact on policing, requiring a nuanced and flexible policing style with its attendant challenges for police education. Local challenges posed by regional and internationa...
Bove, Vincenzo; Gavrilova, Evelina
Sparked by high-profile confrontations between police and citizens in Ferguson, Missouri, and elsewhere, many commentators have criticized the excessive militarization of law enforcement. We investigate whether surplus military-grade equipment acquired by local police departments from the Pentagon has an effect on crime rates. We use temporal variations in US military expenditure and between-counties variation in the odds of receiving a positive amount of military aid to identify the causal e...
Approaching ethical, legal and social issues of emerging forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP) technologies comprehensively: Reply to ‘Forensic DNA phenotyping: Predicting human appearance from crime scene material for investigative purposes’ by Manfred Kayser
Toom, V.; Wienroth, M.; M'charek, A.; Prainsack, B.; Williams, R.; Duster, T.; Heinemann, T.; Kruse, C.; Machado, H.; Murphy, E.
In a recent special issue of the journal on new trends in forensic genetics, Manfred Kayser contributed a review of developments, opportunities and challenges of forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP). In his article he argues that FDP technologies - such as determining eye, hair and skin color - should be
Kunz, Sebastian N; Keller, Thomas; Grove, Christina; Lochner, Stefanie; Monticelli, Fabio
The rising popularity of Alpine skiing in recent years has led to an increase of skiing accidents, some with fatal outcome. In this paper, all fatal skiing accidents from the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the Paris Lodron University Salzburg were evaluated and compared with statistical data of the Alpine Police. In the wintertime of 2005/2006 until 2013/2014, 22 deadly skiing accidents were autopsied. The age of the male and female victims ranged between 12 and 71 years. The main cause of death was craniocerebral and chest trauma. A relevant blood alcohol concentration was detected in only one case. Together with trauma-biomechanical and technical experts, forensic medicine serves as a necessary clarification interface between the investigating authorities and the judiciary. Determining the cause and manner of death as well as reconstructing the accident is the main task of the forensic pathologist. The present study shows that in the county of Salzburg, only a small percentage of fatal skiing accidents is evaluated from a forensic and trauma-biomechanical point of view. Thus the possibilities of an interdisciplinary accident analysis are not always fully utilized.
This review analyses historical sources on the development of forensic medicine and the coroner system in the town of Bjelovar over the past two centuries. The development of these two professional fields in the context of public health was regulated through a number of bylaws, such as Normativum Sanitatum from the time of the Habsburg Monarchy. Coroner examinations were performed by physicians, surgeons, and laymen using special instructions such as the famous booklet by nobleman and county medical officer Vilim Peičić from 1914. Forensic autopsy was performed by surgeons, primary or secondary hospital physicians in case of sudden or suspicious in-hospital deaths, whereas outpatient forensic autopsies were performed by county or town medical officers and district physicians at the request of investigating authorities (police, court, or general attorney's office). This historical review should serve as the basis for further historical research into this field in Croatia so as to obtain deeper insight into the development of forensic medicine and the coroner system, two professions that have always been a vital factor in public health.
Rēpele, M; Alksne, M
The forensic potential of soil and geological evidence has been recognized for more than a century, but in the last 15 years these types of evidence have been used much more widely both as an investigative intelligence tool and as evidence in court.
Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Ranta, Helena
In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.
Ray, I.L.F.; Wiss, T.; Thiele, H.
Since 1994 the Institute for Transuranium Elements has played the leading role in Europe in the development of Nuclear Forensic Science. This is a new discipline which has developed out of necessity following the break up of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Block countries in 1989, which resulted in the emergence of a new form of illegal smuggling - that of nuclear materials. The Institute has been involved in the investigation of all the major cases of illicit trafficking involving nuclear- and nuclear-related materials in Europe from 1994, following the first major incident at Munich airport, up to the present time. Examples will be given here illustrating different types of cases: the accidental release of nuclear material into the environment, exercises carried out in cooperation with the German Federal Police (Bundeskriminalamt), and the removal of nuclear material with deliberate criminal intent
Full Text Available Computer Crime and computer related incidents continue their prevalence and frequency and result in loss of billions of dollars. To fight against those crimes and frauds, it is urgent to develop digital forensics education programs to train a suitable workforce to efficiently and effectively investigate crimes and frauds. However, there is no standard to guide the design of digital forensics curriculum for an academic program. In this research, we investigate the research works on digital forensics curriculum design and existing education programs.Â Both digital forensics educators and practitioners were surveyed and the results are analyzed to determine what industry and law enforcement need. Based on the survey results and what the industry certificate programs cover, we identified topics that are desired to be covered in digital forensics courses. Finally, we propose six digital forensics courses and their topics that can be offered in both undergraduate and graduate digital forensics programs.
Halkin, Pavel; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner
The aim of this article is to give a practical overview of forensic investigation of social networks cases using certain commercial software packages in a university forensics lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. It is demonstrated how to investigate important data from social network users. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university. In particular, we focus on the new version of Belkasoft Evidence Center and compare it with other well-known tools regarding functionality, usability and capabilities.
Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick
This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…
Kamenicky, Jan; Bartos, Michal; Flusser, Jan; Mahdian, Babak; Kotera, Jan; Novozamsky, Adam; Saic, Stanislav; Sroubek, Filip; Sorel, Michal; Zita, Ales; Zitova, Barbara; Sima, Zdenek; Svarc, Petr; Horinek, Jan
This paper introduces a set of methods for image and video forensic analysis. They were designed to help to assess image and video credibility and origin and to restore and increase image quality by diminishing unwanted blur, noise, and other possible artifacts. The motivation came from the best practices used in the criminal investigation utilizing images and/or videos. The determination of the image source, the verification of the image content, and image restoration were identified as the most important issues of which automation can facilitate criminalists work. Novel theoretical results complemented with existing approaches (LCD re-capture detection and denoising) were implemented in the PIZZARO software tool, which consists of the image processing functionality as well as of reporting and archiving functions to ensure the repeatability of image analysis procedures and thus fulfills formal aspects of the image/video analysis work. Comparison of new proposed methods with the state of the art approaches is shown. Real use cases are presented, which illustrate the functionality of the developed methods and demonstrate their applicability in different situations. The use cases as well as the method design were solved in tight cooperation of scientists from the Institute of Criminalistics, National Drug Headquarters of the Criminal Police and Investigation Service of the Police of the Czech Republic, and image processing experts from the Czech Academy of Sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The task of this study was to investigate the level of satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. The aim of this research was to examine whether the police treat all victims of crime equally responsibly, or whether there is a significant difference in the satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. On an occasional sample of 150 examinees, we analyzed the level of satisfaction of crime victims in relation to the expectations of the police regarding the reported criminal offenses and then the level of satisfaction towards different aspects of work and conduct of the police, such as reporting crime to the police, environmental conditions of interview and human compassion/empathy of police officers. The results indicate a significant difference in the satisfaction of specified aspects of police work among different categories of victims. Most dissatisfaction was expressed by members of the LGBT community and convicted persons when they appear in the role of victims. The research makes recommendations for improving the quality of the work and behavior of the police towards victims of crime.
Dorn, T.; Ceelen, M.; Buster, M.; Stirbu, I.; Donker, G.; Das, K.
Background: In many countries, forensic physicians function as primary care providers for detainees in police custody. Their task is comparable to the tasks of general practitioners. Nevertheless, problems presented by both patient populations may differ. We therefore aimed to systematically compare
Ramakrishnan, K; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C; Pratima, D Bhavani; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B
Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination.
Full Text Available Hoog, A., and Strzempka, K. (2011. iPhone and iOS Forensic: Investigation, Analysis and Mobile Security for Apple iPhone, iPad and iOS Devices. Syngress, Elsevier, xv + 310 pages; ISBN-10: 1597496596; ISBN-13: 978-1597496599, $69.95Reviewed by Simson Garfinkel, Naval Postgraduate SchoolIn April 2011 news outlets around the world revealed shocking news about Apple’s iPhone: for reasons that were not apparently clear, every iPhone contained a small SQLite database that logged where and when the user had been whenever the phone was turned on, and those records went back for pretty much as long as the user had owned their phone. Apple eventually declared that the data cache was the result of a bug and issued a software update to prune the database (it had previously grown without limit. Privacy activists rejoiced that their beloved iPhones were once again trustworthy. But forensics examiners just shook their heads: many had known about the iPhone’s tracking capabilities for more than a year and had kept quiet. They had made good use of that data. Apple’s pro-privacy patch was actually a setback for law enforcement.(see PDF for full review
Full Text Available Hoog, A., & Strzempka, K. (2011. iPhone and iOS Forensics: Investigation, Analysis and Mobile Security for Apple iPhone, iPad and iOS Devices. Waltham, MA: Syngress. 336 pages, ISBN: 978-1-59749-659-9, US$69.95.Reviewed by Christopher Schulte, EnCE & ACE, LuciData Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota (firstname.lastname@example.orgThese are exciting times for Digital Forensics practitioners. While our examinations of mobile devices (including cell phones and tablet computers continue to bring new and sometimes hair-pulling challenges into our labs and on-site engagements, research and understanding of these tiny computers is increasing at what seems an exponential rate. This is especially true in the iOS (Apple Computerâ€™s mobile operating system that powers the iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch and Apple TV space. The diligent work of talented computer scientists in this field allows examiners everywhere to reap the benefits of easier, faster and more effective examinations that yield more accurate and defendable results.(see PDF for full review
Nambiar, P; Bridges, T E; Brown, K A
As a result of a systematic morphometric study of shark dentitions, a system of notation for describing the location of shark teeth has been developed and is proposed as a standard to be adopted for use in similar studies in the future. The macroscopic morphology of White Shark teeth has been characterised in order to gain quantitative data which might assist in identification of these sharks from bite marks on victims or objects or from shark carcasses. Using these data, a nomogram has been developed which can be used to estimate the body length of a White Shark from measurements of tooth or bite mark morphology. An example of the forensic application of such allometric data is provided as it applied to a recent fatal attack on a diver by a White Shark.
Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.
Caliebe, Amke; Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Kayser, Manfred; Krawczak, Michael
It has become widely accepted in forensics that, owing to a lack of sensible priors, the evidential value of matching DNA profiles in trace donor identification or kinship analysis is most sensibly communicated in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR). This restraint does not abate the fact that the posterior odds (PO) would be the preferred basis for returning a verdict. A completely different situation holds for Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), which is aimed at predicting externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of a trace donor from DNA left behind at the crime scene. FDP is intended to provide leads to the police investigation helping them to find unknown trace donors that are unidentifiable by DNA profiling. The statistical models underlying FDP typically yield posterior odds (PO) for an individual possessing a certain EVC. This apparent discrepancy has led to confusion as to when LR or PO is the appropriate outcome of forensic DNA analysis to be communicated to the investigating authorities. We thus set out to clarify the distinction between LR and PO in the context of forensic DNA profiling and FDP from a statistical point of view. In so doing, we also addressed the influence of population affiliation on LR and PO. In contrast to the well-known population dependency of the LR in DNA profiling, the PO as obtained in FDP may be widely population-independent. The actual degree of independence, however, is a matter of (i) how much of the causality of the respective EVC is captured by the genetic markers used for FDP and (ii) by the extent to which non-genetic such as environmental causal factors of the same EVC are distributed equally throughout populations. The fact that an LR should be communicated in cases of DNA profiling whereas the PO are suitable for FDP does not conflict with theory, but rather reflects the immanent differences between these two forensic applications of DNA information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background Thousands of health-related online discussion groups are active world-wide however, very little is known about the purpose and usefulness of such groups. In 2003 an online discussion group called ‘forensic occupational therapy’ was established in the United Kingdom. This group was examined to gain an understanding of the purpose and use of online discussion groups for health professionals who may be practically and geographically isolated from others in similar areas of practice. Methods Following a case study design, descriptive characteristics on members’ locations and number of posts were collected from the forensic occupational therapy online discussion group. Eight years of posts (2003–2011) were examined using a theoretical thematic analysis process to identify and describe the purposes for which members were using the group. Results Members from 20 countries contributed to the discussion group; the vast majority of posts being from members in the United Kingdom. Activity within the group was consistently high for the first five years however, activity within the group declined in the final three years. Six purposes for which members use the online discussion group were identified: seeking and giving advice, networking, requesting and sharing material resources, service development, defining the role of occupational therapists, and student learning. Conclusions Findings suggest that health professionals in specialized and often isolated areas of practice are keen to connect with colleagues and learn from each other’s experiences. The main purposes for which the online discussion group was used could be summarized as communication, information sharing and networking; though activity within the group declined significantly during the last three years of the data collection period. This raises questions about the sustainability of online discussion groups within the rapidly developing social media environment. PMID:23822895
Full Text Available Globalisation has increased the importance of international police cooperation. While cross-border law enforcement can be traced back as far as the Nineteenth Century, police cooperation today—such as Joint Investigation Teams, International Liaison Officers, and Interpol—only came about in the Twentieth Century. It was developed to counter transnational organised crime, such as drug crime and immigration crime, as well as terrorism. But, another aspect of international policing is that of peacekeeping; that is, the deployment of national police to countries during or after conflict to maintain law and order where the local police do not have sufficient capacities. This paper examines how women have been elevated in this police cooperation role, particularly Interpol and international peacekeeping. The discussion focuses on whether there are indications that internationally related tasks and agencies provide a more accepting environment for female police officers as opposed to a national police force setting.
Full Text Available Leadership skills and experience in leadership have a special significance for every police force at every level of the organization. Legal daily tasks performed every day by the police, the different ways used in the performance of specific legal tasks assigned and, without doubt, the way of the leadership of the police services in the process of taking these measures, affect often the police to be not rare in the focus of criticism. This is done especially by the part of society known as uncooperative with the police. Ensuring good leadership in the police is a must for a civilized society; it is an assurance to protect the freedoms and rights of every individual, the stability and security of society as a whole. Education and schooling of police leaders is undoubtedly an important component for providing good leadership to the police. The same service for every citizen and social group should characterize the daily work of every police leader. Police undoubtedly belongs to all people and not of any political party. Therefore, each leader must have the imagination for dynamic developments within the police and society in general. The participation of leaders in various police actions would be an incentive for workers and other commanding staff. Leadership from office is a poison to sound relations in the unit (James, 1960, 261. A tool that helps the leader in his/her work, especially in the realization of the objectives set by him/herself - is how he/she supervises or controls the results of the police organization.
Ohar, Orest P.; Lizotte, Todd E.
Over the years law enforcement has become increasingly complex, driving a need for a better level of organization of knowledge within policing. The use of COMPSTAT or other Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) for crime mapping and analysis has provided opportunities for careful analysis of crime trends. By identifying hotspots within communities, data collected and entered into these systems can be analyzed to determine how, when and where law enforcement assets can be deployed efficiently. This paper will introduce in detail, a powerful new law enforcement and forensic investigative technology called Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM). Once embedded and deployed into firearms, IFM will provide data for identifying and tracking the sources of illegally trafficked firearms within the borders of the United States and across the border with Mexico. Intentional Firearm Microstamping is a micro code technology that leverages a laser based micromachining process to form optimally located, microscopic "intentional structures and marks" on components within a firearm. Thus when the firearm is fired, these IFM structures transfer an identifying tracking code onto the expended cartridge that is ejected from the firearm. Intentional Firearm Microstamped structures are laser micromachined alpha numeric and encoded geometric tracking numbers, linked to the serial number of the firearm. IFM codes can be extracted quickly and used without the need to recover the firearm. Furthermore, through the process of extraction, IFM codes can be quantitatively verified to a higher level of certainty as compared to traditional forensic matching techniques. IFM provides critical intelligence capable of identifying straw purchasers, trafficking routes and networks across state borders and can be used on firearms illegally exported across international borders. This paper will outline IFM applications for supporting intelligence led policing initiatives, IFM implementation strategies
Full Text Available Globalisation, immigration, and advancements in digital and information technologies present a range of complex socio-political, demographic, cultural and technological challenges for policing. Playing out across an increasingly diverse Australian society, these influences are progressively more likely to have a significant impact on policing, requiring a nuanced and flexible policing style with its attendant challenges for police education. Local challenges posed by regional and international migration, and national and international challenges posed by the cross-jurisdictional nature of crime in a global society are key sociological and criminological factors that police education programs must keep pace with. In a time of such global fluidity, it is argued that designers of police curricula must reassess the underlying principles that have historically shaped police education in Australia. This is a critical discussion that examines two key areas associated with globalisation and proposes the adoption of a definition of global literacies as a guiding principle for police education in the twenty-first century. The study concludes by offering three specific recommendations for the redevelopment of future police curricula.
Ubelaker, Douglas H
Forensic anthropology represents a dynamic and rapidly evolving complex discipline within anthropology and forensic science. Academic roots extend back to early European anatomists but development coalesced in the Americas through high-profile court testimony, assemblage of documented collections and focused research. Formation of the anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972, the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 1977/1978 and other organizational advances provided important stimuli for progress. While early pioneers concentrated on analysis of skeletonized human remains, applications today have expanded to include complex methods of search and recovery, the biomechanics of trauma interpretation, isotopic analysis related to diet and region of origin, age estimation of the living and issues related to humanitarian and human rights investigations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali.AbstractIn the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings.
Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali. Abstract In the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings.
Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner
IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.
Full Text Available and dynamic, volatile data (Forte 2008:13). This technique addresses many of the problems associated with Dead Forensic Acquisition, but brings about some additional problems. The most critical of these problems are data modification and court acceptance... technology (Maat 2004:i). This adds to cyber crime’s threat and complicates the investigation process due to crime’s increased sophistication (Pan & Batten 2005:1). These developments leave Law Enforcement outdated. In some incidents, legal aspects...
The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs
Roh, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Won-Joon; Seo, Jeong-Uk; Lee, U-Young; Lee, Sang-Seob
The National Forensic Service (NFS) of Korea is a government agency responsible for examining and evaluating evidence obtained at crime scenes. The Section of Forensic Odontology of the Medical Examiner's Office conducts forensic odontological analyses of human remains, and mainly criminal cases are handled. In this study, 588 forensic odontological cases referred to NFS during 2011-2015 were analyzed for referral pattern, evidence material, examination criteria, and other factors and were compared with respective data from 2007 to 2010. Majority of the requests were internal (further dental examinations after autopsy) rather than external (direct requests from other agencies such as police departments). Regarding evidence materials, "Teeth" (including teeth and resected jaws) were dominant evidences. Due to the seasonal effects in Korea, the highest number of requests was in September of each year, but the number of requests in April has recently increased. Evidence materials were mostly found in suburban and rural area, especially in mountainous area due to the geographic characteristics of Korea. Regarding specific examinations, profiling, including age estimation, accounted for majority of the requests; this number had increased relative to the findings of a previous study, whereas the number of requests for dental identification and bite mark analysis had decreased. With this analysis, trends in forensic odontology can be observed, and we expect that these trends would be served as a reference for designing study and making training protocol for forensic odontology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
As sales and usage of iPhones increase so does the demand on organizations that conduct examinations on this device. iPhone and iOS Forensics takes an in-depth look at methods and processes that analyze the iPhone/iPod in an official legal manner. All of the methods and procedures outlined in the book can be taken into any court room. This book details the iPhone with information data sets that are new and evolving, with official hardware knowledge from Apple itself to help aid investigators. iPhone market share has increased to 50% of worldwide mobile phone usageEmployment in digital fo
Meldgaard, Michael; Morling, N
, while Hum-TH01, HumCD4, and D12S391 were virtually unaffected by low-stringency conditions. Replacement of the Taq DNA polymerase with DNA polymerases with lower processivity resulted in higher levels of extra peaks. Our results support the hypothesis that extra peaks are produced due to slipped-strand......Detection on automated DNA sequencers of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of tetra- and penta-nucleotide short tandem repeat (STR) loci frequently reveals one or more extra peaks along with the true, major allele peak. The most frequent extra peak pattern is a single smaller peak which...... is one repeat unit shorter than the true allele peak. The existence of such artificial peaks is of special importance when the methods are used for forensic investigations because the artificial extra peaks may simulate true alleles when samples containing mixtures of DNA from different individuals...
Boschman, J S; Hulshof, C T J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K
Mandatory medical examinations (MMEs) of workers should be based on the health and safety requirements that are needed for effectively performing the relevant work. For police personnel in the Netherlands, no job-specific MME exists that takes the specific tasks and duties into account. To provide the Dutch National Police with a knowledge base for job-specific MMEs for police personnel that will lead to equitable decisions from an occupational health perspective about who can perform police duties. We used a stepwise mixed-methods approach in which we included interviews with employees and experts and a review of the national and international literature. We determined the job demands for the various police jobs, determined which were regarded as specific job demands and formulated the matching health requirements as specific as possible for each occupation. A total of 21 specific job demands were considered relevant in different police jobs. These included biomechanical, physiological, physical, emotional, psychological/cognitive and sensory job demands. We formulated both police-generic and job-specific health requirements based on the specific job demands. Two examples are presented: bike patrol and criminal investigation. Our study substantiated the need for job-specific MMEs for police personnel. We found specific job demands that differed substantially for various police jobs. The corresponding health requirements were partly police-generic, and partly job-specific. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
... government and its partisan interests, and do not want to be misunderstood in their intention to serve the people, then simply increasing the capacity of public order policing will not help. On the contrary, we might end up (again) with a permanent occupying army. Instead the police have to become more explicitly partisan ...
Walsh, Susan; Lindenbergh, Alexander; Zuniga, Sofia B; Sijen, Titia; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Ballantyne, Kaye N
The IrisPlex system consists of a highly sensitive multiplex genotyping assay together with a statistical prediction model, providing users with the ability to predict blue and brown human eye colour from DNA samples with over 90% precision. This 'DNA intelligence' system is expected to aid police investigations by providing phenotypic information on unknown individuals when conventional DNA profiling is not informative. Falling within the new area of forensic DNA phenotyping, this paper describes the developmental validation of the IrisPlex assay following the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines for the application of DNA-based eye colour prediction to forensic casework. The IrisPlex assay produces complete SNP genotypes with only 31pg of DNA, approximately six human diploid cell equivalents, and is therefore more sensitive than commercial STR kits currently used in forensics. Species testing revealed human and primate specificity for a complete SNP profile. The assay is capable of producing accurate results from simulated casework samples such as blood, semen, saliva, hair, and trace DNA samples, including extremely low quantity samples. Due to its design, it can also produce full profiles with highly degraded samples often found in forensic casework. Concordance testing between three independent laboratories displayed reproducible results of consistent levels on varying types of simulated casework samples. With such high levels of sensitivity, specificity, consistency and reliability, this genotyping assay, as a core part of the IrisPlex system, operates in accordance with SWGDAM guidelines. Furthermore, as we demonstrated previously, the IrisPlex eye colour prediction system provides reliable results without the need for knowledge on the bio-geographic ancestry of the sample donor. Hence, the IrisPlex system, with its model-based prediction probability estimation of blue and brown human eye colour, represents a useful tool for
Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin
An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Forensic science, commonly referred to as forensics, is the examination of physical, biological, behavioural and documentary evidence. The goal of forensics is to discover linkages among people, places, things and events. A sub-discipline of forensic science, nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material, which can assist in law enforcement investigations as well as assessments of the potential vulnerabilities associated with the use, production and storage of these materials as part of a nuclear security infrastructure. The analysis of nuclear or other radioactive material seeks to identify what the materials are, how, when, and where the materials were made, and what their intended uses were. Nuclear forensics is an important tool in the fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and radiological material
Eckert, W G
The forensic sciences in the United States, specifically forensic medicine, have benefited primarily from the advances made by the New York Medical Examiner Office pioneers and the philosophy developed in the Massachusetts medicolegal structure as begun in 1877. California's pioneering role is directly related to the development of criminalistics which in turn served as a stimulus for the improvement and development of forensic medicine in that state. Historically many private practitioners were involved in general criminalistics in California before the system of state criminalistic laboratories and criminal investigations was well established. Any report on the growth of the forensic sciences must include mention of the earlier pioneers including Heinrich, Kirk, Kytka, Crossman, Abernethy, Pinker, Helsel, and Noxley. A review of the current state of the art in the forensic sciences is presented, as is a review of the contributions of California to the development of American forensic sciences.
Brown, Katherine M; Keppel, Robert D
This study examined 733 child abduction murders (CAMs) occurring from 1968 to 2002 to explore the influence of forensic evidence on case solvability in CAM investigations. It was hypothesized that the presence of forensic evidence connecting the offender to the crime would enhance case solvability in murder investigations of abducted children. This study examined the impact of CAM of different types of forensic evidence and the impact of the summed total of forensic evidence items on case solvability by controlling for victim age, victim race, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Time and distance theoretical predictors were also included. Binomial logistic regression models were used to determine whether forensic evidence was a critical solvability factor in murder investigations of abducted children. This research indicated that, while forensic evidence increased case solvability, the impact of forensic evidence on solvability was not as important as other solvability factors examined. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Thanks to the rapid developments in science and technology in recent decades, especially in the past two decades, forensic sciences have been making invaluable contributions to criminal justice systems. With scientific evaluation of physical evidence, policing has become more effective in fighting crime and criminals. On the other hand, law enforcement personnel have made mistakes during the detection, protection, collection, and evaluation of physical evidence. Law enforcement personnel, especially patrol officers, have been criticized for ignoring or overlooking physical evidence at crime scenes. This study, conducted in a large American police department, was aimed to determine the perceptions of patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians about the forensic science needs of patrol officers. The results showed no statistically significant difference among the perceptions of the said groups. More than half of the respondents perceived that 14 out of 16 areas of knowledge were important for patrol officers to have: crime scene documentation, evidence collection, interviewing techniques, firearm evidence, latent and fingerprint evidence, blood evidence, death investigation information, DNA evidence, document evidence, electronically recorded evidence, trace evidence, biological fluid evidence, arson and explosive evidence, and impression evidence. Less than half of the respondents perceived forensic entomology and plant evidence as important for patrol officers.
Today we consider forensic odontology to be a specialised and reliable method of identification of the deceased, particularly in multiple fatality incidents. While this reputation has been gained from the application of forensic odontology in both single identification and disaster situations over a number of years, the professional nature of the discipline and its practices have evolved only recently. This paper summarises some of early uses of forensic odontology internationally and in Australia and discusses the development of both forensic odontology and Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) practices in each of the states and territories of Australia. The earliest accounts of the use of forensic odontology in Australia date to the 1920's and 30's, and were characterised by inexperienced practitioners and little procedural formality. An organised and semi-formal service commenced in most states during the 1960's although its use by police forces was spasmodic. Today the service provided by qualified and experienced forensic odontologists is highly professional and regularly utilised by police and coronial services. The development of DVI Practices in Australia began following the crash of a Vickers Viscount aircraft into Botany Bay in 1961 and, as with practices internationally, have evolved into an equally professional and reliable specialist discipline of policing in which forensic odontology plays a significant part.
da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho
The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences. PMID:19089123
DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting.
Sigurdsson, J F; Gudjonsson, G H
This study investigates the effects of alcohol, drug intoxication and withdrawal symptoms on the mental state of criminal suspects and the nature of their confession. A total of 359 sentenced prisoners were approached on admission and 96% agreed to participate in the study. They completed a specially designed Confession Questionnaire, which asked them questions about their reasons for confessing to the police, their attitude towards their confession, their mental state at the time of the confession and the extent to which they had been under the influence of alcohol and drug intoxication at the time of crime and police interview. The confession rate for the sample was very high (92%), with serious traffic violators having the highest confession rate (95%) and sex offenders the lowest (83%). The findings illustrate that the "perception of proof", "internal need to confess" and "external pressure" are the main reasons why suspects confess. However, subjects were identified who had experienced a typical "prisoner's dilemma" phenomenon during the police interview because of a co-defendant. Alcohol and drug intoxication was very commonly reported both at the time of the offence and the police interview, but these were related to the nature of their offence. Although intoxication and withdrawal symptoms did not appear to seriously impair their coping during the police interview it was consistently reported as having made them confused.
Reading, David G; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E; Britton, Richard
A rapid and effective preparative procedure has been evaluated for the accurate determination of low-energy (40-200 keV) gamma-emitting radionuclides ((210)Pb, (234)Th, (226)Ra, (235)U) in uranium ores and uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The measurement of low-energy gamma photons is complicated in heterogeneous samples containing high-density mineral phases and in such situations activity concentrations will be underestimated. This is because attenuation corrections, calculated based on sample mean density, do not properly correct where dense grains are dispersed within a less dense matrix (analogous to a nugget effect). The current method overcomes these problems using a lithium tetraborate fusion that readily dissolves all components including high-density, self-attenuating minerals/compounds. This is the ideal method for dissolving complex, non-volatile components in soils, rocks, mineral concentrates, and other materials where density reduction is required. Lithium borate fusion avoids the need for theoretical efficiency corrections or measurement of matrix matched calibration standards. The resulting homogeneous quenched glass produced can be quickly dissolved in nitric acid producing low-density solutions that can be counted by gamma spectrometry. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated using uranium-bearing Certified Reference Materials and provides accurate activity concentration determinations compared to the underestimated activity concentrations derived from direct measurements of a bulk sample. The procedure offers an effective solution for initial nuclear forensic studies where complex refractory minerals or matrices exist. It is also significantly faster, safer and simpler than alternative approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
[The analysis of the articles concerning toxicological (forensic) chemistry published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza (Forensic Medical Expertise)" during the period from 2004 to 2013. Part 2. The analysis and assessment of the publications, peculiarities of the development of investigations].
Orlova, A M
The author presents the results of the analysis of the publications concerning toxicological (forensic) chemistry issues published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza" during the period from 2004 to 2013 with their assessment making use of scientometrical methods. Special emphasis is laid on the publications devoted to the development and improvement of the approaches to the investigation into narcotic and psychotropic drugs as well as other toxic substances. Specific features of such investigations are described.
Neil Fowler Wright
Full Text Available The Domain Name Service (DNS is a critical core component of the global Internet and integral to the majority of corporate intranets. It provides resolution services between the human-readable name-based system addresses and the machine operable Internet Protocol (IP based addresses required for creating network level connections. Whilst structured as a globally dispersed resilient tree data structure, from the Global and Country Code Top Level Domains (gTLD/ccTLD down to the individual site and system leaf nodes, it is highly resilient although vulnerable to various attacks, exploits and systematic failures.Â This paper examines the history along with the rapid growth of DNS up to its current critical status. It then explores the often overlooked value of DNS query data; from packet traces, DNS cache data, and DNS logs, with its use in System Forensics and more frequently in Network Forensics, extrapolating examples and experiments that enhance knowledge.Continuing on, it details the common attacks that can be used directly against the DNS systems and services, before following on with the malicious uses of DNS in direct system attacks, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS, traditional Denial of Service (DOS attacks and malware. It explores both cyber-criminal activities and cyber-warfare based attacks, and also extrapolates from a number of more recent attacks the possible methods for data exfiltration. It explores some of the potential analytical methodologies including; common uses in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, as well as infection and activity tracking in malware traffic analysis, and covers some of the associated methods around technology designed to defend against, mitigate, and/or manage these and other risks, plus the effect that ISP and nation states can have by direct manipulation of DNS queries and return traffic.This paper also investigates potential behavioural analysis and time-lining, which can then be used for the
van de Goor, L.H.P.
Animal forensic DNA analysis is being used for human criminal investigations (e.g traces from cats and dogs), wildlife management, breeding and food safety. The most common DNA markers used for such forensic casework are short tandem repeats (STR). Rules and guidelines concerning quality assurance
Worring, M.; Ho, A.T.S.; Li, S.
This chapter focuses on techniques suited for forensic analysis of large image collections. In digital forensics an investigator is often tasked to analyze a data source containing large numbers of images and their metadata sometimes reaching into the millions. Apart from the content of the images
Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin
Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Vagish Kumar L Shanbhag
Forensic odontology is a branch that connects dentistry and the legal profession. One of the members in the forensic investigation team is a dentist. Dentists play an important and significant role in various aspects of the identification of persons in various forensic circumstances. However, several dentists and legal professionals are quite ignorant of this fascinating aspect of forensic odontology. A need was felt to fill this gap. The dental record is a legal document possessed by the den...
Mokhtar, Mohammedelmoez Eltayeb Abderahman
The central problem investigated in this thesis is nuclear forensic support in Sudan, the thesis comprises five chapters, began with an introduction containing the art of forensic science, stated the importance of the it in criminal investigations. The forensic science was defined, and stated the principle of which it underlying, including: principle of individuality and principle of exchange, the divisions of this science has been clarified, then it discussed the crime scene and the collecting of evidence, where starting the forensic science at the crime scene, with clarifying the principle of crime scene investigation. Nuclear and other radioactive material was discussed: defining a radioactivity with the material source. It placed into 3 general categories: special nuclear materials, reactor fuel, and commercial radioactive sources, and mention each category and it characteristics. Radiation is part of our environment was clarified, and discussed what the effect on organisms and populations are. Nuclear forensics was presented,and how problem of the safeguarding of the nuclear material beginning. The emerging nature of the problem was discussed, the radiological crime scene management was explained, importance of securing the scene with an examples of equipment and instruments for on-scene radiation safety assessment and how the collection of evidence, storage forensic laboratory analysis was discussed and how set the designated nuclear forensic laboratory, also nuclear forensic interpretation, and the chain of custody was mentioned. The role of Regulating Authority in Nuclear forensic support was discussed, specifically in Sudan, International Cooperation have also been reminded, as well as memorandum of understanding was mentioned between SNRRA and the administration of forensic evidence, and one of it results is the radiological surveys unit in forensic administration, how the unit is configured, the role of the unit, finally conclusion of research was
Erik Miranda Lopez
Full Text Available The aim of digital forensics is to extract information to answer the 5Ws (Why, When, Where, What, and Who from the data extracted from the evidence. In order to achieve this, most digital forensic processes assume absolute control of digital evidence. However, in a cloud environment forensic investigation, this is not always possible. Additionally, the unique characteristics of cloud computing create new technical, legal and architectural challenges when conducting a forensic investigation. We propose a hypothetical scenario to uncover and explain the challenges forensic practitioners face during cloud investigations. Additionally, we also provide solutions to address the challenges. Our hypothetical case scenario has shown that, in the long run, better live forensic tools, development of new methods tailored for cloud investigations and new procedures and standards are indeed needed. Furthermore, we have come to the conclusion that forensic investigations biggest challenge is not technical but legal.
William I. Robinson
Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.
Deshmukh, A.V.; Nyati, S.; Fatangre, N.M.; Raghav, N.K.; Reddy, P.G.
Nuclear forensic is an emerging and highly specialized discipline which deals with nuclear investigation and analysis of nuclear or radiological/radioactive materials. Nuclear Forensic analysis includes various methodology and analytical methods along with morphology, physical, chemical, elemental and isotopic analysis to characterize and develop nuclear database for the identification of unknown nuclear or radiological/radioactive material. The origin, source history, pathway and attribution of unknown radioactive/nuclear material is possible with certainty through Nuclear Forensics. Establishment of Nuclear Forensic Laboratory and development of expertise for nuclear investigation under one roof by developing the nuclear data base and laboratory network is need of the hour to ably address the problems of all the law enforcement and nuclear agencies. The present study provides insight in Nuclear Forensics and focuses on an urgent need for a comprehensive plan to set up Nuclear Forensic Laboratory across India. (author)
Shetty, Pushparaja; Raviprakash, A
Objectives: Oral pathologists have major responsibilities in the development of forensic science. We conducted a survey to evaluate the degree of involvement of oral pathologists in forensic investigations in India and the difficulties faced by them. Materials and Methods: Data was collected during 2007–2009 by means of a questionnaire survey among qualified oral pathologists related to confidence in handling forensic cases, knowledge and awareness, training in forensic odontology, practical exposure to forensic cases, and difficulties faced. Results: A total of 120 oral pathologists responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 28% expressed confidence in handling forensic cases, 7% had been exposed to formal training in forensic odontology, and 6% had handled forensic cases earlier. Only two participants said that they were part of the forensic team in their respective cities. Forty-eight percent of the participants said that they read forensic journals regularly. Conclusion: Oral pathologists are generally not very confident about handling forensic cases mainly because of inadequate formal training in the field of forensic dentistry, inadequate exposure to the subject, minimal importance given to the subject in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum, and no practical exposure to forensic cases. PMID:22022135
Shetty, Pushparaja; Raviprakash, A
Oral pathologists have major responsibilities in the development of forensic science. We conducted a survey to evaluate the degree of involvement of oral pathologists in forensic investigations in India and the difficulties faced by them. Data was collected during 2007-2009 by means of a questionnaire survey among qualified oral pathologists related to confidence in handling forensic cases, knowledge and awareness, training in forensic odontology, practical exposure to forensic cases, and difficulties faced. A total of 120 oral pathologists responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 28% expressed confidence in handling forensic cases, 7% had been exposed to formal training in forensic odontology, and 6% had handled forensic cases earlier. Only two participants said that they were part of the forensic team in their respective cities. Forty-eight percent of the participants said that they read forensic journals regularly. Oral pathologists are generally not very confident about handling forensic cases mainly because of inadequate formal training in the field of forensic dentistry, inadequate exposure to the subject, minimal importance given to the subject in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum, and no practical exposure to forensic cases.
Smock, W S
To address the forensic needs of living patients, the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville School of Medicine in Louisville, Kentucky, USA initiated the first clinical forensic medicine training programme in the USA. In July 1991, formal training in clinical forensic medicine was incorporated into the core curriculum of the USA's second oldest academic emergency medicine training programme. The University of Louisville, in cooperation with the Kentucky Medical Examiner's Office, developed the curriculum to provide the emergency physician with the knowledge base and technical skills to perform forensic evaluations of living patients. Forensic lectures are given monthly by local and regional forensic experts including: forensic pathologists, prosecuting attorneys, firearm and ballistics examiners, law enforcement officers, forensic chemists and forensic odontologists. Topics which are presented include: forensic pathology, forensic photography, ballistics and firearms analysis, paediatric physical and sexual assault, crime scene investigation, forensic odontology, courtroom and expert testimony and the forensic evaluation of penetrating trauma. As a result of the introduction of clinical forensic medicine into the core curriculum of an emergency medicine training programme the residents are now actively addressing the forensic issues encountered in the Emergency department. Key, often short-lived forensic evidence, which was frequently overlooked or discarded while delivering patient care is now recognized, documented and preserved. The development and introduction of a clinical forensic medicine curriculum into emergency medicine training has greatly enhanced the emergency physician's ability to recognize, document and address the forensic needs of their patients who are victims of violent and non-fatal trauma.
A review of forensic chemical drug testing in hair is given. Applications for analysis of hair are described. The special problems linked to the determination of drugs in hair such as contamination, differences in sex and ethnic groups and cosmetic pretreatment of the hair are outlined. It is concluded that greater knowledge of hair analysis is needed before the results can be used for toxicological evaluation at the same level as blood. On the other hand, a chemical hair analysis might expose a (mis)use of drugs and follow it step by step up to half a year back in time. In this way, it may supplement a systematic toxicological analysis (STA) for 'a general unknown' for use by police and forensic pathologists.
Ivanov N. A.
Full Text Available Several classification schemes for digital information that could be used as sources of evidence in criminal proceedings are offered. In terms of application the proposed classification is very important for the development of forensic tools, means, methods, techniques for the detection, capture, inspection, seizure, investigation of digital information, as well as for the detection and investigation of crimes
Doherty, Eamon P
Approximately 80 percent of the world's population now owns a cell phone, which can hold evidence or contain logs about communications concerning a crime. Cameras, PDAs, and GPS devices can also contain information related to corporate policy infractions and crimes. Aimed to prepare investigators in the public and private sectors, Digital Forensics for Handheld Devices examines both the theoretical and practical aspects of investigating handheld digital devices. This book touches on all areas of mobile device forensics, including topics from the legal, technical, academic, and social aspects o
discretion in their duty of maintaining law and order to be specific, in their investigation of crime even if it were to be an obvious wide-goose chase.' As to whether police duty is executive or administrative, it has been held that police performs both duties as was held in UTB v Ukabia39. In this case, it was held that whenever ...
Hannam, Abigail G
The National Firearms Forensic Intelligence Database (NFFID (c) Crown Copyright 2003-2008) was developed by The Forensic Science Service (FSS) as an investigative tool for collating and comparing information from items submitted to the FSS to provide intelligence reports for the police and relevant government agencies. The purpose of these intelligence reports was to highlight current firearm and ammunition trends and their distribution within the country. This study reviews all the trends that have been highlighted by NFFID between September 2003 and September 2008. A total of 8887 guns of all types have been submitted to the FSS over the last 5 years, where an average of 21% of annual submissions are converted weapons. The makes, models, and modes of conversion of these weapons are described in detail. The number of trends identified by NFFID shows that this has been a valuable tool in the analysis of firearms-related crime.
Wallace, H.M.; Jackson, A.R.; Gruber, J.; Thibedeau, A.D.
Background: The Forensic Genetics Policy Initiative (www.dnapolicyinitiative.org) is a civil society-led project which aims to set human rights standards for DNA databases around the world, by establishing best practice and involving experts, policy makers and members of the public in open debate. The authors have collected a comprehensive data set of information on the state of forensic DNA profiling and the development of DNA databases for policing purposes in more than 100 countries. The i...
Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather
The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re
Vy Han; John R. Marshall
History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED) by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’...
Rossy, Quentin; Ioset, Sylvain; Dessimoz, Damien; Ribaux, Olivier
Since 2008, intelligence units of six states of the western part of Switzerland have been sharing a common database for the analysis of high volume crimes. On a daily basis, events reported to the police are analysed, filtered and classified to detect crime repetitions and interpret the crime environment. Several forensic outcomes are integrated in the system such as matches of traces with persons, and links between scenes detected by the comparison of forensic case data. Systematic procedures have been settled to integrate links assumed mainly through DNA profiles, shoemarks patterns and images. A statistical outlook on a retrospective dataset of series from 2009 to 2011 of the database informs for instance on the number of repetition detected or confirmed and increased by forensic case data. Time needed to obtain forensic intelligence in regard with the type of marks treated, is seen as a critical issue. Furthermore, the underlying integration process of forensic intelligence into the crime intelligence database raised several difficulties in regards of the acquisition of data and the models used in the forensic databases. Solutions found and adopted operational procedures are described and discussed. This process form the basis to many other researches aimed at developing forensic intelligence models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the
Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.
A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…
Gomez, Marisela B
Studies show that policing, when violent, and community fragmentation have a negative impact on health outcomes. This current study investigates the connection of policing and community fragmentation and public health. Using an embedded case study analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 African-American female and male residents, ages 21-64 years of various neighborhoods of high arrest rates and health and socioeconomic depravation in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore residents' perceptions of policing, stress, community fragmentation, and solutions are presented. Analysis of the perceptions of these factors suggests that violent policing increases community fragmentation and is a public health threat. Approaches to address this public health threat are discussed.
Davies, Toby P; Fry, Hannah M; Wilson, Alan G; Bishop, Steven R
In August 2011, several areas of London experienced episodes of large-scale disorder, comprising looting, rioting and violence. Much subsequent discourse has questioned the adequacy of the police response, in terms of the resources available and strategies used. In this article, we present a mathematical model of the spatial development of the disorder, which can be used to examine the effect of varying policing arrangements. The model is capable of simulating the general emergent patterns of the events and focusses on three fundamental aspects: the apparently-contagious nature of participation; the distances travelled to riot locations; and the deterrent effect of policing. We demonstrate that the spatial configuration of London places some areas at naturally higher risk than others, highlighting the importance of spatial considerations when planning for such events. We also investigate the consequences of varying police numbers and reaction time, which has the potential to guide policy in this area.
Reports a continuing longitudinal study begun in 1967 of attitudinal and behavioral change among recruits in the Philadelphia Police Department. Behavioral components are secrecy and mandatory mutual assistance. Comparisons are made with attitudes of detectives and experienced Patrolmen. (DB)
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...
Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens
With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.
Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.
Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)
If you are a forensic analyst or an information security professional wanting to develop your knowledge of Android forensics, then this is the book for you. Some basic knowledge of the Android mobile platform is expected.
The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based
Martin Y; Kumar MS
Forensic Odontology requires the use of photography for either evidential or investigative purposes. Smith in 1970 said the photographer is expected to produce “something which will convey to the eye of the viewer an accurate reproduction of the scene as it would appear if the viewer actually saw the scene”. If the depictions are precise, the photographs will play a vital role and will be readily accepted as evidence. It is the assumption of dentists that only their counterparts who have s...
Stevenson G. Smith
Full Text Available Disclosures about new financial frauds and scandals are continually appearing in the press.Â As a consequence, the accounting profession's traditional methods of monitoring corporate financial activities are under intense scrutiny.Â At the same time, there is recognition that principles-based GAAP from the International Accounting Standards Board will become the recognized standard in the U.S.Â The authors argue that these two factors will change the practices used to fight corporate malfeasance as investigators adapt the techniques of accounting into a forensic audit engagement model.
This tutorial contains detailed instructions with useful integrated examples that help you understand the main features of FTK and how you can use it to analyze evidence. This book has clear and concise guidance in an easily accessible format.This tutorial-based guide is great for you if you want to conduct digital investigations with an integrated platform. Whether you are new to Computer Forensics or have some experience, this book will help you get started with FTK so you can analyze evidence effectively and efficiently. If you are a law enforcement official, corporate security, or IT profe
Milorad S. Markagić
Full Text Available The article gives an overview of possibilities of digitized mobile(portable devices, and methods of research data with them.Emphasis is placed on the forensic investigation of mobilephones, but are covered by other media and research for digitalprocessing, transmission and storage of information.A special emphasis was made on the software tools in carrying out the acquisition of digital data, with the aim of sending the reader on ways and methods to protect data but also knowledgewhich is the same all be found and how they can be misused for criminal purposes
Costa, Marcos; Júnior, Horácio Accioly; Oliveira, José; Maia, Eulália
To diagnose the occurrence and stage of stress among military police enlisted personnel and officers in the city of Natal (the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), and to determine the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms. This cross-sectional descriptive study investigated a sample of 264 individuals from a population of 3,193 military personnel from the Natal police command. The data were collected between June 2004 and January 2005 using Lipp's Adult Stress Symptoms Inventory (Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp). The research assessed: (1) presence of stress, (2) the stage of stress (alert, resistance, near-burnout, and burnout), (3) the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms, and (4) the relationship between stress and police unit, rank, gender, drinking, smoking, educational level, marital status, age, years of police service, and salary. No stress symptoms were found in 52.6% of the sample; 47.4% had symptoms. Of the 47.4% of the police personnel with stress symptoms, they were distributed as: 3.4% in the alert stage, 39.8% in the resistance stage, 3.8% in the near-burnout stage, and 0.4% in the burnout stage. Psychological symptoms were recorded in 76.0% of the police personnel with stress, and physical symptoms in 24.0% of them. Of the variables investigated, only gender was related to stress (P = 0.0337), with the female police personnel being more likely to suffer from stress. The levels of stress and symptoms do not indicate a critical situation of fatigue. However, it is recommended that the police take preventive actions, including implementing an effective program for the diagnosis of, training on, and control of stress.
Ueda, Momoko; Bell, Lynne S
Human geolocation is prefaced on the accuracy of the geographic precision of mapped isotopic values for drinking water. As most people live in cities, it becomes important to understand city water supplies and how the isotopic values uniquely reflect that city. This study investigated the isotopic distribution of δ 2 H and δ 18 O from sourced tap waters that were collected from across the Metro Vancouver (MV) area (n = 135). The results revealed that the isotopic values reflect their water sources with a range of 5.3‰ for δ 18 O tap and 29.3‰ for δ 2 H tap for MV. The results indicate that individual cities need higher resolution studies to determine their tap water isotopic ranges, and a good understanding of the water supply network itself for human geolocation work. With an extended high-resolution understanding of each city, human tissue may be compared with more certainty for geolocation. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Elza Ibrahim Auerkari
Forensic odontology (dental forensics) can provide useful evidence in both criminal and civil cases, and therefore remains a part of the wider discipline of forensic science. As an example from the toolbox of forensic odontology, the practice and experience on bitemark analysis is reviewed here in brief. The principle of using visible bitemarks in crime victims or in other objects as evidence is fundamentally based on the observation that the detailed pattern of dental imprints tend to be pra...
Koops, E.J.; Schellekens, M.H.M.
Forensic DNA phenotyping is an interesting new investigation method: crime-scene DNA is analyzed to compose a description of the unknown suspect, including external and behavioral features, geographic origin and perhaps surname. This method is allowed in some countries but prohibited in a few
Full Text Available Organizational climate and organization culture can be some of the leading factors in hindering knowledge sharing within the organization. It is generally accepted that successful knowledge management practice, including knowledge sharing, comes as a result of a conducive and knowledge sharing friendly environment. Organizations that promote and reward collective work generate a trustful and a more collaborative learning culture. The perception of fairness in an organization has been considered an important indicator of employee behavior, attitude, and motivation. This study investigates organizational justice perception and its impact on knowledge sharing practices among forensic experts in the Turkish National Police. The study findings revealed that senior officers, who are experts in the field, have the strongest organizational justice perception. Meanwhile, noncommissioned officers or technicians bear positive but comparatively weaker feelings about the existence of justice within the organization. The study argues that those who satisfy their career expectations tend to have a higher organizational justice perception.
Full Text Available Computer forensics involves the investigation of digital sources to acquire evidence that can be used in a court of law. It can also be used to identify and respond to threats to hosts and systems. Accountants use computer forensics to investigate computer crime or misuse, theft of trade secrets, theft of or destruction of intellectual property, and fraud. Education of accountants to use forensic tools is a goal of the AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Accounting students, however, may not view information technology as vital to their career paths and need motivation to acquire forensic knowledge and skills. This paper presents a curriculum design methodology for teaching graduate accounting students computer forensics. The methodology is tested using perceptions of the students about the success of the methodology and their acquisition of forensics knowledge and skills. An important component of the pedagogical approach is the use of an annotated list of over 50 forensic web-based tools.
de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Schenker, Miriam; Constantino, Patrícia; Correia, Bruna Soares Chaves
The consumption of psychoactive substances by civil and military police of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated. Data was gathered from two cross-sectional studies on a questionnaire on work and health conditions given to a sample from the two corporations. The results show higher frequencies of regular consumption of tobacco (23.3% by civil police and 19.1% by military police), daily use of alcohol (12% by civil police and 11% by military police) and tranquilizers in the past year (13.3% by civil police and 10.1% by military police). The consumption of marijuana among officers was 0.1% by civil police and 1.1% by military police, and cocaine use among the military police was 1.1%. Alcohol consumption proved to be intense and causes problems at work and in the social and family relationships of these officers. The need for preventive policies for addiction and the possible underestimation of information on illicit substances is emphasized.
Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.
The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…
de Viggiani, Nick
Police custody healthcare services for detainees in the UK are most commonly outsourced to independent healthcare providers who employ custody nurses and forensic physicians to deliver forensic healthcare services. A pilot was introduced in 2008 by the Department of Health to explore the efficacy of commissioning custody healthcare via the NHS, in the wake of the 2005-2006 shift of prison healthcare to the NHS. The objective was to improve quality and accountability through NHS commissioning and the introduction of NHS governance to the management and delivery of custody healthcare. This article discusses key themes that arose from the project evaluation, which focused on the commissioning relationship between the police, the NHS commissioner and the private healthcare provider. The evaluation observed an evolving relationship between the police, the local NHS and the front-line nurses, which was complicated by the quite distinctive professional values and ideologies operating, with their contrasting organisational imperatives and discordant values and principles. A key challenge for commissioners is to develop synergy between operational and strategically located stakeholders so that they can work effectively towards common goals. Government policy appears to remain focused on creating safe, supportive and humane custody environments that balance criminal justice and health imperatives and support the rights and needs of detainees, victims, professionals and the public. This remains an ambitious agenda and presents a major challenge for new criminal justice health partnerships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Source inference of exogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) administered to humans by means of carbon isotopic ratio analysis: novel perspectives regarding forensic investigation and intelligence issues.
Marclay, François; Saudan, Christophe; Vienne, Julie; Tafti, Mehdi; Saugy, Martial
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous short-chain fatty acid popular as a recreational drug due to sedative and euphoric effects, but also often implicated in drug-facilitated sexual assaults owing to disinhibition and amnesic properties. Whilst discrimination between endogenous and exogenous GHB as required in intoxication cases may be achieved by the determination of the carbon isotope content, such information has not yet been exploited to answer source inference questions of forensic investigation and intelligence interests. However, potential isotopic fractionation effects occurring through the whole metabolism of GHB may be a major concern in this regard. Thus, urine specimens from six healthy male volunteers who ingested prescription GHB sodium salt, marketed as Xyrem(®), were analysed by means of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry to assess this particular topic. A very narrow range of δ(13)C values, spreading from -24.81‰ to -25.06‰, was observed, whilst mean δ(13)C value of Xyrem(®) corresponded to -24.99‰. Since urine samples and prescription drug could not be distinguished by means of statistical analysis, carbon isotopic effects and subsequent influence on δ(13)C values through GHB metabolism as a whole could be ruled out. Thus, a link between GHB as a raw matrix and found in a biological fluid may be established, bringing relevant information regarding source inference evaluation. Therefore, this study supports a diversified scope of exploitation for stable isotopes characterized in biological matrices from investigations on intoxication cases to drug intelligence programmes.
Rightly or wrongly, law enforcement, public safety, medical, mental health, legal, and emergency services professionals may have to face internal investigation, disciplinary measures, license suspension, criminal prosecution, civil lawsuits, and/or personal life disruption related to actions taken in the course of their work. This article describes the main categories of misconduct--or simply mistakes--that can cause different types of professionals to be investigated, charged, prosecuted, and/or sued. It next discusses the kinds of psychological reactions commonly seen in workers who face these kinds of proceedings. Finally, the article offers a set of practical psychological coping strategies and procedural recommendations for dealing with the stresses of an investigation, administrative action, or litigation, and for mitigating their effects on one's life and career.
Aquila, I; Sacco, M A; Gratteri, S; Sirianni, M; De Fazio, P; Ricci, P
Suicide is a huge deal in general public health, representing the second cause of mortality in young people worldwide. The suicidal setting analysis is usually performed through psychological autopsy, a method of investigation commonly used to study what leads to suicide. Psychological autopsy, though, requires the involvement of family and friends, or the finding of a diary or a suicide note. Nowadays, this is not always possible, especially during adolescence, the more if we consider new categories of people that are more used to live in a web dimension, than in a real one. So, with the advent of a new kind of social system including the web, psychological autopsy, as we know it, is not enough to determine the setting of an event. We here report the case of a 17-year old girl who committed suicide by hanging down from her house, leaving no suicide note. We propose a new investigation method developed through the analysis of phone messages and Facebook profile in order to better reconstruct the event. Although the standing difficulties in reconsidering the intimate motivations leading to such a decision, psychological autopsy nowadays needs to consider also social networks in order to prevent similar situations and even reconstruct the psychological dimension of the fact. We propose a model of Social-mobile autopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rothwell, Gary R.; Baldwin, J. Norman
This article reports the findings from a study that investigates predictors of police willingness to blow the whistle and police frequency of blowing the whistle on seven forms of misconduct. It specifically investigates the capacity of nine policy and structural variables to predict whistle-blowing. The results indicate that two variables, a…
Eleanor E. Dormontt; Markus Boner; Birgit Braun; Gerhard Breulmann; Bernd Degen; Edgard Espinoza; Shelley Gardner; Phil Guillery; John C. Hermanson; Gerald Koch; Soon Leong Lee; Milton Kanashiro; Anto Rimbawanto; Darren Thomas; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Yafang Yin; Johannes Zahnen; Andrew J. Lowe
The prosecution of illegal logging crimes is hampered by a lack of available forensic timber identification tools, both for screening of suspectmaterial and definitive identification of illegally sourcedwood. Reputable timber traders are also struggling to police their own supply chains and comply with the growing requirement for due diligence with respect to timber...
Ribaux, Olivier; Baylon, Amélie; Roux, Claude; Delémont, Olivier; Lock, Eric; Zingg, Christian; Margot, Pierre
Forensic science is generally defined as the application of science to address questions related to the law. Too often, this view restricts the contribution of science to one single process which eventually aims at bringing individuals to court while minimising risk of miscarriage of justice. In order to go beyond this paradigm, we propose to refocus the attention towards traces themselves, as remnants of a criminal activity, and their information content. We postulate that traces contribute effectively to a wide variety of other informational processes that support decision making in many situations. In particular, they inform actors of new policing strategies who place the treatment of information and intelligence at the centre of their systems. This contribution of forensic science to these security oriented models is still not well identified and captured. In order to create the best condition for the development of forensic intelligence, we suggest a framework that connects forensic science to intelligence-led policing (part I). Crime scene attendance and processing can be envisaged within this view. This approach gives indications about how to structure knowledge used by crime scene examiners in their effective practice (part II). 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Talbot-Wright, Benjamin; Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Roux, Claude
Forensic intelligence has recently gathered increasing attention as a potential expansion of forensic science that may contribute in a wider policing and security context. Whilst the new avenue is certainly promising, relatively few attempts to incorporate models, methods and techniques into practical projects are reported. This work reports a practical application of a generalised and transversal framework for developing forensic intelligence processes referred to here as the Transversal model adapted from previous work. Visual features present in the images of four datasets of false identity documents were systematically profiled and compared using image processing for the detection of a series of modus operandi (M.O.) actions. The nature of these series and their relation to the notion of common source was evaluated with respect to alternative known information and inferences drawn regarding respective crime systems. 439 documents seized by police and border guard authorities across 10 jurisdictions in Switzerland with known and unknown source level links formed the datasets for this study. Training sets were developed based on both known source level data, and visually supported relationships. Performance was evaluated through the use of intra-variability and inter-variability scores drawn from over 48,000 comparisons. The optimised method exhibited significant sensitivity combined with strong specificity and demonstrates its ability to support forensic intelligence efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grant, P.M.; Moody, K.J.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Phinney, D.L.; Whipple, R.E.; Haas, J.S.; Alcaraz, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Klunder, G.L.; Russo, R.E.
Over the past several years, the Livermore Forensic Science Center has conducted analyses of nuclear-related samples in conjunction with domestic and international criminal investigations. Law enforcement officials have sought conventional and nuclear-forensic analyses of questioned specimens that have typically consisted of miscellaneous metal species or actinide salts. The investigated activities have included nuclear smuggling and the proliferation of alleged fissionable materials, nonradioactive hoaxes such as 'Red Mercury', and the interdiction of illegal laboratories engaged in methamphetamine synthesis. (author)
Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy
Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xie, Jia-Ling; Pan, Kui-Qiong; Liu, Shi-Hua
To investigate the work related fatigue among prison police and mental medical staffs; to compare the social support between two groups; to develop specific intervention strategies in the future. The Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI) and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were applied to 100 prison police and 100 mental medical staffs respectively. Their status of work related fatigue and relevant social support were analyzed accordingly. 1) The level of fatigue among prison police was higher than mental medical staffs (P prison police were higher than that among mental medical staffs (P 0.05); 3) The level of social support in the prison police was higher than that in the mental medical staffs (P prison police and mental medical staffs were vulnerable to suffering from fatigue. However, the details and relevant social support between these two groups were different. Active intervention should be taken for different occupation.
How is jurisdiction transferred from an individual's biological body to agents of power such as the police, public prosecutors, and the judiciary, and what happens to these biological bodies when transformed from private into public objects? These questions are examined by analysing bodies situated at the intersection of science and law. More specifically, the transformation of ‘private bodies’ into ‘public bodies’ is analysed by going into the details of forensic DNA profiling in the Dutch jurisdiction. It will be argued that various ‘forensic genetic practices’ enact different forensic genetic bodies'. These enacted forensic genetic bodies are connected with various infringements of civil rights, which become articulated in exploring these forensic genetic bodies’‘normative registers’.
Zimmer, Katherine K; Cabelus, Nancy B
1. Forensic nurses frequently work in violent settings without regard for self-preservation to save the lives of injured individuals or investigate the deaths of deceased individuals. 2. Cases involving children and victims with disfiguring injuries, and incidents when their personal safety was compromised are most disturbing to forensic nurses. 3. Providing means for health care professionals to cope appropriately encourages healthy healing. 4. Forensic nurses must learn to self-assess and recognize the signs and symptoms associated with unhealthy coping, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder.
Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.
Vagish Kumar L Shanbhag
Full Text Available Forensic odontology is a branch that connects dentistry and the legal profession. One of the members in the forensic investigation team is a dentist. Dentists play an important and significant role in various aspects of the identification of persons in various forensic circumstances. However, several dentists and legal professionals are quite ignorant of this fascinating aspect of forensic odontology. A need was felt to fill this gap. The dental record is a legal document possessed by the dentist and it contains subjective and objective information about the patient. A PubMed search and Google search were done for articles highlighting the importance of dental records in forensic sciences using the key words "forensic odontology, forensic dentistry, forensic dentists, identification, dental records, and dental chart". A total of 42 articles relevant to the title of the article were found and reviewed. The present article highlights the role of dentists in forensic sciences, their possible contributions to forensics, and the various aspects of forensic dentistry, thus bridging the gap of knowledge between the legal and the dental fraternities.
Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah
The creation of new technologies and their application to forensic science is key to the field's development. Rapid DNA profiling is one such area of research which has grown in response to a desire from enforcement authorities for in-house forensic DNA processing and rapid access to forensic genetic intelligence. However, introducing novel technologies into the forensics market must be carefully monitored and controlled as the success or failure of any technology ultimately has long standing implications for victims, suspects, and also to Police and forensic practitioners. This article outlines the research, development, validation and implementation of the ParaDNA® Screening System as a case study in taking forensic research and development to market. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
van der Kuijl, B; van der Pols, L C
Forensic odontology plays an important, often decisive role in the identification of disaster victims. In the Dutch situation, the forensic odontologist is part of the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI)-team of the Dutch National Police Force. The extensive experience with forensic odontological identification of disaster victims, gained within the Dutch DVI-team is described and illustrated with reference to the identification procedure following the Martinair DC-10 aircraft crash at Faro, Portugal, december 21st, 1992. In the identification of the total of 56 victims, forensic odontology contributed in 55 cases (98.2%) to the identification; in 40 cases there were such clear agreements that identification based on forensic odontology alone would have been sufficient. The success of the forensic odontological identification method appeared to be greatly dependent of the adequate cooperation of dentists that made their treatment data available for comparison.
The limited ability of police to assist victims of domestic violence is often viewed as an institutional failure; a consequence of a lack of resources or inadequate training. This article presents key findings from a qualitative study of perceptions of and attitudes towards domestic violence in the South African township of ...
B.R. van Gelderen (Benjamin R.)
textabstractDuring my work as a police officer, I encountered many emotional demanding situations in which my colleagues and I often seemed to act unfelt emotions or suppressed emotions that would better not be displayed at that particular moment. For instance, during my first weeks of duty I
The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...
Training and education constitutes the backbone of a significant amount of police activity and expenditure in developing the most important resources involved in policing work. It also involves an array of actors and agencies, such as educational institutions which have a long and important relationship with police organisations. This book examines the role of education and training in the development of police in the contemporary world. Bringing together specialist scholars and practitio...
Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan
Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating
Khawla Abdulla Alghafli
Full Text Available The recovery of digital evidence of crimes from storage media is an increasingly time consuming process as the capacity of the storage media is in a state of constant growth. It is also a difficult and complex task for the forensic investigator to analyse all of the locations in the storage media. These two factors, when combined, may result in a delay in bringing a case to court. The concept of this paper is to start the initial forensic analysis of the storage media in locations that are most likely to contain digital evidence, the Windows Registry. Consequently, the forensic analysis process and the recovery of digital evidence may take less time than would otherwise be required. In this paper, the Registry structure of Windows 7 is discussed together with several elements of information within the Registry of Windows 7 that may be valuable to a forensic investigator. These elements were categorized into five groups which are system, application, networks, attached devices and the history lists. We have discussed the values of identified elements to a forensic investigator. Also, a tool was implemented to perform the function of extracting these elements and presents them in usable form to a forensics investigator.
Full Text Available Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012.Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample.This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings pertaining to the use of urine drug
Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas
Background Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as “patients” not “criminals,” Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Methods and Findings Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. Conclusions This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings
Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas
Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings pertaining to the use of urine drug testing by police
Sandoval, Ruben; Martinez, Douglas R.
Recently, incidents of police abuse against Hispanics have increased so rapidly that the phenomenon has been called an epidemic. Of special concern to Hispanic leaders is the lack of Federal intervention in these police brutality cases. A list of 56 documented cases involving police brutality against Hispanics is included. (Author/NQ)
This duty is distilled into standard policing to enforce law and order in the wake of a secured/safe environment. The standard of ... The paper recommended some important strategies for effective policing which includes re-orientation of the police, proper training, provision of firearms, motivation and public responsibility.
Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.
In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…
Aydinli and Hasan Yon, “ Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism ,” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011...Hasan Yon. “ Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism .” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011): 55... Transgovernmentalism , Intergovernmentalism, Regionalism, Effectiveness, International Police Cooperation Organizations 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY
Drummond, Rachel; Gall, John A M
Suspected child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect are not uncommon presentations. As part of the assessment of these cases, a forensic medical history may be taken. This forensic history is used not only to determine the steps necessary to address the child's wellbeing but also to direct the forensic examination. Currently, there is no clear consensus on whether or not a forensic medical history should consistently be considered an integral element within the paediatric forensic evaluation. This study examines the value derived by the medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history rather than relying on hearsay evidence when a child presents for an assessment. A retrospective review of paediatric cases seen by the Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service (VFPMS) between 2014 and 2015 was undertaken. 274 forensic case reports were reviewed and the data was entered into an Excel spread sheet and analysed using chi squared tests within STATA ® . With increasing age of the child, a forensic medical history is significantly more likely to be taken. Additional information is made available to the medical practitioner what would otherwise have been provided if the medical practitioner relied only on the interview conducted by the police. Discrepancies observed between the official third parties (police or child protection) report of what a child has said and what the child says to the medical practitioner decrease with age, as do discrepancies observed between the child's version of events and a third party's (eg. parents, caregivers, friends) version of events. The study showed that by taking a forensic medical history from the child additional information can be obtained. Further, that there is a value in the examining medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history from children in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Spencer, Duane E
This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements.
Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Goff, Phillip Atiba
We conducted 2 studies to investigate how cultural stereotypes that depict Blacks as criminals affect the way Blacks experience encounters with police officers, expecting that such encounters induce Blacks to feel stereotype threat (i.e., concern about being judged and treated unfairly by police because of the stereotype). In Study 1, we asked Black and White participants to report how they feel when interacting with police officers in general. As predicted, Blacks, but not Whites, reported concern that police officers stereotype them as criminals simply because of their race. In addition, this effect was found for Black men but not Black women. In Study 2, we asked Black and White men to imagine a specific police encounter and assessed potential downstream consequences of stereotype threat. Consistent with Study 1, Black but not White men anticipated feeling stereotype threat in the hypothetical police encounter. Further, racial differences in anticipated threat translated into racial differences in anticipated anxiety, self-regulatory efforts, and behavior that is commonly perceived as suspicious by police officers. By demonstrating that Blacks might expect to be judged and treated unfairly by police because of the negative stereotype of Black criminality, this research extends stereotype threat theory to the new domain of criminal justice encounters. It also has practical implications for understanding how the stereotype could ironically contribute to bias-based policing and racial disparities in the justice system. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Forensic differentiation between peripheral and menstrual blood in cases of alleged sexual assault-validating an immunochromatographic multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of human hemoglobin and D-dimer.
Holtkötter, Hannah; Dias Filho, Claudemir Rodrigues; Schwender, Kristina; Stadler, Christian; Vennemann, Marielle; Pacheco, Ana Claudia; Roca, Gabriela
Sexual assault is a serious offense and identification of body fluids originating from sexual activity has been a crucial aspect of forensic investigations for a long time. While reliable tests for the detection of semen and saliva have been successfully implemented into forensic laboratories, the detection of other body fluids, such as vaginal or menstrual fluid, is more challenging. Especially, the discrimination between peripheral and menstrual blood can be highly relevant for police investigations because it provides potential evidence regarding the issue of consent. We report the forensic validation of an immunochromatographic test that allows for such discrimination in forensic stains, the SERATEC PMB test, and its performance on real casework samples. The PMB test is a duplex test combining human hemoglobin and D-dimer detection and was developed for the identification of blood and menstrual fluid, both at the crime scene and in the laboratory. The results of this study showed that the duplex D-dimer/hemoglobin assay reliably detects the presence of human hemoglobin and identifies samples containing menstrual fluid by detecting the presence of D-dimers. The method distinguished between menstrual and peripheral blood in a swab from a historical artifact and in real casework samples of alleged sexual assaults. Results show that the development of the new duplex test is a substantial progress towards analyzing and interpreting evidence from sexual assault cases.
Although speed plays a large part in the occurrence of crashes, drivers often exceed the speed limit. The police use various methods when carrying out their speed surveillance. In the Netherlands positive effects have been found of speed surveillance with radar cars (without stopping). It is to be
Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...
Chariot, Patrick; Lepresle, Aude; Lefèvre, Thomas; Boraud, Cyril; Barthès, Agnès; Tedlaouti, Menouar
Screening and brief intervention programs related to addictive disorders have proven effective in a variety of environments. Both the feasibility and outcome of brief interventions performed in police custody by forensic physicians are unknown. Our objectives were to characterize addictive behaviors in detainees and to evaluate the feasibility of a brief intervention at the time of the medical examination in police custody. This prospective study included 1000 detainees in police custody who were examined by a physician for the assessment of fitness for detention. We used a standardized questionnaire and collected data concerning individual characteristics, addictive disorders, and reported assaults or observed injuries. 944 men and 56 women (94-6%) were studied. We found an addictive disorder in 708 of 1000 cases (71%), with the use of tobacco (62%), alcohol (36%), cannabis (35%), opiates (5%), and cocaine (4%) being the most common. A brief intervention was performed in 544 of these 708 cases (77%). A total of 139 of the 708 individuals (20%) expressed a willingness to change and 14 of 708 (2%) requested some information on treatment options. The main reasons why brief interventions were not performed were aggressive behaviors, drowsiness, or fanciful statements by the detainee. Brief interventions and screening for addictive behaviors in police custody are feasible in the majority of cases. The frequent link between addictive behaviors and the suspected crimes highlights the value of such interventions, which could be incorporated into the public health mission of the physician in police custody. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Renden, P.G.; Landman, H.M.; Geerts, S.F.; Jansen, S.E.M.; Faber, G.S.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.
We investigated the effects of anxiety on the execution of police officers' arrest and self-defense skills. Police officers (n=13) performed three tasks in which they kicked, blocked, or restrained an opponent who attacked them with a rubber knife (low anxiety, LA) or a shock knife (high anxiety,
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7189] Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Under the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010... investigating, prosecuting, and punishing military and police personnel who have been credibly alleged to have...
Full Text Available In a democracy, it is generally understood that the police serve at the will of the people and are accountable through police governance. This usually consists of elected and/or appointed officials whose primary legal authority is to set policy and appoint the police leaders whom they hold accountable for ensuring that effective policing operations are carried out. It is widely held in common law jurisdictions that the governing body is limited in their role and cannot get involved in “operational policing issues.” In June 2010, the G20 world leaders’ conference was held in Toronto, Canada. The events surrounding the police actions during this conference caused a great deal of concern and led the Toronto Police Services Board, who are the governing authority for the Toronto Police Service, to commission a review to look at their own role. The findings in relation to “board” involvement in the operational side of policing challenged a long held belief regarding the limited role of governance in police operations. These findings will be examined in relation to the lack of board expertise and the challenges faced by police leaders to adapt and develop their attitudes, skills and abilities to respond to any expansion of governance authority.
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.
Allison Louise Skinner
Full Text Available Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community. In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.
Skinner, Allison L; Haas, Ingrid J
Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.
Tan, Si-Lei; Peng, Shu-Ya; Wan, Lei; Chen, Jie-Min; Xia, Wen-Tao
Dental injuries, especially of the incisors, caused by punches in violent criminal attacks could be seen in daily forensic casework involving the identification of injuries to a living body. Sometimes, when there is neither circumstantial evidence nor information about the surrounding circumstances, it is difficult to discern the cause of these injuries and the manner in which they were inflicted. As an example of clinical forensic medicine, we present the case of a 58-year-old woman whose teeth were injured when fighting with her son-in-law over household affairs with no witnesses present. The two parties had conflicting stories about the cause of the woman's injury. The woman claimed that her teeth were lost while she was being beaten by her son-in-law, and the man argued that the damage to his mother-in-law's teeth was self-inflicted when she bit his fingers. The police attending the crime called for a forensic examination. Forensic practitioners analysed the mechanism of the tooth loss using multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) and imaging reconstruction technology. Local alveolar bone (medial alveolar) fracture and a small area of alveolar bone loss were found on MSCT. Thus, forensic medical experts speculated that the woman's lower central and lateral incisors were lost as a result of a violent attack and were not self-inflicted. Finally, forensic practitioners helped police in avoiding a miscarriage of justice and wrongful conviction.
Full Text Available This article aims at a consistent search of the opinions about the judicial police as one of the subjects, contained in the Albanian criminal procedural law. In article 30 of the Albanian Criminal Procedure Code, are sanctioned the functions, division, addiction and judicial police duties. In the initial phase, the preliminary investigations are the basis of criminal proceedings. This phase includes evidences that cannot be replicated, the security measures are set, it is performed the notice of suit and necessary datas are collected. Searching, tracking, capture and bringing before trial of the perpetrators is considered as one of the oldest activities of human being. The need to ensure these regulations and the aim to prevent the consequences of any criminal activity has forced societies and different states to establish special investigative bodies (investigation and to determine by time their rights and obligations. So judicial police organs were provided and charged with competences and legal responsibility for the detection, crime preventions and research, capturing and bringing before the court, individuals or groups who commit criminal activities. From a comparative overview of legislation of the judicial police in several countries around the world, it is shown that there is no extreme change in structures and organizational patterns of these bodies, missions, powers and responsibilities they exercise (Elezi, 1997, 13. Judicial police in Albania has also been and is one of the important subjects of the criminal proceedings. In the historical perspective these bodies have had mixed origins and nature, and in different times they were military or civilian institutions. In this context, main purpose of this paper is the analysis of judicial police in
Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura
Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…
Full Text Available In any mass disaster condition, identification of the person is most important. For this purpose, the forensic investigators use different methods for identifying the dead. They consider skeletal remains of the dead as the initial step in identification. Radiographs carry great evidence to act as antemortem records and also assist in identifying the person, age, gender, race, etc. Forensic dentistry is also emerging as a new branch in forensics. So, the forensic dentist must be aware of different techniques, developments, and resources to incorporate the technology in order to achieve success in human identification. So, our aim of the present review is to focus on different radiological techniques and new developments available for successful identification of the dead.
Colantonio, A; Stamenova, V; Abramowitz, C; Clarke, D; Christensen, B
The prevalence and profile of adults with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been studied in large North American forensic mental health populations. This study investigated how adults with a documented history of TBI differed with the non-TBI forensic population with respect to demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and history of offences. A retrospective chart review of all consecutive admissions to a forensic psychiatry programme in Toronto, Canada was conducted. Information on history of TBI, psychiatric diagnoses, living environments and types of criminal offences were obtained from medical records. History of TBI was ascertained in 23% of 394 eligible patient records. Compared to those without a documented history of TBI, persons with this history were less likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia but more likely to have alcohol/substance abuse disorder. There were also differences observed with respect to offence profiles. This study provides evidence to support routine screening for a history of TBI in forensic psychiatry.
Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress and associated physical and mental health related issues are not addressed in Indian police personnel with adequate importance. Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted among police personnel (both male and female in Calicut urban police district, Kerala state, India. Police personnel from all designations (ranks, except from the all India services (Indian Police Service were included in the study. Data were collected using a specifically designed datasheet covering socio-demographic profile, physical and mental health related details which was prepared by researchers. Occupational stress was measured using Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-OP and Organisational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-ORG. Result: The study found that both operational and organisational stress was significant among the police officers. Organisational stress was experienced in moderate level by 68% and in high level by 14%. Operational stress scores were in the moderate range in 67% and in high range in 16.5%. The younger age group (21-35 years and lower level rank police personnel had higher stress. Stress was higher among female police personnel compared to males. While 23% of them had been diagnosed with physical illnesses, a significant four per cent of them with mental illness, and 29% of them reported substance abuse. Conclusion: The results point to the high level of stress among Indian police personnel and the need for urgent interventions from the government to address the occupational stress.
Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.
properly trained for these duties, as a minimum all Air Force Dental Residency programs (13 sites) require a course in forensic dentistry including...Nuinber: FKE20080002E 2. Title: ŗD Virtual Images and Forensic Identification Training" 3. Principal Investigator (PI): Stephanie A. Stouder, Lt Col...47XX identifies the requirement for initial and annual training in forensic identification for all AF Dentists. Currently, to ensure that dentists are
Poonam M. Lohana
Forensic accounting as new area of accounting in India, has come to limelight recently due to rapid increase in white-collar crimes, financial crimes, cyber crimes and growing complexities of the corporate environment. Forensic accounting is the tripartite practice that integrates accounting, auditing, and investigative skills to conduct an examination into a company's financial statements. Though forensic accounting is untordden area in India, prospects is growing fast in public as well priv...
Roussev, Vassil; Barreto, Andres; Ahmed, Irfan
Cloud computing and cloud storage services, in particular, pose a new challenge to digital forensic investigations. Currently, evidence acquisition for such services still follows the traditional method of collecting artifacts on a client device. This approach requires labor-intensive reverse engineering efforts, and ultimately results in an acquisition that is inherently incomplete. Specifically, it makes the incorrect assumption that all storage content for an account is fully replicated on...
Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet
Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.
Chen, Chun-hsi Vivian; Kao, Rui Hsin
Public security, traffic management and service for the people are the three major functions of policing. To assure the quality of police service, which is contingent on the people who render the service, has become the core of policing. This study aims to investigate the relationship between work values and service-oriented organizational…
Andersson, M Gunnar; Sundström, Anders; Lindström, Anders
In the aftermath of a CBRN incident, there is an urgent need to reconstruct events in order to bring the perpetrators to court and to take preventive actions for the future. The challenge is to discriminate, based on available information, between alternative scenarios. Forensic interpretation is used to evaluate to what extent results from the forensic investigation favor the prosecutors' or the defendants' arguments, using the framework of Bayesian hypothesis testing. Recently, several new scientific disciplines have been used in a forensic context. In the AniBioThreat project, the framework was applied to veterinary forensic pathology, tracing of pathogenic microorganisms, and forensic entomology. Forensic entomology is an important tool for estimating the postmortem interval in, for example, homicide investigations as a complement to more traditional methods. In this article we demonstrate the applicability of the Bayesian framework for evaluating entomological evidence in a forensic investigation through the analysis of a hypothetical scenario involving suspect movement of carcasses from a clandestine laboratory. Probabilities of different findings under the alternative hypotheses were estimated using a combination of statistical analysis of data, expert knowledge, and simulation, and entomological findings are used to update the beliefs about the prosecutors' and defendants' hypotheses and to calculate the value of evidence. The Bayesian framework proved useful for evaluating complex hypotheses using findings from several insect species, accounting for uncertainty about development rate, temperature, and precolonization. The applicability of the forensic statistic approach to evaluating forensic results from a CBRN incident is discussed.
Moura-Neto, R S; Mello, I C T; Silva, R; Maette, A P C; Bottino, C G; Woerner, A; King, J; Wendt, F; Budowle, B
The use of bi-allelic markers such as retrotransposable element insertion polymorphisms or Innuls (for insertion/null) can overcome some limitations of short tandem repeat (STR) loci in typing forensic biological evidence. This study investigated the efficiency of the InnoTyper® 21 Innul markers in an urban admixed population sample in Rio de Janeiro (n = 40) and one highly compromised sample collected as evidence by the Rio de Janeiro police. No significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected after the Bonferroni correction (α' ≈ 0.05/20, p Rio de Janeiro populations are in a single large heterogeneous group. Also, a full Innuls profile was produced from an evidence sample, despite the DNA being highly degraded. In conclusion, this system is a useful complement to standard STR kits.
Sarma, Kiran; Griffin, Diarmuid; Kola, Susanna
Until recent years the Republic of Ireland had one of the most restrictive regimes on firearms access with the Irish police (An Garda Siochana) consistently refusing to grant certificates for a wide range of guns including handguns, high calibre rifles and shotguns capable of holding more than three cartridges. In 2004 the High Court ruled that this policy was without legislative backing and since then the police began to issue certificates for firearms where the applicant is not disentitled under law from possessing a gun. Set against this backdrop, this paper explores the consequences of liberal gun regimes in the context of access to firearms by those suffering from mental illness and who pose a threat of parasuicide or suicide. Consideration is given to experiences in other jurisdictions and international research on firearm suicide prevention. Finally some recommendations for changes in legislation, policy and protocol in the Irish context are presented. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Medical examination is a right for every person detained in police custody in France. Examination of detainees usually takes place in the police station so that the doctor can assess the conditions in which the detainee is being held. In some cases, such as type I diabetes care, detainees need to be examined and treated in a hospital. Doctors are subject to a duty of care and prevention. Description of recent traumatic injuries is part of the doctor's mission. They should prescribe any ongoing treatment which needs to be continued, as well as any emergency treatment required. Custody officers may monitor the detainee and administer medication. Doctor's opinion should be given in a national standard document. If the doctor considers that the custody conditions are disgraceful, they may refuse to express an opinion as to whether the detainee is fit for custody.
Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Enache, Alexandra
Serological and biochemical identification methods used in forensics have several major disadvantages, such as: long time in processing biological sample and lack of sensitivity and specificity. In the last 30 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples. Forensic genetics, can provide information on the events which occurred at the crime scene or to supplement other methods of forensic identification. Currently, the methods used in identification are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. This method analyses the autosomal STRs, the Y-chromosome, and the mitochondrial DNA. Correlation of biological samples present at the crime scene with identification, selection, and the probative value factor is therefore the first aspect to be taken into consideration in the forensic genetic analysis. In the last decade, because of the advances in the field of molecular biology, new biomarkers such as: microRNAs (miR), messenger RNA (mRNA), and DNA methylation have been studied and proposed to be used in the forensic identifications of body fluids.
Ali, Leah; Brown, Kyle; Castellano, Holly; Wetzel, Stephanie J
Due to possible secondary transfer of gunshot residue (GSR) onto a suspect in police custody prior to sampling, a baseline must be created for the amount of GSR present. With an increase of "lead free" ammunition, testing for both gunpowder and primer GSR is relevant. Seventy samples were collected using carbon-coated adhesive stubs from four Pittsburgh Police Stations and vehicles to investigate these locations as sources of secondary GSR contamination. These seventy samples were analyzed for primer GSR using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. One primer GSR particle was detected; no sample was classified as positive for primer GSR. These same samples were then analyzed for gunpowder GSR using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to test for akardite II, ethylcentralite, diphenylamine, N-nitrosodiphenylamine, 2-nitrodiphenylamine, and 4-nitrodiphenylamine. Ethylcentralite was quantifiable in two test samples. These results suggest there is a negligible potential for secondary transfer of primer and gunpowder GSR. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.
Full text: The Police Scientific Development Branch (Pdb) of the UK Home Office evaluates technologies, develops equipment and detection standards for the police and security communities. PSDB's guidance helps to protect critical sites, including nuclear sites, in the United Kingdom. PSDB evaluates doors, walls, fences, locks, glazing and other barrier to determine whether they meet national and European standards against conventional physical attack. PSDB also evaluates intruder-detection systems. If solutions for security problems do not exist commercially, it might help to develop them. Examples include computer machine-vision systems to guide a pan-tilt-zoom camera automatically, and to assess intruder alarms. PSDB's automatic alarm verification system (AMETHYST) is now being installed for test at a nuclear power station on England's south coast. PSDB has used its analysis of the effects of exploding bombs on building materials to influence building codes. The PSDB also evaluates technologies for crime investigation, surveillance, explosive detection and bomb search. PSDB uses its experience to help train security practitioners to select, specify, and audit security at critical sites, including sites that handle nuclear materials. PSDB's technologies and advice have helped to protect the UK against terrorist attacks. Its expertise can be made available to help meet other European needs. (author)
Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla
Full Text Available Cloud computing and digital forensics are emerging fields of technology. Unlike traditional digital forensics where the target environment can be almost completely acquired, isolated and can be under the investigators control; in cloud environments, the distribution of computation and storage poses unique and complex challenges to the investigators.Recently, the term "cloud forensics" has an increasing presence in the field of digital forensics. In this state-of-the-art review, we included the most recent research efforts that used "cloud forensics" as a keyword and then classify the literature in to three dimensions, (1 survey-based, (2 technology-based and (3 forensics procedural-based.We discuss widely accepted international standard bodies and their efforts to cope with the current trend of cloud forensics. Our aim is not only to reference related work based on the discussed dimensions, but also to analyze them and generate a mind map that will help in identifying research gaps. Finally, we summarize existing digital forensics tools and, the available simulation environments that can be used for evidence acquisition, examination and cloud forensics test purposes.
Full Text Available At the beginning of a new millennium it seems a good idea to stop for a moment and take stock of the current state of forensic science. As a field of scientific research and scientific application, forensic science is a little more than a century old. Forensic science may be said to have begun in 1887 with the simultaneous publication of A. Conan Doyle’s A Study in Scarlet and Hans Gross’s Handbuch für Untersuchungsrichter. Conan Doyle’s novel introduced to the world the character of Sherlock Holmes, whose literary career would popularize the use of physical evidence in criminal investigations. Gross’s manual for examining magistrates suggests ways in which the expertise of chemists, biologists, geologists, and other natural scientists could contribute to investigations. Gross’s book was translated into a number of languages and went through various updated editions during the course of the century. The intervening century saw the development and application of fingerprinting, firearm and tool mark identification, forensic chemistry, forensic biology, forensic toxicology, forensic odontology, forensic pathology, and forensic engineering. Increasingly, the judicial systems of the industrial nations of the world have come to rely upon the expertise of scientists in a variety of disciplines. In most advanced countries, virtually all criminal prosecutions now involve the presentation of scientific testimony. This has had the beneficial effect of diminishing the reliance of courts on eyewitness testimony and defendant confessions.
Kaiseler, Mariana; Queirós, Cristina; Passos, Fernando; Sousa, Pedro
This study investigated the influence of stress appraisal and coping on work engagement levels (Absorption, Vigour, and Dedication) of police recruits. Participants were 387 men, ages 20 to 33 yr. (M = 24.1, SD = 2.4), in their last month of academy training before becoming police officers. Partially in support of predictions, work engagement was associated with Stressor control perceived, but not Stress intensity experienced over a self-selected stressor. Although the three dimensions of work engagement were explained by Stressor control and coping, Absorption was the dimension better explained by these variables. Police recruits reporting higher Absorption, Vigour, and Dedication reported using more Active coping and less Behavioural disengagement. Results showed that stress appraisal and coping are important variables influencing work engagement among police recruits. Findings suggested that future applied interventions fostering work engagement among police recruits should reinforce perceptions of control over a stressor as well as Active coping strategies.
Nuzzolese, E; Lepore, M M; Cukovic-Bagic, I; Montagna, F; Di Vella, G
The scientific literature contains very little about the role of the dental hygienist/therapist in the specific areas of forensic investigations and collection of evidence. The authors examine how the contribution of a highly qualified dental hygienist can be particularly helpful during human forensic identification operations and non-accidental traumas like domestic violence, child abuse, neglect and bitemarks. Forensic dental identification of human remains is a highly complex multidisciplinary challenge. It requires the involvement of several professionals who are expert in forensic science. Among these, one or more adequately trained dental hygienists could be involved. Dental hygienists/therapists may also be asked to record cutaneous lesions in two different situations. The first may be the dental office where she/he may detect oval, elliptic, or semicircular lesions on the skin of the uncovered neck, shoulder and arms of a patient. The second is the crime scene or the morgue (if one is involved), which may require a visit by the forensic odontologist called by the medical examiner or the coroner to perform an odontological autopsy. The purpose of our study is to highlight procedures that should be followed by the dental hygienist/therapist in collecting forensic information in the above-mentioned scenarios. As a valuable resource, the authors recommend training of dental hygienists in the area of forensic sciences, with particular attention to information technology and photography.
Full Text Available The repression of competition by mechanisms of policing is now recognized as a major force in the maintenance of cooperation. General models on the evolution of policing have focused on the interplay between individual competitiveness and mutual policing, demonstrating a positive relationship between within-group diversity and levels of policing. We expand this perspective by investigating what is possibly the simplest example of reproductive policing: copy number control (CNC among non-conjugative plasmids, a class of extra-chromosomal vertically transmitted molecular symbionts of bacteria. Through the formulation and analysis of a multi-scale dynamical model, we show that the establishment of stable reproductive restraint among plasmids requires the co-evolution of two fundamental plasmid traits: policing, through the production of plasmid-coded trans-acting replication inhibitors, and obedience, expressed as the binding affinity of plasmid-specific targets to those inhibitors. We explain the intrinsic replication instabilities that arise in the absence of policing and we show how these instabilities are resolved by the evolution of copy number control. Increasing levels of policing and obedience lead to improvements in group performance due to tighter control of local population size (plasmid copy number, delivering benefits both to plasmids, by reducing the risk of segregational loss and to the plasmid-host partnership, by increasing the rate of cell reproduction, and therefore plasmid vertical transmission.
Kentzoglanakis, Kyriakos; García López, Diana; Brown, Sam P; Goldstein, Richard A
The repression of competition by mechanisms of policing is now recognized as a major force in the maintenance of cooperation. General models on the evolution of policing have focused on the interplay between individual competitiveness and mutual policing, demonstrating a positive relationship between within-group diversity and levels of policing. We expand this perspective by investigating what is possibly the simplest example of reproductive policing: copy number control (CNC) among non-conjugative plasmids, a class of extra-chromosomal vertically transmitted molecular symbionts of bacteria. Through the formulation and analysis of a multi-scale dynamical model, we show that the establishment of stable reproductive restraint among plasmids requires the co-evolution of two fundamental plasmid traits: policing, through the production of plasmid-coded trans-acting replication inhibitors, and obedience, expressed as the binding affinity of plasmid-specific targets to those inhibitors. We explain the intrinsic replication instabilities that arise in the absence of policing and we show how these instabilities are resolved by the evolution of copy number control. Increasing levels of policing and obedience lead to improvements in group performance due to tighter control of local population size (plasmid copy number), delivering benefits both to plasmids, by reducing the risk of segregational loss and to the plasmid-host partnership, by increasing the rate of cell reproduction, and therefore plasmid vertical transmission.
Schumann, Cornelia; Asmal, Laila; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Emsley, Robin
Little is known about the reasons why people with schizophrenia have contact with police, especially prior to the first episode of illness. To investigate the prevalence and correlates of police contact in first-episode schizophrenia. The prevalence and type of police contact was established among all 110 patients presenting to psychiatric services in one catchment area during a first episode of schizophrenia and among 65 non-mentally ill controls, by participant and collateral interview and from records. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were also recorded and the two groups compared. The first episode of schizophrenia patients had more contact with police than controls, despite the higher prevalence of conduct disorder symptoms among the controls. The patients were not, however, more likely to be incarcerated or arrested. Among the patients, over half of the police call-outs occurred during the period of untreated psychosis. Positive psychotic symptoms were independently associated with police contact, after allowing for socio-demographics. As over a third of people in a first episode of schizophrenia had been in contact with the police - more than twice the proportion among non-psychotic controls - and contact was associated with untreated positive psychotic symptoms, better early detection and treatment of psychosis seems indicated. In the meantime, police services may be playing an important role in reducing the duration of untreated psychosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi
Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.
analysis, the establishment of criminal databases , and the use of polygraph tests. He believed in training all police officers in criminal...level of mutual confidence. There was a lack of formal crime prevention studies in the country. There was a lack of a criminal database arranging...Iraq, 1953, 23. 56 John F. Devlin. "Baath Party: Rise and Metamorphosis." JSTOR . December 1991. http://www.jstor.org/stabel/2165277 (accessed January
Kroon, F S
Human teeth and dental restorations have proven to remain stable during a long time as well as in extreme situations such as fire. Therefore, forensic odontology can play an important part in the identification of severe mutilated bodies of unknown persons. The essence of the identification procedure is comparing the post mortem remains with the ante mortem records. In this issue several authors describe the importance of forensic odontology by means of the use of dental records in mass disasters. Another aspect of forensic odontology is the examination of bite marks, which can be seen in some criminal cases.
Young, Alexandria; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas; Stillman, Richard; Smith, Martin J; Korstjens, Amanda H
Within northwest Europe, especially the United Kingdom, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the Eurasian Badger (Meles meles) are the largest wild scavengers capable of modifying a set of remains through scavenging. Knowledge of region-specific and species-typical scavenging behaviors of scavengers within the crime scene area and surroundings can aid in more efficient and accurate interpretations. The scavenging behaviors of captive and wild foxes and badgers were recorded and compared through actualistic methods and direct observation. The scavenging by wild foxes and badgers of surface-deposited baits and whole deer (Cervus nippon; Capreolus capreolus) in a woodland was observed and analyzed. Wild foxes were found to scavenge deer more frequently than badgers. The scavenging of deer remains by foxes was also compared with forensic cases. The scavenging pattern and recovery distances of deer and human remains scavenged by foxes were similar but were potentially affected by the condition and deposition of a body, and the presence of clothing. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Schulz, Martin M; Buschner, Maximilian G D; Leidig, Richard; Wehner, Heinz-D; Fritz, Peter; Häbig, Karina; Bonin, Michael; Schütz, Monika; Shiozawa, Thomas; Wehner, Frank
There are forensic inquiries in which an identification of epithelial cell types would provide important probative evidence. In cancer diagnosis, this information is yielded by histological examination of cytokeratin (Ck). Therefore, we tested 19 antibodies against different Cks (Ck1, Ck2e, Ck4, Ck5-6, Ck7, Ck8, Ck9, CK10, Ck13, Ck14, Ck15, Ck16, Ck17, Ck18, Ck19, Ck20, Ck903, PanCkAE1_3, and CAM5-2) on histological sections of epidermis, buccal mucosa, vaginal mucosa, penis, urogenital tract, and rectum and could identify two antigens unique to buccal-cell and vaginal-cell (Ck4) and skin epithelial-cell (Ck10) cytokeratin. Subsequently, we developed an immunocytological technique for distinguishing swabbed skin and mucosal cells up to at least 1 year after sampling. By the detection of the Ck4 and Ck10 mRNAs in biopsy and laser capture microdissection collected samples via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we were able to confirm our immunological findings. Hence, this study offers techniques to discriminate between skin and mucosal cells (buccal and vaginal) in forensic casework.
Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian
In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Rosenbloom, Tova; Pereg, Avihu; Perlman, Amotz
The policy of a public organization, such as police, may shape the norms and the behavior of the citizens. In line with this, police officers are expected by the public to comply with traffic laws and serve as an example for the citizenry. This study used on-site observations of civilian and police driver, comparing police officers' compliance with traffic laws to that of civilians. We compared driver compliance with traffic laws for drivers in 3 groups of vehicles: traffic police cars, non-traffic police cars, and civilian cars. Four hundred sixty-six vehicles were observed and compared by vehicle type and whether a uniform was worn by the driver. We observed safety belt usage, signaling before turning, cellular phone usage, and giving way to traffic (measured by merging time). We found evidence that generally drivers in police cars use seat belts while driving more that drivers in civilian cars do. In particular, more traffic police car drivers used seat belts than non-traffic police car drivers do. In addition, drivers in civilian cars and non-traffic police cars waited longer periods of time before merging right into traffic compared to traffic police car drivers. Our findings supported the notion that on-duty police officers, and traffic police officers in particular, adhere more closely to traffic laws compared to civilian drivers. As the general public compliance with traffic laws is affected by the police perceived legitimacy, the publication of these results can both boost public cooperation with the police and encourage police officers to continue providing positive role models to the public.
Forensic science lends itself to many academic areas. Aside from the science itself, writing plays a major role in the investigation process as well as in the courtroom. It is paramount that students learn how to write proficiently when recording results or writing evaluations and reports, just as forensic scientists do. This can also be done…
Neutron techniques mainly in the form of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is suitable for determination of very low amounts of many elements and can be effectively applied in crime investigation. Trace element analysis plays a significant role in forensic science. Different aspects of radioanalytical techniques, role of a few typical elements and their forensic application in different types of samples are discussed
Mason, T; Lovell, A; Coyle, D
This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic psychiatric nurses from the perspective of three groups: (A) forensic psychiatric nurses; (B) non-forensic psychiatric nurses; and (C) other disciplines. A national survey of forensic psychiatric services in the UK was conducted, and information gathered on the perceived skills and competencies in this growing field of psychiatric practice. From 3360 questionnaires, 1172 were returned, making a response rate of 35%. The results indicate a small discrepancy between forensic nurses' and non-forensic nurses' perceptions of the role constructs of forensic practice. However, a larger difference was noted between nurses' perceptions and other disciplines' perceptions of the constituent parts to forensic psychiatric nursing. Nurses tended to focus on personal qualities both in relation to themselves and the patients, while the other disciplines focused on organizational structures both in defining the role and in the resolution of perceived deficits. The findings have implications for multidisciplinary working, as well as policy formulation and curriculum development in terms of the skills and competencies of forensic nurse training.
Ozili, Peterson K
This review present some evidence on fraud, forensic accounting, the skills and education of the forensic investigator. Also, some ex-planation for the diverging views among academics and regulators in relation to detecting fraud are provided. To regulators, I address the question on why academic research in forensic accounting have little significance to inform policy. Further, I present some rich set of questions and identify a number of important directions for future research in forensic ...
Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.
This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources
Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...
and notes: The lack of embeddedness of prodemocracy elites is reflected in the idealized view of democracy they embrace. They portray democracy as...Additionally, for individual police officers, policing is their livelihood in a competitive job market with extremely high unemployment. Thus, the police
Kogon, S; Arnold, J; Wood, R; Merner, L
DIP3, a computerized aid to assist in dental identification, was integrated into the RESOLVE INITIATIVE, a joint endeavour by the Ontario Provincial Police and the Office of the Chief Coroner for Ontario, to resolve cases of missing persons (MP) and unidentified remains (UNID). Dental data, from the UNID, collected by the coroner and the dental records of MP, provided by investigating police, are streamed separately for input into a dedicated computer program. All dental management is provided by forensic dentists. The advantage of having experienced dentists managing this data is explained. A description of the RESOLVE INITIATIVE and DIP3, including the method used for record transmission is provided. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fink, J M; Wagner, J P; Congleton, J J; Rock, J C
This study evaluated police officers' exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units. Exposure measurements were taken at approximated ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in patrol vehicles. Comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers' published maximum power density specifications and actual measured power densities taken at the antenna faces of those units. Four speed-enforcement agencies and one transportation research institute provided 54 radar units for evaluation; 17 different models, encompassing 4 frequency bands and 3 antenna configurations, were included. Four of the 986 measurements taken exceeded the 5 mW/cm2 limit accepted by the International Radiation Protection Association and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, though none exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, American National Standards Institute, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, or Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 10 mW/cm2. The four high measurements were maximum power density readings taken directly in front of the radar. Of the 812 measurements taken at the officers' seated ocular and testicular positions, none exceeded 0.04 mW/cm2; the highest of these (0.034 mW/cm2) was less than 1% of the most conservative current safety standards. High exposures in the limited region directly in front of the radar aperture are easily avoided with proper training. Results of this study indicate that police officer exposure to microwave radiation is apparently minimal. However, because of uncertainty in the medical and scientific communities concerning nonionizing radiation, it is recommended that law enforcement agencies implement a policy of prudent avoidance, including purchasing units with the lowest published maximum power densities, purchasing dash/rear deck-mounted units with antennae mounted outside the patrol vehicle, and training police officers to use the "stand-by" mode
Craiger, Philip; Burke, Paul
This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering trace evidence from Mac OS X default email, web browser and instant messaging applications, as well as evidence pertaining to commands executed from a terminal.
US Department of Justice, 2004
Forensic science provides scientific and foundational information for investigators and courts, and thus plays a crucial role in the criminal justice system. This guide was developed through the work of the Technical Working Group on Education and Training in Forensic Science (TWGED) to serve as a reference on best education and training practices…
Forensic anthropology is playing an increasingly important role facing violence and impunity in many countries. A research performed at police stations of Civil Police and Forensic Institutes of six Brazilian capitals demonstrated that the practice of recover and positive identification of human remains has been neglected in different levels. The main problem is the lack of specific training of the professionals that accomplish the expertise in field and laboratory, but also the fact that no anthropological database of disappeared people is available. As a result of this situation, an expressive number of human remains leave the forensic institutes without positive identification, and criminal inquiries of homicides stay without resolution, contributing to the aggravation of the violence and impunity scenery that devastates the country.
Anna P. Alekseyeva
Full Text Available Objective to determine the reliability and objectivity of information to the population on the functioning of police in Volgograd oblast. Methods sociological absentee polling in the form of a questionnaire statistical logical documentary graphic method of systemic analysis. Results the opinions of the population on police are extremely controversial. It is connected mostly with the sources of information which mostly are not reliable and objective. The article shows that despite the growth of victimization the level of anxiety of the population about the criminal attacks is gradually reduced and the sense of security in citizens is strengthened though often due to their personal efforts to protect their life health and property. Only every fifth citizen relies on the participation of law enforcers in ensuring security and public order. The survey revealed that about half of the citizens who are potentially interested in the reaction of law enforcement officers to the crime actually agree to leave the offender unpunished due to the mistrust of the police. A third of claimants were unsatisfied with the police action on their application which does not correlate with the declared numbers. The opinion of Volgograd citizens on the frequency of bribery among police officers remains unchanged whereas other malfeasances received a significant increase. And despite this the attitude of the respondents towards the police in general has improved. Mostly it was the result of media activities that inform the public about successful police work using TV shows documentaries and feature films. The successful work of the police is also confirmed by statistic that shows the rapid decline in recorded crime. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of a combination of various methods the reliability and objectivity of information to the population is investigated on the police of Volgograd oblast. Practical significance the main provisions and
Basu, A.K.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Ghosh, P.
Nuclear approaches for compositional characterization has bright application prospect in forensic perspective towards assessment of nature and origin of seized material. The macro and micro physical properties of nuclear materials can be specifically associated with a process or type of nuclear activity. Under the jurisdiction of nuclear analytical chemistry as well as nuclear forensics, thrust areas of scientific endeavor like determination of radioisotopes, isotopic and mass ratios, analysis for impurity contents, arriving at chemical forms/species and physical parameters play supporting evidence in forensic investigations. The analytical methods developed for this purposes can be used in international safeguards as well for nuclear forensics. Nuclear material seized in nuclear trafficking can be identified and a profile of the nuclear material can be created
Tsuchiya, Ken'ichi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kuroki, Kenro; Schwantes, Jon M.; Pierson, Richard; Piper, Roman K.
Nuclear forensics are the technical means by which nuclear and other radioactive materials used in illegal activities are characterized as to physical and chemical condition, provenance, and history. Sampling for traditional forensics evidence (e.g. fingerprints, DNA, hair, fibers, and digital evidence) contaminated by radionuclides, and categorization of nuclear and other radioactive materials by on-sight measurement are required for first responders. Portable radiological equipment and radiation protection for first responders to achieve emergency tasks safely at the incident sites have been developed and evaluated in National Research Institute of Police Science. In this report, we introduce wireless network dosimetry system and neutron protection shield with water under sampling and categorization. Described next in this report are evaluation tests of active personal dosimeters using neutron irradiation field in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We evaluated them under fast and thermal neutron field. We confirmed the large fluctuation of the response for each dosimeter caused by the energy dependence of the detectors. (author)
.... The central research question addresses the separation between civil-military and policing theories and investigates the effects of long-term domestic conflicts on the relationship between civilian...
[The current problems of investigations into thanatogenesis and the causes of death considered in the articles published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza (Forensic Medical Expertise)" during the period from 2000 to 2014].
Fetisov, V A; Gusarov, A A; Khabova, Z S; Baibarza, N V; Rudenko, I A
The objective of the present work was the analysis of the scientometrical characteristics of the publication activity of the authors of the articles concerning the problems of investigations into thanatogenesis and the causes of death that were submitted for the publication in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza" during the period from 2000 to 2014. The analysis was aimed at detecting the priority fields of research of interest not only for domestic but especially for foreign specialists. The study has revealed the most popular Russian-language and foreign journals that were most frequently cited by the authors of "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza". It was shown that the largest number of publications were submitted by the research groups affiliated with the departments and other subdivisions of the practical expert institutions of Moscow, Sankt-Petersburg, Astrakhan, Krasnodar, Baku, and Krasnoyarsk. It is concluded that the further analysis and assessment of the research activities of specialist in forensic medical expertise with the use of scientometrical methods constitute the indispensable condition for the development and improvement of the quality of forensic medical expertise in the Russian Federation.
Marcus K. Rogers
Full Text Available With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s/media, transporting it to the lab, making a forensic image(s, and then searching the entire system for potential evidence, is no longer appropriate in some circumstances. In cases such as child abductions, pedophiles, missing or exploited persons, time is of the essence. In these types of cases, investigators dealing with the suspect or crime scene need investigative leads quickly; in some cases it is the difference between life and death for the victim(s. The Cyber Forensic Field Triage Process Model (CFFTPM proposes an onsite or field approach for providing the identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence in a short time frame, without the requirement of having to take the system(s/media back to the lab for an in-depth examination or acquiring a complete forensic image(s. The proposed model adheres to commonly held forensic principles, and does not negate the ability that once the initial field triage is concluded, the system(s/storage media be transported back to a lab environment for a more thorough examination and analysis. The CFFTPM has been successfully used in various real world cases, and its investigative importance and pragmatic approach has been amply demonstrated. Furthermore, the derived evidence from these cases has not been challenged in the court proceedings where it has been introduced. The current article describes the CFFTPM in detail, discusses the model’s forensic soundness, investigative support capabilities and practical considerations.
.... Local police agencies have previously not had a formal role in radiological security. This thesis explores policy initiatives, based on community policing principles conducted at the local police level, which will enhance security at locations where radiological materials are kept.
Pimsler, Meaghan L; Pape, Thomas; Johnston, J Spencer; Wharton, Robert A; Parrott, Jonathan J; Restuccia, Danielle; Sanford, Michelle R; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Tarone, Aaron M
Flies in the family Sarcophagidae incubate their eggs and are known to be ovoviviparous (i.e., ovolarviparous), but a laboratory-maintained colony of Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Wiedemann) deposited clutches of viable eggs over 10 generations. A description of the egg and first-instar larva of this species is provided along with genetic data (genome size and cytochrome oxidase I sequences). The egg is similar to previously described eggs of other Sarcophagidae but differs in the configuration of the micropyle. In the first-instar larva, the oral ridges are much more developed than has been described for other species. B. plinthopyga has forensic importance, and the present descriptive information is critical for proper case management. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.
Liu, F; Dang, Y H
Forensic dentistry is an interdiscipline of forensic medicine and stomatology, which provides legal information by collecting, testing and assessing the dental evidence scientifically. In this review, the present application of forensic dentistry has been described, such as the estimation of age, sex, species, occupation and living habit, as well as the identification of individual, domestic violence or abuse, which aims to enrich and improve forensic dentistry for making it be more useful in forensic medicine even in juridical practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.
... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.5 Off-post investigations. (a... or personnel, the military police exercising area responsibility will request copies of the civilian...
Fouad, Mohamed; Manaf, Azizah; Zamani, Mazdak; Ahmad, Rabiah; Kacprzyk, Janusz
This book presents recent applications and approaches as well as challenges in digital forensic science. One of the evolving challenges that is covered in the book is the cloud forensic analysis which applies the digital forensic science over the cloud computing paradigm for conducting either live or static investigations within the cloud environment. The book also covers the theme of multimedia forensics and watermarking in the area of information security. That includes highlights on intelligence techniques designed for detecting significant changes in image and video sequences. Moreover, the theme proposes recent robust and computationally efficient digital watermarking techniques. The last part of the book provides several digital forensics related applications, including areas such as evidence acquisition enhancement, evidence evaluation, cryptography, and finally, live investigation through the importance of reconstructing the botnet attack scenario to show the malicious activities and files as evidence...
Meloy, J Reid
The objective of this paper is to address the empirical basis and forensic application of a bimodal theory of violence. The definitions of affective and predatory violence, the relevant animal and clinical research, and the current empirical evidence in neurochemistry, neuropsychology and psychophysiology are reviewed. Forensic evidence for the relevance of this bimodal theory is investigated. An appropriate methodology for data gathering, and two observational measures along with one self-report measure are explicated. Integration of this bimodal theory into forensic practice is suggested. Affective and predatory modes of violence represent an empirically valid bimodal theory of violence, find application in forensic psychiatry, and scientifically deepen the understanding of discrete violent acts for both retrospective and prospective psychiatric and psychological investigations. This bimodal theory of violence should have a place in forensic psychiatric practice.
Walsh, Simon J
A forensic biologist is usually involved in the criminal justice system process somewhere between the police and the legal system, interacting in a practical context regularly and extensively with both. Forensic DNA research and development commonly involves initiatives that encroach into the neighbouring domains of the law enforcement or legal agencies. Despite this level of association, establishing meaningful cross-disciplinary communication and understanding within the justice system remains a challenge. As an example, there is an abundance of literature relating to forensic DNA profiling in legal and criminological periodicals. Such journals are perhaps outside the regular reading of forensic scientists and much of the legal discussion appears to go unnoticed. This situation is understandable; however, it is also undesirable particularly as forensic DNA developments are intertwined with significant changes in legislation and contentious issues of privacy, civil liberty and social justice. This paper attempts to address this shortcoming directly by summarising - from the viewpoint of a forensic scientist - some of the discussion in the legal literature. In particular the review focuses on discussion raising ideological and ethical concerns. Awareness of these views is of relevance to forensic science. It assists us to accurately place DNA evidence into context and to develop its role in achieving the broader criminal justice system objectives. Understanding the discussion also provides a way to enter the debate and communicate at an appropriate level the true potential of DNA to the legal community.
Stray, J E; Liu, J Y; Brevnov, M G; Shewale, J G
Biological forensic samples constitute evidence with probative organic matter. Evidence believed to contain DNA is typically processed for extraction and purification of its nucleic acid content. Forensic DNA samples are composed of two things, a tissue and the substrate it resides on. Compositionally, a sample may contain almost anything and for each, the type, integrity, and content of both tissue and substrate will vary, as will the contaminant levels. This fact makes the success of extraction one of the most unpredictable steps in genotypic analysis. The development of robust genotyping systems and analysis platforms for short tandem repeat (STR) and mitochondrial DNA sequencing and the acceptance of results generated by these methods in the court system, resulted in a high demand for DNA testing. The increasing variety of sample submissions created a need to isolate DNA from forensic samples that may be compromised or contain low levels of biological material. In the past decade, several robust chemistries and isolation methods have been developed to safely and reliably recover DNA from a wide array of sample types in high yield and free of PCR inhibitors. In addition, high-throughput automated workflows have been developed to meet the demand for processing increasing numbers of samples. This review summarizes a number of the most widely adopted methods and the best practices for DNA isolation from forensic biological samples, including manual, semiautomated, and fully automated platforms. Copyright © 2010 Central Police University.
Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.
Hendriks, Frank; van Hulst, Merlijn
The police is one of the most prominent organizations in the frontline of public administration. In order to deal with high external expectations, the organization has been said to develop and nurture multiple police cultures. Applying Grid Group Cultural Theory, or GGCT, we address the following
Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.
The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…
Over the past two decades the theories and strategies associated with institutional reform of the police as public agency have been a source of invigoration for ... Criminology, Faculty of Law at the University of Cape. Town. Elrena van der Spuy*. Elrena.firstname.lastname@example.org. Title: Police reform from the bottom up: officers ...
Lee, Daniel E.
Regrettably, cheating is widespread on all levels of our educational system. Effective monitoring and judicial review processes that ensure that students who cheat are subjected to appropriate disciplinary action are essential. However, policing is not enough. We must go beyond policing to change the culture of the classroom in ways that…
Describes a successful community-oriented policing program at the University of South Alabama which has cut crime rates while not requiring extra funding. Discusses the reorganization of the police department, efforts targeting children, university services started by the deputy chief, and other new crime prevention and training initiatives. (EV)
Aug 7, 2017 ... to be abused due to the influence of social evils such as corruption, favouritism, dishonesty, fraud, tribalism, ethnicity and even villagism. These social problems are not peculiar to the Nigeria Police alone. They are ..... At this stage, the suspect sometimes through his lawyer has to negotiate with the Police ...
The study was conducted to examine the stress associated with policing in Nigeria, the strategies for coping ... Police officers who experienced stress took to alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and religiousity to cope with ..... It does appear that the habit of drinking alcohol to overcome stress is a global phenomenon that ...
This article describes three studies on several aspects of police custody in The Netherlands. The first study shows that the quality of accommodation, facilities, interaction and differential treatment are substandard in Dutch police stations, but dependent of the organisational size, degree of
According to Arase and Iwuofor (2007) training is an invaluable tool for the effective policing of any society. An untrained or ill-trained police officer lacks the requisite knowledge, skill and attitude for effective crime control and is also a threat to the society. Regular training programmes should be organized to enhance ...
Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Westerveld, Gre J.; Hutter, Renée C.; Olff, Miranda; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.
This study i) describes the number of police personnel with PTSD who are working and those who are on sick leave before and after an out-patient-clinic treatment program and ii) examines which factors are related to return to work. Police personnel treated for PTSD (n=121). In this retrospective
Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the stress associated with policing in Nigeria, the strategies for coping with stress and the outcomes. A total number of 300 police officers randomly selected participated in the survey. The participants responded to. Work Stress Inventory (WSI). They also responded to self- ...
Full Text Available In this article we analyse professional police and community policing in view of professionalism, strategy and structures. We aim to find ways for synthesizing these models that are usually seen as incompatible. Unlike many earlier studies of police organizations or strategies, we view strategies in the organization at the corporate, functional and operational levels, and argue that by combining them with functional and divisional principles of structuring, it is possible to place professional strategy at the core of policing, while using the community policing strategy mainly as a component part of the strategy in the framework of divisional organization. This way it is possible to avoid the risk of alienating police from the community and to ensure the successful implementation of corporate strategy through providing professional police units that perform the narrow functions, with quick and adequate information from the community.
for two weeks at a time, but they made it look easy. I want to thank my kids , Daryle, Hunter, Gabriella, and Adrianna, for making me want to always...police-man-killed-officers-holding-gun- not- book /90774106/. 49 the reports it produced is that it affirmed to the public that police officers were...21/charlotte-police-man- killed-officers-holding-gun-not- book /90774106/. McBride, Bria. “Investigators Scour Gunman’s Social Media as Motive Remains
Burgert van Jaarsveld
Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was to determine the personality profile of police recruits who are high on anxiety. A secondary objective was to determine whether there are gender and ethnic differences in the levels of anxiety of those police recruits. To investigate the stated objectives the NEO Personality Inventory, Locus of Control Inventory and the IPAT Anxiety Scale were applied to 487 police recruits. Complete records were obtained for 259 participants. In comparing the personality profiles of participants who are high on anxiety and those who are low, it turned out that the biggest differences were in respect of Neuroticism, External Locus of Control and Agreeableness.
This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the...... of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced...... as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food...
Full Text Available The proliferation of mobile communication and computing devices, in particular smart mobile phones, is almost paralleled with the increasing number of mobile device forensics tools in the market. Each mobile forensics tool vendor, on one hand claims to have a tool that is best in terms of performance, while on the other hand each tool vendor seems to be using different standards for testing their tools and thereby defining what support means differently. To overcome this problem, a testing framework based on a series of tests ranging from basic forensics tasks such as file system reconstruction up to more complex ones countering antiforensic techniques is proposed. The framework, which is an extension of an existing effort done in 2010, prescribes a method to clearly circumscribe the term support into precise levels. It also gives an idea of the standard to be developed and accepted by the forensic community that will make it easier for forensics investigators to quickly select the most appropriate tool for a particular mobile device.
Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.
Pollanen, M S
The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions. © The Author(s) 2016.
... Graduate Thesis Assistance Grant Winner Call for Nominees: Anthropology Section T. Dale Stewart Award 2018 Annual Scientific Meeting Registration Information You’ve Decided You Want a Career in Forensic Science … Now What? Young Forensic Scientists Forum (YFSF) ...
Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...
... forensic pathologist to perform the actual examination. Unlike clinical laboratories that are certified under specific standards of the federal Clinical Laboratory Improvements Act (CLIA), forensic laboratories prove their competence ...
Krameddine, Yasmeen I; Silverstone, Peter H
The police interact with homeless individuals frequently. However, there has been relatively little research on the attitudes of homeless individuals towards the police, and how police interactions may impact these. This is important since the attitudes of homeless individuals can impact how often they report crimes, and how well they support police when they are investigating crimes in this population. We interviewed 213 homeless individuals in a single city, representing approximately 10% of the total homeless population. They were interviewed at either homeless shelters, or events held specifically for the homeless population. Of these individuals, 75% were male, and 47% had interacted with a police officer within the past month. Self-reports suggested that 60% had a drug and/or alcohol issue and 78% had a mental illness. We found a highly statistically significant difference between the group that had been handcuffed and/or arrested compared to those that had not. This was across multiple domains and included how the individual regarded the police in terms of their empathy and communication skills, and how much they trusted the police. These changes were long-term, and if a homeless individual had been arrested or handcuffed (and verbal reporting suggested that being handcuffed was the by far the most important factor) then these negative attitudes lasted at least 2 years. The primary conclusion from this study is that when police handcuff a homeless individual, this can lead to long-term negative views about the police across several domains that appear to be long lasting, and were linked to feelings of not being respected by the police. It is therefore proposed that police officers should be made aware of the potential long-term negative consequences of this single action, and that police forces should consider providing specific training to minimize any unnecessary overuse of handcuffs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kubiak, Jeanette; Krick, Annika; Egloff, Boris
Vigilant coping is characterized by a deep processing of threat-related information. In many cases, vigilant coping increases stress symptoms, whereas avoidant coping decreases negative affect. However, vigilance may be beneficial when stress-eliciting situations involve a risk of injury or escalation as is usually the case in police operations. We investigated the roles of vigilance and cognitive avoidance in police operations in a cross-sectional survey. The participants were 137 students (104 men, M age = 28.54, SD = 8.04) from the Federal University of Applied Administrative Sciences; 76 of them were already police officers (work experience: M = 12.59 years), and 61 were police officer candidates who had completed a 3- to 6-month police internship. Participants completed a paper-and-pencil survey and reported their operational stress, dispositional vigilance and cognitive avoidance in police operations, and stress symptoms. We found that vigilance was negatively associated with stress symptoms and moderated the relationship between operational stress and stress symptoms. Cognitive avoidance, on the other hand, just missed the level of statistical significance in our test of whether it was positively associated with stress symptoms. Our findings demonstrate that vigilance may protect against the negative consequences of stress in police operations.
Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd
Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Dujourdy, L; Besacier, F
This article aims at exploiting the statistical data of the qualitative and quantitative analyses of heroin circulating in France over more than 20 years. This information, systematically recorded by the Forensic Laboratories from Institut national de police scientifique is a good source of knowledge of this product at both the chemical and sanitary levels (street level, wholesalers, imports, etc.). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Scheflin, Alan W
A forensic hypnosis interview played a major role in a murder conviction. Several years later, the reliability of the interview was called into question leading to a court hearing on whether the methods used by the hypnosis specialist, hired by the police, conformed to the legal guidelines established by the Wisconsin Supreme Court. This article examines the many errors committed by the hypnosis specialist, and the subsequent legal proceedings which altered the verdict.
Full Text Available This paper presents a real case of digital forensic analysis in organizational fraud auditing process investigated using two different forensic tools, namely Tableau TD3 Touch Screen Forensic Imager and Access Data FTK Imager. Fraud auditing is more of a mindset than a methodology and has different approaches from financial auditing. Fraud auditors are mostly focused on exceptions, accounting irregularities, and patterns of their conduct. Financial auditors place special emphasis on the audit trail and material misstatements. A fraud case investigation of non-cash misappropriations committed by an employee, the warehouseman, will be presented herein in order to highlight the usefulness of fraud auditing, which can reveal many forms of financial crime and can be used in both private and public sector companies. Due to the computerized accounting environment, fraud investigation requires a combination of auditing, computer crime and digital forensic investigation skills, which can be achieved through joint efforts and cooperation of both digital investigator and fraud auditor as proposed herein.
Kilpatrick, Tim; Gonzalez, Jesus; Chandia, Rodrigo; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems are widely used in industrial control and automation. Modern SCADA protocols often employ TCP/IP to transport sensor data and control signals. Meanwhile, corporate IT infrastructures are interconnecting with previously isolated SCADA networks. The use of TCP/IP as a carrier protocol and the interconnection of IT and SCADA networks raise serious security issues. This paper describes an architecture for SCADA network forensics. In addition to supporting forensic investigations of SCADA network incidents, the architecture incorporates mechanisms for monitoring process behavior, analyzing trends and optimizing plant performance.
Full Text Available Steganography has long been regarded as a tool used for illicit and destructive purposes such as crime and warfare. Currently, digital tools are widely available to ordinary computer users also. Steganography software allows both illicit and legitimate users to hide messages so that they will not be detected in transit. This article provides a brief history of steganography, discusses the current status in the computer age, and relates this to forensic, security, and legal issues. The paper concludes with recommendations for digital forensics investigators, IT staff, individual users, and other stakeholders.
Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael
The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.
Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels
Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...... aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale....... These antecedents, combined with the aggression incident itself, created stereotyping representations of forensic psychiatric patients as deviant, unpredictable and dangerous. Patient and staff identities were continually (re)produced by an automatic response from the staff that was solely focused on the patient...
Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev
In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology.
Henshaw, Marie; Spivak, Benjamin; Thomas, Stuart D. M.
Background: Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). Methods: The sample comprised 229 police…
The empirical investigation in this paper develops the perspective of media in education by focusing on how the use of film in education stimulates the production of cultural, societal and social values and norms in school when pupils talk about "the police" in school cinema activities in Sweden. "Police" is regarded as a…
García Castillo, Zoraida; Graue Wiechers, Enrique; Durante Montiel, Irene; Herrera Saint Leu, Patricia
The challenge in achieving an ideal state of justice is that each "proof" has the highest degree of reliability. This is the main responsibility of the forensic scientist. Up to now, criminal investigations in Mexico have been supported by forensic work from a wide variety of disciplinary backgrounds that give testimony in a particular area, even though they may have become forensic witnesses in a complementary and experiential manner. In January 2013, the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) approved the "Forensic Science" undergraduate program that, in collaboration with various academic entities and government institutions, will develop forensic scientists trained in science, law, and criminology. This is focused on contributing to the national demand that the justice system has more elements to procure and administer justice in dealing with crime.
Bogaard, Glynis; Meijer, Ewout H; Vrij, Aldert; Merckelbach, Harald
The present study investigated the beliefs of students and police officers about cues to deception. A total of 95 police officers and 104 undergraduate students filled out a questionnaire addressing beliefs about cues to deception. Twenty-eight verbal cues were included in the questionnaire, all extracted from verbal credibility assessment tools (i.e., CBCA, RM, and SCAN). We investigated to what extent beliefs about nonverbal and verbal cues of deception differed between lay people (students) and police officers, and whether these beliefs were in agreement with objective cues known from research. Both students and police officers believed the usual stereotypical, but non-diagnostic (nonverbal) cues such as gaze aversion and increased movement to be indicative of deception. Yet, participants were less inclined to overestimate the relationship between verbal cues and deception and their beliefs fitted better with what we know from research. The implications of these findings for practice are discussed.