WorldWideScience

Sample records for police department drug

  1. War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Hannah L F

    2015-01-01

    War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.

  2. Drug policing in four Danish police districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houborg, Esben; Kammersgaard, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael Mulbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Results from a study of zero-tolerance drug policy in Denmark are presented. Database research shows that an increasing number of Danes are criminalized for possession of illicit drugs and that particular characteristics of offenders increase the chance of being criminalized. Qualitative case...... as a reflection of the differences in the data where some of the grounds for police intervention may be seen by police officers as not appropriate for official recording. To resolve these issues and provide better knowledge regarding drug policing in Denmark, further research is needed....

  3. Recommandations from the Geneva Police Department

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has informed CERN that the recommendations of the Geneva Police Department relating to the prevention of crime are available on the Internet at the following URL: http://www.geneve.ch/police/prevention/. On another prevention-related matter, the Mission has sent a communiqué regarding theft committed by bogus policemen in Geneva. This communiqué can be consulted in the 'Miscellanea' section of the Relations with the Host States Service's website. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  4. Police Suicide in Small Departments: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of police suicide research has focused on larger police departments. Very little research has been done within small departments. The present study compared suicide rates between small and larger police departments. Two Hundred ninty-eight departments were drawn from the U.S. Public Safety Officer Benefits database totaling 119,624 officers. Annual suicide rates were calculated per 100,000 for each of four category (by size of department) and p-values from Chi-square tests were e...

  5. Police suicide in small departments: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    The majority of police suicide research has focused on larger police departments. Very little research has been done within small departments. The present study compared suicide rates between small and larger police departments. Two Hundred ninty-eight departments were drawn from the U.S. Public Safety Officer Benefits database totaling 119,624 officers. Annual suicide rates were calculated per 100,000 for each of four category (by size of department) and p-values from Chi-square tests were employed to assess differences in rates across categories. The annual suicide rate varied significantly across departments. Smaller police departments had a significantly higher suicide rate than large departments. Possible reasons include lack of availability for mental health assistance, increased workload and danger and community visibility.

  6. Illicit Drugs, Policing and the Evidence-Based Policy Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari

    2013-01-01

    The mantra of evidence-based policy (EBP) suggests that endeavours to implement evidence-based policing will produce better outcomes. However there is dissonance between the rhetoric of EBP and the actuality of policing policy. This disjuncture is critically analysed using the case study of illicit drugs policing. The dissonance may be ameliorated…

  7. Police Departments Connect to School District Camera Feeds to Aid Incident Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    School systems and police departments are community partners, and ensuring student, faculty, and officer safety is a high priority for both. In Pennsylvania, police departments are being both innovative and proactive by using wireless technology to handle school safety. If there's an emergency, local police departments can increase situational…

  8. Online Media Use and Adoption by Hurricane Sandy Affected Fire and Police Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Apoorva

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis work, I examine the use and adoption of online communication media by 840 fire and police departments that were affected by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. I began by exploring how and why these fire and police departments used (or did not use) online media to communicate with the public during Hurricane Sandy. Results show that fire and police departments used online media during Hurricane Sandy to give timely and relevant information to the public about things such as evacuations, ...

  9. 75 FR 60159 - Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Under the Department of State, Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7189] Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Under the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010... investigating, prosecuting, and punishing military and police personnel who have been credibly alleged to have...

  10. Experiences with urine drug testing by police among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanna; Ti, Lianping; Buxton, Jane A; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Thailand has relied on drug law enforcement in an effort to curb illicit drug use. While anecdotal reports suggest that Thai police frequently use urine toxicology to identify drug users, little is known about the prevalence or impacts of this practice among people who inject drugs (IDU). Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with urine drug testing by police among IDU in Bangkok. Data were derived from a community-recruited sample of IDU in Bangkok participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project between July and October 2011. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of being subjected to urine toxicology testing by police using multivariate Poisson regression. In total, 438 IDU participated in this study, with 293 (66.9%) participants reporting having been tested for illicit drugs by police. In multivariate analyses, reports of drug testing by police were independently and positively associated with younger age (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR]: 1.28), a history of methamphetamine injection (APR: 1.22), a history of incarceration (APR: 1.21), having been in compulsory drug detention (APR: 1.43), avoiding healthcare (APR: 1.15), and HIV seropositivity (APR: 1.19), and negatively associated with access to voluntary drug treatment (APR: 0.82) (all p<0.05). A high proportion of IDU in Bangkok were subjected to drug testing by police. Young people and methamphetamine injectors were more likely to have been tested. The findings indicate that drug testing by police is associated with the compulsory drug detention system and may be interfering with IDU's access to healthcare and voluntary drug treatment. These findings raise concern about the widespread practice of drug testing by police and its associated impacts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the zonal banning of drug users in Denmark’s club land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas F.; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    in local ‘drug policing assemblages’ characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms...... how zonal banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. Methods: Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers......, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes. Results: The paper demonstrates how the policing of drug-using clubbers is a growing priority for both police and private security agents. The article also demonstrates how the enforcement of zonal bans on drug-using clubbers involves complex collaborative...

  12. Problems of Conducting Research in Organizations: The Case of Police Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Joel

    This paper presents a description of police research problems in such fashion that it could be generalized to other types of organizations. A two-dimensional taxonomy of problems in conducting psychological research in police departments is discussed. The first dimension concerns generality-uniqueness of the problem, relative to formal…

  13. Prevalence of psychotropic drug use in military police units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Yonamine, Maurício; Ramos, Andrea Luciana Martins; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Rodrigues, Caroline Rego; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to verify the prevalence of psychoactive drug use (amphetamines, methamphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opioids and benzodiazepines) among military police officers in the state of Goiás. Data were obtained from urine samples voluntarily provided by the officers participating in the study, who were informed of the study methods and signed a free and informed consent form. The samples were subject to screening analysis by immunochromatography (Multi-DrugOneStep Test®), with positive tests confirmed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data analyzed by descriptive statistics. The results indicated the presence of the following drugs: amphetamines (0.33%), cannabinoids (0.67%) and benzodiazepines (1.34%); 97.66% showed negative results. The positive cases were distributed as follows: benzodiazepines (57.1%); cannabinoids (28.6%) and amphetamines (14.3%). In conclusion, the detection of psychoactive substances in voluntary sampling of military police officers indicates the need to implement drug testing among active military officers and preventive public policies aimed at eliminating the abusive consumption of psychotropic drugs.

  14. Barriers to community-based drug dependence treatment: implications for police roles, collaborations and performance indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Du, Chunhua; Cai, Thomas; Han, Qingfeng; Yuan, Huanhuan; Luo, Tingyan; Ren, Guoliang; Mburu, Gitau; Wang, Bangyuan; Golichenko, Olga; Zhang, Chaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, people who use drugs (PWUD) are among the populations at highest risk for HIV infection. In China, PWUD are primarily sentenced to compulsory detainment centres, in which access to healthcare, including HIV treatment and prevention services, is limited or non-existent. In 2008, China's 2008 Anti-Drug Law encouraged the development and use of community-based drug dependence rehabilitation, yet there is limited evidence evaluating the efficacy and challenges of this model in China. In this study, we explore these challenges and describe how cooperation between law enforcement and health departments can meet the needs of PWUD. Methods In 2015, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with all four staff members and 16 clients of the Ping An Centre No. 1 for community-based drug treatment, three local police officers and three officials from the local Centre for Disease Control. Interviews explored obstacles in implementing community-based drug dependence treatment and efforts to resolve these difficulties. Transcripts were coded and analyzed with qualitative data analysis software (MAXQDA 11). Results We identified three challenges to community-based drug treatment at the Ping An Centre No. 1: (1) suboptimal coordination among parties involved, (2) a divergence in attitudes towards PWUD and harm reduction between law enforcement and health officials and (3) conflicting performance targets for police and health officials that undermine the shared goal of treatment. We also identified the take-home methadone maintenance treatment model at the Ping An Centre No. 1 as an example of an early successful collaboration between the police, the health department and PWUD. Conclusions To overcome barriers to effective community-based drug treatment, we recommend aligning the goals of law enforcement and public health agencies towards health-based performance indicators. Furthermore, tensions between PWUD and police need to be addressed and trust

  15. Drug-related police encounters across the globe: How do they compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Maier, Larissa J; Winstock, Adam R

    2018-06-01

    Drug law enforcement subsumes the majority of drug policy expenditure across the globe. Fuelled by knowledge that much of this investment is ineffective or counter-productive there have been increasing calls for cross-national comparisons to identify where policing approaches differ and what types of approaches may be more effective. Yet, to date cross-national comparison of drug law enforcement has proven a methodologically hazardous affair. Using a new drug policing module added to the 2017 Global Drug Survey, this study seeks to provide the first cross-national comparison of the incidence, nature and intensity of illicit drug-related police encounters amongst people who use drugs. The Global Drug Survey was administered in late 2016. Across 26 countries including Australia, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Switzerland, the UK and the USA a total of 45,942 people who had recently used drugs completed the drug policing module. Key variables assessed included the incidence and frequency of drug-related police encounters in the last 12 months that involved: a) being stopped and searched; b) encountering a drug detection dog; c) being given a caution or warning; d) being charged and arrested; and e) paying a bribe. Multi-level models were used to control for pre-existing national differences in drug use prevalence and non-drug specific policing (including the total number of police personnel in each country). Drug-related police encounters were most commonly reported in Italy and Scotland. Conversely, police encounters were most likely to lead to arrest in Norway, Finland and Sweden. The type and locations of encounters further differed across countries, with for example stop and search most reported in Greece and Colombia, and encounters with drug detection dogs most reported in Scotland, Italy, UK and Australia. Multi-level models showed that the incidence of reported policing encounters continued to differ significantly across countries after controlling for pre

  16. Social Movements Against Racist Police Brutality and Department of Justice Intervention in Prince George's County, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutto, Jonathan W; Green, Rodney D

    2016-04-01

    Racist police brutality has been systemic in Prince George's County, Maryland. The victims include African Americans, the mentally challenged, and immigrant populations, creating a complex and uneven public health impact. Three threads characterize the social movements and intervention since 1970. First, a significant demographic shift occurred as African Americans became the majority population in the late 1980s when the first Black county executive was elected in 1994. Despite the change in political leadership, police brutality remained rampant. Lower-income households located close to the District of Columbia and "inside the beltway" experienced the most police brutality. In 2001, The Washington Post revealed that between 1990 and 2000, Prince George's police shot and killed more citizens per officer than any of the 50 largest city and county law enforcement agencies in the country, 84 % of whom were black. Of the 147 persons shot during the 1990s, 12 were mentally and/or emotionally disturbed; 6 of these shootings were fatal. Second, resistance to police brutality emerged in a variety of political formations throughout the period, especially in the late 1990s. Sustained community pressure prompted the Department of Justice (DOJ) to open a civil rights investigation of the police department in November 2000. To avoid a potential federal lawsuit, the county leadership negotiated a memorandum of agreement (MOA) with the DOJ to enact policy reforms, part of which called for supplementing the departmental mobile crisis team, comprised of mental health care professionals, to respond to all cases involving mentally challenged citizens. Third, the incomplete process of change subsequent to the ending of DOJ oversight suggests a continued challenge to social movements opposing police brutality. This study focuses on the effectiveness of the MOA along with the activism of the People's Coalition for Police Accountability (PCPA) in reforming a culture of police brutality

  17. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs. PMID:21477299

  18. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Thomas L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis and TB (tuberculosis. Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing. Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32% of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs.

  19. Evaluation of Stress Experienced by Emergency Telecommunications Personnel Employed in a Large Metropolitan Police Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Hein, Maria; Chung, Sophia J; Anderson, Amanda A

    2017-07-01

    Emergency telecommunications personnel (ETCP) form the hub of police agencies and persistently deal with distressing situations on a daily basis, making them highly susceptible to psychological and physiological ailments. To date, few studies have examined the necessity or feasibility of implementing a resilience training intervention for ETCP. In this study, the authors assessed baseline psychological data from the ETCP of a large police department to determine the differences in baseline measures for ETCP and police officers. Participants included ETCP ages 29 to 64 years ( n = 19). Results showed that ETCP self-reported greater levels of psychological stress compared with police officers ( p < .05) for the majority of measures; ETCP experience excessive levels of stress and greater prevalence of chronic disease. Consideration should be given to piloting resilience interventions within this group to manage stress; improve health, performance, and decision making; and decrease the prevalence of chronic disease.

  20. Experiences with policing among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanna Hayashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012.Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample.This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings pertaining to the use of urine drug

  1. Drug use patterns among Thai illicit drug injectors amidst increased police presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwannawong Paisan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thailand has traditionally pursued an aggressive enforcement-based anti-illicit drug policy in an effort to make the country "drug-free." In light of this ongoing approach, we sought to assess impacts of enforcement on drug use behaviors among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU in Thailand. We examined drug use patterns among IDU participating in a cross-sectional study conducted in Bangkok (n = 252. Participants were asked to provide data regarding patterns of drug use in the previous six months, including types of drugs consumed, method of consumption, frequency of use, and weekly income spent on drugs. We also conducted bivariate analyses to identify a possible effect of a reported increase in police presence on measures of drug use and related risk behaviors among study participants. One hundred fifty-five (61.5% individuals reported injection heroin use and 132 (52.4% individuals reported injection midazolam use at least daily in the past six months. Additionally, 86 (34.1% individuals reported at least daily injection Yaba and Ice (i.e., methamphetamine use. Participants in our study reported high levels of illicit drug use, including the injection of both illicit and licit drugs. In bivariate analyses, no association between increased police presence and drug use behaviors was observed. These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach.

  2. Who Shot Ya? How Emergency Departments Can Collect Reliable Police Shooting Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B; St Vil, Christopher; Cooper, Carnell

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines an alternative solution for collecting reliable police shooting data. One alternative is the collection of police shooting data from hospital trauma units, specifically hospital-based violence intervention programs. These programs are situated in Level I trauma units in many major cities in USA. While the intent of these programs is to reduce the risk factors associated with trauma recidivism among victims of violent injury, they also collect reliable data on the number of individuals treated for gunshot wounds. While most trauma units do a great job collecting data on mode of injury, many do not collect data on the circumstances surrounding the injury, particularly police-involved shootings. Research protocol on firearm-related injury conducted in emergency departments typically does not allow researchers to interview victims of violent injury who are under arrest. Most victims of nonfatal police-involved shootings are under arrest at the time they are treated by the ED for their injury. Research protocol on victims of violent injury often excludes individuals under arrest; they fall under the exclusion criteria when recruiting potential participants for research on violence. Researchers working in hospital emergency departments are prohibited from recruited individuals under arrests. The trauma staff, particularly ED physicians and nurses, are in a strategic position to collect this kind of data. Thus, this paper examines how trauma units can serve as an alternative in the reliable collection of police shooting data.

  3. An Assessment of Campus Police Departments across Mississippi's Public Community and Junior Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Brad D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide an assessment of campus police departments throughout the 15 public community and junior colleges in Mississippi. This research could provide Mississippi community and junior college administrators the opportunity to observe and appraise the overall safety of their respective campuses in comparison to safety…

  4. Technologies for security, military police, and professional policing organizations: the Department of Energy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Basil J.

    1997-01-01

    There are many emerging technologies that can be used to help the law enforcement community protect the public as well as public and private facilities against ever increasing threats to this country and its resources. These technologies include sensors, closed circuit television (CCTV), access control, contraband detection, communications, control and display, barriers, and various component and system modeling techniques. This paper will introduce some of the various technologies that have been examined for the Department of Energy that could be applied to various law enforcement applications. They include: scannerless laser radar; next generation security systems; response force video information helmet system; access delay technologies; rapidly deployable intrusion detection systems; cost risk benefit analysis.

  5. Technologies for security, military police and professional policing organizations, the Department of Energy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    There are many technologies emerging from this decade that can be used to help the law enforcement community protect the public as well as public and private facilities against ever increasing threats to this country and its resources. These technologies include sensors, closed circuit television (CCTV), access control, contraband detection, communications, control and display, barriers, and various component and system modeling techniques. This paper will introduce some of the various technologies that have been examined for the Department of Energy that could be applied to various law enforcement applications. They include: (1) scannerless laser radar; (2) next generation security systems; (3) response force video information helmet system; (4) access delay technologies; (5) rapidly deployable intrusion detection systems; and (6) cost risk benefit analysis

  6. Comparison of Race-Gender, Urban-Suburban Criminal Justice College Students Satisfaction of the Police Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verga, Christopher; Murillo, Leo; Toulon, Errol D.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Perry, S. Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study explored criminal justice college students' satisfaction with the police. 176 college students in Suffolk County, Long Island and New York City participated in a survey. The study examined the extent to which satisfaction with the local police department differs by location (urban and suburban), gender (female and male),…

  7. Police Victimization Among Persons Who Inject Drugs Along the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, Jose Luis; Zuniga, Maria Luisa; Perez, Ramona; Macera, Caroline A; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-09-01

    Problematic policing practices are an important driver of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in the U.S.-Mexico border region. This study identifies factors associated with recent (i.e., past 6 months) police victimization (e.g., extortion, physical and sexual violence) in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. From 2011 to 2013, 733 PWID (62% male) were recruited in Tijuana and completed a structured questionnaire. Eligible participants were age 18 years or older, injected illicit drugs within the past month, and spoke Spanish or English. Multivariable logistic regression analyses identified correlates of recent experiences of police victimization (e.g., bribes, unlawful confiscation, physical and sexual violence). Overall, 56% of PWID reported a recent police victimization experience in Tijuana. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, factors independently associated with recent police victimization included recent injection of methamphetamine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.62; 95% CI [1.18, 2.21]) and recently received injection assistance by a "hit doctor" (AOR = 1.56; 95% CI [1.03, 2.36]). Increased years lived in Tijuana (AOR = 0.98 per year; 95% CI [0.97, 0.99]) and initiating drug use at a later age (AOR = 0.96 per year; 95% CI [0.92, 0.99]) were inversely associated with recent police victimization. Physical drugusing markers may increase PWID susceptibility to police targeting and contribute to experiences of victimization. Interventions aimed at reducing police victimization events in the U.S.-Mexico border region should consider PWID's drug-using behaviors. Reducing problematic policing practices may be a crucial public health strategy to reduce HIV risk among PWID in this region.

  8. Effective State, Local, and Tribal Police Intelligence: The New York City Police Department’s Intelligence Enterprise -- A Smart Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    2008d; Kelly, 2009a, 2009b, and 2009c). (2) Jakarta, Hotel Bombings, July 17, 2009. • Synchronized bombings of JW Marriott and Ritz - Carlton ...critical response vehicles—police cars and officers—to Marriott, Ritz - Carlton , and other hotels in NYC “within 30 minutes of the attacks.” • NYPD ILU

  9. A Critical Examination of the Introduction of Drug Detection Dogs for Policing of Illicit Drugs in New South Wales, Australia Using Kingdon's "Multiple Streams" Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Ritter, Alison; Hughes, Caitlin; Hoppe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyses the introduction of drug detection dogs as a tool for policing of illicit drugs in New South Wales, Australia. Using Kingdon's "multiple streams" heuristic as a lens for analysis, we identify how the issue of drugs policing became prominent on the policy agenda, and the conditions under which the…

  10. From Drug Safety to Drug Security: A Contemporary Shift in the Policing of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Julia

    2018-01-29

    The counterfeiting of medication is increasingly seen as a major threat to health, especially in the light of both the everyday reliance on and a broadening of world-wide access to pharmaceuticals. Exaggerated or real, this threat has inaugurated, this article argues, a shift from a drug safety regime to a drug security regime that governs the flow of pharmaceuticals and brings together markets, police, and health actors in new ways. This entails a shift from soft disciplinary means aimed at incremental and continued inclusion of defaulters, to one of drastically sovereign measures of exclusion and banishment aimed at fake goods and the people associated with them, in the name of health. Through a multi-sited ethnographic study, this article shows how such new drug security efforts play themselves out especially in (South) Africa, highlighting a modus operandi of spectacular performativity and of working through suspicion and association rather than factuality, producing value less so for those in need of health than for a petty security industry itself. © 2018 by the American Anthropological Association.

  11. Reports of evidence planting by police among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Calvin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug policy in Thailand has relied heavily on law enforcement-based approaches. Qualitative reports indicate that police in Thailand have resorted to planting drugs on suspected drug users to extort money or provide grounds for arrest. The present study sought to describe the prevalence and factors associated with this form of evidence planting by police among injection drug users (IDU in Bangkok. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with evidence planting of drugs by police among a community-based sample of IDU in Bangkok. We also examined the prevalence and average amount of money paid by IDU to police in order to avoid arrest. Results 252 IDU were recruited between July and August, 2008, among whom 66 (26.2% were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 122 (48.4% participants reported having drugs planted on them by police. In multivariate analyses, this form of evidence planting was positively associated with midazolam use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.58 - 5.11, recent non-fatal overdose (AOR = 2.56; 95%CI: 1.40 - 4.66, syringe lending (AOR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.19 - 3.66, and forced drug treatment (AOR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.05 - 3.36. Among those who reported having drugs planted on them, 59 (48.3% paid police a bribe in order to avoid arrest. Conclusion A high proportion of community-recruited IDU participating in this study reported having drugs planted on them by police. Drug planting was found to be associated with numerous risk factors including syringe sharing and participation in government-run drug treatment programs. Immediate action should be taken to address this form of abuse of power reportedly used by police.

  12. Reports of evidence planting by police among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Nadia; Kaplan, Karyn; Hayashi, Kanna; Suwannawong, Paisan; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-10-07

    Drug policy in Thailand has relied heavily on law enforcement-based approaches. Qualitative reports indicate that police in Thailand have resorted to planting drugs on suspected drug users to extort money or provide grounds for arrest. The present study sought to describe the prevalence and factors associated with this form of evidence planting by police among injection drug users (IDU) in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with evidence planting of drugs by police among a community-based sample of IDU in Bangkok. We also examined the prevalence and average amount of money paid by IDU to police in order to avoid arrest. 252 IDU were recruited between July and August, 2008, among whom 66 (26.2%) were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 122 (48.4%) participants reported having drugs planted on them by police. In multivariate analyses, this form of evidence planting was positively associated with midazolam use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.58 - 5.11), recent non-fatal overdose (AOR = 2.56; 95%CI: 1.40 - 4.66), syringe lending (AOR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.19 - 3.66), and forced drug treatment (AOR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.05 - 3.36). Among those who reported having drugs planted on them, 59 (48.3%) paid police a bribe in order to avoid arrest. A high proportion of community-recruited IDU participating in this study reported having drugs planted on them by police. Drug planting was found to be associated with numerous risk factors including syringe sharing and participation in government-run drug treatment programs. Immediate action should be taken to address this form of abuse of power reportedly used by police.

  13. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, J; Strathdee, S A; Cepeda, J; Abramovitz, D; Artamonova, I; Clairgue, E; Bustamante, E; Mittal, M L; Rocha, T; Bañuelos, A; Olivarria, H O; Morales, M; Rangel, G; Magis, C; Beletsky, L

    2017-11-08

    Mexico's 2009 "narcomenudeo reform" decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP) improved officers' drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar's tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers' ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001) in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91%) and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%), heroin (8 to 71%), and methamphetamine (7 to 70%). The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96%) (p < 0.001), marijuana (16 to 91%), heroin (11 to 91%), and methamphetamine (11 to 89%). In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-3.2) and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.2), and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-4). Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating formal laws to policing practice. To close such gaps, PEP initiatives

  14. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arredondo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico’s 2009 “narcomenudeo reform” decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP improved officers’ drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Methods Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar’s tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers’ ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Results Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001 in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91% and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%, heroin (8 to 71%, and methamphetamine (7 to 70%. The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96% (p < 0.001, marijuana (16 to 91%, heroin (11 to 91%, and methamphetamine (11 to 89%. In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–3.2 and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3–4.3, methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6–4. Conclusions Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating

  15. Mental-Health Conditions, Barriers to Care, and Productivity Loss Among Officers in An Urban Police Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Justin; Desai, Mayur M.; Britten, Karissa; Lucas, Georgina; Luneau, Renee; Rosenthal, Marjorie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Police officers are frequently exposed to situations that can negatively impact their mental health. Methods We conducted this study of an urban police department to determine 1) the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and alcohol abuse; 2) patterns of and barriers to mental-health services utilization; and 3) the impact these conditions have on productivity loss. Results Among 150 officers, PTSD (24%), depression (9%), and alcohol abuse (19%) were common. Only 46.7% had ever sought mental-health services; the most commonly cited barriers to accessing services were concerns regarding confidentiality and the potential “negative career impact.” Officers with mental-health conditions had higher productivity loss (5.9% vs 3.4%, P police officers are common, and costly, yet most officers had never accessed mental-health services; many due to modifiable risk factors. PMID:23155671

  16. Research in the Real World: Studying Chicago Police Department's Crisis Intervention Team Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    Police agencies across the country are struggling to respond to significant number of persons with serious mental illness, who are landing on their doorsteps with sometimes tragic consequences. Arguably, the most widely adopted approach, the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model, is a specialized police-based program designed to improve officers'…

  17. Differential experiences of Mexican policing by people who inject drugs residing in Tijuana and San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Emily F; Werb, Dan; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Cuevas Mota, Jazmine; Garfein, Richard S; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wagner, Karla D

    2017-03-01

    Research among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the USA and Mexico has identified a range of adverse health impacts associated with policing of PWIDs. We employed a mixed methods design to investigate how PWIDs from San Diego and Mexico experienced policing in Tijuana, and how these interactions affect PWIDs behavior, stratifying by country of origin. In 2012-2014, 575 PWIDs in San Diego, 102 of whom had used drugs in Mexico in the past six months, were enrolled in the STAHR-II study, with qualitative interviews conducted with a subsample of 20 who had recently injected drugs in Mexico. During this period, 735 PWIDs in Tijuana were also enrolled in the El Cuete-IV study, with qualitative interviews conducted with a subsample of 20 recently stopped by police. We calculated descriptive statistics for quantitative variables and conducted thematic analysis of qualitative transcripts. Integration of these data involved comparing frequencies across cohorts and using qualitative themes to explain and explore findings. Sixty-one percent of San Diego-based participants had been recently stopped by law enforcement officers (LEOs) in Mexico; 53% reported it was somewhat or very likely that they would be arrested while in Mexico because they look like a drug user. Ninety percent of Tijuana-based participants had been recently stopped by LEOs; 84% reported it was somewhat or very likely they could get arrested because they look like a drug user. Participants in both cohorts described bribery and targeting by LEOs in Mexico. However, most San Diego-based participants described compliance with bribery as a safeguard against arrest and detention, with mistreatment being rare. Tijuana-based participants described being routinely targeted by LEOs, were frequently detained, and reported instances of sexual and physical violence. Tijuana-based participants described modifying how, where, and with whom they injected drugs in response; and experienced feelings of stress, anxiety, and

  18. Differential experiences of Mexican policing by people who inject drugs residing in Tijuana and San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Emily F.; Werb, Dan; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Mota, Jazmine Cuevas; Garfein, Richard S.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Wagner, Karla D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Research among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the USA and Mexico has identified a range of adverse health impacts associated with policing of PWIDs. We employed a mixed methods design to investigate how PWIDs from San Diego and Mexico experienced policing in Tijuana, and how these interactions affect PWIDs behavior, stratifying by country of origin. Methods In 2012–2014, 575 PWIDs in San Diego, 102 of whom had used drugs in Mexico in the past six months, were enrolled in the STAHR-II study, with qualitative interviews conducted with a subsample of 20 who had recently injected drugs in Mexico. During this period, 735 PWIDs in Tijuana were also enrolled in the El Cuete-IV study, with qualitative interviews conducted with a subsample of 20 recently stopped by police. We calculated descriptive statistics for quantitative variables and conducted thematic analysis of qualitative transcripts. Integration of these data involved comparing frequencies across cohorts and using qualitative themes to explain and explore findings. Results Sixty-one percent of San Diego-based participants had been recently stopped by law enforcement officers (LEOs) in Mexico; 53% reported it was somewhat or very likely that they would be arrested while in Mexico because they look like a drug user. Ninety percent of Tijuana-based participants had been recently stopped by LEOs; 84% reported it was somewhat or very likely they could get arrested because they look like a drug user. Participants in both cohorts described bribery and targeting by LEOs in Mexico. However, most San Diego-based participants described compliance with bribery as a safeguard against arrest and detention, with mistreatment being rare. Tijuana-based participants described being routinely targeted by LEOs, were frequently detained, and reported instances of sexual and physical violence. Tijuana-based participants described modifying how, where, and with whom they injected drugs in response; and experienced

  19. Workplace violence among female sex workers who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada: does client-targeted policing increase safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prangnell, Amy; Shannon, Kate; Nosova, Ekaterina; DeBeck, Kora; Milloy, M-J; Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence, by clients or predators, poses serious negative health consequences for sex workers. In 2013, the Vancouver (British Columbia), Canada Police Department changed their guidelines with the goal of increasing safety for sex workers by focusing law enforcement on clients and third parties, but not sex workers. We sought to examine the trends and correlates of workplace violence among female sex workers (FSW) before and after the guideline change, using data collected from prospective cohorts of persons who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Among 259 FSW, 21.0% reported workplace violence at least once during the study period between 2008 and 2014. There was no statistically significant change in rates of workplace violence after the guideline change. In our multivariable analysis, daily heroin use was independently associated with workplace violence. The 2013 policing guideline change did not appear to have resulted in decreased reports of workplace violence. Increased access to opioid agonist therapies may reduce workplace violence among drug-using FSW.

  20. Brazilian Federal Police drug chemical profiling - the PeQui project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacca, Jorge J; Botelho, Elvio Dias; Vieira, Maurício L; Almeida, Fernanda L A; Ferreira, Luciana S; Maldaner, Adriano O

    2014-07-01

    Over the past six years the Brazilian Federal Police has undertaken major efforts in order to implement and to develop its own drug chemical profiling program. This paper aims to provide a broad perspective regarding the managerial strategies and some examples of subsequent technical issues involved in the implementation of such a project. Close collaboration with local drug enforcement and investigation teams, establishment of proper worldwide partnerships with well recognized institutions in the field of drug analysis and the attainment of suitable funding and human resources are shown to be key success factors. Some preliminary results concerning the chemical profile of cocaine seizures in Brazil during this process are presented. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of patrol officer interest in cybercrime training and investigation in selected United States police departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Thomas J; Bossler, Adam M

    2012-09-01

    Cybercrime has created substantial challenges for law enforcement, particularly at the local level. Most scholars and police administrators believe that patrol officers need to become more effective first responders to cybercrime calls. The evidence illustrates, however, that many patrol officers are neither adequately prepared nor strongly interested in taking an active role in addressing cybercrime at the local level. This study, therefore, examined the factors that predicted patrol officer interest in cybercrime training and investigations in two southeastern U.S. cities. The study specifically examined the relationship between demographics, cybercrime exposure, computer training, computer proficiency, Internet and cybercrime perceptions, and views on policing cybercrime with officer interest in cybercrime investigation training and conducting cybercrime investigations in the future. Officer views on policing cybercrime, particularly whether they valued cybercrime investigations and believed that cybercrime would dramatically change policing, along with their computer skills, were the strongest predictors of interest in cybercrime efforts. Officers who had received previous computer training were less interested in additional training and conducting investigations. These findings support the argument that more command and departmental meetings focusing on the value of investigating these types of crime need to be held in order to increase officer interest.

  2. Police Stations, City of Wichita Police Department substation locations. Cover is derived from Emergency Facilities (scEfac) cover. Used for Public Safety map rolls. Primary attributes include station number, address, mailing city, type, and name., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Police Stations dataset current as of 2008. City of Wichita Police Department substation locations. Cover is derived from Emergency Facilities (scEfac) cover. Used...

  3. Understanding policy persistence-The case of police drug detection dog policy in NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari; Hoppe, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Significant research attention has been given to understanding the processes of drug policy reform. However, there has been surprisingly little analysis of the persistence of policy in the face of opposition and evidence of ineffectiveness. In this article we analysed just such a case - police drug detection dog policy in NSW, Australia. We sought to identify factors which may account for the continuation of this policy, in spite of counter-evidence and concerted advocacy. The analysis was conducted using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). We collated documents relating to NSW drug detection dog policy from 1995 to 2016, including parliamentary records (NSW Parliament Hansard), government and institutional reports, legislation, police procedures, books, media, and academic publications. Texts were then read, coded and classified against the core dimensions of the ACF, including subsystem actors and coalitions, their belief systems and resources and venues employed for policy debate. Three coalitions were identified as competing in the policy subsystem: security/law and order, civil liberties and harm reduction. Factors that aided policy stability were the continued dominance of the security/law and order coalition since they introduced the drug dog policy; a power imbalance enabling the ruling coalition to limit when and where the policy was discussed; and a highly adversarial policy subsystem. In this context even technical knowledge that dogs infringed civil liberties and increased risks of overdose were readily downplayed, leading to only incremental changes in implementation rather than policy cessation or wholesale revision. The analysis provides new insights into why the accumulation of new evidence and advocacy efforts can be insufficient to drive significant policy change. It poses a challenge for the evidence-based paradigm suggesting that in highly adversarial policy subsystems new evidence is unlikely to generate policy change without broader

  4. A Comprehensive Management and Operational Study of the Cheyenne Police Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    boom was at its height, the world-famous Cheyenne Club was built. A chef was imported, and his cuisine was known from coast to coast. The Club was... companions at the time, and location of contact could be intelligently conducted. Police officers should interview persons, especially those found...nickname. 2. Date, time, and location of contact. 3. Year, make, model, license number, vehicle. 4. Names of companions . 5. Sex, race, age of companions . 6

  5. Factors Impacting Intra-District Collaboration: A Field Study in a Midwest Police Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Delinquency 50, no. 4 (2004): 516–541; Neil Brewer, Patricia Mitchell, and Nathan Weber, “Gender Role, Organizational Status, and Conflict Management...attendance from both the patrol and detective divisions. During weekly COMPSTAT meetings, P6 explains, the staff goes over statistics and “the...and White Police Officers.” Crime & Delinquency 50, no. 4 (2004): 516–541 Thibault, Edward A., Lawrence M. Lynch, R. Bruce McBride, and Gregory Walsh

  6. Sexual violence from police and HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive women who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia – a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Results Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Conclusions Sexual violence

  7. Sexual violence from police and HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive women who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia - a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Sexual violence from police was common in this cohort of

  8. Trafficking Golden Crescent Drugs into Western China: An Analysis and Translation of a Recent Chinese Police Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    illegal drug exchanges and consumption markets in Xinjiang, and soon this heroin even exceeded the market position of traditional Golden Triangle heroin...tons of the precursor chemical acetic anhydride {cusucmgan; WiW. iff) being smuggled out of the border. • 800,000 tabs of the psychoactive drug ...Trafficking Golden Crescent Drugs into Western China: An Analysis and Translation of a Recent Chinese Police Research Article Dr. Murray Scot

  9. Recent Trends in Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among Police Detainees in New Zealand, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Chris; Prasad, Jitesh; Parker, Karl; Rychert, Marta; Barnes, Helen Moewaka

    New Zealand has unusual patterns of recreational substance use by international standards including low levels of cocaine and heroin use, and high methamphetamine use. This paper examines recent trends in alcohol and other drug use among police detainees in New Zealand over the past six years. The paper utilises data from the New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) study. NZ-ADUM interviewed approximately 800 police detainees each year at four central city police watch houses (i.e. Whangarei, Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch) from 2010 to 2015. The proportion of police detainees who had used methamphetamine in the previous year increased from 28% in 2012 to 36% in 2015. Drinking prior to arrest declined from 41% in 2013 to 28% in 2015. The use of cannabis in the past year declined slightly from 76% in 2011 to 69% in 2015. The proportion using ecstasy in the previous year steadily declined from 28% in 2011 to 19% in 2015. Only small minorities had recently used cocaine or an opioid. Use of methamphetamine and ecstasy increased in Christchurch. Growing methamphetamine use is consistent with record seizures of methamphetamine over the past 2-3 years. Increasing drug use in Christchurch may reflect factors related to the devastating earthquakes in 2011 and the subsequent city rebuild, including an influx of construction workers, more organised trafficking groups and earthquake-related stress. The decline in cannabis use may be related to the emergence of 'legal' synthetic cannabinoids. The decline in ecstasy use may be the result of recent domestic enforcement operations and the overall global shortage of MDMA. The decline in alcohol drinking may be due to the introduction of pre-charge formal warnings for minor alcohol and disorder offences, and new restrictions on alcohol premise opening hours. Acknowledgements: The New Zealand Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) research study is funded by the New Zealand Police and is conducted by SHORE and Whariki Research

  10. Evaluating a policing strategy intended to disrupt an illicit street-level drug market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Nicholas; Brunson, Rod K; McGarrell, Edmund F

    2010-12-01

    The authors examined a strategic policing initiative that was implemented in a high crime Nashville, Tennessee neighborhood by utilizing a mixed-methodological evaluation approach in order to provide (a) a descriptive process assessment of program fidelity; (b) an interrupted time-series analysis relying upon generalized linear models; (c) in-depth resident interviews. Results revealed that the initiative corresponded with a statistically significant reduction in drug and narcotics incidents as well as perceived changes in neighborhood disorder within the target community. There was less-clear evidence, however, of a significant impact on other outcomes examined. The implications that an intensive crime prevention strategy corresponded with a reduction in specific forms of neighborhood crime illustrates the complex considerations that law enforcement officials face when deciding to implement this type of crime prevention initiative.

  11. A critical examination of the introduction of drug detection dogs for policing of illicit drugs in New South Wales, Australia using Kingdon’s ‘multiple streams’ heuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancaster, Kari; Ritter, Alison; Hughes, Caitlin; Hoppe, Robertus

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyses the introduction of drug detection dogs as a tool for policing of illicit drugs in New South Wales, Australia. Using Kingdon’s ‘multiple streams’ heuristic as a lens for analysis, we identify how the issue of drugs policing became prominent on the policy agenda, and

  12. The impaired driver: hospital and police detection of alcohol and other drugs of abuse in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsay, E M; Doan-Wiggins, L; Lewis, R; Lucke, R; RamaKrishnan, V

    1994-07-01

    To determine the incidence of drugs of abuse and alcohol use in admitted drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and to determine the rate of police detection of alcohol and drug use in these motorists. Retrospective chart review of hospitalized drivers involved in MVCs and review of corresponding police reports. Two Level I trauma centers in a large metropolitan region. All MVC drivers/motorcycle operators admitted to the trauma service from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1990. The records of 634 injured motorists were reviewed; 200 (32% of the 625 patients with serum alcohol levels) were legally drunk (serum alcohol of 100 mg/dL or more), and 132 (22.6% of the 585 urine drug screens) had positive urine drug screens. Cocaine was the most prevalent drug of abuse, present in 51 patients (8.7%). Two hundred eighty-five patients (45.0%) were considered impaired (alcohol of 100 mg/dL or more and/or positive drug screen), representing almost half of all motorists admitted. The impaired motorists were younger, more often male, less likely to use a seat belt or helmet, and had higher Injury Severity Scores than their unimpaired counterparts. Police reports were available for 446 patients, 139 (31.2%) of whom were legally drunk and 67 (15%) of whom had positive drug screens, yielding an overall impairment rate of 46.2%. Only 34 (16.5%) patients were cited for driving under the influence. An exceedingly high rate of impairment existed in this population of seriously injured motorists in a metropolitan region, the majority of whom were not charged by the police. Although alcohol is the most prevalent source of driver impairment, other drugs of abuse are also important contributors to this problem.

  13. Police bribery and access to methadone maintenance therapy within the context of drug policy reform in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, D; Wagner, K D; Beletsky, L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, S A

    2015-03-01

    In 2009, Mexico passed legislation to decriminalize drug possession and improve access to addiction treatment. We undertook research to assess the implementation of the reform among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. This study specifically sought to determine whether discretionary policing practices like extortion impact access to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Tijuana, a city characterized by high levels of drug-related harms. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to construct longitudinal confounding models to determine the association between paying a police bribe and MMT enrolment among PWID in Tijuana enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome of interest was MMT enrolment in the past six months. Data on police interactions and MMT enrolment were also obtained. Between October, 2011 and September, 2013, 637 participants provided 1825 observations, with 143 (7.8%) reports of MMT enrolment during the study period. In a final confounding model, recently reporting being forced to pay a bribe to police was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of accessing MMT (adjusted odds ratio=1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.81, p=0.043). However, in 56 (39.2%) cases, MMT enrolment ceased within six months. The majority of participant responses cited the fact that MMT was too expensive (69.1%). Levels of MMT access were low. PWID who experienced police extortion were more likely to access MMT at baseline, though this association decreased during the study period. Coupled with the costs of MMT, this may compromise MMT retention among PWID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. “We fear the police, and the police fear us”: Structural and individual barriers and facilitators to HIV medication adherence among injection drug users in Kiev, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Safren, Steven A.; Dvoryak, Sergiy; Reisner, Sari L.; Needle, Richard; Woody, George

    2010-01-01

    Ukraine has one of the most severe HIV/AIDS epidemics in Europe, with an estimated 1.63% of the population living with HIV/AIDS in 2007. Injection drug use (IDU) remains the predominant mode of transmission in Kiev—the capital and largest city. Prior reports suggest that the HIV infection rate among IDUs in Kiev reaches 33%, and many have poor and inequitable access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Among those with access to HAART, little is understood about barriers and facilitators to HAART medication adherence. In 5/2009, two semi-structured focus groups were conducted with HIV-infected IDUs seeking treatment at the City AIDS Center, Kiev. The goal was to use this information to adapt and tailor, to Ukrainian culture, an evidence-based intervention for improving adherence to HAART. All 16 participants attributed HIV infection to IDU. Their average age was 31.6 (SD=7.0), average time with HIV 5.7 years (SD=4.0), average time on HAART 2.5 years (SD=1.7), average time as IDU 14.6 years (SD=6.8), and 88% were on opioid substitution therapy. The most salient themes related to adherence barriers included: (1) harassment and discrimination by police; (2) opioid dependence; (3) complexity of drug regimen; (4) side effects; (5) forgetting; (6) co-occurring mental health problems; and (7) HIV stigma. Facilitators of adherence included: (1) cues for pill taking; (2) support and reminders from family, significant other, and friends; (3) opioid substitution therapy; and (4) wanting improved health. Additional factors explored included: 1) knowledge about HAART; (2) storage of medications; and (3) IDU and sexual risk behaviors. Findings highlighted structural and individual barriers to adherence. At the structural level, police discrimination and harassment was reported to be a major barrier to adherence to opioid substitution therapy and HAART. Privacy and stigma were barriers at the individual level. Recommendations for adherence interventions included

  15. Policing, massive street drug testing and poly-substance use chaos in Georgia - a policy case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiashvili, David; Tabatadze, Mzia; Balanchivadze, Nino; Kirtadze, Irma

    2016-01-16

    Since early 2000, intensive policing, wide scale street drug testing, and actions aimed at limiting the availability of specific drugs have been implemented in Georgia. Supporters of this approach argue that fear of drug testing and resulting punishment compels drug users to stop using and prevents youth from initiating drug use. It has been also stated that reduction in the availability of specific drugs should be seen as an indication of the overall success of counter-drug efforts. The aim of the current review is to describe the drug-related law enforcement response in Georgia and its impact on illicit drug consumption and drug-related harm. We reviewed relevant literature that included peer-reviewed scientific articles, stand-alone research reports, annual drug situation reports, technical reports and program data. This was also supplemented by the review of relevant legislation and judicial practices for the twelve year period between 2002 and 2014. Every episode of reduced availability of any "traditional" injection drug was followed by the discovery/introduction of a new injection preparation. The pattern of drug consumption was normally driven by users' attempts to substitute their drug of choice through mixing together available alternative substances. Chaotic poly-substance use and extensive utilization of home-made injection drugs, prepared from toxic precursors, became common. Massive random street drug testing had little or no effect on the prevalence of problem drug use. Intensive harassment of drug users and exclusive focus on reducing the availability of specific drugs did not result in reduction of the prevalence of injecting drug use. Repressive response of Georgian anti-drug authorities relied heavily on consumer sanctions, which led to shifts in drug users' behavior. In most cases, these shifts were associated with the introduction and use of new toxic preparations and subsequent harm to the physical and mental health of drug consumers.

  16. Police Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Oklahoma City Police Department developed a computerized communications system, based on Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) 1960-mission control knowledge. JSC furnished information on lighting and other fatigue reducing measures, and provided specifications for equipment and design layouts. JSC also advised OCPD how to avoid communications bottlenecks associated with simultaneous handling of telephone, radio and inner-office transmissions. Oklahoma City saved money in reduced design and engineering costs by utilizing the already developed NASA technology.

  17. Health-damaging policing practices among persons who inject drugs in Mexico: Are deported migrants at greater risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Miguel; Beletsky, Leo; Alamillo, Nathan; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2017-08-01

    Evidence-based public health and criminal justice policies aimed at addressing the structurally vulnerable population of persons who inject drugs (PWID) and who are involved in the immigrant enforcement and deportation system are lacking. Policing practices are critical structural determinants of HIV among PWID. PWID in Mexico who have been deported from the US are at elevated risk of HIV. From 2011 to 2013, 733 PWID were recruited to complete structured questionnaires, including past 6-month experiences with police. Eligible PWID were 18 years or older, had injected in the past month, and resided in Tijuana, Mexico with no intentions of moving. To determine if deportation status was associated with experiences of arrests and problematic policing practices, we conducted separate multivariate logistic regression models for independent policing variables. In multivariate analyses, deportation status was independently associated with higher odds of being arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.45; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.02-2.05), being asked for a bribe (AOR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.05-2.04), and being forced to leave a place of residence (AOR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.08-3.70) in the past 6 months. Results highlight a previously poorly understood elements of the US-deportation experience: migrants' experiences with law enforcement post-deportation and the role of deportation policies and practices as structural drivers of public health risk in destination countries. We provide policy recommendations for Mexico and the US based on our findings, which have potential application in other countries seeking to improve enforcement and related policing practices from a public health perspective. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Factors associated with physical and sexual violence by police among people who inject drugs in Ukraine: implications for retention on opioid agonist therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsa, Oksana; Marcus, Ruthanne; Bojko, Martha J; Zelenev, Alexei; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Dvoriak, Sergii; Filippovych, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine's volatile HIV epidemic, one of the largest in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, remains concentrated in people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence is high (21.3% to 41.8%) among the estimated 310,000 PWID. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is the most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy there, yet OAT services are hampered by negative attitudes and frequent harassment of OAT clients and site personnel by law enforcement. This paper examines the various types of police violence that Ukrainian PWID experience and factors associated with the different types of violence, as well as the possible implications of police harassment on OAT retention. In 2014 to 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in five Ukrainian cities with 1613 PWID currently, previously and never on OAT, using a combination of respondent-driven sampling, as well as random sampling. We analysed correlates of police violence by multiple factors, including by gender, and their effects on duration of OAT retention. Self-reported physical and sexual violence by police were the two primary outcomes, while retention on OAT was used as a secondary outcome. Overall, 1033 (64.0%) PWID reported being physically assaulted by police, which was positively correlated with currently or previously being on OAT (69.1% vs. 60.2%; pmen experiencing significantly more physical violence, while women experienced more sexual violence (65.9% vs. 42.6%; psexual assault by police and fewer non-fatal overdoses. Police violence is a frequent experience among PWID in Ukraine, particularly for those accessing OAT, an evidence-based primary and secondary HIV prevention strategy. Police violence experiences, however, were different for men and women, and interventions with police that address these sexual differences and focus on non-violent interactions with PWID to improve access and retention on OAT are crucial for improving HIV prevention and treatment goals for Ukraine.

  19. Involuntary psychiatric attendances at an Australasian emergency department: A comparison of police and health-care worker initiated presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellin, Peter; Arendts, Glenn; Weeden, Jacqueline; Pethebridge, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    To identify any significant differences in the population of patients brought in to a hospital ED under involuntary mental health orders, based on whether the orders are initiated by police or health professionals. A retrospective analysis of consecutive presentations to a tertiary hospital ED with a co-located psychiatric emergency care centre over a 12 month period, with univariate and multivariate statistical comparisons. Two hundred and eighty-two patients (making 378 ED presentations) met the case definition and were analysed. Compared with patients on medical orders, patients on police orders had significantly more presentations related to violence, longer stays in ED and lower rates of admission to an inpatient bed, but were no more likely to require restraint or security intervention within the ED. Patients on police and medical orders differ considerably, but the impact of these differences on ED workload is small. © 2011 The Authors. EMA © 2011 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. State Councillor of the Republic and Canton of Geneva in charge of the Department of Security, Police and Environment I Rochat signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer on 25th January 2010.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice; Glass Box

    2010-01-01

    State Councillor of the Republic and Canton of Geneva in charge of the Department of Security, Police and Environment I Rochat signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer on 25th January 2010.

  1. Evolution of Both Host Nation Police Advisory Missions and the Support Provided by the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    American forces to train throughout the nation, often in partnership with the Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF), until the rise in Manuel Noriega’s power and...Peace and Stability Operations". Annika Hansen, From Congo to Kosovo: Civilian Police in Peace Operations (New York, NY: Oxford University Press...Soldier Support for Operation Uphold Democracy." Armed Forces & Society 23, no. 1 (Fall 1996): 81-96. Hansen, Annika. From Congo to Kosovo: Civilian

  2. [Safe injection rooms and police crackdowns in areas with heavy drug dealing. Evaluation by counting discarded syringes collected from the public space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, Carmen; Villalbí, Joan R; Guitart, Anna; Espelt, Albert; Bartroli, Montserrat; Castellano, Yolanda; Brugal, M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of drug injection in public places is analysed using as indicator the number of syringes collected from public spaces, evaluating as well the influence of public health harm reduction interventions and of police actions, with a before and after quasi experimental study. Monthly syringe counts on the semester before and after each intervention were compared both in the involved district and in the city as a whole, using the U and z tests with a 95% confidence level. The average number of collected syringes drops from 13.132 in 2004 to 3.190 in 2012. Comparing indicators before and after health and police interventions, the opening of a facility with a supervised drug consumption room in the inner city was associated with a huge reduction in the number of abandoned syringes in the city, while its number did not rise in the district where the facility was located. The subsequent opening of another drug consumption room did not have a significant impact in collected syringes in the area. Some police interventions in 2005-2006 and 2011 had a significant impact in the indicators of the involved districts, while others did not. Harm reduction programs might have a favourable impact on drug injection in public spaces and related syringe presence. Some police interventions appear to have an impact while others do not or just have a modest local and temporary effect.

  3. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Number 299

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-11

    A six-man party led by the deputy OCPD [Officer in Charge of Police Department], acting ASP [Assistant Superintendent of Police] Tang Yau Hie also...just prepared from opium when police moved in. The stoves were still burning and some drugs were recovered from the pans. Kulim OCPD Deputy Supt

  4. Police reform from the bottom up

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and practitioners across the usual North-South divide. Few police ... colleagues in the North. ... The introduction sets out the ... descriptive overview of key reforms in American policing. ... departments to illustrate the scope for involving officers ...

  5. Protesting police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom; Karpiak, Kevin; Garriott, William

    2018-01-01

    We offer an anthropological response to criminologists’ call for a penal theory of police, with a specific focus on the public condonation of police punishment. We support such a penal theory but criticize the criminologist’s explanation of the relative quiescence of “the public” in the face of

  6. HR-MAS NMR for rapid identification of illicit substances in tablets and Blotter papers seized by Police Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luciano F.; Vieira, Tarcísio S.; Lião, Luciano M., E-mail: lucianoliao@ufg.br [Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Química; Alcantara, Glaucia B. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Instituto de Química

    2016-07-01

    Illicit substances found in blotter papers and tablets seized by police are traditionally identified and characterized from extracts of these materials. However, the procedures involved in extraction stages can result in artifacts and even contamination of the samples to be analyzed. On the other hand, high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) is a technique that requires no pretreatment steps, enabling direct analysis of the material, including the analysis of new illegal synthetic psychoactive substances. This study presents and discusses applications of the HR-MAS NMR in the analysis of tablets and blotter papers seized. Additional analysis in solution of the extracts of these materials was performed to compare the obtained spectral resolution signals. The results demonstrated that the HR-MAS NMR allowed the rapid identification of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone), 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine (DOB) and 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2- methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25B-NBOMe) in samples of tablets and blotter papers seized in Goiás State, Brazil. (author)

  7. Of Lady-killers and ‘Men Dressed As Women’: Soap Opera, Scapegoats and the Mexico City Police Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vek Lewis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Over two days in October 2005, police in Mexico City conducted a series of raids on male-to-female transgender (travesti prostitutes working in the streets. The motive of the investigation was not related to sex work at all, but rather, the hunt for a serial killer responsible for the deaths of elderly women between 2003 and 2005. With few leads apart from reports by a couple of eyewitnesses that they had seen ‘a man dressed as a woman’ enter the houses of the victims, the Chief Public Prosecutor announced that the killer could be a travesti. On January 25, 2006, the ‘lady-killer’ was finally discovered to be neither a ‘man dressed as a woman’, nor a travesti. The suspect, a female former lucha libre wrestler, Juana Barraza, was taken into custody. In the period leading up to the October raids, Mexico’s chief television channel, Televisa, finished up the season of its popular soap, La Madrastra, with a plot line that features a man who dresses as a woman to disguise his usual male identity and kill his female victims. This paper examines the case, looking at the influence of the soap opera narrative in the profiling of travestis as suspect ‘men dressed as women’. It draws on studies of soap opera and mass media forms in Mexican society, as well as the work of transgender theory in understanding how crossgender identities are circumscribed by discourse.

  8. HR-MAS NMR for rapid identification of illicit substances in tablets and Blotter papers seized by Police Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luciano F.; Vieira, Tarcísio S.; Lião, Luciano M.; Alcantara, Glaucia B.

    2016-01-01

    Illicit substances found in blotter papers and tablets seized by police are traditionally identified and characterized from extracts of these materials. However, the procedures involved in extraction stages can result in artifacts and even contamination of the samples to be analyzed. On the other hand, high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) is a technique that requires no pretreatment steps, enabling direct analysis of the material, including the analysis of new illegal synthetic psychoactive substances. This study presents and discusses applications of the HR-MAS NMR in the analysis of tablets and blotter papers seized. Additional analysis in solution of the extracts of these materials was performed to compare the obtained spectral resolution signals. The results demonstrated that the HR-MAS NMR allowed the rapid identification of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone), 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine (DOB) and 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2- methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25B-NBOMe) in samples of tablets and blotter papers seized in Goiás State, Brazil. (author)

  9. Police Attitudes and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Joseph; Price, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized Richard H. Hall's attitudinal attributes of a professional using a Likert scale. The survey was administered to officers in two similar mid-sized police departments. The first agency had 650 officers, while the second had 350 officers. Agency One requires all applicants to possess a bachelor's degree, while Agency…

  10. Analysis of cocaine and its adulterants in drugs for international trafficking seized by the Brazilian Federal Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapachinske, Silvio Fernandes; Okai, Guilherme Gonçalves; dos Santos, Ariana; de Bairros, André Valle; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    Here, gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD) method was developed and validated for the quantification of cocaine and adulterants (caffeine, 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine, levamisole, lidocaine and phenacetin) in illicit samples. The method was based on direct dilution of samples in methanol, sonication for 5 min and centrifugation. After appropriate dilution, an aliquot was injected into GC-MS in order to identify the active compounds and into GC-NPD for the analytes quantification. Bupivacaine was used as an internal standard. The method showed to be precise, accurate and linear over a range of 0.5-100% (weight/weight percentages) for all analytes, except phenacetin which showed a linear range between 2% and 100%. The method was successfully applied to 54 samples seized by the Brazilian Federal Police in the International Airport of Sao Paulo and mailing services during the year 2011. All the samples were associated with international trafficking and were apprehended while leaving the country. The purity of cocaine ranged from 16.5% to 91.4%. Cocaine was the only detected active compound in 29.6% of total samples. Among the identified cutting agents, levamisole was the most abundant (55.6% of the total samples) and relative concentrations (weight/weight percentages) ranged from 0.7% to 23%. Lidocaine, caffeine, phenacetin and 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine were also identified in these samples in minor concentrations. In contrast with what we initially hypothesized, drugs intended to international trafficking did not present high cocaine purity and most of the samples were laced with adulterants before leaving Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial patterns of arrests, police assault and addiction treatment center locations in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Vera, Alicia; Arredondo, Jaime; Beletsky, Leo; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Gaines, Tommi

    2016-07-01

    In the context of a public health-oriented drug policy reform in Mexico, we assessed the spatial distribution of police encounters among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, determined the association between these encounters and the location of addiction treatment centers and explored the association between police encounters and treatment access. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) and logistic regression analysis using prospective spatial data from a community-recruited cohort of PWID in Tijuana and official geographical arrest data from the Tijuana Municipal Police Department. Tijuana, Mexico. A total of 608 participants (median age 37; 28.4% female) in the prospective Proyecto El Cuete cohort study recruited between January and December 2011. We compared the mean distance of police encounters and a randomly distributed set of events to treatment centers. GWR was undertaken to model the spatial relationship between police interactions and treatment centers. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with reporting police interactions. During the study period, 27.5% of police encounters occurred within 500 m of treatment centers. The GWR model suggested spatial correlation between encounters and treatment centers (global R(2)  = 0.53). Reporting a need for addiction treatment was associated with reporting arrest and police assault [adjusted odds ratio = 2.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-6.02, P = 0.012]. A geospatial analysis suggests that, in Mexico, people who inject drugs are at greater risk of being a victim of police violence if they consider themselves in need of addiction treatment, and their interactions with police appear to be more frequent around treatment centers. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. The Going Out In Sydney App: Evaluating the Utility of a Smartphone App for Monitoring Real-World Illicit Drug Use and Police Encounters Among Festival and Club Goers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaining accurate information on illicit drug use and policing in real-world settings is a challenge. This study examines the utility of a smartphone app (‘Going Out In Sydney’ to prospectively follow up illicit drug use and policing encounters at music festivals and licensed entertainment precincts in Sydney, Australia. In all, 38 regular festival and licensed entertainment venue attendees used the app to log nights out over a 3-month period, including (1 where they went (eg, festival, nightclub, (2 the prevalence of illicit drug use, and (3 the incidence and nature of police encounters. A survey and interview were then conducted about the utility of the app. The app enabled rich data collection (n = 353 entries about illicit drug use and policing at both target settings. Follow-up surveys indicated that most participants were extremely satisfied with the ease of use of the app and privacy afforded, and compared with other data collection modes, such as paper-based logs and online surveys, rated the app the most desirable method of data collection. This suggests smartphone apps may be a viable option for future studies on illicit drug use and policing of drugs.

  13. K-9 Police Dog Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Vy Han; John R. Marshall

    2017-01-01

    History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED) by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’...

  14. Policing Transgender People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Police policy documents often articulate strategies and approaches that police organizations want to implement in their efforts to break down barriers with minority groups. However, most police policy documents are written for police audiences and not for members of the public. Police policy documents serve as a reflection of the aspirations of the agency and not necessarily the practice of the officers. Differential policing has been a salient experience for members of transgender communities because, as individuals who express gender in ways that deviate from the norm, they have experienced numerous documented cases of police mismanaged practice. In Australia, achieving police reform in the area of policing of diverse community groups has been difficult as new initiatives implemented to educate police officers about diverse groups such as transgender communities are scarce. My study sought to analyze a police policy document to assess how one police agency’s policy aspires to shape police contact/experiences with transgender people and how this document might shape intergroup identity differences between transgender people and the police. It is argued that the policy document will negatively affect police perceptions of transgender people and may enhance adverse perceptions of intergroup difference between police and transgender people. I also argue that using this document to achieve police reform in the area of policing of transgender people will be problematic as the policy document lacks substantial procedural guidelines regarding interaction with transgender people and may not favorably constrain discretionary police power.

  15. A Case Study: The Lafayette Police Department Utilization of Learning Organization Culture and its Impact on the Investigations Division Recruit Officer Training Module

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Lafayette Police Field Training Program utilizes knowledge sharing, knowledge sourcing, and emphasizes organizational assimilation by cycling patrol recruits through a detective division training section as a competency model to help train patrol recruit officers. Emergent themes from this research study revealed that the current design of the detective training module is effective for employee networking and organizational assimilation. The qualitative case study analysis ind...

  16. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...

  17. ESP Needs Analysis of Public Order Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    With this study, 105 public order police officers in the national police forces were surveyed in order to assess their needs when using English on the job. In other words, this study aimed at examining the needs, functions and problems of 105 police officers serving at the department of public order. The findings from the questionnaire with open…

  18. Correlates of reasons for not reporting rape to police: results from a national telephone household probability sample of women with forcible or drug-or-alcohol facilitated/incapacitated rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-02-01

    Rape tactics, rape incident characteristics, and mental health problems (lifetime depression, PTSD, and substance abuse) were investigated as correlates of eight different reasons for not reporting a rape to police among women who had experienced but did not report a rape to police (n = 441) within a national telephone household probability sample. Rape tactics (nonmutually exclusive) included drug or alcohol-facilitated or incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR; n = 119) and forcible rape (FR; n = 376). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted to extract a dominant set of patterns among the eight reasons for not reporting, and to reduce the set of dependent variables. PCA results indicated three unique factors: Not Wanting Others to Know, Nonacknowledgment of Rape, and Criminal Justice Concerns. Hierarchical regression analyses showed DAFR/IR and FR were both positively and significantly associated with Criminal Justice Concerns, whereas DAFR/IR, but not FR, was associated with Nonacknowledgment as a reason for not reporting to police. Neither DAFR/IR nor FR emerged as significant predictors of Others Knowing after controlling for fear of death or injury at the time of the incident. Correlations among variables showed that the Criminal Justice Concerns factor was positively related to lifetime depression and PTSD and the Nonacknowledgement factor was negatively related to lifetime PTSD. Findings suggest prevention programs should educate women about the definition of rape, which may include incapacitation due to alcohol or drugs, to increase acknowledgement and decrease barriers to police reporting.

  19. Drug-Avoidance Self-Efficacy Among Exclusive Cannabis Users vs. Other Drug Users Visiting the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingan, Sarah E; Woodruff, Susan I

    2017-07-29

    Medical care in the emergency department (ED) is a growing and complex area of outpatient care, with about 256 visits made to EDs every minute in 2013. Studies report that, compared to people who do not use drugs, people who use illicit drugs are more likely to use the ED for their medical care. Self-efficacy has been shown to be a predictor of abstinence or reduced use among drug-using individuals. The current study describes drug avoidance self-efficacy among exclusive cannabis-using individuals and other drug-using individuals who use the ED for any reason. Participants were 693 adult patients visiting the trauma units and EDs of two large urban "safety net" hospitals (i.e., providing care to low-income, uninsured, and vulnerable population) in Southern California who reported using illicit drugs in the past 30 days. For people who use only cannabis, higher drug-avoidance self-efficacy was associated with older age, lower drug involvement scores, lower drug severity scores, and higher readiness to change use. For people who use other drugs, higher drug avoidance self-efficacy scores was associated with lower drug severity scores, lower psychiatric severity scores, higher medical severity scores, and higher readiness to change use. This study identified several factors (some common, some unique) related to higher drug-avoidance self-efficacy for both groups. Results may be important when designing intervention protocols for use in the ED.

  20. 'Good Order and Police'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mührmann-Lund, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of police ordinances and police authorities in the early modern period has traditionally been seen as a way to discipline society in order to increase the power of the absolutist state. However, recent investigations of early modern policing in German and French regions show...... focused on local needs even after the creation of a royal police office in 1682. Policing mainly concerned the welfare and privileges of burghers in market towns until the introduction of a country police in 1791, when agrarian reforms began to erode the patriarchal order in the countryside. As a new way...

  1. Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Cunha, Luiz Carlos da; Yonamine, Maurício; Pucci, Liuba Laxor; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Souza, Camila Gabriela de; Mesquita, Guilherme Alves; Vieira, Ana Paula de Toledo; Vinhal, Ludmilla Barros; Dalastra, Janayna; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n=221) were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID). Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. The frequency of use was divided into: 1) lifetime use: tobacco-39.9%, alcohol-87.8%, cannabis-8.1%, cocaine-1.8%, stimulants-7.2%, solvents-10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-6.8%, LSD-0.5%, Bentyl®-0.5%, anabolic steroids-5.4%; 2) use in the previous year: tobacco-15.4%, alcohol-72.9%, stimulants-6.3%, solvents-0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%; 3) use in the previous 30 days: tobacco-14.5%, alcohol-57.5%, stimulants-5.0%, solvents-0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%. The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.

  2. Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…

  3. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions seen at a university hospital department of dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jakob E; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    Patients with suspected cutaneous adverse drug reactions are often referred to allergy clinics or departments of dermatology for evaluation. These patients are selected compared with patients identified in prospective and cross-sectional studies of hospital populations. This explains the observed...... variation in prevalence of specific reactions and of eliciting drugs. This study investigated the prevalence of cutaneous adverse drug reactions in a university hospital department of dermatology that is specially focused on allergy. An 8-month survey was carried out during the period April-December 2003...

  4. Theory or practice? : Perspectives on police education and police work

    OpenAIRE

    Aas, Geir

    2016-01-01

    This article explores interview data taken from a study of Norwegian police training, and discusses whether police education is perceived as providing a relevant and sufficient platform for performing police work. Since the police have monopoly status when it comes to the general use of physical force, the police practice appears boundless. How should police education be directed towards covering such a diverse and complex role? The article will demonstrate how differently police officers ass...

  5. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police Codes (MPC). (a) MPCs identify individual Provos...

  6. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a) General Use. DA form 3975 is a...

  7. Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms: Two Emergency Department Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Tsyrulnik, Alina; Landman, Adam B.

    2011-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a rare, severe adverse drug event that appears with a generalized rash, fevers, and dysfunction of 1 or more organ systems. We describe 2 patients (1 adult and 1 pediatric) seen in the emergency department with DRESS, and review the clinical presentations, potential complications, and management of DRESS. Although rare, it can be associated with significant morbidity, including liver failure and death, and should be considered in th...

  8. Department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-09-20

    Sep 20, 2016 ... Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Kibabii University. Abstract. This study ... Key Words: Climate Change, Regional Circulation Model, PRECIS, Bungoma County ... by different computer models is much.

  9. Clinician impression versus prescription drug monitoring program criteria in the assessment of drug-seeking behavior in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Scott G; Griggs, Christopher A; Mitchell, Patricia M; Langlois, Breanne K; Friedman, Franklin D; Moore, Rebecca L; Lin, Shuo Cheng; Nelson, Kerrie P; Feldman, James A

    2013-10-01

    We compare emergency provider impression of drug-seeking behavior with objective criteria from a state prescription drug monitoring program, assess change in opioid pain reliever prescribing after prescription drug monitoring program review, and examine clinical factors associated with suspected drug-seeking behavior. This was a prospective observational study of emergency providers assessing a convenience sample of patients aged 18 to 64 years who presented to either of 2 academic medical centers with chief complaint of back pain, dental pain, or headache. Drug-seeking behavior was objectively defined as present when a patient had greater than or equal to 4 opioid prescriptions by greater than or equal to 4 providers in the 12 months before emergency department evaluation. Emergency providers completed data forms recording their impression of the likelihood of drug-seeking behavior, patient characteristics, and plan for prescribing pre- and post-prescription drug monitoring program review. Descriptive statistics were generated. We calculated agreement between emergency provider impression of drug-seeking behavior and prescription drug monitoring program definition, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of emergency provider impression, using prescription drug monitoring program criteria as the criterion standard. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine clinical factors associated with drug-seeking behavior. Thirty-eight emergency providers with prescription drug monitoring program access participated. There were 544 patient visits entered into the study from June 2011 to January 2013. There was fair agreement between emergency provider impression of drug-seeking behavior and prescription drug monitoring program (κ=0.30). Emergency providers had sensitivity 63.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 54.8% to 71.7%), specificity 72.7% (95% CI 68.4% to 77.0%), and positive predictive value 41.2% (95% CI 34.4% to 48

  10. K-9 Police Dog Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.

  11. 28 CFR 92.3 - How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... participate in the Police Corps? 92.3 Section 92.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.3 How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) The application and...

  12. Drug abuse-related accidents leading to emergency department visits at two medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Isaac Chun-Jen; Hung, Dong-Zong; Hsu, Chi-Ho; Wu, Ming-Ling; Deng, Jou-Fang; Chang, Chin-Yu; Shih, Hsin-Chin; Liu, Chen-Chi; Wang, Chien-Ying; Wen, Yi-Szu; Wu, Jackson Jer-Kan; Huang, Mu-Shun; Yang, Chen-Chang

    2012-05-01

    Drug abuse is becoming more prevalent in Taiwan, as evidenced by increasing reports of drug trafficking and drug abuse-related criminal activity, and the wide use of more contemporary illicit drugs. Consequently, drug abuse-related accidents are also expected to occur with greater frequency. However, no study has yet specifically evaluated the prevalence, pattern, and outcomes of drug abuse-related accidents among patients visiting emergency departments (EDs) in Taiwan. We conducted an ambidirectional study with patients who visited the EDs of Taipei Veterans General Hospital (TVGH) and China Medical University Hospital (CMUH) due to drug abuse-related accidents from January 2007 through September 2009. Information on the patients' baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes was collected and analyzed. During the study period, a total of 166 patients visited the EDs of one of the two study hospitals due to drug abuse-related accidents. This yielded a prevalence of drug abuse of 0.1% among all patients visiting the ED due to accident and/or trauma. Fifty-six out of the 166 patients visited the ED at TVGH, most patients being between 21 and 40 years old. Opioids (41.1%) were the drugs most commonly abused by the patients, followed by benzodiazepines (32.1%). More than two-thirds of the patients (n=38, 67.9%) required hospitalization, and three patients died (5.4%). In contrast, 110 patients with drug abuse-related accidents visited the ED at CMUH during the study period. Most of these subjects had abused benzodiazepines (69.1%), were between 21 and 40 years old, and were female. Fewer than one-fifth of the patients (n=19, 17.3%) required hospitalization, with no deaths reported. There were significant between-hospital differences in terms of patient gender, drugs of choice, injury mechanisms, method and time of the ED visit, triage levels, and need for hospitalization. Although the prevalence of drug abuse-related accidents was low, and only three patient deaths

  13. Determining barriers to creating an enabling environment in Cambodia: results from a baseline study with key populations and police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Mira L; Weissman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI) in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations' attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest. Between December 2012 and January 2013, a cross-sectional survey of 199 police post officers, 199 people who use drugs (PWUD) including people who inject drugs (PWID), 199 men who have sex with men (MSM), 200 transgender women (TGW) and 200 female entertainment workers (FEW) was conducted in five Phnom Penh districts. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, members of a key population from selected hotspots or police officers, deputy chiefs or chiefs. Key populations' median age was 25 years (IQR: 22-30); 40% had completed only primary school. Police were male (99.5%), with median age 43 years (IQR: 30 to 47), and 45 and 25% high school and university completion rates, respectively. Key populations feared arrest for carrying needles and syringes (67%), condoms (23%) and 19% felt afraid to access health services. Close to 75% of police reported body searching and 58% arresting key populations in the past six months for using drugs (64%), selling or distributing drugs (36%) or being violent (13%). Self-reported arrests (23% PWUD, 6% MSM, 6% TGW, 12% FEW; ppolice believed arrest was an appropriate solution to reduce HIV and drug use and reported selling sex (88%) and carrying needles and syringes (55%) as valid reasons for arrest. Key populations' fear of accessing harm reduction and health services and police's negative attitudes and practices towards key populations present major barriers to HIV prevention efforts in Cambodia. To create an enabling environment and ensure police are

  14. Study of adverse drug reactions in out-patient departments of a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinnat Ara Begum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study conducted in the Medicine and Skin outpatient departments of Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka revealed 19 cases (7 males, 12 females of adverse drug reactions (ADR out of 160 patients. 31.58% ADRs were of mild type, 42.1% were of moderate and 26.32% were of severe in nature. Gastrointestinal complications were the most frequent adverse effect (56%. Antimicrobial drugs were the most common cause of ADR (42.86% followed by NSAIDs (33.33%. This study is a preliminary study for getting information on the pattern of ADRs in Bangladesh needing further studies.

  15. Police officer on the frontline or a soldier? The effect of police militarization on crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bove, Vincenzo; Gavrilova, Evelina

    2017-01-01

    Sparked by high-profile confrontations between police and citizens in Ferguson, Missouri, and elsewhere, many commentators have criticized the excessive militarization of law enforcement. We investigate whether surplus military-grade equipment acquired by local police departments from the Pentagon has an effect on crime rates. We use temporal variations in US military expenditure and between-counties variation in the odds of receiving a positive amount of military aid to identify the causal e...

  16. How Frequently are “Classic” Drug-Seeking Behaviors Used by Drug-Seeking Patients in the Emergency Department?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Curry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drug-seeking behavior (DSB in the emergency department (ED is a very commonproblem, yet there has been little quantitative study to date of such behavior.The goal of this study wasto assess the frequency with which drug seeking patients in the ED use classic drug seeking behaviorsto obtain prescription medication.Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review on patients in an ED case management programfor DSB. We reviewed all visits by patients in the program that occurred during a 1-year period, andrecorded the frequency of the following behaviors: complaining of headache, complaining of backpain, complaining of dental pain, requesting medication by name, requesting a refill of medication,reporting medications as having been lost or stolen, reporting 10/10 pain, reporting greater than 10/10pain, reporting being out of medication, and requesting medication parenterally. These behaviors werechosen because they are described as “classic” for DSB in the existing literature.Results: We studied 178 patients from the case management program, who made 2,486 visits in 1year. The frequency of each behavior was: headache 21.7%, back pain 20.8%, dental pain 1.8%,medication by name 15.2%, requesting refill 7.0%, lost or stolen medication 0.6%, pain 10/10 29.1%,pain greater than 10/10 1.8%, out of medication 9.5%, and requesting parenteral medication 4.3%.Patients averaged 1.1 behaviors per visit.Conclusion: Drug-seeking patients appear to exhibit “classically” described drug-seeking behaviorswith only low to moderate frequency. Reliance on historical features may be inadequate when trying toassess whether or not a patient is drug-seeking.

  17. The prevalence and relative risk of drink and drug driving in the Netherlands: a case-control study in the Tilburg police district : research in the framework of the European research programme IMMORTAL (Impaired Motorists, Methods of Roadside Testing and Assessment for Licensing).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Houwing, S.

    2005-01-01

    Drink and drug driving can have an impact on the driving performance and accident risk. This epidemiological study, which forms part of the European project IMMORTAL, investigates the prevalence of eight defined drug groups, including alcohol, among drivers in the Tilburg police district. To examine

  18. Cytotoxic Drugs Departments as a precondition for high-quality product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Głuszek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer control is a tremendous challenge not only for the ill patient and physicians, but also for the whole health care system. For the first time, during the European Conference of Oncology Pharmacists, the highest standards of pharmaceutical care were proposed for cancer patients. Undoubtedly, the lifestyle and prophylaxis which would enable the detection of cancer at an early stage exert an effect on the development of the disease. Cytostatics show toxic, mutagenic, oncogenic and immunosuppressive effects; therefore, their preparation should be handled by the Central Cytotoxic Drugs Department, because the majority of the drugs prepared belong to Register A. Drugs are manufactured in accordance with GMP principles. All-Polish Standards adopted by the Polish Pharmaceutical Association delineate the direction to be developed by every hospital with respect to its own procedures and instructions. The Master of Pharmacy is responsible for the preparation of cytotoxic drugs. At one bench should work an operator and an assistant. The recommended working time should not exceed 2 h without break, and 5 h daily. The person who collects cytotoxic drugs from the Central Department should use a legible sign and a stamp including the hour and date of collection. While manufacturing cytostatics for patients in daily doses it is recommended to use concentrates in the form of solutions rather than lyophilised powders, which results in the shortening of the stage of production of the drug and reduces the possibility of forming aerosols; in the case of closed infusion systems (containers for infusion liquids which are used for the production of daily doses, the cabinet should be equipped in two tight docks for dispensing. Needleless connection of the LUER-LOCK type – a recommendation of the ISOPP – guarantees a tight connection with the drug transfer port even in the case of an increase in pressure during the manufacture of drugs. To a certain extent

  19. 77 FR 74546 - Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8118] Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of State, including that set forth in the ``International... for assistance for Bolivian military and police are in the national security interest of the United...

  20. Drugs of abuse: the highs and lows of altered mental states in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Timothy J; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2010-08-01

    The diagnosis and management of poisoned patients presenting with alterations in mental status can be challenging, as patients are often unable (or unwilling) to provide an adequate history. Several toxidromes exist. Recognition hinges upon vital signs and the physical examination. Understanding these "toxic syndromes" may guide early therapy and management, providing insight into the patient's underlying medical problem. Despite toxidrome recognition guiding antidotal therapy, the fundamental aspect of managing these patients involves meticulous supportive care. The authors begin with a discussion of various toxidromes and then delve into the drugs responsible for each syndrome. They conclude with a discussion on drug-facilitated sexual assault ("date rape"), which is both an underrecognized problem in the emergency department (ED) and representative of the drug-related problems faced in a modern ED. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The Meanings of "Community Policing" for the Brazilian Military Police

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Ribeiro; Victor Neiva e Oliveira; Alexandre Magno Alves Diniz

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Brazilian military police forces have adopted community policing programs in order to increase confidence in the institution and reduce crime rates. The objective of this study was to verify what the police frontline personnel understands by community policing and how they perceive the results of its implementation. A survey was conducted with 592 military policemen involved in operational activities in 32 military police companies of Belo Horizonte. The results point to a va...

  2. The Nigerian Police, Safety and Public Policing: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Oteh Chukwuemeka Okpo; Flora Ntunde O; Alexander Anichie

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a study on the Nigerian police, considering the historical origin of the police and the communal responsibility of promoting its entire citizenry, the paper takes an analytical accessment of the Nigerian police, safety and policing of the Nigeria people. The study used the questionnaires instrument of research methods to carry out the study and made several findings amongst which include the fact that the Nigerian people have lost confidence in the police force as a result of se...

  3. 38 CFR 1.203 - Information to be reported to VA Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component with...

  4. 26 CFR 1.120-1 - Statutory subsistence allowance received by police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... police. 1.120-1 Section 1.120-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....120-1 Statutory subsistence allowance received by police. (a) Section 120 excludes from the gross income of an individual employed as a police official by a State, Territory, or possession of the United...

  5. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  6. Pittsburgh Police Arrest Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...

  7. Police Community Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Community outreach activities attended by Pittsburgh Police Officers, starting from January 1 2016. Includes Zone, Event Name, Location, Date and Time.

  8. A Qualitative Examination of Police Officers' Perception of Football Supporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Several studies stress the importance of thorough knowledge of supporter culture in order to assess the actual level of risk at football matches thereby ensuring a balanced approach by the police in order to avoid conflict situations. This study examines how Danish police officers perceive...... and categorise football supporters on the basis of a field-based observational study and a qualitative interview study undertaken at the East Jutland Police department in Denmark in the period 2008–2009. The main findings show a general lack of knowledge of supporter culture as well as scepticism towards...... engaging in dialogue with football supporters. As a consequence of these findings, the East Jutland Police department initiated an educational programme on dialogue policing in 2010. The programme has been successfully evaluated and is now implemented on a national basis....

  9. The Meanings of "Community Policing" for the Brazilian Military Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Ribeiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Brazilian military police forces have adopted community policing programs in order to increase confidence in the institution and reduce crime rates. The objective of this study was to verify what the police frontline personnel understands by community policing and how they perceive the results of its implementation. A survey was conducted with 592 military policemen involved in operational activities in 32 military police companies of Belo Horizonte. The results point to a vast plasticity of the concept, which came to mean any type of activity carried out by police officers and by the community without the formal cooperation of the police, making the category "community policing" a new name for old police practices.

  10. The social determinants of emergency department and hospital use by injection drug users in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palepu, A; Strathdee, S A; Hogg, R S; Anis, A H; Rae, S; Cornelisse, P G; Patrick, D M; O'Shaughnessy, M V; Schechter, M T

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and human immunodeficiency (HIV) status of a cohort of injection drug users (IDUs) on their self-reported health service utilization. Interviewer-administered questionnaire. IDUs who had injected illicit drugs within the previous month were recruited through street outreach. They underwent serology for HIV-1 and questionnaires on demographics, drug using behaviors, housing status, and health service utilization (hospitalization overnight and emergency department visits) in the previous 6 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent associations with the use of health services. Of 1,103 cohort participants, 65% were male, 63% were white, and 23% were HIV positive. Cocaine was the most frequently injected drug used. Almost half (47%) had used health services in the previous 6 months. The following variables were associated independently with health service utilization (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval): unstable housing, defined as living primarily in a hotel, boarding room, or transition house or on the street in the past 6 months (1.44; 1.11-1.86); female gender (1.45; 1.11-1.89); HIV-positive status (1.43; 1.06-1.92); injection of cocaine (1.50; 1.12-2.02); and primary care I physician visit in past 6 months (1.91; 1.39-2.64). IDUs with unstable housing were more likely to report emergency department and hospital use, which may be a reflection of their disorganized lifestyle or poorer health status. Further studies are required to assess the effect on the health status and health care use of IDUs of interventions that increase the availability of safe, affordable housing.

  11. Police work stressors and cardiac vagal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M; Gu, Ja K; Fekedulegn, Desta; Li, Shengqiao; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Miller, Diane B; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2017-09-10

    This study examines relationships between the frequency and intensity of police work stressors and cardiac vagal control, estimated using the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV). This is a cross-sectional study of 360 officers from the Buffalo New York Police Department. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger police stress survey, which includes exposure indices created as the product of the self-evaluation of how stressful certain events were and the self-reported frequency with which they occurred. Vagal control was estimated using the high frequency component of resting HRV calculated in units of milliseconds squared and reported in natural log scale. Associations between police work stressors and vagal control were examined using linear regression for significance testing and analysis of covariance for descriptive purposes, stratified by gender, and adjusted for age and race/ethnicity. There were no significant associations between police work stressor exposure indices and vagal control among men. Among women, the inverse associations between the lack of support stressor exposure and vagal control were statistically significant in adjusted models for indices of exposure over the past year (lowest stressor quartile: M = 5.57, 95% CI 5.07 to 6.08, and highest stressor quartile: M = 5.02, 95% CI 4.54 to 5.51, test of association from continuous linear regression of vagal control on lack of support stressor β = -0.273, P = .04). This study supports an inverse association between lack of organizational support and vagal control among female but not male police officers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Community Survey Q7: Nature of police interactions with respondents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This question is from the 2015 Chapel Hill Community Survey.Have you interacted with the Town’s Police Department in any of the following ways within the past 2...

  13. Evaluation of California's Alcohol and Drug Screening and Brief Intervention Project for Emergency Department Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan I Woodruff

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visits to settings such as emergency departments (EDs may present a “teachable moment” in that a patient may be more open to feedback and suggestions regarding their risky alcohol and illicit drug-use behaviors. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT is an ’opportunistic’ public health approach that targets low-risk users, in addition to those already dependent on alcohol and/or drugs. SBIRT programs provide patients with comprehensive screening and assessments, and deliver interventions of appropriate intensity to reduce risks related to alcohol and drug use. Methods: This study used a single group pre-post test design to assess the effect of the California SBIRT service program (i.e., CASBIRT on 6 substance-use outcomes (past-month prevalence and number of days of binge drinking, illegal drug use, and marijuana use. Trained bilingual/bicultural Health Educators attempted to screen all adult patients in 12 EDs/trauma centers (regardless of the reason for the patient’s visit using a short instrument, and then delivered a brief motivational intervention matched to the patient’s risk level. A total of 2,436 randomly selected patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or drug use consented to be in a 6-month telephone follow-up interview. Because of the high loss to follow-up rate, we used an intention-to-treat approach for the data analysis. Results: Results of generalized linear mixed models showed modest reductions in all 6 drug- and alcohol-use outcomes. Men (versus women, those at relatively higher risk status (versus lower risk, and those with only one substance of misuse (versus both alcohol and illicit drug misuse tended to show more positive change. Conclusion: These results suggest that SBIRT services provided in acute care settings are associated with modest changes in self-reported recent alcohol and illicit drug use. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(3:263–270.

  14. Women in International Policing: Replacing an “Old Boys Club”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Hufnagel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has increased the importance of international police cooperation. While cross-border law enforcement can be traced back as far as the Nineteenth Century, police cooperation today—such as Joint Investigation Teams, International Liaison Officers, and Interpol—only came about in the Twentieth Century. It was developed to counter transnational organised crime, such as drug crime and immigration crime, as well as terrorism. But, another aspect of international policing is that of peacekeeping; that is, the deployment of national police to countries during or after conflict to maintain law and order where the local police do not have sufficient capacities. This paper examines how women have been elevated in this police cooperation role, particularly Interpol and international peacekeeping. The discussion focuses on whether there are indications that internationally related tasks and agencies provide a more accepting environment for female police officers as opposed to a national police force setting.

  15. Admissions through the emergency department due to drug-related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yosef H Al-Olah; Khalifa M Al Thiab

    2010-01-01

    Hospital admissions due to drug-related problems (DRPs) have been studied internationally, but local data are limited. Therefore, we undertook a prospective, observational study of all admissions through the emergency department (ED) at a tertiary referral hospital in Saudi Arabia to determine the incidence of admissions through the ED due to DRPs, types of DRPs, length of stay (LOS) in the hospital after ED admissions due to DRPs, and assessment of preventability of admissions due to DRPs.All admissions through the ED over a period of 28 consecutive days were evaluated to determine if they were due to definite or possible DRPs. Data was collected on a daily basis for each admission over the previous 24 hours. Each incident was assessed by three investigators Of 557 patients admitted through the ED, 82 (14.7%) admissions were due to DRP (53 definite, 29 possible). The most common types of DRP were failure to receive medication in 25 cases (47.2%), an adverse drug reaction in 13 cases (24.5%), and drug overdose in 6 cases (11.3%). In the definite DRP group, 83.0% were definitely preventable, 3.8% were possibly preventable and 13.2% were definitely non-preventable.DRPs are a serious and costly issue facing health care professionals and health care systems. Most admissions due to DRPs are avoidable (Author).

  16. The police state myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter attempts to refute the assertion made by antinuclear groups that the use of nuclear energy will lead to a suppression of civil liberties in the US. The ''police state'' argument is based on the belief that the management of nuclear materials would necessitate the investigation of the stability and loyalties of their managers, and that in an instance of the theft of nuclear weapons material, police countermeasures might have to include violations of due process with regard to entry and search. It is pointed out that the screening of a person for a responsible position does not violate due process, and the fact that nuclear materials are radioactive and can be easility detected at some distance indicates that close police searches would not be necessary in the case of theft

  17. Mental Illness Stigma Expressed by Police to Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes mental health related stigma expressed by police to police using a newly developed 11-item Police Officer Stigma Scale and reports on the preliminary psychometric properties (factor structure and internal reliability) of this scale. The scale used an indirect measurement approach adapted from the Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination Scale. Five themes appropriate to police culture were adapted and six additional items were added. Responses were rated on a 5-point agreement scale with an additional don't know option. Data were collected from officers attending a mandatory workshop (90.5% response). Exploratory factor analysis showed the scale to be unidimensional and internally reliable (Cronbach's alpha was 0.82). The most endorsed items pertained to avoiding disclosure to a supervisor/manager or to a colleague (85% agreement), that most officers would expect discrimination at work (62%), and that most officers would not want a supervisor or manager who had a mental illness (62%). Findings highlight that (a) Police-to-police mental illness stigma may be a particularly strong feature of police cultures; (b) police should be a focus for targeted anti-stigma interventions; and (c) though further psychometric testing is needed, the Police Office Stigma Scale may provide important insights into the nature and functioning of police-to-police stigma in police cultures in future research.

  18. Stress Management in the Police Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria-Liliana-Amelia Purda-Nicoară (Netotea-Suciu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization estimates, stress is one of the risk factors most frequently affecting human health, along with obesity, alcoholism, drugs and smoking, and the suicide due to work-related stress will be the main cause of death in 2025 (Turc, 2006. Given this, and the that the profession of police officer has been ranked in the top ten most stressful jobs the U.S. (by The American Institute of Stress and categorized as one of the most stressful occupations in the world (by Michael Pittaro, executive director of The Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse in 2008, in a study on occupational stress in police1, both because of the nature of police work, and because of the multiple influences associated with the work environment, this article aims to briefly review the issue of stress in the field of police work, covering many aspects of it, such as sources of stress, forms of stress and its implications, the prevention factors, strategies to reduce stress and combat its negative effects, so that workers in this field be able to recognize it when stress is present and what it was caused by, and be able to manage it effectively.

  19. 76 FR 10205 - Department of Homeland Security Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. 605(b), as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement and Fairness Act of... Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace Requirements AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security (DHS). ACTION: Final... consolidate all Federal regulations on drug-free workplace requirements for financial assistance into one...

  20. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  1. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, María Luisa; Beletsky, Leo; Patiño, Efraín; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rocha, Teresita; Arredondo, Jaime; Bañuelos, Arnulfo; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI), which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM) is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503). Respondents were predominantly male (86.5%) and ≤35 years old (42.6%). Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%), of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%); factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56-5.67) and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29-3.91), while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22-0.69), and wearing needle-stick resistant gloves (AOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91). Tijuana

  2. Police, managerialization and presentational strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, J.; Trommel, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The managerialization of the police may be seen as an effort to restore the legitimacy of the police. This paper aims to show that the managerialist strategy presently occurring within police forces creates new pitfalls and unintended consequences. Design/methodology/approach - The paper

  3. Optimal Implementation of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett DePalma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The opioid epidemic is the most significant modern-day, public health crisis. Physicians and lawmakers have developed methods and practices to curb opioid use. This article describes one method, prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP, through the lens of how to optimize use for emergency departments (ED. EDs have rapidly become a central location to combat opioid abuse and drug diversion. PDMPs can provide emergency physicians with comprehensive prescribing information to improve clinical decisions around opioids. However, PDMPs vary tremendously in their accessibility and usability in the ED, which limits their effectiveness at the point of care. Problems are complicated by varying state-to-state requirements for data availability and accessibility. Several potential solutions to improving the utility of PDMPs in EDs include integrating PDMPs with electronic health records, implementing unsolicited reporting and prescription context, improving PDMP accessibility, data analytics, and expanding the scope of PDMPs. These improvements may help improve clinical decision-making for emergency physicians through better data, data presentation, and accessibility.

  4. Leaving against medical advice of addicted to drugs in a Department of Infectious Diseases: Economical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia González

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Giving up health recommendations and care against medical advice is a setback that may happen in daily health work. In a pilot study made at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid, Spain, during the first five months in 1998, the incidence of leaving against medical advice was 12,3 times higher than the mean in that hospital (7,03% vs 0,57%. Patients involved in this kind of event were drug abusers with acute infectious problems in a HIV primary infection or a multiple drug dependency. 42% of this patients returned to the hospital in the next 15 days. The research group thought out to study this problem under this hypothesis: Leaving against medical advice, besides having harmful consequences for the patient and the public health, produces an increase in the cost and the stay of the patient in hospital.The main objective of the research was to set up the economic the deviation in the cost/stay of a group of patients that had left against medical advice or in a regular process. It is a prospective and observational study. We studied 284 drug abusers staying in the Department of Infectious Diseases between Oct, 1st, 1999 and Sept, 30th, 2000. The research variables were: 1. Sociodemographic: Initials, , age, sex, and history number. 2. Clinical: Leaving medical diagnosis, returning medical diagnosis. 3. Administrative: Group of Related Diagnosis (GRD, admission date, leaving date, returning date and estimated cost of the episode. All episodes were grouped by kind of leaving and GRD. The cost/stay was calculated adjusted to GRD, and the deviations inside GRD were analyzed in the regular leaving group and the leaving against medical advice group.Results: Around 90% admission episodes were grouped in 6 GRD: 714 (47.92%, 541 (8.85%, 709 (8.85%, 710 (7,81%, 101 (7,29% y 715 (7,29%. The Pneumonia in HIV (GRD 714 caused the majority of the admissions. Global deviation adjusted to cost/stay was 29,44% (more expensive

  5. Policing and COIN Operations: Lessons Learned, Strategies, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    i. Financial flows are critical paths. ii. Drug markets, counterfeiting, smuggling, gambling, prostitution , identity theft: these are 6 POLICING...notably in Colombia . Border patrols, paramilitary and special branch police are also useful in COIN, according to Celeski, and were critical to...insurgents at the local level and “by, with and through” supporting the local population. First is the original defeat of the FARC in Colombia . Plan

  6. 75 FR 27574 - United States Park Police; 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service United States Park Police; 60-Day Notice of... States Park Police, National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY... Keeping Requirements, the United States Park Police (USPP) invites public comments on an extension of a...

  7. Youtube Cops and Power Without Limits : Understanding Police Violence in 21st Century Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Chistyakova, Yulia; Robertson, Annette

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the problem of police violence in contemporary Russia by reviewing research on police violence, drawing on Internet coverage of the issue and analysing relevant examples. In recent years the problems of police abuse of power, torture, cruelty and other crimes perpetrated by police officers (violence, drug dealing, extortion, and collusion with criminal groups) have been frequently discussed in the mass media, highlighted by human rights activists, and studied by social sci...

  8. 'May issue' gun carrying laws and police discretion: Some evidence from Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Hicks, James G

    2015-08-01

    In almost all states in the United States, to carry a concealed handgun legally requires a permit from the police. Many states have changed from may-issue laws (where the local police chief has discretion about to whom to issue a license) to shall-issue laws (where the police chief must issue a permit if the applicant passes a computerized federal background check). Studies conflict on the effect on crime. None considered the situation in may-issue states when police used discretion and refused to issue a permit. We provide suggestive evidence from a December 2013 survey of police chiefs in Massachusetts' 351 cities and towns. Of the 121 responding police chiefs, a large majority favored retaining police discretion. Chiefs issued few discretionary denials - median 2 per year, citing providing false information, a history of assault (often domestic violence), a history of drug or alcohol abuse, or of mental-health issues as the most common reasons for denial.

  9. 75 FR 14183 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... information collection under review: COPS' Rural Law Enforcement National Training Assessment. The Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) will be submitting the... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE [OMB Number 1103-NEW] Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency...

  10. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  11. Police and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Lisa; Smith, Mark; Long, Matthew; Kisby, Charlotte; Hawton, Keith

    2016-05-01

    Police officers are frequently the first responders to individuals in crisis, but generally receive little training for this role. We developed and evaluated training in suicide awareness and prevention for frontline rail police in the UK. To investigate the impact of training on officers' suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Fifty-three participants completed a brief questionnaire before and after undertaking training. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with 10 officers to explore in greater depth their views and experiences of the training program and the perceived impact on practice. Baseline levels of suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge were mixed but mostly positive and improved significantly after training. Such improvements were seemingly maintained over time, but there was insufficient power to test this statistically. Feedback on the course was generally excellent, notwithstanding some criticisms and suggestions for improvement. Training in suicide prevention appears to have been well received and to have had a beneficial impact on officers' attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Further research is needed to assess its longer-term effects on police attitudes, skills, and interactions with suicidal individuals, and to establish its relative effectiveness in the context of multilevel interventions.

  12. Trends in prescription drug utilization and spending for the Department of Defense, 2002-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Joshua W; Trice, Shana; Spridgen, Stacia L; Bacon, Thomas A

    2009-09-01

    Examine trends in U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) outpatient drug spending and utilization between 2002 and 2007. We analyzed pharmacy claims data from the U.S. Military Health System (MHS), using a cross-sectional analysis at the prescription and patient-year level and measuring utilization in 30-day equivalent prescriptions and expenditures in dollars. Pharmaceutical spending more than doubled in DoD, from $3 billion in FY02 to $6.5 billion in FY07. The largest increase occurred in the DoD community pharmacy network, where utilization grew from 6 million 30-day equivalent prescriptions in the first quarter of FY02 to more than 16 million in the last quarter of FY07. The smallest increase in annual spending occurred in FY07 (5.5%), down from a high of 27.5% in FY03. The MHS has experienced rapid growth in pharmaceutical spending since FY02. However, there are signs that growth in pharmaceutical spending may be slowing.

  13. Acute health problems due to recreational drug use in patients presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Liakoni, Evangelia; Dolder, Patrick C.; Rentsch, Katharina; Liechti, Matthias E.

    2015-01-01

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: To describe acute toxicity of recreational drugs including novel psychoactive substances. METHODS: We included all cases presenting at the emergency department (ED) of the University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland, between October 2013 and September 2014 with acute toxicity due to self-reported recreational drug use or with symptoms/signs consistent with acute toxicity. Isolated ethanol intoxications were excluded. Intoxications were confirmed with immunoassa...

  14. Hair analysis and its concordance with self-report for drug users presenting in emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Oden, Neal; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C; Bogenschutz, Michael P

    2016-10-01

    Secondary analysis using data from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network randomized trial (NCT # 01207791), in which 1285 adult ED patients endorsing moderate to severe problems related to drug use were recruited from 6 US academic hospitals. To investigate the utility of hair analysis in drug use disorder trials with infrequent visits, and its concordance with Timeline Follow Back (TLFB). This study compared the self-reported drug use on the TLFB instrument with the biological measure of drug use from hair analysis for four major drug classes (Cannabis, Cocaine, Prescribed Opioids and Street Opioids). Both hair analysis and TLFB were conducted at 3, 6 and 12 month follow-up visit and each covered a 90-day recall period prior to the visit. The concordance between the hair sample results and the TLFB was high for cannabis and street opioids, but was low to moderate for cocaine and prescribed opioids. Under-reporting of drug use given the positive hair sample was always significantly lower for the drug the study participant noted as their primary drug of choice compared with other drugs the participant reported taking, irrespective of whether the drug of choice was cannabis, cocaine, street opioids and prescribed opioids. Over-reporting of drug use given the negative hair sample was always significantly higher for the drug of choice, except for cocaine. This study extends the literature on hair analysis supporting its use as a secondary outcome measure in clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Admissions for drug-related problems at the Emergency Department of a University Hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastour S Alghamdy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Medication Errors can result in drug-related problems (DRPs. Insight into the frequency, type, and severity of DRPs could help reduce their incidence. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of admissions as a result of DRPs at the Emergency Department (ED of a university hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Files of suspected cases of DRPs reporting to ED in the year 2012 were scrutinized. Suspicion arose from the hospital record system based on Diagnosis Code Numbers (ICD-9-CM, Professional 2010 and from triggers, such as some drugs, laboratory tests, and signs and symptoms pointing to DRPs. Results: Of 5574 admissions, 253 (4.5% were DRPs and were categorized as: Overdose toxicity and side effects of drugs 50 (19.8%, drug-interactions 29 (11.5%, accidental and suicidal drug ingestions 26 (10.3%, drug abuse 18 (7.1%, drug allergy 10 (4%, super-infections 8 (3.2%, and noncompliance to treatment 112 (44.3%. About 70% of DRPs were preventable; 67 (26.5% required hospital admission for 7-102 days and 10 (4% died. Conclusions: Noncompliance to treatment, overdose toxicity, drug interactions, and drug abuse are important causes of hospital admissions as a result of DRPs. Awareness of prescribers to the problem and their education would help to prevent them and improve patient care.

  16. Internal Affairs Sector: Towards a new Law on Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Nenad P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By establishing the Inspector General's Service within the Department of Public Safety in 2001, Serbia became one of the countries that have institutionalized internal control of the police. By the adoption of the Law on Police in 2005, the name of the Service was renamed in the Internal Affairs Sector. Ten years of work of the Internal Affairs Sector revealed the existence of certain problems because of a inadequate and not complete legal framework. That was, among other, the reason for initiating the adoption of the new Law on Police. This paper presents solutions of the Draft Law on Police, in part related to the work of the Sector. The Draft contains some new solutions that could improve the efficiency of the Sector, but some doubts and uncertainties still remain, that will also be explained in this paper.

  17. We need a complicit police!: Political policing then and now ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... government and its partisan interests, and do not want to be misunderstood in their intention to serve the people, then simply increasing the capacity of public order policing will not help. On the contrary, we might end up (again) with a permanent occupying army. Instead the police have to become more explicitly partisan ...

  18. Surviving oppression under the Rock: The intersection of New York’s drug, welfare, and educational polices in the lived experiences of low-income African-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State’s Rockefeller Drug Laws, educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple d...

  19. Drug abuse-related accidents leading to emergency department visits at two medical centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Chun-Jen Chen

    2012-05-01

    Conclusion: Although the prevalence of drug abuse-related accidents was low, and only three patient deaths were reported in this study, many patients presented to the EDs with severe effects and later required hospitalization. Better and timely management of such patients will help to minimize the adverse health impacts associated with drug abuse. Governmental agencies and all healthcare professionals should also work together to fight against the surging trend of drug abuse in Taiwan.

  20. We need a complicit police!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the second aspect of the plan, to have only a single police force, was thwarted ... was finally absorbed into the SAP after World War II. By then, however, unrest ..... order policing capacity, Monograph 138, Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies ...

  1. Drug Utilization Study in Ophthalmology Out‑patient Department of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... Abstract. Background: Drug utilization studies provide a pharmacoeconomic basis for making evidence‑based health‑care decisions. ... Results: A total of 640 prescriptions were analyzed with the average number of drugs per prescription being 2.4 (0.9).

  2. Review of pharmacological interactions of oral anticancer drugs provided at pharmacy department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sánchez Gómez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To identify the pharmacologic interactions of oral anti-cancer drugs provided at an outpatient clinic. Material and methods: Anti-cancer drugs included in the Phamacotherapeutic Guideline of the Hospital were identified. A literature search was carried out on the pharmacologic interactions in MEDLINE® and EMBASE® (with the filer language English or Spanish, and the descriptors: “name of the anti-cancer drug” AND (“drug interactions” OR “pharmacokinetic”, Up-to-date®, MICROMEDEX® and the drug information sheet for the EMA and the FDA. Information was also gathered from the abstract presented to European and Spanish scientific meetings for the last 4 years. When an interaction was analyzed and had clinical relevance, the best pharmacotherapeutic interaction-free alternative was sought. Results: Twenty-three drugs were identified, of which Chlorambucil, Fludarabine, Lenalidomide, Melphalan, and Thalidomide were the active compounds with the lowest likelihood of producing a pharmacologic interaction. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (particularly Erlotinib, Imatinib, Lapatinib, and Pazopanib are the drugs with highest number of pharmacologic interactions described, many of them with severe clinical consequences, with increases and decreases of the plasma levels of anti-cancer drugs. The active compounds identified that may have pharmacologic interactions with anticancer drugs were mainly: Allopurinol, Amiodarone, Carbamazepine, Dabigatran, Digoxin, Spironolactone, Phenytoin, Itraconazol, Repaglinide, Silodosin, Tamoxifen, Verapamil, and Warfarin. Pharmacologic interactions through the cytochrome P450 1A2, 2D6, 2C8, 2C9, 3A4 were the most important for tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Other non-pharmacologic compounds, with an important potential of producing relevant pharmacologic interaction were immunomodulators (Echinacea extracts and Hypericum perforatum. Conclusions: Oral anticancer drugs have numerous pharmacologic

  3. Severity-Adjusted Mortality in Trauma Patients Transported by Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Roger A.; Salhi, Rama A.; Holena, Daniel N.; Powell, Elizabeth; Branas, Charles C.; Carr, Brendan G.

    2018-01-01

    Study objective Two decades ago, Philadelphia began allowing police transport of patients with penetrating trauma. We conduct a large, multiyear, citywide analysis of this policy. We examine the association between mode of out-of-hospital transport (police department versus emergency medical services [EMS]) and mortality among patients with penetrating trauma in Philadelphia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of trauma registry data. Patients who sustained any proximal penetrating trauma and presented to any Level I or II trauma center in Philadelphia between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, were included. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression models and were adjusted for injury severity with the Trauma and Injury Severity Score and for case mix with a modified Charlson index. Results Four thousand one hundred twenty-two subjects were identified. Overall mortality was 27.4%. In unadjusted analyses, patients transported by police were more likely to die than patients transported by ambulance (29.8% versus 26.5%; OR 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00 to 1.39). In adjusted models, no significant difference was observed in overall mortality between the police department and EMS groups (odds ratio [OR] 0.78; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.01). In subgroup analysis, patients with severe injury (Injury Severity Score >15) (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.90), patients with gunshot wounds (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.94), and patients with stab wounds (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.45) were more likely to survive if transported by police. Conclusion We found no significant overall difference in adjusted mortality between patients transported by the police department compared with EMS but found increased adjusted survival among 3 key subgroups of patients transported by police. This practice may augment traditional care. PMID:24387925

  4. Mainstreaming gender in the police: the Maharashtra experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, S

    1998-11-01

    This study reviewed the history of sex segregation in the police forces of Maharashtra state, India, and policy interventions since 1994 to reverse the trends; it also describes the process of improving gender equity in the policy department as part of a gender aim to control violence against women. Police jobs are allocated based on gender. Passage of the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act was not implemented fully within police departments. In fact, the Police Force actively worked to keep itself outside the purview of the Act. Supervisors maintained the attitude that women were unsuitable for police work. Women were suspected of lacking in career commitments and were limited to only a small number within the force. These attitudes restricted women's entry, deployment, and promotions. The Government of Maharashtra has been pressured by district level women's groups to secure women's rights and to change the social environment that supports violence against women. The efforts uncovered violence unreported due to social pressure. It was thought that women's greater presence in policy departments would encourage women to report domestic crimes. The policemen disliked the interference of women. Since women were recruited for specific duties, the result was low self-esteem, frustration due to lack of promotions, sexual harassment, ostracism, and reduced job expectations. In 1993, officers received gender-sensitizing training. The training at the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex focused on rules, practices, access to resources, and formal and informal inclusions and exclusions.

  5. Surviving oppression under the Rock: The intersection of New York’s drug, welfare, and educational polices in the lived experiences of low-income African-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State’s Rockefeller Drug Laws, educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple disadvantages that impoverished African American families struggling with substance use and/or sale experience. These disadvantages accumulated intergenerationally, in a snowball effect making it difficult for participants to maintain stable lives. Findings explored the tension between participants’ experiences with oppression and the multiple ways they either assimilated or resisted their oppression. New sensitive policies informed by standpoint, intersectionality, and Afrocentric perspectives must be developed to increase the availability of meaningful employment and strengthening impoverished African American communities. PMID:23216440

  6. Surviving oppression under the rock: the intersection of New York's drug, welfare, and educational polices in the lived experiences of low-income African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State's Rockefeller Drug Laws and educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple disadvantages that impoverished African American families struggling with substance use or sale experience. These disadvantages accumulated intergenerationally, in a snowball effect, making it difficult for participants to maintain stable lives. Findings explored the tension between participants' lived experiences and the multiple ways they either assimilated or resisted their oppression. New sensitive policies informed by standpoint, intersectionality, and Afrocentric perspectives must be developed to increase the availability of meaningful employment and strengthening impoverished African American communities.

  7. Perception of police on discrimination in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekavica Radomir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyses results deriving from the research on the attitudes of criminal investigation officers in five police departments in Serbia: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Novi Pazar, Subotica and Vranje. The case studies examined the attitudes of members of criminal investigation police and their perception(s of discrimination towards vulnerable groups. The study aimed to determine the level of animosity exhibited in speech, to analyse socio-ethnic distance, to observe reactions towards measures designed to improve the situation of vulnerable groups, to consider the relationship among institutions regarding their responsibility for the occurrence of discrimination and its impact on the reduction of it, to discuss personal experiences of discrimination and to analyse attitudes regarding certain claims of a stereotypical character. Moreover, the paper also presents a comparative analysis of similar surveys on the perception of citizens towards discrimination that have thus far been conducted in Serbia. The results demonstrated that the police in Serbia did not exhibit a particularly discriminatory attitude towards citizens. It is important to note that the most prominent socio-ethnic distances were exhibited in relation to Roma and members of the LGBT community.

  8. Building and maintaining an effective working relationship with local police and fire authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, J F

    1985-01-01

    The need to work together with local police and fire personnel is essential to the success of any healthcare security or safety operation. Sometimes, however, lack of understanding by each side in the role of the other, creates needlessly strained relations. In this article, the author details the techniques he used to win good rapport with the local police and fire departments.

  9. 28 CFR 92.2 - Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Police Corps? 92.2 Section 92.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE... the participant will complete an educational course of study leading to the award of a baccalaureate... in full or otherwise satisfied. (c) Educational assistance under the Police Corps Act for any course...

  10. Police Responses to Persons With Mental Illness: Going Beyond CIT Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Henry J; Morrissette, David

    2016-10-01

    Since 1988, a major development to reduce lethal encounters between police and persons displaying signs of mental illness has been the adoption by many police departments of crisis intervention teams (CITs). Created in Memphis, Tennessee, CIT programs incorporate deescalation training, police-friendly drop-off centers, and linkage to community treatment programs. The authors summarize issues discussed at a recent Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration workshop at which participants highlighted the importance of going beyond CIT training to most effectively include police in a crisis care continuum model. Such an approach focuses on how police can be engaged as partners with behavioral health providers who are designing and implementing services in the crisis care continuum. Reframing the approach to police responses to persons in mental health crises offers the prospect of improving both public health and public safety goals.

  11. Policing the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.

  12. Outcomes achieved by and police and clinician perspectives on a joint police officer and mental health clinician mobile response unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart J; Thomas, Phillipa; Doulis, Chantelle; Bowles, Doug; Henderson, Kathryn; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Perez, Eva; Stafrace, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Despite their limited mental health expertise, police are often first to respond to people experiencing a mental health crisis. Often the person in crisis is then transported to hospital for care, instead of receiving more immediate assessment and treatment in the community. The current study conducted an evaluation of an Australian joint police-mental health mobile response unit that aimed to improve the delivery of a community-based crisis response. Activity data were audited to demonstrate utilization and outcomes for referred people. Police officers and mental health clinicians in the catchment area were also surveyed to measure the unit's perceived impact. During the 6-month pilot, 296 contacts involving the unit occurred. Threatened suicide (33%), welfare concerns (22%) and psychotic episodes (18%) were the most common reasons for referral. The responses comprised direct admission to a psychiatric unit for 11% of contacts, transportation to a hospital emergency department for 32% of contacts, and community management for the remainder (57%). Police officers were highly supportive of the model and reported having observed benefits of the unit for consumers and police and improved collaboration between services. The joint police-mental health clinician unit enabled rapid delivery of a multi-skilled crisis response in the community. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  13. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an effort...

  14. Interpersonal Stance in Conflict Conversation: Police Interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn

    2013-01-01

    In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the

  15. A Systemic Analysis of the Challenges of Policing Senegal: The Role of the Police in Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Journal of Modern African Studies 41, no. 2 (2003), 310. 51 forty years of Senegalese independence was met with peaceful and democratic leadership ...preventing their development into a public safety institution. 14. SUBJECT TERMS policing, democratic policing, African police, post...conflict policing, police, democratic development 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 107 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18

  16. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  17. Alleviating Stress In Police Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Neely; Craig S. Cleveland

    2013-01-01

    Policestress has been examined in many studies, many of which have focused upon thedevelopment of prevention and treatment programs for the police officers(Maslach, 1982; Maslach & Jackson, 1979; Mitchell, 1983; Mitchell &Everly, 1993). The trend of combating stress began with the police agenciesusing employee assistance programs, funding conferences, conducting research,and establishing prevention programs, but the fact remains that the health ofpolice officers and their families bec...

  18. [Psychoactive drugs use and related visits of adolescents to the emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Constantí, Vanessa; Sanz Marcos, Nuria; Trenchs Sainz de La Maza, Victoria; Curcoy Barcenilla, Ana I; Matalí Costa, Josep; Luaces Cubells, Carles

    2010-05-08

    To describe psychoactive substances (PS)-related visits of adolescents to the emergency department and to explore possible differential features in patients according to the kind of PS consumed. Observational and analytic study. PS-related visits of adolescents to the emergency department during 30 months were studied. Patients were divided in two groups: those with alcohol intoxication only (Group_1) and those with other PS (Group_2) and they were compared. 333 consults were included, corresponding to 321 patients. Their mean age was 16,1 years (SD:1,1 years). Two hundred sixty-two(78,7%) were alcohol-related visits, and 110(33%) were related with another PS consumption. Of the 262 alcohol-related visits, 223 were only related with alcohol(Group_1), while the other 110 visits made up Group_2. Group_2 was composed of more males, more adolescents placed in Institutional Care and more adolescents with psychiatric records than Group_1. Likewise, distribution of Group_2 visits was less predictable than distribution of Group_1. PS consumption is a frequent major complaint in an Emergency Department. There are more poly-intoxications in males with psycho-social problems. In those cases, consumption seems to happen regardless of the time in the day or the day of the week.

  19. Frontline police employees’ social construction of client service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Stanz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The social construction of frontline employees’ client service plays a major role in organisational success. This study illuminated why frontline personnel are reluctant to accept organisational change which is in line with new policing philosophies. Applying modernist qualitative methodology, and particularly grounded theory within a case study design a ‘process satisfaction model’ was developed with the aim to improve employee satisfaction with internal processes and ultimately service delivery. This model may be used for change in the South African Police Service SAPS and other government departments.

  20. Policing Diversity: Examining Police Resistance to Training Reforms for Transgender People in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Using field notes collected from participant observation of Australian police officers training to work with the transgender community, the current research builds on previous work examining social identity theory (Tajfel, 2010) to explain how one training program implemented to educate police about transgender people challenges police culture. This research determines that police culture, training procedures, and stereotypes of gender are equally influential on police perceptions of all transgender people. Overall, the results indicate that negative police perceptions toward police training reforms strengthen in-group identity of police, and negative out-group perceptions of transgender people.

  1. Drug Utilization Review of parenteral opioid analgesics in cardiovascular surgery department of Shahid Modarres Hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatanpour H, Soltani M,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pain continues to be a common problem among patients undergoing cardiac operations and the need for controlling such pain is believed to be as a prime necessity in terms of the patient’s well being, health care costs and avoiding negative consequences provoked by the pain itself. Regarding to the newly established guidelines, opioid analgesic agents are considered as the mainstay of moderate to severe acute pain. Nonetheless, the underutilization of opioids for pain relief is still a persisting huge challenge. This survey, applying as a concurrent Drug Utilization Review using ATC/DDD system provided and recommended by the DUR group of the World Health Organization, conducted on 108 inpatients who received opioid drugs by parenteral route during 9 months from February to November 2013 at the post-ICU ward of Shahid Modarres Cardiovascular Hospital, affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, in Tehran. Our findings revealed that morphine was the most commonly prescribed parenteral opioid in the hospitalized patients and pethidine usage was in the lowest level for the geriatric patients, resulting in satisfaction with the analgesic procedure among most of the cases in our study. Both of the mentioned drugs were prescribed by intramuscular route, regarding PRN way of injecting as well. Comparative results of our study with the literature revealed relatively moderate and roughly rational consumption of morphine (10.282 DDD/100bed-days and pethidine (0.013 DDD/100bed-days. Applying multivariate conditional regression modeling on the question of determining independent predictors for opioid usage, disclosed a direct correlation between the patient’s weight and daily dose of parenteral opioid consumption.

  2. Physical activity in police beyond self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Moon, Mikyung; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Wilson, Annerose; Hein, Maria; Hood, Kristin; Franke, Warren D

    2014-03-01

    Police officers have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Reductions in occupational physical activity may contribute to the risk, yet there have been few efforts to characterize the physical demands of police work beyond self-report. To compare measured physical activity between work and off-duty hours and assess the effects of stress on physical activity. Officers (n = 119) from six departments wore a pattern recognition monitor for 96 hours to measure total energy expenditure (kilocalorie per hour) (1k/cal = 4184 joules), activity intensity, and step count per hour. Participants were more active on their off-duty days than at work; the effects of stress on physical activity seemed moderated by sex. Police work is primarily a sedentary occupation, and officers tend to be more active on their off-duty days than during their work hours.

  3. Prescribing pattern of antipsychotic drugs in the outpatient department of psychiatry in Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Chakravarty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prescribing pattern of antipsychotic drugs in the outpatient department of psychiatry in Silchar Medical College and Hospital (SMCH of Assam. Methods: It is a prospective cross-sectional study which was carried out for three months from August to November 2015 in the outpatient department of psychiatry. All patients irrespective of their ages and sexes were included in this study. Inpatients, referred patients, patients not willing to give consent, patients of epilepsy as well as those cases where diagnoses were not certain were excluded from the study. The prescription patterns of antipsychotic drugs and the occurrences of various psychiatric diseases on both the sexes were studied after taking permission from the Institutional Ethical Committee (SMCH. Results: A total of 112 prescriptions were analysed. The most common disease was found to be schizophrenia. Total drugs prescribed were 265 and average number of drugs per prescription was 2.36. It was seen that out of the 112 prescriptions, monotherapy was practiced in 19.64% (22 compared to polytherapy in 80.35% (90. Out of 265 prescribed drugs atypical antipsychotics were 112 (42.26%, typical antipsychotics 12 (4.52%, antiepileptics 57 (21.50%, antidepressants 29 (10.94%, antiparkinsonian 29 (10.94%, and others 26 (9.81%. Antipsychotics given orally were 122 of which olanzapine was 54 (44.26%, risperidone 40 (32.78%, chlorpromazine ten (8.19%, quetiapine eight (6.55%, aripiprazole five (4.09%, amisulpiride five (4.09% were seen. Injectable antipsychotics were two, of which only haloperidol two (100%. Antipsychotics in combination prescription with same groups were 14 (12.5%, with antidepressants, antipileptics, antiparkinsonian were 88 (78.57% and other agents were ten (8.92%, which included pantoprazole, multivitamins, and benfotiamine. Conclusion: This study shows that atypical antipsychotics are the most common drugs prescribed in patients with psychotic illness and

  4. Strategic restructuring for effective police system in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann I. Ogbo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The success of a security outfit depends on the strategies and structure of the organisation. The study aims to unravel the possible ways of positioning the Nigerian Police force for effective service delivery through strategic restructuring. Nigerian police was instituted by the colonial authors on the threshold of oppression to achieve subjection and control. Upon this pattern of operation, the Nigerian police force lost the confidence of the public. To position this agency for desired performance, several changes should be made in the strategies and structure of the force, de-emphasizing on the issues that are no longer recent problems and emphasizing on the current bane of the nation, such as corruption and insecurity. This paper adopted the mono-method qualitative approach which made use of secondary sources of data collection. Findings, revealed that the department of the Force that was responsible for information and intelligent gathering, the CID has lied dormant for long a time due to lack of adequate structure as a background that will add value to the department. Furthermore, the force was bedevilled with poor information gathering due to lack of trust and confidence in the police force, the level of motivation was found to be low, as there were no insurance policies for the Force. It is thus obvious to note that the Nigerian police force has suitable strategies that are capable of a sustainable performance, but it is challenged by lack of corresponding structure to work out the strategies. The study proposed that one DIG in addition to the twelve DIGs should be integrated to man a department with the duty of developing and maintaining good relationship with the public, and providing EFCC, ICPC and other crime related agencies with the needed force in discharging their duties. Finally, there is a need for an upward review of the reward and compensation package of the Nigerian Police Force as a way of stepping up on motivation

  5. Acute health problems due to recreational drug use in patients presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakoni, Evangelia; Dolder, Patrick C; Rentsch, Katharina; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-01-01

    To describe acute toxicity of recreational drugs including novel psychoactive substances. We included all cases presenting at the emergency department (ED) of the University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland, between October 2013 and September 2014 with acute toxicity due to self-reported recreational drug use or with symptoms/signs consistent with acute toxicity. Isolated ethanol intoxications were excluded. Intoxications were confirmed with immunoassays and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which also detected novel psychoactive substances. Among the 47,767 attendances at the ED, 216 were directly related to acute toxicity of recreational drugs. The mean patient age was 31 years and 69% were male. Analytical drug confirmation was available in 180 cases. Most presentations were related to cocaine (36%), cannabis (31%), opioids (13%), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, 9%), other amphetamines (7%), benzodiazepines (7%), and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, 5%). The substances most commonly detected analytically were cannabis (37%), cocaine (33%), opioids (29%), benzodiazepines (21%), and amphetamines including MDMA (13%). Notably, there were only two cases of novel psychoactive substances (2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine [2C-B] and pentylone). The most frequent symptoms were tachycardia (31%), anxiety (27%), nausea or vomiting (23%), and agitation (22%). Severe complications included myocardial infarction (2), psychosis (10), seizures (10), and 1 fatality. Most patients were discharged home (68%), 8% were admitted to intensive care and 9% were referred to psychiatric care. Medical problems related to illicit drugs mostly concerned cocaine and cannabis and mainly involved sympathomimetic toxicity and/or psychiatric disorders. ED presentations associated with novel psychoactive substances appeared to be relatively rare.

  6. Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardine Melissa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included

  7. Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres) which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included in harm reduction advocacy

  8. Health in police officers: Role of risk factor clusters and police divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersaat, Stephanie A; Geiger, Ashley M; Abdellaoui, Sid; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-10-01

    Law enforcement is a stressful occupation associated with significant health problems. To date, most studies have focused on one specific factor or one domain of risk factors (e.g., organizational, personal). However, it is more likely that specific combinations of risk factors are differentially health relevant and further, depend on the area of police work. A self-selected group of officers from the criminal, community, and emergency division (N = 84) of a Swiss state police department answered questionnaires assessing personal and organizational risk factors as well as mental and physical health indicators. In general, few differences were observed across divisions in terms of risk factors or health indicators. Cluster analysis of all risk factors established a high-risk and a low-risk cluster with significant links to all mental health outcomes. Risk cluster-by-division interactions revealed that, in the high-risk cluster, Emergency officers reported fewer physical symptoms, while community officers reported more posttraumatic stress symptoms. Criminal officers in the high-risk cluster tended to perceived more stress. Finally, perceived stress did not mediate the relationship between risk clusters and posttraumatic stress symptoms. In summary, our results support the notion that police officers are a heterogeneous population in terms of processes linking risk factors and health indicators. This heterogeneity thereby appeared to be more dependent on personal factors and individuals' perception of their own work conditions than division-specific work environments. Our findings further suggest that stress-reduction interventions that do not target job-relevant sources of stress may only show limited effectiveness in reducing health risks associated with police work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Media Representations of Police Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne W. L. Chan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hong Kong Police Force has undergone one of its biggest challenges in the Occupy Movement that emerged in the last year. Despite the sheer complexity of the police roles, we know little about its representations in the media coverage, and even less about the extent to which the imagery impacts of police acting as peacekeepers would have been made upon the images of police acting as crime fighters. Against this background, this empirical research aims to investigate the police image and its relation to the police’s specifically categorized duties in Hong Kong. The content analysis of local newspaper accounts is used as the research method. It is found that there would be generally negative media representations of police in the order-maintenance work whereas the police images in the crime-fighting duties could still remain positive. The reasons for these findings and their implications for the conceptions of the police role are discussed.

  10. Attitudes in Korea toward Introducing Smart Policing Technologies: Differences between the General Public and Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyungBin Moon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward introduction of such technologies and conduct simulation analysis to compare changes in the acceptance of various scenarios. The study divides cybercrime policing into prevention and investigation. The sample included 500 members of the public and 161 police officers. The results show that the public thinks an increase in yearly taxes and invasion of privacy are the most important factors. Conversely, the police think factors enhancing the efficiency of policing are most important. Moreover, when smart policing technologies are introduced, the public and police perceive more utility in the prevention and investigation of cybercrime, respectively. Few studies in this field separate the prevention and investigation of crimes, or compare perceptions of the public and police toward the introduction of smart policing technologies. This study’s quantitative analysis provides insights lacking in previous literature.

  11. Intranasal naloxone administration by police first responders is associated with decreased opioid overdose deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Jessica; Broering, Derek; Olson, James E; Marco, Catherine; Evans, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    This study sought to answer the question, "Can police officers administer intranasal naloxone to drug overdose victims to decrease the opioid overdose death rate?" This prospective interventional study was conducted in Lorain County, OH, from January 2011 to October 2014. Starting October 2013, trained police officers administered naloxone to suspected opioid overdose victims through a police officer naloxone prescription program (NPP). Those found by the county coroner to be positive for opioids at the time of death and those who received naloxone from police officers were included in this study. The rate of change in the total number of opioid-related deaths in Lorain County per quarter year, before and after initiation of the NPP, and the trend in the survival rate of overdose victims who were given naloxone were analyzed by linear regression. Significance was established a priori at P police officer NPP with average deaths per quarter of 5.5 for 2011, 15.3 for 2012, and 16.3 for the first 9 months of 2013. After initiation of the police officer NPP, the number of opioid overdose deaths decreased each quarter with an overall average of 13.4. Of the 67 participants who received naloxone by police officers, 52 (77.6%) survived, and 8 (11.9%) were lost to follow-up. Intranasal naloxone administration by police first responders is associated with decreased deaths in opioid overdose victims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Policing the private Social barriers to the effective policing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The limited ability of police to assist victims of domestic violence is often viewed as an institutional failure; a consequence of a lack of resources or inadequate training. This article presents key findings from a qualitative study of perceptions of and attitudes towards domestic violence in the South African township of ...

  13. At the Heart of Policing: Emotional labor among police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R. van Gelderen (Benjamin R.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDuring my work as a police officer, I encountered many emotional demanding situations in which my colleagues and I often seemed to act unfelt emotions or suppressed emotions that would better not be displayed at that particular moment. For instance, during my first weeks of duty I

  14. International Perspectives on Police Education and Training

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislas, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Training and education constitutes the backbone of a significant amount of police activity and expenditure in developing the most important resources involved in policing work. It also involves an array of actors and agencies, such as educational institutions which have a long and important relationship with police organisations. This book examines the role of education and training in the development of police in the contemporary world. Bringing together specialist scholars and practitio...

  15. Supporting LGBT Communities: Police ToolKit

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez del Aguila, Ernesto; Franey, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This toolkit provides police forces with practical educational tools, which can be used as part of a comprehensive LGBT strategy centred on diversity, equality, and non-discrimination. These materials are based on lessons learned through real life policing experiences with LGBT persons. The Toolkit is divided into seven scenarios where police awareness of LGBT issues has been identified as important. The toolkit employs a practical, scenario-based, problem-solving approach to help police offi...

  16. Police-community safety and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rich

    2017-08-01

    (1)In 2017 alone, 46 states have enacted over 270 laws affecting policing. (2) At least six states have enacted laws to train the public on their rights and expectations during police interactions. (3) Police are increasingly partnering with health care professionals to more safely respond to mental health and substance use disorders.

  17. New Zealand Police and Restorative Justice Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…

  18. Interpersonal stance in police interviews: content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bruijnes, Merijn; Peters, R.M.; Krikke, T.

    2013-01-01

    A serious game for learning the social skills required for effective police interviewing is a challenging idea. Building artificial conversational characters that play the role of a suspect in a police interrogation game requires computational models of police interviews as well as of the internal

  19. Police close unsolved 'climategate' investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Gemma

    2012-09-01

    Police in Norfolk in the UK have closed an investigation into the hacking of e-mails at the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) after admitting that they will not be able to find the hackers who broke into CRU computer servers.

  20. The Police Executive and Governance: Adapting Police Leadership to an Increase in Oversight and Accountability in Police Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ellis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a democracy, it is generally understood that the police serve at the will of the people and are accountable through police governance. This usually consists of elected and/or appointed officials whose primary legal authority is to set policy and appoint the police leaders whom they hold accountable for ensuring that effective policing operations are carried out. It is widely held in common law jurisdictions that the governing body is limited in their role and cannot get involved in “operational policing issues.” In June 2010, the G20 world leaders’ conference was held in Toronto, Canada. The events surrounding the police actions during this conference caused a great deal of concern and led the Toronto Police Services Board, who are the governing authority for the Toronto Police Service, to commission a review to look at their own role. The findings in relation to “board” involvement in the operational side of policing challenged a long held belief regarding the limited role of governance in police operations. These findings will be examined in relation to the lack of board expertise and the challenges faced by police leaders to adapt and develop their attitudes, skills and abilities to respond to any expansion of governance authority.

  1. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Louise Skinner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community. In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.

  2. 28 CFR 92.5 - What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid? 92.5 Section 92.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Criteria § 92.5 What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid? (a...

  3. Emergency Department Visits Involving Misuse and Abuse of the Antipsychotic Quetiapine: Results from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Mattson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case reports in medical literature suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, a medication not previously considered to have abuse potential, is now being subject to misuse and abuse (MUA; ie, taken when not prescribed for them or used in a way other than instructed by their health professional. Here we present systematic, nationally representative data from the 2005 to 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN for prevalence of emergency department (ED visits among the U.S. general population involving quetiapine and related to MUA, suicide attempts, and adverse reactions. Nationally, quetiapine-related ED visits increased 90% between 2005 and 2011, from 35,581 ED visits to 67,497. DAWN data indicate that when used without medical supervision for recreational/self-medication purposes, quetiapine poses health risks for its users, especially among polydrug users and women. These findings suggest that the medical and public health communities should increase vigilance concerning this drug and its potential for MUA.

  4. A police education programme to integrate occupational safety and HIV prevention: protocol for a modified stepped-wedge study design with parallel prospective cohorts to assess behavioural outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Arredondo, Jaime; Rocha, Teresita; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Patiño Mandujano, Efrain; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Olivarria, Horcasitas Omar; Gaines, Tommi; Patterson, Thomas L; Beletsky, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Policing practices are key drivers of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). This paper describes the protocol for the first study to prospectively examine the impact of a police education programme (PEP) to align law enforcement and HIV prevention. PEPs incorporating HIV prevention (including harm reduction programmes like syringe exchange) have been successfully piloted in several countries but were limited to brief pre–post assessments; the impact of PEPs on policing behaviours and occupational safety is unknown. Objectives Proyecto ESCUDO (SHIELD) aims to evaluate the efficacy of the PEP on uptake of occupational safety procedures, as assessed through the incidence of needle stick injuries (NSIs) (primary outcome) and changes in knowledge of transmission, prevention and treatment of HIV and viral hepatitis; attitudes towards PWID, adverse behaviours that interfere with HIV prevention and protective behaviours (secondary outcomes). Methods/analysis ESCUDO is a hybrid type I design that simultaneously tests an intervention and an implementation strategy. Using a modified stepped-wedge design involving all active duty street-level police officers in Tijuana (N=∼1200), we will administer one 3 h PEP course to groups of 20–50 officers until the entire force is trained. NSI incidence and geocoded arrest data will be assessed from department-wide de-identified data. Of the consenting police officers, a subcohort (N=500) will be randomly sampled from each class to undergo pre-PEP and post-PEP surveys with a semiannual follow-up for 2 years to assess self-reported NSIs, attitudes and behaviour changes. The impact on PWIDs will be externally validated through a parallel cohort of Tijuana PWIDs. Ethics/dissemination Research ethics approval was obtained from the USA and Mexico. Findings will be disseminated through open access to protocol materials through the Law Enforcement and HIV Network. Trial registration number NCT02444403. PMID:26260350

  5. Kiosk versus In-person Screening for Alcohol and Drug Use in the Emergency Department: Patient Preferences and Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankin, Abigail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually eight million emergency department (ED visits are attributable to alcohol use. Screening ED patients for at-risk alcohol and substance use is an integral component of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment programs, shown to be effective at reducing substance use. The objective is to evaluate ED patients’ acceptance of and willingness to disclose alcohol/substance use via a computer kiosk versus an in-person interview. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, survey-based study. Eligible participants included those who presented to walk-in triage, were English-speaking, ≥18 years, were clinically stable and able to consent. Patients had the opportunity to access the kiosk in the ED waiting room, and were approached for an in-person survey by a research assistant (9am-5pm weekdays. Both surveys used validated assessment tools to assess drug and alcohol use. Disclosure statistics and preferences were calculated using chi-square tests and McNemar’s test. Results: A total of 1,207 patients were screened: 229 in person only, 824 by kiosk, and 154 by both in person and kiosk. Single-modality participants were more likely to disclose hazardous drinking (p=0.003 and high-risk drug use (OR=22.3 [12.3-42.2]; p<0.0001 via kiosk. Participants who had participated in screening via both modalities were more likely to reveal high-risk drug use on the kiosk (p=0.003. When asked about screening preferences, 73.6% reported a preference for an in-person survey, which patients rated higher on privacy and comfort. Conclusion: ED patients were significantly more likely to disclose at-risk alcohol and substance use to a computer kiosk than an interviewer. Paradoxically patients stated a preference for in-person screening, despite reduced disclosure to a human screener. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:220–228.

  6. Occupational stress among police personnel in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ragesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress and associated physical and mental health related issues are not addressed in Indian police personnel with adequate importance. Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted among police personnel (both male and female in Calicut urban police district, Kerala state, India. Police personnel from all designations (ranks, except from the all India services (Indian Police Service were included in the study. Data were collected using a specifically designed datasheet covering socio-demographic profile, physical and mental health related details which was prepared by researchers. Occupational stress was measured using Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-OP and Organisational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-ORG. Result: The study found that both operational and organisational stress was significant among the police officers. Organisational stress was experienced in moderate level by 68% and in high level by 14%. Operational stress scores were in the moderate range in 67% and in high range in 16.5%. The younger age group (21-35 years and lower level rank police personnel had higher stress. Stress was higher among female police personnel compared to males. While 23% of them had been diagnosed with physical illnesses, a significant four per cent of them with mental illness, and 29% of them reported substance abuse. Conclusion: The results point to the high level of stress among Indian police personnel and the need for urgent interventions from the government to address the occupational stress.

  7. Africa’s Information Revolution: Implications for Crime, Policing, and Citizen Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    or impounding property). Protection of Illegal Activities Police protection of those engaged in illegal activities (e.g. prostitution and drugs...November 2007, the Oscar Foundation Free Legal Aid Clinic Kenya, a human rights organization, reported that Kenyan police had killed over 8,000...Bribing for basic government services, a mark of weak governance, is endemic in many parts of the world. “The going rate to get a child who has already

  8. "Just Being Mean to Somebody Isn't a Police Matter": Police Perspectives on Policing Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…

  9. Transparency, accountability, and engagement: A recipe for building trust in policing

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Kathleen M.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Police departments across the nation are challenged to reduce crime, improve quality of life, and, with diminished resources, face the increased threats to homeland security. Many have struggled to find the right balance between keeping communities safe, while at the same time having transparent and effective counterterrorism strategies. This thesis examines the role race plays in policing and the criminal justice system. A comparative...

  10. Police use of handcuffs in the homeless population leads to long-term negative attitudes within this group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    The police interact with homeless individuals frequently. However, there has been relatively little research on the attitudes of homeless individuals towards the police, and how police interactions may impact these. This is important since the attitudes of homeless individuals can impact how often they report crimes, and how well they support police when they are investigating crimes in this population. We interviewed 213 homeless individuals in a single city, representing approximately 10% of the total homeless population. They were interviewed at either homeless shelters, or events held specifically for the homeless population. Of these individuals, 75% were male, and 47% had interacted with a police officer within the past month. Self-reports suggested that 60% had a drug and/or alcohol issue and 78% had a mental illness. We found a highly statistically significant difference between the group that had been handcuffed and/or arrested compared to those that had not. This was across multiple domains and included how the individual regarded the police in terms of their empathy and communication skills, and how much they trusted the police. These changes were long-term, and if a homeless individual had been arrested or handcuffed (and verbal reporting suggested that being handcuffed was the by far the most important factor) then these negative attitudes lasted at least 2 years. The primary conclusion from this study is that when police handcuff a homeless individual, this can lead to long-term negative views about the police across several domains that appear to be long lasting, and were linked to feelings of not being respected by the police. It is therefore proposed that police officers should be made aware of the potential long-term negative consequences of this single action, and that police forces should consider providing specific training to minimize any unnecessary overuse of handcuffs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diversity Policing–Policing Diversity: Performing Ethnicity in Police and Private-Security Work in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Hansen Löfstrand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon two separate studies on policing in Sweden, both investigating “ethnic diversity” as a discourse and a practice in the performance of policing functions: one interview study with minority police officers from a county police authority and one ethnographic study of private security officers. To examine how “diversity policing” and the “policing of diversity” are performed by policing actors, their strategic reliance on an ethnically diverse workforce is examined. The official discourse in both contexts stressed “diversity policing” as a valuable resource for the effective execution of policing tasks and the legitimation of policing functions. There was, however, also another, more unofficial discourse on ethnicity that heavily influenced the policing agents’ day-to-day work. The resulting practice of “policing diversity” involved situated activities on the ground through which “foreign elements” in the population were policed using ethnicized stereotypes. Diversity in the policing workforce promoted the practice of ethnic matching, which, ironically, in turn perpetuated stereotypical thinking about Swedish “others”. A conceptual framework is developed for understanding the policing strategies involved and the disjuncture found between the widely accepted rationalities for recruiting an ethnically diverse workforce and the realities for that workforce’s effective deployment at the street level.

  12. Police Officer Schema of Sexual Assault Reports: Real Rape, Ambiguous Cases, and False Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, Rachel M

    2016-03-01

    While extensive research has studied sexual assault reporting behaviors and described negative experiences with the criminal justice system among victim-survivors, fewer studies have explored police officer attitudes, knowledge, and thought processes that may affect victims' perceptions of negative interactions and unsatisfactory outcomes within reported sexual assault cases. This study explores police officer understanding of the definition of sexual assault and characteristics that influence their perceptions and response. Ten police officers were interviewed within one police department in a midsized city in the Great Lakes region. The study uses a modified grounded theory approach. Findings suggest that officers employ distinct schema of reported sexual assaults. Case characteristics, perceived credibility of the victim, and types of evidence formed categorizations of false reports, ambiguous cases, and legitimate sexual assaults. Police officers describe the ways in which perceptions of the case may or may not influence the response and point to areas for improvement within police procedure. The study findings provide insight into recommendations for improved police interviewing and response to reported sexual assaults. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Policing Challenged and People’s Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Mohan Shrestha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Peace, security, rule of law, and sustainable development are driving principles in a democratic notion of developing country like Nepal. "3Is': Injustice, Insecurity and Imbalance have been reflecting in the post transitional Nepal. The study came with the objectives of investigating the peoples' perceptions on the adaptation of policing, the challenges and expectation. The information was collected from 1111(N respondents all over the country from different ways of life, applying mixed method questionnaire survey and interview. The research show the need of system based policing like 'intelligence-led'; 'police public partnership', and 'proactive' respectively. The influence of politicization, political instability, external influence, lack of role model leadership, open border, rampant corruption, nepotism-favoritism, lack of research are the major challenges in the security organizations. Furthermore, most educated and high profile personalities have less interest to encourage their generation in police services. People are expecting proficient and accountable police forces. Keywords: Policing, Challenges, People's Expectation

  14. Police and mental health clinician partnership in response to mental health crisis: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Police procedures in civil nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.H.

    1989-01-01

    The responsibilities of the police in the event of a nuclear emergency are summarized. Preparation and planning is needed with site operators and other organisations who would also be involved in the event of an accident. Several points in particular are discussed; shelter and evacuation, the issue of potassium iodate tablets, protection of police officers, the police involvement in the operation support centres, public education and further discussion on the integration and development of the organisation of emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  16. Shifting repertoires: Understanding cultural plurality in policing

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, Frank; van Hulst, Merlijn

    2016-01-01

    The police is one of the most prominent organizations in the frontline of public administration. In order to deal with high external expectations, the organization has been said to develop and nurture multiple police cultures. Applying Grid Group Cultural Theory, or GGCT, we address the following questions: what sets of values, beliefs and practices has the police organization developed to deal with high expectations stemming from their publics? How do cultural tensions play out in real-life ...

  17. Three Decades Of Environmental Polices In Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This book reports three decades of environmental polices in Korea, which deals with development process of environmental polices such as appearance of environment problems, social agenda as national policy on environment problems, overcoming of pollution, ensuring and advancing of environment policies and practice of idea with continuous development, change of propel system on environment administration. It also introduces three decades of environmental polices by fields, related public institution and major similar institution.

  18. Police Training to Align Law Enforcement and HIV Prevention: Preliminary Evidence From the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Alpna; Moreau, Bruce; Kumar, Pratima; Weiss-Laxer, Nomi; Heimer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Having identified gaps in implementation of Rhode Island's syringe access law and police occupational safety education, public health and police professionals developed police training to boost legal knowledge, improve syringe access attitudes, and address needlestick injuries. Baseline data (94 officers) confirmed anxiety about needlestick injuries, poor legal knowledge, and occupational risk overestimation. Before training, respondents believed that syringe access promotes drug use (51%), increases likelihood of police needlestick injuries (58%), and fails to reduce epidemics (38%). Pretraining to posttraining evaluation suggested significant shifts in legal and occupational safety knowledge; changes in attitudes toward syringe access were promising. Training that combines occupational safety with syringe access content can help align law enforcement with public health goals. Additional research is needed to assess street-level effect and to inform intervention tailoring. PMID:21940924

  19. The role of visual markers in police victimization among structurally vulnerable persons in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, Jose Luis; Ojeda, Adriana Vargas; FitzGerald, David; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-05-01

    Law enforcement can shape HIV risk behaviours and undermine strategies aimed at curbing HIV infection. Little is known about factors that increase vulnerability to police victimization in Mexico. This study identifies correlates of police or army victimization (i.e., harassment or assault) in the past 6 months among patients seeking care at a free clinic in Tijuana, Mexico. From January to May 2013, 601 patients attending a binational student-run free clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Eligible participants were: (1) ≥18 years old; (2) seeking care at the clinic; and (3) spoke Spanish or English. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with police/army victimization in the past 6 months. More than one-third (38%) of participants reported victimization by police/army officials in the past 6 months in Tijuana. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, males (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.68; 95% CI: 2.19-6.19), tattooed persons (AOR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04-2.33) and those who injected drugs in the past 6 months (AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.29-3.43) were significantly more likely to report past 6-month police/army victimization. Recent feelings of rejection (AOR: 3.80; 95% CI: 2.47-5.85) and being denied employment (AOR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.50-3.32) were also independently associated with police/army victimization. Structural interventions aimed at reducing stigma against vulnerable populations and increasing social incorporation may aid in reducing victimization events by police/army in Tijuana. Police education and training to reduce abusive policing practices may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Police as Life World. An Ethnography of Police-Officers' Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Behr

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some findings and problems which I encountered during my ethnography work on several German police units conducted in 1995. Participant observation is not original, but nevertheless unusual for a study of police work. To understand the behavior and the thinking of police officers, one must regard their exclusive possession of power and their discretion for using it. The power of the police is different to the power of suspects or other individuals: Poli...

  1. Police custody health care: a review of health morbidity, models of care and innovations within police custody in the UK, with international comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKinnon IG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Iain G McKinnon,1,2 Stuart DM Thomas,3–5 Heather L Noga,6 Jane Senior7 1Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Academic Psychiatry, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, 2Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 3School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, 4Legal Intersections Research Centre, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 5Southern Clinical School, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia; 6School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada; 7Offender Health Research Network, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: This paper is a scoping review of the available evidence regarding health care issues in police custody. It describes the types and prevalence of health disorders encountered in custody and provides an overview of current practice and recent innovations in police custody health care. In contrast to the health of prisoners, the health of police custody detainees has, until recently, received little academic or clinical attention. Studies on health care in police custody identified for this review are limited to a few geographical jurisdictions, including the UK, continental Europe, North America, and Australia. There are significant health concerns among police detainees including acute injury, chronic physical health problems, mental and cognitive disorders, and the risks associated with drug and alcohol intoxication or withdrawal. There is some evidence that deaths in police custody have reduced where attention has been paid to the latter issue. Police personnel continue to experience difficulties identifying detainees with health issues relevant to their safe detention, but research shows that the use of evidence-based screening tools improves detection of such morbidities. Innovations in police custody health care mainly relate to detainees with mental disorders, including improved identification of illness

  2. Moral Issues in Intelligence-led Policing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The core baseline of Intelligence-led Policing is the aim of increasing efficiency and quality of police work, with a focus on crime analysis and intelligence methods as tools for informed and objective decisions both when conducting targeted, specialized operations and when setting strategic...... technological measures, increased private partnerships and international cooperation challenging the core nature of police services as the main providers of public safety and security? This book offers new insights by exploring dilemmas, legal issues and questions raised by the use of new policing methods...

  3. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  4. Perils of police action: a cautionary tale from US data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R; Lawrence, Bruce A; Carlson, Nancy N; Hendrie, Delia; Randall, Sean; Rockett, Ian R H; Spicer, Rebecca S

    2017-02-01

    To count and characterise injuries resulting from legal intervention by US law enforcement personnel and injury ratios per 10 000 arrests or police stops, thus expanding discussion of excessive force by police beyond fatalities. Ecological. Those injured during US legal police intervention as recorded in 2012 Vital Statistics mortality census, 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project nationwide inpatient and emergency department samples, and two 2015 newspaper censuses of deaths. 2012 and 2014 arrests from Federal Bureau of Investigation data adjusted for non-reporting jurisdictions; street stops and traffic stops that involved vehicle or occupant searches, without arrest, from the 2011 Police Public Contact Survey (PPCS), with the percentage breakdown by race computed from pooled 2005, 2008 and 2011 PPCS surveys due to small case counts. US police killed or injured an estimated 55 400 people in 2012 (95% CI 47 050 to 63 740 for cases coded as police involved). Blacks, Native Americans and Hispanics had higher stop/arrest rates per 10 000 population than white non-Hispanics and Asians. On average, an estimated 1 in 291 stops/arrests resulted in hospital-treated injury or death of a suspect or bystander. Ratios of admitted and fatal injury due to legal police intervention per 10 000 stops/arrests did not differ significantly between racial/ethnic groups. Ratios rose with age, and were higher for men than women. Healthcare administrative data sets can inform public debate about injuries resulting from legal police intervention. Excess per capita death rates among blacks and youth at police hands are reflections of excess exposure. International Classification of Diseases legal intervention coding needs revision. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Politics, Police Accountability, and Public Health: Civilian Review in Newark, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Alecia

    2016-04-01

    Police brutality, a longstanding civil rights issue, has returned to the forefront of American public debate. A growing body of public health research shows that excessive use of force by police and racial profiling have adverse effects on health for African Americans and other marginalized groups. Yet, interventions to monitor unlawful policing have been met with fierce opposition at the federal, state, and local levels. On April 30, 2015, the mayor of Newark, New Jersey signed an executive order establishing a Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB) to monitor the Newark Police Department (NPD). Using a mixed-methods approach, this study examined how advocates and government actors accomplished this recent policy change in the face of police opposition and after a 50-year history of unsuccessful attempts in Newark. Drawing on official public documents, news media, and interviews conducted in April and May 2015, I propose that: (1) a Department of Justice investigation of the NPD, (2) the activist background of the Mayor and his relationships with community organizations, and (3) the momentum provided by the national Black Lives Matter movement were pivotal in overcoming political obstacles to reform. Examining the history of CCRB adoption in Newark suggests when and where advocates may intervene to promote policing reforms in other US cities.

  6. [Self-esteem and quality of life: essential for the mental health of police officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Edson Ribeiro; de Sousa, Edinilsa Ramos; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2009-01-01

    The results here shown are part of an action-research that aimed to elaborate, apply and evaluate a pilot project for contributing to the mental health of Rio de Janeiro police officers. This research comprises both quantitative and qualitative approaches in an ex-ante and ex-post evaluation pattern. The subjects of this research were 148 police officers serving in a special division of the city of Rio de Janeiro Police Department (76 were placed in the Experimental Group and 72 in the Control Group, according to certain variables). The article focuses on the results of the assessment made through standardized scales of self-esteem (Rosenberg Scale), quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref), and is complemented with a qualitative assessment using Content Analysis. The results show that interventions aimed at producing emotional support for police officers with emphasis on Quality of Life and Self-Esteem are possible and useful.

  7. Relationship between anticholinergic drug use and one-year outcome among elderly people hospitalised in medical wards via emergency department: the SAFES cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbey, D; Jolly, D; Mahmoudi, R; Trenque, T; Blanchard, F; Novella, J-L; Dramé, M

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between anticholinergic drug use and one-year outcome of elderly patients hospitalised via the emergency department. Prospective, multicentre, cohort study of patients aged 75 years and older. Comprehensive geriatric evaluation was performed. We included in this analysis all patients for whom data on drug use was available. Anticholinergic drugs were coded using the online database "Thesorimed". One-year mortality and nursing home admission were analysed using a Cox model, with matching on the propensity to use anticholinergic drugs. In total, 1176 subjects were included in this analysis, average age 85±6 years, 65% women. Overall, 144 (12%) were taking at least one anticholinergic drug. Mortality and nursing home admission at one year were respectively 29% and 30% in the anticholinergic group, and 34% and 33% respectively in subjects not taking anticholinergic drugs. No significant relationship was observed between anticholinergic drug use and the main endpoints. Although we did not observed any statistically significant relationship between use of anticholinergic drugs and one-year outcome in elderly patients, the long-term use of anticholinergic drugs can have deleterious effects on memory and functional capacity, and therefore requires prescriptions to be reviewed regularly.

  8. A Comparison of Firefighters and Police Officers: The Influence of Gender and Relationship Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Tammy J.

    2010-01-01

    Differences between fire department and police department personnel (N = 190) concerning work-related stressors and depression were examined with regard to gender and relationship status. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) and the Distressing Event Questionnaire (E. S. Kubany,…

  9. A randomized controlled trial of brief interventions to reduce drug use among adults in a low-income urban emergency department: the HealthiER You study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Frederic C; Walton, Maureen A; Bohnert, Amy S B; Ignacio, Rosalinda V; Chermack, Stephen; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Booth, Brenda M; Ilgen, Mark; Barry, Kristen L

    2017-08-01

    To examine efficacy of drug brief interventions (BIs) among adults presenting to a low-income urban emergency department (ED). Randomized controlled trial on drug use outcomes at 3, 6 and 12 months. Participants were assigned to (1) computer-delivered BI (Computer BI), (2) therapist-delivered, computer-guided BI (Therapist BI) or (3) enhanced usual care (EUC-ED) for drug-using adults. Participants were re-randomized after the 3-month assessment to either adapted motivational enhancement therapy (AMET) booster or enhanced usual care booster (EUC-B). Patients recruited from low-income urban emergency departments (ED) in Flint, Michigan, USA. A total of 780 ED patients reporting recent drug use, 44% males, mean age = 31 years. Computer BI consisted of an interactive program guided by a virtual health counselor. Therapist BI included computer guidance. The EUC-ED conditions included review of community health and HIV prevention resources. The BIs and boosters were based on motivational interviewing, focusing on reduction of drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Primary outcome was past 90 days using drugs at 6 and 12 months and secondary outcomes were weighted drug-days and days of marijuana use. Percentage changes in mean days used any drug from baseline to 12 months were: Computer BI + EUC-B: -10.9%, P = 0.0844; Therapist BI + EUC-B: -26.7%, P = 0.0041, for EUC-ED + EUC-B: -20.9, P = 0.0011. In adjusted analyses, there was no significant interaction between ED intervention and booster AMET for primary and secondary outcomes. Compared with EUC-ED, Therapist BI reduced number of days using any drug [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.41, -0.07, P = 0.0422] and weighted drug-days (95% CI = -0.41, -0.08, P = 0.0283). Both Therapist and Computer BI had significantly fewer number of days using marijuana compared to EUC-ED (Therapist BI: 95% CI = -0.42, -0.06, P = 0.0104, Computer BI: 95% CI = -0.34, -0.01, P = 0.0406). Booster effects were not

  10. The governance of policing and security : ironies, myths and paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, A.B. (Bob); Punch, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Policing today involves many different state and non-state actors. This book traces the process of unbounding policing, exploring the way that boundaries between public policing, regulators, inspectorates, intelligence services and private security are blurring.

  11. A New Role for Local Police in Radiological Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    .... Local police agencies have previously not had a formal role in radiological security. This thesis explores policy initiatives, based on community policing principles conducted at the local police level, which will enhance security at locations where radiological materials are kept.

  12. Physicians' Perspectives Regarding Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Use Within the Department of Veterans Affairs: a Multi-State Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Thomas R; Bixler, Felicia R; Zickmund, Susan L; Roman, KatieLynn M; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Hale, Jennifer A; Sileanu, Florentina E; Hausmann, Leslie R M; Thorpe, Joshua M; Suda, Katie J; Stroupe, Kevin T; Gordon, Adam J; Good, Chester B; Fine, Michael J; Gellad, Walid F

    2018-03-08

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has implemented robust strategies to monitor prescription opioid dispensing, but these strategies have not accounted for opioids prescribed by non-VA providers. State-based prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are a potential tool to identify VA patients' receipt of opioids from non-VA prescribers, and recent legislation requires their use within VA. To evaluate VA physicians' perspectives and experiences regarding use of PDMPs to monitor Veterans' receipt of opioids from non-VA prescribers. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Forty-two VA primary care physicians who prescribed opioids to 15 or more Veterans in 2015. We sampled physicians from two states with PDMPs (Massachusetts and Illinois) and one without prescriber access to a PDMP at the time of the interviews (Pennsylvania). From February to August 2016, we conducted semi-structured telephone interviews that addressed the following topics regarding PDMPs: overall experiences, barriers to optimal use, and facilitators to improve use. VA physicians broadly supported use of PDMPs or desired access to one, while exhibiting varying patterns of PDMP use dictated by state laws and their clinical judgment. Physicians noted administrative burdens and incomplete or unavailable prescribing data as key barriers to PDMP use. To facilitate use, physicians endorsed (1) linking PDMPs with the VA electronic health record, (2) using templated notes to document PDMP use, and (3) delegating routine PDMP queries to ancillary staff. Despite the time and administrative burdens associated with their use, VA physicians in our study broadly supported PDMPs. The application of our findings to ongoing PDMP implementation efforts may strengthen PDMP use both within and outside VA and improve the safe prescribing of opioids.

  13. Emergency Department Visits for Drug-Related Suicide Attempts Involving Antidepressants by Adolescents and Young Adults: 2004 to 2008. The DAWN Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, adolescents made 23,124 visits to the emergency department (ED) for drug-related suicide attempts, and young adults made 38,036 such visits; of these visits, 23.0 percent (5,312 visits) among adolescents and 17.6 percent (6,700 visits) among young adults involved antidepressants. Among ED visits for suicide attempts involving…

  14. [Adaptations of psychotropic drugs in patients aged 75 years and older in a departement of geriatric internal medecine: report of 100 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, Anne-Laure; Bailly-Agaledes, Cindy; Camalet, Joëlle; Capriz-Ribière, Françoise; Gary, André; Robert, Philippe; Brocker, Patrice; Guérin, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    The elderly often with multiple diseases are particularly at risk from adverse drug reactions. Nearly half of iatrogenic drug in the elderly are preventable. Some medications such as psychotropic drugs are particularly involved in iatrogenic accidents. We wanted to know if the tools of the comprehensive geriatric assessment or other factors could influence the changes of psychotropic drugs in a geriatric departement. Our prospective study of four months in 100 patients aged 75 years and older hospitalized in the Geriatric Internal Medecine Departement of University Hospital of Nice investigated what were the clinical or biological reasons and tools used during changes of psychotropic drugs. We compared these changes according to the comprehensive geriatric assessment tools and we analyzed the changes based on lists of potentially inappropriate medications by Laroche et al. and from the instrument STOPP/START. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was the tool that has most influenced the changes in psychotropic including a tendency to increase and the introduction of anxiolytics when MMSE < 20 (p = 0.007) while neuroleptics instead arrested and decreased (p = 0.012). The comprehensive geriatric assessment has its place in decision support during the potentially iatrogenic prescriptions of drugs such as psychotropic and new tools such as STOPP/START can also be a help to the prescriber informed.

  15. Maximizing Intelligence Sharing Within the Los Angeles Police Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    terrorism-even suicide terrorism-are a little different from those that conventional criminals displays” (2008, p. 21). If LAPD is going to be a leader in...was, was being waged by an army of music sharing teens , college students and IPod carrying businessmen” (Brackman & Beckstrom, 2006, pp. 5–7). On...millions from starvation and reverse a crippling depression . But FDR’s government, like our own today, was too centralized to respond quickly to the

  16. Kesklinna politseihoone = The Central Tallinn Police Department / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Kolde pst. 65 asuva Kesklinna politseihoone arhitektuursest lahendusest. Arhitekt, sisearhitekt Meeli Truu, kaasautor Gersti Siimon (AS Nord Projekt). Žürii liikme Kalle Komissarovi hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  17. Disaster Analysis: Police and Fire Departments. Phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    and G. 0. W. Mueller (eds.) Politics, Crime, and the International Scene: A Focus. San Juan : North-South Center Press. Caplow, T., H. Bahr, and B...20550 Gelman Bldg. #714 George Washington University John Christiansen Washington, DC 20052 Dept. of Sociology 834 SWKT George Rogers Brigham Young

  18. Return to work: Police personnel and PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Westerveld, Gre J.; Hutter, Renée C.; Olff, Miranda; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2013-01-01

    This study i) describes the number of police personnel with PTSD who are working and those who are on sick leave before and after an out-patient-clinic treatment program and ii) examines which factors are related to return to work. Police personnel treated for PTSD (n=121). In this retrospective

  19. Page | 198 POLICE CORRUPTION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    2017-08-07

    Aug 7, 2017 ... government to finance and embark on policies that will develop this .... sometimes acted upon instruction of the superior police officer or officers. .... to Chief Magistrate Court by the Police then require the advice of the Director ...

  20. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mührmann-Lund, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced...

  1. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Mührmann-Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.

  2. Page | 198 POLICE CORRUPTION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    2017-08-07

    Aug 7, 2017 ... to be abused due to the influence of social evils such as corruption, favouritism, dishonesty, fraud, tribalism, ethnicity and even villagism. These social problems are not peculiar to the Nigeria Police alone. They are ..... At this stage, the suspect sometimes through his lawyer has to negotiate with the Police ...

  3. Cheating in the Classroom: Beyond Policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Regrettably, cheating is widespread on all levels of our educational system. Effective monitoring and judicial review processes that ensure that students who cheat are subjected to appropriate disciplinary action are essential. However, policing is not enough. We must go beyond policing to change the culture of the classroom in ways that…

  4. Shifting repertoires : Understanding cultural plurality in policing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Frank; van Hulst, Merlijn

    The police is one of the most prominent organizations in the frontline of public administration. In order to deal with high external expectations, the organization has been said to develop and nurture multiple police cultures. Applying Grid Group Cultural Theory, or GGCT, we address the following

  5. Designing Multidimensional Policing Strategy And Organization: Towards A Synthesis Of Professional And Community Police Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suve Priit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse professional police and community policing in view of professionalism, strategy and structures. We aim to find ways for synthesizing these models that are usually seen as incompatible. Unlike many earlier studies of police organizations or strategies, we view strategies in the organization at the corporate, functional and operational levels, and argue that by combining them with functional and divisional principles of structuring, it is possible to place professional strategy at the core of policing, while using the community policing strategy mainly as a component part of the strategy in the framework of divisional organization. This way it is possible to avoid the risk of alienating police from the community and to ensure the successful implementation of corporate strategy through providing professional police units that perform the narrow functions, with quick and adequate information from the community.

  6. Consequences of Split Shift Work in Indian Traffic Police Personnel: Daytime Sleepiness, Stressors and Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Soni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to measure the daily routine preference, daytime sleepiness, and psychological distress experiences, because of split shift system job in a sample in traffic police personnel of Raipur city, India. To measure such parameters we used the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (OPSQ, General Health Questionnaire and the Distress. To evaluate differences between age, body mass index, period of service length and drug / alcohol use for all the subjects (traffic police personnel the t-test and chi-square test were used. Total Hundred male traffic police personnel participated and out of which most of them were found to belong in the evening active category. This study also indicates increased prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and (EDS high level of psychological distress as measured by the GHQ-12 among few police workers. Moreover, a number of participants reported significant distress levels, when measured with distress thermometer. In nutshell, the study sample suggests adaptive coping strategies of traffic police personnel working in split shift system profession can be attributed to their evening (E-type circadian preferences.

  7. Mexico’s Drug War and Its Unintended Regional Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Guatemalan President Proposes Drug.” 26 Johnson, Forman, and Bliss , Police Reform in Latin America, 32, 28, 30. 27 Tim Johnson, “Society Has Lost...Nations Office on Drugs, Transnational Organized Crime, 76. 22 Stephen Johnson, Johanna Mendelson Forman and Katherine Bliss , Police Reform in...america (accessed October 29, 2012). 33 Johnson, Forman, and Bliss , Police Reform in Latin America, 22. 34 Hooper, "The Mexican Drug Cartel Threat

  8. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Franciele Cascaes; Hernandez, Salma Stéphany Soleman; Arancibia, Beatriz Angélica Valdivia; Castro, Thiago Luis da Silva; Filho, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres; da Silva, Rudney

    2014-04-27

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life.

  9. Protection Orders Protect Against Assault and Injury: A Longitudinal Study of Police-Involved Women Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Catherine L.; Rhodes, Karin V.; Wiley, James A.; Fink, Jeffrey; Overholt, Scott; Dichter, Melissa E.; Marcus, Steven C.; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the efficacy of protection orders (POs) in reducing assault and injury-related outcomes using a matched comparison group and tracking outcomes over time. Methods This study was a retrospective review of police, emergency department, family court and prosecutor administrative records for a cohort of police-involved female IPV victims; all events over a four-year study period were abstracted. Victims who obtained protection orders (POs) were compared to a propensity-score-based match group without POs over three time periods: Before, during, and after the issuance of a PO. Results Having a PO in place was associated with significantly more calls to police for non-assaultive incidents, and more police charging requests that were multiple-count and felony-level. Comparing outcomes, PO victims had police incident rates that were more than double the matched group prior to the PO, but dropped to the level of the matched group during and after the order. ED visits dropped over time for both groups. Conclusion This study confirmed the protective effect of POs, which are associated with reduced police incidents and emergency department visits both during and after the order, and reduced police incidents compared to a matched comparison group. PMID:22491224

  10. Modelling intelligence-led policing to identify its potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengst-Bruggeling, M. den; Graaf, H.A.L.M. de; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van

    2014-01-01

    lntelligence-led policing is a concept of policing that has been applied throughout the world. Despite some encouraging reports, the effect of intelligence-led policing is largely unknown. This paper presents a method with which it is possible to identify intelligence-led policing's potential to

  11. Feelings of Safety: Ironic Consequences of Police Patrolling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van de E.; Lange, de M.A.; Haar, van der E.; Karremans, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing police patrolling is often assumed to be an effective means of enhancing general feelings of safety. This relationship between perceiving police and feelings of safety was tested by having police officers patrol during a field experiment (Study 1) and by manipulating the police presence

  12. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations of...

  13. Police Training in El Salvador: Challenges and Opportunities in Promoting the Community Police Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Carolina Arévalo Herrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Peace Accords emphasized creating a new police force that would be diametrically opposite to previous security forces. This change would have to be expressed symbolically, and from the onset it would have to underscore the fact that the main weapon of the police would be intelligence. From its foundation to June 2011, a total of 30,344 people have graduated from the Academy. Currently, in the process of training new police with greater quality, and modernizing the entire police force, it faces the difficult challenge of adopting the Community Police philosophy to empower this model for action, promoting a new relationship between community and law enforcement, and between managers and operational personnel in the agency. Nevertheless,police training is not enough if there are no significantchanges in the organizational climate and culture within the law enforcement agency.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1390

  14. Differences in reporting of violence and deliberate self harm related injuries to health and police authorities, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Farooq

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of study was to assess differences in reporting of violence and deliberate self harm (DSH related injuries to police and emergency department (ED in an urban town of Pakistan. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Study setting was Rawalpindi city of 1.6 million inhabitants. Incidences of violence and DSH related injuries and deaths were estimated from record linkage of police and ED data. These were then compared to reported figures in both datasets. All persons reporting violence and DSH related injury to the police station, the public hospital's ED, or both in Rawalpindi city from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008 were included. In Rawalpindi city, 1016 intentional injury victims reported to police whereas 3012 reported to ED. Comparing violence related fatality estimates (N = 56, 95% CI: 46-64, police reported 75.0% and ED reported 42.8% of them. Comparing violence related injury estimates (N = 7990, 95% CI: 7322-8565, police reported 12.1% and ED reported 33.2% of them. Comparing DSH related fatality estimates (N = 17, 95% CI: 4-30, police reported 17.7% and ED reported 47.1% of them. Comparing DSH related injury estimates (N = 809, 95% CI: 101-1516, police reported 0.5% and ED reported 39.9% of them. CONCLUSION: In Rawalpindi city, police records were more likely to be complete for violence related deaths as compared to injuries due to same mechanism. As compared to ED, police reported DSH related injuries and deaths far less than those due to other types of violence.

  15. Nightlife partnership policing: (Dis)trust building between bouncers and the police in the war on gangs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Houborg, Esben; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    partnership policing has employed a police perspective and a top-down approach, thus emphasizing organizational ties between policing bodies, this article uses a bottom-up, interactional approach, with a focus on bouncers’ everyday experiences and understandings of partnerships with the police. Our findings...

  16. Police as Life World. An Ethnography of Police-Officers' Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Behr

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present some findings and problems which I encountered during my ethnography work on several German police units conducted in 1995. Participant observation is not original, but nevertheless unusual for a study of police work. To understand the behavior and the thinking of police officers, one must regard their exclusive possession of power and their discretion for using it. The power of the police is different to the power of suspects or other individuals: Police-power is part of the monopolized state-force, the action of suspects against the police is seen as violence or obstruction. The tensions following this difference are both subject and background of stories and actions of police officers, especially for those "on the beat" (also called "street cops". The ethnography of police-work refers to the narrations of street cops and the observation of their attitudes for "managing the job". I argue, that in contrast to the official "police culture", it can also be referred to it as "cop culture". Cop culture is significantly connected with "doing masculinity". URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0201134

  17. Aurora Police Lieutenant Gains Intelligence Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2012-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES Aurora (Colo.) Police Lt. Sam McGhee has served numerous traditional roles in law enforcement such as emergency services coordinator, media relations manager, narcotics and intelligence commander and sector commander. Currently,...

  18. Analysis of C3 Counterinsurgency-Inspired Policing and the Flip Side of the Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Massachusetts, Massachusetts 15. NUMBER OF State Police, ten·orist, C3, Counter Criminal Continmuu, tmancy, delinquency , crime, graffiti, litter, PAGES...47 b. Delinquency in Schools by North End Students ....................52 c. After School Programs...Compliant Statistics CORE Common Operational Research Environment DOJ Department of Justice ER emergency room FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation

  19. 28 CFR 92.6 - What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attend under the Police Corps? 92.6 Section 92.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... educational institution in any State which: (1) Admits as regular students only persons having a certificate... education, (3) Provides an educational program for which it awards a bachelor's degree or provides not less...

  20. Doing Gender within the Police Doing Gender Within the Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Nienhaus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Bei dieser überarbeiteten soziologischen Dissertation der Universität Bielefeld handelt es sich um eine klar gegliederte, theoretisch fundierte Untersuchung der (Bayerischen Polizei, ihrer Leitbilder, Arbeitspraktiken, Auseinandersetzungen und deren Veränderungen durch die sprunghaft angestiegenen Zahlen von Frauen. Sie reiht sich in mittlerweile vielfältige deutsch- und englischsprachige Publikationen ein. In der Auseinandersetzung mit geschichtswissenschaftlichen Darstellungen zum Thema (Kapitel 2.2.1 werden leider viele offensichtliche Fehler und unhaltbare Klischees verbreitet. Auch die jeweils „Relevanzen“ genannten Kapitelzusammenfassungen sind nicht, was dieser Begriff vermuten lässt. Eine leichte Straffung, die Streichung modischer Begriffe (wie „Diskursstränge“, „faktische Ent-Vergeschlechtlichung“, „Variabilität von Egalität und Differenz“ und „Thematisierung, De-Thematisierung und Re-Thematisierung“ sowie unsinniger Ausführungen (wie S. 73 Ende des Absatzes 3.1 hätten der Veröffentlichung gut getan.This volume, a revised sociological dissertation for the University of Bielefeld, is a clearly constructed and theoretically sound examination of the (Bavarian police, their inspirations, work practices, conflicts, and changes due to the sudden rise of women in the force. It finds its rightful place among the now numerous publications on the subject in both German and English. Unfortunately, however, the historical presentation of the theme (chapter 2.2.1 displays many errors and perpetuates clichés. In addition, the chapter summaries—entitled “relevancies"—are not that which they profess to be. The publication would have been well served by slight reductions and by deleting popular terms (for example “discourse strands,” “factual de-gendering”, “variability of equality and difference”, and “thematizing, de-thematizing, and re-thematizing” as well as useless explanations (such as at the

  1. Estimating under-reporting of road crash injuries to police using multiple linked data collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Angela; Watson, Barry; Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    The reliance on police data for the counting of road crash injuries can be problematic, as it is well known that not all road crash injuries are reported to police which under-estimates the overall burden of road crash injuries. The aim of this study was to use multiple linked data sources to estimate the extent of under-reporting of road crash injuries to police in the Australian state of Queensland. Data from the Queensland Road Crash Database (QRCD), the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patients Data Collection (QHAPDC), Emergency Department Information System (EDIS), and the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit (QISU) for the year 2009 were linked. The completeness of road crash cases reported to police was examined via discordance rates between the police data (QRCD) and the hospital data collections. In addition, the potential bias of this discordance (under-reporting) was assessed based on gender, age, road user group, and regional location. Results showed that the level of under-reporting varied depending on the data set with which the police data was compared. When all hospital data collections are examined together the estimated population of road crash injuries was approximately 28,000, with around two-thirds not linking to any record in the police data. The results also showed that the under-reporting was more likely for motorcyclists, cyclists, males, young people, and injuries occurring in Remote and Inner Regional areas. These results have important implications for road safety research and policy in terms of: prioritising funding and resources; targeting road safety interventions into areas of higher risk; and estimating the burden of road crash injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the operational efficiency of pacifying police units in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rosa Dias de Jesus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pacification Police Unit (UPP is a new model for public security and policing, aimed at ensuring local security and, above all, reduce, or even, extinguish violent crime linked to drug trafficking, and approach people and police. The purpose of this article is measuring the operational efficiency of all UPPs installed in the state of Rio de Janeiro by the beginning of 2011 by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. For this, it was used the CCR model – input-oriented – developed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes, which allows an objective assessment of the overall efficiency, identifying the sources of inefficiencies and the needed targets to achieve the efficiency in each UPP. The results converge to a reduction of the amount of policemen in all communities out of the efficiency frontier.

  3. Psychiatric disorders are overlooked in patients with drug abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruckow, Line; Linnet, Kristian; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Psychiatric disease is overlooked in drug users. Patients with both drug abuse and a psychiatric disease – dual diagnosis – suffer decreased compliance to treatment and decreased life expectancy compared with single-diagnosis patients. Identifying the patients among ­either drug...... addicts or mentally ill patients is difficult. Methods: All drug addicts autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in the years 1992, 2002 and 2012 were included. The group was divided into two subpopulations of possible dual diagnosis patients either according...... to police reports stating mental illness or to psychotropics found in the toxicology screening after autopsy. Results: We found a rise in possible mental illness in both subpopulations in the study period. Drug addicts with psychotropics in the blood at the time of death increased from 3.1% in 1992 to 48...

  4. WADA – Anti-doping Organization in Sport or Moral Police?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INHDR

    2013-01-01

    WADA is now undertaking a two-year review of the WADA Code and we believe it is time for WADA to reconsider the ban on the use of recreational drugs which are not performance-enhancing. We believe that it is no part of the responsibility of WADA to police the personal lifestyles of athletes; inde......, such as marijuana, from its Prohibited List of Substances and to stop testing for such drugs at sporting competitions....

  5. The indonesia’s Police Reform Police in the Reform Era New Institutionalism Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHMAD NURMAND

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.

  6. Policing for Conflict Zones: What Have Local Policing Groups Taught Us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Baker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The police are invariably severely reduced or even cease to be active in times of conflict. Policing as an activity, however, persists, with local groups taking up the role of maintaining order and combating crime. Such local policing is very diverse in its practices and in the nature of its links with the state. Using examples of local policing practices in four sub-Saharan conflicts, this article considers different patterns of harnessing local capacity to provide policing services. The patterns range from authorities utilising existing local policing providers or initiating new local responses, to local non-government organisations [NGOs] seeking to fill policing gaps left by the state, or long-established local provision continuing unchanged. Each response, whether one of cooperation, delegation, neglect or abandonment, is evaluated for its effectiveness, and lessons to be learned from their practices are offered. Together the four case studies suggest new pathways to achieving police effectiveness and reform in challenging conflict environments.

  7. Police punishment and the infrapolitics of (online) anti-police protest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Diarmaid Harkin recently called for a theory of police punishment and its public acceptance. He stated that police violence is ‘provided with a warranty of approval and encouragement from larger, aggregate, deeply held emotions and sensibilities’. We lend our support to his demand for a penal theory

  8. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Police Officers in Turkish National Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Idris

    2011-01-01

    A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…

  9. Community Policing in South-West Nigeria: Finding a Nexus between the Police and the People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusegun, Omowunmi J.

    2016-01-01

    The joint efforts of the police and the communities in south-west Nigeria to tackle the alarming rates of crime in various societies has over the year been adopted as a strategic way of curbing crime in Nigeria. This paper examines the divergent views of community policing in south-west Nigeria. The paper is empirical in nature though related…

  10. Occupational culture in policing reviewed : A comparison of values in the public and private police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing privatization of the security sector, leading to an intermingling of private and public policing and a possible "value-shift" for the overall security policy. Systematic comparative research between police and private security values is, however, still lacking.

  11. Beacon of Hope? Lessons Learned from Efforts to Reduce Civilian Deaths from Police Shootings in an Australian State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saligari, Jessica; Evans, Richard

    2016-04-01

    In the 1990s, the police service in Victoria, Australia, faced a crisis of community confidence due to a spate of civilian deaths from police shootings. In that decade, twice as many civilians died at the hands of the police in Victoria than in every other Australian state combined. Most of those killed were mentally ill and affected by drugs and alcohol, and were rarely a serious threat except to themselves. The problem was also almost entirely an urban phenomenon. Shootings in rural communities, where mentally ill people were more likely to be personally known to local police, were (and remain) almost unknown. The large number of fatalities was recognised as a serious threat to public confidence, and Victoria Police introduced a ground-breaking training programme, Operation Beacon. Operating procedures and weapons training were fundamentally changed, to focus on de-escalation of conflict and avoiding or minimising police use of force. In the short term, Operation Beacon was successful. Shooting incidents were dramatically reduced. However, during the first decade of the new century, the number of civilians being killed again increased. This article examines Operation Beacon, both as a successful model for reducing civilian deaths at the hand of police and as a cautionary tale for police reform. We argue that the lessons of Operation Beacon have been gradually forgotten and that old habits and attitudes resurfaced. Fatal shootings of mentally ill civilians can be prevented, but if success is to be other than temporary, the Beacon philosophy must be continually reemphasised by police management.

  12. Role of female police officer and her challenges within the police organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the most developed countries, the opinion prevailed that the police profession is only a profession for men. This opinion is an already outdated practice. Interest in women’s emancipation has been a phenomenon to which many countries and organizations with influence in the world were committed. Attention to engage women in public life in society exists even nowadays, growing even more. Employment of women in different professions and the results shown by them have increased the interest of involvement of members of this gender in every sphere of social life. The study of this issue that has to do with engagement, namely employment of women in the police, will be shown in this paper as follows: Background of women employed in the police; Emancipated and non-emancipated women in the police; Attitude towards female police officers.

  13. Drogas y novelas policíacas: el género negro como vehículo de articulación de una problemática social / Illegal drugs and the detective novel: the noir genre as vehicle for articulating a social issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González del Pozo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La novela policíaca española reciente utiliza el contexto socio-político alrededor de la investigación que narra preocupándose más por la problemática humana que por la resolución del caso per se. Desde el fin de la dictadura hasta el comienzo del siglo XXI numerosos escritores han retratado el impacto del consumo de drogas ilegales y el narcotráfico en España. Este tipo de narrativa se dispone como un espacio para que implicados, víctimas e instituciones se pronuncien ante esta realidad y permite que se orqueste un discurso socialmente comprometido sobre la situación de estas sustancias. ABSTRACT: Recent Spanish detective novels have used the sociopolitical context surrounding the actual investigation narrated in the text in order to express a stronger concern about the issues in society than about the criminal case per se. Since the end of dictatorship until the beginning of twenty-first century, several authors have portrayed the impact of the consumption of and trafficking in illegal drugs in Spain. This kind of narrative lays a suitable ground for individuals, collectives and institutions involved with these substances to comment on this situation and to convey a socially committed discourse regarding this problem.

  14. Proactive Undercover Policing and Sexual Crimes against Children on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendius, Trine Thygesen

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has made it easier for child sex offenders to get into direct contact with their victims, including the exchanging and distributing of “child pornography”. On a European level, child sexual exploitation is one of the three main priorities of EC3, Europol's Cybercrime Centre. Directive...... 2011/93/EU on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children further prescribes that the EU Member States shall ensure that sexual offences against children are effectively investigated. However, when it comes to investigative measures such as undercover policing, national police forces...... are bound by national rules. This article concludes that undercover policing is a necessary investigative tool in order to detect and infiltrate the networks of these sexual offenders. Departing from a legal dogmatic method this article first examines relevant EU legal instruments. It then takes...

  15. Corruption and the Architecture of Paramilitary Bureaucracies: Comparing the American and the Russian Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymaliev Ivan, М.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite institutional change, corrupt networks have been tremendously successful enterprises at the expense of the public good; returning and evolving with new elements. For public sector corruption to prosper, bureaucracies must possess certain structural characteristics which facilitate criminal behavior. Although public organizations have been largely studied, it is less clear how their structure creates opportunities for deviance. Given the understudied field of paramilitary bureaucracies and the deleterious consequences of corruption for socioeconomic development and (international security, we seek to understand: “How and why does the structure of police organizations facilitate corruption?” To address this question, we draw upon organizational, covert networks, and organized crime theories, and test them using a conditional uniform graph test on a dataset that includes the formal hierarchical structures of the modern police forces in Russia and the United States. We show that despite operating in largely different institutional regimes, the Moscow and the Los Angeles police department exhibit similar structural characteristics. Police bureaucracies’ structures are efficient in performing complex tasks, but are highly conducive to concealment, creating numerous temptations and opportunities for corruption. Lastly, we show that police organizations are scale-free networks which makes them extremely vulnerable to corruptive pressures.

  16. The Swedish police as a part of the security systems of nuclear material and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nylen, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In Sweden a special transport system has been developed for transport of nuclear substances and nuclear waste. This system in itself includes a high security level. Extraordinary circumstances can give cause for protective police measures and intervention. In concerned provinces an incident and emergency response planning take place of the police actions that may be needed at the following types of event: a) bomb threat; b) attack or threat of attack on transport vehicle; c) demonstrations. If a Swedish nuclear power plant is the subject of a bomb threat or other criminal assault, it is in Sweden, according to the Police Act, the task of the police to intervene, interrupt criminal acts and to restore order and security. The role of the Swedish police as regards the physical protection is, among other things, to carry out a certain control within protected area by special trained police personnel before a reactor is put into operation or restarted after revision or repair. Police authorities that have a nuclear power station within its jurisdiction should establish a plan for police actions at the nuclear power station in consultation with legal owner or management of the plant, the Swedish Nuclear Power Administration and the county administration. Special training and frequent practice of response personnel is crucial as well as co-training with key personnel at nuclear power stations. The National Criminal Investigation Department coordinates and commands police measures concerning different types of nuclear transports. Close co-operation with security and operational personnel at the nuclear power stations, operators of the transport system, the Swedish Nuclear Power Administration and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute is very important. (author)

  17. Police investigations: discretion denied yet undeniably exercised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belur, J.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D.; Daruwalla, N.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V.

    2014-01-01

    Police investigations involve determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so what type of crime, who has committed it and whether there is the evidence to charge the perpetrators. Drawing on fieldwork in Delhi and Mumbai, this paper explores how police investigations unfolded in the specific context of women’s deaths by burning in India. In particular, it focuses on the use of discretion despite its denial by those exercising it. In India, there are distinctive statutes relating to women’s suspicious deaths, reflecting the widespread expectation that the bride’s family will pay a dowry to the groom’s family and the tensions to which this may on occasion give rise in the early years of a marriage. Often, there are conflicting claims influencing how the woman’s death is classified. These in turn affect police investigation. The nature and direction of police discretion in investigating women’s deaths by burning reflect in part the unique nature of the legislation and the particular sensitivities in relation to these types of death. They also highlight processes that are liable to be at work in any crime investigation. It was found that police officers exercised unacknowledged discretion at seven specific points in the investigative process, with potentially significant consequences for the achievement of just outcomes: first response, recording the victim’s ‘dying declaration’, inquest, registering of the ‘First Information Report’, collecting evidence, arrest and framing of the charges. PMID:26376482

  18. Maus-tratos: estudo através da perspectiva da delegacia de proteção à criança e ao adolescente em Salvador, Bahia Maltreatment: study from the perspective of the police department for the frotection of the child and the adolescent in Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara de Rebolças Carvalho

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal descreve a ocorrência de maus-tratos em uma delegacia de proteção a crianças e adolescentes em Salvador, Bahia, entre 1997 e 1999. Dados sociodemográficos e físicos das vítimas, agressores e denunciantes foram investigados a partir de uma amostra de 2.073 casos. As vítimas apresentaram idades entre 0 e 18 anos, 56,1% do sexo feminino. De todas as manifestações de maus-tratos, exceto o abuso físico, prevaleceram as sobre o sexo feminino. O subgrupo de pré-adolescentes foi o mais atingido. O tipo de maltrato mais freqüente foi o abuso físico (64,7%. Lesões corporais ocorreram em 22,2% dos casos, a maioria concentrando-se na cabeça e pescoço (65,3%. Observou-se intensa participação do sexo masculino entre os agressores (71,8%. Houve correlação positiva entre sexo feminino e abuso sexual e o sexo masculino e abuso físico, inclusive de forma mais severa em relação à presença de lesões corporais. As denúncias foram feitas pelos pais das vítimas (72,9%, sendo o sexo feminino mais freqüente. Neste estudo, não foi identificada nenhuma denúncia realizada pelos profissionais de saúde, refletindo maior necessidade de comprometimento destes na problemática, conforme as recomendações da política de redução da morbimortalidade por acidentes e violência.This cross-sectional study describes the occurrences of maltreatment recorded over three years (1997-1999 in a Brazilian Police Department for the Protection of the Child and the Adolescent. Socio-demographic and physical data of victims, aggressors and denouncers were investigated in a sample consisting of 2073 cases. The victims were aged between 0-18 years, of which 56.1% were girls. Data were entered into EPI INFO 2000 software and analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test to determine significant differences (p<0.05. All manifestations of abuse, except physical abuse, tend to occur more frequently in females, and tend to be more

  19. Pattern of Adverse Drug Reactions in Children Attending the Department of Pediatrics in a Tertiary Care Center: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishour Kumar Digra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the pattern of various adverse drug reactions (ADRs occurring in children attending the Department of Pediatrics, SMGS Hospital, Jammu over 1 year. Subjects and Methods This was a prospective study, with study population of patients attending Department of Pediatrics over a period of 1 year. A structured format was used to enroll the participants. A pilot study was conducted to test the suitability of the format and feasibility of the study. The study was carried out to review various pattern of ADRs by using the Naranjo probability scale, and severity was assessed by using the Hartwig severity scale. ADRs were classified according to the classification used by the Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center, Central Drugs Standard Control Organization, New Delhi, India. Results In the present study, 104 patients were found to have developed acute drug reactions. Among these, 83.6% were type B, 14.42% type A, and 1.92% were type U. Furthermore, 25.96% ADRs were due to anticonvulsants, followed by antibiotics (22.11%, antipyretics (11.53%, vaccination (8.65%, steroids (6.73%, decongestants (5.67%, snake antivenom and antiemetics (3.84%, and fluids, insulin, and antacids (1.92%. The patients’ dermatological system was involved in 67.30%, followed by the central nervous system (CNS in 11.53% patients. Renal system was involved in 6.73% patients. Cardiac, musculoskeletal, metabolic, and other systems were involved in 4.80%, 3.84%, 2.88%, and 0.96%, respectively. According to the Hartwig severity scale of ADRs, 64.4% patients had moderate ADRs, 29.8% patients had severe ADRs, and 5.76% had mild ADRs. In the present study, 64.4% patients expressed moderate severity, whereas 29.8% expressed high severity and 5.76% expressed mild ADRs. Conclusion ADRs were seen in 71% of the patients between 1 and 5 years of age, 26% in the age group of 5–10 years, and 3% were more than 10 years old. Anticonvulsants (25.96% and antibiotics (22.11% were

  20. Clinical Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists Compared with Marijuana in Emergency Department Patients with Acute Drug Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaurova, Milana; Hoffman, Robert S; Vlahov, David; Manini, Alex F

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) are heterogeneous compounds originally intended as probes of the endogenous cannabinoid system or as potential therapeutic agents. We assessed the clinical toxicity associated with recent SCRA use in a large cohort of drug overdose patients. This subgroup analysis of a large (n = 3739) drug overdose cohort study involved consecutive ED patients at two urban teaching hospitals collected between 2009 and 2013. Clinical characteristics of patients with the exposure to SCRAs (SRCA subgroup) were compared with those from patients who smoked traditional cannabinoids (marijuana subgroup). Data included demographics, exposure details, vital signs, mental status, and basic chemistries gathered as part of routine clinical care. Study outcomes included altered mental status and cardiotoxicity. Eighty-seven patients reported exposure to any cannabinoid, of whom 17 reported SCRAs (17 cases, 70 controls, mean age 38.9 years, 77 % males, 31 % Hispanic). There were no significant differences between SRCA and marijuana with respect to demographics (age, gender, and race/ethnicity), exposure history (suicidality, misuse, and intent), vital signs, or serum chemistries. Mental status varied between SRCA and marijuana, with agitation significantly more likely in SCRA subgroup (OR = 3.8, CI = 1.2-11.9). Cardiotoxicity was more pronounced in the SCRA subgroup with dysrhythmia significantly more likely (OR = 9.2, CI = 1.0-108). In the first clinical study comparing the adverse effects of SCRA overdose vs. marijuana controls in an ED population, we found that SCRA overdoses had significantly pronounced neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity compared with marijuana.

  1. Occupational stress among senior police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; Cooper, C; Kirkcaldy, B

    1996-02-01

    From a survey of over 500 senior UK police officers completing the occupational stress inventory, it was observed that those serving in England and Wales exhibited the highest job stress related to structure and climate, co-worker relationships and their managerial role. There were no inter-regional differences on the individual difference variables, Type A behaviour, locus of control, or on physical health measures. Superintendents in Scotland used coping methods least frequently including domestic/home support, time management and social support, the latter strategy being most used by Northern Ireland officers. Findings relating job stress to job satisfaction were inconsistent with other police populations. Results are discussed in the context of organizational reform in the police service.

  2. Is ‘real’ Police Work masculinely Gendered?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Fekjær, Silje Bringsrud; Møberg, Rasmus Juul

    This paper contributes to the debates of continuity and change of gender segregation in the labour market by analyzing perceptions of gender and competences in relation to different police tasks among police students in six European countries. The police is a male-dominated occupation associated...... with power, authority and physical strength. However, over the last decade there has been an increase of women in the police in several countries and at the same time there has been a shift from ‘policing by force’ to ‘policing by consent’ as a general ideal in most European countries (Reiner 2010...... characteristics into account? The data in this paper are part of the quantitative research project ‘Recruitment, Education and Careers in the Police: A European Longitudinal Study’ (RECPOL) . The project has a longitudinal research design, following police recruits over time by regularly surveys...

  3. Juvenile Violence, Policing and Access to Justice in Latin America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Juvenile Violence, Policing and Access to Justice in Latin America ... Brazil, Colombia and Mexico, this project will examine youth crime, relations with the police ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  4. A New Role for Local Police in Radiological Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the review of government reports. The concept of using the community policing philosophy as a basis for a local police strategy for radiological...of José Padilla, a former Chicago gang member who became an al Qaeda associate. While many civil libertarians have questioned the subsequent...review the evolution of local policing and the development of current community policing philosophy that guiding the majority of today’s local law

  5. Policing in Contemporary Nigeria: Issues and Challenges | Johnson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The foundation of policing in Nigeria today can be traced to colonial legacy. Colonial policies subjugated the existing traditional informal law enforcement order and forcefully imposed western idea of policing. Thus, policing within the context of oppression and gross misuse of power has been linked to western orientation.

  6. Neighborhood Context and Police Vigor: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, James J.; Wu, Yuning; Sun, Ivan Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a partial test of Klinger's ecological theory of police behavior using hierarchical linear modeling on 1,677 suspects who had encounters with police within 24 beats. The current study used data from four sources originally collected by the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), including systematic social observation,…

  7. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.5 Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position so...

  9. PTSD in relation to dissociation in traumatized police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, I. V.; Lamberts, R. D.; Fouwels, A. J.; Gersons, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    The assumed relationship between dissociation and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined. From a group of police officers who had experienced a traumatic event, the authors assessed the chronic dissociative symptoms of 42 police officers with PTSD, 50 police officers with

  10. How Algorithms Inscribe the Understanding of Crime in Police Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waardenburg, L.; Sergeeva, A.; Huysman, Marleen

    2018-01-01

    This research focuses on the consequences of the shift to data-driven work for daily police work. Our ongoing ethnographic field study of a team of police officers shows that predictive policing algorithms inscribe a different crime theory-in-use – i.e., the understanding of why crime occurs and how

  11. Impact of Dual Use of Department of Veterans Affairs and Medicare Part D Drug Benefits on Potentially Unsafe Opioid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellad, Walid F; Thorpe, Joshua M; Zhao, Xinhua; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Sileanu, Florentina E; Cashy, John P; Hale, Jennifer A; Mor, Maria K; Radomski, Thomas R; Hausmann, Leslie R M; Donohue, Julie M; Gordon, Adam J; Suda, Katie J; Stroupe, Kevin T; Hanlon, Joseph T; Cunningham, Francesca E; Good, Chester B; Fine, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and consequences of receiving prescription opioids from both the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Medicare Part D. Among US veterans enrolled in both VA and Part D filling 1 or more opioid prescriptions in 2012 (n = 539 473), we calculated 3 opioid safety measures using morphine milligram equivalents (MME): (1) proportion receiving greater than 100 MME for 1 or more days, (2) mean days receiving greater than 100 MME, and (3) proportion receiving greater than 120 MME for 90 consecutive days. We compared these measures by opioid source. Overall, 135 643 (25.1%) veterans received opioids from VA only, 332 630 (61.7%) from Part D only, and 71 200 (13.2%) from both. The dual-use group was more likely than the VA-only group to receive greater than 100 MME for 1 or more days (34.3% vs 10.9%; adjusted risk ratio [ARR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9, 3.1), have more days with greater than 100 MME (42.5 vs 16.9 days; adjusted difference = 16.4 days; 95% CI = 15.7, 17.2), and to receive greater than 120 MME for 90 consecutive days (7.8% vs 3.1%; ARR = 2.2; 95% CI = 2.1, 2.3). Among veterans dually enrolled in VA and Medicare Part D, dual use of opioids was associated with more than 2 to 3 times the risk of high-dose opioid exposure.

  12. Relationships between needle and syringe programs and police: An exploratory analysis of the potential role of in-service training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strike, Carol; Watson, Tara Marie

    2017-06-01

    Training police on the public health benefits of needle and syringe programs (NSPs) is viewed as a best practice to facilitate more collaborative relationships between police and these programs. To date, while the limited published literature contains promising cases of harm reduction in-service training for police, evaluative evidence is preliminary. Using an online survey, we asked NSP managers across Canada about their programs and the quality of their NSP-police relationships. We analyzed data from the responses of 75 program managers among whom 69% reported that their program had a "positive" or "mostly positive" relationship with the police. In-service training about topics such as needle-stick injury prevention and NSP effectiveness was provided by less than 50% of the programs surveyed. Seventy-five percent reported no established protocols to resolve conflicts between NSP staff and police. Four variables, all related to in-service training, were significantly related to positive NSP-police relationships, including training about: NSP program goals (OR 7.7; 95% CI 2.0, 33.1); needle-stick injury prevention and basics of blood-borne virus transmission (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.1, 15.34); the health and social concerns of people who use drugs (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.1, 13.5); and evidence about the impact of injection equipment distribution (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.1, 13.5). Development of in-service training for police that is focused on harm reduction goals and initiatives is a new and evolving area. We highly encourage NSPs to offer and evaluate any such in-service training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Now & Then: Roger Whitmore, Police Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sue; Michalowicz, Karen Dee

    1995-01-01

    Discusses police officers' use of mathematics when reconstructing an accident scene; and the history of algebra, including al-Khwarizmi's works on the theory of equations, the Rhind Papyrus, a Chinese and an Indian manuscript on systems of linear and quadratic equations, and Diophantus'"syncopated algebra." (10 references) (EK)

  14. Language style matching and police interrogation outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Beth H.; Taylor, Paul J; Snook, Brent; Conchie, Stacey M.; Bennell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the coordination of interrogator and suspects’ verbal behavior in interrogations. Sixty-four police interrogations were examined at the aggregate and utterance level using a measure of verbal mimicry known as Language Style Matching. Analyses revealed an interaction between

  15. Lessons on Policing Terrorism: Studying Police Effectiveness in Italy and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Germany GF Guardie di Finanza INPOL Electronic Police Information System (Germany) JTTF Joint Terrorism Task Force Kripo Kriminalpolizei LMI...In the case of the Carabinieri and Guardie di Finanza , there may be missions and operations in which their direction comes from the Interior...Minister and Defense Minister respectively. This makes sense in tactical terms as the Guardie di Finanza includes border and customs police and the

  16. Ideal Police Oversight and Review: The Next Piece of the Community Policing Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    oversight. Included in that malpractice are instances of perceived physical and verbal abuse , perceived harassment, failure to take appropriate action...a kid from south Stockton. 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. PROBLEM STATEMENT—BACKGROUND Independent oversight boards are asked to make the complaint...communities with inclusion and investigative transparency when filing complaints of police misconduct and abuse of police powers. In his article “Race

  17. Injuries associated with police use of force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William P; Stopyra, Jason P; Klinger, David A; Martin, Brian P; Graham, Derrel D; Johnson, James C; Mahoney-Tesoriero, Katherine; Vail, Sydney J

    2018-03-01

    Use of force [UOF] by police can result in serious injuries and fatalities. The risk of significant injuries associated with different force modalities is poorly defined. We sought to determine the incidence of police UOF and compare the likelihood of significant injury with different force modalities. A prospective multicenter observational study of all UOF incidents was conducted via mandatory UOF investigations at three mid-sized police agencies over a two year period. Expert physicians reviewed police and medical records to determine injury severity using a priori injury severity stratification criteria. There were 893 UOF incidents, representing a UOF rate of 0.086% of 1,041,737 calls for service (1 in 1167) and 0.78% of 114,064 criminal arrests(1 in 128). Suspects were primarily young (mean age, 31 years; range, 12-86 years) males (89%). The 1,399 force utilizations included unarmed physical force (n = 710, 51%), CEWs (504, 30%), chemical (88, 6.3%), canines (47, 3.4%), impact weapons (9, 0.6%), kinetic impact munitions (8, 0.6%), firearms (6, 0.4%), and other (27, 1.9%). Among 914 suspects, 898 (98%) sustained no or mild injury after police UOF. Significant (moderate or severe) injuries occurred in 16 (1.8%) subjects. Logistic regression analysis shows these are most associated with firearm and canine use. There was one fatality (0.1%) due to gunshots. No significant injuries occurred among 504 CEW uses (0%; 95% confidence interval, 0.0-0.9%). Of the 355 suspects transported to a medical facility, 78 (22%) were hospitalized. The majority of hospitalizations were unrelated to UOF (n = 59, 76%), whereas a minority (n = 19, 24%) were due to injuries related to police UOF. Police UOF is rare. When force is used officers most commonly rely on unarmed physical force and CEWs. Significant injuries are rare. Transport for medical evaluation is a poor surrogate for significant injury due to UOF. Epidemiological, level II.

  18. Policía, conducta y control : el caso de la policía de Guadalajara, México

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Alvarado, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Mexican police organizations made it evident that they were incapable of handling public security and had unprecedented levels of corruption and police-related crimes. To face these cases of police incompetence and misconduct, reforms to the law enforcement system were designed and

  19. Policía Local como Policía Judicial. Intervenciones relevantes en el proceso penal

    OpenAIRE

    Velayos Martínez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Ponencia comparativa de las funciones más habituales de la práctica forense en que la Policía Local actúa en funciones de Policía Judicial. Ponencia presentada en el curso "La reforma del Código Penal", Ayuntamiento de Alicante, Policía Local, 17-18 diciembre 2012. Ayuntamiento de Alicante

  20. Intelligent Emergency Response System for Police Vehicles in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganeshan, Ishan; Memon, Nasrullah

    2015-01-01

    time by the police vehicles. In the proposed system, the administrator can view the performance of all the police vehicles at any time through a web portal. The system used traditional data mining algorithms in order to analyze crimes in different areas of a city and at different times of the day....... Based on this crime mapping, the administrator assigns patrol schedules for different police vehicles throughout the day. The proposed system would make it very easy for people to call for the help, and the police authorities to know the locations of the callers and identify crime hot spots...... and the administrator to keep track of the performance of each police vehicle....

  1. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people’s beliefs about a neighbourhood’s social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared people’s perceptions of social capital and fear of crime in disordered and ordered neighbourhoods, either with a police presence or no police presence. In all studies, neighbourhood disorder lowered perceptions of social capital, resulting in a higher fear of crime. Police presence or absence had no significant effect. The pervasive effects of disorder above other environmental cues are discussed.

  2. Theories of police legitimacy – its sources and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Homolová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The review of theories on police legitimacy aims at introducing the subject with a multidisciplinary approach. It quotes criminological, sociological as well as psychological and institutional theories of legitimacy, in order to provide the reader a rich framework, in which the findings of the presented current empirical studies can be evaluated. Police legitimacy is conceived as a social phenomenon, closely related to social norms such as socially constructed police roles and models of policing. The prevailing normative model of police legitimacy in criminology is discussed in greater detail, including critical outlook on procedural fairness as the assumed main source of police empirical legitimacy. Recent findings concerning legal socialization and theories of legitimization myths are high- lighted in order to supplement the micro-level oriented criminological literature on police legitimacy. Possible future pathways of legitimacy research in criminology are discussed.

  3. Estimating the reliability of eyewitness identifications from police lineups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, John T; Mickes, Laura; Dunn, John C; Clark, Steven E; Wells, William

    2016-01-12

    Laboratory-based mock crime studies have often been interpreted to mean that (i) eyewitness confidence in an identification made from a lineup is a weak indicator of accuracy and (ii) sequential lineups are diagnostically superior to traditional simultaneous lineups. Largely as a result, juries are increasingly encouraged to disregard eyewitness confidence, and up to 30% of law enforcement agencies in the United States have adopted the sequential procedure. We conducted a field study of actual eyewitnesses who were assigned to simultaneous or sequential photo lineups in the Houston Police Department over a 1-y period. Identifications were made using a three-point confidence scale, and a signal detection model was used to analyze and interpret the results. Our findings suggest that (i) confidence in an eyewitness identification from a fair lineup is a highly reliable indicator of accuracy and (ii) if there is any difference in diagnostic accuracy between the two lineup formats, it likely favors the simultaneous procedure.

  4. Police interviewing and interrogation of juvenile suspects: a descriptive examination of actual cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Hayley M D

    2014-06-01

    Although empirical attention to police interrogation has gained traction in recent years, comparatively few studies have examined interrogation of juvenile suspects, and virtually none have examined actual interrogations. Despite a growing literature on youths' interrogation-related capacities, we still know very little about what actually transpires when police question youth. The present study examines electronically recorded police interviews with juveniles to describe the characteristics, processes, and outcomes that occur in actual juvenile interrogations, including interview duration, individuals present, and confessions. Fifty-seven electronic recordings from 17 police departments were analyzed using observational research software. The median juvenile interrogation lasted 46 min, though the range was extensive (6 min to nearly 5 hr). Youth frequently submitted to questioning without a parent or advocate present, and disruptions to the interview process were common. Interrogation outcomes varied and included full confessions, partially incriminating admissions, and denials of guilt. Results from this study provide context for interrogation research using other methods and suggest that youth may frequently consent to interrogation in the absence of important legal protections.

  5. The Potential Use of Legitimate Force for the Preservation of Order: Defining the Inherent Role of Public Police Through Policing Functions that cannot be Carried out by Private Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Arnež

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the UK, private policing institutions have been rapidly increasing since the 1980s, so the lines between public- and private police have been blurred. This paper explores whether there is a policing function that is inherent in public police and if so, why it occupies this position. It integrates Rousseau’s social contract theory, Bittner’s definition of police functions, Brodeur’s reasoning on force and Loader and Walker’s concept of ‘policing as public good’ to argue that the potential use of legitimate force for the preservation of order is the function intrinsic to public police. It shows why it cannot and should not be carried out by private police and outlines how it depends on police legitimacy. It concludes with an abstract rethinking of public-state-police relations to determine that this function remains in the realm of public policing.

  6. Effect of Strathclyde police initiative "Operation Blade" on accident and emergency attendances due to assault.

    OpenAIRE

    Bleetman, A; Perry, C H; Crawford, R; Swann, I J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review assault victim attendance at the accident and emergency department of Glasgow Royal Infirmary before and after a police initiative to curb knife carrying and tackle violent assaults ("Operation Blade"). METHODS: Assault victim attendance was reviewed for the month before the implementation of Operation Blade and for one month a year later. The number of victims requiring treatment in the resuscitation room for stab wounds before, during, and after Operation Blade was also...

  7. Big Brother Or Trusted Allies How The Police Can Earn Community Support For Using Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    the American public can both benefit from and be threatened by law enforcement’s use of drones, the challenge for police, sheriff’s departments, and...technology.16 The report notes that technology can bring both benefits and risks for law enforcement agencies in their public safety and crime fighting...should “engage and educate communities” in a transparent dialogue about the costs and benefits , potential privacy risks, and accountability measures

  8. Aeroradiometric conducted by the Austrian police

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timal, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Austrian Police has specially trained and equipped radiation protection personnel which are intervention personnel for radiological emergencies, following the law of the Intervention Regulation, BGBl. II Nr. 145/2007. The training which consists of three consecutive courses follows the Intervention Regulation and the Austrian Standard S5207. It is held at the certified Security Academy of the Federal Ministry of the Interior in Traiskirchen near Vienna. As a follow-up training, there are special courses held for the conduction of aeroradiometric measures (radiation measurements by helicopters). All over Austria, the Police have ten aeroradiometric sets at their disposal which can be brought into action within almost no time. The contribution informs about the technics involved, the installation of the system in the helicopter and about the training for the aeroradiometric specialists. Furthermore, practical knowledge from flights conducted at trainings and exercises will be included. (orig.)

  9. The European Union as a Comprehensive Police Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Anthony Rozée

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has responded to changing security threats by seeking to increase cooperation between the law enforcement agencies of the Member States, granting further powers to Europol and other intelligence-sharing institutions, and by undertaking police missions beyond EU borders. The literature relating to EU policing is generally focused on the ‘internal’ and ‘external’ dimensions, or on specific aspects of police activity. This tendency to concentrate on narrow or isolated areas of policing has led to a significant gap regarding the broader analysis of the EU as a comprehensive police actor. Important questions about the nature of EU policing as a whole, as well as the contribution of policing activities to the EU’s security agenda, remain unexplored in the literature. This article aims to define what is meant by ‘comprehensive policing’ and to indentify criteria by which the comprehensiveness of EU-level policing may be measured. In addition to this, an integrated actorness/police comprehensiveness framework will be presented as a tool for assessing the EU as a comprehensive police actor.

  10. Building capability throughout a change effort: leading the transformation of a police agency to community policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J Kevin

    2007-06-01

    This case describes a change effort to move a police agency to become a community policing organization. The community policing effort was seen as a means to make a transformational change to become a learning organization with the goal of improving the delivery of police services. The case describes the steps taken to meet the new vision of community policing as well as the steps taken to deal with the challenges or realities of trying to make change happen. The lens for this case is the leadership role across the stages of change (exploration, planning, implementation, monitoring and institutionalization) in building capacity within the organization to sustain the change effort. The capacity building focused on incorporating systems thinking into the mindset of the members of the organization, breaking down the command and control mindset by building a new norm around high involvement of committed teams, and developing skill sets to support continuous learning and improvement in order to align organizational systems. A key lesson learned is that effective leaders do not just prepare an organization prior to a change effort. They must have the patience to constantly build the capacity for change among organizational members throughout the various stages of the change effort.

  11. Moving Toward the Future of Policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Partnerships, Response, and Assessment (CARPA) model, developed first by the Canadian Mounted Police, focuses on those five Table 2.1 Differences...of blood ties and kinship stretching across industries and geography that also constitutes several important places in the supply chain of Colombian...divided between agents and “support”—or, as some have put it, “agents and furniture .” And the “ furniture ” included intelligence analysts, along with

  12. Work hours and absenteeism among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Baughman, Penelope; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the cross-sectional association of paid work hours with episodes of work absence was examined in a cohort of police officers. Study subjects were participants from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009. Among 395 study participants with complete data, day-by-day work history records during the one-year period prior to date of examination were used to determine episodes of one-day and three day work absence. The Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine rate ratios (RR) of work absence. Analyses were also stratified by gender. A one-hour increase in total work hours was associated with 5% reduction in rate of one-day work absence (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 - 0.98) and with 8% reduction in rate of three-day work absence (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89 - 0.95). The association of total work hours with episodes of one-day work absence was significant only in men while the association with episodes of three-day work absence was evident in men and women. In conclusion, in this cohort of police officers, work hours were negatively associated with both durations of work absence (one-day, > or = 3 consecutive days).

  13. Teaching Style Preferences of Trainees at Police In-Service Training Sessions and Differences among Demographic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Studies in adult learning have increased and better developed in the past century. From them adult learning theory emerged, comprised of andragogy, self-directed learning, and transformational learning. The main purpose of this study is to measure the teaching style preferences of trainees at a mid-size police department. The second purpose is to…

  14. Daddy's Girl: Kurt Kondrich Gave Up His Career as a Police Officer to Fight for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    A take-charge "people person," Kurt Kondrich began his career in law enforcement in 1985, when he graduated with a criminology degree and landed a job with the Atlanta Police Department. Six years later, he became deputy sheriff in Fort Meyers, Florida, but missed his family in Pittsburgh. So in 1993, when he heard that his hometown police…

  15. High Rates of Police Detention Among Recently Released HIV-infected Prisoners in Ukraine: Implications for Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, Jacob M.; Bachireddy, Chethan; Soule, Michael; Kiryazova, Tetiana; Dvoryak, Sergey; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ukraine’s HIV epidemic, primarily affecting people who inject drugs (PWID), is expanding and transitioning despite free opioid substitution therapy (OST) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), two effective ways to reduce HIV transmission. Police detention not resulting in imprisonment, defined as police harassment, of PWID is common, but its prevalence and impact on health is not known. Method HIV-infected individuals (N=97) released from prison within one year were recruited and surveyed in two HIV-endemic Ukrainian cities about post-release police detention experiences. Data on the frequency of police detention, related adverse events, and impact on OST and ART continuity were collected, and correlates of detention were examined using logistic regression. Results Detention responses were available for 94 (96.9%) participants, of which 55 (58.5%) reported police detentions (mean=9.4 per person-year). For those detained while prescribed OST (N=28) and ART (N=27), medication interruption was common (67.9% and 70.4%, respectively); 23 of 27 participants prescribed OST (85.2%) were detained en route to/from OST treatment. Significant independent correlates of detention without charges included post-release ART prescription (AOR 4.98, p=0.021), current high-risk injection practices (AOR 5.03, p=0.011), male gender (AOR 10.88, p=0.010), and lower lifetime months of imprisonment (AOR 0.99, p=0.031). Conclusions HIV-infected individuals recently released from prison in Ukraine experience frequent police detentions, resulting in withdrawal symptoms, confiscation of syringes, and interruptions of essential medications, including ART and OST. Structural changes are urgently needed to reduce police detentions in order to control HIV transmission and improve both individual and public health. PMID:23769160

  16. United States Food and Drug Administration and Department of Defense shelf-life extension program of pharmaceutical products: progress and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed R; Kona, Ravikanth; Faustino, Patrick J; Gupta, Abhay; Taylor, Jeb S; Porter, Donna A; Khan, Mansoor

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD)-United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) shelf-life extension program (SLEP) was established in 1986 through an intra-agency agreement between the DoD and the FDA to extend the shelf life of product nearing expiry. During the early stages of development, special attention was paid to program operation, labeling requirements, and the cost benefits associated with this program. In addition to the substantial cost benefits, the program also provides the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research with significant scientific understanding and pharmaceutical resource. As a result of this unique resource, numerous regulatory research opportunities to improve public health present themselves from this distinctive scientific database, which includes examples of products shelf life, their long-term stability issues, and various physical and chemical tests to identify such failures. The database also serves as a scientific resource for mechanistic understanding and identification of test failures leading to the development of new formulations or more robust packaging. It has been recognized that SLEP is very important in maintaining both national security and public welfare by confirming that the stockpiled pharmaceutical products meet quality standards after the "expiration date" assigned by the sponsor. SLEP research is an example of regulatory science that is needed to best ensure product performance past the original shelf life. The objective of this article is to provide a brief history and background and most importantly the public health benefits of the SLEP. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. De-labelling self-reported penicillin allergy within the emergency department through the use of skin tests and oral drug provocation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwood, Joseph; Aguirrebarrena, Gonzalo; Kerr, Stephen; Welch, Susan A; Rimmer, Janet

    2017-10-01

    Self-reported penicillin allergy is common among patients attending the ED, but is a poor predictor of true immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillin. We hypothesise that with a combination of skin testing and drug provocation testing, selected patients can be safely de-labelled of their allergy. This prospective study enrolled a sample of patients presenting to an urban academic ED between 2011 and 2016 with a self-reported allergy to penicillin. Standardised skin prick and intradermal testing with amoxicillin and both major and minor determinants of penicillin was performed in the department. If negative, testing was followed by a graded oral challenge of amoxicillin over 9 days. The primary end point was the allergy status of participants at the end of the study. A total of 100 patients (mean age 42; standard deviation 14 years; 54% women) completed the testing. Of these, 81% (95% confidence interval 71.9-88.2) showed no hypersensitivity to penicillin and were labelled non-allergic. The majority (16/19) of allergies were confirmed by skin testing, with three suspected allergies detected by the oral challenge. Women were more likely than men to have a true penicillin allergy, with odds ratio of 4.0 (95% confidence interval 1.23-13.2). There were no serious adverse events. Selected patients in the ED who self-report an allergy to penicillin can be safely tested there for penicillin allergy, using skin tests and oral drug provocation testing. This testing allows a significant de-labelling of penicillin allergy, with the majority of these patients able to tolerate penicillin without incident. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  18. Past-year Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Opioid Prescriptions and Self-reported Opioid Use in an Emergency Department Population With Opioid Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Kathryn; D'Onofrio, Gail; Fiellin, David A; Chawarski, Marek C; O'Connor, Patrick G; Owens, Patricia H; Pantalon, Michael V; Bernstein, Steven L

    2017-11-22

    Despite increasing reliance on prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) as a response to the opioid epidemic, the relationship between aberrant drug-related behaviors captured by the PDMP and opioid use disorder is incompletely understood. How PDMP data should guide emergency department (ED) assessment has not been studied. The objective was to evaluate a relationship between PDMP opioid prescription records and self-reported nonmedical opioid use of prescription opioids in a cohort of opioid-dependent ED patients enrolled in a treatment trial. PDMP opioid prescription records during 1 year prior to study enrollment on 329 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria for opioid dependence entering a randomized clinical trial in a large, urban ED were cross-tabulated with data on 30-day nonmedical prescription opioid use self-report. The association among these two types of data was assessed by the Goodman and Kruskal's gamma; a logistic regression was used to explore characteristics of participants who had PDMP record of opioid prescriptions. During 1 year prior to study enrollment, 118 of 329 (36%) patients had at least one opioid prescription (range = 1-51) in our states' PDMP. Patients who reported ≥15 of 30 days of nonmedical prescription opioid use were more likely to have at least four PDMP opioid prescriptions (20/38; 53%) than patients reporting 1 to 14 days (14/38, 37%) or zero days of nonmedical prescription opioid use (4/38, 11%; p = 0.002). Female sex and having health insurance were significantly more represented in the PDMP (p Medicine.

  19. [Resistance to first-line drugs and major genotypic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the 3 French Department of the Americas: Profiles, evolution, and trends (1995-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, J; Berchel, M; Prudenté, F; Streit, E; Bomer, A-G; Schuster, F; Vanhomwegen, J; Paasch, D; Galbert, I; Valery, E; Aga, R; Rastogi, N

    2014-05-01

    This is the first overview on resistant and multidrug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in the French Department of the Americas (Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Guiana) over 17 years (January 1995-December 2011). A total of 1,239 cases were studied: 1,199 new cases (primary and multidrug resistance of 11.8 and 1.6% respectively), and 40 persistent (defined as cases with a previous history of positive culture over 6 months interval and whose spoligotypes remain unchanged), in which significantly higher proportions of resistance to at least isoniazid (22.5%, P = 0.002), rifampicin (20.0%, P < 0.001), and multidrug resistance (17.5%, P < 0.001) were observed as compared to new cases. The 281 spoligotypes obtained showed the presence of five major lineages, T (29.9%), LAM (23.9%), Haarlem (22.1%), EAI (7.1%), and X (6.7%). Two of these lineages, X and LAM, predominate among resistant and multidrug resistant isolates respectively (X: 10.5% of resistant isolates, P = 0.04; LAM: 42.3% of multidrug resistant isolates, P = 0.02). Four of the 19 major spoligo-profiles, corresponding to SIT 20, 64, 45, and 46, were significantly associated with drug resistance. Among them, genotype SIT 20, associated with monoresistance to isoniazid and multidrug resistance, would be actively and persistently in circulation, since 1999, in French Guiana, department in which one may also observe the presence of strains of M. tuberculosis phylogeographically associated to Guiana and Suriname (SIT 131 and SIT 1340).

  20. The Cannabis Infringement Notice scheme in Western Australia: a review of policy, police and judicial perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Adam; Hawks, David

    2005-07-01

    Western Australia (WA) became the fourth Australian jurisdiction to adopt a 'prohibition with civil penalties scheme' for minor cannabis offences when its Cannabis Infringement Notice (CIN) scheme became law on 22 March 2004. This study examined the attitudes and practices of policy makers, members of the law enforcement and magistracy and other judicial sectors involved in enforcing the new scheme, and their views as to its likely impact on the drug market. As part of the pre--post evaluation of the legislative reforms a sample of 30 police, other criminal justice personnel and policy makers have been qualitatively interviewed. Data were collected both at the pre-implementation stage (March and June 2003) and shortly after the Act became operational (mid-June 2004). The Western Australia Police Service's implementation of the CIN scheme has been extremely professional. However, these early results suggest that while the CIN scheme has been designed to take into account problems with similar schemes elsewhere in Australia, possible problems include: some operational police being unsure about the operation of the scheme; expected savings in police resources will probably be reduced by procedures which require offenders to be taken back to the station rather than issue notices on the spot as intended by the scheme's architects; probable net widening; problems with exercise of police discretion to issue a CIN; and public misunderstanding of the scheme. In the early months of the scheme understanding of the new laws among both police and members of the public was far from perfect. For the system to achieve the outcomes intended by legislators, it is essential that levels of understanding improve. Media and other campaigns to inform the public that cannabis cultivation and use remain illegal, and to warn about risks associated with cannabis use, should be extended. As it will be at least 18 months before the scheme is operationally settled in, the media and others

  1. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E, “police...

  2. Specialization in policing behaviour among workers of the ant Pachycondyla inversa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Fürst, Matthias Alois; Heinze, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    of the policing workers had active ovaries, so that policing did not incur a direct selfish benefit to the policer. This suggests that policing is subject to polyethism, just like other tasks in the colony. We discuss several hypotheses on the possible causes of this skew in policing tasks. This is the first non...

  3. Police Legitimacy and Compliance With the Law Among Chinese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyu; Liu, Jianhong

    2017-11-01

    The process-based model of policing garnered considerable support in the discourse on police legitimacy. However, findings are largely based on Western contexts, and little attention has been paid to the model advanced by Tyler that police legitimacy helps promote compliance. Using a high school sample ( N = 711) from China, we follow Tankebe's operationalization and examine the role of legitimacy in youth support for the police and whether legitimacy helps predict compliance with the law. Findings indicate that procedural justice and shared values are strong predictors of youth support to the police, and this support positively predicts compliance with the law. Distributive fairness exerts an independent effect on compliance while having been questioned by the police is negatively related to compliance.

  4. Remembrance of Things Past: Somali Roads to Police Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Hills

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Police reform is thought to require a police force to break with its past. This is notably so in the aftermath of conflict or regime change. In practice, however, most police forces are selectively reconstituted, and their development is influenced as much by legacy issues as by international standards filtered through local norms. This article uses the experience of Somalia’s three regional police forces to reconsider the relationship between past and present projects to build police authority and capacity, and what this says about institutional memory in the absence of documentation. In Somalia, as in other clan or tribal-based societies, police development is influenced by a blend of security levels, political imperatives, pragmatism, international resources and memories of past practices, with group experience playing a more significant role than institutional memory. The only identifiable general principle is the need for political settlements and tactical flexibility – that is, for stability.

  5. Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil Pesquisa sobre uso de drogas psicotrópicas em 12 unidades da Polícia Militar nos municípios de Goiânia e Aparecida de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Nascente Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. METHOD: Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n = 221 were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. RESULTS: The frequency of use was divided into: 1 lifetime use: tobacco - 39.9%, alcohol - 87.8%, cannabis - 8.1%, cocaine - 1.8%, stimulants - 7.2%, solvents - 10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants - 6.8%, LSD - 0.5%, Bentyl® - 0.5%, anabolic steroids - 5.4%; 2 use in the previous year: tobacco - 15.4%, alcohol - 72.9%, stimulants - 6.3%, solvents - 0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants - 3.7%; 3 use in the previous 30 days: tobacco - 14.5%, alcohol - 57.5%, stimulants - 5.0%, solvents - 0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants - 3.7%. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência do uso de drogas psicotrópicas por membros da Polícia Militar no Estado de Goiás, Brasil. MÉTODO: Estudo realizado de março a outubro de 2008 em 12 unidades da Polícia Militar dos municípios de Goiânia e Aparecida de Goiânia. Participantes voluntários (n = 221 foram entrevistados sobre uso de drogas utilizando-se questionário desenvolvido pelo Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID. A estatística descritiva foi usada para determinar a prevalência de uso de drogas lícitas e ilícitas na amostra estudada. RESULTADOS: A frequência de

  6. Behavioral Variables Associated with Obesity in Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    CAN, S. Hakan; HENDY, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has documented that non-behavioral variables (such as long work hours, exposure to police stressors) are associated with obesity risk in police officers, but limited research has examined behavioral variables that might be targeted by Employee Assistance Programs for police weight management. The present study compared non-obese and obese officers for behavioral variables found associated with obesity in other adult samples: physical activity (cardiovascular, strength-training, ...

  7. Policía Pacificadora, legitimidad y prácticas de ocupación territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Saborio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Pacifying Police Units (UPPs which, beginning in 2008, took over control of some of the favelas in Rio de Janeiro that were previously ruled by armed drugs gangs. Local authorities have implemented a “community and proximity police” program, in order to attain pacification and put an end to a violent and militarized approach to policing in marginalized urban areas. However, contrary to the institutional rhetoric, the pacification of the favelas has manifested itself as a militarized occupation with clear limits on its territorial reach and effectiveness. An analysis of police strategies and practices shows that the UPPs have not sought to convince the residents of the favelas to regard them as a legitimate force, a fact which in turn has been responsible for the major failure of the project: it has failed to put an end to the power of the gangs in these pacified territories. Therefore, this article contributes to the debate on the legitimacy of the police, one of the key subjects of the “policing studies” undertaken in the field of social sciences. Our observations are the result of a an ethnographic study of five months, during which the author observed the daily work of the policemen of three UPPs and conducted 93 indepth interviews with them and 25 with residents of the pacified favelas.

  8. Policing and Islamophobia in Germany: The Role of Workplace Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Mescher

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study starts from a recognition that the German police have a significant potential to promote integration in contemporary multiethnic Germany. It employs three measures of Islamophobic attitudes and contact quality amongst a sample of 727 German police officers, and relates these to measures of job satisfaction, political affiliation, individual responsibility, and recognition. The data reveal Islamophobia to be significantly linked to these variables. Detailed analyses indicate that the respondents’ experience of policing may produce levels of dissatisfaction that impacts upon their outgroup attitudes. The implications of this for initiatives to promote police-Muslim relations are explored.

  9. Police, anthropometry, and fingerprinting: the transnational history of identification systems from Rio de la Plata to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mercedes García; Galeano, Diego

    2016-12-01

    The article explores the transnational circulation of methods for identifying people in South America. It analyzes both the implementation of the anthropometric system at police departments in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil starting in the 1890s, as well as the criticisms that were aimed at this method when fingerprinting took hold in the region in the early twentieth century. In a context of a heavy worldwide flow of ideas, experts, and technologies in policing, "bertillonage" was discussed and underwent hybridization in Latin America. The history of the anthropometric system in these three countries involved many travels by physicians, jurists, and police agents to Paris, debates over its suitability to local contexts, and an open controversy about identification techniques.

  10. Corruption in the Kenya Police Force and Impacts on Kenyan Security: Investigating the Need for Police Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    been using the police culture, philosophy , and organization structure in the Police Service based on the British colonial security system. Such...reflects on the police corruption that wreaks the moral authority of law enforcement; thus, undermining the public trust and confidence in the law...economic growth emphasized in the Kenya’s vision 2030. Since independence, Kenya’s security structure, philosophy , and systems have been inherited and

  11. Relationship between the police and crime victims: An analysis of the process and the level of satisfaction with police work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klisarić Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this study was to investigate the level of satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. The aim of this research was to examine whether the police treat all victims of crime equally responsibly, or whether there is a significant difference in the satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. On an occasional sample of 150 examinees, we analyzed the level of satisfaction of crime victims in relation to the expectations of the police regarding the reported criminal offenses and then the level of satisfaction towards different aspects of work and conduct of the police, such as reporting crime to the police, environmental conditions of interview and human compassion/empathy of police officers. The results indicate a significant difference in the satisfaction of specified aspects of police work among different categories of victims. Most dissatisfaction was expressed by members of the LGBT community and convicted persons when they appear in the role of victims. The research makes recommendations for improving the quality of the work and behavior of the police towards victims of crime.

  12. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs No. 304

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-09

    50,000 and detained a man in Taman Sri Tebrau here yesterday. Johore Baru OCPD Superintendent A. Balaratnam told reporters that a police party led...by deputy OCPD [officer in charge of Police Department] (crime) David Madhavan laid ambush on a house follow- ing a tip-off from the public. They

  13. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs No. 300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-19

    Daraluman here yesterday evening. A six-man party led by the deputy OCPD [officer in charge of police department], acting ASP [assistant super...pans. Kulim OCPD Deputy Supt Raja Lope Bin Razman said police raided an uninhabited wooden house believed to have been used as a laboratory in Jalan

  14. Police Mental Health Partnership project: Police Ambulance Crisis Emergency Response (PACER) model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, David; Griffiths, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    To review internationally recognized models of police interactions with people experiencing mental health crises that are sometimes complex and associated with adverse experience for the person in crisis, their family and emergency service personnel. To develop, implement and review a partnership model trial between mental health and emergency services that offers alternative response pathways with improved outcomes in care. Three unique models of police and mental health partnership in the USA were reviewed and used to develop the PACER (Police Ambulance Crisis Emergency Response) model. A three month trial of the model was implemented and evaluated. Significant improvements in response times, the interactions with and the outcomes for people in crisis were some of the benefits shown when compared with usual services. The pilot showed that a partnership involving mental health and police services in Melbourne, Australia could be replicated based on international models. Initial data supported improvements compared with usual care. Further data collection regarding usual care and this new model is required to confirm observed benefits. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  15. Police Bodies and Police Minds: Professional Learning through Bodily Practices of Sport Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Ola; Rantatalo, Oscar; Stenling, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature concerned with bodily perspectives on professional learning by reporting on a study of Swedish police officers' sport participation as a form of occupational learning. The study seeks to answer how ideals of work practice and sport participation intersect, how professional learning is…

  16. Temperament vs. chronic fatigue in police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stępka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. Material and methods: We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Results: The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. Conclusions: The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. Med Pr 2015;66(6:793–801

  17. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.

  18. Information processing under stress: A study of Mumbai Police first responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajarshi Chakraborty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented terrorist attacks in India on November 26, 2008 tested conventional anti-terrorism response mechanisms of the law enforcement agencies. In this study we explore the information processing that governed the first response from the Mumbai Police department towards these attacks. This study was conducted through interviews and survey with officers from two distinct groups within the department. One of these groups played a strategic role (Control Room while the other played a tactical role (Zone 1 in shaping the early response that was critical in subduing the attacks. Our findings have been used to propose recommendations for law enforcement.

  19. EURO2008 - practical information from the police

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The Geneva cantonal police have set up a toll-free telephone line to deal with questions and requests from the public as rapidly and simply as possible. The number is 0800 800 844, and the line will be open from 8 a.m. to 2 a.m. every day from 2 June to 30 June 2008. 0800 800 844 Detailed security recommendations for the individual matches will be posted at http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite_en.asp

  20. EURO2008 - Informations utiles de la police

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    (English version next week) Durant le mois de juin, afin de garantir une proximité maximale, la Police cantonale genevoise répond à toutes les questions et sollicitations avec un numéro de téléphone vert gratuit du 2 au 30 juin 2008, de 08h00 à 02h00 au 0800 800 844 Vous trouverez toutes les informations utiles concernant la sécurité, match par match, sur le site http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite.asp

  1. For Black men, being tall increases threat stereotyping and police stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Neil; Gray, Kurt

    2018-03-13

    Height seems beneficial for men in terms of salaries and success; however, past research on height examines only White men. For Black men, height may be more costly than beneficial, primarily signaling threat rather than competence. Three studies reveal the downsides of height in Black men. Study 1 analyzes over 1 million New York Police Department stop-and-frisk encounters and finds that tall Black men are especially likely to receive unjustified attention from police. Then, studies 2 and 3 experimentally demonstrate a causal link between perceptions of height and perceptions of threat for Black men, particularly for perceivers who endorse stereotypes that Black people are more threatening than White people. Together, these data reveal that height is sometimes a liability for Black men, particularly in contexts in which threat is salient.

  2. Epidemiology of road traffic injuries in qassim region, saudi arabia: consistency of police and health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrimah, Issam; Midhet, Farid; Sharaf, Fawzi

    2012-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, road traffic accidents (RTA) are becoming a serious public health problem. Police reports are designed for legal purposes with very little information on the health consequences. Also, health system data include detailed health information, but not related or linked to the data obtained police reports. Examining the consistency of these sources is vital to build an accurate surveillance system that can track the risk factors and the health consequences, as well as establishing and evaluating prevention interventions. This study is intended to: ▪ Examine the consistency of health -registration data with the data gathered by the traffic police department.▪ Elucidate the magnitude, risk factors and outcome of RTI in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia,▪ Compare the pattern of accidents in Qassim with those at different regions of the Kingdom. Health care information was collected on visits of victims of road traffic accidents to emergency and outpatients' departments of the major hospitals in Qassim region during the year 2010. The information included the patients' demographics, and clinical characteristics. Traffic Police Department information was also collected on all accidents that occurred in the study region. A Questionnaire was also developed and pilot tested to collect data from a random sample of population attending hospital outpatient and Primary Health Care clinics. Data included previous involvement in road traffic accident, and information about any injury; fatality or disability due to these RTI. During the study period, road traffic death rate based on death registration data was almost twice as high as the rate reported by the police (P police-reported data during the study period, as opposed to a non-significant increase of 8% according to health registration data during the same period. Population Survey Information showed the overall age-sex-adjusted rate for non-fatal RTI was 20.7 (95% CI, 20.0 - 21.3)/100 persons/year. The rate

  3. [Predictors of drug-resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia: Are factors considered in health-care-associated pneumonia useful in the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Bonafonte, Olga H; Gil Olivas, Eva; Pérez Macho, Estefanía; Pacho Pacho, Cristina; Mateo Roca, Miriam; Casademont Pou, Jordi; Ruiz Hidalgo, Domingo

    2017-10-01

    To analyze factors related to drug-resistant pathogens (DRPs) in community-onset pneumonia (COP) and whether previously suggested criteria are useful in our emergency-department. Prospective 1-year study of adults coming to the emergency department for COP. We assessed the usefulness of criteria used in health-care-associated pneumonia (HCAP), as well the Shorr index, the Barthel index, and clinical suspicion of resistant pathogens. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We included 139 patients with a mean (SD) age of 75.9 (15.3) years; 63.3% were men. Forty-nine COP patients (35.2%) were at risk for DRP-caused pneumonia according to HCAP criteria; 43 (30.9%) according to the Shorr index, and 56 (40.3%) according to the Aliberti index. A score of less than 60 derived from the Barthel index was recorded for 25 patients (18%). Clinical suspicion of a DRP was recorded for 11 (7.9%). A DRP was isolated in 5 patients (3.6%) (3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 2, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified 2 predictors of DRP-caused COP: hospital admission within the last 90 days (odds ratio [OR], 8.92; 95% CI, 1.92-41.45) and initial arterial blood oxygen saturation (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.98). The AUC was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.85-0.98). The model identified 22 patients (16.8%) at risk for DRP-caused pneumonia. The positive and negative predictive values were 20% and 99.1%, respectively, for the model 90-day period (vs 8.7% and 98.9%, respectively, for criteria used in HCAP). Hospitalization within the 90-day period before a COP emergency and arterial blood oxygen saturation were good predictors of DRP in our setting. Criteria of DRP in HCAP, on the other hand, had lower ability to identify patients at risk in COP.

  4. Social Behaviour in Police Interviews: Relating Data to Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn; Linssen, Johannes Maria; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Theune, Mariet; Wapperom, Sjoerd; Broekema, Chris; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vincze, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a corpus of enacted police interviews to get insight into the social behaviour of interviewees and police officers in this setting. We (exhaustively) collected the terms used to describe the interactions in those interviews. Through factor analysis, we showed that the theories

  5. The effect of police on crime, disorder and victim precaution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Koning, P.W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Using individual data from a large-scale Dutch crime victimization survey, we are able to expand the analysis of the effect of police on crime to crimes types that do not easily find their way into police statistics, and to public disorder and victim precaution. To address heterogeneity and

  6. Development and validation of the Attitudes Towards Police Legitimacy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Joshua J; Estrada-Reynolds, Victoria; Nunez, Narina

    2018-04-01

    Although there is a substantial body of work examining attitudes towards the police, no measure has been developed to consistently capture citizens' beliefs regarding police legitimacy. Given that police conduct has garnered a great deal of attention, particularly in the last few years, the current research sought to develop a scale measuring perceptions of police legitimacy. Across multiple studies, items were created and the scale's factor structure explored (Study 1 and Study 2), the factor structure was confirmed (Study 3a), and the predictive validity of the scale was tested (Studies 3b-3d). Results provided evidence for a reliable and valid 34-item scale with a single-factor solution that predicted multiple outcomes, including justification of a police shooting (Study 3b) and resource allocation to a police charity (Study 3c), as well as correlations with self-reported criminal activity, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation (Study 3d). We hope this scale will be useful in the study of police legitimacy, expanding the current literature, and improving police-community relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A job-related fitness test for the Dutch police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, M.; Bakker, R. H.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Background The variety of tasks that characterize police work highlights the importance of being in good physical condition. Aims To take a first step at standardizing the administration of a job-related test to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of the core tasks of police

  8. Dialogic Reverberations: Police, Domestic Abuse, and the Discontinuance of Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…

  9. Purple vests. The origins of plural policing in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.

    2015-01-01

    This article increases the body of knowledge on the origins of plural policing in a continental setting, more specifically in Belgium. Compared to other European countries, Belgium occupies a unique position, which can be explained by its particular constitutional setting. While non-police public

  10. The Role of Leadership in Police Organizational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    came from my wife, Lynn. She continues to believe in my dreams . I love her very much. vii Table of Contents Page DEDICATION...Police Organizational Stress Dr. Martin Symonds published the first study of police officer stress in 1970 in the American Journal of Psychoanalysis

  11. Examining Police Strategic Resource Allocation in a Time of Austerity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth den Heyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of proactive policing has highlighted the need to ensure that the police utilise their resources both efficiently and effectively. Traditionally, police agencies have allocated resources in response to their operational demands or requirements, with the majority of resources being distributed in response to political demands and public calls for service. In recent years there has been a greater emphasis by police to deliver services proactively, and to direct resources to specific geographic areas of high crime or to specific crimes, and to apply intelligence led targeted policing initiatives. The changing operating environment to a public service ethos of accountability and ‘do more with less’ means that historical methods of allocating police officers may not meet an agency's strategic goals. This paper examines if an economic approach to allocating police strategic resources is an appropriate and equitable method in a time of austerity. This greater emphasis on proactive, rather than reactive policing, which also represents a shift from centralised control, underlines the need to ensure the efficient and effective use of resources.

  12. Fostering Student Police Officers' Creativity in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Aleksejeva, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The modern issues of global developmental trends require contemporary police officers to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of human safety in the constantly changing environment. Education provides student police officers with the appropriate skills and competences for innovation based on creativity.…

  13. Behavioral Variables Associated with Obesity in Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAN, S. Hakan; HENDY, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has documented that non-behavioral variables (such as long work hours, exposure to police stressors) are associated with obesity risk in police officers, but limited research has examined behavioral variables that might be targeted by Employee Assistance Programs for police weight management. The present study compared non-obese and obese officers for behavioral variables found associated with obesity in other adult samples: physical activity (cardiovascular, strength-training, stretching), sleep duration, and consumption of alcohol, fruit and vegetables, and snack foods. Participants included 172 male police officers who completed questionnaires to report height and weight, used to calculate body mass index (BMI = kg/m2) and to divide them into “non-obese” and “obese” groups. They also reported the above behaviors and six non-behavioral variables found associated with obesity risk: age, health problems, family support, police work hours, police stressors, police support. ANCOVAs compared each behavioral variable across obesity status (non-obese, obese), with the six non-behavioral variables used as covariates. Results revealed that cardiovascular and strength-training physical activity were the only behavioral variables that differed significantly between non-obese and obese police officers. The use of self-reported height and weight values may provide Employee Assistance Program with improved cost, time, and officer participation. PMID:24694574

  14. Police referrals at the psychiatric emergency service in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen-Pang; Wu, Chia-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Yang, Tsu-Hui; Liu, Tzong-Hsien; Chou, Pesus

    2015-12-01

    The police are the frontline workers in crisis situations involving patients with severe mental illness and act as a primary referral source for psychiatric emergency services (PES) in the community. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution and characteristics of police referral among psychiatric patients in Taiwan. The study cohort consisted of patients who visited the PES of Taipei City Psychiatric Center from January 2009 to December 2010. The associations between the factors of demographics, clinical characteristics, and psychiatric service utilization and police referral were evaluated. Among the 7656 psychiatric emergency visits, 3029 (39.6%) were referred by the police. These patients referred by police were more likely to be male and aged between 30 to 49 years. Clinical factors related to police referrals including a higher triage assessment level, chief problems included violence, disturbance, substance use, less anxiety, and a diagnosis of unspecified psychosis. The triage assessment level and chief problems assessed by nurses were major predictors. These patients tended to be referred from the catchment area and during the nighttime shift, were discharged during the daytime shift, and stayed longer in the PES. Disposition arrangements such as discharge against medical advice and involuntary admission were also associated with police referrals. Patients referred by the police to the PES were those with more severe psychiatric problems and illnesses assessed by psychiatric nurses and psychiatrists. They tended to have more complex service utilization at the PES. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. The Quality of Police Education: An AACJC Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James R.; Rasmussen, Howard M.

    These two symposium presentations are endorsed by the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges in response to the book, "The Quality of Police Education," which was prepared by the Police Foundation with support from the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. Specifically, the papers refute allegations made in the book…

  16. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, J.; Pollet, T.V.; Nettle, D.

    2014-01-01

    Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people's beliefs about a neighbourhood's social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared

  17. Introduction to the police scientific development branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botten, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Police Scientific Development Branch (Pdb) of the UK Home Office evaluates technologies, develops equipment and detection standards for the police and security communities. PSDB's guidance helps to protect critical sites, including nuclear sites, in the United Kingdom. PSDB evaluates doors, walls, fences, locks, glazing and other barrier to determine whether they meet national and European standards against conventional physical attack. PSDB also evaluates intruder-detection systems. If solutions for security problems do not exist commercially, it might help to develop them. Examples include computer machine-vision systems to guide a pan-tilt-zoom camera automatically, and to assess intruder alarms. PSDB's automatic alarm verification system (AMETHYST) is now being installed for test at a nuclear power station on England's south coast. PSDB has used its analysis of the effects of exploding bombs on building materials to influence building codes. The PSDB also evaluates technologies for crime investigation, surveillance, explosive detection and bomb search. PSDB uses its experience to help train security practitioners to select, specify, and audit security at critical sites, including sites that handle nuclear materials. PSDB's technologies and advice have helped to protect the UK against terrorist attacks. Its expertise can be made available to help meet other European needs. (author)

  18. Does Size Matter? Short and Tall Officers Policing the Streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of physical characteristics is rarely addressed in the literature on professional competence and authority. In police work it is almost taken for granted that height is advantageous in police work, despite a lack of research on the topic. This study examines how height may affect police inter-actions with the public and how short and tall men and women experience the importance of their height in patrol work. Results show that being tall was perceived as beneficial in patrol work. Furthermore, the authority of short police officers is challenged more often by the public, and short female police may have a particular focus on verbal communication. Tallness will probably be perceived as beneficial in fields in which physical conflicts arises.

  19. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  20. Police Spatial Big Data Location Code and Its Application Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Xiaoguang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rich decision-making basis are provided for police work by police spatial big data. But some challenges are also brought by it, such as:large data integration complex, multi scale information related difficulties, the location identification is not unique. Thus, how to make the data better service to the police work reform and development is a problem need to be study. In this paper, we propose location identification method to solve the existing problems. Based on subdivision grid, we design the location encoding method of police spatial big data, and choose domicile location identification as a case. Finally, the prospect of its application is presented. So, a new idea is proposed to solve the problem existing in the police spatial data organization and application.

  1. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs manufactured,...

  2. Job-specific mandatory medical examinations for the police force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Hulshof, C T J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-08-01

    Mandatory medical examinations (MMEs) of workers should be based on the health and safety requirements that are needed for effectively performing the relevant work. For police personnel in the Netherlands, no job-specific MME exists that takes the specific tasks and duties into account. To provide the Dutch National Police with a knowledge base for job-specific MMEs for police personnel that will lead to equitable decisions from an occupational health perspective about who can perform police duties. We used a stepwise mixed-methods approach in which we included interviews with employees and experts and a review of the national and international literature. We determined the job demands for the various police jobs, determined which were regarded as specific job demands and formulated the matching health requirements as specific as possible for each occupation. A total of 21 specific job demands were considered relevant in different police jobs. These included biomechanical, physiological, physical, emotional, psychological/cognitive and sensory job demands. We formulated both police-generic and job-specific health requirements based on the specific job demands. Two examples are presented: bike patrol and criminal investigation. Our study substantiated the need for job-specific MMEs for police personnel. We found specific job demands that differed substantially for various police jobs. The corresponding health requirements were partly police-generic, and partly job-specific. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Measuring Perceived Procedural Justice and Coercion among Persons with Mental Illness in Police Encounters: The Police Contact Experience Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…

  4. Developing a Peace Course in Police Studies: How a Culture of Peace Can Enhance Police Legitimacy in a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James Russell

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects my experiences developing a course within the Criminal Justice Technology Associates of Science degree program at Valencia College that fuses topics unique to peace and police studies. The key challenge in developing this course was in confronting the paradox of the police as instruments of both peace and conflict. In dealing…

  5. The Impact of Perceptions of Ethical Leadership Styles on Perceptions of Police Integrity Violations: The Case of Diyarbakir Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Timur

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main areas: first, the study evaluates whether the ethical leadership style of a direct supervisor has an impact on the police officers' perception of the integrity violations; second, the study scrutinizes whether police officers' moral judgment of integrity violations makes a difference in the amount of such violations. The…

  6. Evaluation of cutaneous drug reactions in patients visiting out patient departments of Indira Gandhi Government Medical College and Hospital (IGGMC and H, Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Hiware

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To detect cutaneous drug reactions through spontaneous reporting system in IGGMCand H, Nagpur and analyze them using standard assessment scales. Materials and Methods: An observational, prospective study was performed in patients attending dermatology OPD of IGGMC and H, Nagpur from 1 st June 05 to 31 st May 09. Patients were examined for cutaneous drug reactions (CDRs by spontaneous Adverse Drug Reaction reporting system. Results: Among 2693 total ADRs reported, 872 (33.04% were CDRs. Antimicrobials (55.5% were the main drugs involved followed by NSAIDs (18.56% and steroids (12.61%. Maculopapular rash (37.73% followed by fixed drug eruption (17.2% and urticaria (14.56% were the most frequently observed CDRs. The common drugs causing CDRs were cotrimoxazole (20.41%, topical steroids (betamethasone, ibuprofen (7.91%, ampicillin (6.54%, diclofenac (4.7% and iron dextran (3.44%. Conclusion : It was observed that commonly used drugs like antibiotics and NSAIDs lead to maximum number of CDRs. Hence strict vigilance is required while using them. This study provides a database of ADRs due to common drugs, which will help clinicians in safe use of these drugs.

  7. The Relationship Between the Frequency of Smoking and Depression among Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhusen Kutlu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this descriptive and cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between smoking status and depression of 492 police officers working at the Police Departments of Konya between 25th May 2006 and 15th June 2006. METHODS: A questionnaire was applied to determine the socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status. The depression level was evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. RESULTS: Of all 492 police participating this study, 467 (94.9% were men, 25 (5.1% women, mean age 37.39±6.50 (min=22, max=53, and 462 (93.9% were married. Of the participants in this study, 41.9% (n=206 were current smokers, %34.3 (n=169 never smokers, %23.8 (n=117 were ex-smokers and the quit ratio was %36.2. The lowest age at starting smoking was 7, the highest age was 44 and the median value was 18. The median value of the duration of smoking (years was 17. Social factors (environment, friend groups, etc. were the first reason to start smoking (46.6%, n=96. According to the level of nicotine addiction determined using the Fagerstrom score, the median value was 3. While gender, age, marital status, education level, being in dept had no effects on smoking status (p>0.05, living place (p=0.022, having a private car (p=0.018 and affording to pay the credit cards in time (p0.05, the frequency of depression level was significantly higher among the police who were in dept, did not have their own home and could not afford to pay their credit card debts in time (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The high level of depression has shown that police officers are at risk psychologically. It will be considerably beneficial to provide psychological support and consulting services to the police officers. An effective and comprehensive tobacco control program is urgently required for them. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 31-38

  8. The Relationship Between the Frequency of Smoking and Depression among Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhusen Kutlu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this descriptive and cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between smoking status and depression of 492 police officers working at the Police Departments of Konya between 25th May 2006 and 15th June 2006. METHODS: A questionnaire was applied to determine the socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status. The depression level was evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. RESULTS: Of all 492 police participating this study, 467 (94.9% were men, 25 (5.1% women, mean age 37.39±6.50 (min=22, max=53, and 462 (93.9% were married. Of the participants in this study, 41.9% (n=206 were current smokers, %34.3 (n=169 never smokers, %23.8 (n=117 were ex-smokers and the quit ratio was %36.2. The lowest age at starting smoking was 7, the highest age was 44 and the median value was 18. The median value of the duration of smoking (years was 17. Social factors (environment, friend groups, etc. were the first reason to start smoking (46.6%, n=96. According to the level of nicotine addiction determined using the Fagerstrom score, the median value was 3. While gender, age, marital status, education level, being in dept had no effects on smoking status (p>0.05, living place (p=0.022, having a private car (p=0.018 and affording to pay the credit cards in time (p0.05, the frequency of depression level was significantly higher among the police who were in dept, did not have their own home and could not afford to pay their credit card debts in time (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The high level of depression has shown that police officers are at risk psychologically. It will be considerably beneficial to provide psychological support and consulting services to the police officers. An effective and comprehensive tobacco control program is urgently required for them. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 31-38

  9. Experiences of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Policing in England and Wales: Surveying Police and the Autism Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Maras, Katie L; Hawken, Tamsyn; Mulcahy, Sue; Memon, Amina

    2016-06-01

    An online survey gathered the experiences and views of 394 police officers (from England and Wales) regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Just 42 % of officers were satisfied with how they had worked with individuals with ASD and reasons for this varied. Although officers acknowledged the need for adjustments, organisational/time constraints were cited as barriers. Whilst 37 % of officers had received training on ASD, a need for training tailored to policing roles (e.g., frontline officers, detectives) was identified. Police responses are discussed with respect to the experiences of the ASD community (31 adults with ASD, 49 parents), who were largely dissatisfied with their experience of the police and echoed the need for police training on ASD.

  10. A clean bill of health? The efficacy of an NHS commissioned outsourced police custody healthcare service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viggiani, Nick

    2013-08-01

    Police custody healthcare services for detainees in the UK are most commonly outsourced to independent healthcare providers who employ custody nurses and forensic physicians to deliver forensic healthcare services. A pilot was introduced in 2008 by the Department of Health to explore the efficacy of commissioning custody healthcare via the NHS, in the wake of the 2005-2006 shift of prison healthcare to the NHS. The objective was to improve quality and accountability through NHS commissioning and the introduction of NHS governance to the management and delivery of custody healthcare. This article discusses key themes that arose from the project evaluation, which focused on the commissioning relationship between the police, the NHS commissioner and the private healthcare provider. The evaluation observed an evolving relationship between the police, the local NHS and the front-line nurses, which was complicated by the quite distinctive professional values and ideologies operating, with their contrasting organisational imperatives and discordant values and principles. A key challenge for commissioners is to develop synergy between operational and strategically located stakeholders so that they can work effectively towards common goals. Government policy appears to remain focused on creating safe, supportive and humane custody environments that balance criminal justice and health imperatives and support the rights and needs of detainees, victims, professionals and the public. This remains an ambitious agenda and presents a major challenge for new criminal justice health partnerships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of Xen Hybrid Multiple Police Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Lin, Renhao; Zhu, Xianwei

    2017-10-01

    Virtualization Technology has attracted more and more attention. As a popular open-source virtualization tools, XEN is used more and more frequently. Xsm, XEN security model, has also been widespread concern. The safety status classification has not been established in the XSM, and it uses the virtual machine as a managed object to make Dom0 a unique administrative domain that does not meet the minimum privilege. According to these questions, we design a Hybrid multiple police model named SV_HMPMD that organically integrates multiple single security policy models include DTE,RBAC,BLP. It can fullfill the requirement of confidentiality and integrity for security model and use different particle size to different domain. In order to improve BLP’s practicability, the model introduce multi-level security labels. In order to divide the privilege in detail, we combine DTE with RBAC. In order to oversize privilege, we limit the privilege of domain0.

  12. Unmasking the health problems faced by the police personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Jahnavi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the health problems of the police personnel under Vijayawada police commisionerate 2. To make the health check ups regular and 3. To make the physical fitness programme mandatory for them.Study design: cross sectional study Methodology: Health check up was done for 617 police personnel from 12.11.09 to 4.12.09. In the morning hours, a group of junior doctors, paramedical staff and technicians visited the police dispensary to do the general check up, take blood samples and ECG. The following afternoon a group of specialists visited to check the same patients along with their reports to make the final diagnosis. Results: Out of 617 police personnel 259 (42% were overweight/obese, lack of physical activity was found in 397 (64% of them, alcohol consumption was present in 148 (24% and smoking in 136 (22% of the police personnel. Diabetes was diagnosed in 229 (37% and hypertension in 203 (33%. Anemia was detected in 154 (25%, visual abnormalities in 59 (10%, lipid abnormalities in 185 (30%, liver function test abnormalities in 31 (5%, ECG abnormalities in 25 (4%, renal function abnormalities in 6 (1%. Conclusion: A Physical fitness Schedule along with Stress alleviation techniques to be made mandatory for the police personnel to keep them physically and mentally fit, to perform critical job functions, to alleviate stress, and to improve their quality of life. Routine health checkups should be done to detect lurking dangers.

  13. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  14. Police trauma and cardiovascular disease: association between PTSD symptoms and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2006-01-01

    Although prior evidence exists concerning the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cardiovascular disease, few studies have examined associations of PTSD symptomatology and the metabolic syndrome in the high stress occupation of police work. The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors that have also been independently associated with psychological conditions. The aim of this study was to examine associations between the PTSD symptoms and metabolic syndrome in police officers. A stratified sample of 115 police officers was randomly selected from the Buffalo, NY Police Department. PTSD symptoms were measured with the Impact of Event scale (IES), divided into categories of subclinical, mild, moderate and severe symptom levels. The metabolic syndrome was considered present if three or more of its component parameters (obesity, elevated blood pressure, reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and abnormal glucose levels) were present in each officer. Results indicated a significantly increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among those officers in the severe PTSD symptom category compared with the lowest PTSD severity category (prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.31, 95% C.I. = 1.19 - 9.22). Adjustment for age did not alter the association appreciably (PR = 3.12, 95% C.I. = 1.15 - 8.50). Adjustment for several demographic and lifestyle factors (age, education, smoking, alcohol intake) reduced the magnitude of the prevalence ratio slightly for the severe versus subclinical PTSD category (PR = 2.69, 95% C.I. = 0. 79 - 9.13), with adjustment for age and education accounting for most of the attenuation (PR = 2.71, 95% C.I. = 0.99 - 7.37). Thus, officers with severe PTSD symptoms were approximately three times more likely to have the metabolic syndrome and education may account for some of this association.

  15. Drug Products in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Active drugs that have been reported by participating drug manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. All drugs are identified by National Drug Code...

  16. Cross-cultural Training of Danish Police Officers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Lorenzen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    . The empirical data for this case emanates from the collaboration between the Greenlandic and Danish police in 2015. Every summer, a group of Danish officers are sent to Greenland to assist the police force while local officers are on summer holidays. The case centers on a one-week course in January of 2015...... that is provided to the selected group of Danish officers going to Greenland the following summer. The main focus is kept on how a group of leaders from the Greenlandic police, with Danish and Greenlandic backgrounds, present the upcoming experience and work to the Danish officers, as well as the officers...

  17. Expanding Police Educators' Understanding of Teaching, Are They as Learner-Centred as They Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipton, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Police educators, that is, police and non-police teachers involved in recruit education and training, have traditionally suffered from a lack of organisational focus on developing their teaching and learning practices. The New South Wales (NSW) Police College, which is currently implementing Problem Based Learning (PBL), has begun to take a more…

  18. Medicaid Drug Rebate Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Product Data for Drugs in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. The rebate drug product data file contains the active drugs that have been reported by participating drug...

  19. Policing behaviors, safe injection self-efficacy, and intervening on injection risks: Moderated mediation results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Vera, Alicia; Martinez, Gustavo; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    We aim to use conditional or moderated mediation to simultaneously test how and for whom an injection risk intervention was efficacious at reducing receptive needle sharing among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSWs-IDUs) in Mexico. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial. A total of 300 FSW-IDUs participated in Mujer Mas Segura in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and were randomized to an interactive injection risk intervention or a didactic injection risk intervention. We measured safe injection self-efficacy as the hypothesized mediator and policing behaviors (being arrested and syringe confiscation) as hypothesized moderators. In total, 213 women provided complete data for the current analyses. Conditional (moderated) mediation showed that the intervention affected receptive needle sharing through safe injection self-efficacy among women who experienced syringe confiscation. On average, police syringe confiscation was associated with lower safe injection self-efficacy (p = .04). Among those who experienced syringe confiscation, those who received the interactive (vs. didactic) intervention reported higher self-efficacy, which in turn predicted lower receptive needle sharing (p = .04). Whereas syringe confiscation by the police negatively affected safe injection self-efficacy and ultimately injection risk behavior, our interactive intervention helped to "buffer" this negative impact of police behavior on risky injection practices. The theory-based, active skills building elements included in the interactive condition, which were absent from the didactic condition, helped participants' self-efficacy for safer injection in the face of syringe confiscation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Military Police Operational Harmonisation: The “Golden Hour” of Stability Deployments

    OpenAIRE

    Gary L. Jones

    2017-01-01

    When the threat level of foreign stability operations increases, military police units can make an effective contribution, especially when conducted with the Australian Federal Police. It is argued that, if Australian military police can apply police harmonisation techniques and improve their ability to conduct civilian-like policing duties, then their role in future rule-of-law operations are likely to be more effective.

  1. Transitional Journey Maps : Capturing the dynamics of operational policing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.J.; Van Egmond, R.; De Ridder, H.; Silvester, S.

    2013-01-01

    Operational police work can be characterized by the continuous switching between surveillance, responding to incidents, and office activities. Transitions between these activities are initiated by radio contact, messages on a mobile data terminal, or personal observations. The “information

  2. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE IN TRAFFIC POLICE OFFICERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.

  3. Seeking justice: Women's police stations in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... detail that Luz Marina Lezama Suazo was chief of the local women's police station ... regular stations and are staffed by specially trained officers, most of them women. ... Furthermore, the stations often lack adequate financial, human, and ...

  4. Police practices and perceptions regarding juvenile interrogation and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica R; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2007-01-01

    Recent media coverage has highlighted cases in which young suspects were wrongly convicted because they provided interrogation-induced false confessions. Although youth may be more highly suggestible and easily influenced by authority than adults, police are trained to use the same psychologically coercive and deceptive tactics with youth as with adults. This investigation is the first standard documentation of the reported interrogation practices of law enforcement and police beliefs about the reliability of these techniques and their knowledge of child development. Participants were 332 law enforcement officers who completed surveys about interrogation procedures and developmental issues pertaining to youth. Results indicated that, while police acknowledge some developmental differences between youth and adults, there were indications that (1) how police perceive youth in general and how they perceive and treat them in the interrogation context may be contradictory and (2) their general view is that youth can be dealt with in the same manner as adults. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The National Police Forces TEDAX-NRBQ speciality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.

    2010-01-01

    The National Police Force has a group specialising in nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical incidents, known as TEDAXNRBQ. The Nuclear Safety Council cooperates closely with this group on nuclear safety and radiological protection matters. (Author)

  6. Development and Reform of the Iraqi Police Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfaff, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This paper will seek to show how social, political, cultural, and environmental factors have combined to impede Iraqi police development in ways that are predictable, understandable, and, with external help, resolvable...

  7. Development and Reform of the Iraqi Police Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfaff, Tony

    2008-01-01

    .... The corruption and abuse found in the Iraqi police services cannot simply be explained by poor leadership, the actions of a few corrupt individuals, or even the competing agendas of the various...

  8. Is met Predictive Policing de heilige graal gevonden?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, S.K.; Vries, A. de

    2016-01-01

    Het politiewerk gaat ingrijpend veranderen door de invoering van Predictive Policing. Door verfijnde algoritmen los te laten op big data over eerdere incidenten – en die hoeveelheid gegevens neemt alleen maar toe – kan de politie straks misdaden voorspellen.

  9. Evaluating the police service quality for handling traffic crash reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2017-01-01

    at the police service quality for handling the reporting of traffic crashes. Design/methodology/approach This study introduces a novel approach to evaluate service quality that combines multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) with latent class analysis (LCA). Moreover, this study presents the design of a web....../value This study advances the knowledge about police service quality with a novel expert-based decision support tool based on SERVQUAL, MCDA and LCA, demonstrates its applicability in countries with a high-police service, and opportunities and barriers for increasing the crash reporting rate....... participated in the survey that yielded 86 complete responses. Findings The novel approach was successfully applied and its implementation demonstrated the usefulness of the tool even in countries with a high police service. Results showed that the participating stakeholders perceived human factors as more...

  10. Medico-legal documentation South African Police Services forms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information to the court and to be an educator. S Afr Fam ... Keywords: forensic medicine, medico-legal, legal documentation, assault, sexual assault, under the influence. Abstract .... Documentation in the absence of a South African Police.

  11. [Stress: diagnosis of military police personnel in a Brazilian city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcos; Júnior, Horácio Accioly; Oliveira, José; Maia, Eulália

    2007-04-01

    To diagnose the occurrence and stage of stress among military police enlisted personnel and officers in the city of Natal (the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), and to determine the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms. This cross-sectional descriptive study investigated a sample of 264 individuals from a population of 3,193 military personnel from the Natal police command. The data were collected between June 2004 and January 2005 using Lipp's Adult Stress Symptoms Inventory (Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp). The research assessed: (1) presence of stress, (2) the stage of stress (alert, resistance, near-burnout, and burnout), (3) the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms, and (4) the relationship between stress and police unit, rank, gender, drinking, smoking, educational level, marital status, age, years of police service, and salary. No stress symptoms were found in 52.6% of the sample; 47.4% had symptoms. Of the 47.4% of the police personnel with stress symptoms, they were distributed as: 3.4% in the alert stage, 39.8% in the resistance stage, 3.8% in the near-burnout stage, and 0.4% in the burnout stage. Psychological symptoms were recorded in 76.0% of the police personnel with stress, and physical symptoms in 24.0% of them. Of the variables investigated, only gender was related to stress (P = 0.0337), with the female police personnel being more likely to suffer from stress. The levels of stress and symptoms do not indicate a critical situation of fatigue. However, it is recommended that the police take preventive actions, including implementing an effective program for the diagnosis of, training on, and control of stress.

  12. POLICE OFFICE MODEL IMPROVEMENT FOR SECURITY OF SWARM ROBOTIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on aspects of information security for group of mobile robotic systems with swarm intellect. The ways for hidden attacks realization by the opposing party on swarm algorithm are discussed. We have fulfilled numerical modeling of potentially destructive information influence on the ant shortest path algorithm. We have demonstrated the consequences of attacks on the ant algorithm with different concentration in a swarm of subversive robots. Approaches are suggested for information security mechanisms in swarm robotic systems, based on the principles of centralized security management for mobile agents. We have developed the method of forming a self-organizing information security management system for robotic agents in swarm groups implementing POM (Police Office Model – a security model based on police offices, to provide information security in multi-agent systems. The method is based on the usage of police station network in the graph nodes, which have functions of identification and authentication of agents, identifying subversive robots by both their formal characteristics and their behavior in the swarm. We have suggested a list of software and hardware components for police stations, consisting of: communication channels between the robots in police office, nodes register, a database of robotic agents, a database of encryption and decryption module. We have suggested the variants of logic for the mechanism of information security in swarm systems with different temporary diagrams of data communication between police stations. We present comparative analysis of implementation of protected swarm systems depending on the functioning logic of police offices, integrated in swarm system. It is shown that the security model saves the ability to operate in noisy environments, when the duration of the interference is comparable to the time necessary for the agent to overcome the path between police stations.

  13. Police as contributors to Healthy Communities: Aiken, South Carolina.

    OpenAIRE

    Frommer, P; Papouchado, K

    2000-01-01

    In Aiken, South Carolina, community policing has led to numerous innovative programs that have contributed to a healthy community. The MOMS and COPS (Managing Our Maternity System with Community Oriented Policing System) program has played a significant part in the county's 50% decrease in infant mortality since 1989 and contributed to Aiken's designation as an All-America City in 1997. Other programs include a mentoring program for at-risk teen girls; instant crime reporting with donated cel...

  14. Working hours and common mental disorders in English police officers

    OpenAIRE

    Houdmont, Jonathan; Randall, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England.\\ud Aims: An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD).\\ud Methods: Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their ...

  15. Crime, poverty and police corruption: a review of issues

    OpenAIRE

    Andvig, Jens Chr.; Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge

    2008-01-01

    Crime and the fear of being hit by crime and small-scale violence are key economic and social problems in most developing countries, not least felt strongly by the poor. Extensive corruption in the police, experienced or perceived, contributes seriously to the problem. A key question raised in the paper is: How is police corruption linked to the wider processes of development - including crime, violence and poverty? The paper examines (i) how and why corruption may arise in the daily routines...

  16. "What makes you think you have special privileges because you are a police officer?" A qualitative exploration of police's role in the risk environment of female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan G; Footer, Katherine; Illangasekare, Samantha; Clark, Erin; Pearson, Erin; Decker, Michele R

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, female sex workers (FSWs) have high rates of HIV. Many factors that escalate their risk lay outside of their control, primarily in the environments in which they practice sex. An understudied yet powerful risk environment is that of police. We qualitatively explored sex workers' interactions with police in their personal and professional lives. Thirty-five FSWs were purposively sampled in Baltimore, MD, in 2012. Women discussed experiences of police verbal harassment, sexual exploitation, extortion, and a lack of police responsiveness to 911 calls in emergencies, largely partner violence. Women's mistrust of police was often developed at an early age and further reinforced by interactions in their personal and professional lives. The study underscores the need for targeting police in reducing sex workers' HIV and other risks. The case for police's role in generating risk is evident, which could be addressed through structural interventions targeting both police practices and policies.

  17. The ways of police cadets’ social competence evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kiikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article analysis of general theoretic approaches towards competent and motivated behavior definitions, the model of police officer social competence was proposed along with the ways of its study. Based on development theory conception the initial validation of social competence logical system as a mean of cadets’ social competence evaluation was considered in the article. Additionally, the determination of personality development level as possibility for definition and evaluation of cadets’ social competence based on social behavior theory perspectives was considered. As well the social features of social competence of law­enforcement officers were discussed and the theoretical construction for schematized representation of police cadets’ social competence structure is presented. The model includes: social norms related to police activity; motivation to socially­oriented activity; social intelligence, as integrative characteristic of cognitive and operational processes; emotional steadiness and communication skills. It was stated that the main characteristic of police cadets’ social competence is efficiency of interaction between police and community. The other important factor influencing social competence is professional activity and in our case it is law­enforcement. The social environment of departmental educational institution was explored as a main factor contributing to development of police cadets’ social competence components.

  18. Police officers' perceptions and experiences with mentally disordered suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxburgh, Laura; Gabbert, Fiona; Milne, Rebecca; Cherryman, Julie

    Despite mentally disordered suspects being over-represented within the criminal justice system, there is a dearth of published literature that examines police officers' perceptions when interviewing this vulnerable group. This is concerning given that police officers are increasingly the first point of contact with these individuals. Using a Grounded Theory approach, this study examined 35 police officers' perceptions and experiences when interviewing mentally disordered suspects. Current safeguards, such as Appropriate Adults, and their experiences of any training they received were also explored. A specially designed questionnaire was developed and distributed across six police forces in England and Wales. Nine conceptual categories emerged from the data that highlighted how police officers' level of experience impacted upon their perceptions when dealing with this cohort. As a consequence, a new model grounded within Schema Theory has emerged termed Police Experience Transitional Model. Implications include the treatment and outcome of mentally disordered suspects being heavily dependent on whom they encounter within the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Police Response to Children Present at Domestic Violence Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerin, Danielle D; Bostaph, Lisa Growette; King, Laura L; Gillespie, Lane Kirkland

    2018-01-01

    Police response to domestic violence (DV) has continued to change and expand over the past several decades. Although DV was originally considered a private matter, it now represents one of the most common calls for service received by police agencies. While police response to DV incidents has improved substantially, intervention when children are present remains an undeveloped area of research and practice. The present study examined 345 police reports from an agency in the Northwestern United States to explore police response to DV incidents when children are present. Regression analyses indicated that child presence was a statistically significant predictor of victim-directed intervention, victim-directed follow-up, and arrest although in differing directions. While child presence increased the odds of victim-directed intervention and victim-directed follow-up, it decreased the odds of arrest. Findings further indicated that the frequency of police interaction with children present at DV incidents was minimal. Based on these findings, recommendations for policy and practice are discussed.

  20. Psychiatric disorders are overlooked in patients with drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckow, Line; Linnet, Kristian; Banner, Jytte

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric disease is overlooked in drug users. Patients with both drug abuse and a psychiatric disease - dual diagnosis - suffer decreased compliance to treatment and decreased life expectancy compared with single-diagnosis patients. Identifying the patients among either drug addicts or mentally ill patients is difficult. All drug addicts autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in the years 1992, 2002 and 2012 were included. The group was divided into two subpopulations of possible dual diagnosis patients either according to police reports stating mental illness or to psychotropics found in the toxicology screening after autopsy. We found a rise in possible mental illness in both subpopulations in the study period. Drug addicts with psychotropics in the blood at the time of death increased from 3.1% in 1992 to 48.1% in 2012, and this group was significantly younger at the time of death than those without psychotropics in the blood. Suspected dual diagnosis patients have increased in number. They die earlier than their drug addict counterparts. Methadone remains the leading cause of death in all subpopulations. Possible causes are misuse of treatment and/or illegally bought methadone, wrongly assigned cause of death due to unknown tolerance and/or polydrug toxicity in combination with psychotropic medicine. none. not relevant.

  1. Management of the Romanian Police Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria-Liliana-Amelia Purda-Nicoară (Netotea-Suciu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In today's dynamic economic environment it is very important for organizations to viewtheir employees as a priority, since they may represent one of their most valuable assets. Althoughmany companies acknowledge the importance of the human factor for the success of the organization,there is sometimes a discrepancy between the company’s belief and the way it is implemented. Evenin periods of economic recession, organizations must not perceive the costs of training and retrainingof staff as arbitrary, a cost which may be reduced or eliminated, according to the budget available, butas an investment in a strategic resource, the results of which become more and more evident in timeand that determine the ability of survival, adaptation and development of the company in a rapidlychanging environment. Since over the last two decades the image of the Ministry of Administrationand Interior, and thus the image of the Romanian Police has depreciated considerably in the publicopinion, it is indispensable for the institution to focus intensely on staff training activities. For thisreason, it must attract the loyalty of skilled and motivated workforces that have the knowledge andability to perform the tasks required. The investment in people may not be sufficient for ensuring thequality and efficiency of services provided, but it certainly is a must.

  2. Helping the police with their inquiries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Anthony J.

    1995-09-01

    The UK Home Office has held a long term interest in facial recognition. Work has concentrated upon providing the UK police with facilities to improve the use that can be made of the memory of victims and witnesses rather than automatically matching images. During the 1970s a psychological coding scheme and a search method were developed by Aberdeen University and Home Office. This has been incorporated into systems for searching prisoner photographs both experimentally and operationally. The coding scheme has also been incorporated in a facial likeness composition system. The Home Office is currenly implementing a national criminal record system (Phoenix) and work has been conducted to define and demonstrate standards for image enabled terminals for this application. Users have been consulted to establish suitable picture quality for the purpose, and a study of compression methods is in hand. Recently there has been increased use made by UK courts of expert testimony based upon the measurement of facial images. We are currently working with a group of practitioners to examine and improve the quality of such evidence and to develop a national standard.

  3. Brigade Combat Team the World’s Police: Understanding the United States Army Brigade Combat Team’s role in Developing Foreign Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    construction of facilities such as training academies, police stations, arms rooms, and motor pools, which would be required by the host-nation police to...Zoellick, A Republican Foreign Policy. Sozer, M. Alper. 2009. Crime and community policing. Criminal Justice: Recent Scholarship. El Paso : LFB

  4. Community Policing in Latin America: Lessons from Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus-Michael Müller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Community policing programmes are widely perceived and promoted as an important solution for the pressing problems of insecurity in contemporary Latin American cities, and for improving citizen-police relationships. By drawing on the results of empirical fieldwork conducted in Mexico City, the article presents a critical analysis of the local community policing effort. The article demonstrates that this policing effort is overly determined by a local context, characterized by clientelism, political factionalism and police corruption, which therefore renders its contribution to a sustainable improvement of local accountability and police legitimacy unlikely. Against this background the article calls for more empirical studies on this topic and a greater sensitivity for the embeddedness of policing programmes within a wider political context.    Resumen: Colaboración ciudadana en América Latina: Lecciones de Ciudad de México  Los programas de colaboración ciudadana son ampliamente percibidos y presentados como una importante solución para los apremiantes problemas de inseguridad en las ciudades latinoamericanas de hoy, y para mejorar las relaciones entre la ciudadanía y la policía. Basándonos en los resultados de trabajo de campo realizado en Ciudad de México, en el presente artículo se ofrece un análisis crítico del programa local de policía comunitaria y se demuestra que está excesivamente determinado por un contexto local caracterizado por el clientelismo, las lealtades políticas y la corrupción policial. Por eso, el aporte del programa a un mejoramiento sustentable de la rendición de cuentas local y de legitimidad policial es improbable. Contra este telón de fondo, en el artículo se demandan más estudios empíricos sobre el tema y una mayor sensibilidad para la integración de los programas de policía comunitaria dentro de un contexto político más amplio.

  5. Policing the Void: Recreation, Social Inclusion and the Baltimore Police Athletic League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Bustad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore the relationship between public recreation policy and planning and the transformation of urban governance in the context of the Police Athletic League centers in Baltimore, Maryland. In light of contemporary discussions of the role of youth programs for sport and physical activity within post-industrial cities, the origination, development, and eventual demise of Baltimore’s network of Police Activity League centers is an instructive, if disheartening, saga. It illustrates the social and political rationales mobilized in justifying recreation policy and programming, the framing of sport and physical activity as preventative measures towards crime and juvenile delinquency, and the precarity of such initiatives given the efficiency-driven orthodoxies of neoliberal urban entrepreneurialism (Harvey, 1989. This analysis emphasizes how the PAL centers were designed to ‘fill the void’ left by a declining system of public recreation, thereby providing an example of a recreation program as part of the “social problems industry” (Pitter & Andrews 1997.

  6. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  7. Metallurgy Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The activities of the Metallurgy Department at Risø during 1981 are described. The work is presented in three chapters: General Materials Research, Technology and Materials Development, Fuel Elements. Furthermore, a survey is given of the department's participation in international collaboration...

  8. Low-threshold Care for Marginalised Hard Drug Users: Marginalisation and Socialisation in the Rotterdam Hard Drug Scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Poel (Agnes)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSince the early 1990s several developments have taken place in the hard drug scene in the Netherlands. Key elements in these developments were harm reduction measures, introduction of crack, open drug scenes, police interventions, drug-related nuisance, low-threshold care facilities and

  9. Lie detection based on nonverbal expressions - study of the Czech Republic Police employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedvika Boukalová

    2014-12-01

    information or who are motivated to lie. The procedure: The material consisted of short video sections originating from real investigation of serious crime. After the pilot study the stimuli material has been created consisting of 21 video-sections lasting 30 seconds, the sound of the videos was filtered, so the paraverbal characteristics were maintained, but the content of the speech was unclear. The research sample consisted of 197 police officers from 5 departments. Selected results: The TRUTH detection accuracy - (the accuracy of correct evaluation of the truth-telling people on the video was situated between 0,25 (25% to 0,75 (75%. The LIE detection accuracy - was situated between 0,44 (44% to 1 (100%. The overall accuracy (means combined accuracy of lie and truth detection was situated between 0,33 (33% and 0.86 (86%. 5 respondents obtained results, that were above the average of the group in all the three categories (truth, lie, overall. The discussion: The results indicate that (among others we can find so called lie bias among the police workers, which is common in the similar professional settings and it involves higher expectations of lie and deceit on the side of the communication partner. In the common population the opposite tendency - so called truth bias - tendency to evaluate others (situations, behavior, statements as truthful is found. The study managed to find police workers, who obtained better results than guessing and also better than the average of the tested group. The main limit of the study is probably the lack of repeated retest of the sample. This and other findings were involved into the police training focused on communication and lie during criminal investigation, which is not systematic in Czech Republic. The plan is to test also other professional groups in the future.

  10. Police interrogations through the prism of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Areh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches can be employed for information gathering from human sources, differing in their theoretical basis, goals, realisation, and ethical acceptability. The paper critically presents and compares two prevalent approaches to suspect interrogation used by the police. The older, prevalent interrogation approach focuses on obtaining suspects’ incriminating statements and admissions, which severely elevates the risk of false confessions. Consequently, this interrogation approach is termed accusatorial or coercive since suspects are forced to admit to a crime. The newer interrogation approach is the information-gathering approach, also known as the investigative interview. It focuses on gathering accurate information in order to exclude or accuse a suspect in a criminal investigation. In comparison with coercive interrogation models, the information-gathering approach has a lower probability of false confessions since suspects are exposed to significantly lower levels of psychological pressure. Moreover, it is ethically more acceptable, has scientific grounds, enables the gathering of more accurate information, and has been found to be at least as effective as the coercive approach in criminal investigations. The investigative interview relies mainly on findings from social psychology. An analysis of coercive interrogation models reveals that they have no scientific basis and as such rely mainly on uncorroborated common-sense assumptions from authorities. In developed countries, coercive interrogation models are increasingly being replaced by the information-gathering approach, a trend connected with the enforcement of high human rights standards and a higher awareness of risks associated with coercive interrogation methods by the general public, academia, and professionals alike.

  11. Police Officers Can Safely and Effectively Administer Intranasal Naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rian; O'Donnell, Daniel; Ray, Bradley; Rusyniak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Opioid overdose rates continue to rise at an alarming rate. One method used to combat this epidemic is the administration of naloxone by law enforcement. Many cities have implemented police naloxone administration programs, but there is a minimal amount of research examining this policy. The following study examines data over 18 months, after implementation of a police naloxone program in an urban setting. We describe the most common indications and outcomes of naloxone administration as well as examine the incidence of arrest, immediate detention, or voluntary transport to the hospital. In doing so, this study seeks to describe the clinical factors surrounding police use of naloxone, and the effects of police administration. All police officer administrations were queried from April 2014 through September 2015 (n = 126). For each incident we collected the indication, response, and disposition of the patient that was recorded on a "sick-injured civilian" report that officers were required to complete after administration of naloxone. All of the relevant information was abstracted from this report into an electronic data collection form that was then input into SPSS for analysis. The most common indication for administration was unconscious/unresponsive (n = 117; 92.9%) followed by slowed breathing (n = 72; 57.1%), appeared blue (n = 63; 50.0%) and not breathing (n = 41; 32.5%). After administration of naloxone the majority of patients regained consciousness (n = 82; 65.1%) followed by began to breath (n = 71; 56.3%). However, in 17.5% (n = 22) of the cases "Nothing" happened when naloxone was administered. The majority of patients were transported voluntarily to the hospital (n = 122; 96.8%). Lastly, there was only one report where the patient became combative. Our study shows that police officers trained in naloxone administration can correctly recognize symptoms of opioid overdose, and can appropriately administer naloxone without significant adverse effects or

  12. How to improve interactions between police and the mentally ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen eKrameddine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic hands-on scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioural change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.

  13. Occupational stress, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K V; Smith, A P

    2016-08-01

    Police are exposed to a wide range of stressors and this is especially true in developing countries such as Jamaica. Exposure to psychosocial stressors and use of maladaptive coping styles can result in mental ill-health. To examine the relationship between work characteristics, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers and to test whether work characteristics are indirectly associated with mental health outcomes through perceived job stress and job satisfaction. Police officers from the Jamaican police force completed a questionnaire using a cross-sectional design. We analysed the data using hierarchical regression. The study group consisted of 134 police officers; the response rate was 94%. Negative work characteristics, lower levels of positive work factors and work support and emotion-focused coping styles were associated with increased levels of depression (F(8, 125) = 7.465, P health outcomes was mediated by perceived stress. Job satisfaction mediated the relationship between positive work characteristics and depression. Stress management and intervention programmes should address modifiable work conditions, monitor stress levels and reduce maladaptive coping. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  14. Bounded authority: Expanding "appropriate" police behavior beyond procedural justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Jackson, Jonathan; Tyler, Tom R

    2018-06-01

    This paper expands previous conceptualizations of appropriate police behavior beyond procedural justice. The focus of the current study is on the notion of bounded authority-that is, acting within the limits of one's rightful authority. According to work on legal socialization, U.S. citizens come to acquire three dimensions of values that determine how authorities ought to behave: (a) neutral, consistent, and transparent decision-making; (b) interpersonal treatment that conveys respect, dignity, and concern; and (c) respecting the limits of one's rightful power. Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, we show that concerns over bounded authority, respectful treatment, and neutral decision-making combine to form a strong predictor of police and legal legitimacy. We also find that legal legitimacy is associated with greater compliance behavior, controlling for personal morality and perceived likelihood of sanctions. We discuss the implications of a boundary perspective with respect to ongoing debates over the appropriate scope of police power and the utility of concentrated police activities. We also highlight the need for further research specifically focused on the psychological mechanisms underlying the formation of boundaries and why they shape the legitimacy of the police and law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Behaviour of police officials towards mentally ill persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Juras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate the behaviour of police towards mentally ill individuals de lege lata and de lege ferenda. For this, they use an analysis of the existing Protection and Advocacy for the Mentally Ill Act, the draft of the new law which regulates that area, examples from practice, statistical data and the viewpoints of the legal and medical professions. This article points out the most frequent application of police powers when dealing with mentally ill persons and certain quandaries about the practice of admitting mentally ill persons into psychiatric institutions when they are a danger to themselves and others, that is, in the case of providing help to health workers dealing with mentally ill persons. Statistical data for the area of the Republic of Croatia point to a slight trend in the increase of police interventions over the last five years and also in the professional police approach towards such individuals. In conclusion, the coordinated activity of all services dealing with mentally ill persons is proposed as are additional education and the specialisation of police officials dealing with such persons. Furthermore, the need for balance between the necessity to protect the rights of mentally ill persons and the protection of rights and the security of the surroundings in which such persons live and the security of the entire community are pointed out.

  16. Pulmonary function test in traffic police personnel in Pondicherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Pravati; John, Robert A; Dutta, T K; Pal, G K

    2010-01-01

    Traffic policemen working in the busy traffic signal areas get exposed to the vehicular emissions for years together. The fumes, chemicals and particles present in the emission are reported to be damaging to the lung functions of these individuals. Since there were no data available on the PFT parameters of traffic police personnel of Pondicherry, this study was taken up to assess the effect of traffic air pollution on their pulmonary functions. PFT parameters were recorded in age- and BMI-matched 30 traffic police personnel (study group) and 30 general police personnel (control group) of male gender. As chronic smoking is known to be a critical factor in altering lung function, PFT parameters were compared between the smokers as well as nonsmokers of both the groups. In nonsmokers, there was significant decrease in VC (P traffic police personnel compared to the general police personnel. This may be due to exposure to vehicular pollution for several hours in a day for many years causing decreased functional capacity of the lungs and chronic smoking worsens the condition.

  17. A job-related fitness test for the Dutch police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strating, M; Bakker, R H; Dijkstra, G J; Lemmink, K A P M; Groothoff, J W

    2010-06-01

    The variety of tasks that characterize police work highlights the importance of being in good physical condition. To take a first step at standardizing the administration of a job-related test to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of the core tasks of police work. The principal research questions were: are test scores related to gender, age and function and are test scores related to body mass index (BMI) and the number of hours of physical exercise? Data of 6999 police officers, geographically spread over all parts of The Netherlands, who completed a physical competence test over a 1 year period were analysed. Women performed the test significantly more slowly than men. The mean test score was also related to age; the older a person the longer it took to complete the test. A higher BMI was associated with less hours of body exercise a week and a slower test performance, both in women and men. The differences in individual test scores, based on gender and age, have implications for future strategy within the police force. From a viewpoint of 'same job, same standard' one has to accept that test-score differences may lead to the exclusion of certain staff. However, from a viewpoint of 'diversity as a business issue', one may have to accept that on average, both female and older police officers are physically less tailored to their jobs than their male and younger colleagues.

  18. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs No. 286.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-24

    of a powerful drug ring operating in the country. The police will continue investigating. [Quito EL COMERCIO in Spanish 4 Feb 77 p 10 PA...as a result of the police raid. [Lima EL COMERCIO in Spanish 3 Feb 77 p 34 PA] COCAINE-PROCESSING LABORATORY—Arequipa, Peru, 31 Jan—The police have...grinding mills and an unspecified quantity of semi-processed plants. [Lima EL COMERCIO in Spanish 1 Feb 77 p 29 PA] COCAINE PASTE HAUL—Lima, 1 Feb

  19. 5 CFR 831.912 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA). (a) Who may elect. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed as...

  20. PREVALENCE OF NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS POLICE PERSONNEL COMING FOR HEALTH CHECKUP AT GOVERNMENT THENI MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Thirugnanam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Occupational settings and transport is the prominent sources of noise that affect health. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL is sensory neural hearing loss due to exposure to intense impulse or continuous sound. Exposure to noise can be occupational or non-occupational. The audiologic profile of NIHL is the presence of sensorineural hearing loss that is most pronounced in the high-frequency region between 3,000 Hz and 6,000 Hz of the audiogram and the greatest amount of hearing loss is typically around the 4,000-Hz region (i.e. 4,000 Hz dip.1 The main causes of hearing loss resulting in deafness in adults in India are excessive noise, age and ear infection. Although, occupational hearing loss is a well-recognized occupational condition arising from industries or occupations with exposure to high noise levels (e.g., airline crew,2 it has not been fully evaluated in occupations where the risk is not so overt such as the police force. Police officers are potentially exposed to multiple sources of noise including vehicle horns, gunfire, barking from police dog and traffic noise.3 The aim of the study is to study the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss amongst traffic police personnel who came for master health checkup. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 812 constables were examined. All individuals underwent a complete general, systemic and ENT examination to detect any obvious pathology, which may result in hearing loss. A detailed history was taken regarding the number of years of service in traffic branch, place of duty, past history of ear disease or intake of ototoxic drugs. Subjects suffering from preexisting ear disease such as CSO, OME, otosclerosis and suffering from URI has been excluded. Policemen suffering from hypertension and diabetes were also excluded. Remaining 774 was included in the study. This study was approved by the institutional ethical committee, Government Theni Medical College. Written consent was obtained from

  1. "I need to hear from women who have 'been there'": Developing a woman-focused intervention for drug use and partner violence in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Esther; Guthrie, K Morrow; Mello, Michael; Wetle, Terrie F; Ranney, Megan; Tapé, Chantal; Zlotnick, Caron

    2016-04-01

    Addressing violence and linking women to community services in parallel with drug change goals is critical for women with coexisting intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance use disorders (SUD). Our objective was to develop a Web-based intervention to address violence and drug use among women patients in the ED. The intervention was developed in a five-step process: 1) Initial intervention development based on selected theoretical frameworks; 2) In-depth interviews with the target population; 3) Intervention adaptation, with iterative feedback from further interviews; 4) Beta testing and review by an advisory committee of domestic violence advocates; 5) Acceptability and feasibility testing in a small open trial. Themes supported the selection of MI and empowerment models but also guided major adaptations to the intervention, including the introduction of videos and a more robust booster phone call. Participants in the open trial reported high scores for satisfaction, usability, and consistency with essential elements of motivational interviewing. This qualitative work with our target population of women in the ED with SUD experiencing IPV underscored the importance of connection to peers and empathetic human contact. We developed an acceptable and feasible intervention distinct from prior ED-based brief interventions for substance-using populations.

  2. Methods and Technologies Supporting Information and Knowledge Management on the Example of the Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygielska Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work refers to one of the hierarchical organizations, which is the police. The example of the Municipal Crowd Management (Stołeczne Stanowisko Kierowania; SSK has been chosen as the basis for a detailed analysis presented in this article. The Department, as the place where the work of many individuals, departments and services is integrated, must demonstrate a high level of knowledge, competence, and coordination activities. The innovative technologies appear to be the unquestionable support. They should primarily serve the needs of managing knowledge on the efficient actions in relation to the socio- market requirements. In case of this organization, these solutions play a vital part in the creation of intelligent organization to support its activities focused on delivering effective public services and thus contributing to build the knowledge economy in Poland. An attempt to present the discussed issues has been taken in this study.

  3. Sex and monstrosity. A genealogy of the sexual police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón Fernández de Rota Irimia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay outlines different forms of Western sexual police from the Seventeen Century to the present. The genealogy will approach the problem from the point of view of hermaphroditism and transvestism. By “sexual police” I mean the determinations, forms, norms and ethos that defines sex through times, as well as the categories of which it is composed, and what is permitted and is possible to do, see and say through these sexual categories. This essay, pays special attention to the fears and its embodiment in some paradigmatic figures. In particular, it analyzes the historical meaning of sexual “monstrosity”, key to understand the different polices, including the own sexual police of gender feminism.

  4. Shift Work and Sleep Quality Among Urban Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine association of shift work with sleep quality in police officers. Methods Data were obtained from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study (n =363). An electronic work history database was used to define shift as day, afternoon, or night for three durations: past month, 1 year, and 15 years. Sleep quality was determined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results The overall prevalence of poor sleep quality was 54%; 44% for day, 60% for afternoon, and 69% for night shift. Poor sleep quality was 70% more prevalent among night-shift officers (P shift (P =0.003) relative to officers working on the day shift. Conclusions Night and evening work schedules are associated with elevated prevalence of poor sleep quality among police officers. PMID:26949891

  5. Repairing Organisational Legitimacy : the Case of the New Zealand Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Samkin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates how the New Zealand Police use non-financial annual report disclosures in response toadverse media publicity. This longitudinal case study spans the reporting periods ending 30 June 2000through to 30 June 2007. It involves a detailed examination of the narrative disclosures and images containedin the annual reports, including the Commissioner’s Overview and the Outcome Reports during this time.Three controversial items covered by the media were traced through the annual reports to establish whetherthe New Zealand Police use image repair discourse supplemented by semiotics in non-financial annual reportdisclosures to repair organisational legitimacy. The analysis found that non-financial disclosures together withimage repair discourse strategies were used by the New Zealand Police, a public sector agency, to repairorganisational legitimacy. This paper provides a valuable contribution to researchers and practitioners as itextends the understanding of how public sector agencies use non-financial annual report disclosures.

  6. Evaluating the police service quality for handling traffic crash reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The phenomenon of traffic crash under-reporting has been extensively documented in terms of its extent, but not equally analysed in terms of its reasons. As police distrust has been recently identified as a major reason for crash under-reporting, the purpose of this paper is to look...... at the police service quality for handling the reporting of traffic crashes. Design/methodology/approach This study introduces a novel approach to evaluate service quality that combines multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) with latent class analysis (LCA). Moreover, this study presents the design of a web......-based survey on the basis of the SERVQUAL approach to detecting strengths, opportunities and threats with crash reporting to the police at a strategic level. Transportation stakeholders (e.g. researchers, authorities, consultants, NGO representatives, suppliers) with an interest in traffic safety in Denmark...

  7. External Police Oversight in Mexico: Experiences, Challenges, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Guzmán Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After nearly 20 years of ‘reformist’ measures, the police in Mexico continues to be an ineffective, unreliable, and ‘far from citizen’ institution. The efforts made so far have faded amongst political interests and agendas; multidimensional frameworks out-dated at both conceptual and interagency levels; short-sighted competition for resources; evaluation and performance monitors that are handicapped by bureaucratic inaction; and weak transparency and accountability that perpetuate the opacity in which the police operate. In this context, the agenda of external police oversight is still at a rudimentary stage. However, there are several initiatives that have managed to push the issue to the frontier of new knowledge and promising practices. This paper outlines the experiences and challenges of—as well as the lessons learned by—the Institute for Security and Democracy (Insyde A.C., one of the most recognised think tanks in Mexico.

  8. Resultados operacionales de la Policía Nacional, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervyn Norza Céspedes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento presenta la descripción estadística de los logros operativos de la Policía Nacional en el año 2010, los cuales se ajustan a las estrategias gubernamentales e institucionales encaminadas al despliegue efectivo de acciones preventivas, disuasivas y de control. Asimismo, contiene los aspectos relevantes de la principal estrategia operativa de la Policía Nacional, denominada Plan Nacional de Vigilancia por Cuadrantes, y los alcances del control social formal ejercido por la Policía sobre los delincuentes y la delincuencia; además, pasa por una revisión de los postulados teóricos y empíricos, tanto del control social como de las características de los victimarios, la impunidad y las herramientas para combatir el delito.

  9. The interiorization of Brazilian violence, policing, and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Steeves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian homicide rates are among the highest in the world, inclusive of actual war zones. However, the character of Brazil's violence is changing. Recent analyses highlight a trend of dispersion of violence such that homicide rates in urban areas, traditionally the most violent places, have stagnated and declined while smaller cities and rural areas experienced a marked increase. An incipient explanation is that this trend is related to greater economic dynamism in the smaller cities, unaccompanied by increased policing. This article's empirical analysis uses locational Hoover indexes to express the dispersions of violence and economic activity, and also generates a proxy to measure the geographic concentration of police forces. Using panel data across all 26 states from 1995 to 2011, we find evidence of a correlation between dispersion of violence and GDP to less urban areas, and ambiguous results regarding police concentration.

  10. Global Policing and the Case of Kim Dotcom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Palmer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In early 2012, 76 heavily armed police conducted a raid on a house in Auckland, New Zealand. The targets were Kim Dotcom, a German national with a NZ residency visa, and several colleagues affiliated with Megaupload, an online subscription-based peer-to-peer (P2P file sharing facility. The alleged offences involved facilitating unlawful file sharing and United States federal criminal copyright violations. Following the raid, several court cases provide valuable insights into emerging ‘global policing’ practices (Bowling and Sheptycki 2012 based on communications between sovereign enforcement agencies.  This article uses these cases to explore the growth of ‘extraterritorial’ police powers that operate ‘across borders’ (Nadelmann 1993 as part of several broader transformations of global policing in the digital age.

  11. Inmigración, ciudad y policía

    OpenAIRE

    Requena Hidalgo, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    No es cierto que la policía haya existido siempre. Al menos, pienso que la afirmación anterior debe matizarse pues, en la forma en que hoy la conocemos, la policía, como institución y como actividad, es un invento reciente, un desarrollo propio del siglo XIX que hunde sus raíces, todo lo más, en la Ilustración. Tanto en su organización como en su funcionamiento, la explicación de la policía contemporánea no puede llevarse a cabo sin tomar en consideración los movimientos migratorios que motiv...

  12. Depression literacy and help-seeking in Australian police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola J; Milner, Allison J; Martin, Angela; Too, Lay San; Papas, Alicia; Witt, Katrina; Keegel, Tessa; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2018-02-01

    To assess depression literacy, help-seeking and help-offering to others in members of the police force in the state of Victoria, Australia. All staff in police stations involved in a cluster randomised controlled trial of an integrated workplace mental health intervention were invited to participate. Survey questions covered sociodemographic and employment information, recognition of depression in a vignette, stigma, treatment beliefs, willingness to assist co-workers with mental health problems, help-giving and help-seeking behaviours, and intentions to seek help. Using the baseline dataset associated with the trial, the paper presents a descriptive analysis of mental health literacy and helping behaviours, comparing police station leaders and lower ranks. Respondents were 806 staff, comprising 618 lower-ranked staff and 188 leaders. Almost 84% of respondents were able to correctly label the problem described in the vignette. Among those who had helped someone with a mental health problem, both lower ranks and leaders most commonly reported 'talking to the person' although leaders were more likely to facilitate professional help. Leaders' willingness to assist the person and confidence in doing so was very high, and over 80% of leaders appropriately rated police psychologists, general practitioners, psychologists, talking to a peer and contacting welfare as helpful. However, among both leaders and lower ranks with mental health problems, the proportion of those unlikely to seek professional help was greater than those who were likely to seek it. Knowledge about evidence-based interventions for depression was lower in this police sample than surveys in the general population, pointing to the need for education and training to improve mental health literacy. Such education should also aim to overcome barriers to professional help-seeking. Interventions that aim to improve mental health literacy and help-seeking behaviour appear to be suitable targets for better

  13. Judicial police, functions and its development in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asllan Dogjani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at a consistent search of the opinions about the judicial police as one of the subjects, contained in the Albanian criminal procedural law. In article 30 of the Albanian Criminal Procedure Code, are sanctioned the functions, division, addiction and judicial police duties. In the initial phase, the preliminary investigations are the basis of criminal proceedings. This phase includes evidences that cannot be replicated, the security measures are set, it is performed the notice of suit and necessary datas are collected. Searching, tracking, capture and bringing before trial of the perpetrators is considered as one of the oldest activities of human being. The need to ensure these regulations and the aim to prevent the consequences of any criminal activity has forced societies and different states to establish special investigative bodies (investigation and to determine by time their rights and obligations. So judicial police organs were provided and charged with competences and legal responsibility for the detection, crime preventions and research, capturing and bringing before the court, individuals or groups who commit criminal activities. From a comparative overview of legislation of the judicial police in several countries around the world, it is shown that there is no extreme change in structures and organizational patterns of these bodies, missions, powers and responsibilities they exercise (Elezi, 1997, 13. Judicial police in Albania has also been and is one of the important subjects of the criminal proceedings. In the historical perspective these bodies have had mixed origins and nature, and in different times they were military or civilian institutions. In this context, main purpose of this paper is the analysis of judicial police in

  14. The politics of partnerships: a study of police and housing collaboration to tackle anti-social behaviour on Australian public housing estates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on the findings from a research project on partnership arrangements between the police and housing departments on three Australian public housing estates to tackle problems associated with illicit drug activity and anti-social behaviour (ASB). The analysis focused on the setting up of the partnerships and the interactions that followed from these institutional arrangements. The assumption that informs the paper is that when studying partnerships there is a need for a more critically framed analysis. The temptation to posit "a successful model" of what partnership entails and then to judge practices in relation to this model is considerable, but it inevitably falls into the trap of constructing a narrative of partnership success or failure in terms of individual agency (that is, the degree of commitment from individuals). The analysis undertaken in this paper has therefore sought to fathom a more complex set of organizational processes. Rather than confine the discussion to issues of success and failure, the study foregrounds the subjective accounts of individuals who work within partnership and the constraints they encounter. The paper therefore makes explicit the cultural tensions within and across agencies, contestation as to the extent of the policy "problem," and the divergent perspectives on the appropriate modes of intervention.

  15. The racialization of ethnic minority police officers and researchers : on positionality and (auto)ethnographic fieldwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cankaya, S.

    2017-01-01

    This article reflects on the personal, epistemological and methodological dilemmas of conducting (auto)ethnographic fieldwork within the police organisation. The argument is that positionality and ascribed identities complicate existing dilemmas of using participant observation within the police

  16. Feasibility of a web-based system for police crash report review and information recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Police crash reports include useful additional information that is not available in crash summary records. : This information may include police sketches and narratives and is often needed for detailed site-specific : safety analysis. In addition, so...

  17. Effects of Occupational Stress on Psychological Well-being of Police ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    being of police employees. The study adopted the descriptive survey, using 250 police employees from five local government areas of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. The three instruments used were authored-constructed questionnaires by adapting ...

  18. Worker policing in the German wasp Vespula germanica

    OpenAIRE

    Wim Bonckaert; Kristel Vuerinckx; Johan Billen; Rob L. Hammond; Laurent Keller; Tom Wenseleers

    2008-01-01

    In some ants, bees, and wasps, workers kill or "police" male eggs laid by other workers in order to maintain the reproductive primacy of the queen. Kin selection theory predicts that multiple mating by the queen is one factor that can selectively favor worker policing. This is because when the queen is mated to multiple males, workers are more closely related to the queen's sons than to the sons of other workers. Earlier work has suggested that reproductive patterns in the German wasp Vespula...

  19. Accredited training on radiation protection for the Austrian police

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timal, G.

    2009-01-01

    In Austria, radiological emergencies are handled following the Intervention Regulation, in force since 2007. This regulation also defines duration and content for the training of radiation protection personnel, taking advantage of the standard OeNORM S 5207 published in 2005. Radiation protection personnel of the Austrian police are trained at the Federal Security Academy in Traiskirchen near Vienna. The Federal Security Academy is a training centre certified by the Austrian Standards Institute. The poster describes the modular organisation of the training and its duration and content as well as the further trainings available to the radiation protection personnel of the Police. (orig.)

  20. Military Experience and Levels of Stress and Coping in Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Tara A.; Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2013-01-01

    Policing is a stressful occupation and working in this environment may make officers more vulnerable to adverse psychological and physiological outcomes. The impact of prior military experience on work stress and coping strategies has not been well-studied in police. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine differences in levels of police-related stress and coping in officers with and without military experience. Participants were 452 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-me...

  1. Police personality : and the relationship between personality and preferences for conflict resolution tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Solveig

    2006-01-01

    Do police officers possess certain personality characteristics that make them unique compared to the non-police population? This question has been the subject of an extensive line of research. Several researchers have found evidence of a so-called police personality, while other researchers have failed to detect personality differences between the police and the public. Also, some researchers have found that officers differ from each other in terms of job performance, and that personality dif...

  2. The effect of sex-allocation biasing on the evolution of worker policing in hymenopteran societies

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, K.R.; Ratnieks, F.L.W.

    2001-01-01

    Mutual policing is thought to be important in conflict suppression at all levels of biological organization. In hymenopteran societies (bees, ants, and wasps), multiple mating by queens favors mutual policing of male production among workers (worker policing). However, worker policing of male production is proving to be more widespread than predicted by relatedness patterns, occurring in societies headed by single-mated queens in which, paradoxically, workers are more related to the workers' ...

  3. Scum cuddlers:police and the sex offenders’ register in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Police in England and Wales have been given an increasingly important role in community offender management. In many ways removed from what might be regarded as ‘real’ police work, it has nonetheless become a standard way of working for large numbers of police officers. An aspect of this work has brought the police into much closer and lasting professional contact with sex offenders as a result of new responsibilities given them under the Sexual Offenders Act, 1997. This article will discuss ...

  4. Effectiveness of anonymised information sharing and use in health service, police, and local government partnership for preventing violence related injury: experimental study and time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Curtis; Brennan, Iain; Simon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of anonymised information sharing to prevent injury related to violence. Design Experimental study and time series analysis of a prototype community partnership between the health service, police, and local government partners designed to prevent violence. Setting Cardiff, Wales, and 14 comparison cities designated “most similar” by the Home Office in England and Wales. Intervention After a 33 month development period, anonymised data relevant to violence prevention (precise violence location, time, days, and weapons) from patients attending emergency departments in Cardiff and reporting injury from violence were shared over 51 months with police and local authority partners and used to target resources for violence prevention. Main outcome measures Health service records of hospital admissions related to violence and police records of woundings and less serious assaults in Cardiff and other cities after adjustment for potential confounders. Results Information sharing and use were associated with a substantial and significant reduction in hospital admissions related to violence. In the intervention city (Cardiff) rates fell from seven to five a month per 100 000 population compared with an increase from five to eight in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.69). Average rate of woundings recorded by the police changed from 54 to 82 a month per 100 000 population in Cardiff compared with an increase from 54 to 114 in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.68, 0.61 to 0.75). There was a significant increase in less serious assaults recorded by the police, from 15 to 20 a month per 100 000 population in Cardiff compared with a decrease from 42 to 33 in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.38, 1.13 to 1.70). Conclusion An information sharing partnership between health services, police, and local government in Cardiff, Wales, altered policing

  5. Measuring Black men's police-based discrimination experiences: Development and validation of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J

    2017-04-01

    Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Police Tweets and Public Perceptions of Safety and Police Performance: An Experiment on Framing and Other Tweet Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Smulders

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new media as a means of communication by the police triggers interesting questions about the impact of such new developments, such as the effect on people’s safety perceptions. Since communication is mostly overlooked as a possible determinant of safety perception, this led to a research project into the relationship between Twitter use by community policing officers and citizen’s perceptions of safety. This article reports on a part of this study, an experiment on framing and other linguistic effects of tweets by police officers. To assess the aforementioned relationship, it is important to examine how the precise content of a community policing officer’s tweet is perceived by the public. In an experimental setting the effects of gain versus loss frames, implicit versus explicit advice and style of addressing have been tested, with regard to safety perceptions and several related factors. The results show that gain framed tweets yield significantly more positive responses concerning opinion about police performance, perceived risk of burglary or assault, safety perception and marginally for perceived crime level in the neighbourhood. Including an explicitly or implicitly formulated piece of advice in the tweets doesn’t make a difference in any of the queried variables and style of addressing has only small effects: formal address leads to slightly more positive opinions about police performance than impersonal address.  The results show that formulation aspects – specifically framing – are worth taking into account in safety communications and that this type of research is beneficial for studying effects of social media.

  7. Department o

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-10-31

    Oct 31, 2016 ... Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 2 ... Geospatial techniques were used for this study; data from primary and secondary source ... development, for instance, Nigeria cities .... (road network, road medians and water ..... Countries: A Case Study of Nigeria.

  8. Electronics department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities in 1978 of some of the groups within the Electronics Department. The work covered includes plant protection and operator studies, reliability techniques, application of nuclear techniques to mineral exploration, applied laser physics, computing and, lastly, research instrumentation. (author)

  9. Post G20: The Challenge of Change, Implementing Evidence-based Public Order Policing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoggert, James; Stott, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 ‘riots’, public order policing tactics in England and Wales have once again been brought into question. Yet, the riots came two years since police regulatory authorities in the UK called for fundamental reforms to the policing of public order. Questions are raised about why...

  10. Extending the Thin Blue Line: Constabulary Police Development in Phase Zero Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-16

    procure intelligence and support from local nationals. This participatory community approach to policing promotes a lasting sense of security and safety...conflict by posturing the Germans to establish law and order and internal and border security.92 The participatory police partnership also resulted in...host nation police forces supported the expansion of democracy and promoted safe overseas economic transactions. Consequently, government officials

  11. 32 CFR 635.14 - Accounting for military police record disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accounting for military police record disclosure... § 635.14 Accounting for military police record disclosure. (a) AR 340-21 prescribes accounting policies and procedures concerning the disclosure of military police records. (b) Provost Marshals/Directors of...

  12. Discovering the Impact of Community Policing: The Broken Windows Thesis, Collective Efficacy, and Citizens' Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yili; Fiedler, Mora L.; Flaming, Karl H.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the structure, mechanisms, and efficacy of community policing and its impact on perceived disorder, crime, quality of life in the community, citizens' fear, and satisfaction with the police. It compares traditional and community policing paradigms on three dimensions: goal, measurement of…

  13. 77 FR 29529 - Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... time, this new system will give our Nation's police officers and first responders a dedicated... obligation to give their loved ones the support they deserve. During Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police...

  14. 78 FR 40175 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Police-Led...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Collection; Comments Requested: Police-Led Diversion Programs: National Prevalence and Scope ACTION: 60-Day...; comments requested (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Police-Led Diversion Programs: National Prevalence and... prevalence of police-led diversion programs and provide a portrait of their goals, target populations, and...

  15. 78 FR 53478 - Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...] Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement AGENCY: National Park... about this IC, contact Major Scott Fear, United States Park Police, 1100 Ohio Drive SW., Washington, DC... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The United States Park Police (USPP) is a unit of the National Park Service...

  16. Willingness to Cooperate with the Police in Four Central European Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2016), s. 171-187 ISSN 0928-1371 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010012 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : willingness to cooperate with the police * police legitimacy * trust in the police Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2016

  17. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Police-Reported Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Sherry; Cristofalo, Meg; Reed, Sarah; Caetano, Raul; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine racial and ethnic disparities in perpetrator and incident characteristics and discrepancies between police charges and reported perpetrator behaviors in police-reported intimate partner violence (IPV). This cross-sectional study used standardized police data and victim narratives of IPV incidents…

  18. Police-public interactions : a grid-group cultural theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim; Maesschalck, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The police culture literature-suggests that police officers' attitude towards the public is characterised by Suspicion and an "us-vs-them" mentality. It also refers to the moral mission of protecting the public by being tough on crime. The traditional police culture model seems to imply

  19. Effects of threat, trait anxiety and state anxiety on police officers’ actions during an arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, Peter G.; Landman, Annemarie; Daalder, Nathalie R.; de Cock, Hans P.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of threat and trait anxiety on state anxiety and how that affects police officers’ actions during an arrest. Most experiments on police performance under anxiety test the performance of one particular skill. Yet, police work often involves concerted use of a

  20. Effects of threat, trait anxiety and state anxiety on police officers' actions during an arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Landman, H.M.; Daalder, N.R.; de Cock, H.P.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of threat and trait anxiety on state anxiety and how that affects police officers' actions during an arrest. Most experiments on police performance under anxiety test the performance of one particular skill. Yet, police work often involves concerted use of a

  1. Dental Health Status and Treatment Needs of Police Personnel of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Police personnel form the backbone for safety and security of a community hence their health is of utmost importance. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of police personnel employed in police stations of ...

  2. Not all cops are bastards - Danish football supporters’ perception of dialogue policing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Lauritzen, Mikkel; Joern, Lise

    2016-01-01

    The Danish police have changed their tactics in relation to their policing of football supporters. The changes have involved the development of a dialogue-based approach to the policing of football supporters. The changes seem to have contributed to a reduction in the number of arrests and footba...... strategic goals like conflict reduction and creating a more peaceful atmosphere at football matches....

  3. Ten Years after Patten: Young People and Policing in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jonny; Jarman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of existing literature, this article documents young people's experiences of policing during the period of political transition and extensive reform of the structures of policing in Northern Ireland since the publication of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (The Patten Report) in 1999. The…

  4. Analysis towards Effective Policing in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Security Department, University of Benin, ... major determinant and provider of security in a society. ... economic constraint experienced by the British official between 1840 and .... The force is the principal law enforcement agency in Nigeria with a staff .... law and order, A Book of Readings, Lagos: NISS Publications, p 111.

  5. Rural farmers' perspectives on stock theft: police crime statistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural farmers are not only facing challenges of severe drought blamed on the El Nino weather pattern, but the stock theft as well. The South African Police's annual crime statistics report and surveys indicates that rural livestock farmers are mostly affected by stock theft in South Africa. The costs paid by these farmers to ...

  6. Chronic Kidney Disease in Police Forces Households in Khartoum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Disease in Police Forces Households in Khartoum, Sudan: Pilot Report. ... Methods: Serum creatinine measurements and urine dipstick testing were ... CKD was defined as an estimated GFR of less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or proteinuria.

  7. Twilight Policing. Private Security in Durban, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diphoorn, T.G.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnography analyses the everyday policing practices of armed response officers in Durban, South Africa. Armed response officers are private security officers who patrol communities in vehicles and respond to distress calls from clients. This study considers their interactions with other

  8. EU joint investigation teams: Political ambitions and police practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, L.; Hufnagel, S.; Harfield, C.; Bronitt, S.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 there exists strong political will in the European Union (EU) to use Joint Investigation Teams (JITs) to foster police cooperation in criminal investigations. For most Member States the legal basis to establish JITs became available in 2004. However, as yet, only around 40 JITs have been

  9. Officers at work in a multicultural police force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijes, C.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine cross-cultural perception and cooperation between black, Curacaoan and white Dutch police officers in The Netherlands. It also, compares the findings with similar research carried out in the Dutch Internal Revenue Service.

  10. Extra-territorial African police and soldiers in Southern Rhodesia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Rhodesia were dominated by African men from neighbouring territories such as Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia and Portuguese East Africa who had entered the regional migrant labour system. This included many with previous military experience. As the British South Africa Police (BSAP) evolved from a ...

  11. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  12. Downside Seen in Rush to Hire School-Based Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    With nightmare visions of a gunman stalking school halls, districts often rush to hire police officers to patrol their campuses after news of a school shooting. Critics of that impulsive response, which has been in high gear nationwide since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings in December, acknowledge the concern for student and staff…

  13. Van predictive naar prescriptive policing : Verder dan vakjes voorspellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, S.K.; Vries, A. de; Kleij, R. van der; Vliet, P.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Predictive Policing is niets anders dan politiewerk aan de hand van voorspellingen over criminaliteit. Door verfijnde algoritmen los te laten op big data kan de politie straks misdaden voorspellen en dáár aanwezig zijn waar de kans op een volgend incident het grootst is. Deze publicatie gaat in op

  14. Anti-Stigma Programs: Stigma in Campus Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the most effective way to combat mental illness stigma is to focus on power groups who have a direct impact on the lives of persons with serious mental illness. With the increase of violence and need for mental health services on college campuses, campus police officers are seen as an important power group for persons…

  15. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six

  16. The Integration of Counterterrorism into the DNA of American Policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    SAGE Journals , doi: 10.1177/0887403409333038. 97 Ibid. 34 involved in the conversation and...3 (September 2009): 326–343, SAGE Journals , doi: 10.1177/0887403409333038. Grabosky, Peter. “Community Policing in an Age of Terrorism.” Crime, Law

  17. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.6 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of detection. A faster response time also decreases the number of days that it takes for the police to detect a crime, conditional on eventual detection. We find stronger effects for thefts than...

  18. Job-specific mandatory medical examinations for the police force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J. S.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mandatory medical examinations (MMEs) of workers should be based on the health and safety requirements that are needed for effectively performing the relevant work. For police personnel in the Netherlands, no job-specific MME exists that takes the specific tasks and duties into account.

  19. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David J; Noyes, Eilidh; Dowsett, Andrew J; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come to be known as 'super-recognisers'. The Metropolitan Police Force (London) recruits 'super-recognisers' from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police 'super-recognisers' perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition.

  20. Delivering mental health awareness training to police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Carlos; Caswell, Nick; Spicer, Jerina

    Police officers regularly come into contact with people with mental health problems but receive relatively little training on the issue. This article outlines an initiative to deliver awareness training to officers, and explores the benefits of such programmes. It also gives details of the evaluation carried out.

  1. Occupational stress, anxiety and coping strategies in police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquadro Maran, D; Varetto, A; Zedda, M; Ieraci, V

    2015-08-01

    Studies on occupational stress have shown that police officers are exposed to stressful events more often than other workers and this can result in impaired psychosocial well-being and physical health. To measure the level of stress experienced, the consequences in terms of anxiety and the coping strategies adopted in a sample of police officers working in a large city in northern Italy. We used the Police Stress Questionnaire and the Distress Thermometer to measure occupational stress, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to measure anxiety and the Brief COPE questionnaire to measure coping strategies. Six hundred seventeen police officers completed the questionnaire, a response rate of 34%. Differences between genders, sectors and roles emerged, but overall the study population generally demonstrated good use of positive coping strategies. Women in all operational service roles were more vulnerable to both organizational and operational stressors than men (P occupational stress should take into account gender, role and type of work. Tailored training courses and support programmes could be useful and effective tools for preventing stress before it becomes chronic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. New York City Police Department Automated Fuel Monitoring System. Volume II. Documentation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-16

    toward solving troublesome problems. In addition, the private sector market has been stimulated to respond to system needs identified during the course of...8 -3Q .ifL I.N’ p uii3NLIE- __-U3 7/11 Ud-.i T01 LNI TERM ON-LN 151 071 328- ______ 33N.________ -~R~ NLINE 2141 53 07/11 16-ttl 145 INS TERM ON-LINE...4Z-46 131 LN4 TERM NLINE --3o56a 55 O7ALL-ZU _1 L. N ~Ii8ILON-~ik 1559 53 01/17 eZ-4.8 137 INN TERM4 ON-LINE " . " - 7 - M -1 ------------- - . 7 .Dm

  3. Police crackdowns, structural violence and impact on the well-being of street cannabis users in a Nigerian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ediomo-Ubong

    2018-04-01

    There is abundant literature on the impact of law enforcement on cannabis markets, but scant literature on the effects of law enforcement on cannabis users. This study undertook a qualitative exploration of police crackdowns as a form of structural violence and examined their impact on the well-being of street cannabis users in a Nigerian city. The study was qualitative and descriptive. It was carried out in Uyo, southern Nigeria. Ninety-seven (97) frequent cannabis users (78 males and 19 females) took part. They were aged between 21 and 34 years and recruited from 11 cannabis hot-points in the city. Data were collected through in-depth, individual interviews, conducted over six-months. Data analysis was thematic and data-driven, involving identifying themes, assigning codes, revising codes and verification by independent qualitative methodology experts. Police crackdowns are commonly experienced by street cannabis users. These do not reduce cannabis use, but displace cannabis markets. Crackdowns are associated with police brutality, confiscation of funds, drugs and belongings, stigma and discrimination, arrest and incarceration, which impacts negatively on the health, livelihoods and well-being of cannabis users. Cannabis users try to escape arrest by running from police, disposing of cannabis, disguising themselves and, when caught, bribing officers to secure release. Crackdowns constitute a form of structural violence in the everyday life of cannabis users, and have negative effects on their health and social and economic well-being. Cannabis use should be decriminalized de facto and arrested users directed to treatment and skills training programmes. Treatment and social services for users should be expanded and legal aid interventions should be mounted to support users in addressing discriminatory practices and human rights violations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the meanings of ‘volunteer’ within policing culture\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Callender, Matthew; Britton, Iain; Knight, Laura

    2016-01-01

    A growth in citizen involvement in policing would herald a much more open and engaging era in policing. Citizen involvement in policing has huge potential to transform the ways that we are policed in the future, and to play a major part in achieving safer communities. Made up of 16,000 volunteers, the Special Constabulary is a vital resource within police forces in order to protect and serve local communities. The paper will draw on thematic analysis of senior and strategic perspectives of th...

  5. Intimate Partner Violence and Women's Mental Health: The Mediating Role of Coping Strategies Among Women Seeking Help From the Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengo, Cecilia; Small, Eusebius; Black, Beverly

    2017-09-01

    Many variables explain the link between intimate partner violence (IPV) and its impact on women's mental health. This proposition is mostly from samples drawn from battered women's shelters, batterer intervention programs (BIPs), emergency rooms, and medical clinics. We know little about the psychological well-being of women who report abuse to police departments. This study used data from case records of women who experience IPV and sought help from a city police station located in the southwest United States. These case records were examined to identify how sociodemographic characteristics of age, ethnicity, marital status, financial dependence, resources of social support, and coping strategies related with type and number of IPV incidents as well as mental health symptoms. The sample consisted of 154 women, majority of whom experienced physical violence (70.1%), sexual violence (9.1%), emotional violence/stalking (14.9%), and combined, that is, reporting more than one (5.8%). Approximately 67.5% of the women reported some mental health symptoms. Social support and coping strategies significantly distinguished women's experience of mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, the current data indicate that women who scored higher in perceived social support significantly reported more mental health symptoms. Coping strategies mediated the relationship between IPV and mental health symptoms. The findings suggest that availability of coping resources may mitigate repeated IPV and modify the impact of mental health. In discussing prevention and intervention efforts with women who have experienced or are at risk of experiencing IPV, practitioners can help women employ empowering coping strategies that are built on their resilience. In addition, mental health professionals working with the police, especially in community policing setting, can achieve promising outcomes for women experiencing violence.

  6. Experiences of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Policing in England and Wales: Surveying Police and the Autism Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Maras, Katie L.; Hawken, Tamsyn; Mulcahy, Sue; Memon, Amina

    2016-01-01

    An online survey gathered the experiences and views of 394 police officers (from England and Wales) regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Just 42% of officers were satisfied with how they had worked with individuals with ASD and reasons for this varied. Although officers acknowledged the need for adjustments, organisational/time constraints…

  7. What citizens think about the police: assessing actual and wished-for frequency of police activities in one's neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmi, S.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Keskinen, E.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out what were citizens' assessments of actual and wished-for frequencies of 12 police activities in two typical Finnish neighbourhoods. Data were collected from 3271 adults and 986 young people with a mail questionnaire. Actual and wished-for frequencies were

  8. 5 CFR 842.810 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... § 842.810 Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police... Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed as members of the MWAA police force as of...

  9. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Number 269

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-28

    Combat of Traffickers 64 PANAMA Briefs Drug Trafficker’s Arrest 65 Drug Control Statistics 65 Three From U.S. 65 PERU Briefs State Drug Law 66...in Viru, Peru , was identified as Gabriel Eduardo Romero. The Cali police said that Romero had a record as a drug trafficker and that he is widely...Narino Battalion. Counsel for the defense alleged that Vega Perez suffers from diabetes and will there- by receive better medical treatment. The

  10. 'Around here I am the law!'
    Strengthening police officers' compliance with the rule of law in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirine A.M. Eijkman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the last decade many Latin American states initiated public security reform. This included police human rights strategies, which aim to improve police officers' compliance with human rights. Particular strategies emphasized the development of police legal expertise. In Costa Rica this was done through professionalizing police legal training and police legal assistance within the preventive police. Yet the implementation of police human rights strategies is influenced by a wider socio-political and institutional context. 'Around here I am the law' reflects the process of transforming non-professionally trained police officers into professionally trained public officials whose core business is the enforcement of the law. On the basis of empirical research conducted in San José, this paper discusses the effect of implementing police human rights strategies that focus on improving police officers' compliance with the rule of law.

  11. Drugs@FDA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about FDA-approved brand name and generic prescription and over-the-counter human drugs and biological therapeutic products. Drugs@FDA includes most of...

  12. CMS Drug Spending

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has released several information products that provide spending information for prescription drugs in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The CMS Drug Spending...

  13. Drugs to be Discontinued

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Companies are required under Section 506C of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

  14. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  15. Has the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Outlived Its Usefulness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    August 2004 Not recorded Subway near Madison Square Garden August 2004 New York City Police Department Pakistani diplomat August 2004 FBI...40 Charlie Savage and Scott Shane, “Intelligence Improperly Collected on U.S. Citizens,” New York Times, December 16, 2009...http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/17/us/17disclose.html. 41 Savage , “Intelligence Improperly Collected on U.S. Citizens,” http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12

  16. Kyrgyzstan’s Fragmented Police and Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a first attempt to analyze the underlying reasons behind the unprofessional behavior of the Kyrgyz military and police during ethnic conflict in Osh on June 10-14, 2010. It argues that the higher military leadership in Bishkek shares a common distrust of the Tashkent regime and overall uncertainly about power sharing two months after regime change, while lower level personnel may have provoked the Uzbek minority, because of their nationalist feelings (the majority of police and army personnel are ethnic Kyrgyz and overall frustration with the fragmented political leadership. The situation was further exacerbated by the lack of political control over the security forces and their lack of adequate training to deal with civic unrest.

  17. Aux origines de la police politique républicaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vogel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Le 30 juin 1880, alors que la République semble encore fragile et mal assurée, le directeur de la Sûreté générale adresse au ministre de l’Intérieur un rapport  qui tire les enseignements des actions récemment menées par ses services et expose ce que devraient être les missions, les pratiques et l’organisation d’une police politique républicaine qui reste encore à inventer. Ce texte, d’un grand intérêt pour qui veut connaître les méthodes, l’organisation d’une police à l’état embryonnaire, s’...

  18. The Injury Profile of an Australian Specialist Policing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Larsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the injuries sustained by an Australian specialist police division. Injury records spanning four-years were analyzed. The role being performed when the injury occurred, injury cause, body part injured, and injury-related costs were quantified. The percentage of personnel injured multiple times was documented. One hundred and thirty eight personnel reported injuries, 58 of these on multiple occasions. This resulted in 229 injuries and 76 claims being raised. Half of the injuries occurred during operational policing tasks, however training activities accounted for >30% of injuries. The most common injury was strain/sprain, and upper body injuries were 2.5-times more common than lower-body or torso injuries. 1107 shifts were lost, and injuries cost the organization $487,159 (Australian Dollars over the four-year period. The injury costs (both financial and in manpower may prompt policy makers to review the current training and post-injury rehabilitation protocols.

  19. The Influence of Resettlement of the Capital of Probolinggo Regency Toward Service Quality of Police Record (SKCK (Study in Probolinggo Resort Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda Puspitasari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of resettlement of the capital of Probolinggo Regency toward service quality of Police Record (SKCK in Probolinggo Resort Police. Probolinggo Resort Police (Polres is one government agencies that experiencing resettlement of the location from Probolinggo City to Kraksaan district. It is expected that by this resettlement, public service processes would become ‘better and in high quality’. The study used quantitative research method with explanatory approach to test the hypothesis that has been set. Dependent variable in this study are resettlement of the capital of regency (X with the variables: affordability, recoverability and replicability. While the dependent variable in this study are the service quality of Police Record (SKCK (Y with the indicators: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. The study used multiple linear regression method of analysis. The study revealed that the resettlement of the capital of regency variable (X which consist of three variables such as affordability (X1, recoverability (X2 and replicability variable (X3 influence significantly toward service quality of the Police Record (SKCK in Probolinggo Resort Police (Polres. Keywords: The Resettlement, The Capital of Regency, Service Quality, Police Record (SKCK, Probolinggo Resort Police.

  20. Political Culture versus Socioeconomic Approaches to Predicting Police Strength in U.S. Police Agencies: Results of a Longitudinal Study, 1993 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jihong; Ren, Ling; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of theories have emerged that offer plausible explanations, one from the political institutional perspective and others from sociological perspective. There has been renewed interest in the effect of local political structure on police strength in the policing literature. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the two main…

  1. The Effect of Police on Recorded Crime vs. The Effect of Police on Victimisation of Crime. Evidence for England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation

  2. [Consumption of licit and illicit substances by police officers in the city of Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Schenker, Miriam; Constantino, Patrícia; Correia, Bruna Soares Chaves

    2013-03-01

    The consumption of psychoactive substances by civil and military police of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated. Data was gathered from two cross-sectional studies on a questionnaire on work and health conditions given to a sample from the two corporations. The results show higher frequencies of regular consumption of tobacco (23.3% by civil police and 19.1% by military police), daily use of alcohol (12% by civil police and 11% by military police) and tranquilizers in the past year (13.3% by civil police and 10.1% by military police). The consumption of marijuana among officers was 0.1% by civil police and 1.1% by military police, and cocaine use among the military police was 1.1%. Alcohol consumption proved to be intense and causes problems at work and in the social and family relationships of these officers. The need for preventive policies for addiction and the possible underestimation of information on illicit substances is emphasized.

  3. Policing cyber hate, cyber threat and cyber terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers-Jones, C.

    2013-01-01

    In late August 2012 the Government Forum of Incident Response and Cyber security Teams (GFIRST) gathered in Atlanta to discuss cyber threats and how new realities are emerging and how new forms of regulation are needed. At the same time Policing cyber hate, cyber threat and cyber terrorism was published. This comprehensive book brings together a divergent problem and tackles each with a candid exploration. The book has ten chapters and covers aspects such as extortion via the internet, the ps...

  4. Resultados operativos de la Policía Nacional, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeizon Andrés Duarte Velásquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo contiene los resultados estadísticos de los logros operativos y de los servicios de la Policía Nacional en el año 2012, que sin dudas han posibilitado prevenir, disuadir, controlar e investigar conductas desviadas, como hechos delictivos y contravenciones, que han permitido lograr el mantenimiento de la convivencia y seguridad ciudadana a través de procedimientos y operaciones policiales en Colombia.

  5. Recruit Fitness as a Predictor of Police Academy Graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusko, M; Benedetti, L; Korre, M; Eshleman, E J; Farioli, A; Christophi, C A; Kales, S N

    2017-10-01

    Suboptimal recruit fitness may be a risk factor for poor performance, injury, illness, and lost time during police academy training. To assess the probability of successful completion and graduation from a police academy as a function of recruits' baseline fitness levels at the time of academy entry. Retrospective study where all available records from recruit training courses held (2006-2012) at all Massachusetts municipal police academies were reviewed and analysed. Entry fitness levels were quantified from the following measures, as recorded at the start of each training class: body composition, push-ups, sit-ups, sit-and-reach, and 1.5-mile run-time. The primary outcome of interest was the odds of not successfully graduating from an academy. We used generalized linear mixed models in order to fit logistic regression models with random intercepts for assessing the probability of not graduating, based on entry-level fitness. The primary analyses were restricted to recruits with complete entry-level fitness data. The fitness measures most strongly associated with academy failure were lesser number of push-ups completed (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-11.7, for 20 versus 41-60 push-ups) and slower run times (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-7.8, [1.5 mile run time of ≥15'20″] versus [12'33″ to 10'37″]). Baseline pushups and 1.5-mile run-time showed the best ability to predict successful academy graduation, especially when considered together. Future research should include prospective validation of entry-level fitness as a predictor of subsequent police academy success. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  6. Sports Related Riots: Understanding Group Behavior To Improve Police Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    particular book is more evidence-based, using statistics and academic studies than other references. 4. Policing Strategies The University of Arizona...Research in Crime and Delinquency 7, no. 2 (1970): 123, DOI: 10.1177/002242787000700202. 59 Ibid., 129. 60 Peter Holley, “New Video Shows Texas...games provide more energy to a crowd than unimportant games and contests with a large score differential. When examining the statistics associated

  7. Village Stability Operations and the Afghan Local Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Afghans who had witnessed massive ethnic slaughter during the Taliban era and now had doubts about future U.S. commitments. A lesser amount of logistical...International Studies, March 2007, http://www.csis.org, 36-37; Andrew Wilder, “ Cops or Robbers? The Struggle to Reform the Afghan National Police...Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, July 2007, http:// areu.org.af/Uploads/EditionPdfs/717E- Cops %20or%20Robbers-IP-print.pdf. 9. Robert Hulslander

  8. The Ferguson Effect - Are Police Anxieties To Blame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    www.national review.com/article/422605/Birmingham- cop -beaten-unconscious-feared-racism-charge. 3 Stephen Gossett, “Top Cop Says Beaten Officer Was...issue due to public perceptions, media coverage, and perpetuating mass protests, many of which have resulted in violence and police fatalities. The...Chief Pins Crime Surge on ‘Ferguson Effect.’ Are Cops Afraid to Do Their Jobs?,” The Christian Science Monitor, October 26, 2015, http

  9. Traffic Policing in Dynamic Military Networks Using Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Skappel, Hans Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    This thesis looks at how Software Defined Networking (SDN) can be used to provide traffic engineering and to police traffic in an Operational Military Network (OMN). SDN is a concept where the control plane is separated from the forwarding plane, and the control plane is capable of controlling forwarding plane elements located on multiple network nodes using the OpenFlow protocol. Specifically, we have discussed the problems in OMNs, and possible SDN approaches to mitigate the challenges. Bas...

  10. Policing the New World Disorder: Peace Operations and Public Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    incorporated into the new police forces. Personnel of the old Departamento Nacional de Investigaciones (DENI) formed the new Policia Tecnica Judicial (PTJ...Ministerio de Justicia, 1993). 25IUDOP, "La delincuencia urbana," Estudios Centroamericanos 534-545 (April/May 1993), 471-79. "Report of the Director...use of force, control of riots, negotiating techniques, or de -escalation of conflict. As noted above, CIVPOL is not capable of handling violent

  11. MEDIUM-INFORMATION SIDE OF WORK OF THE NATIONAL POLICE

    OpenAIRE

    Трофименко, Володимир Анатолійович

    2018-01-01

    Problem setting. Modernity dictates the new conditions for the existence and effective functioning of state institutions, in particular, the law-enforcement system. The public demands not only the coordinated, effective work of the national police on its intended purpose, but also comprehensive reporting and informing of citizens about the law enforcement activities.Today, there have been created and exist a large number of mass-media (mass-media) of different types in Ukraine: from classical...

  12. Resultados operativos de la Policía Nacional, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nilson Harvey Barco Pérez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una breve reseña introductoria a las tablas estadísticas que presentan los resultados operativos alcanzados por la Policía Nacional para el 2013, en el desarrollo de estrategias ajustadas a políticas gubernamentales e institucionales, que permitan un despliegue efectivo de acciones preventivas, disuasivas y de control orientadas a garantizar la seguridad y la convivencia de todos los colombianos.

  13. Global Policing and the Case of Kim Dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    Darren Palmer; Ian J Warren

    2013-01-01

    In early 2012, 76 heavily armed police conducted a raid on a house in Auckland, New Zealand. The targets were Kim Dotcom, a German national with a NZ residency visa, and several colleagues affiliated with Megaupload, an online subscription-based peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing facility. The alleged offences involved facilitating unlawful file sharing and United States federal criminal copyright violations. Following the raid, several court cases provide valuable insights into emerging ‘global...

  14. Role of the police in linking individuals experiencing mental health crises with mental health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing contact. Methods Police records were searched for calls regarding individuals with acute mental health needs and police handling of these calls. Mental healthcare contact data were retrieved from a Psychiatric Case Register. Results The police were called upon for mental health crisis situations 492 times within the study year, involving 336 individuals (i.e. 1.7 per 1000 inhabitants per year). Half of these individuals (N=162) were disengaged from mental health services, lacking regular care contact in the year prior to the crisis (apart from contact for crisis intervention). In the month following the crisis, 21% of those who were previously disengaged from services had regular care contact, and this was more frequent (49%) if the police had contacted the mental health services during the crisis. The influence of police referral to the services was still present the following year. However, for the majority (58%) of disengaged individuals police did not contact the mental health services at the time of crisis. Conclusions The police deal with a substantial number of individuals experiencing a mental health crisis, half of whom are out of contact with mental health services, and police play an important role in linking these individuals to services. Training police officers to recognise and handle mental health crises, and implementing practical models of cooperation between the police and mental health services in dealing with such crises may further improve police referral of individuals disengaged from mental health services. PMID:23072687

  15. Challenges associated with drunk driving measurement: combining police and self-reported data to estimate an accurate prevalence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Tanara; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Gonçalves, Veralice; Schmitz, Aurinez; Pasa, Graciela; Bastos, Tamires; Sripad, Pooja; Chandran, Aruna; Pechansky, Flavio

    2013-12-01

    Drunk driving is an important risk factor for road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths. After June 2008, all drivers in Brazil were subject to a "Zero Tolerance Law" with a set breath alcohol concentration of 0.1 mg/L of air. However, a loophole in this law enabled drivers to refuse breath or blood alcohol testing as it may self-incriminate. The reported prevalence of drunk driving is therefore likely a gross underestimate in many cities. To compare the prevalence of drunk driving gathered from police reports to the prevalence gathered from self-reported questionnaires administered at police sobriety roadblocks in two Brazilian capital cities, and to estimate a more accurate prevalence of drunk driving utilizing three correction techniques based upon information from those questionnaires. In August 2011 and January-February 2012, researchers from the Centre for Drug and Alcohol Research at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul administered a roadside interview on drunk driving practices to 805 voluntary participants in the Brazilian capital cities of Palmas and Teresina. Three techniques which include measures such as the number of persons reporting alcohol consumption in the last six hours but who had refused breath testing were used to estimate the prevalence of drunk driving. The prevalence of persons testing positive for alcohol on their breath was 8.8% and 5.0% in Palmas and Teresina respectively. Utilizing a correction technique we calculated that a more accurate prevalence in these sites may be as high as 28.2% and 28.7%. In both cities, about 60% of drivers who self-reported having drank within six hours of being stopped by the police either refused to perform breathalyser testing; fled the sobriety roadblock; or were not offered the test, compared to about 30% of drivers that said they had not been drinking. Despite the reduction of the legal limit for drunk driving stipulated by the "Zero Tolerance Law," loopholes in the legislation permit many

  16. Aanbevelingen voor politietoezicht op het gebruik van drugs in het verkeer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations for police enforcement of drugs in traffic. The use of drugs has been proved to affect driving skills and to lead to higher risk of crashes. Furthermore, a recent hospital study has found that drugs have played a role in about 10% of the seriously injured drivers in the Netherlands.

  17. Preventing occupational injury among police officers: does motivation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D K C; Webb, D; Ryan, R M; Tang, T C W; Yang, S X; Ntoumanis, N; Hagger, M S

    2017-08-01

    Injury prevention is an important issue for police officers, but the effectiveness of prevention initiatives is dependent on officers' motivation toward, and adherence to, recommended health and safety guidelines. To understand effects of police officers' motivation to prevent occupational injury on beliefs about safety and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. Full-time police officers completed a survey comprising validated psychometric scales to assess autonomous, controlled and amotivated forms of motivation (Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire), behavioural adherence (Self-reported Treatment Adherence Scale) and beliefs (Safety Attitude Questionnaire) with respect to injury prevention behaviours. There were 207 participants; response rate was 87%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that autonomous motivation was positively related to behavioural adherence, commitment to safety and prioritizing injury prevention. Controlled motivation was a positive predictor of safety communication barriers. Amotivation was positively associated with fatalism regarding injury prevention, safety violation and worry. These findings are consistent with the tenets of self-determination theory in that autonomous motivation was a positive predictor of adaptive safety beliefs and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391

  19. Linking Educational Institutions with Police Officer Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Wood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Community partnerships that are formed through Community Oriented Policing help to assist law enforcement officers with academy education and post academy education. The training offered in the academy and the post academy Field Training Officer Program traditionally places little to no emphasis on critical thinking, professional self-regulation, communication skills or problem-based learning. In the last several years a new approach has been spawned. The Police Training Officer Program (PTO is an innovative form of education that focuses on problem based learning for post academy graduates. The PTO Program emphasizes adult education, problem solving, emotional intelligence, and conflict resolution. This education is necessary to assist officers in de-escalation strategies within their communities and can lend to the reduction of civil disturbances. However, currently, relatively few agencies are offering this education to their post academy graduates and none are offering it to their academy recruits due, in part, to a lack of qualified instructors. PTO instructors must be proficient and fully trained in problem based learning techniques. Through Community Oriented Policing, law enforcement agencies can address this instructor shortage by partnering with university educational institutions to secure instructors who are competent in andragogy, critical thinking, and problem-based learning.

  20. Policing Welfare: Risk, Gender and Criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarlet Wilcock

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, welfare states across the West have embraced a host of new technologies and initiatives in the name of fighting welfare abuse and fraud (see Cook 1989, 2006; Wacquant 2001, 2009. Increasingly, these practices of ‘welfare policing’ are graduated according to risk; particular welfare populations considered at greater risk of welfare fraud are subject to more intense scrutiny. Drawing on interview research with compliance staff from the Australian Department of Human Services, this paper critically explores how the rationality of risk figures in the process of welfare surveillance in Australia. It pays particular attention to the ways in which risk formulations are embedded in gender and class politics, and how this has led to the characterisation of single mothers and unemployed recipients as more ‘risky’ than the general welfare population, a point that is often overlooked in the literature. But, far from being immutable, this paper also considers how the politics of risk are open to reformulation with often unexpected results.